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1

Accessory parotid gland tumors  

PubMed Central

Tumors of accessory parotid gland are considered in the differential diagnosis of a mid cheek mass. Parotidectomy is the procedure of choice. All pathological types of parotid main gland tumors occur in the accessory parotid gland also. Presenting as a mid cheek or infrazygomatic mass, the tumors of this accessory parotid gland are notorious for recurrences, if adequate margins are not achieved. We describe two such cases of such a tumor. 40-year-old male with a slowly progressive mid cheek mass was operated by a mid cheek incision. Histopathology of the tumor was pleomorphic adenoma. Facial nerve paresis recovered complelety in 6 months. A 52-year-old female with progressive mid cheek mass who underwent parotidectomy and neck dissection by a modified Blair's incision was diagnosed with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma with focal transformation to a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Chemotherapy with CHOP regime was initiated. There was no recurrence at 6 months of follow-up. Lymphoma of accessory parotid gland is a very rare tumor. Standard parotidectomy incision is advocated to prevent damage to facial nerve branches.

Ramachar, Sreevathsa M.; Huliyappa, Harsha A.

2012-01-01

2

Experimental autoimmunity to rat male accessory glands (MAG): circulating antibodies, immunoglobulins bound to target glands, and immunoglobulins-secreting cells.  

PubMed

A correlation between spleen B-cell antibody production against MAG antigens and the presence of different antibodies in circulation or antibodies bound to target glands was attempted. The number of 7S and 19S Ig-secreting cells (ISC) found in the spleen and the number of ISC generated after in vitro stimulation of the cells with MAG antigens were evaluated by using the hemolytic plaque assay. Low numbers of 7S and 19S ISC--less than 0.01% of spleen cells--were generated in response to MAG immunization, and no significative increase was observed after in vitro culture of spleen cells with MAG antigens, suggesting that secretory activity of the B-cells can not be improved when liberated from humoral homeostatic mechanisms. The humoral response of MAG-immunized rats, investigated by complement fixation and immunodiffusion assays, has proved negative, and in only two out of 17 rats a weak haemagglutinating activity was observed. Attempts to detect antibodies bound to cellular MAG antigens by immunofluorescence have shown a weak fluorescence in the epithelial cells of the prostate gland in only two rats. In both cases a concomitant tissue damage was observed, but in nine out of 11 cases with histological alterations no fluorescence was observed in the target glands. The medium value of rosette-forming cells (RFC) found in the spleen of MAG-immunized rats did not significantly differ from the value of the HSA-treated control group, although both groups differ in their specific humoral response.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3985255

Depiante-Depaoli, M; Pacheco-Rupil, B

1985-01-01

3

Function and composition of male accessory gland secretions in Anopheles gambiae: a comparison with other insect vectors of infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

Human malaria, a major public health burden in tropical and subtropical countries, is transmitted exclusively by the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito. Malaria control strategies aimed at inducing sexual sterility in natural vector populations are an attractive alternative to the use of insecticides. However, despite their importance as disease vectors, limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms regulating fertility in Anopheles mosquitoes. In the major malaria vector, An. gambiae, the full complement of sperm and seminal fluid required for a female’s lifelong egg production is obtained from a single mating event. This single mating has important consequences for the physiology and behavior of An. gambiae females: in particular, they become refractory to further insemination, and they start laying eggs. In other insects including Drosophila, similar post-copulatory changes are induced by seminal proteins secreted by the male accessory glands and transferred to the female during mating. In this review, we analyze the current state of knowledge on the function and characterization of male seminal proteins in An. gambiae, and provide a comparative assessment of the role of these male reproductive factors in other mosquito vectors of human disease in which female post-copulatory behavior has been studied. Knowledge of the factors and mechanisms regulating fertility in An. gambiae and other vectors can help the design of novel control strategies to fight the spread of disease.

Baldini, Francesco; Gabrieli, Paolo; Rogers, David W.; Catteruccia, Flaminia

2012-01-01

4

[Clinical features of accessory parotid gland tumors].  

PubMed

Accessory parotid gland tumors are relatively rare; hence, adequately detailed clinical analyses of these tumors are difficult to perform at a single institution. In this report, we describe the findings for 65 patients [29 men, 36 women; median age, 51 (9-81) years] with accessory parotid gland tumors, consisting of 4 cases documented by us and 61 cases previously reported by other Japanese authors. Approximately 50% of the patients were treated in an otolaryngology department, while the remaining patients were treated in plastic surgery, oral surgery, or dermatology departments. In 4 patients, the results of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology indicated that the tumor was benign; however, the postoperative histopathology results revealed malignant tumors. The frequencies of malignant and benign tumors were 44.6% (n = 29) and 55.4% (n = 36), respectively. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma and pleomorphic adenoma were the most frequent types of malignant and benign accessory parotid gland tumors, respectively. Among the various surgical methods that were used, such as direct cheek and intraoral incisions, a standard parotidectomy incision was the most preferred treatment approach for these tumors. Recently, an endoscopic approach has also been found to yield satisfactory results. An optimal approach should be selected after evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. No definite guidelines are available regarding the choice of elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy for malignant accessory parotid gland tumors. Although tumor resection (plus elective neck dissection) and postoperative radiation therapy have been frequently performed for various kinds of malignant accessory parotid gland tumors to date, additional studies are needed regarding the criteria for selecting elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy. Since the malignancy rate for accessory parotid gland tumors is higher than that for parotid gland tumors, the possibility of malignancy (especially mucoepidermoid carcinoma and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma) should be considered when resecting accessory parotid gland tumors, even if the results of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology indicate that the tumor is benign. PMID:24558945

Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Wada, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Hidefumi; Yamada, Kei; Matsushita, Naoki; Okamoto, Sachimi; Teranishi, Yuichi; Koda, Yuki; Kosugi, Yuki; Yamane, Hideo

2013-12-01

5

Effects of Pygidial Secretion (Zoopesticide) on Histopathological Changes in the Male Accessory Reproductive Glands of Adult Male Insect Odontopus varicornis in Relation to Reproduction  

PubMed Central

Indiscriminate use of pesticides for the eradication of pests causes tremendous changes to the environment and also to other nontarget organisms. To prevent such contamination of the environment and save nontarget species, zoopesticides are increasingly used as they are cost effective, eco-friendly, safe, and sustainable in the field of agriculture. The present study was undertaken to find out the effect of pygidial secretion (zoopesticide) on Odontopus varicornis. The insects were exposed to pygidial secretion for 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours and its sublethal concentration was found to be about 2.8% for 48 hours. When the insects were injected with sublethal concentration 2.8% for 48 hours, the study revealed certain remarkable changes in the histopathology of the male accessory reproductive glands (MARGs) such as disintegration of epithelial cell wall, swollen nucleus, vacuolization of cytoplasm, highly pycnotic and necrotic epithelium, enlargement of epithelial cells, and disorganized tissues. It is suggested that zoopesticide causes several histopathological damages in the MARGs of O. varicornis and affects the reproductive potentiality of O. varicornis.

Lousia, M.; Selvisabhanayakam; Mathivanan, V.

2010-01-01

6

Morphological study of accessory gland of Bothrops jararaca and its secretory cycle.  

PubMed

The venom gland apparatus of Bothrops jararaca is composed of four distinct parts: main venom gland, primary duct, accessory gland and secondary duct. Despite the numerous studies concerning morphology and venom production and secretion in the main venom gland, there are few studies about the accessory gland and its secretion. We characterized the accessory gland of B. jararaca snake and determined the secretion cycle by morphological analysis using light and transmission electron microscopy. Our data showed that the accessory gland of B. jararaca has a simple secretory epithelium with at least six types of cells in the anterior region: two types of secretory cells, mitochondria-rich cells without secretory vesicles, horizontal cells, dark cells and basal cells, and in the posterior region a simple epithelium with two types of cells: seromucous cells and horizontal cells. Furthermore, the mucous secretory cells of the accessory gland show a delayed and massive exocytosis that occurs four days after the extraction of venom. Morphological analysis at different steps after venom extraction showed that the accessory gland has a long cycle of production and secretion, which is not synchronous with the main venom gland secretory cycle. PMID:22227156

Sakai, Fernanda; Carneiro, Sylvia M; Yamanouye, Norma

2012-03-01

7

Salivary Gland Secretion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

Dorman, H. L.; And Others

1981-01-01

8

Ultrastructure of male reproductive accessory glands and ejaculatory duct in the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

Ultrastructure of male reproductive accessory glands and ejaculatory duct in the Queensland fruit fly (Q-fly), Bactrocera tryoni, were investigated and compared with those of other tephritid flies. Male accessory glands were found to comprise one pair of mesodermic glands and three pairs of ectodermic glands. The mesodermic accessory glands consist of muscle-lined, binucleate epithelial cells, which are highly microvillated and extrude electron-dense secretions by means of macroapocrine transport into a central lumen. The ectodermic accessory glands consist of muscle-lined epithelial cells which have wide subcuticular cavities, lined with microvilli. The electron-transparent secretions from these glands are first extruded into the cavities and then forced out through small pores of the cuticle into the gland lumen. Secretions from the two types of accessory glands then flow into the ejaculatory duct, which is highly muscular, with epithelial cells rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum and lined with a thick, deeply invaginated cuticle. While there are some notable differences, reproductive accessory glands of male Q-flies generally resemble those of the olive fruitfly, Bactrocera oleae, and to a lesser extent the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. PMID:19026762

Radhakrishnan, Preethi; Marchini, Daniela; Taylor, Phillip W

2009-05-01

9

New genes for male accessory gland proteins in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

The accessory gland of male insects produces components of the seminal fluid that alter the behavior, physiology and life span of the mated female, and contribute to her efficient storage and utilization of sperm. As a step towards understanding how this occurs, we have isolated genes encoding 12 previously unreported accessory gland-specific mRNAs from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We report here the restriction maps of the new genes, the chromosome positions--which are all autosomal--of the 11 non-repetitive genes, their expression patterns, and the sequences of the accessory gland proteins (Acps) encoded by nine of the genes. Eight of the proteins predicted from these sequences begin with putative secretion signals. Following their signal sequences, three of the predicted molecules are peptides and the other five are larger polypeptides with characteristics of cleavable prohormones. The ninth molecule, which has an N-terminal hydrophobic region but no consensus signal peptide cleavage site, is predicted to be a 716 amino acid glycoprotein. Of the nine proteins, two have intriguing similarities to sequences in protein databases. Acp76A is a 388 amino acid pro-protein which contains a signature sequence for the serpin class of protease inhibitors. The 115 amino acid Acp62F has a 28 amino acid region of high sequence similarity to a neurotoxin of the Brazilian armed spider Phoneutria nigriventer. Models are discussed in which Acp76A plays a role in the observed regulation of Acp proteolysis and/or in the coagulation of seminal fluid to form a mating plug, and in which Acp62F contributes to the reported toxicity of Drosophila seminal fluid. PMID:9474779

Wolfner, M F; Harada, H A; Bertram, M J; Stelick, T J; Kraus, K W; Kalb, J M; Lung, Y O; Neubaum, D M; Park, M; Tram, U

1997-10-01

10

Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products.  

PubMed

To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner's body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection. PMID:24708537

Zizzari, Z Valentina; Smolders, Irene; Koene, Joris M

2014-01-01

11

Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products  

PubMed Central

To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner’s body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection.

2014-01-01

12

Relationship between Male Age, Accessory Gland, Sperm Transferred, and Fitness Traits in Drosophila bipectinata  

PubMed Central

The number of cells and the size of the cells in the male accessory gland, the quantity of accessory gland proteins, and their effects on fitness in males of different ages were studied in Drosophila bipectinata Duda (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Male age was significantly positively correlated with the size of accessory gland, the number of main cells of the accessory gland, the quantity of protein in unmated males, the duration of copulation, the transferred quantity of protein and sperm to the mated female, fecundity, and fertility, while male age was significantly negatively correlated with the size of main cell in the accessory gland and the quantity of protein in mated males. The size of the main cells was significantly positively correlated with the quantity of protein in unmated males but significantly negatively correlated with the size of the accessory gland and the number of main cells in the accessory gland. These results suggest that D. bipectinata young males, with their smaller size of their accessory glands and having fewer and larger main cells in their accessory glands, produced the least quantity of protein and transferred significantly less protein and sperm to the mated female than did middle and old age males. Thus, this study suggests that in D. bipectinata, male age affects the number of accessory gland cells and the quantity of protein in the accessory gland. The size and number of main cells in the accessory gland and the size of the accessory gland were related to the production of protein. Females who mated with old males obtained a fitness benefit.

Santhosh, H. T.; Krishna, M. S.

2013-01-01

13

Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins in adrenal gland physiology and beyond.  

PubMed

The melanocortin receptor (MCR) family consists of five G-protein-coupled receptors (MC1R-MC5R) with diverse physiological roles. MC1R controls pigmentation, MC2R is a critical component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, MC3R and MC4R have a vital role in energy homeostasis and MC5R is involved in exocrine function. The melanocortin receptor accessory protein (MRAP) and its paralogue MRAP2 are small single-pass transmembrane proteins that have been shown to regulate MCR expression and function. In the adrenal gland, MRAP is an essential accessory factor for the functional expression of the MC2R/ACTH receptor. The importance of MRAP in adrenal gland physiology is demonstrated by the clinical condition familial glucocorticoid deficiency, where inactivating MRAP mutations account for ?20% of cases. MRAP is highly expressed in both the zona fasciculata and the undifferentiated zone. Expression in the undifferentiated zone suggests that MRAP could also be important in adrenal cell differentiation and/or maintenance. In contrast, the role of adrenal MRAP2, which is highly expressed in the foetal gland, is unclear. The expression of MRAPs outside the adrenal gland is suggestive of a wider physiological purpose, beyond MC2R-mediated adrenal steroidogenesis. In vitro, MRAPs have been shown to reduce surface expression and signalling of all the other MCRs (MC1,3,4,5R). MRAP2 is predominantly expressed in the hypothalamus, a site that also expresses a high level of MC3R and MC4R. This raises the intriguing possibility of a CNS role for the MRAPs. PMID:23418361

Novoselova, T V; Jackson, D; Campbell, D C; Clark, A J L; Chan, L F

2013-04-01

14

EST analysis of male accessory glands from Heliconius butterflies with divergent mating systems  

PubMed Central

Background Heliconius butterflies possess a remarkable diversity of phenotypes, physiologies, and behaviors that has long distinguished this genus as a focal taxon in ecological and evolutionary research. Recently Heliconius has also emerged as a model system for using genomic methods to investigate the causes and consequences of biological diversity. One notable aspect of Heliconius diversity is a dichotomy in mating systems which provides an unusual opportunity to investigate the relationship between sexual selection and the evolution of reproductive proteins. As a first step in pursuing this research, we report the generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the male accessory gland of H. erato and H. melpomene, species representative of the two mating systems present in the genus Heliconius. Results We successfully sequenced 933 ESTs clustering into 371 unigenes from H. erato and 1033 ESTs clustering into 340 unigenes from H. melpomene. Results from the two species were very similar. Approximately a third of the unigenes showed no significant BLAST similarity (E-value <10-5) to sequences in GenBank's non-redundant databases, indicating that a large proportion of novel genes are expressed in Heliconius male accessory glands. In both species only a third of accessory gland unigenes were also found among genes expressed in wing tissue. About 25% of unigenes from both species encoded secreted proteins. This includes three groups of highly abundant unigenes encoding repetitive proteins considered to be candidate seminal fluid proteins; proteins encoded by one of these groups were detected in H. erato spermatophores. Conclusion This collection of ESTs will serve as the foundation for the future identification and evolutionary analysis of male reproductive proteins in Heliconius butterflies. These data also represent a significant advance in the rapidly growing collection of genomic resources available in Heliconius butterflies. As such, they substantially enhance this taxon as a model system for investigating questions of ecological, phenotypic, and genomic diversity.

Walters, James R; Harrison, Richard G

2008-01-01

15

Morphology and histology of the ductus receptaculi and accessory glands in the reproductive tract of the female cricket, Teleogryllus commodus.  

PubMed

The morphology and histology of the ductus receptaculi and accessory glands in females of the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus Walker (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) are described. Both are reproductive organs situated in the 7(th) and 8(th) abdominal segment that join the posterior part of the genital chamber. The ductus receptaculi is a long (up to 25 mm) homogeneous tube, and the accessory glands (total length: 4 to 12 mm) are a complex system of tubes and end lobes with various numbers of ramifications. Based on their external shapes the accessory glands may be subdivided into three distinct regions, a distal region mainly producing the gland's secretion, a middle conducting region, and a basal region serving for the storage and release of the secretory substances into the genital chamber of the female. In histological respects, both organs have an outer muscle coat followed by a basal lamina, one or two cell layers, the cuticular intima, and the inner lumen. The ductus receptaculi is subdivided into three histologically different regions. The region located adjacent to the receptaculum and the region neighbouring the terminal papilla consist of a single, epithelial cell layer that is not secretory. The epithelium of the middle region contains two cell layers, glandular cells and cuticula-forming cells, which are responsible for the production of the cuticular intima. The secretion of the gland cells is released into an extracellular cavity, through which it reaches the lumen via a complex network of canals running through the intima. The histology of the accessory glands is rather homogeneous among the different regions, as one layer of epithelial cells produces both the secretion and the cuticular intima. Histological variations in the distal, middle, and basal gland sections mainly concern the height of the epithelium, the thickness of the basal lamina and the cuticular intima as well as the variable presence of the outer muscle coat. In contrast to the ductus receptaculi, secretory substances produced by the accessory gland cells accumulate in the lumen by a diffusive permeation of the intima. PMID:20298118

Sturm, Robert

2008-01-01

16

Congenital tri-cavernous hemangiomas of the right buccal region, right accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle region.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of congenital tri-cavernous hemangiomas of the right buccal region, right accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle region in an adult. The patient, a 25-year-old woman, complained of 3 masses in her right midcheek. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings showed an irregular-shaped mass (multiple calcifications) with a well-defined margin in the masseter muscle region, an ellipse-shaped mass (multiple calcifications) with a well-defined margin in the right buccal region, and a comma-shaped mass (no calcifications) with a well-defined margin separate from the parotid gland in the right accessory parotid gland region. These iconographic findings suggested that the masses were all hemangiomas separately originating from the parotid gland, accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle. The masses were completely removed through a standard parotid incision without postoperative facial palsy, skin deformity, and difficulty in secreting saliva. Findings from histologic examination of the tumor revealed multiple, thin-walled, and dilated blood vessels, confirming the diagnosis of cavernous hemangiomas. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings were extremely useful in diagnosing the mass/masses as hemangioma before surgery, clarifying relationships between the mass and adjacent structures, and determining the surgical approach to the mass/masses. PMID:24621721

Yang, Tao; Gu, Yongchun; Zhang, Li; Hua, Zequan

2014-03-01

17

A case of congenital fistula from an accessory parotid gland: diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

The author reports a case of congenital fistula from an accessory parotid gland and describes its diagnosis and treatment. The patient was referred to the author's clinic for evaluation of a continuous serous discharge from a small orifice in the left cheek near the angle of the mouth. A left preauricular appendix was also noted. Fistulography detected an aberrant duct leading to an accessory parotid gland. The main parotid gland and its duct were normal. The anomalous duct was dissected in continuity with a small ellipse of skin and sutured to the buccal mucosa. The patient's recovery was uneventful. The author also discusses the embryologic origin of this rare anomaly. PMID:22278868

Pinto, Fábio Roberto

2012-01-01

18

Juvenile hormone regulation of male accessory gland activity in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum  

PubMed Central

Male accessory gland proteins (Acps) act as key modulators of reproductive success in insects by influencing the female reproductive physiology and behavior. We used custom microarrays and identified 112 genes that were highly expressed in male accessory glands (MAG) in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Out of these 112 identified genes, 59 of them contained sequences coding for signal peptide and cleavage site and the remaining 53 contained transmembrane domains. The expression of 14 these genes in the MAG but not in other tissues of male or female was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. In virgin males, juvenile hormone (JH) levels increased from second day post adult emergence (PAE), remained high on third day PAE and declined on fourth day PAE. The ecdysteroid titers were high soon after adult emergence but declined to minimal levels from 1-5 days PAE. Feeding of juvenile hormone analog, hydroprene, but not the ecdysteroid analog, RH-2485, showed an increase in size of MAGs, as well as an increase in total RNA and protein content of MAG. Hydroprene treatment also increased the expression Acp genes in the MAG. RNAi-mediated knock-down in the expression of JHAMT gene decreased the size of MAGs and expression of Acps. JH deficiency influenced male reproductive fitness as evidenced by a less vigor in mating behavior, poor sperm transfer, low egg and the progeny production by females mated with the JH deficient males. These data suggest a critical role for JH in the regulation of male reproduction especially through MAG secretions.

Parthasarathy, R.; Tan, A.; Sun, Z.; Chen, J.; Rainkin, M.; Palli, S. R.

2009-01-01

19

Male Breast Cancer Originating in an Accessory Mammary Gland in the Axilla: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Carcinoma of an accessory mammary gland is an extremely rare tumor. A 61-year-old male patient presented with a hard mass measuring 85?mm × 51?mm in the left axilla. Incisional biopsy histopathologically showed an adenocarcinoma compatible with breast carcinoma originating in an accessory mammary gland. Systemic examinations revealed no evidence of malignant or occult primary lesion in the bilateral mammary glands or in other organs. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was performed for the locally advanced axillary tumor and reduced the tumor to 55?mm in size, and, then, he could undergo complete resection with a negative surgical margin in combination with reconstructive surgery to fill the resulting skin defect with a local flap of the latissimus dorsi muscle. The patient has presented with no metastatic lesion in four years since the operation. This unusual case shows that neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an effective and tolerated therapy for advanced accessory breast cancer in the axilla.

Yamamura, Jun; Masuda, Norikazu; Kodama, Yoshinori; Yasojima, Hiroyuki; Mizutani, Makiko; Kuriyama, Keiko; Mano, Masayuki; Nakamori, Shoji; Sekimoto, Mitsugu

2012-01-01

20

Molecular Population Genetics of Male Accessory Gland Proteins in the Drosophila simulans Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accessory gland proteins are a major component of Drosophila seminal fluid. These proteins have a variety of functions and may be subject to sexual selection and\\/or antagonistic evolution between the sexes. Most population genetic data from these proteins are from D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Here, we extend the population genetic analysis of Acp genes to the other simulans complex

Andrew D. Kern; Corbin D. Jones; David J. Begun

2004-01-01

21

Transcriptional Profiles of Mating-Responsive Genes from Testes and Male Accessory Glands of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata  

PubMed Central

Background Insect seminal fluid is a complex mixture of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, produced in the male reproductive tract. This seminal fluid is transferred together with the spermatozoa during mating and induces post-mating changes in the female. Molecular characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is limited, although studies suggest that some of these proteins are biologically active. Methodology/Principal Findings We report on the functional annotation of 5914 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the testes and male accessory glands, to identify transcripts encoding putative secreted peptides that might elicit post-mating responses in females. The ESTs were assembled into 3344 contigs, of which over 33% produced no hits against the nr database, and thus may represent novel or rapidly evolving sequences. Extraction of the coding sequences resulted in a total of 3371 putative peptides. The annotated dataset is available as a hyperlinked spreadsheet. Four hundred peptides were identified with putative secretory activity, including odorant binding proteins, protease inhibitor domain-containing peptides, antigen 5 proteins, mucins, and immunity-related sequences. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of a subset of putative secretory protein-encoding transcripts from accessory glands indicated changes in their abundance after one or more copulations when compared to virgin males of the same age. These changes in abundance, particularly evident after the third mating, may be related to the requirement to replenish proteins to be transferred to the female. Conclusions/Significance We have developed the first large-scale dataset for novel studies on functions and processes associated with the reproductive biology of Ceratitis capitata. The identified genes may help study genome evolution, in light of the high adaptive potential of the medfly. In addition, studies of male recovery dynamics in terms of accessory gland gene expression profiles and correlated remating inhibition mechanisms may permit the improvement of pest management approaches.

Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Siciliano, Paolo; Meraldi, Alice; Falchetto, Marco; Bonomi, Angelica; Manni, Mose; Gabrieli, Paolo; Malovini, Alberto; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Aksoy, Serap; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R.

2012-01-01

22

Lateral facial cleft associated with accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and peripheral facial weakness.  

PubMed

Transverse facial cleft is a very rare malformation. The Tessier no. 7 cleft is a lateral facial cleft which emanates from oral cavity and extends towards the tragus, involving both soft tissue and skeletal components. Here, we present a case having transverse facial cleft, accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and ipsilateral peripheral facial nerve weakness. After surgical repair of the cleft in 2-month of age, improvement of the facial nerve function was detected in 3-year of age. Resection of the accessory mandible was planned in 5-6 years of age. PMID:24269646

Ozçelik, D; Toplu, G; Türkseven, A; Senses, D A; Yi?it, B

2014-07-01

23

Analysis of residual saliva and minor salivary gland secretions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residual saliva and minor salivary gland secretions are important for the maintenance of oral mucosal wetness. Salivary proteins and glycoproteins are the major components of the oral mucosal film, which functions as a moisture retainer and a protective barrier. Here, the correlations between the amounts of residual saliva and minor salivary gland secretions and their protein concentrations were investigated in

Sun-Hee Won; Hong-Seop Kho; Young-Ku Kim; Sung-Chang Chung; Sung-Woo Lee

2001-01-01

24

Comparative fine structural analysis of the male reproductive accessory glands in Bactrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology and ultrastructure of the male reproductive accessory glands from Bactrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata were comparatively investigated. In both insects, there are two types of glands, mesoderm? and ectoderm?derived, which open in the ejaculatory duct. The mesoderm?derived glands are sac?like in B. oleae and very long tubules in C. capitata, whereas the ectodermic glands, generally branched finger?like structures,

Daniela Marchini; Giovanna Del Bene

2006-01-01

25

Factors affecting Anastrepha fraterculus female receptivity modulation by accessory gland products.  

PubMed

In the context of the sterile insect technique (SIT), mass-rearing and male irradiation are imperative. Post-teneral treatments such as the addition of protein in adult's male diet and male hormonal treatment are used to improve sexual performance and to accelerate sexual maturation. In this work we investigated the effect of male accessory glands products (AGPs) on female receptivity of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), and the effect of strain rearing history, male irradiation, male diet and hormonal treatment on AGPs. Injections of aqueous extracts of male accessory glands into the abdomen of females reduced their receptivity. The AGPs from laboratory males were more effective in inhibiting female receptivity, compared to AGPs from wild males, irrespective of females' origin. The AGPs from fertile males were more effective than AGPs from sterile males. The AGPs from protein-fed males were more effective than AGPs from sugar-fed males. Finally, the AGPs of males treated with juvenile hormone were less effective in inhibiting female receptivity than AGPs of untreated males. We conclude that inhibition of sexual receptivity of A. fraterculus mated females is mediated by products in male accessory gland's and the way that these products act vary widely according to the effect of extrinsic factors. We discuss the results in the perspective of the SIT application for A. fraterculus. PMID:21907717

Abraham, Solana; Cladera, Jorge; Goane, Lucía; Teresa Vera, M

2012-01-01

26

Mucus secretion from individual submucosal glands of the ferret trachea  

PubMed Central

Mucus secretion from individual tracheal glands in adult ferrets was studied with time-lapse optical imaging of mucus droplets under an oil layer. Density of functional glands (determined by responses to 1 ?M carbachol) was 1.5 ± 0.3 per mm2 (n = 6). Secretion rates (in pl·min?1·gland?1) were as follows: 4.1 ± 0.7 basal (unstimulated; n = 27, 669 glands), 338 ± 70 to 10 ?M forskolin (n = 8, 90 glands), 234 ± 13 to 1 ?M VIP (n = 6, 57 glands), 183 ± 92 to 10 ?M isoproterenol (n = 3, 33 glands), 978 ± 145 to 1 ?M carbachol (n = 11, 131 glands), and 1,348 ± 325 to 10 ?M phenylephrine (n = 7, 74 glands). The potency (EC50, in ?M) and efficacy (Vmax, in pl·min?1·gland?1) were 7.6 (EC50) and 338 ± 16 (Vmax) to forskolin, 1.0 (EC50) and 479 ± 19 (Vmax) to VIP, 0.6 (EC50) and 1,817 ± 268 (Vmax) to carbachol, and 3.7 (EC50) and 1,801 ± 95 (Vmax) to phenylephrine. Although carbachol and phenylephrine were equally effective secretagogues, only carbachol caused contractions of the trachealis muscle. Synergy was demonstrated between 300 nM isoproterenol and 100 nM carbachol, which, when combined, produced a secretion rate almost fourfold greater than predicted from their additive effect. The dependence of fluid secretion on Cl? and HCO3? varied depending on the mode of stimulation. Secretion stimulated by VIP or forskolin was reduced by ?60% by blocking either anion, while carbachol-stimulated secretion was blocked 68% by bumetanide and only 32% by HEPES replacement of HCO3?. These results provide parametric data for comparison with fluid secretion from glands in ferrets lacking CFTR.

Cho, Hyung-Ju; Joo, Nam Soo

2010-01-01

27

The chemical composition of the uropygial gland secretion of rock dove Columba livia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uropygial gland is a holocrine secretory gland of birds. The lipid and the waxy sebum that the gland secretes is coated on the beak and transferred to the plumage in preening. The composition of the gland secretions from birds of different species has been determined, but little is known about the lipids of the secretion of the gland of

Diego Montalti; Ana María Gutiérrez; Guillermo Reboredo; Alfredo Salibián

2005-01-01

28

Comparative Study of the Labial Gland Secretion in Termites (Isoptera)  

PubMed Central

Labial glands are present in all castes and developmental stages of all termite species. In workers, their secretion contains a food-marking pheromone and digestive enzymes, while soldier secretion plays a defensive role. However, these functions were studied only in a limited set of species, and do not allow drawing general conclusions. Hence, we have investigated the chemical composition of the labial gland extracts from soldiers and workers in 15 termite species belonging to 6 families using an integrative approach based on proteomic and small-molecule profiling. We confirmed the presence of hydroquinone and cellulase in the labial glands of workers, and we identified new toxic compounds in soldiers and workers of several species. Our results highlight the dual role of labial gland secretion, i.e. the defensive role in soldiers and workers of several termite species, and the digestive function in workers.

Sillam-Dusses, David; Krasulova, Jana; Vrkoslav, Vladimir; Pytelkova, Jana; Cvacka, Josef; Kutalova, Katerina; Bourguignon, Thomas; Miura, Toru; Sobotnik, Jan

2012-01-01

29

Short adrenergic neurons and catecholamine-containing cells in vas deferens and accessory male genital glands of different mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The adrenergic innervation and catecholamine-containing cells in the internal accessory male genital organs of the guinea-pig, rat, rabbit, cat, dog and macaque has been studied with a fluorescence microscopic method for the cellular localization of catecholamines and 5-hydroxytryptamine.2.The vas deferens and most of the accessory genital glands have a very dense supply of adrenergic terminals, which is resistant to hypogastric

Christer Owman; Nils O. Sjöstrand

1965-01-01

30

Botulinum toxin A inhibits salivary secretion of rabbit submandibular gland.  

PubMed

Botulinum toxin A (BTXA) has been used in several clinical trials to treat excessive glandular secretion; however, the precise mechanism of its action on the secretory function of salivary gland has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of BTXA on secretion of submandibular gland in rabbits and to identify its mechanism of action on the secretory function of salivary gland. At 12 weeks after injection with 5 units of BTXA, we found a significant decrease in the saliva flow from submandibular glands, while the salivary amylase concentration increased. Morphological analysis revealed reduction in the size of acinar cells with intracellular accumulation of secretory granules that coalesced to form a large ovoid structure. Expression of M3-muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3 receptor) and aquaporin-5 (AQP5) mRNA decreased after BTXA treatment, and distribution of AQP5 in the apical membrane was reduced at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after BTXA injection. Furthermore, BTXA injection was found to induce apoptosis of acini. These results indicate that BTXA decreases the fluid secretion of submandibular glands and increases the concentration of amylase in saliva. Decreased expression of M3 receptor and AQP5, inhibition of AQP5 translocation, and cell apoptosis might involve in BTXA-reduced fluid secretion of submandibular glands. PMID:24158141

Shan, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Hui; Cai, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Li-Ling; Yu, Guang-Yan

2013-12-01

31

Botulinum toxin A inhibits salivary secretion of rabbit submandibular gland  

PubMed Central

Botulinum toxin A (BTXA) has been used in several clinical trials to treat excessive glandular secretion; however, the precise mechanism of its action on the secretory function of salivary gland has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of BTXA on secretion of submandibular gland in rabbits and to identify its mechanism of action on the secretory function of salivary gland. At 12 weeks after injection with 5 units of BTXA, we found a significant decrease in the saliva flow from submandibular glands, while the salivary amylase concentration increased. Morphological analysis revealed reduction in the size of acinar cells with intracellular accumulation of secretory granules that coalesced to form a large ovoid structure. Expression of M3-muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3 receptor) and aquaporin-5 (AQP5) mRNA decreased after BTXA treatment, and distribution of AQP5 in the apical membrane was reduced at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after BTXA injection. Furthermore, BTXA injection was found to induce apoptosis of acini. These results indicate that BTXA decreases the fluid secretion of submandibular glands and increases the concentration of amylase in saliva. Decreased expression of M3 receptor and AQP5, inhibition of AQP5 translocation, and cell apoptosis might involve in BTXA-reduced fluid secretion of submandibular glands.

Shan, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Hui; Cai, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Li-Ling; Yu, Guang-Yan

2013-01-01

32

Composition of uropygial gland secretions of birds of prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of the uropygial gland secretion of five species of birds of prey was investigated by gas liquid\\u000a chromatography-mass spectroscopy technique, and the results are discussed from the chemotaxonomical point of view. The secretion\\u000a is a complex mixture of monoester waxes, the fatty acids of which are mainly dimethyl-branched, with the first substituent\\u000a in 2 position and the

Jürgen Jacob; Jens Poltz

1975-01-01

33

Localization and characterization of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in boar accessory sex glands, seminal plasma, and spermatozoa and activity of GPx in boar semen.  

PubMed

Boar ejaculate owes its characteristic large volume mainly to accessory sex gland (ASG) secretions. These are main contributors to the protective functions of seminal plasma, especially against oxidative damage. Numerous antioxidants have been detected in ASG secretions, and, respectively, in seminal plasma. However, as regards one key antioxidant protector -- the Se-dependent enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) -- there is no agreement yet among researchers as to its presence in boar seminal plasma. Nevertheless, the beneficial effect of dietary Se supplementation on male fertility has been widely recognized. The aim of the present study was to investigate the localization and characterization of GPx in boar ASGs, seminal plasma, and spermatozoa, as well as to evaluate GPx activity in boar semen. Immunohistochemical assays demonstrated GPx presence in the epithelial cells, vacuole membranes, and vascular endothelium of boar seminal vesicle, prostate and bulbourethral glands. Western blot analysis demonstrated the presence of a monomer form of GPx with MW 20 kDa in lysates from seminal vesicle, prostate, bulbourethral glands, and spermatozoa, but not in seminal plasma. Surprisingly, peroxidase activity detected in seminal plasma from normal ejaculates was nearly three times as high as in spermatozoa. Our findings confirmed the presence of immunoreactive GPx in the boar reproductive tract, while further investigation is still warranted to uncover the exact protein forms involved and their function. PMID:17964641

Jelezarsky, L; Vaisberg, Ch; Chaushev, T; Sapundjiev, E

2008-01-15

34

Pepsinogen synthesis and secretion in isolated gastric glands.  

PubMed Central

De novo synthesis of pepsinogen was shown in isolated rabbit and human gastric glands after incubation of the glands in a 14C labelled amino acid enriched minimum Eagles medium. At regular intervals, glands and medium were separated and analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Newly synthesised pepsinogen was shown by autoradiography. Incorporation of 14C labelled amino acids was detected after only 30 min of culture and increased almost linearly in time for 4 h. By comparing the incorporation of label into total protein and into pepsinogen, it was concluded that pepsinogen formed 70-90% of the newly synthesised protein. Cimetidine, at a concentration of 160 micrograms/ml, strongly inhibited the synthesis of pepsinogen. Spontaneous secretion of pepsinogen into the medium was very low and relatively constant. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP considerably stimulated the secretion of pepsinogen into the medium. Histamine and pentagastrin did not influence the release of pepsinogen. These results show that isolated gastric glands are capable of synthesis and secretion of pepsinogen and that both can be selectively stimulated and inhibited. Images

Defize, J; Pals, G; Frants, R R; Westerveld, B D; Meuwissen, S G; Erkisson, A W

1984-01-01

35

The chemical composition of the uropygial gland secretion of rock dove Columba livia.  

PubMed

The uropygial gland is a holocrine secretory gland of birds. The lipid and the waxy sebum that the gland secretes is coated on the beak and transferred to the plumage in preening. The composition of the gland secretions from birds of different species has been determined, but little is known about the lipids of the secretion of the gland of the rock dove Columba livia. The amount of secretion, the total lipid content and the fatty acids composition of the secretion of C. livia captured in the nonbreeding season was reported. The mean amount of the secretion within the gland was 30 mg; the mean lipid content of the secretion was 0.385 mg/mg of secretion, which was equivalent to approximately 38% of the secretion. The weight of the secretion relative to gland weight was 32%. If we assume that the amount of the gland secretion constitutes a valid parameter to determine the degree of the gland development, our results indicate that the physiological role of the gland does not depend upon gland mass (GW); the rock dove in particular has a small gland, but its secretion represented 32% of the gland's mass. The composition of the lipids extracted from the gland secretion consisted of C14 to C20 fatty acids, most of them were unsaturated. The secretion of the gland contained approximately 59% of unsaturated fatty acids with a prevalence of oleic acid (37%) and a low content of linoleic (6%) and arachidonic acids (7%). The saturated long chain fatty acids were mainly 14:0, 16:0 and 18:0 in a percentage of approximately 34%. No sexual differences were found in any of the evaluated parameters. PMID:15792592

Montalti, Diego; Gutiérrez, Ana María; Reboredo, Guillermo; Salibián, Alfredo

2005-03-01

36

Granular gland transcriptomes in stimulated amphibian skin secretions.  

PubMed Central

Amphibian defensive skin secretions are complex, species-specific cocktails of biologically active molecules, including many uncharacterized peptides. The study of such secretions for novel peptide discovery is time-limited, as amphibians are in rapid global decline. While secretion proteome analysis is non-lethal, transcriptome analysis has until now required killing of specimens prior to skin dissection for cDNA library construction. Here we present the discovery that polyadenylated mRNAs encoding dermal granular gland peptides are present in defensive skin secretions, stabilized by endogenous nucleic acid-binding amphipathic peptides. Thus parallel secretory proteome and transcriptome analyses can be performed without killing the specimen in this model amphibian system--a finding that has important implications in conservation of biodiversity within this threatened vertebrate taxon and whose mechanistics may have broader implications in biomolecular science.

Chen, Tianbao; Farragher, Susan; Bjourson, Anthony J; Orr, David F; Rao, Pingfan; Shaw, Chris

2003-01-01

37

Parasympathetic and sympathetic regulation of secretion from submucosal glands in airways.  

PubMed

We developed methods to study secretions from airway submucosal glands in vivo: micropipettes with tips specially designed to seal around individual gland duct openings allowed us to collect all of the fluid secreted from individual glands. We visualized the secretions from large numbers of glands simultaneously by coating the airway surface with powdered tantalum; secreted mucus formed "hillocks" over each gland duct opening. Measurement of hillock size provided an estimate of secretion rate. We modified the "hillocks" method to study tracheal glands in vitro. To study regulation of mucin secretion in vitro, we measured the radioactivity from 35S bound to mucins secreted from the luminal surface of pieces of trachea mounted in Using-type chambers. Using these techniques, we demonstrated both cholinergic and alpha-adrenergic regulation of the glands. PMID:7428952

Nadel, J A; Davis, B

1980-11-01

38

Chemical composition of uropygial gland secretions of owls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compositions of the uropygial gland secretions of the long-eared owl, eagle owl, and barn owl have been deter- mined. The waxes of the first two owls, which are closely relat- ed, are composed of 2-alkyl-substituted fatty acids and n- or mo- nomethyl-branched alcohols with even-numbered branching po- sitions. In addition, some dimethyl-substituted alkanols were ob- served. In contrast to

Jurgen Jacob; Jens Poltz

39

Do secretions from the uropygial gland of birds attract biting midges and black flies?  

PubMed

Bird susceptibility to attacks by blood-sucking flying insects could be influenced by urogypial gland secretions. To determine the effect of these secretions on biting midges and black flies, we set up a series of tests. First, we placed uropygial gland secretions from blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus broods inside empty nest boxes while empty nest boxes without gland secretions were treated as controls. Blue tit broods, from which we had obtained uropygial secretions, were affected by biting midges and black flies. However, these insects were absent in nest boxes both with and without secretions from nestlings' uropygial glands. We subsequently tested for the effects of uropygial gland secretions from feral pigeons Columba livia monitoring the number of biting midges captured using miniature CDC traps. There was no significant difference in the number of biting midges captured. Overall, our results did not support a potential role of avian uropygial gland secretions in attracting biting midges and black flies. PMID:21614548

Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Rivero-de Aguilar, Juan; Del Cerro, Sara; Argüello, Anastasio; Merino, Santiago

2011-12-01

40

Analysis of gular and paracloacal gland secretions of the american alligator ( Alligator mississippiensis ) by thin-layer chromatography Gland, sex, and individual differences in lipid components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secretions from the gular and the paracloacal glands of adult male and female American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) were extracted with chloroform, weighed, and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. In both sexes, more lipoidal secretions were recovered from the paracloacal glands than from the gular glands. Females produce more lipoidal secretions in both sets of glands than do males. The thin-layer chromatograms

Paul J. Weldon; Timothy P. Scott; Michael J. Tanner

1990-01-01

41

Ion secretion and isotonic transport in frog skin glands.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism of isotonic fluid transport in frog skin glands. Stationary ion secretion by the glands was studied by measuring unidirectional fluxes of 24Na+, 42K+, and carrier-free 134Cs+ in paired frog skins bathed on both sides with Ringer's solution, and with 10(-5) M noradrenaline on the inside and 10(-4) M amiloride on the outside. At transepithelial thermodynamic equilibrium conditions, the 134Cs+ flux ratio, JoutCs/JinCs, varied in seven pairs of preparations from 6 to 36. Since carrier-free 134Cs+ entering the cells is irreversibly trapped in the cellular compartment (Ussing & Lind, 1996), the transepithelial net flux of 134Cs+ indicates that a paracellular flow of water is dragging 134Cs+ in the direction from the serosal- to outside solution. From the measured flux ratios it was calculated that the force driving the secretory flux of Cs+ varied from 30 to 61 mV among preparations. In the same experiments unidirectional Na+ fluxes were measured as well, and it was found that also Na+ was subjected to secretion. The ratio of unidirectional Na+ fluxes, however, was significantly smaller than would be predicted if the two ions were both flowing along the paracellular route dragged by the flow of water. This result indicates that Na+ and Cs+ do not take the same pathway through the glands. The flux ratio of unidirectional K+ fluxes indicated active secretion of K+. The time it takes for steady-state K+ fluxes to be established was significantly longer than that of the simultaneously measured Cs+ fluxes. These results allow the conclusion that - in addition to being transported between cells - K+ is submitted to active transport along a cellular pathway. Based on the recirculation theory, we propose a new model which accounts for stationary Na+, K+, Cl- and water secretion under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. The new features of the model, as compared to the classical Silva-model for the shark-rectal gland, are: (i) the sodium pumps in the activated gland transport Na+ into the lateral intercellular space only. (ii) A barrier at the level of the basement membrane prevents the major fraction of Na+ entering the lateral space from returning to the serosal bath. Thus, Na+ is secreted into the outside bath. It has to be assumed then that the Na+ permeability of the basement membrane barrier (PBMNa) is smaller than the Na+ permeability of the junctional membrane (PJMNa), i.e., PJMNa/PBMNa > 1. The secretory paracellular flow of water further requires that the Na+ reflection coefficients (sigmaNa) of the two barriers are governed by the conditions, sigmaBMNa > 0, and sigmaBMNa > sigmaJMNa. (iii) Na+ channels are located in the apical membrane of the activated gland cells, so that a fraction of the Na+ outflux appearing downstream the lateral intercellular space is recirculated by the gland cells. Based on measured unidirectional fluxes, a set of equations is developed from which we estimate the ion fluxes flowing through major pathways during stationary secretion. It is shown that 80% of the sodium ions flowing downstream the lateral intercellular space is recycled by the gland cells. Our calculations also indicate that under the conditions prevailing in the present experiments 1.8 ATP molecule would be hydrolyzed for every Na+ secreted to the outside bath. PMID:9139121

Ussing, H H; Lind, F; Larsen, E H

1996-07-01

42

Effect of male accessory glands autoaggression on androgenic cytosolic and nuclear receptors of rat prostate.  

PubMed

The effect of immunization against male accessory gland (MAG) homogenates over androgenic cytosolic and nuclear receptors of rat prostate was studied. In the MAG-immunized rats the Bmax of cytosolic receptors was significantly increased (120.3 +/- 44.3 vs 47.7 +/- 24.9 fmol/mg protein, p less than 0.01, mean +/- SD). In contrast, the Bmax of nuclear receptors in the MAG-immunized rats showed no significant difference as regarded controls (kidney immunized rats) when expressed as fmol/100 micrograms DNA (196.1 +/- 84.8 vs 148.3 +/- 88.9) but it show to slight differences (p less than 0.1) when data were reported as percent of weight of tissue (2,189 +/- 918.6 vs 1,303 +/- 611.2 fmol/g wet issue). Results (mean +/- SD) on binding affinity of cytosolic receptors showed no significant differences in MAG-immunized rats as compared with controls (Kd: 1.98 +/- 0.66 vs 1.92 +/- 0.20 nM). Likewise, only a slight difference between both groups was attained for Kds of nuclear receptors (2.34 +/- 0.28 vs 1.80 +/- 0.62 nM, p less than 0.2). On the other hand, 5 alpha 1-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) values obtained in prostate homogenates were significantly decreased in MAG-immunized rats as compared with controls (17.4 +/- 2.0 vs 7.1 +/- 0.9 ng/g tissue, mean +/- SD, p less than 0.01). However, testosterone (T) levels in gland tissue showed no significant differences between both groups (2.4 +/- 0.5 vs 2.6 +/- 0.3 ng/g tissue) with an increase in the T: DHT ratio from 0.14 to 0.37.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1571949

Diserio, G P; Carrizo, A E; Pacheco-Rupil, B; Nowotny, E

1992-04-01

43

Suppression subtractive hybridization analysis reveals expression of conserved and novel genes in male accessory glands of the ant Leptothorax gredleri  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: During mating, insect males eject accessory gland proteins (Acps) into the female genital tract. These substances are known to affect female post-mating behavior and physiology. In addition, they may harm the female, e.g., in reducing its lifespan. This is interpreted as a consequence of sexual antagonistic co-evolution. Whereas sexual conflict abounds in non-social species, the peculiar life history of

Angelika Oppelt; Fernanda C Humann; Marion Fuessl; Sergio V Azevedo; David S Marco Antonio; Jürgen Heinze; Klaus Hartfelder

2010-01-01

44

Do secretions from the uropygial gland of birds attract biting midges and black flies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bird susceptibility to attacks by blood-sucking flying insects could be influenced by urogypial gland secretions. To determine\\u000a the effect of these secretions on biting midges and black flies, we set up a series of tests. First, we placed uropygial gland\\u000a secretions from blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus broods inside empty nest boxes while empty nest boxes without gland secretions were treated

Josué Martínez-de la Puente; Juan Rivero-de Aguilar; Sara del Cerro; Anastasio Argüello; Santiago Merino

45

Molecular population genetics of male accessory gland proteins in the Drosophila simulans complex.  

PubMed Central

Accessory gland proteins are a major component of Drosophila seminal fluid. These proteins have a variety of functions and may be subject to sexual selection and/or antagonistic evolution between the sexes. Most population genetic data from these proteins are from D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Here, we extend the population genetic analysis of Acp genes to the other simulans complex species, D. mauritiana and D. sechellia. We sequenced population samples of seven Acp's from D. mauritiana, D. sechellia, and D. simulans. We investigated the population genetics of these genes on individual simulans complex lineages and compared Acp polymorphism and divergence to polymorphism and divergence from a set of non-Acp loci in the same species. Polymorphism and divergence data from the simulans complex revealed little evidence for adaptive protein evolution at individual loci. However, we observed a dramatically inflated index of dispersion for amino acid substitutions in the simulans complex at Acp genes, but not at non-Acp genes. This pattern of episodic bursts of protein evolution in Acp's provides the strongest evidence to date that the population genetic mechanisms driving Acp divergence are different from the mechanisms driving evolution at most Drosophila genes.

Kern, Andrew D; Jones, Corbin D; Begun, David J

2004-01-01

46

Social cues of sperm competition influence accessory reproductive gland size in a promiscuous mammal  

PubMed Central

Theory predicts that males should increase overall investment in ejaculate expenditure with increasing levels of sperm competition. Since ejaculate production is costly, we may expect males to tailor their reproductive investment according to anticipated levels of sperm competition. Here, we investigate plasticity in ejaculate investment in response to cues of population average levels of sperm competition in a promiscuous mammal, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). We manipulated the social experience of experimental subjects during sexual development via differential exposure to the odour of rival males, to simulate conditions associated with relatively high or low average levels of sperm competition. Males exposed to a high level of competition developed larger major accessory reproductive glands (seminal vesicles) than those that experienced a low level of competition, suggesting that an increased investment in the production of copulatory plugs and/or mating rate may be beneficial at relatively high sperm competition levels. However, investment in sperm production, testis size and sperm motility were not altered according to social experience. Our findings emphasize the importance of non-sperm components of the ejaculate in mammalian postcopulatory sexual selection, and add to the growing evidence linking plasticity in reproductive traits to social cues of sperm competition.

Lemaitre, Jean-Francois; Ramm, Steven A.; Hurst, Jane L.; Stockley, Paula

2011-01-01

47

Male accessory gland substances from Aedes albopictus affect the locomotor activity of Aedes aegypti females  

PubMed Central

Dengue is one of the world’s most important mosquito-borne diseases and is usually transmitted by one of two vector species: Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus . These two diurnal mosquitoes are frequently found coexisting in similar habitats, enabling interactions between adults, such as cross-mating. The objective of this study was to assess cross-mating between Ae. aegypti females and Ae. albopictus males under artificial conditions and evaluate the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti virgin females injected with male accessory gland (MAG) homogenates to infer the physiological and behavioural responses to interspecific mating. After seven days of exposure, 3.3-16% of Ae. aegypti females mated with Ae. albopictus males. Virgin Ae. aegypti females injected with conspecific and heterospecific MAGs showed a general decrease in locomotor activity compared to controls and were refractory to mating with conspecific males. The reduction in diurnal locomotor activity induced by injections of conspecific or heterospecific MAGs is consistent with regulation of female reproductive activities by male substances, which are capable of sterilising female Ae. aegypti through satyrisation by Ae. albopictus .

Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Codeco, Claudia Torres; Honorio, Nildimar Alves; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Lounibos, Leon Philip

2013-01-01

48

Epithelioid Myoepithelioma of the Accessory Parotid Gland: Pathological and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings  

PubMed Central

Tumors of the accessory parotid gland (APG) are rare, and pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign APG tumor subtype. Myoepithelioma of the APG is much rarer than PA, and to date, only 5 cases have been sporadically reported in the English literature. We describe the clinicopathological and MRI findings of an epithelioid myoepithelioma of the APG that was treated in our hospital. The patient's only clinical symptom was a slow-growing and painless mid-cheek mass. The tumor was suspected to be PA before surgery based on the following MRI findings: (1) a well-circumscribed and lobulated contour, (2) isointensity and hyperintensity relative to the muscle on T1- and T2-weighted images (WIs), respectively, (3) good enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-WIs, (4) peripheral hypointensity on T2-WIs, and (5) a gradual time-signal intensity curve enhancement pattern on gadolinium-enhanced dynamic MRI. The tumor was completely resected via a standard parotidectomy approach, and the postoperative pathological examination of the tumor, including immunohistochemistry, confirmed the diagnosis of epithelioid myoepithelioma. As it is hardly possible to distinguish myoepithelioma from PA and low-grade malignant tumors preoperatively, a pathological examination using frozen sections is helpful for surgical strategy-related decisions.

Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Yamada, Kei; Yamane, Hideo; Hashimoto, Shigeo

2014-01-01

49

Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of the Accessory Sex Gland and Testis from the Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis)  

PubMed Central

The accessory sex gland (ASG) is an important component of the male reproductive system, which functions to enhance the fertility of spermatozoa during male reproduction. Certain proteins secreted by the ASG are known to bind to the spermatozoa membrane and affect its function. The ASG gene expression profile in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has not been extensively studied, and limited genetic research has been conducted on this species. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables the generation of genomic resources within a short period of time and at minimal cost. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for the ASG of E. sinensis using Illumina sequencing technology. This analysis yielded a total of 33,221,284 sequencing reads, including 2.6 Gb of total nucleotides. Reads were assembled into 85,913 contigs (average 218 bp), or 58,567 scaffold sequences (average 292 bp), that identified 37,955 unigenes (average 385 bp). We assembled all unigenes and compared them with the published testis transcriptome from E. sinensis. In order to identify which genes may be involved in ASG function, as it pertains to modification of spermatozoa, we compared the ASG and testis transcriptome of E. sinensis. Our analysis identified specific genes with both higher and lower tissue expression levels in the two tissues, and the functions of these genes were analyzed to elucidate their potential roles during maturation of spermatozoa. Availability of detailed transcriptome data from ASG and testis in E. sinensis can assist our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved with spermatozoa conservation, transport, maturation and capacitation and potentially acrosome activation.

He, Lin; Jiang, Hui; Cao, Dandan; Liu, Lihua; Hu, Songnian; Wang, Qun

2013-01-01

50

Glycocomposition of the apocrine interdigital gland secretions in the fallow deer (Dama dama).  

PubMed

The secretions of the tubular interdigital glands were investigated by conventional (Periodic-Acid Schiff, Alcian-Blue at different pH, Low Iron Diamine and High Iron Diamine) and lectin (Con-A, UEA-I, LTA, WGA, GSA-II, GSA-IB4, SBA, PNA, ECA, DBA, MAL-II and SNA) histochemical methods in adult males and females of different age of fallow deer during the breeding season. Sialidase digestion and deacetylation pre-treatment were also employed in conjunction with lectin histochemistry. The glandular epithelium consisted of a single layer of low columnar cells with typical apical protrusions. No substantial differences of the above histochemical staining in relation to sex and age were observed. Conventional histochemical staining revealed that the interdigital glands secreted neutral glycoproteins whereas acidic glycocomponents did not seem to be present. Lectin histochemical technique allowed us to disclose a great heterogeneity of glycoproteins with N- and O-linked oligosaccharides containing alpha-d-Man/alpha-d-Glc, GlcNAc, alpha-Fuc, terminal beta-d-Gal-(1-3)-d-GalNAc, -d-Gal-(1-4)-d-GlcNAc, alpha-Gal and beta-GalNAc residues. beta-GalNAc and disaccharide beta-d-Gal-(1-3)-d-GalNAc were also found as subterminal to sialyl moieties. The lack of sexual and age-related differences in the glucidic content of the glandular secretions seems to indicate that the glycoderivatives may play only an accessory role in the production of odoriferous signals in fallow deer. PMID:18809187

Parillo, F; Diverio, S

2009-04-01

51

Variation in sperm displacement and its association with accessory gland protein loci in Drosophila melanogaster  

SciTech Connect

Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophila melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female`s reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm. This lack of correlation, and the association of Acp alleles with resisting subsequent sperm only, suggests that different mechanisms mediate the two components of sperm displacement. 36 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Clark, A.G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Prout, T.; Harshman, L.G. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)] [and others

1995-01-01

52

Diversity and partitioning of bacterial populations within the accessory nidamental gland of the squid Euprymna scolopes.  

PubMed

Microbial consortia confer important benefits to animal and plant hosts, and model associations are necessary to examine these types of host/microbe interactions. The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) is a female reproductive organ found among cephalopod mollusks that contains a consortium of bacteria, the exact function of which is unknown. To begin to understand the role of this organ, the bacterial consortium was characterized in the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, a well-studied model organism for symbiosis research. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the ANG revealed dense bacterial assemblages of rod- and coccus-shaped cells segregated by morphology into separate, epithelium-lined tubules. The host epithelium was morphologically heterogeneous, containing ciliated and nonciliated cells with various brush border thicknesses. Hemocytes of the host's innate immune system were also found in close proximity to the bacteria within the tubules. A census of 16S rRNA genes suggested that Rhodobacterales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia bacteria were prevalent, with members of the genus Phaeobacter dominating the consortium. Analysis of 454-shotgun sequencing data confirmed the presence of members of these taxa and revealed members of a fourth, Flavobacteria of the Bacteroidetes phylum. 16S rRNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that many ANG tubules were dominated by members of specific taxa, namely, Rhodobacterales, Verrucomicrobia, or Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroidetes, suggesting symbiont partitioning to specific host tubules. In addition, FISH revealed that bacteria, including Phaeobacter species from the ANG, are likely deposited into the jelly coat of freshly laid eggs. This report establishes the ANG of the invertebrate E. scolopes as a model to examine interactions between a bacterial consortium and its host. PMID:22504817

Collins, Andrew J; LaBarre, Brenna A; Won, Brian S Wong; Shah, Monica V; Heng, Steven; Choudhury, Momena H; Haydar, Shahela A; Santiago, Jose; Nyholm, Spencer V

2012-06-01

53

Localisation of the melanocortin-2-receptor and its accessory proteins in the developing and adult adrenal gland.  

PubMed

The melanocortin-2-receptor (MC2R)/MC2R accessory protein (MRAP) complex is critical to the production of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex. Inactivating mutations in either MC2R or MRAP result in the clinical condition familial glucocorticoid deficiency. The localisation of MC2R together with MRAP within the adrenal gland has not previously been reported. Furthermore, MRAP2, a paralogue of MRAP, has been shown in vitro to have a similar function to MRAP, facilitating MC2R trafficking and responsiveness to ACTH. Despite similar MC2R accessory functions, in vivo, patients with inactivating mutations of MRAP fail to be rescued by a functioning MRAP2 gene, suggesting differences in adrenal expression, localisation and/or function between the two MRAPs. In this study on the rat adrenal gland, we demonstrate that while MRAP and MC2R are highly expressed in the zona fasciculata, MRAP2 is expressed throughout the adrenal cortex in low quantities. In the developing adrenal gland, both MRAP and MRAP2 are equally well expressed. The MC2R/MRAP2 complex requires much higher concentrations of ACTH to activate compared with the MC2R/MRAP complex. Interestingly, expression of MC2R and MRAP in the undifferentiated zone would support the notion that ACTH may play an important role in adrenal cell differentiation and maintenance. PMID:21367968

Gorrigan, Rebecca J; Guasti, Leonardo; King, Peter; Clark, Adrian J; Chan, Li F

2011-06-01

54

Vasoactive intestinal peptide stimulates tracheal submucosal gland secretion in ferret  

SciTech Connect

We studied the effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on the output of 35S-labeled macromolecules from ferret tracheal explants either placed in beakers or suspended in modified Ussing chambers. In Ussing chamber experiments, the radiolabel precursor, sodium (35S)sulfate, and all drugs were placed on the submucosal side of the tissue. Washings were collected at 30-min intervals from the luminal side and were dialyzed to remove unbound 35S, leaving radiolabeled macromolecules. Vasoactive intestinal peptide at 3 X 10(-7) M stimulated bound 35S output by a mean of + 252.6% (n . 14). The VIP response was dose-dependent with a near maximal response and a half maximal response at approximately 10(-6) M and 10(-8), M, respectively. The VIP effect was not inhibited by a mixture of tetrodotoxin, atropine, I-propranolol, and phentolamine. Vasoactive intestinal peptide had no effect on the electrical properties of the of the tissues. We conclude that VIP stimulates output of sulfated-macromolecules from ferret tracheal submucosal glands without stimulating ion transport. Our studies also suggest that VIP acts on submucosal glands via specific VIP receptors. Vasoactive intestinal peptide has been shown to increase intracellular levels of cyclic AMP, and we suggest that this may be the mechanism for its effect on the output of macromolecules. This mechanism may be important in the neural regulation of submucosal gland secretion.

Peatfield, A.C.; Barnes, P.J.; Bratcher, C.; Nadel, J.A.; Davis, B.

1983-07-01

55

Substance P stimulates human airway submucosal gland secretion mainly via a CFTR-dependent process  

PubMed Central

Chronic bacterial airway infections are the major cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF). Normal airway defenses include reflex stimulation of submucosal gland mucus secretion by sensory neurons that release substance P (SubP). CFTR is an anion channel involved in fluid secretion and mutated in CF; the role of CFTR in secretions stimulated by SubP is unknown. We used optical methods to measure SubP-mediated secretion from human submucosal glands in lung transplant tissue. Glands from control but not CF subjects responded to mucosal chili oil. Similarly, serosal SubP stimulated secretion in more than 60% of control glands but only 4% of CF glands. Secretion triggered by SubP was synergistic with vasoactive intestinal peptide and/or forskolin but not with carbachol; synergy was absent in CF glands. Pig glands demonstrated a nearly 10-fold greater response to SubP. In 10 of 11 control glands isolated by fine dissection, SubP caused cell volume loss, lumen expansion, and mucus flow, but in 3 of 4 CF glands, it induced lumen narrowing. Thus, in CF, the reduced ability of mucosal irritants to stimulate airway gland secretion via SubP may be another factor that predisposes the airways to infections.

Choi, Jae Young; Khansaheb, Monal; Joo, Nam Soo; Krouse, Mauri E.; Robbins, Robert C.; Weill, David; Wine, Jeffrey J.

2009-01-01

56

Molecular Mechanism of Pancreatic and Salivary Glands Fluid and HCO3? Secretion  

PubMed Central

Fluid and HCO3? secretion is a vital function of all epithelia and is required for the survival of the tissue. Aberrant fluid and HCO3? secretion is associated with many epithelial diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, Sjögren’s syndrome and other epithelial inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Significant progress has been made over the last 20 years in our understanding of epithelial fluid and HCO3? secretion, in particular by secretory glands. Fluid and HCO3? secretion by secretory glands is a two step process. Acinar cells secrete isotonic fluid in which the major salt is NaCl. Subsequently, the duct modifies the volume and electrolyte composition of the fluid to absorb the Cl? and secrete HCO3?. The relative volume secreted by acinar and duct cells and modification of electrolyte composition of the secreted fluids varies among secretory glands to meet their physiological functions. In the pancreas, acinar cells secrete small amount of NaCl-rich fluid, while the duct absorbs the Cl? and secretes HCO3? and the bulk of the fluid in the pancreatic juice. Fluid secretion appears to be driven by active HCO3? secretion. In the salivary glands, acinar cells secrete the bulk of the fluid in the saliva that contains high concentrations of Na+ and Cl? and fluid secretion is mediated by active Cl? secretion. The salivary glands duct absorbs both the Na+ and Cl? and secretes K+ and HCO3?. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanism of fluid and HCO3? secretion by the pancreas and salivary glands, to highlight the similarities of the fundamental mechanisms of acinar and duct cell functions, and point the differences to meet glands specific secretions.

Lee, Min Goo; Ohana, Ehud; Park, Hyun Woo; Yang, Dongki; Muallem, Shmuel

2013-01-01

57

Suppression subtractive hybridization analysis reveals expression of conserved and novel genes in male accessory glands of the ant Leptothorax gredleri  

PubMed Central

Background During mating, insect males eject accessory gland proteins (Acps) into the female genital tract. These substances are known to affect female post-mating behavior and physiology. In addition, they may harm the female, e.g., in reducing its lifespan. This is interpreted as a consequence of sexual antagonistic co-evolution. Whereas sexual conflict abounds in non-social species, the peculiar life history of social insects (ants, bees, wasps) with lifelong pair-bonding and no re-mating aligns the reproductive interests of the sexes. Harming the female during mating would negatively affect male fitness and sexual antagonism is therefore not expected. Indeed, mating appears to increase female longevity in at least one ant species. Acps are presumed to play a role in this phenomenon, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we investigated genes, which are preferentially expressed in male accessory glands of the ant Leptothorax gredleri, to determine which proteins might be transferred in the seminal fluid. Results By a suppression subtractive hybridization protocol we obtained 20 unique sequences (USs). Twelve had mutual best matches with genes predicted for Apis mellifera and Nasonia vitripennis. Functional information (Gene Ontology) was available only for seven of these, including intracellular signaling, energy-dependent transport and metabolic enzyme activities. The remaining eight USs did not match sequences from other species. Six genes were further analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR in three life cycle stages of male ants. A gene with carboxy-lyase activity and one of unpredicted function were significantly overexpressed in accessory glands of sexually mature males. Conclusions Our study is the first one to investigate differential gene expression in ants in a context related to mating. Our findings indicate that male accessory glands of L. gredleri express a series of genes that are unique to this species, possibly representing novel genes, in addition to conserved ones for which functions can be predicted. Identifying differentially expressed genes might help to better understand molecular mechanisms involved in reproductive processes in eusocial Hymenoptera. While the novel genes could account for rapidly evolving ones driven by intra-sexual conflict between males, conserved genes imply that rather beneficial traits might get fixed by a process described as inter-sexual cooperation between males and females.

2010-01-01

58

Aspiration biopsy of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of accessory parotid gland: another diagnostic dilemma in matrix-containing tumors of the salivary glands.  

PubMed

Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a newly described rare salivary gland tumor, which shares morphologic features with acinic cell carcinoma, low-grade cystadenocarcinoma, and secretory carcinoma of the breast. This is the first reported case of MASC of an accessory parotid gland detected by aspiration biopsy with radiologic and histologic correlation in a 34-year-old patient. Sonographically-guided aspiration biopsy showed cytologic features mimicking those of low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, including sheets of bland epithelial cells, dissociated histiocytoid cells with intracytoplasmic mucinous material, and spindle cells lying in a web-like matrix. Histologic sections showed a circumscribed tumor with microcystic spaces lined by bland uniform epithelial cells and containing secretory material. The tumor cells expressed mammaglobin and BRST-2. The cytologic features, differential diagnosis, and pitfalls are discussed. The pathologic stage was pT1N0. The patient showed no evidence of disease at 1 year follow-up. PMID:22807408

Levine, Pascale; Fried, Karen; Krevitt, Lane D; Wang, Beverly; Wenig, Bruce M

2014-01-01

59

Hydrocarbon and multibranched ester waxes from the uropygial gland secretion of grebes (Pod ici ped iformes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uropygial gland secretion of some grebes (Podicipediformes) has been shown to contain saturated and unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons and monoester waxes. While ester waxes are common constituents of preen gland secretions, nonisoprenoid hydrocarbons have not been detected hitherto. The wax constituents are very complex, belonging to several multibranched homologous series, including unusual acids with ethyl branches. The waxes were identified

Jurgen Jacob

60

The effect of metacestodes of Hymenolepis diminuta on the bean-shaped accessory glands in male Tenebrio molitor.  

PubMed

Metacestodes of Hymenolepis diminuta affect several aspects of female reproductive physiology in Tenebrio molitor and such effects are mediated via the endocrine system. The effects on male reproduction are less well known and were studied with respect to the Bean-Shaped Accessory Glands (BAGs). The size and wet and dry weight of BAGs from infected and uninfected beetles were compared and rose to a plateau from 0-6 days post-emergence in uninfected beetles but in infected individuals continued to increase in both size and weight. These effects were density independent. Glands from both infected and uninfected beetles were assayed for trehalase activity measured by its ability to convert the sugar trehalose to glucose. The activity of this enzyme, per mg wet weight, was not affected by the parasite. However, total activity per gland increased in infected males. Total protein content and electrophoretic profiles of BAGs from infected and uninfected individuals showed no change in profile but showed an increase in all protein subunits per gland over a broad molecular weight range. PMID:9509029

Carver, F J; Hurd, H

1998-02-01

61

SOURCES OF LARVAL SALIVARY GLAND SECRETION IN THE DIPTERAN CHIRONOMUS TENTANS  

PubMed Central

The soluble proteins in the hemolymph, the salivary gland, and the salivary secretion of fourth instar Chironomus tentans were examined by disc electrophoresis in acrylamide gels. Of the 11 protein fractions detected in buffered saline extracts of the gland, 10 are present also in the hemolymph. Amino acid isotope incorporation experiments indicate that the protein fractions shared by the salivary gland and the hemolymph are not synthesized in the gland but are synthesized in other larval tissues. Immunochemical studies show that most of these proteins eventually are secreted from the gland. The salivary gland in vivo and in vitro is active in de novo protein synthesis. The protein synthesized tends to form large molecular weight aggregates. As demonstrated by radioautography, at least 80% of this protein is secreted from the 30 large cells forming most of the gland. The proteins synthesized in the salivary gland cannot be detected in the hemolymph. The results of this investigation are consistent with a mechanism of secretion formation involving both de novo synthesis of some secretion proteins and the selective uptake, transport, and secretion of hemal proteins by the salivary gland.

Doyle, D.; Laufer, H.

1969-01-01

62

Mimicry of queen Dufour's gland secretions by workers of Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the Dufour's gland of workers of the two honey bee races Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis was measured. The Dufour's glands of A. m. capensis workers were longer and increased in length more rapidly than the glands of workers of A. m. scutellata at comparable ages. Analysis of the Dufour's gland secretions of workers and queens of both races revealed that there were caste and racial differences. Secretions of queenright A. m. scutellata workers were dominated by a series of long-chain hydrocarbons. In contrast the secretions of the A. m. capensis workers both under queenright and queenless conditions were a mixture of hydrocarbons and wax-type esters, as were those of queens. Multivariate analysis of the secretion profiles indicated that laying workers of both races mimic queens. The secretions of the A. m. capensis laying workers mimicked queen secretions most closely, enabling them to act as successful social parasites.

Sole, Catherine; Kryger, Per; Hefetz, Abraham; Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Crewe, Robin

2002-10-01

63

Partial uncoupling of salt gland blood flow and secretion in the Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos).  

PubMed Central

1. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the blood flow through and the secretion by the salt glands of conscious, salt-water-adapted Pekin ducks. 2. Intravenous loading with hypertonic saline induced a steady-state secretion from the salt glands with a concomitant increase in whole-organ blood flow. The distribution of elevated local glandular blood flow was, however, uneven and in addition demonstrated vasomotor patterns that ranged from constant to rhythmic. 3. During on-going salt gland secretion, the infusion of three vasoactive agents, 5Val-angiotensin II (ANG II), 8Arg-vasotocin (AVT) and noradrenaline, via the carotid artery had differential effects on salt gland blood flow and secretion. 4. ANG II (80 pmol min-1 (kg body wt)-1) had no effect on mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), produced a transient 30% decrease in glandular blood flow and strongly diminished salt gland secretion (retention of 6.4 mosmol NaCl). 5. AVT (20 pmol min-1 (kg body wt)-1) had no effect on MABP and did not alter salt gland secretion despite a 35% reduction in blood flow. 6. Noradrenaline (20 nmol min-1 (kg body wt)-1) elevated MABP by 15 mmHg, reduced salt gland blood flow by more than 50%, but diminished salt gland secretion only slightly (retention of 2.7 mosmol NaCl). 7. Using ANG II, AVT and noradrenaline as hormonal tools, integrated changes in blood flow rate did not correspond with integrated changes in salt gland excretion. The partial dissociation between both parameters shows that control of secretion by the salt gland is more complex than simply being linearly dependent upon blood flow through it.

Gerstberger, R

1991-01-01

64

The wax glands and wax secretion of Matsucoccus matsumurae at different development stages.  

PubMed

In this paper, the wax secretions and wax glands of Matsucoccus matsumurae (Kuwana) at different instars were investigated using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The first and second instar nymphs were found to secrete wax filaments via the wax glands located in the atrium of the abdominal spiracles, which have a center open and a series of outer ring pores. The wax gland of the abdominal spiracle possesses a large central wax reservoir and several wax-secreting cells. Third-instar male nymphs secreted long and translucent wax filaments from monolocular, biolocular, trilocular and quadrilocular pores to form twine into cocoons. The adult male secreted long and straight wax filaments in bundles from a group of 18-19 wax-secreting tubular ducts on the abdominal segment VII. Each tube duct contained five or six wax pores. The adult female has dorsal cicatrices distributed in rows, many biolocular tubular ducts and multilocular disc pores with 8-12 loculi secreting wax filaments that form the egg sac, and a rare type wax pores with 10 loculi secreting 10 straight, hollow wax filaments. The ultrastructure and cytological characteristics of the wax glands include wax-secreting cells with a large nucleus, multiple mitochondria and several rough endoplasmic reticulum. The functions of the wax glands and wax secretions are discussed. PMID:24468960

Xie, Yingping; Tian, Fen; Liu, Weimin; Zhang, Yanfeng; Xue, Jiaoliang; Zhao, Youyou; Wu, Jun

2014-05-01

65

Isotonic secretion via frog skin glands in vitro. Water secretion is coupled to the secretion of sodium ions.  

PubMed

In isolated frog skin at least three different types of cells are engaged in the transepithelial ion and water transport; these are the granular cells, the mitochondria-rich cells and the glandular cells. The experiments presented were carried out on isolated frog skin bathed in Cl- or NO3- Ringer's solution, where the active transepithelial Na+ uptake via the granular cells was blocked by amiloride. Transepithelial current and water flow were measured. When a negative current was passed across the skins (the skins were clamped at -100 mV), the current was mainly carried by a net influx of Cl- via the mitochondria-rich cells. The current had no effect on the transepithelial water movement. This finding indicates that there is nearly no coupling between the Cl- flux and the movement of water via the mitochondria-rich cells. Prostaglandin E2 activates the glandular cells of the exocrine glands in the skin. When prostaglandin E2 was added under these experimental conditions (the skins were clamped at -100 mV, with amiloride in the apical bathing solution, and the glandular secretion of ions was blocked by the use of NO3- Ringer's solution), then the transepithelial current became more negative. This change in current was mainly due to an increase in the Na+ efflux via the glands. Thus PGE2 increase the Na+ conductance of the skin glands. Together with this increase in the Na+ efflux a highly significant increase in the water secretion was observed. The water movement (secretion) across the skin was under these conditions coupled to the PGE2-induced efflux of Na+, and when one Na+ was pulled from the basolateral to the apical solution via this pathway 215 molecules of water followed. This must be due to electro-osmosis (friction between ions and water) or current-induced local osmosis. PMID:2356751

Nielsen, R

1990-05-01

66

Detection of 90K/MAC-2BP in the seminal plasma of infertile males with accessory gland infection and the autoimmune pathogenetic hypothesis.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to evaluate 90K/MAC-2BP, a glycoprotein member of the Scavenger Receptor Cystein Rich superfamily, in the seminal plasma of infertile male patients with male accessory gland infection in order to investigate a putative autoimmune pathogenesis. 90K seminal concentration and sperm parameters were evaluated in 50 patients with male accessory gland infection at baseline and after cycles of treatment with Levofluoxacin 500 mg daily for 15 days plus serratiopeptidase 10 mg daily for 30 days. Treatment was continued for up to 6 cycles in cases of persistant bacteriospermia and/or clinical and ejaculatory signs of the disease. Patients with persistant male accessory gland infection after 6 cycles were defined as nonresponders. The same parameters were evaluated at baseline and after a 2-month period in 30 healthy controls. Patients with male accessory gland infection showed impaired sperm parameters and had lower seminal 90K concentration compared to controls. After treatment, seminal 90K level significantly increased in patients compared to controls. Twenty-two patients responded to treatment (44%), while 28 were nonresponders (56%). No difference in pretreatment and posttreatment sperm parameters and seminal 90K was observed between the 2 subgroups. Thirteen patients (26%) had identifiable bacteriospermia: significantly less pretreatment seminal 90K was observed compared to patients without bacteriospermia. Seminal 90K is decreased in patients with male accessory gland infection, and may be restored by a treatment with quinolones. However, the clinical utility of a 90K assay in these patients remains uncertain, as its level is not predictive of response to treatment. PMID:16837737

Caroppo, Ettore; Niederberger, Craig; Iacovazzi, Palma A; Correale, Mario; D'Amato, Giuseppe

2006-01-01

67

Association of increased polyamine levels with isoproterenol-stimulated mucin secretion in the rat submandibular gland.  

PubMed

Incubation of rat submandibular gland slices with 50 microM isoproterenol for 10-40 min stimulated mucin secretion and induced a 3- to 4-fold increase in tissue concentrations of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine. alpha-Difluoromethylornithine, a specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, suppressed the isoproterenol-induced increase in submandibular polyamines and inhibited mucin secretion. Exogenous putrescine restored tissue polyamine levels and partially reversed the inhibitory effect of alpha-difluoromethylornithine on mucin secretion. Rapid increases in polyamine levels appear to mediate isoproterenol-stimulated mucin secretion in the rat submandibular gland. PMID:2998352

Blume, G B; Koenig, H; Goldstone, A D

1985-10-15

68

The effect of starvation on the diurnal variation of amylase secretion from rat parotid glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of starvation on the cellular function of rat parotid glands in relation\\u000a to the diurnal variation of amylase secretion from the tissue. Salivary amylase secreted from the glands of rats starved for\\u000a 24h showed diurnal variation, with two peaks at 13 and 21h. The peak at 21 h was more

Yasuko Ishikawa; Cang Chen; Hajime Ishida

1993-01-01

69

ESTROGEN-INDUCED CYTODIFFERENTIATION OF THE OVALBUMIN-SECRETING GLANDS OF THE CHICK OVIDUCT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histological, ultrastructural, and biochemical changes occurring during hormone- induced cytodifferentiation of the ovalbumin-secreting glands in the chick oviduct have been studied. Marked perivascular edema is an initial response of the immature oviduct stroma to diethylstilbestrol administration and is accompanied by an interstitial migration of mononuclear cells. Mitotic activity in the immature mucosal epithelium increases within 24 hr, and glands

PETER O. KOHLER; PHILIP M. GRIMLEY; BERT W. O'MALLEY

1969-01-01

70

Cidea is an essential transcriptional coactivator regulating mammary gland secretion of milk lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate lipid secretion by mammary glands during lactation is essential for the survival of mammalian offspring. However, the mechanism governing this process is poorly understood. Here we show that Cidea is expressed at high levels in lactating mammary glands and its deficiency leads to premature pup death as a result of severely reduced milk lipids. Furthermore, the expression of xanthine

Wenshan Wang; Na Lv; Shasha Zhang; Guanghou Shui; Hui Qian; Jingfeng Zhang; Yuanying Chen; Jing Ye; Yuansheng Xie; Yuemao Shen; Markus R Wenk; Peng Li

2012-01-01

71

Uropygial gland-secreted alkanols contribute to olfactory sex signals in budgerigars.  

PubMed

The possible role of uropygial gland-secreted compounds in olfactory discrimination of sex or sex attractants in the budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus, was investigated using behavioral 2-choice tests and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Our data showed that female budgerigars were capable of distinguishing males from females in a Y maze via body odor, indicating its sexual dimorphism. When we conducted a chemical assay of the uropygial preen gland secretions, we found 4 times more volatile octadecanol, nonadecanol, and eicosanol in ratios in males than in females, making them putative male pheromone candidates. Female birds also showed overt preferences for the odor of male preen gland secretions or the 3-alkanol blend equivalent preened onto the plumage of a male over that of female counterparts. Removal of any one alkanol was associated with a loss of attractiveness to the female. In another test device (a test cage) with visible male bird stimulus, females chose the male with the 3-alkanol blend of males over the other male with female preen gland secretion, whereas did not differentiate their responses between the males with either this blend or male preen gland secretions. The behavioral data robustly suggested that the 3 alkanols synergistically created a female attractant odor or male pheromone in the budgerigar and that bird uropygial glands have broader implications in sexual behavior than previously known. This is the first investigation with bioassay of components of the gland in a bird species. PMID:20212012

Zhang, Jian-Xu; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Yang, Wei-He

2010-06-01

72

Atrial natriuretic peptide stimulates salt secretion by shark rectal gland by releasing VIP  

SciTech Connect

Salt secretion by the isolated perfused rectal gland of the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, is stimulated by synthetic rat atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP II) as well as extracts of shark heart, but not by 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate. Cardiac peptides have no effect on isolated rectal gland cells or perfused tubules, suggesting that stimulation requires an intact gland. The stimulation of secretion by ANP II is eliminated by maneuvers that block neurotransmitter release. Cardiac peptides stimulate the release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), known to be present in rectal glands nerves, into the venous effluent of perfused glands in parallel with their stimulation of salt secretion, but the release of VIP induced by ANP II is prevented by perfusion with procaine. VIP was measured by radioimmunoassay. Cardiac peptides thus appear to regulate rectal gland secretion by releasing VIP from neural stores within the gland. It is possible that other physiological effects of these hormones might be explained by an action to enhanced local release of neurotransmitters.

Silva, P.; Stoff, J.S.; Solomon, R.J.; Lear, S.; Kniaz, D.; Greger, R.; Epstein, F.H.

1987-01-01

73

Seasonal, sexual and developmental differences in hoopoe Upupa epops preen gland morphology and secretions: evidence for a role of bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uropygial glands of birds serve multiple functions, and there is great interspecific variability in the composition and properties of their secretions. A special case is the secretion in the hoopoes Upupa epops, and green woodhoopoes Phoeniculus purpureus, which, contrary to the commonly white and odourless secretions, are dark with pungent odour. Recently, bacteria have been isolated from glands of

Manuel Martín-Vivaldi; Magdalena Ruiz-Rodríguez; Juan José Soler; Juan Manuel Peralta-Sánchez; María Méndez; Eva Valdivia; Antonio Manuel Martín-Platero; Manuel Martínez-Bueno

2009-01-01

74

Protease-activated receptor 2 mediates mucus secretion in the airway submucosal gland.  

PubMed

Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in airway epithelia and smooth muscle, plays an important role in airway inflammation. In this study, we demonstrated that activation of PAR2 induces mucus secretion from the human airway gland and examined the underlying mechanism using the porcine and murine airway glands. The mucosa with underlying submucosal glands were dissected from the cartilage of tissues, pinned with the mucosal side up at the gas/bath solution interface of a physiological chamber, and covered with oil so that secretions from individual glands could be visualized as spherical bubbles in the oil. Secretion rates were determined by optical monitoring of the bubble diameter. The Ca(2+)-sensitive dye Fura2-AM was used to determine intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) by means of spectrofluorometry. Stimulation of human tracheal mucosa with PAR2-activating peptide (PAR2-AP) elevated intracellular Ca(2+) and induced glandular secretion equal to approximately 30% of the carbachol response in the human airway. Porcine gland tissue was more sensitive to PAR2-AP, and this response was dependent on Ca(2+) and anion secretion. When the mouse trachea were exposed to PAR2-AP, large amounts of secretion were observed in both wild type and ?F508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutant mice but there is no secretion from PAR-2 knock out mice. In conclusion, PAR2-AP is an agonist for mucus secretion from the airway gland that is Ca(2+)-dependent and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-independent. PMID:22916223

Lee, Hyun Jae; Yang, Yu-Mi; Kim, Kyubo; Shin, Dong Min; Yoon, Joo-Heon; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Choi, Jae Young

2012-01-01

75

Protease-Activated Receptor 2 Mediates Mucus Secretion in the Airway Submucosal Gland  

PubMed Central

Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in airway epithelia and smooth muscle, plays an important role in airway inflammation. In this study, we demonstrated that activation of PAR2 induces mucus secretion from the human airway gland and examined the underlying mechanism using the porcine and murine airway glands. The mucosa with underlying submucosal glands were dissected from the cartilage of tissues, pinned with the mucosal side up at the gas/bath solution interface of a physiological chamber, and covered with oil so that secretions from individual glands could be visualized as spherical bubbles in the oil. Secretion rates were determined by optical monitoring of the bubble diameter. The Ca2+-sensitive dye Fura2-AM was used to determine intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by means of spectrofluorometry. Stimulation of human tracheal mucosa with PAR2-activating peptide (PAR2-AP) elevated intracellular Ca2+ and induced glandular secretion equal to approximately 30% of the carbachol response in the human airway. Porcine gland tissue was more sensitive to PAR2-AP, and this response was dependent on Ca2+ and anion secretion. When the mouse trachea were exposed to PAR2-AP, large amounts of secretion were observed in both wild type and ?F508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutant mice but there is no secretion from PAR-2 knock out mice. In conclusion, PAR2-AP is an agonist for mucus secretion from the airway gland that is Ca2+-dependent and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-independent.

Lee, Hyun Jae; Yang, Yu-Mi; Kim, Kyubo; Shin, Dong Min; Yoon, Joo-Heon; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Choi, Jae Young

2012-01-01

76

Control of rectal gland secretion by blood acid–base status in the intact dogfish shark ( Squalus acanthias)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to address the possible role of blood acid–base status in controlling the rectal gland, dogfish were fitted with indwelling arterial catheters for blood sampling and rectal gland catheters for secretion collection. In intact, unanaesthetized animals, isosmotic volume loading with 500mmolL?1 NaCl at a rate of 15mLkg?1h?1 produced a brisk, stable rectal gland secretion flow of about 4mLkg?1h?1. Secretion

Chris M. Wood; R. Stephen Munger; Jill Thompson; Trevor J. Shuttleworth

2007-01-01

77

The "Vampirome": Transcriptome and proteome analysis of the principal and accessory submaxillary glands of the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, a vector of human rabies  

PubMed Central

Vampire bats are notorious for being the sole mammals that strictly feed on fresh blood for their survival. While their saliva has been historically associated with anticoagulants, only one antihemostatic (plasminogen activator) has been molecularly and functionally characterized. Here, RNAs from both principal submandibular and accessory glands of Desmodus rotundus were extracted, and ~ 200 million reads were sequenced by Illumina. The principal gland was enriched with plasminogen activators with fibrinolytic properties, members of lipocalin and secretoglobin families, which bind prohemostatic prostaglandins, and endonucleases, which cleave neutrophil-derived procoagulant NETs. Anticoagulant (tissue factor pathway inhibitor, TFPI), vasodilators (PACAP and C-natriuretic peptide), and metalloproteases (ADAMTS-1) were also abundantly expressed. Members of the TSG-6 (anti-inflammatory), antigen 5/CRISP, and CCL28-like (antimicrobial) protein families were also sequenced. Apyrases (which remove platelet agonist ADP), phosphatases (which degrade procoagulant polyphosphates), and sphingomyelinase were found at lower transcriptional levels. Accessory glands were enriched with antimicrobials (lysozyme, defensin, lactotransferrin) and protease inhibitors (TIL-domain, cystatin, Kazal). Mucins, heme-oxygenase, and IgG chains were present in both glands. Proteome analysis by nano LC-MS/MS confirmed that several transcripts are expressed in the glands. The database presented herein is accessible online at http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/D_rotundus/Supplemental-web.xlsx. These results reveal that bat saliva emerges as a novel source of modulators of vascular biology.

Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Assumpcao, Teresa C. F.; Ma, Dongying; Li, Yuan; Vicente, Eliane C.; Uieda, Wilson; Ribeiro, Jose M.C.

2013-01-01

78

Male Accessory Gland Protein Reduces Egg Laying in a Simultaneous Hermaphrodite  

PubMed Central

Seminal fluid is an important part of the ejaculate of internally fertilizing animals. This fluid contains substances that nourish and activate sperm for successful fertilization. Additionally, it contains components that influence female physiology to further enhance fertilization success of the sperm donor, possibly beyond the recipient's optimum. Although evidence for such substances abounds, few studies have unraveled their identities, and focus has been exclusively on separate-sex species. We present the first detailed study into the seminal fluid composition of a hermaphrodite (Lymnaea stagnalis). Eight novel peptides and proteins were identified from the seminal-fluid-producing prostate gland and tested for effects on oviposition, hatching and consumption. The gene for the protein found to suppress egg mass production, Ovipostatin, was sequenced, thereby providing the first fully-characterized seminal fluid substance in a simultaneous hermaphrodite. Thus, seminal fluid peptides and proteins have evolved and can play a crucial role in sexual selection even when the sexes are combined.

Koene, Joris M.; Sloot, Wiebe; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Cummins, Scott F.; Degnan, Bernard M.; Smith, John S.; Nagle, Gregg T.; ter Maat, Andries

2010-01-01

79

Vasopressin and oxytocin modulation of melatonin secretion from rat pineal glands.  

PubMed

The rat pineal gland is known to release melatonin in response to noradrenergic stimulation. Since vasopressin (VP)- and oxytocin (OT)-containing fibers innervate the pineal gland, the effects of VP and OT on melatonin release from perifused rat pineal glands were investigated. VP (10(-7) M) and OT (10(-6) M) decreased the basal melatonin secretion. No dose-dependent effect was observed. At high concentrations (10(-5)) these peptides potentiated the isoproterenol-induced increase of melatonin secretion. Below 10(-5) M no potentiation was observed. Fragments of VP ([pGlu4,Cys6]VP(4-9] and OT (pGlu4,Cys6]OT(4-9] did not display any effect on the isoproterenol-induced melatonin secretion. PMID:2087432

Simonneaux, V; Ouichou, A; Burbach, J P; Pévet, P

1990-01-01

80

Leg tendon glands in male bumblebees ( Bombus terrestris): structure, secretion chemistry, and possible functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the large number of exocrine glands described in bees, the tarsal glands were thought to be the source of footprint scent marks. However, recent studies showed that the compounds used for marking by stingless bees are secreted by leg tendon instead of tarsal glands. Here, we report on the structure of leg tendon glands in males of Bombus terrestris, together with a description of the chemical composition of their secretions and respective changes of both during the males' lives. The ultrastructure of leg tendon glands shows that the secretory cells are located in three independent regions, separated from each other by unmodified epidermal cells: in the femur, tibia, and basitarsus. Due to the common site of secretion release, the organ is considered a single secretory gland. The secretion of the leg tendon glands of B. terrestris males differs in its composition from those of workers and queens, in particular by (1) having larger proportions of compounds with longer chain lengths, which we identified as wax esters; and (2) by the lack of certain hydrocarbons (especially long chain dienes). Other differences consist in the distribution of double bond positions in the unsaturated hydrocarbons that are predominantly located at position 9 in males but distributed at seven to nine different positions in the female castes. Double bond positions may change chemical and physical properties of a molecule, which can be recognized by the insects and, thus, may serve to convey specific information. The function of male-specific compounds identified from their tendon glands remains elusive, but several possibilities are discussed.

Jarau, Stefan; Žá?ek, Petr; Šobotník, Jan; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Hadravová, Romana; Coppée, Audrey; Vaší?ková, So?a; Jiroš, Pavel; Valterová, Irena

2012-12-01

81

Peptide secretion in the cutaneous glands of South American tree frog Phyllomedusa bicolor: an ultrastructural study.  

PubMed

The development of the dermal glands of the arboreal frog Phyllomedusa bicolor was investigated by immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. The 3 types of glands (mucous, lipid and serous) differed in size and secretory activity. The mucous and serous glands were apparent in the tadpole skin, whereas the lipid glands developed later in ontogenesis. The peptide antibiotics dermaseptins and the D-amino acid-containing peptide opioids dermorphins and deltorphins are abundant in the skin secretions of P. bicolor. Although these peptides differ in their structure and activity they are derived from precursors that have very similar preproregions. We used an antibody to the common preproregion of preprodermaseptins and preprodeltorphins and immunofluorescence analysis to show that only the serous glands are specifically involved in the biosynthesis and secretion of dermaseptins and deltorphins. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the serous glands of P bicolor have morphological features, especially the secretory granules, which differ from those of the glands in Xenopus laevis skin. PMID:11043404

Lacombe, C; Cifuentes-Diaz, C; Dunia, I; Auber-Thomay, M; Nicolas, P; Amiche, M

2000-09-01

82

Lubiprostone stimulates secretion from tracheal submucosal glands of sheep, pigs, and humans  

PubMed Central

Lubiprostone, a putative ClC-2 chloride channel opener, has been investigated for its effects on airway epithelia (tracheas). Lubiprostone is shown to increase submucosal gland secretion in pigs, sheep, and humans and to increase short-circuit current (SCC) in the surface epithelium of pigs and sheep. Use of appropriate blocking agents and ion-substitution experiments shows anion secretion is the driving force for fluid formation in both glands and surface epithelium. From SCC concentration-response relations, it is shown that for apical lubiprostone Kd = 10.5 nM with a Hill slope of 1.08, suggesting a single type of binding site and, from the speed of the response, close to the apical surface, confirmed the rapid blockade by Cd ions. Responses to lubiprostone were reversible and repeatable, responses being significantly larger with ventral compared with dorsal epithelium. Submucosal gland secretion rates following basolateral lubiprostone were, respectively, 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 nl gl?1 min?1 in humans, sheep, and pigs. These rates dwarf any contribution surface secretion adds to the accumulation of surface liquid under the influence of lubiprostone. Lubiprostone stimulated gland secretion in two out of four human cystic fibrosis (CF) tissues and in two of three disease controls, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (COPD/IPF), but in neither type of tissue was the increase significant. Lubiprostone was able to increase gland secretion rates in normal human tissue in the continuing presence of a high forskolin concentration. Lubiprostone had no spasmogenic activity on trachealis muscle, making it a potential agent for increasing airway secretion that may have therapeutic utility.

Joo, N. S.; Wine, J. J.; Cuthbert, A. W.

2009-01-01

83

Platelet-activating factor increases platelet-dependent glycoconjugate secretion from tracheal submucosal gland  

SciTech Connect

Using isolated glands from feline trachea, we examined the effect of platelet-activating factor (PAF) on radiolabeled glycoconjugate release and glandular contraction by measuring induced tension in the absence or presence of platelets. PAF alone did not produce any significant glandular contraction nor any significant change in glycoconjugate release from isolated glands. In the presence of purified platelets containing no plasma, PAF (10(-8) to 10(-5) M) produced significant glycoconjugate secretion in a dose-dependent fashion, but it produced no significant glandular contraction. PAF-evoked glycoconjugate secretion was time dependent, reaching a peak response of 277% of control 15-30 min after the exposure of isolated glands to 10(-5) M PAF in the presence of platelets and returning to 135% of controls at 2 h. Platelets alone did not produce any significant stimulation in glycoconjugate release. CV-3988, a known PAF antagonist, inhibited the secretory response to PAF. Methysergide, a known antagonist to receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine, did not alter PAF-evoked glycoconjugate secretion. Both indomethacin and SQ 29,548, a thromboxane receptor antagonist, abolished the PAF-evoked glycoconjugate secretion from isolated submucosal glands. Epithiomethanothromboxane A2, a stable thromboxane A2 analogue, produced a significant increase in glycoconjugate secretion in a dose-dependent fashion. These findings indicate that PAF increases glycoconjugate release in the presence of platelets and that the increase is dependent on some aspect of platelet function, namely thromboxane generation.

Sasaki, T.; Shimura, S.; Ikeda, K.; Sasaki, H.; Takishima, T. (Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan))

1989-12-01

84

Alarm communication: a new function for the scent-gland secretion in harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most harvestmen are nocturnal, nonacoustical, and nonvisual arthropods. They have a pair of exocrine glands on the cephalothorax that produce defensive volatile secretions. We investigated in the field the possible alarm effect of these secretions in the gregarious harvestman Goniosoma aff. proximum. A cotton swab soaked with the species' own exudate (treatment), or with water (control), was held 1-2 cm from the center of harvestmen aggregations. The results showed that the gland secretion elicits an alarm response in Goniosoma: whereas 73.3% of the aggregations dispersed after being stimulated with the gland exudate, only 3.3% responded to the water control. Respondent groups are larger than non-respondent groups, and the time of reaction to the secretion was inversely related to group size. This is the first demonstration of a chemically-mediated alarm effect in harvestmen. The alarm response in gregarious harvestmen has possibly evolved as a by-product of a primarily defensive reaction in the context of predator avoidance. The discovery of this novel function of scent-gland secretion is meaningful in view of the widespread occurrence of gregarious habit among species of the order Opiliones.

Machado, Glauco; Bonato, Vinícius; Oliveira, Paulo

2002-05-01

85

Regulation and specificity of antifungal metapleural gland secretion in leaf-cutting ants  

PubMed Central

Ants have paired metapleural glands (MGs) to produce secretions for prophylactic hygiene. These exocrine glands are particularly well developed in leaf-cutting ants, but whether the ants can actively regulate MG secretion is unknown. In a set of controlled experiments using conidia of five fungi, we show that the ants adjust the amount of MG secretion to the virulence of the fungus with which they are infected. We further applied fixed volumes of MG secretion of ants challenged with constant conidia doses to agar mats of the same fungal species. This showed that inhibition halos were significantly larger for ants challenged with virulent and mild pathogens/weeds than for controls and Escovopsis-challenged ants. We conclude that the MG defence system of leaf-cutting ants has characteristics reminiscent of an additional cuticular immune system, with specific and non-specific components, of which some are constitutive and others induced.

Yek, Sze Huei; Nash, David R.; Jensen, Annette B.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

2012-01-01

86

Optical properties of the uropygial gland secretion: no evidence for UV cosmetics in birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultraviolet (UV) reflectance of the plumage is common in birds and plays an important role in sexual signalling. Recently,\\u000a it has been proposed that birds are able to modify plumage UV reflectance by the application of uropygial gland secretion.\\u000a Based on a survey of the optical properties of this secretion from 51 species belonging to 12 avian orders, we show

Kaspar Delhey; Anne Peters; Peter H. W. Biedermann; Bart Kempenaers

2008-01-01

87

Mucociliary clearance and submucosal gland secretion in the ex vivo ferret trachea.  

PubMed

In many species submucosal glands are an important source of tracheal mucus, but the extent to which mucociliary clearance (MCC) depends on gland secretion is unknown. To explore this relationship, we measured basal and agonist-stimulated MCC velocities in ex vivo tracheas from adult ferrets and compared the velocities with previously measured rates of ferret glandular mucus secretion (Cho HJ, Joo NS, Wine JJ. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 299: L124-L136, 2010). Stimulated MCC velocities (mm/min, means ± SE for 10- to 35-min period poststimulation) were as follows: 1 ?M carbachol: 19.1 ± 3.3 > 10 ?M phenylephrine: 15.3 ± 2.4 ? 10 ?M isoproterenol: 15.0 ± 1.9 ? 10 ?M forskolin: 14.6 ± 3.1 > 1 ?M vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP): 10.2 ± 2.2 > basal (t15): 1.8 ± 0.3; n = 5-10 for each condition. Synergistic stimulation of MCC was observed between low concentrations of carbachol (100 nM) and isoproterenol (300 nM). Bumetanide inhibited carbachol-stimulated MCC by ?70% and abolished the increase in MCC stimulated by forskolin + VIP, whereas HCO3 (-)-free solutions did not significantly inhibit MCC to either intracellular Ca(2+) concentration or intracellular cAMP concentration ([cAMP]i)-elevating agonists. Stimulation and inhibition of MCC and gland secretion differed in several respects: most importantly, elevating [cAMP]i increased MCC much more effectively than expected from its effects on gland secretion, and bumetanide almost completely inhibited [cAMP]i-stimulated MCC while it had a smaller effect on gland secretion. We conclude that changes in glandular fluid secretion are complexly related to MCC and discuss possible reasons for this. PMID:24793168

Jeong, Jin Hyeok; Joo, Nam Soo; Hwang, Peter H; Wine, Jeffrey J

2014-07-01

88

Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical investigation of ecdysteroid secretion by the prothoracic gland of the waxmoth Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation and secretion of ecdysteroid by the prothoracic gland cells of Galleria mellonella (Insecta, Lepidoptera) were investigated electron microscopically and immunocytochemically. The moulting hormone ecdysone becomes first evident in vesicles and tubules of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). The SER forms secretory granules in which ecdysone was shown immunocytochemically. The Golgi apparatus seems not to be directly involved in

Heiner Birkenbeil

1983-01-01

89

A Novel, Local Technique for Studying Rabbit Lacrimal Gland Secretion in situ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To develop a local approach to study rabbit lacrimal secretion in situ by administering specific secretagogues directly onto the lacrimal gland (LG). Methods: After the rabbit has been anesthetized, the inferior bulbar conjunctiva and underlying connective tissue are blunt dissected. A polyethylene tube, for drug delivery, is inserted through the fibrous membrane overlying the inferior surface of the orbital

Chuanqing Ding; Lawrence Rife; Tamako Nakamura; Yu-Wen Wang; Kimberly Kopp; Joel E. Schechter

2008-01-01

90

The comparative morphology of epidermal glands in Pentatomoidea (Heteroptera).  

PubMed

The Heteroptera show a diversity of glands associated with the epidermis. They have multiple roles including the production of noxious scents. Here, we examine the cellular arrangement and cytoskeletal components of the scent glands of pentatomoid Heteroptera in three families, Pentatomidae (stink bugs), Tessaratomidae, and Scutelleridae (shield-backed bugs or jewel bugs). The glands are; (1) the dorsal abdominal glands, (2) the tubular glands of the composite metathoracic gland, and (3) the accessory gland component of the composite metathoracic gland. The dorsal abdominal glands are at their largest in nymphs and decrease in size in adults. The metathoracic gland is an adult-specific gland unit with a reservoir and multiple types of gland cells. The accessory gland is composed of many unicellular glands concentrated in a sinuous line across the reservoir wall. The lateral tubular gland is composed of two-cell units. The dorsal abdominal glands of nymphs are composed of three-cell units with a prominent cuticular component derived from the saccule cell sitting between the duct and receiving canal. The cuticular components that channel secretion from the microvilli of the secretory cell to the exterior differ in the three gland types. The significance of the numbers of cells comprising gland units is related to the role of cells in regenerating the cuticular components of the glands at moulting in nymphs. PMID:24747726

Kheyri, Homayoun; Cribb, Bronwen W; Merritt, David J

2014-05-01

91

Mucus secretion by single tracheal submucosal glands from normal and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator knockout mice  

PubMed Central

Submucosal glands line the cartilaginous airways and produce most of the antimicrobial mucus that keeps the airways sterile. The glands are defective in cystic fibrosis (CF), but how this impacts airway health remains uncertain. Although most CF mouse strains exhibit mild airway defects, those with the C57Bl/6 genetic background have increased airway pathology and susceptibility to Pseudomonas. Thus, they offer the possibility of studying whether, and if so how, abnormal submucosal gland function contributes to CF airway disease. We used optical methods to study fluid secretion by individual glands in tracheas from normal, wild-type (WT) mice and from cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) knockout mice (Cftrm1UNC/Cftrm1UNC; CF mice). Glands from WT mice qualitatively resembled those in humans by responding to carbachol and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), although the relative rates of VIP- and forskolin-stimulated secretion were much lower in mice than in large mammals. The pharmacology of mouse gland secretion was also similar to that in humans; adding bumetanide or replacement of HCO3? by Hepes reduced the carbachol response by ?50%, and this inhibition increased to 80% when both manoeuvres were performed simultaneously. It is important to note that glands from CFTR knockout mice responded to carbachol but did not secrete when exposed to VIP or forskolin, as has been shown previously for glands from CF patients. Tracheal glands from WT and CF mice both had robust secretory responses to electrical field stimulation that were blocked by tetrodotoxin. It is interesting that local irritation of the mucosa using chili pepper oil elicited secretion from WT glands but did not stimulate glands from CF mice. These results clarify the mechanisms of murine submucosal gland secretion and reveal a novel defect in local regulation of glands lacking CFTR which may also compromise airway defence in CF patients.

Ianowski, Juan P; Choi, Jae Young; Wine, Jeffrey J; Hanrahan, John W

2007-01-01

92

The effects of histamine, pyrilamine, cimetidine, and ranitidine on secretion of lingual lipase and amylase from rat von Ebner's glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minced von Ebner's glands of rat tongue were incubatedin vitro with histamine and histamine receptor antagonists. At various time intervals, media and homogenates of the tissue were assayed for lingual lipase and amylase activity and percentage secretion calculated. Histamine elicited moderate secretion (?10%) of lingual lipase and amylase. In contrast, pyrilamine, and H1 receptor antagonist, elicited>60% secretion. There were statistically

Ruth B. Field; Stuart J. Chirtel

1992-01-01

93

Ca(2+) signaling and regulation of fluid secretion in salivary gland acinar cells.  

PubMed

Neurotransmitter stimulation of plasma membrane receptors stimulates salivary gland fluid secretion via a complex process that is determined by coordinated temporal and spatial regulation of several Ca(2+) signaling processes as well as ion flux systems. Studies over the past four decades have demonstrated that Ca(2+) is a critical factor in the control of salivary gland function. Importantly, critical components of this process have now been identified, including plasma membrane receptors, calcium channels, and regulatory proteins. The key event in activation of fluid secretion is an increase in intracellular [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]i) triggered by IP3-induced release of Ca(2+) from ER via the IP3R. This increase regulates the ion fluxes required to drive vectorial fluid secretion. IP3Rs determine the site of initiation and the pattern of [Ca(2+)]i signal in the cell. However, Ca(2+) entry into the cell is required to sustain the elevation of [Ca(2+)]i and fluid secretion. This Ca(2+) influx pathway, store-operated calcium influx pathway (SOCE), has been studied in great detail and the regulatory mechanisms as well as key molecular components have now been identified. Orai1, TRPC1, and STIM1 are critical components of SOCE and among these, Ca(2+) entry via TRPC1 is a major determinant of fluid secretion. The receptor-evoked Ca(2+) signal in salivary gland acinar cells is unique in that it starts at the apical pole and then rapidly increases across the cell. The basis for the polarized Ca(2+) signal can be ascribed to the polarized arrangement of the Ca(2+) channels, transporters, and signaling proteins. Distinct localization of these proteins in the cell suggests compartmentalization of Ca(2+) signals during regulation of fluid secretion. This chapter will discuss new concepts and findings regarding the polarization and control of Ca(2+) signals in the regulation of fluid secretion. PMID:24646566

Ambudkar, Indu S

2014-06-01

94

Behavioral and chemical analysis of venom gland secretion of queens of the ant Solenopsis geminata.  

PubMed

Bioassays in a Y-tube olfactometer showed that workers of Solenopsis geminata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) were attracted to venom gland extracts of queens. Gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry analysis of individual glands of queens of S. geminata showed that the secretion is composed mainly of a large amount of 2-alkyl-6-methylpiperidine alkaloids and a tiny amount of a delta-lactone and a a-pyrone, which have been earlier identified as components of the queen attractant pheromone of Solenopsis invicta Buren. However, additional small amounts of a mixture of sesquiterpenes and pentadecene were found. The possible function of the sesquiterpenoid compounds is discussed. PMID:11789950

Cruz-López, L; Rojas, J C; De La Cruz-Cordero, R; Morgan, E D

2001-12-01

95

Effect of ethanol on acid secretion by isolated gastric glands from rabbit  

SciTech Connect

Isolated gastric glands from rabbit, as well as basolateral and microsomal membranes derived therefrom, were used to examine the effect of ethanol on several parameters related to acid secretion. Low concentrations of ethanol, 0.2%-5% (vol/vol), had no effect on basal aminopyrine accumulation by isolated gastric glands but significantly potentiated aminopyrine accumulation stimulated by histamine. In contrast, this dose range of ethanol inhibited aminopyrine accumulation stimulated by forskolin or dibutyryl-cyclic adenosine monophosphate. This dose range of ethanol produced a similar effect on adenylate cyclase activity of basolateral membranes from isolated gastric glands, with potentiation of histamine stimulation and inhibition of forskolin stimulation. Low-dose ethanol was found to produce increased proton permeability of the apical membrane of the parietal cell but had no effect on hydrogen-potassium-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase activity. Ethanol (10%) significantly inhibited all parameters of acid secretion studied. Ethanol has a biphasic effect on acid secretion with potentiation of histamine-stimulated aminopyrine accumulation and adenylate cyclase activity at low doses and inhibition of all parameters of acid secretion at high doses.

Reichstein, B.J.; Okamoto, C.; Forte, J.G.

1986-08-01

96

Phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus by somatic cells in dry cow secretion of mammary gland.  

PubMed

Independently of the stage of the dry period, phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus by somatic cells isolated from dry cow secretion were significantly higher in a medium of diluted secretion than in 1% serum and in PBS. Intramammary introduction of vaccine from killed Staphylococcus aureus cells caused, in the steady state dry period, the significant increase of phagocytic and bactericidal activity of somatic cells, examined in the medium of diluted secretion of the mammary gland. The isolated secretion deriving both from vaccinated and non-vaccinated cows causes--in the steady state dry period--the disappearance of the significance of differences between the somatic cells coming from various cows. Phagocytosis is highly significantly correlated with the total and intracellular survival of bacteria; similarly, highly significant correlation exists between the total and intracellular survival of S. aureus. PMID:2484744

Smuda, P H

1989-01-01

97

Optical properties of the uropygial gland secretion: no evidence for UV cosmetics in birds.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet (UV) reflectance of the plumage is common in birds and plays an important role in sexual signalling. Recently, it has been proposed that birds are able to modify plumage UV reflectance by the application of uropygial gland secretion. Based on a survey of the optical properties of this secretion from 51 species belonging to 12 avian orders, we show that two main types of uropygial secretions exist, one predominantly found in passerines and one in non-passerines, both reducing relative UV reflectance of a white background (Teflon tape). We quantified how each type of secretion (exemplified by blue tit and mallard) affected feather UV reflectance. Both secretions reduced overall brightness and relative UV reflectance of white mallard feathers but hardly affected the reflectance of UV/blue blue tit crown feathers. According to models of avian colour vision, changes in reflectance due to application of the secretion were at or below the discrimination threshold of most birds. We conclude that the uropygial secretion is unlikely to play a major role in modifying plumage UV reflectance. However, the optical properties of the uropygial secretion may have been selected to interfere as little as possible with visual signaling through plumage reflectance. PMID:18560743

Delhey, Kaspar; Peters, Anne; Biedermann, Peter H W; Kempenaers, Bart

2008-10-01

98

Optical properties of the uropygial gland secretion: no evidence for UV cosmetics in birds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultraviolet (UV) reflectance of the plumage is common in birds and plays an important role in sexual signalling. Recently, it has been proposed that birds are able to modify plumage UV reflectance by the application of uropygial gland secretion. Based on a survey of the optical properties of this secretion from 51 species belonging to 12 avian orders, we show that two main types of uropygial secretions exist, one predominantly found in passerines and one in non-passerines, both reducing relative UV reflectance of a white background (Teflon™ tape). We quantified how each type of secretion (exemplified by blue tit and mallard) affected feather UV reflectance. Both secretions reduced overall brightness and relative UV reflectance of white mallard feathers but hardly affected the reflectance of UV/blue blue tit crown feathers. According to models of avian colour vision, changes in reflectance due to application of the secretion were at or below the discrimination threshold of most birds. We conclude that the uropygial secretion is unlikely to play a major role in modifying plumage UV reflectance. However, the optical properties of the uropygial secretion may have been selected to interfere as little as possible with visual signaling through plumage reflectance.

Delhey, Kaspar; Peters, Anne; Biedermann, Peter H. W.; Kempenaers, Bart

2008-10-01

99

Murine nonvolatile pheromones: isolation of exocrine-gland secreting Peptide 1.  

PubMed

Our search for a substance recognized by the vomeronasal neurons revealed that the extra-orbital lacrimal gland (ELG) isolated from adult male mice produced the male-specific peptide pheromone exocrine gland-secreting peptide 1 (ESP1). The following protocol reveals how ESP1 may be extracted from the ELG, purified using anion-exchange and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and analyzed by mass spectrometry. This protocol has been specifically designed for the purification of ESP1, but may be modified to isolate a variety of peptides from the exocrine glands. Peptides purified in this manner may help further define the molecular mechanisms underlying pheromone communication in the vomeronasal system. PMID:24014353

Kimoto, Hiroko; Touhara, Kazushige

2013-01-01

100

The Secretion of Areolar (Montgomery's) Glands from Lactating Women Elicits Selective, Unconditional Responses in Neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe communicative meaning of human areolae for newborn infants was examined here in directly exposing 3-day old neonates to the secretion from the areolar glands of Montgomery donated by non related, non familiar lactating women.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThe effect of the areolar stimulus on the infants' behavior and autonomic nervous system was compared to that of seven reference stimuli originating either from

Sébastien Doucet; Robert Soussignan; Paul Sagot; Benoist Schaal; Martine Hausberger

2009-01-01

101

Role of ovarian secretions in mammary gland development and function in ruminants.  

PubMed

The mammary gland is a dynamic organ that undergoes cyclic developmental and regressive changes during the lifetime of a female mammal. Mammogenesis begins during embryonic life with the development of the first mammary gland rudiments and ductal system. After birth, during the pre-pubertal period, the ductal growth of the mammary parenchyma occurs through the fat pad. In most of the ruminant species allometric mammary parenchyma development begins with the onset of cyclic ovarian secretions activity. The two main hormones secreted during an ovarian cycle are estradiol and progesterone. These steroid hormones are derived from cholesterol and are synthesized by theca and granulosa cells in ovaries. During puberty, the mammary parenchyma develops in a compact, highly arborescent parenchymal mass surrounded by a dense connective matrix. Ductal elongation and lobulo-alveolar development are accomplished during growth and pregnancy to prepare for future milk production. At the end of lactation, the mammary gland undergoes involution, which corresponds to a regression of the secretory tissue, a reduction in the alveolar size and a loss of mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Ovarian steroids (estradiol and progesterone) appear to be key regulators of the different stages of mammogenesis and mammary function. Through this review, the role and the importance of ovarian steroids on mammary gland and on MECs is described. PMID:24103527

Yart, L; Lollivier, V; Marnet, P G; Dessauge, F

2014-01-01

102

Sex recognition by odour and variation in the uropygial gland secretion in starlings.  

PubMed

1.?Although a growing body of evidence supports that olfaction based on chemical compounds emitted by birds may play a role in individual recognition, the possible role of chemical cues in sexual selection of birds has been only preliminarily studied. 2.?We investigated for the first time whether a passerine bird, the spotless starling Sturnus unicolor, was able to discriminate the sex of conspecifics by using olfactory cues and whether the size and secretion composition of the uropygial gland convey information on sex, age and reproductive status in this species. 3.?We performed a blind choice experiment during mating, and we found that starlings were able to discriminate the sex of conspecifics by using chemical cues alone. Both male and female starlings preferred male scents. Furthermore, the analysis of the chemical composition of the uropygial gland secretion by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed differences between sexes, ages and reproductive status. 4.?In conclusion, our study reveals for first time that a passerine species can discriminate the sex of conspecifics by relying on chemical cues and suggests that the uropygial gland secretion may potentially function as a chemical signal used in mate choice and/or intrasexual competition in this species. PMID:22220811

Amo, Luisa; Avilés, Jesús M; Parejo, Deseada; Peña, Aránzazu; Rodríguez, Juan; Tomás, Gustavo

2012-05-01

103

Apocrine Secretion in Drosophila Salivary Glands: Subcellular Origin, Dynamics, and Identification of Secretory Proteins  

PubMed Central

In contrast to the well defined mechanism of merocrine exocytosis, the mechanism of apocrine secretion, which was first described over 180 years ago, remains relatively uncharacterized. We identified apocrine secretory activity in the late prepupal salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster just prior to the execution of programmed cell death (PCD). The excellent genetic tools available in Drosophila provide an opportunity to dissect for the first time the molecular and mechanistic aspects of this process. A prerequisite for such an analysis is to have pivotal immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, biochemical and proteomic data that fully characterize the process. Here we present data showing that the Drosophila salivary glands release all kinds of cellular proteins by an apocrine mechanism including cytoskeletal, cytosolic, mitochondrial, nuclear and nucleolar components. Surprisingly, the apocrine release of these proteins displays a temporal pattern with the sequential release of some proteins (e.g. transcription factor BR-C, tumor suppressor p127, cytoskeletal ?-tubulin, non-muscle myosin) earlier than others (e.g. filamentous actin, nuclear lamin, mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase). Although the apocrine release of proteins takes place just prior to the execution of an apoptotic program, the nuclear DNA is never released. Western blotting indicates that the secreted proteins remain undegraded in the lumen. Following apocrine secretion, the salivary gland cells remain quite vital, as they retain highly active transcriptional and protein synthetic activity.

Farkas, Robert; Datkova, Zuzana; Mentelova, Lucia; Low, Peter; Benova-Liszekova, Denisa; Beno, Milan; Sass, Miklos; Rehulka, Pavel; Rehulkova, Helena; Raska, Otakar; Kovacik, Lubomir; Smigova, Jana; Raska, Ivan; Mechler, Bernard M.

2014-01-01

104

Cidea control of lipid storage and secretion in mouse and human sebaceous glands.  

PubMed

Sebaceous glands are skin appendages that secrete sebum onto hair follicles to lubricate the hair and maintain skin homeostasis. In this study, we demonstrated that Cidea is expressed at high levels in lipid-laden mature sebocytes and that Cidea deficiency led to dry hair and hair loss in aged mice. In addition, Cidea-deficient mice had markedly reduced levels of skin surface lipids, including triacylglycerides (TAGs) and wax diesters (WDEs), and these mice were defective in water repulsion and thermoregulation. Furthermore, we observed that Cidea-deficient sebocytes accumulated a large number of smaller-sized lipid droplets (LDs), whereas overexpression of Cidea in human SZ95 sebocytes resulted in increased lipid storage and the accumulation of large LDs. Importantly, Cidea was highly expressed in human sebaceous glands, and its expression levels were positively correlated with human sebum secretion. Our data revealed that Cidea is a crucial regulator of sebaceous gland lipid storage and sebum lipid secretion in mammals and humans. PMID:24636991

Zhang, Shasha; Shui, Guanghou; Wang, Guanqun; Wang, Chao; Sun, Shuhong; Zouboulis, Christos C; Xiao, Ran; Ye, Jing; Li, Wei; Li, Peng

2014-05-01

105

A small molecule CFTR inhibitor produces cystic fibrosis-like submucosal gland fluid secretions in normal airways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airway submucosal glands have been proposed as a primary site for initiating and sustaining airway disease in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, it has been difficult to define the role of CFTR in gland fluid secretion because of concerns in interpreting experiments on diseased CF human airways subjected to chronic infection and inflammation. Here, we test the role of CFTR in

Jay R. Thiagarajah; Yuanlin Song; Peter M. Haggie; A. S. Verkman

2004-01-01

106

Radioprotective Effect of Lidocaine on Neurotransmitter Agonist-Induced Secretion in Irradiated Salivary Glands  

PubMed Central

Background Previously we verified the radioprotective effect of lidocaine on the function and ultrastructure of salivary glands in rabbits. However, the underlying mechanism of lidocaine's radioprotective effect is unknown. We hypothesized that lidocaine, as a membrane stabilization agent, has a protective effect on intracellular neuroreceptor-mediated signaling and hence can help preserve the secretory function of salivary glands during radiotherapy. Methods and Materials Rabbits were irradiated with or without pretreatment with lidocaine before receiving fractionated radiation to a total dose of 35 Gy. Sialoscintigraphy and saliva total protein assay were performed before radiation and 1 week after the last radiation fraction. Isolated salivary gland acini were stimulated with either carbachol or adrenaline. Ca2+ influx in response to the stimulation with these agonists was measured using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Results The uptake of activity and the excretion fraction of the parotid glands were significantly reduced after radiation, but lidocaine had a protective effect. Saliva total protein concentration was not altered after radiation. For isolated acini, Ca2+ influx in response to stimulation with carbachol, but not adrenaline, was impaired after irradiation; lidocaine pretreatment attenuated this effect. Conclusions Lidocaine has a radioprotective effect on the capacity of muscarinic agonist-induced water secretion in irradiated salivary glands.

Su, Yu-xiong; Benedek, Geza A.; Sieg, Peter; Liao, Gui-qing; Dendorfer, Andreas; Meller, Birgit; Rades, Dirk; Klinger, Matthias; Hakim, Samer G.

2013-01-01

107

Flagellin/TLR5 signaling potentiates airway serous secretion from swine tracheal submucosal glands.  

PubMed

Airway serous secretion is essential for the maintenance of mucociliary transport in airway mucosa, which is responsible for the upregulation of mucosal immunity. Although there are many articles concerning the importance of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in airway immune systems, the direct relationship between TLRs and airway serous secretion has not been well investigated. Here, we focused on whether TLR5 ligand flagellin, which is one of the components of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is involved in the upregulation of airway serous secretion. Freshly isolated swine tracheal submucosal gland cells were prepared, and the standard patch-clamp technique was applied for measurements of the whole cell ionic responses of these cells. Flagellin showed potentiating effects on these oscillatory currents induced by physiologically relevant low doses of acetylcholine (ACh) in a dose-dependent manner. These potentiating effects were TLR5 dependent but TLR4 independent. Both nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK) inhibitors abolished these flagellin-induced potentiating effects. Furthermore, TLR5 was abundantly expressed on tracheal submucosal glands. Flagellin/TLR5 signaling further accelerated the intracellular NO synthesis induced by ACh. These findings suggest that TLR5 takes part in the airway mucosal defense systems as a unique endogenous potentiator of airway serous secretions and that NO/cGMP/cGK signaling is involved in this rapid potentiation by TLR5 signaling. PMID:24097563

Muramatsu, Soshi; Tamada, Tsutomu; Nara, Masayuki; Murakami, Koji; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Kanehira, Masahiko; Maruyama, Yoshio; Ebina, Masahito; Nukiwa, Toshihiro; Ichinose, Masakazu

2013-12-01

108

Regulation of antiprotease and antimicrobial protein secretion by airway submucosal gland serous cells.  

PubMed

Airway submucosal gland serous cells express the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and secrete antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant molecules. In cystic fibrosis, diminished gland secretion may impair innate airway host defenses. We used Calu-3 cells as a serous cell model to study the types of proteins released, the pathways that release them, and the possible involvement of CFTR activity in protein release. Many proteins were secreted constitutively into the apical fluid and showed increased release to agonists. We identified some of them by high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and reverse transcriptase PCR, including lysozyme, siderocalin (the protein NGAL), which inhibits bacterial growth by binding iron-containing siderophores, HSC-71, which is thought to have anti-inflammatory properties, and the serine protease inhibitors alpha-1-antitrypsin and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin, which may function as antimicrobials as well as play a potential role in diminishing the activation of epithelial Na(+) channels by serine proteases. We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantify lysozyme secretion by Calu-3 cells in response to various agonists and inhibitors. Forskolin increased the lysozyme secretion rate (J(lyz)) from 32 to 77 ng/hr/cm(2) (n = 36, p < 0.005). Thapsigargin increased J(lyz) from 40 to 63 ng/h/cm(2) (n = 16, p < 0.005), and forskolin plus thapsigargin further increased the forskolin-stimulated J(lyz) by 48% (n = 9, p < 0.05). 1-Ethyl-benzimidazolinone and carbachol were less effective. Glibenclamide inhibited basal and stimulated J(lyz), but clotrimazole was without effect. CFTR(inh)172 caused a small (15%) but significant inhibition of forskolin-stimulated J(lyz) without affecting basal J(lyz). Thus, Calu-3 cells secrete diverse proteins that in aggregate would be expected to suppress microbial growth, protect the airways from damage, and limit the activation of epithelial Na(+) channels via serine proteases. PMID:15234967

Joo, Nam Soo; Lee, Dennis J; Winges, Kimberly M; Rustagi, Arjun; Wine, Jeffrey J

2004-09-10

109

Behavioral and olfactory antennal responses of Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) workers to their dufour gland secretion.  

PubMed

Behavioral and electrophysiological tests were performed to evaluate the responses of workers of the ant Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) from different size categories to Dufour gland extracts. Morphometric measures based in head widths across eyes were used to determine worker sizes. Trail following response of different worker sizes to Dufour gland extract from workers of different sizes was assessed. For each worker size category olfactory responses to Dufour gland extracts were determined using electroantennography (EAG). Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to determine the chromatographic profile of Dufour gland secretion for each worker size. Morphometric measures permitted to classify the workers of S. geminata as large, medium and small workers. Medium S. geminata workers displayed a significantly higher behavioral response to Dufour gland extracts produced by medium size workers. Similarly, medium workers showed a significantly higher EAG response to Dufour gland extracts produced by medium sized workers. Chromatographic profile of Dufour gland secretions produced by workers showed that each size category exhibited a characteristic profile of the three main components considered as potential trail pheromone constituents. This work showed that medium workers of S. geminata exhibited a high trail-following behavior as well as a high antennal response to Dufour gland secretion. This and their relative abundance in field foraging areas, suggest that medium-sized workers are specialized in foraging activities. PMID:18506290

Brindis, Yolanda; Lachaud, Jean P; Gómez Y Gómez, Benigno; Rojas, Julio C; Malo, Edi A; Cruz-López, Leopoldo

2008-01-01

110

ESTROGEN-INDUCED CYTODIFFERENTIATION OF THE OVALBUMIN-SECRETING GLANDS OF THE CHICK OVIDUCT  

PubMed Central

The histological, ultrastructural, and biochemical changes occurring during hormone-induced cytodifferentiation of the ovalbumin-secreting glands in the chick oviduct have been studied. Marked perivascular edema is an initial response of the immature oviduct stroma to diethylstilbestrol administration and is accompanied by an interstitial migration of mononuclear cells. Mitotic activity in the immature mucosal epithelium increases within 24 hr, and glands begin to develop on days 2–4 as budlike invaginations into the subepithelial stroma. An immediate intracellular effect of the hormone is aggregation of previously dispersed ribosomes. Ribosomal zones in the nucleolus gain prominence, and there is a progressive development of rough endoplasmic reticulum in the epithelial cells. Extensive profiles of endoplasmic reticulum are present in the gland cells by day 6. Fine apical progranules appear in the epithelial cells on day 2, and ovalbumin can be measured immunochemically by day 3 at about the same time that new species of nuclear RNA have been identified. Ovalbumin granules form within condensing vacuoles in the Golgi zone and begin to be released into the lumina of the gland acini at about day 6 of the treatment.

Kohler, Peter O.; Grimley, Philip M.; O'malley, Bert W.

1969-01-01

111

Electrolyte and protein secretion by the perfused rabbit mandibular gland stimulated with acetylcholine or catecholamines  

PubMed Central

1. A method is described for the isolation and vascular perfusion in vitro of the mandibular gland of the rabbit. The perfusate is a physiological salt solution containing glucose as the only metabolic substrate. 2. During perfusion with solutions containing acetylcholine, the gland secretes vigorously at a rate and in a manner similar to that seen in vivo. Although the gland becomes oedematous during perfusion, the extent of this oedema appears to have no influence on secretory ability: the perfused glands were capable of functioning for at least 4 h, and often for more than 6 h. 3. Acetylcholine evoked a small secretory response at a concentration of 8 × 10-9 mol l-1 and a maximum response at 8 × 10-7 mol l-1. Eserine (2 × 10-5 mol l-1) evoked secretory responses comparable to those evoked by acetylcholine in a concentration of 8 × 10-9 mol l-1. Secretion, whether unstimulated or evoked by acetylcholine or eserine, could be blocked completely by atropine. 4. During prolonged stimulation with acetylcholine, the fluid secretory response declined rapidly over a period of about 15 min from an initial high value to a much lower plateau value. After 3 or more hours of stimulation, the secretory response began once more to decline, this time towards zero. If, before the second period of decline begins, stimulation is interrupted for about 30 min, the gland recovers its initial responsiveness to further stimulation with acetylcholine. 5. The Na, K, Cl and HCO3 concentrations and the osmolality of acetylcholine evoked saliva exhibited flow-dependency similar to that seen in vivo. The concentrations of Na and Cl, but not K and HCO3, increased by about 25 mmol l-1 during periods of prolonged stimulation with acetylcholine even though the salivary secretory rate was constant. The concentrations of K and HCO3, but not Na and Cl, increased progressively as the concentration of infused acetylcholine was increased. 6. Salivary protein secretion increased with increasing concentrations of acetylcholine to a greater extent than did fluid secretion. During continuous stimulation, the rate of protein secretion fell off much faster than the rate of fluid secretion. 7. The ?-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol evoked a fluid secretory response only equal to about 5% of that evoked by acetylcholine, but still the response declined during continued stimulation. The electrolyte composition of isoproterenol-evoked saliva was vastly different from that evoked by acetylcholine, being particularly rich in K and HCO3. The isoproterenol-evoked saliva was also extremely rich in protein so that the total protein secretion evoked by isoproterenol was much greater than that evoked by acetylcholine. 8. The ?-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine was without stimulatory effect on salivary fluid secretion and caused a reduction in the secretory response to acetylcholine. The drug had little or no effect on the electrolyte content of acetylcholine-evoked saliva and appeared to reduce its protein content.

Case, R. M.; Conigrave, A. D.; Novak, I.; Young, J. A.

1980-01-01

112

( sup 3 H)protein secretion in rat parotid gland: Substance P-. beta. -adrenergic synergism  

SciTech Connect

In parotid fragment ({sup 3}H)protein, secretion induced by substance P was moderate, but strongly Ca dependent. However, secretion induced by isoproterenol was large and Ca independent. Potentiation of protein secretion was observed when substance P (SP) and isoproterenol (ISO) acted together. Addition of 10{sup {minus}8} M SP caused a shift to the left in the secretion dose-response curve caused by ISO, but did not enhance ISO-induced maximal response. The potentiating effect seems to be a postreceptor event, since it can be mimicked by forskolin (FK), known to induce directly cAMP accumulation, thus bypassing the {beta}-adrenergic receptor. The synergism described above was, therefore, investigated at the second messenger production level. Stimulation of parotid gland fragments by simultaneous addition of SP plus ISO or FK did not modify cAMP nor inositol trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) accumulation induced independently by each secretagogue alone. The ionophore A23187 was also able to potentiate secretion induced by a {beta}-adrenergic agonist, this effect being totally abolished by external calcium omission, thus suggesting a role for external calcium in this potentiation phenomenon. These results suggest that the potentiation phenomenon observed is a postreceptor event that occurs at a step distal from the second messenger production.

Dreux, C.; Imhoff, V.; Rossignol, B. (Universite Paris-Sud (France))

1987-12-01

113

Partial purification and characterization of proteins with growth promoting activities from ovine mammary gland secretions.  

PubMed

Developmental regulation of growth promoting activities in mammary secretions of pregnant Awassi ewes was defined, and growth factors contained in these secretions were partially purified and characterised. Mammary secretions from pregnant ewes enhanced fibroblast cell (AKR-2B) and mammary cell (CID-9 cell strain) proliferation to levels comparable to that induced by 10% Foetal calf serum. Major milk proteins in mammary secretions collected from pregnant ewes one month prior to lambing up to one week after lambing, were resolved by SDS-PAGE, while gelatinases were resolved by zymography. Gelatinase activity was noted prior to P134 and decreased thereafter to reach a minimum during lactation. This decrease was concomitant with the onset of casein production. It is during this critical developmental period that highest growth promoting activity in mammary secretions was detected. Secretions with highest growth promoting activity were fractionated by ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Two heat-resistant, trypsin/chymotrypsin sensitive, growth-promoting activities were characterised. The first, designated ovine mammary derived growth factor-1 (oMDGF-1), had around a 30 kDa molecular weight and eluted at 0.65 M NaCl gradient on cation ion exchange chromatography. The second, oMDGF-2, eluted under gel filtration conditions at a molecular weight of 50 kDa and 150 kDa. oMDGF-1 induced changes in Connexin 43, but not in beta-casein mRNA expression by CID-9 mammary cells. In conclusion, growth factor activities in ewe mammary secretions peak during gestation at a period that overlaps maximal gelatinase expression and precedes milk protein synthesis. The factors modulate mammary cell function and may play a role in mammary gland development. PMID:11707361

Talhouk, R S; Maa'ni, F A; Kalaa'ni, N; Zoubian, G S; Simaa'n, C J; Abi-Sai'd, M; Hamadeh, S; Barbour, E; El-Sabban, M E

2001-10-01

114

Ion transport mechanisms linked to bicarbonate secretion in the esophageal submucosal glands  

PubMed Central

The esophageal submucosal glands (SMG) secrete HCO3? and mucus into the esophageal lumen, where they contribute to acid clearance and epithelial protection. This study characterized the ion transport mechanisms linked to HCO3? secretion in SMG. We localized ion transporters using immunofluorescence, and we examined their expression by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. We measured HCO3? secretion by using pH stat and the isolated perfused esophagus. Using double labeling with Na+-K+-ATPase as a marker, we localized Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporter (NBCe1) and Cl?-HCO3? exchanger (SLC4A2/AE2) to the basolateral membrane of duct cells. Expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator channel (CFTR) was confirmed by immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, and in situ hybridization. We identified anion exchanger SLC26A6 at the ducts' luminal membrane and Na+-K+-2Cl? (NKCC1) at the basolateral membrane of mucous and duct cells. pH stat experiments showed that elevations in cAMP induced by forskolin or IBMX increased HCO3? secretion. Genistein, an activator of CFTR, which does not increase intracellular cAMP, also stimulated HCO3? secretion, whereas glibenclamide, a Cl? channel blocker, and bumetanide, a Na+-K+-2Cl? blocker, decreased it. CFTRinh-172, a specific CFTR channel blocker, inhibited basal HCO3? secretion as well as stimulation of HCO3? secretion by IBMX. This is the first report on the presence of CFTR channels in the esophagus. The role of CFTR in manifestations of esophageal disease in cystic fibrosis patients remains to be determined.

Nakhoul, Hani N.; Kalliny, Medhat I.; Gyftopoulos, Alex; Rabon, Edd; Doetjes, Rienk; Brown, Karen; Nakhoul, Nazih L.

2011-01-01

115

Why Mouse Airway Submucosal Gland Serous Cells Do Not Secrete Fluid in Response to cAMP Stimulation*  

PubMed Central

Airway submucosal glands are important sites of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride (Cl?) channel expression and fluid secretion in the airway. Whereas both mouse and human submucosal glands and their serous acinar cells express CFTR, human glands and serous cells secrete much more robustly than mouse cells/glands in response to cAMP-generating agonists such as forskolin and vasoactive intestinal peptide. In this study, we examined mouse and human serous acinar cells to explain this difference and reveal further insights into the mechanisms of serous cell secretion. We found that mouse serous cells possess a robust cAMP-activated CFTR-dependent Cl? permeability, but they lack cAMP-activated calcium (Ca2+) signaling observed in human cells. Similar to human cells, basal K+ conductance is extremely small in mouse acinar cells. Lack of cAMP-activated Ca2+ signaling in mouse cells results in the absence of K+ conductances required for secretion. However, cAMP activates CFTR-dependent fluid secretion during low-level cholinergic stimulation that fails to activate secretion on its own. Robust CFTR-dependent fluid secretion was also observed when cAMP stimulation was combined with direct pharmacological activation of epithelial K+ channels with 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone (EBIO). Our data suggest that mouse serous cells lack cAMP-mediated Ca2+ signaling to activate basolateral membrane K+ conductance, resulting in weak cAMP-driven serous cell fluid secretion, providing the likely explanation for reduced cAMP-driven secretion observed in mouse compared with human glands.

Lee, Robert J.; Foskett, J. Kevin

2012-01-01

116

Influence of a preen gland secretion on growth and meat quality of heavy broilers.  

PubMed

Preen gland secretions were obtained from several hens that were rearing their chicks and the content of these secretions was analysed. From these results, a synthetic analogue of the secretions was created (given the title Mother Hen Uropygial Secretion Analogue, or MHUSA, in this study). According to a blinded, controlled experimental design, heavy broilers (strain SASSO T56N) were reared from 1 day of age in an environment treated with either MHUSA or control. At 80 days the birds were slaughtered. Post mortemcarcass weight, abdominal fat and fillet weights were then measured. Colour, pH and yield were also measured as indicators of meat quality. Broilers exposed to MHUSA had both higher carcass weights and higher fillet weights compared with control-treated birds (P < 0.05). Abdominal fat, pH, water loss and colorimetry results were similar between the treatment groups at all time points (24 h and 6 days post mortem) and also after a cooking procedure. The meat from the MHUSA birds was less yellow compared with control. It is concluded that constant exposure to MHUSA from rearing until slaughter improves growth rate in broilers without significantly affecting meat quality. PMID:22443580

Madec, I; Pageat, P; Bougrat, L; Lecuelle-Lafont, C; Saffray, D; Falewee, C; Bollard, A; Chabrol, P; Gabarrou, J-F

2008-04-01

117

Morphological evidence that pentagastrin regulates secretion in the human parotid gland  

PubMed Central

Salivary secretion is principally regulated by autonomic nerves. However, recent evidence from in vivo animal experiments suggests that gastrointestinal peptide hormones can also influence saliva production. The aim of the present study was to define the secretagogue activity of the gastrin-analogue pentagastrin in human salivary glands. For this purpose, parotid tissues were exposed to pentagastrin in vitro. Morphological techniques were used to evaluate modifications to serous acinar cells associated with secretion. Using a variant of the osmium maceration method, high resolution scanning electron microscopy allowed assessment of the morphology of the cytoplasmic aspect of the plasmalemma to demonstrate secretory activity. To quantify responses to pentagastrin, we recorded morphometric data on microvilli, microbuds, and protrusions. Dose-dependent morphological changes were observed, whereas protein concentration increased in the incubate. The use of selective receptor antagonists showed pentagastrin to act principally via cholecystokinin-A receptors. The morphological responses observed following exposure to pentagastrin differed from those elicited following exposure to the pan-muscarinic agonist carbachol. This study provides the first demonstration of a direct secretory action of gastrointestinal peptides on salivary glands in humans.

Loy, Francesco; Diana, Martina; Isola, Raffaella; Solinas, Paola; Isola, Michela; Conti, Gabriele; Lantini, Maria Serenella; Cossu, Margherita; Riva, Alessandro; Ekstrom, Jorgen

2012-01-01

118

Establishment of an abalone digestive gland cell line secreting various glycosidases in protein-free culture.  

PubMed

A cell line designated as ADG was established from an abalone digestive gland using ERDF medium supplemented with 8% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 8% abalone hemolymph, and high concentrations of NaCl, KCl, MgCl(2), MgSO(4), and CaCl(2). ADG cells proliferated better in protein-free medium than in FBS-supplemented medium. Among 9 kinds of media examined, ERDF medium was shown to be optimal for cell growth. ADG cells secreted 13 different kinds of glycosidases in protein-free medium: ?-L-fucosidase, ?-L-fucosidase, ?-D-galactosidase, ?-D-galactosidase, N-acetyl-?-D-galactosaminidase, N-acetyl-?-D-galactosaminidase, ?-D-glucosidase, ?-D-glucosidase, N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase, N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase, ?-D-mannosidase, ?-D-mannosidase, ?-D-xylosidase, and 1-3 xylanase. When ADG cells were cultured in Grace's insect cell medium, the activity of some secreted glycosidases increased 25-fold to 65-fold per cell as compared with control cells cultured in ERDF medium. ADG - abalone digestive gland; ERDF - enriched RDF; FBS - fetal bovine serum; L-15 - Leibovitz's L-15 media; DME - Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium; F-12 - nutrient mixture (Ham); LDF - L-15; DME: F-12 = 10 : 7 : 3; MEM - minimum essential medium; RPMI - RPMI medium 1640; 199 - media 199; GIC - Grace's insect cell medium; pNP -p -nitrophenol. PMID:22358657

Kusumoto, K; Shirahata, S; Katakuta, Y; Murakami, H; Kamei, Y

1997-07-01

119

The effect of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors on secretion by the parotid and mandibular glands of red kangaroos Macropus rufus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors on secretion by macropodine parotid and mandibular glands were investigated using anaesthetized red kangaroos. In the parotid gland, acetazolamide (500 µmol·l-1) reduced a stable acetylcholine-evoked, half-maximal flow rate of 2.02±0.034 to 0.27±0.023 ml·min-1 (87% reduction). Concurrently, salivary bicarbonate concentration and secretion fell (129.4±1.46 to 80.9±1.63 mmol·l-1 and 264.8±7.96 to 22.3±2.30 µmol·min-1, respectively), phosphate and

A. M. Beal

1991-01-01

120

Larval salivary gland secretion proteins in Drosophila structural analysis of the Sgs-5 gene.  

PubMed

The structure of the Drosophila melanogaster salivary gland secretion gene Sgs-5 has been determined by DNA sequence analysis of cloned genomic DNA. This developmentally and tissue-specific gene is a member of the third instar intermolt gene set and is under control of the insect molting hormone ecdysterone. RNA protection experiments show that the RNA coding region of Sgs-5 contains 769 nucleotides and is divided into three exons by two small introns. The protein-coding region appears to begin after a short untranslated RNA leader (33 nucleotides) and to result in a protein of 163 amino acids. The first 18 amino acids give the amino-terminal end the highly hydrophobic nature characteristic of a signal peptide. PMID:3098981

Shore, E M; Guild, G M

1986-07-20

121

Defensive and pheromonal secretion of the tergal gland of Aleochara curtula : I. The chemical composition.  

PubMed

The defensive secretion from the tergal gland of the staphylinid beetle,Aleochara curtula, acting as a supplementary mating stimulant, was investigated by gas-liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and IR spectroscopy. The reservoir contains a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, aliphatic aldehydes, and substituted 1,4-benzoquinones.n-Undecane, 1-undecene, and (Z)-4-tridecene were identified as the major hydrocarbon components. The main aldehydes aren-dodecanal and (Z)-5-tetradecenal, and the chief quinones are toluquinone and 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, the latter being established structurally by comparison of the mass spectra of the three synthesized isomers. Quantitative GLC analyses revealed no sex specificity of the relative concentrations of the compounds. PMID:24415124

Peschke, K; Metzler, M

1982-04-01

122

Radioprotection by WR-2721 of gamma-irradiated rat parotid gland: effect on gland weight and secretion at 8-10 days post irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in rat parotid salivary gland weight and functional parameters were evaluated at 8 to 10 days post irradiation in WR-2721 protected and non-protected animals following exposure to a single 15.3 Gy dose of Cs-137 radiation to the head. Glandular fluid secretory capacity was assessed by maximum flow rate, total volume of saliva and duration of secretion following pilocarpine stimulation.

Thomas W Menard; Kenneth T Izutsu; W. Y. Ensign; Patricia J Keller; Thomas H Morton; Edmond L Truelove

1984-01-01

123

N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors are expressed in rat parathyroid gland and regulate PTH secretion.  

PubMed

N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are tetrameric amino acid receptors which act as membrane calcium channels. The presence of the receptor has been detected in the principal organs responsible for calcium homeostasis (kidney and bone), pointing to a possible role in mineral metabolism. In the present work, the presence of the receptor was determined in normal parathyroid glands (PTG) by real-time PCR, immunoprecipitation, and immunohistrochemistry. Healthy animals showed a decrease in blood parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels 15 min after the treatment with NMDA. This effect was also observed in animals with high levels of PTH-induced EDTA injection, but not in uremic animals with secondary hyperparathyroidism (2HPT). Normal rat PTG incubated in media with low calcium concentration (0.8 mM CaCl2) showed a decrease in PTH release when NMDA was added to the media. This effect of NMDA was abolished when glands were coincubated with MK801 (a pharmacological blocker of the NMDA channel) or PD98059 (an inhibitor of the ERK-MAPK pathway). Glands obtained from animals with 2HPT showed no effect of NMDA in the in vitro release of PTH, together with a decrease in the expression of NMDAR1. In conclusion, NMDA receptor is present in PTG and is involved in the regulation of the PTH release. The mechanism by which NMDAR exerts its function is through the activation of the MAPK cascade. In uremic 2HPT animals the receptor expression is downregulated and the treatment with NMDA does not affect PTH secretion. PMID:19357180

Parisi, Eva; Almadén, Yolanda; Ibarz, Mercé; Panizo, Sara; Cardús, Anna; Rodriguez, Mariano; Fernandez, Elvira; Valdivielso, Jose M

2009-06-01

124

Volatile compounds in shoulder gland secretions of male flying foxes, genus Pteropus (Pteropodidae, Chiroptera).  

PubMed

The shoulder gland secretions of captive males of the Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus), the little golden-mantled flying fox (P. pumilus), the island flying fox (P. hypomelanus), and the large flying fox (P. vampyrus) were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sixty-five compounds, including hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, and amides, were identified among the four species. Many of these compounds, such as squalene, cholesterol, and C5-C16 straight- and branched-chain carboxylic acids, are typical of tetrapod epidermal products. Aldehydes, which were detected in all four Pteropus species, and some straight- and branched-chain ketones, which were detected in P. hypomelanus and P. pumilus, are known from other mammalian skin glands. Acetophenone, 4-acetoxyacetophenone, and 4-hydroxyacetophenone were observed in P. pumilus; the last compound comprised 37.1% of the total ion current. 2,3-Butanediol, a prominent component (5.2-19.3%) in the secretions of P. giganteus, P. hypomelanus, and P. pumilus, and C10 and C12 isopropyl esters and C10-C14 1-methylbutyl esters, observed in P. hypomelanus and P. vampyrus, have not previously been reported from vertebrates. alpha-Methyl-4-methoxybenzyl alcohol and dihydro-5-phenyl-2(3H)-furanone, from P. giganteus and P. pumilus, are new natural products. 1-Chloro-3-methyl-2-butene, another new natural product, and five C5 compounds exhibiting a similar isoprenoid structure were observed in P. giganteus. Striking contrasts were observed in the chemical profiles of the species we examined, with even general chemical classes differentially represented among them. PMID:16320623

Wood, William F; Walsh, Allyson; Seyjagat, John; Weldon, Paul J

2005-01-01

125

Diester waxes containing 2-hydroxy fatty acids from the uropygial gland secretion of the white stork ( Ciconia ciconia )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uropygial gland of the white stork secrets mono- and diester waxes as well as triglycerides, all of which contain unbranched\\u000a medium chain fatty acids. n-Decanol and n-dodecanol have been the only alcohols detected in both types of waxes. The diester\\u000a waxes contain 2-hydroxy fatty acids.

Jürgen Jacob

1976-01-01

126

Evaluation of usefulness of fine-needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of tumours of the accessory parotid gland: a preliminary analysis of a case series in Japan.  

PubMed

Abstract Conclusion: The accuracy and sensitivity of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in this analysis were not satisfactory, and the false-negative rate seemed to be higher than for parotid tumours. The possibility of low-grade malignancy should be considered in the surgical treatment of accessory parotid gland (APG) tumours, even if the preoperative results of FNAC suggest that the tumour is benign. Objectives: Little is known about the usefulness of FNAC in the preoperative evaluation of APG tumours, probably due to the paucity of APG tumour cases. We examined the usefulness of FNAC in the detection of malignant APG tumours. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 3 cases from our hospital, along with 18 previously reported Japanese cases. We compared the preoperative FNAC results with postoperative histopathological diagnoses of APG tumours and evaluated the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and false-negative rates of FNAC in detecting malignant APG tumours. Results: There were four false-negative cases (19.0%), three of mucoepidermoid carcinomas and one of malignant lymphoma. One false-positive result was noted in the case of a myoepithelioma, which was cytologically diagnosed as suspected adenoid cystic carcinoma. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of FNAC in detecting malignant tumours were 76.2%, 60.0% and 90.9%, respectively. PMID:24847949

Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Wada, Tadashi; Matsushita, Naoki; Oishi, Masahiro; Teranishi, Yuichi; Yamane, Hideo

2014-07-01

127

Seminal vesicles of infertile patients with male accessory gland infection: ultrasound evaluation after prolonged treatment with tadalafil, a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate possible ultrasound seminal vesicle (SV) changes in infertile patients with 'hypertrophic-congestive' (HCUF) or 'fibro-sclerotic' (FSUF) ultrasound form of male accessory gland infection (MAGI) after prolonged administration of tadalafil (TAD), a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor. Forty infertile patients with HCUF and 40 patients with FSUF and erectile dysfunction were selected and arbitrarily divided into two groups, who were prescribed TAD 5 mg daily for 3 months, the first 20 consecutive patients with HCUF (group A1) or FSUF (group A2) or placebo, the second 20 consecutive patients with HCUF (group B1) or FSUF (group B2). All patients underwent scrotal and prostate-vesicular transrectal ultrasound evaluation and semen analysis (WHO, 2010) before and after treatment. Group A1 patients showed a significant reduction in fundus/body ratio and higher pre- and post-ejaculatory body SV antero-posterior diameter difference compared with the other three groups. These patients showed also a significant increase in SV ejection fraction and a significant improvement in the total sperm count, progressive motility, seminal levels of fructose and ejaculate volume. These results suggest that infertile patients with HCUF had an improvement in SV ultrasound features suggestive of chronic inflammation after daily treatment with low doses of TAD. PMID:23116230

La Vignera, S

2013-12-01

128

20-Hydroxyecdysone accelerates the flow of cells into the G1 phase and the S phase in a male accessory gland of the mealworm pupa (Tenebrio molitor).  

PubMed

The cells of the bean-shaped accessory glands of mealworms proliferate through the first 7 days of the 9-day pupal stage. Immediately after larval-pupal ecdysis, 25-27% of the cells were in the G1 phase, 60-65% were in the G2 phase, and the balance were in S phase. Over the first 4 days of normal development, the S fraction gradually increased, to reach its highest level in the mid-pupa at the time of the major ecdysteroid peak (Delbecque et al., 1978). Thereafter, the S fraction declined until over 95% of the cells had accumulated in G2 on Day 8. When 0-day pupal glands were explanted into Landureau's S-20 medium for 6 days, the G1 fraction remained fairly constant (25-30%) while S and the G2 fractions fluctuated. On the first day in vitro, the G2 fraction declined and the S fraction rose. On the second day in basal media, the S fraction fell and G2 rose correspondingly until 70% of the cells reached G2 when cycling stopped on the third day. With addition of 20-hydroxyecdysone to 0-day cultures, the S fraction increased quite sharply. It remained large for all 6 days of the experiment in the continuing presence of hormone. A 1-day pulse of hormone produced a transient increase in S. We blocked cell cycling with hydroxyurea in a stathmokinetic experiment and showed that 20-hydroxyecdysone accelerated the flow of cells from the G2 phase to the G1 phase by 2.5-fold. An increase in the G1 fraction was detected within 10 hr of hormone administration and the effect was dose-dependent with an ED50 of 5 X 10(-7) M for 20-hydroxyecdysone. We conclude that 20-hydroxyecdysone acts at a control point in the G2 phase. Incubation of the glands with 20-hydroxyecdysone for only 30-60 min followed by washout stimulated the flow from G2 to G1 and the effect persisted after transfer of the tissues to hormone-free media. Dose-dependent stimulation also occurred with ponasterone A (ED50 3 X 10(-9] but not with cholesterol. PMID:3342931

Yaginuma, T; Kai, H; Happ, G M

1988-03-01

129

Secretion of Catecholamines from Adrenal Gland by a Single Electrical Shock: Electrotonic Depolarization of Medullary Cell Membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmural stimulation of the isolated adrenal gland of the rat and guinea pig results in secretion of catecholamines. The secretion is due to activation of cholinergic receptors of the adrenal medulla by acetylcholine released from splanchnic nerve terminals after transmural stimulation. Our aim was to see whether the same experimental technique could be used to directly excite the adrenal medullary cell membrane by electrical stimulation and whether such stimulation would result in secretion of catecholamines. We demonstrate here that a single electrical shock to the perfused adrenal gland of the rat results in massive secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine. The secretion is directly related to the strength and duration of the applied stimulus over a wide range. Catecholamine secretion is unaffected by tetrodotoxin or hexamethonium/atropine but is abolished by Ca2+ lack or 3 mM Mn2+. We suggest that the adrenal medullary membrane undergoes nonpropagated electrotonic depolarization on electrical stimulation and thereby voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels are opened to initiate secretion.

Wakade, Arun R.; Wakade, Taruna D.

1982-05-01

130

The Spectrophotometric Sulfo-Phospho-Vanillin Assessment of Total Lipids in Human Meibomian Gland Secretions  

PubMed Central

Human meibomian gland secretions (meibum) are the major lipid component of the human preocular tear film. The predominant lipid classes found in meibum include waxes (WE), cholesteryl esters (CE), and varying amounts of cholesterol (Chl). The classical sulfo-phospho-vanillin assay (SPVA), adapted for a microplate reader, was used to quantitate lipids in meibum. To account for varying reactivities of different lipids in SPVA, a model meibomian lipid mixture (MMx) that approximated the WE/CE/Chl composition of meibum was developed and used to quantitate meibomian lipids. The overall SPV responses of MMx and meibum were found to be close, with similar intermediate and final reaction products for both. Saturated WE that had not been expected to be reactive were found to be SPV-positive. A reaction mechanism for these compounds in SPVA which involves the formation of alkenyl ethers is proposed and discussed. Tested proteins were non-reactive in SPVA. Thus, by comparing the results of gravimetric analyses of meibum samples with the results of a properly calibrated SPVA, it was estimated that the SPV-reactive lipid content of dry meibum in tested samples was about 78 % (w/w). The SPV method can also be adopted for analyzing other types of complex lipids secretions, such as sebum, as well as whole lipid extracts from other lipid-enriched organs and tissues, if proper standards are chosen.

McMahon, Anne; Lu, Hua

2013-01-01

131

The spectrophotometric sulfo-phospho-vanillin assessment of total lipids in human meibomian gland secretions.  

PubMed

Human meibomian gland secretions (meibum) are the major lipid component of the human preocular tear film. The predominant lipid classes found in meibum include waxes (WE), cholesteryl esters (CE), and varying amounts of cholesterol (Chl). The classical sulfo-phospho-vanillin assay (SPVA), adapted for a microplate reader, was used to quantitate lipids in meibum. To account for varying reactivities of different lipids in SPVA, a model meibomian lipid mixture (MMx) that approximated the WE/CE/Chl composition of meibum was developed and used to quantitate meibomian lipids. The overall SPV responses of MMx and meibum were found to be close, with similar intermediate and final reaction products for both. Saturated WE that had not been expected to be reactive were found to be SPV-positive. A reaction mechanism for these compounds in SPVA which involves the formation of alkenyl ethers is proposed and discussed. Tested proteins were non-reactive in SPVA. Thus, by comparing the results of gravimetric analyses of meibum samples with the results of a properly calibrated SPVA, it was estimated that the SPV-reactive lipid content of dry meibum in tested samples was about 78 % (w/w). The SPV method can also be adopted for analyzing other types of complex lipids secretions, such as sebum, as well as whole lipid extracts from other lipid-enriched organs and tissues, if proper standards are chosen. PMID:23345137

McMahon, Anne; Lu, Hua; Butovich, Igor A

2013-05-01

132

Structure and regulation of the salivary gland secretion protein gene Sgs-1 of Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed Central

The Drosophila melanogaster gene Sgs-1 belongs to the secretion protein genes, which are coordinately expressed in salivary glands of third instar larvae. Earlier analysis had implied that Sgs-1 is located at the 25B2-3 puff. We cloned Sgs-1 from a YAC covering 25B2-3. Despite using a variety of vectors and Escherichia coli strains, subcloning from the YAC led to deletions within the Sgs-1 coding region. Analysis of clonable and unclonable sequences revealed that Sgs-1 mainly consists of 48-bp tandem repeats encoding a threonine-rich protein. The Sgs-1 inserts from single lambda clones are heterogeneous in length, indicating that repeats are eliminated. By analyzing the expression of Sgs-1/lacZ fusions in transgenic flies, cis-regulatory elements of Sgs-1 were mapped to lie within 1 kb upstream of the transcriptional start site. Band shift assays revealed binding sites for the transcription factor fork head (FKH) and the factor secretion enhancer binding protein 3 (SEBP3) at positions that are functionally relevant. FKH and SEBP3 have been shown previously to be involved in the regulation of Sgs-3 and Sgs-4. Comparison of the levels of steady state RNA and of the transcription rates for Sgs-1 and Sgs-1/lacZ reporter genes indicates that Sgs-1 RNA is 100-fold more stable than Sgs-1/lacZ RNA. This has implications for the model of how Sgs transcripts accumulate in late third instar larvae.

Roth, G E; Wattler, S; Bornschein, H; Lehmann, M; Korge, G

1999-01-01

133

Activation of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) triggers mucin secretion in the rat sublingual gland.  

PubMed

Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is distributed throughout the gastrointestinal systems. The present study investigated the role for PAR-2 in the rat salivary glands. PAR-2 mRNA was detected in the sublingual, submaxillary, and parotid glands by a reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In the isolated sublingual gland that exhibited the strongest signal for PAR-2, Ser-Leu-Ile-Gly-Arg-Leu-NH(2), a PAR-2-activating peptide, and trypsin, a PAR-2-activating enzyme, but not thrombin that can activate PARs 1, 3, and 4, triggered secretion of N-acetylneuraminic acid, an indicator of mucin, that was a unique major sialic acid detectable after hydrolysis of the sublingual mucin with 0.1 N HCl. The PAR-2-mediated secretion of mucin was attenuated by genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, but not by inhibitors of protein kinase C and phosphatidyl inositol 3'-kinase. Thus, PAR-2 is expressed by the three distinct salivary glands in the rat, and sublingual PAR-2 appears to play a role in triggering mucin secretion, at least in part, via activation of tyrosine kinase. PMID:10733943

Kawabata, A; Morimoto, N; Nishikawa, H; Kuroda, R; Oda, Y; Kakehi, K

2000-04-01

134

Cinacalcet Effectively Reduces Parathyroid Hormone Secretion and Gland Volume Regardless of Pretreatment Gland Size in Patients with Secondary Hyperparathyroidism  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: Cinacalcet is effective in reducing serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. However, it has not been proven whether parathyroid gland size predicts response to therapy and whether cinacalcet is capable of inducing a reduction in parathyroid volume. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This 52-week, multicenter, open-label study enrolled hemodialysis patients with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (intact PTH >300 pg/ml). Doses of cinacalcet were adjusted between 25 and 100 mg to achieve intact PTH <180 pg/ml. Ultrasonography was performed to measure the parathyroid gland size at baseline, week 26, and week 52. Findings were also compared with those of historical controls. Results: Of the 81 subjects enrolled, 56 had parathyroid glands smaller than 500 mm3 (group S) and 25 had at least one enlarged gland larger than 500 mm3 (group L). Treatment with cinacalcet effectively decreased intact PTH by 55% from baseline in group S and by 58% in group L. A slightly greater proportion of patients in group S versus group L achieved an intact PTH <180 pg/ml (46 versus 32%) and a >30% reduction from baseline (88 versus 78%), but this was not statistically significant. Cinacalcet therapy also resulted in a significant reduction in parathyroid gland volume regardless of pretreatment size, which was in sharp contrast to historical controls (n = 87) where parathyroid gland volume progressively increased with traditional therapy alone. Conclusions: Cinacalcet effectively decreases serum PTH levels and concomitantly reduces parathyroid gland volume, even in patients with marked parathyroid hyperplasia.

Komaba, Hirotaka; Nakanishi, Shohei; Fujimori, Akira; Tanaka, Motoko; Shin, Jeongsoo; Shibuya, Koji; Nishioka, Masato; Hasegawa, Hirohito; Kurosawa, Takeshi

2010-01-01

135

Evaluation of atorvastatin efficacy and toxicity on spermatozoa, accessory glands and gonadal hormones of healthy men: a pilot prospective clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention advocate lowering both cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol systemic levels, notably by statin intake. However, statins are the subject of questions concerning their impact on male fertility. This study aimed to evaluate, by a prospective pilot assay, the efficacy and the toxicity of a decrease of cholesterol blood levels, induced by atorvastatin on semen quality and sexual hormone levels of healthy, normocholesterolaemic and normozoospermic men. Methods Atorvastatin (10 mg daily) was administrated orally during 5 months to 17 men with normal plasma lipid and standard semen parameters. Spermatozoa parameters, accessory gland markers, semen lipid levels and blood levels of gonadal hormones were assayed before statin intake, during the treatment, and 3 months after its withdrawal. Results Atorvastatin treatment significantly decreased circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol concentrations by 42% and 24% (p?

2014-01-01

136

Is the rapid post-mating inhibition of pheromone response triggered by ecdysteroids or other factors from the sex accessory glands in the male moth Agrotis ipsilon?  

PubMed

In many animals, male copulation is dependent on the detection and processing of female-produced sex pheromones, which is generally followed by a sexual refractory post-ejaculatory interval (PEI). In the male moth, Agrotis ipsilon, this PEI is characterized by a transient post-mating inhibition of behavioral and central nervous responses to sex pheromone, which prevents males from re-mating until they have refilled their reproductive tracts for a potential new ejaculate. However, the timing and possible factors inducing this rapid olfactory switch-off are still unknown. Here, we determined the initial time delay and duration of the PEI. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that the brain, the testis and/or the sex accessory glands (SAGs) could produce a factor inducing the PEI. Lastly, we investigated the possible involvement of ecdysteroids, hormones essential for development and reproduction in insects, in this olfactory plasticity. Using brain and SAG cross-injections in virgin and newly-mated males, surgical treatments, wind tunnel behavioral experiments and EIA quantifications of ecdysteroids, we show that the PEI starts very shortly after the onset of copulation, and that SAGs contain a factor, which is produced/accumulated after copulation to induce the PEI. Moreover, SAGs were found to be the main source of ecdysteroids, whose concentration decreased after mating, whereas it increased in the haemolymph. 20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) was identified as the major ecdysteroid in SAGs of A. ipsilon males. Finally, 20E injections did not reduce the behavioral pheromone response of virgin males. Altogether our data indicate that 20E is probably not involved in the PEI. PMID:23562716

Vitecek, Simon; Maria, Annick; Blais, Catherine; Duportets, Line; Gaertner, Cyril; Dufour, Marie-Cécile; Siaussat, David; Debernard, Stéphane; Gadenne, Christophe

2013-05-01

137

Structure and regulation of the salivary gland secretion protein gene Sgs-1 of Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

The Drosophila melanogaster gene Sgs-1 belongs to the secretion protein genes, which are coordinately expressed in salivary glands of third instar larvae. Earlier analysis had implied that Sgs-1 is located at the 25B2-3 puff. We cloned Sgs-1 from a YAC covering 25B2-3. Despite using a variety of vectors and Escherichia coli strains, subcloning from the YAC led to deletions within the Sgs-1 coding region. Analysis of clonable and unclonable sequences revealed that Sgs-1 mainly consists of 48-bp tandem repeats encoding a threonine-rich protein. The Sgs-1 inserts from single lambda clones are heterogeneous in length, indicating that repeats are eliminated. By analyzing the expression of Sgs-1/lacZ fusions in transgenic flies, cis-regulatory elements of Sgs-1 were mapped to lie within 1 kb upstream of the transcriptional start site. Band shift assays revealed binding sites for the transcription factor fork head (FKH) and the factor secretion enhancer binding protein 3 (SEBP3) at positions that are functionally relevant. FKH and SEBP3 have been shown previously to be involved in the regulation of Sgs-3 and Sgs-4. Comparison of the levels of steady state RNA and of the transcription rates for Sgs-1 and Sgs-1/lacZ reporter genes indicates that Sgs-1 RNA is 100-fold more stable than Sgs-1/lacZ RNA. This has implications for the model of how Sgs transcripts accumulate in late third instar larvae. PMID:10511555

Roth, G E; Wattler, S; Bornschein, H; Lehmann, M; Korge, G

1999-10-01

138

Glutamate Transporter-Mediated Glutamate Secretion in the Mammalian Pineal Gland  

PubMed Central

Glutamate transporters are expressed throughout the central nervous system where their major role is to clear released glutamate from presynaptic terminals. Here we report a novel function of the transporter in rat pinealocytes. This electrogenic transporter conducted inward current in response to L-glutamate and L- or D-aspartate and depolarized the membrane in patch clamp experiments. Ca2+ imaging demonstrated that the transporter-mediated depolarization induced a significant Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. The Ca2+ rise finally evoked glutamate exocytosis as detected by carbon-fiber amperometry and by high-performance liquid chromatography. In pineal slices with densely packed pinealocytes, glutamate released from the cells effectively activated glutamate transporters in neighboring cells. The Ca2+ signal generated by KCl depolarization or acetylcholine propagated through several cell layers by virtue of the regenerative ‘glutamate-induced glutamate release’. Therefore we suggest that glutamate transporters mediate synchronized elevation of L-glutamate and thereby efficiently down-regulate melatonin secretion via previously identified inhibitory metabotropic glutamate receptors in the pineal gland.

Kim, Mean-Hwan; Uehara, Shunsuke; Muroyama, Akiko; Hille, Bertil; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Koh, Duk-Su

2008-01-01

139

The effect of organotin compounds on chloride secretion by the in vitro perfused rectal gland of Squalus acanthias  

SciTech Connect

The effects of various organotins on membrane function and electrolyte transport were studied in the marine elasmobranch, Squalus acanthias. The isolated perfused rectal gland was used as a model of electrolyte transport. This gland can be stimulated to secrete chloride by atrial natriuretic peptide, veratrine, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide although the mechanism of action of each secretagogue is different. By analysis of the inhibitory effect of an organotin in the presence of each secretagogue, the mechanism of inhibition can be inferred. Tributyltin (TBT) produced a reversible inhibition of epithelial transport at 10(-8) to 10(-7) M which resulted from inhibition of stimulus-secretion coupling in VIP-containing neurons within the gland. The transporting epithelial cells were unaffected at these concentrations. Trimethytin (TMT) produced inhibition at 10(-7) M which was not reversible and which affected primarily the transporting epithelial cells. Triethyltin and triphenyltin were without effect. The inhibitory effect of TBT and TMT was not affected by simultaneous administration of dithiothreitol. TBT also produced inhibition of oxygen consumption, Na+,K-ATPase, and proton ATPase in dispersed rectal gland cells. These results indicate that organotins are toxic to cell membrane functions which are intimately involved in the movement of electrolytes. This is the first evidence of toxicity to membrane transport functions in a marine species which is at risk from environmental exposure.

Solomon, R.; Lear, S.; Cohen, R.; Spokes, K.; Silva, P. Jr.; Silva, M.; Solomon, H.; Silva, P. (New York Medical College, Valhalla (USA))

1989-09-01

140

Male accessory gland infection frequency in infertile patients with chronic microbial prostatitis and irritable bowel syndrome: transrectal ultrasound examination helps to understand the links.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of male accessory gland infection (MAGI) in patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) plus irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and to compare the sperm parameters of patients with or without MAGI. In addition, another objective of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound characterization of the anatomical space between the posterior wall of the prostate and the anterior wall of the rectum using transrectal ultrasonography. Fifty consecutive patients with the following criteria were enrolled: 1) infertility, 2) diagnosis of CBP, and 3) diagnosis of IBS according to the Rome III criteria. The following 2 age-matched control groups were also studied: infertile patients with CBP alone (n = 56) and fertile men (n = 30) who had fathered a child within the previous 3 months. Patients and controls underwent an accurate patient history; administration of the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index and the Rome III questionnaires for prostatitis and IBS, respectively; physical examination; semen analysis; and transrectal ultrasound evaluation (limited to patients with CBP and IBS or CBP alone). A significantly higher frequency of MAGI was found in patients with CBP plus IBS (82.0%) compared with patients with CBP alone (53.6%) or fertile men (0%). The presence of MAGI in patients with CBP plus IBS was associated with a significantly lower sperm concentration, total number, and forward motility, and with a higher seminal leukocyte concentration compared with patients with CBP alone and MAGI. Sperm normal morphology was similar in the groups of patients. All sperm parameters did not differ significantly in both groups of patients without MAGI. With ultrasound evaluation, a significantly higher frequency of dilatation of prostatic venous plexus was found in patients with CBP plus IBS (75%) compared with patients with CBP alone (10%). Patients with CBP plus IBS had a significantly higher frequency of MAGI compared with patients with CBP alone. This was associated with worse sperm parameters and, hence, poorer reproductive prognosis. We suggest searching for the presence of IBS in patients with prostatitis syndrome, in particular when CBP and/or worse sperm parameters are present. Finally, this is the first observation on ultrasound examination of the anatomical space between the posterior wall of the prostate and the anterior wall of the rectum reported in patients with CBP and IBS. Further studies should clarify the meaning of the ultrasound findings. PMID:21868744

Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E; Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Lucia O; La Vignera, Sandro

2012-01-01

141

Unusual conservation among genes encoding small secreted salivary gland proteins from a gall midge  

PubMed Central

Background In most protein-coding genes, greater sequence variation is observed in noncoding regions (introns and untranslated regions) than in coding regions due to selective constraints. During characterization of genes and transcripts encoding small secreted salivary gland proteins (SSSGPs) from the Hessian fly, we found exactly the opposite pattern of conservation in several families of genes: the non-coding regions were highly conserved, but the coding regions were highly variable. Results Seven genes from the SSSGP-1 family are clustered as one inverted and six tandem repeats within a 15 kb region of the genome. Except for SSSGP-1A2, a gene that encodes a protein identical to that encoded by SSSGP-1A1, the other six genes consist of a highly diversified, mature protein-coding region as well as highly conserved regions including the promoter, 5'- and 3'-UTRs, a signal peptide coding region, and an intron. This unusual pattern of highly diversified coding regions coupled with highly conserved regions in the rest of the gene was also observed in several other groups of SSSGP-encoding genes or cDNAs. The unusual conservation pattern was also found in some of the SSSGP cDNAs from the Asian rice gall midge, but not from the orange wheat blossom midge. Strong positive selection was one of the forces driving for diversification whereas concerted homogenization was likely a mechanism for sequence conservation. Conclusion Rapid diversification in mature SSSGPs suggests that the genes are under selection pressure for functional adaptation. The conservation in the noncoding regions of these genes including introns also suggested potential mechanisms for sequence homogenization that are not yet fully understood. This report should be useful for future studies on genetic mechanisms involved in evolution and functional adaptation of parasite genes.

2010-01-01

142

HISTOCHEMICAL AND LECTIN-HISTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF THE SECRETION FROM THE UROPYGIAL GLAND OF THE ROCK DOVE Columba livia (COLUMBIDAE-COLUMBIFORMES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uropygial gland of Columba livia was studied using standard histochemical and lectin-histochemical meth- ods. Acidic mucins, neutral lipids, glycolipids and phospholipids were normal components of the tubular secre- tion. The use of lectins showed the distribution of glycoconjugates in the normal secretion. There were no differ- ences between males and females. The uropygial secretion was a mixture of lipid

Diego Montalti; María Alejandra Quiroga; Adriana Raquel Massone; Julio Roberto Idiart; Alfredo Salibián

143

Enantioselective visualization of D-alanine in rat anterior pituitary gland: localization to ACTH-secreting cells.  

PubMed

The cellular localization of D: -alanine (D: -Ala) in the rat pituitary gland, the tissue containing the highest amount of D: -Ala, has been clarified for the first time by enantioselective visualization of D: -Ala using our own established mouse monoclonal antibody against D: -Ala. D: -Ala immunopositive cells were present predominantly in the anterior lobe, while no intense staining was observed in the intermediate and posterior lobes. The anterior pituitary gland contains five types of cells secreting specific hormones (growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), gonadotropic hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone), and the double staining results indicated that D: -Ala is localized to the ACTH-secreting cells. The localization of D: -Ala is clearly different from that of D: -aspartic acid (D: -Asp), which is observed in the prolactin cells. Considered together with our previous findings that D: -Ala is localized to the insulin-secreting beta-cells in the pancreas, and both ACTH and insulin are typical regulatory hormones of blood glucose, D: -Ala is suggested to have some functional relationships to blood glucose level regulation in mammals. PMID:18839155

Etoh, Sachise; Hamase, Kenji; Morikawa, Akiko; Ohgusu, Tomohiro; Zaitsu, Kiyoshi

2009-01-01

144

Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter-mediated fluid secretion increases under hypotonic osmolarity in the mouse submandibular salivary gland.  

PubMed

Water-handling epithelia are sensitive to the osmotic environment. In this study, the effects of a hypo-osmotic challenge on carbachol (CCh)-induced fluid secretion was investigated using an ex vivo submandibular gland perfusion technique and intracellular pH and Ca(2+) measurements. The osmolality of the perfusion solution was altered to examine the response of the gland to a hypotonic challenge. The flow rate was increased by 34% with a 30% hypotonic solution (225 mosmol/kgH2O), although the Ca(2+) response was unchanged. The lowering of the external Cl(-) by 50% abolished this increase in the 30% hypotonic solution. Furthermore, bumetanide, an inhibitor of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1), completely inhibited the fluid secretion increase caused by the 30% hypotonic solution, and both the total amount of fluid and the flow rate were identical to those of the isotonic solution. This finding was confirmed by measuring the NKCC1 bumetanide-dependent NH4 (+) transport; Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) transport was upregulated >40% by a 30% hypotonic challenge. Therefore, the increase in CCh-induced fluid secretion in response to hypotonic conditions can be attributed, to a large extent, to the specific activation of the NKCC1. PMID:24623142

Kidokoro, Manami; Nakamoto, Tetsuji; Mukaibo, Taro; Kondo, Yusuke; Munemasa, Takashi; Imamura, Atsushi; Masaki, Chihiro; Hosokawa, Ryuji

2014-05-15

145

A super-family of genes coding for secreted salivary gland proteins from the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor  

PubMed Central

We have previously characterized a gene coding for the secreted-salivary-gland-protein 11A1 (SSGP-11A1) from the Hessian fly,Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera Cecidomyiidae). Here we report the cloning and characterization of three new genes coding for proteins designated SSGP-11B1, SSGP-11C1, and SSGP-11C2, and their relationship with the SSGP-11A1-encoding gene. Based on their structural conservation, similar regulation, and clustered genomic organization, we conclude that the four genes represent a gene superfamily, designated SSGP-11, which originated from a common ancestor. Cloning, Southern blot and in situ hybridization data suggest that each of the SSGP-11 families has multiple members that cluster within short chromosome regions. The presence of a secretion signal peptide, the exclusive expression in the larval stage, and the clustered genomic organization indicate that this superfamily might be important for Hessian fly virulence/avirulence.

Chen, Ming-Shun; Fellers, John P.; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Stuart, Jeffrey J.; Hulbert, Scot; El-Bouhssini, Mustapha; Liu, Xiang

2006-01-01

146

Effects of methotrexate on rat parotid and submandibular glands and their secretions  

SciTech Connect

Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with methotrexate for 3 days. Parotid and submandibular main ducts were cannulated and saliva flow was evoked by either intravenous infusion of acetylcholine or an intravenous injection of benthanechol. Methotrexate was found to reduce significantly mean food consumption, body weight, and parotid gland wet weights. Experimental animal salivary total gland DNA levels were not different, but total parotid gland RNA, protein, amylase and water content, and submandibular gland RNA were significantly lower compared to control. Acetylcholine, but not bethanechol, evoked parotid protein and amylase outputs and submandibular protein output from experimental animals were significantly higher than the control groups'. The increased outputs were apparently linked to ..beta..-adrenergic receptor activation, since hexamethonium or propranolol eliminated the significant increases while phenoxybenzamine did not. Plasma catecholamine levels were significantly higher in the methotrexate treated animals and probably played a role in the salivary gland ..beta..-adrenergic activation. Methotrexate treatment significantly increased the submandibular gland ..beta..-adrenergic receptor concentration as determined by (/sup 3/H)-dihydroalprenolol receptor binding assays. Muscarinic receptor concentrations determined with (/sup 3/H)-quinuclidninyl benzilate were not changed.

McBride, R.K.

1986-01-01

147

Chemistry of the sternal gland secretion of the Mediterranean centipede Himantarium gabrielis (Linnaeus, 1767) (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Himantariidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geophilomorph centipede, Himantarium gabrielis, when disturbed, discharges a viscous and proteinaceous secretion from the sternal glands. This exudate was found by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry and NMR analyses to be composed of hydrogen cyanide, benzaldehyde, benzoyl nitrile, benzyl nitrile, mandelonitrile, mandelonitrile benzoate, 3,7,6 O-trimethylguanine (himantarine), farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate and farnesyl farnesoate. This is the first report on the presence of benzyl nitrile and mandelonitrile benzoate in secreted substances from centipedes. Farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate is a new compound, while himantarine and farnesyl farnesoate were not known as natural products. A post-secretion release of hydrogen cyanide by reaction of mandelonitrile and benzoyl nitrile was observed by NMR, and hydrogen cyanide signals were completely assigned. In addition, a protein component of the secretion was analysed by electrophoresis which revealed the presence of a major 55 kDa protein. Analyses of the defensive exudates of other geophilomorph families should produce further chemical surprises.

Vujisi?, Ljubodrag V.; Vu?kovi?, Ivan M.; Makarov, Slobodan E.; Ili?, Bojan S.; Anti?, Dragan Ž.; Jadranin, Milka B.; Todorovi?, Nina M.; Mrki?, Ivan V.; Vajs, Vlatka E.; Lu?i?, Luka R.; ?ur?i?, Božidar P. M.; Miti?, Bojan M.

2013-09-01

148

Chemistry of the sternal gland secretion of the Mediterranean centipede Himantarium gabrielis (Linnaeus, 1767) (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Himantariidae).  

PubMed

The geophilomorph centipede, Himantarium gabrielis, when disturbed, discharges a viscous and proteinaceous secretion from the sternal glands. This exudate was found by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry and NMR analyses to be composed of hydrogen cyanide, benzaldehyde, benzoyl nitrile, benzyl nitrile, mandelonitrile, mandelonitrile benzoate, 3,7,6O-trimethylguanine (himantarine), farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate and farnesyl farnesoate. This is the first report on the presence of benzyl nitrile and mandelonitrile benzoate in secreted substances from centipedes. Farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate is a new compound, while himantarine and farnesyl farnesoate were not known as natural products. A post-secretion release of hydrogen cyanide by reaction of mandelonitrile and benzoyl nitrile was observed by NMR, and hydrogen cyanide signals were completely assigned. In addition, a protein component of the secretion was analysed by electrophoresis which revealed the presence of a major 55 kDa protein. Analyses of the defensive exudates of other geophilomorph families should produce further chemical surprises. PMID:23907296

Vujisi?, Ljubodrag V; Vu?kovi?, Ivan M; Makarov, Slobodan E; Ili?, Bojan S; Anti?, Dragan Z; Jadranin, Milka B; Todorovi?, Nina M; Mrki?, Ivan V; Vajs, Vlatka E; Lu?i?, Luka R; Cur?i?, Božidar P M; Miti?, Bojan M

2013-09-01

149

PPAR? Regulates Genes Involved in Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Secretion in Mammary Gland Epithelial Cells of Dairy Goats  

PubMed Central

To explore the function of PPAR? in the goat mammary gland, we cloned the whole cDNA of the PPAR? gene. Homology alignments revealed that the goat PPAR? gene is conserved among goat, bovine, mouse, and human. Luciferase assays revealed that rosiglitazone enhanced the activity of the PPAR? response element (PPRE) in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs). After rosiglitazone (ROSI) treatment of GMECs, there was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the expression of genes related to triacylglycerol synthesis and secretion: LPL, FASN, ACACA, PLIN3, FABP3, PLIN2, PNPLA2, NR1H3, SREBF1, and SCD. The decreases in expression observed after knockdown of PPAR? relative to the control group (Ad-NC) averaged 65%, 52%, 67%, 55%, 65%, 58%, 85%, 43%, 50%, and 24% for SCD, DGAT1, AGPAT6, SREBF1, ACACA, FASN, FABP3, SCAP, ATGL, and PLIN3, respectively. These results provide direct evidence that PPAR? plays a crucial role in regulating the triacylglycerol synthesis and secretion in goat mammary cells and underscore the functional importance of PPAR? in mammary gland tissue during lactation.

Luo, Jun; Zhu, Jiangjiang; Li, Jun; Sun, Yuting; Lin, Xianzi; Zhang, Liping; Yao, Dawei; Shi, Huaiping

2013-01-01

150

Differential scanning calorimetric evaluation of human meibomian gland secretions and model lipid mixtures: transition temperatures and cooperativity of melting  

PubMed Central

Meibomian gland secretions (or meibum) are produced by holocrine meibomian glands and are secreted in melted form onto the ocular surface of humans and animals to form a protective tear film lipid layer (TFLL). Its protective effect strongly depends on the composition and, hence, thermotropic behavior of meibum. The goal of our study was to quantitatively evaluate the melting characteristics of human meibum and model lipid mixtures using differential scanning microcalorimetry. Standard calorimetric parameters, e.g. changes in calorimetric enthalpy, transition temperatures T(m), cooperativity of melting etc. were assessed. We found that thermotropic behavior of meibum resembled that of relatively simple mixtures of unsaturated wax esters, but showed a lower change in calorimetric enthalpy, which can be indicative of a looser packing of lipids in meibum compared with pure standards and their simple mixtures. The cooperativity of melting of meibomian lipids was comparable to that of an equimolar mixture of four oleic-acid based wax esters. We demonstrated that the phase transitions in meibum start at about 10 to 15 °C and end at 35-36 °C, with T(m) being about 30 °C. The highly asymmetrical shape of the thermotropic peak of meibum is important for the physiology and biophysics of TFLL.

Lu, Hua; Wojtowicz, Jadwiga C.; Butovich, Igor A.

2013-01-01

151

Metapleural- and postpharyngeal-gland secretions from workers of the ants Solenopsis invicta and S. geminata.  

PubMed

Chemical analyses by GC-MS of the metapleural glands (MG) from workers of Solenopsis invicta and S. geminata revealed for the first time the chemical composition of these glands and showed small differences between the two species. The MG of both species contain oleic, stearic, linoleic, and palmitic acid. Both ants, in addition, have small but significant amounts of hydrocarbons in their MG reservoir, which are the same as those found in their postpharyngeal glands (PPG). The PPG of both species contain alkanes, alkenes, and Me-branched alkanes. Each species is characterized by a specific composition of PPG chemicals with some overlap between species. These results suggest that the MG synthesizes mainly palmitic, linoleic, oleic, and stearic acids in these two ants, whereas PPG contains hydrocarbon mixes that widely vary between these two phylogenetically related species. PMID:17191849

Cabrera, Aivlé; Williams, David; Hernández, José V; Caetano, Flavio H; Jaffe, Klaus

2004-02-01

152

Melatonin Modulates Secretion of Growth Hormone and Prolactin by Trout Pituitary Glands and Cells in Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Teleost fish, development, growth, and reproduction are influenced by the daily and seasonal variations of photope- riod and temperature. Early in vivo studies indicated the pi- neal gland mediates the effects of these external factors, most probably through the rhythmic production of melatonin. The present investigation was aimed at determining whether mel- atonin acts directly on the pituitary to

J. Falcon; L. BESSEAU; D. FAZZARI; J. ATTIA; P. GAILDRAT; M. BEAUCHAUD; G. BOEUF

2003-01-01

153

Effect of bitter compounds on amylase secretion in murine submandibular glands: Signaling pathway mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAmylase is synthesized in submandibular glands (SMG) and released into the oral cavity to degrade carbohydrates in the mouth. Bitter taste receptors (T2R) belong to the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family and are expressed in the taste cells and also in the digestive tract.

Maximiliano Dasso; Romina Pagotto; Omar P. Pignataro; Roberto A. Diez; María E. Sales

2011-01-01

154

Silencing of the Hsf gene, the transcriptional regulator of A. gambiae male accessory glands, inhibits the formation of the mating plug in mated females and disrupts their monogamous behaviour.  

PubMed

Discovering the molecular factors that shape the mating behaviour and the fertility of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, the principal vector of human malaria, is regarded as critical to better understand its reproductive success as well as for identifying new leads for malaria control measures. In A. gambiae mating induces complex behavioural and physiological changes in the females, including refractoriness to subsequent mating and induction of egg-laying. In other insects including Drosophila a group of proteins named Accessory gland proteins (Acps), produced by males and transferred with sperm to the female reproductive tract, have been implicated in this post-mating response. Although Acps represent a set of promising candidates for unravelling the mating physiology, their role in inducing behavioural changes in mated A. gambiae females remains largely unknown. In this work, we demonstrate that a down-regulation of a large fraction of Acp genes via silencing of the Acp regulating transcription factor Hsf, abolishes the formation of mating plug in mated females and fails to induce refractoriness of mated female to subsequent inseminations. A significant fraction of females mated to Hsf silenced males (66%) failed to receive the mating plug though seminal fluid had been transferred as documented by the presence of spermatozoa in the female sperm storage organ. Furthermore, nearly all females (95%) mated to HSF-silenced males were re-inseminated when exposed to males carrying EGPF marked sperm. Our findings provide evidence showing that Acp genes regulated by the transcription factor HSF play a key role in the function of the male accessory glands. PMID:23265612

Dottorini, Tania; Persampieri, Tania; Palladino, Pietro; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Crisanti, Andrea

2012-11-01

155

Botulinum toxin injections into salivary glands to decrease oral secretions in CHARGE syndrome: prospective case study.  

PubMed

CHARGE syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in the CHD7 gene on chromosome 8. Major clinical diagnostic criteria for this heterogeneous disorder include ocular coloboma, choanal atresia/stenosis, characteristic external and internal ear abnormalities, and cranial nerve abnormalities. Patients with CHARGE syndrome often have dysphagia and are at high risk for aspiration of both upper and lower gastrointestinal secretions. The following case-report describes the use of Botulinum toxin A (Botox) to reduce excess salivary secretions in a ventilator dependant infant who would have required a tracheotomy. Thereafter, Botox was used regularly (4-5 months) to decrease the salivary secretions. This case-report is unique in that it describes the intermittent and prospective use of Botox to reduce excess salivary secretions and prevent the resulting aspiration-related complications in an infant with CHARGE syndrome. PMID:22419601

Blake, Kim D; MacCuspie, Jillian; Corsten, Gerard

2012-04-01

156

Study of complex mixtures of natural substances by the defocusing and dadi methods. VI. Components of the secretion of the pre-anal gland of some poisonous snakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

By mass-spectrometric methods, cholesterol and docosanoic, heneicosanoic, cicosanoic, octadecanoic, cis-octadec-9-enoic, heptadecanoic,\\u000a hexadecanoic, and pentadecanoic acids have been identified in the odoriferous secretion of the pre-anal glands of the females\\u000a and males of the common adder and the saw-scaled viper and in those of females of the common mamushi. It has been established\\u000a that the chemical compositions of the secretions of

R. R. Razakov; A. S. Sadykov

1986-01-01

157

The evolution of size of the uropygial gland: mutualistic feather mites and uropygial secretion reduce bacterial loads of eggshells and hatching failures of European birds.  

PubMed

Potentially, pathogenic bacteria are one of the main infective agents against which a battery of chemical and physical barriers has evolved in animals. Among these are the secretions by the exocrine uropygial gland in birds. The antimicrobial properties of uropygial secretions may prevent colonization and growth of microorganisms on feathers, skin and eggshells. However, uropygial gland secretions also favour the proliferation of feather mites that feed on secretions and microorganisms living on feathers that would otherwise reach eggshells during incubation if not consumed by feather mites. Therefore, at the interspecific level, uropygial gland size (as an index of volume of uropygial secretion) should be positively related to eggshell bacterial load (i.e. the risk of egg infection), whereas eggshell bacterial loads may be negatively related to abundance of feather mites eating bacteria. Here, we explore these previously untested predictions in a comparative framework using information on eggshell bacterial loads, uropygial gland size, diversity and abundance of feather mites and hatching success of 22 species of birds. The size of the uropygial gland was positively related to eggshell bacterial loads (mesophilic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae), and bird species with higher diversity and abundance of feather mites harboured lower bacterial density on their eggshells (Enterococcus and Staphylococcus), in accordance with the hypothesis. Importantly, eggshell bacterial loads of mesophilic bacteria, Enterococcus and Enterobacteriaceae were negatively associated with hatching success, allowing us to interpret these interspecific relationships in a functional scenario, where both uropygial glands and mutualistic feather mites independently reduce the negative effects of pathogenic bacteria on avian fitness. PMID:22805098

Soler, J J; Peralta-Sánchez, J M; Martín-Platero, A M; Martín-Vivaldi, M; Martínez-Bueno, M; Møller, A P

2012-09-01

158

Establishment of an abalone digestive gland cell line secreting various glycosidases in protein-free culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cell line designated as ADG was established from an abalone digestive gland using ERDF medium supplemented with 8% fetal\\u000a bovine serum (FBS), 8% abalone hemolymph, and high concentrations of NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, MgSO4, and CaCl2. ADG cells proliferated better in protein-free medium than in FBS-supplemented medium. Among 9 kinds of media examined, ERDF\\u000a medium was shown to be optimal

Kenichi Kusumoto; Sanetaka Shirahata; Yoshinori Katakuta; Hiroki Murakami; Yuto Kamei

1997-01-01

159

Mandibular gland secretions of the male beewolves Philanthus crabroniformis, P. barbatus , and P. pulcher (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the territorial marking pheromones from mandibular glands of males of the beewolvesPhilanthus crabroniformis, P. barbatus, andP. pulcher have been determined. The structures of the components were elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The major compound ofP. crabroniformis is isopropyl tetradecanoate, with somewhat lesser amounts of 2-tridecanone, 3-methyl-3-butenyl tetradecanoate, and 92:8 (Z):(E)-11-eicosen-1-ol. The

C. A. McDaniel; J. O. Schmidt; R. W. Howard

1992-01-01

160

Functional regulation of xanthine oxidoreductase expression and localization in the mouse mammary gland: evidence of a role in lipid secretion  

PubMed Central

Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), a key enzyme of purine metabolism, has been implicated in the secretion of the milk fat droplet in lactating mammary epithelial cells, possibly through structural interactions with other milk fat globule proteins including butyrophilin (Btn) and adipophilin (ADPH). To help determine the mechanism by which XOR is regulated, we examined the expression and localization of XOR in the non-secretory states of late pregnancy and induced involution compared with the state of active secretion. XOR mRNA levels started to increase at mid-pregnancy, turned sharply upwards at the onset of lactation and decreased rapidly with forced involution, indicating transcriptional control of the enzyme level by differentiation and secretory function. During pregnancy and involution the enzyme was diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm, but moved rapidly to the apical membrane of the cells when secretion was activated, where it colocalized with both Btn and ADPH, similar to the situation in the milk fat globule itself. Size-exclusion chromatography of solubilized milk fat globule membrane proteins showed that XOR formed a sulphydryl-bond-dependent complex with Btn and ADPH in the milk fat globule membrane. XOR returned to a diffuse cytoplasmic localization shortly after induced involution, while Btn remained localized to the apical membrane, suggesting that localization of XOR is not dependent on the presence of Btn in the apical membrane. Our findings indicate that the expression and membrane association of XOR in the mammary gland are tightly regulated by secretory activity, and suggest that the apical membrane association of XOR regulates the coupling of lipid droplets to the apical plasma membrane during milk lipid secretion.

McManaman, J L; Palmer, C A; Wright, R M; Neville, M C

2002-01-01

161

Defensive and pheromonal secretion of the tergal gland ofAleochara curtula II. Release and inhibition of male copulatory behavior.  

PubMed

At high concentrations, the defensive tergal gland secretion (TGS)(3) of the staphylinid beetle,Aleochara curtula, inhibits the male copulatory response (grasping with parameres). Inhibitory chemicals, for which a function as alarm substances is assumed, aren-undecane, 1-undecene,n-dodecanal, toluquinone, and 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone. When emitted in small amounts, however, the TGS releases the male grasping response. The main components with aphrodisiac effect are (Z)-4-tridecene,n-dodecanal, and (Z)-5-tetradecenal. These supplementary mating stimulants, which are not sex specific, work synergistically with the aphrodisiac female sex pheromone from thé epicuticular lipids and are discussed as alerting pheromones of short-term effect. Antennal movements of resting males as an indication of the recognition of a female and the approach to the mate are released at somewhat longer distances, when the TGS is additionally present. PMID:24408616

Peschke, K

1983-01-01

162

High degree of conservancy among secreted salivary gland proteins from two geographically distant Phlebotomus duboscqi sandflies populations (Mali and Kenya)  

PubMed Central

Background Salivary proteins from sandflies are potential targets for exploitation as vaccines to control Leishmania infection; in this work we tested the hypothesis that salivary proteins from geographically distant Phlebotomus duboscqi sandfly populations are highly divergent due to the pressure exerted by the host immune response. Salivary gland cDNA libraries were prepared from wild-caught P. duboscqi from Mali and recently colonised flies of the same species from Kenya. Results Transcriptome and proteome analysis resulted in the identification of the most abundant salivary gland-secreted proteins. Orthologues of these salivary proteins were identified by phylogenetic tree analysis. Moreover, comparative analysis between the orthologues of these two different populations resulted in a high level of protein identity, including the predicted MHC class II T-cell epitopes from all these salivary proteins. Conclusion These data refute the hypothesis that salivary proteins from geographically distinct populations of the same Phlebotomus sandfly species are highly divergent. They also suggest the potential for using the same species-specific components in a potential vector saliva-based vaccine.

Kato, Hirotomo; Anderson, Jennifer M; Kamhawi, Shaden; Oliveira, Fabiano; Lawyer, Phillip G; Pham, Van My; Sangare, Constance Souko; Samake, Sibiry; Sissoko, Ibrahim; Garfield, Mark; Sigutova, Lucie; Volf, Petr; Doumbia, Seydou; Valenzuela, Jesus G

2006-01-01

163

Rapid identification of primary constituents in parotoid gland secretions of the Australian cane toad using HPLC/MS-Q-TOF.  

PubMed

Toad parotoid gland secretion or toad venom has in recent years been increasingly shown to possess potentially beneficial pharmacological effects; this speculation has drawn much interest centred on elucidating the chemical basis of its multimodal effects. For this purpose, we explored the use of a rapid and accurate analysis method for systemic investigation of the parotoid gland chemistry, when extracted from Australian cane toads. Full-scan data of cane toad venom extract was acquired using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry system (HPLC/MS-Q-TOF), with multiple ionization sources (ESI and APCI) in positive and negative mixed modes. By measuring the exact mass differences between the theoretical and measured mass of each assumed compound, we confirmed the presence of 12 key constituents. The present results demonstrate that the use of HPLC/MS-Q-TOF with multiple ionization sources delivers exemplary selectivity and sensitivity, allowing for the rapid and accurate identification of constituents within cane toad venom. This paves the way for this technique to be used in future routine screening of components within the genus Bufo and for key analytes too, then reliably assessed for any purported beneficial (clinic) properties. PMID:23319165

Jing, Jing; Ren, Wei C; Li, Chun; Bose, Utpal; Parekh, Harendra S; Wei, Ming Q

2013-06-01

164

First Transcriptome of the Testis-Vas Deferens-Male Accessory Gland and Proteome of the Spermatophore from Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ticks are important vectors of numerous human diseases and animal diseases. Feeding stimulates spermatogenesis, mating and insemination of male factors that trigger female reproduction. The physiology of male reproduction and its regulation of female development are essentially a black box. Several transcriptomes have catalogued expression of tick genes in the salivary glands, synganglion and midgut but no comprehensive investigation has

Daniel E. Sonenshine; Brooke W. Bissinger; Noble Egekwu; Kevin V. Donohue; Sayed M. Khalil; R. Michael Roe

2011-01-01

165

The pineal gland from development to function.  

PubMed

The pineal gland is a small neuroendocrine organ whose main and most conserved function is the nighttime secretion of melatonin. In lower vertebrates, the pineal gland is directly photosensitive. In contrast, in higher vertebrates, the direct photosensitivity of the pineal gland had been lost. Rather, the action of this gland as a relay between environmental light conditions and body functions involves reception of light information by the retina. In parallel to this sensory regression, the pineal gland (and its accessory organs) appears to have lost several functions in relation to light and temperature, which are important in lower vertebrate species. In humans, the functions of the pineal gland overlap with the functions of melatonin. They are extremely widespread and include general effects both on cell protection and on more precise functions, such as sleep and immunity. Recently, the role of melatonin has received a considerable amount of attention due to increased cancer risk in shift workers and the discovery that patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases, autism, or depression exhibit abnormal melatonin rhythms. PMID:24290350

Sapède, Dora; Cau, Elise

2013-01-01

166

Matching Accessories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Heterodimerization enhances the complexity of ligand recognition and diversity of signaling responses of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Many accessory proteins (for ion channels or GPCRs) appear to associate with their partners relatively early in the process whereby proteins are transported to the cell surface; their roles in modulating function may have evolved out of simple proximity to a protein that once upon a time they either facilitated or accompanied through the maturation process. The receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) are a family of single-transmembrane accessory proteins that heterodimerize with GPCRs and, thereby, allow individual GPCRs to recognize multiple ligands and to activate various signaling pathways in response to ligand binding. The M10 family of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class 1b proteins has recently been shown to associate with murine vomeronasal V2R receptors, as well as to escort them to the cell surface. The exact role of M10 in modulating V2R function (or vice versa) remains to be determined.

Steven M. Foord (Stevenage;Target Bioinformatics, GlaxoSmithKline Medicine Research Centre REV)

2003-07-08

167

The Proteomes of Human Parotid and Submandibular/Sublingual Gland Salivas Collected as the Ductal Secretions  

PubMed Central

Saliva is a body fluid with important functions in oral and general health. A consortium of three research groups catalogued the proteins in human saliva collected as the ductal secretions: 1166 identifications—914 in parotid and 917 in submandibular/sublingual saliva—were made. The results showed that a high proportion of proteins that are found in plasma and/or tears are also present in saliva along with unique components. The proteins identified are involved in numerous molecular processes ranging from structural functions to enzymatic/catalytic activities. As expected, the majority mapped to the extracellular and secretory compartments. An immunoblot approach was used to validate the presence in saliva of a subset of the proteins identified by mass spectrometric approaches. These experiments focused on novel constituents and proteins for which the peptide evidence was relatively weak. Ultimately, information derived from the work reported here and related published studies can be used to translate blood-based clinical laboratory tests into a format that utilizes saliva. Additionally, a catalogue of the salivary proteome of healthy individuals allows future analyses of salivary samples from individuals with oral and systemic diseases, with the goal of identifying biomarkers with diagnostic and/or prognostic value for these conditions; another possibility is the discovery of therapeutic targets.

Denny, Paul; Hagen, Fred K.; Hardt, Markus; Liao, Lujian; Yan, Weihong; Arellanno, Martha; Bassilian, Sara; Bedi, Gurrinder S.; Boontheung, Pinmannee; Cociorva, Daniel; Delahunty, Claire M.; Denny, Trish; Dunsmore, Jason; Faull, Kym F.; Gilligan, Joyce; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Halgand, Frederic; Hall, Steven C.; Han, Xuemei; Henson, Bradley; Hewel, Johannes; Hu, Shen; Jeffrey, Sherry; Jiang, Jiang; Loo, Joseph A.; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Malamud, Daniel; Melvin, James E.; Miroshnychenko, Olga; Navazesh, Mahvash; Niles, Richard; Park, Sung Kyu; Prakobphol, Akraporn; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Richert, Megan; Robinson, Sarah; Sondej, Melissa; Souda, Puneet; Sullivan, Mark A.; Takashima, Jona; Than, Shawn; Wang, Jianghua; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Wolinsky, Lawrence; Xie, Yongming; Xu, Tao; Yu, Weixia; Ytterberg, Jimmy; Wong, David T.; Yates, John R.; Fisher, Susan J.

2009-01-01

168

Inhibition of acid secretion by the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs diclofenac and piroxicam in isolated gastric glands: analysis of a multifocal mechanism.  

PubMed

In nonstimulated rabbit gastric glands, acetylsalicylic acid (10-500 microM) and indomethacin (3-300 microM) did not significantly modify the basal rate of acid secretion, whereas diclofenac and piroxicam (10-1,000 microM each) caused a marked and dose-dependent inhibitory effect (EC(50) = 138 and 280 microM, respectively). In gastric glands stimulated by histamine (100 microM), diclofenac also reduced the rate of acid formation in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, acetylsalicylic acid, indomethacin, and piroxicam exerted a biphasic effect; thus low concentrations (3-100 microM) of these three agents significantly increased the rate of histamine-stimulated acid secretion (10-20% over the corresponding control value) by a cAMP-independent mechanism, whereas higher concentrations reduced the rate of acid formation. With respect to underlying biochemical mechanisms that could mediate inhibitory effects of NSAIDs on gastric acid formation, it was observed that both diclofenac and piroxicam, but not acetylsalicylic acid or indomethacin, decreased the glandular content of ATP, inhibited hydrolytic activity of gastric gland microsomal H(+)-K(+)-ATPase, and reduced the rate of H(+)-K(+)-ATPase-dependent proton transport across microsomal membranes in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, diclofenac and piroxicam also significantly increased passive permeability of microsomal membranes to protons. In conclusion, our work shows that diclofenac and piroxicam cause a significant reduction in the rate of basal and histamine-stimulated acid formation in isolated rabbit gastric glands at concentrations that can be attained in the gastric lumen of patients treated with these drugs. Mechanisms involved in these inhibitory effects appear to be multifocal and include different steps of stimulus-secretion coupling. PMID:14693505

Salvatella, María; Rossi, Irma; Del Valle, Juan C; Gutiérrez, Yolanda; Pereda, Carmen; Samper, Begoña; Felíu, Juan E

2004-05-01

169

Chemical composition of scent-gland secretions in an old world monkey (Mandrillus sphinx): influence of sex, male status, and individual identity.  

PubMed

Primates are traditionally considered to be microsmatic, with decreased reliance on olfactory senses in comparison to other sensory modalities such as vision. This is particularly the case for Old World monkeys and apes (catarrhines). However, various lines of evidence suggest that chemical communication may be important in these species, including the presence of a sternal scent-gland in the mandrill. We investigated the volatile components of mandrill odor using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified a total of 97 volatile components in 88 swabs of the sternal gland secretion and 95 samples of sternal gland hair saturated with scent-gland secretion collected from 27 males and 18 females. We compared odor profiles with features of the signaler using principle components and discriminant function analyses and found that volatile profiles convey both variable (age, dominance rank in males) and fixed (sex, possibly individual identity) information about the signaler. The combination of an odor profile that signals sex, age, and rank with increased motivation to scent-mark and increased production of secretion in high-ranking males leads to a potent signal of the presence of a dominant, adult male with high testosterone levels. This may be particularly relevant in the dense Central African rain forest which mandrills inhabit. By contrast, we were unable to differentiate between either female cycle stage or female rank based on odor profiles, which accords with behavioral studies suggesting that odor signals are not as important in female mandrills as they are in males. The similarity of our findings to those for other mammals and in primates that are more distantly related to humans suggests a broader role for odor in primate communication than is currently recognized. PMID:20089603

Setchell, Joanna M; Vaglio, Stefano; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Boscaro, Francesca; Calamai, Luca; Knapp, Leslie A

2010-03-01

170

First transcriptome of the testis-vas deferens-male accessory gland and proteome of the spermatophore from Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

Ticks are important vectors of numerous human diseases and animal diseases. Feeding stimulates spermatogenesis, mating and insemination of male factors that trigger female reproduction. The physiology of male reproduction and its regulation of female development are essentially a black box. Several transcriptomes have catalogued expression of tick genes in the salivary glands, synganglion and midgut but no comprehensive investigation has addressed male reproduction and mating. Consequently, a new global approach using transcriptomics, proteomics, and quantitative gene expression is needed to understand male reproduction and stimulation of female reproduction.This first transcriptome to the reproductive biology of fed male ticks, Dermacentor variabilis, was obtained by 454 pyrosequencing (563,093 reads, 12,804 contigs). Gene Ontology (Biological Processes level III) recognized 3,866 transcripts in 73 different categories; spermiogenesis; spermatogenesis; peptidases, lipases and hydrolases; oxidative and environmental stress; immune defense; and protein binding. Reproduction-associated genes included serine/threonine kinase, metalloendoproteinases, ferritins, serine proteases, trypsin, cysteine proteases, serpins, a cystatin, GPCR and others. qRT-PCR showed significant upregulation from unfed versus fed adult male reproductive organs of zinc metalloprotease, astacin metalloprotease and serine protease, enzymes important in spermiogenesis and mating activity in insects, as well as a GPCR with the greatest similarity to a SIFamide receptor known to be important in regulating courtship behavior in Drosophila. Proteomics on these organs and the spermatophore by tryptic digestion/Liquid chromatography/Mass spectrometry/Mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) demonstrated expression of many of the same messages found by 454 sequencing, supporting their identification, and revealed differences in protein distribution in the reproductive system versus the spermatophore. We found Ef? but no EF ? in the transcriptome and neither of these proteins in the spermatophore. Thus, the previously described model for male regulation of female reproduction may not apply to other ticks. A new paradigm is needed to explain male stimulation of female tick reproduction. PMID:21949745

Sonenshine, Daniel E; Bissinger, Brooke W; Egekwu, Noble; Donohue, Kevin V; Khalil, Sayed M; Roe, R Michael

2011-01-01

171

First Transcriptome of the Testis-Vas Deferens-Male Accessory Gland and Proteome of the Spermatophore from Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae)  

PubMed Central

Ticks are important vectors of numerous human diseases and animal diseases. Feeding stimulates spermatogenesis, mating and insemination of male factors that trigger female reproduction. The physiology of male reproduction and its regulation of female development are essentially a black box. Several transcriptomes have catalogued expression of tick genes in the salivary glands, synganglion and midgut but no comprehensive investigation has addressed male reproduction and mating. Consequently, a new global approach using transcriptomics, proteomics, and quantitative gene expression is needed to understand male reproduction and stimulation of female reproduction. This first transcriptome to the reproductive biology of fed male ticks, Dermacentor variabilis, was obtained by 454 pyrosequencing (563,093 reads, 12,804 contigs). Gene Ontology (Biological Processes level III) recognized 3,866 transcripts in 73 different categories; spermiogenesis; spermatogenesis; peptidases, lipases and hydrolases; oxidative and environmental stress; immune defense; and protein binding. Reproduction-associated genes included serine/threonine kinase, metalloendoproteinases, ferritins, serine proteases, trypsin, cysteine proteases, serpins, a cystatin, GPCR and others. qRT-PCR showed significant upregulation from unfed versus fed adult male reproductive organs of zinc metalloprotease, astacin metalloprotease and serine protease, enzymes important in spermiogenesis and mating activity in insects, as well as a GPCR with the greatest similarity to a SIFamide receptor known to be important in regulating courtship behavior in Drosophila. Proteomics on these organs and the spermatophore by tryptic digestion/Liquid chromatography/Mass spectrometry/Mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) demonstrated expression of many of the same messages found by 454 sequencing, supporting their identification, and revealed differences in protein distribution in the reproductive system versus the spermatophore. We found Ef? but no EF ? in the transcriptome and neither of these proteins in the spermatophore. Thus, the previously described model for male regulation of female reproduction may not apply to other ticks. A new paradigm is needed to explain male stimulation of female tick reproduction.

Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Bissinger, Brooke W.; Egekwu, Noble; Donohue, Kevin V.; Khalil, Sayed M.; Roe, R. Michael

2011-01-01

172

Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans  

PubMed Central

Literature from the past 168 years has been filtered to provide a unified summary of the regional distribution of cutaneous water and electrolyte losses. The former occurs via transepidermal water vapour diffusion and secretion from the eccrine sweat glands. Daily insensible water losses for a standardised individual (surface area 1.8 m2) will be 0.6–2.3 L, with the hands (80–160 g.h?1) and feet (50–150 g.h?1) losing the most, the head and neck losing intermediate amounts (40–75 g.h?1) and all remaining sites losing 15–60 g.h?1. Whilst sweat gland densities vary widely across the skin surface, this same individual would possess some 2.03 million functional glands, with the highest density on the volar surfaces of the fingers (530 glands.cm?2) and the lowest on the upper lip (16 glands.cm?2). During passive heating that results in a resting whole-body sweat rate of approximately 0.4 L.min?1, the forehead (0.99 mg.cm?2.min?1), dorsal fingers (0.62 mg.cm?2.min?1) and upper back (0.59 mg.cm?2.min?1) would display the highest sweat flows, whilst the medial thighs and anterior legs will secrete the least (both 0.12 mg.cm?2.min?1). Since sweat glands selectively reabsorb electrolytes, the sodium and chloride composition of discharged sweat varies with secretion rate. Across whole-body sweat rates from 0.72 to 3.65 mg.cm?2.min?1, sodium losses of 26.5–49.7 mmol.L?1 could be expected, with the corresponding chloride loss being 26.8–36.7 mmol.L?1. Nevertheless, there can be threefold differences in electrolyte losses across skin regions. When exercising in the heat, local sweat rates increase dramatically, with regional glandular flows becoming more homogeneous. However, intra-regional evaporative potential remains proportional to each local surface area. Thus, there is little evidence that regional sudomotor variations reflect an hierarchical distribution of sweating either at rest or during exercise.

2013-01-01

173

Three-dimensional imaging of hormone-secreting cells and their microvessel environment in estrogen-induced prolactinoma of the rat pituitary gland by confocal laser scanning microscopy.  

PubMed

This study focused on the three-dimensional imaging of hormone-secreting cells and their microvascular environment in estrogen-induced prolactinoma of the rat pituitary gland. Adult female Wistar-Imamichi rats were injected with estradiol dipropionate and killed 7 weeks later. Some rats given estrogen for 7 weeks also were injected with bromocriptine before killing. To obtain a detailed three-dimensional image of microvessels, dialyzed fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated gelatin was injected into the left ventricle of the rat heart. After the perfusion, the pituitary glands were resected and subjected to immunohistochemistry (IHC). To evaluate the effects of estrogen and bromocriptine, IHC was performed with antibodies against prolactin (PRL), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and growth hormone (GH). With the combination, microvessels and cells containing PRL, ACTH, and GH could be clearly identified by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The PRL cells increased in number and became hypertrophic after prolonged exposure to estrogen. With bromocriptine administration after estrogen treatment, however, PRL cells decreased in number and became atrophic. The current study revealed that estrogen and bromocriptine had significant effects on PRL secretion and the microvascular environment. Therefore, this technique (FITC injection and IHC) with CLSM is suitable for the three-dimensional imaging of hormone-secreting mechanisms under various conditions. PMID:11759065

Itoh, J; Kawai, K; Serizawa, A; Yamamoto, Y; Ogawa, K; Matsuno, A; Watanabe, K; Osamura, R Y

2001-12-01

174

Expression and Secretion of Human Proinsulin-B10 from Mouse Salivary Glands: Implications for the Treatment of Type I Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Adenovirus (Ad) mediated expression of therapeutic proteins from salivary glands can result in the delivery of biologically active proteins into the circulation where they impart their physiological function. In recent years, Ad vector delivery to salivary glands (SGs) has emerged as a viable option for gene therapy. Here, we engineered a variant of human proinsulin (hProinsulin-B10) into an Ad vector and demonstrated its ability to transduce cell lines, and express a bioactive protein that induces the phosphorylation of AKT, a key insulin signaling molecule. We also examined its expression in mice following delivery of the vector to the parotid gland (PTG), the submandibular gland (SMG) or to the liver via the tail vein and assessed transgenic protein expression and vector containment for each delivery method. In all cases, hProinsulin-B10 was expressed and secreted into the circulation. Lower levels of circulating hProinsulin-B10 were obtained from the PTG while higher levels were obtained from the tail vein and the SMG; however, vector particle containment was best when delivered to the SMG. Expression of hProinsulin-B10 in the SMG of chemically induced diabetic mice prevented excessive hyperglycemia observed in untreated mice. These results demonstrate that hProinsulin-B10 can be expressed and secreted into the circulation from SGs and can function physiologically in vivo. The ability to remediate a diabetic phenotype in a model of type 1 diabetes mellitus is the first step in an effort that may lead to a possible therapy for diabetes.

Rowzee, Anne M.; Perez-Riveros, Paola J.; Zheng, Changyu; Krygowski, Sarah; Baum, Bruce J.; Cawley, Niamh X.

2013-01-01

175

Post-translational amino acid racemization in the frog skin peptide deltorphin I in the secretion granules of cutaneous serous glands.  

PubMed

The dermal glands of the South American hylid frog Phyllomedusa bicolor synthesize and expel huge amounts of cationic, alpha-helical, 24- to 33-residue antimicrobial peptides, the dermaseptins B. These glands also produce a wide array of peptides that are similar to mammalian hormones and neuropeptides, including a heptapeptide opioid containing a D-amino acid, deltorphin I (Tyr-DAla-Phe-Asp-Val-Val-Gly NH2). Its biological activity is due to the racemization of L-Ala2 to D-Ala. The dermaseptins B and deltorphins are all derived from a single family of precursor polypeptides that have an N-terminal preprosequence that is remarkably well conserved, although the progenitor sequences giving rise to mature opioid or antimicrobial peptides are markedly different. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were used to examine the cellular and ultrastructural distributions of deltorphin I and dermaseptin B in the serous glands by immunofluoresence confocal microscopy and immunogold-electron microscopy. Preprodeltorphin I and preprodermaseptins B are sorted into the regulated pathway of secretion, where they are processed to give the mature products. Deltorphin I, [l-Ala2]-deltorphin I and dermaseptin B are all stored together in secretion granules which accumulate in the cytoplasm of all serous glands. We conclude that the L- to D-amino acid isomerization of the deltorphin I occurs in the secretory granules as a post-translational event. Thus the specificity of isomerization depends on the presence of structural and/or conformational determinants in the peptide N-terminus surrounding the isomerization site. PMID:16373172

Auvynet, Constance; Seddiki, Nabila; Dunia, Irene; Nicolas, Pierre; Amiche, Mohamed; Lacombe, Claire

2006-01-01

176

Implication of tryptophan in the stimulatory effect of delta-sleep-inducing peptide on indole secretion from perifused rat pineal glands.  

PubMed

We have recently demonstrated that delta-sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) stimulates indolamine secretion from rat pineal glands. In the present study, we show that tryptophan (TRP), as well as DSIP, stimulate melatonin (MEL) and 5-methoxy-tryptophol (5-ML) secretion in a dose-dependent manner between 5 x 10(-6) and 10(-4) M. The kinetic characteristics of the MEL and 5-ML secretion and the response induced by the two substances were similar. The increase in MEL secretion in response to 10(-4) M DSIP was completely inhibited by pretreatment of the pineals with 10(-5) M phenanthroline (amino-peptidase inhibitor), suggesting that stimulatory effect of DSIP was due to TRP liberated by peptide degradation. This mechanism occurring in the pineal was confirmed using 10(-4) M para-chlorophenylalamine (TRP hydroxylase inhibitor), which reduced the pineal response to 10(-4) and 10(-5) M DSIP by 50 and 100%, respectively. PMID:1307916

Ouichou, A; Pévet, P

1992-01-01

177

Effects of seminal vesicle and coagulating gland ablation on fertility in rats.  

PubMed

In rats the secretions of the seminal vesicles and coagulating glands clot after ejaculation in the female tract to form a copulatory plug. The plug plays a critical role in transcervical sperm transport. Factors that influence the secretions of accessory sex glands have the potential to alter fertility without adverse effects on the gametes themselves. In the present study, the effect of surgical removal of the rat seminal vesicles and coagulating glands (SVx) on mating and fertility was investigated. SVx males were completely infertile by natural mating. Observed mating of SVx males with LHRH synchronized females confirmed that mating performance was normal and that they were capable of ejaculating sperm but could not produce copulatory plugs. In the absence of the copulatory plug, no sperm was transported into the uterus. Epididymal sperm obtained from the same males were capable of fertilization after intrauterine insemination and gave comparable numbers of embryos and unfertilized oocytes as sham operated controls. These findings underscore the importance of examining the role of both males and females during insemination and that observed matings, uterine sperm counts, and intrauterine insemination are useful adjuncts to routine fertility assessment when effects on the accessory sex glands are suspected. PMID:1806140

Cukierski, M A; Sina, J L; Prahalada, S; Robertson, R T

1991-01-01

178

Dermal gland secretions of tropical bont tick,Amblyomma variegatum (Acarina: Ixodidae): Biological activity on predators and pathogens.  

PubMed

When they are mechanically disturbed, all instars of the tropical bont tickAmblyomma variegatum exude droplets of a liquid on the dorsal, lateral, and ventral cuticle. These spread out and quickly evaporate. In this study, the possible role of these secretions was investigated in relation to predators and pathogens. In laboratory bioassays, it was demonstrated that the secretions from engorged larvae, nymphs, and females have an antibiotic activity against the bacteria speciesBacillus thuringiensis andSerratia marcescens, combined with a repellent effect on a potential predator, the fire-antSolenopsis geminata. PMID:24242646

Pavis, C; Mauleon, H; Barre, N; Maibeche, M

1994-07-01

179

[Meibomian gland morphology study progression].  

PubMed

The meibomian gland (MG) in the eyelids, which is the largest sebaceous gland throughout the body, synthesize and secrete lipids to form the superficial tear film layer. It plays a key role in maintaining the ocular surface health. Abnormalities in meibomian gland morphology lead to meibomian gland dysfunction, which is the main cause of evaporative dry eye. Study on meibomian gland morphology will contribute significantly to the diagnosis and treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. This review is just focusing on the current studies about techniques to visualize the morphology of the MG and changes of meibomian gland morphology related to diseases. PMID:24931156

Wang, Yuqian; Dong, Nuo; Wu, Huping

2014-04-01

180

Mating-induced reduction in accessory reproductive organ size in the stalk-eyed fly Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni  

PubMed Central

Background Internal reproductive organ size is an important determinant of male reproductive success. While the response of testis length to variation in the intensity of sperm competition is well documented across many taxa, few studies address the importance of testis size in determining other components of male reproductive success (such as mating frequency) or the significance of size variation in accessory reproductive organs. Accessory gland length, but not testis length, is both phenotypically and genetically correlated with male mating frequency in the stalk-eyed fly Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni. Here we directly manipulate male mating status to investigate the effect of copulation on the size of both the testes and the accessory glands of C. dalmanni. Results Accessory gland length was positively correlated with male mating frequency. Copulation induced a significant decrease in accessory gland size. The size of the accessory glands then recovered slowly over the next 8–48 hours. Neither testis length nor testis area was altered by copulation. Conclusion These results reveal that the time course of accessory gland recovery corresponds to field observations of mating behaviour and suggest that accessory gland size may limit male mating frequency in C. dalmanni.

Rogers, David W; Chapman, Tracey; Fowler, Kevin; Pomiankowski, Andrew

2005-01-01

181

Effects of Dietary Protein Percentage and @Agonist Administered to Prepubertal Ewes on Mammary Gland Growth and Hormone Secretions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of dietary protein and p- agonist, (L-644,969) on mammary growth from wean- ing to puberty, hormone secretions, and milk yield were studied. Twelve lambs were assigned to each treatment in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with dietary protein at 15 or 20% and &agonist at 0 or 1 ppm of concentrate. Lambs were fed pelleted concen- trate

J. Zhang; D. G. Grieve; R. R. Hacker; J. H. Burton

182

Secretions from the ventral eversible gland of Spodoptera exigua caterpillars activate defense-related genes and induce emission of volatile organic compounds in tomato, Solanum lycopersicum  

PubMed Central

Background Plant induced defense against herbivory are generally associated with metabolic costs that result in the allocation of photosynthates from growth and reproduction to the synthesis of defense compounds. Therefore, it is essential that plants are capable of sensing and differentiating mechanical injury from herbivore injury. Studies have shown that oral secretions (OS) from caterpillars contain elicitors of induced plant responses. However, studies that shows whether these elicitors originated from salivary glands or from other organs associated with feeding, such as the ventral eversible gland (VEG) are limited. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the secretions from the VEG gland of Spodoptera exigua caterpillars contain elicitors that induce plant defenses by regulating the expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other defense-related genes. To test this hypothesis, we quantified and compared the activity of defense-related enzymes, transcript levels of defense-related genes and VOC emission in tomato plants damaged by S. exigua caterpillars with the VEG intact (VEGI) versus plants damaged by caterpillars with the VEG ablated (VEGA). Results The quantified defense-related enzymes (i.e. peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and lipoxigenase) were expressed in significantly higher amounts in plants damaged by VEGI caterpillars than in plants damaged by VEGA caterpillars. Similarly, the genes that encode for the key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid and terpene synthase genes that regulate production of terpene VOCs, were up-regulated in plants damaged by VEGI caterpillars. Moreover, the OS of VEGA caterpillars were less active in inducing the expression of defense genes in tomato plants. Increased emissions of VOCs were detected in the headspace of plants damaged by VEGI caterpillars compared to plants damaged by VEGA caterpillars. Conclusion These results suggest that the VEG of S. exigua caterpillars contains elicitors of late plant defense signaling in tomato which trigger defense-related enzymatic activity, regulate expression of defense-related genes, and induce emission of plant VOCs. These signaling cascades may have important ramifications for plant-insect and tritrophic interactions.

2014-01-01

183

Expression of ptx1 in the adult rat pituitary glands and pituitary cell lines: hormone-secreting cells and folliculo-stellate cells  

PubMed

The pituitary homeobox1 gene (Ptx1) was initially identified as encoding a pituitary-restricted transcription factor for the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene. In order to elucidate the expression pattern of the Ptx1 protein, we investigated the localization of the protein in adult rat pituitary gland and in various pituitary cell lines. We produced an antibody specific for Ptx1 protein, and confirmed its specificity by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemically, many nuclei in the anterior pituitary cells as well as in the intermediate cells were positive for Ptx1 staining with this specific antibody. Immunohistochemical double staining revealed the presence of Ptx1 not only in all types of hormone-secreting cells but also in some folliculo-stellate (FS) cells. Furthermore, the expression of Ptx1 mRNA was confirmed in various pituitary cell lines and in the FS cell line by using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Our studies indicated that Ptx1 may not only play a role as a basic transcriptional factor for production of various hormones, but may also play some important role(s) in FS cells. Possible synergistic actions with other factors remain to be investigated. The novel finding of Ptx1 in FS cells is of particular interest, and may suggest that FS cells and hormone-secreting cells are derived from a common cellular ancestor. PMID:10502117

Kurotani; Tahara; Sanno; Teramoto; Mellon; Inoue; Yoshimura; Osamura

1999-10-01

184

Expression of Ptx1 in the adult rat pituitary glands and pituitary cell lines: hormone-secreting cells and folliculo-stellate cells.  

PubMed

The pituitary homeobox1 gene (Ptx1) was initially identified as encoding a pituitary-restricted transcription factor for the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene. In order to elucidate the expression pattern of the Ptx1 protein, we investigated the localization of the protein in adult rat pituitary gland and in various pituitary cell lines. We produced an antibody specific for Ptxl protein, and confirmed its specificity by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemically, many nuclei in the anterior pituitary cells as well as in the intermediate cells were positive for Ptxl staining with this specific antibody. Immunohistochemical double staining revealed the presence of Ptx1 not only in all types of hormone-secreting cells but also in some folliculo-stellate (FS) cells. Furthermore, the expression of Ptx1 mRNA was confirmed in various pituitary cell lines and in the FS cell line by using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Our studies indicated that Ptxl may not only play a role as a basic transcriptional factor for production of various hormones, but may also play some important role(s) in FS cells. Possible synergistic actions with other factors remain to be investigated. The novel finding of Ptx1 in FS cells is of particular interest, and may suggest that FS cells and hormone-secreting cells are derived from a common cellular ancestor. PMID:10555539

Kurotani, R; Tahara, S; Sanno, N; Teramoto, A; Mellon, P L; Inoue, K; Yoshimura, S; Osamura, R Y

1999-10-01

185

Ligand-independent epidermal growth factor receptor hyperactivation increases sebaceous gland size and sebum secretion in mice.  

PubMed

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) system is an established regulator of the development and homeostasis of the hair follicle and interfollicular epidermis. Here, we evaluated EGFR actions on the sebaceous glands (SGs) by employing Dsk5 mice, a mutant line in which the EGFR is constitutively activated in a ligand-independent manner. Compared to control littermates, Dsk5 mice showed increased sebum levels and enlarged SGs, which contained a higher number of cells and showed stronger proliferation. c-myc transcript levels were increased in Dsk5 skin, suggesting that c-myc mediates the proliferative stimuli of the EGFR in the SG. Analysis of differentiation markers revealed deregulated expression of Scd1 and Scd3, indicating that sebaceous lipogenesis is affected in Dsk5 mice. In conclusion, our study indicates that the EGFR is an important regulator of presebocyte proliferation, contributing to the final cell number, to the size and to the lipid output of SGs. PMID:24079739

Dahlhoff, Maik; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Wolf, Eckhard; Schneider, Marlon R

2013-10-01

186

14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1163 Powerplant accessories. (a) Each engine mounted accessory...

2014-01-01

187

14 CFR 25.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25.1163 Powerplant accessories. (a) Each engine mounted accessory...

2014-01-01

188

Accessory oral cavity.  

PubMed

This is a rare case report of a patient around 11 years with the complaint of extra mouth who reported to the hospital for removal of that extra mouth. On examination there was accessory oral cavity with small upper and lower lips, seven teeth and saliva was drooling out. Under general anesthesia crevicular incision from 32 to 43 was put and labial gingiva with alveolar mucosa was reflected completely and bone exposed to lower border of mandible. There were seven teeth resembling lower permanent anterior teeth in the accessory mouth, which was excised with the accessory lips. 41 extracted and osteotomy carried out extending the incision from the extracted site and osteotomy carried out. Dermoid cyst both below and above the mylohyoid muscle and rudimentary tongue found and excised and the specimen sent for histopathological examination. The wound was closed and uneventful healing noted to the satisfaction of the patient. This is a rare and interesting case which has been documented. PMID:23833508

Gnaneswaran, Manica Ramamoorthy; Varadarajan, Usha; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Kamatchi, Sangeetha

2012-07-01

189

Accessory olfactory learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning in the accessory olfactory bulb is modelled mathematically by means of a set of coupled oscillator equations to describe the ongoing activity. The modification of this activity by experience is shown to lead to a change of the transfer function of the AOB as an input-output device. This leads both to a test of the model and a means

J. G. Taylor; E. B. Keverne

1991-01-01

190

Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging  

PubMed Central

Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands.

Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

2012-01-01

191

Calcium signaling in lacrimal glands.  

PubMed

Lacrimal glands provide the important function of lubricating and protecting the ocular surface. Failure of proper lacrimal gland function results in a number of debilitating dry eye diseases. Lacrimal glands secrete lipids, mucins, proteins, salts and water and these secretions are at least partially regulated by neurotransmitter-mediated cell signaling. The predominant signaling mechanism for lacrimal secretion involves activation of phospholipase C, generation of the Ca(2+)-mobilizing messenger, IP3, and release of Ca(2+) stored in the endoplasmic reticulum. The loss of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum then triggers a process known as store-operated Ca(2+) entry, involving a Ca(2+) sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum, STIM1, which activates plasma membrane store-operated channels comprised of Orai subunits. Recent studies with deletions of the channel subunit, Orai1, confirm the important role of SOCE in both fluid and protein secretion in lacrimal glands, both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:24507443

Putney, James W; Bird, Gary S

2014-06-01

192

Effect of pinealectomy and testosterone on gonadal regression and accessory sex organs in Indian palm squirrel, Funambulus pennanti.  

PubMed

Indian palm squirrel (Funambulus pennanti), is a tropical seasonal breeder presents a short gonadal regression period (October-November), concomitant with declining plasma testosterone level. If pinealectomized (Px), however, squirrels maintain full gonadal activity and plasma testosterone levels. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to determine if the Px and exogenous testosterone in intact and Px squirrels would prevent natural gonadal regression. Experiment was performed during testicular regression phase (i.e. August end to November) revealed that both the Px (60 days) and exogenous testosterone (100 micrograms/day/squirrel/30 days) prevented gonadal and accessory sex organ regression. This could be due to negative feedback by testosterone treatment which was more obvious in intact than the Px squirrels. A decline in day time plasma melatonin level after testosterone treatment was also indicative of inverse relationship between the gonadal and pineal hormones which in turn did not allow the collapse of accessory sex organs. Further, the pineal gland is under direct control of steroid hormones since receptors and aromatizing enzymes are noted in the same. Therefore, a pineal secreted melatonin stimulation of hypothalamic negative feedback centers for gonadal regression could be suggested in this tropical rodent as receptors for melatonin have been detected in above areas. PMID:9357162

Haldar, C; Vidhu, S

1997-06-01

193

14 CFR 25.1167 - Accessory gearboxes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25.1167 Accessory gearboxes. For airplanes equipped with an accessory gearbox that is not certificated as...

2014-01-01

194

Interaction between oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone and its effect on the milk secretion by alveoli of the mammary gland of lactating rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interaction between exogenous and endogenous oxytocin and vasopressin was found to affect the mechanism of milk ejection by the alveoli of the mammary gland in lactating rats. Inhibition and stimulation of the effect of oxytocin on milk ejection by vasopressin was demonstrated. On the basis of the principles observed the concentrations of these hormones were investigated in the plasma of

G. G. Musalov; I. V. Kurochkin; T. S. Sulakvelidze

1974-01-01

195

[In vitro effects of acetylcholine, dopamine, histamine and serotonin on tracheal smooth muscle response during hypersecretion and normal secretion of tracheal glands].  

PubMed

It is expressed in vitro answer of the soft musculature of the tracheobronchial system of the newborns from 12 to 18 weeks of the gestation, with the hypersecretion and normosecretin of the tracheal gland. On 30 tracheal preparations taken by autopsy' of the dead children, was followed-up the answer of the tracheal soft musculature (SMT) on acetylcholine, dopamine, histamine and serotonine in the concentrations from 110(-4), 10(-3), 10(-2), 10(-1) M/L. The results illustrate that acetylcholyne, and histamine in the mentioned concentrations provoked the statistically significant answers of GMT with the hypersecretion and normosecretion of the tracheal glands (p < 0.01). On the contrary, dopamine and serotonine have not provoked statistically significant answers of these structures (p > 0.1), what illustrates that also dopaminergic and serotoninergic receptors at tracheobronchila system are not sufficient developed in this age of life. The answers of the tracheal-bronchial rings with hypersection of the tracheal glands a little more emphasized than the answers with normosecretion of the glands, but this difference is not statistically significant (p > 0.1). PMID:12822376

Islami, Hilmi; Shabani, R; Rama, Adem; Disba, M; Dida, B; Azizi, E

2003-01-01

196

Split gland  

DOEpatents

A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention.

Petranto, Joseph J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01

197

Split gland  

DOEpatents

A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

Petranto, J.J.

1989-09-05

198

The Pineal Gland and Mammalian Photoperiodism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mammalian pineal gland appears to be a major endocrine component in the regulation of photoperiodic responses. The circadian pattern of secretion of the pineal hormone, melatonin, is regulated by the nervous system. Changes in photoperiod, acting via the nervous system, alter the temporal pattern of melatonin secretion. The changes in secretion pattern convey information about daylength from neural components

Bruce D. Goldman; Janet M. Darrow

1983-01-01

199

Synthetic Fc peptide-mediated regulation of the immune response. II. Analysis of secreted immunoglobulin classes, accessory cell contribution, and lymphocyte proliferation in p23-stimulated spleen cell cultures.  

PubMed

The synthetic peptide p23 representing residues 335 to 357 in the CH3 domain of human IgG1 was able to increase levels of secreted Ig in murine spleen cell cultures. This in vitro response was optimal in the presence of between 10(-4) and 10(-3) micron p23/ml and the levels of secreted Ig reached a maximum on day 4 or day 5 of culture. Supernatants from p23-treated cell cultures generally contained more IgM than IgG and undetectable levels of IgA. Induction of Ig secretion by p23 was macrophage-independent but T cell-dependent and, with respect to the latter case, removal of T cells from spleen cells reduced the levels of both IgM and IgG. Although maintaining the B cell differentiation-inducing quality of its progenitor molecule, the Fc gamma fragment, p23 appeared to have lost the ability to induce B cell proliferation. Evidence is presented that a sequence functionally similar to p23 is extant in mouse IgG by showing that murine Fc gamma fragments were also able to induce increases in Ig-secreting cells in murine spleen cell cultures. PMID:2580001

Hobbs, M V; Morgan, E L; Weigle, W O

1985-05-01

200

Membrane potential and conductance of frog skin gland acinar cells in resting conditions and during stimulation with agonists of macroscopic secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frog skin glands were stripped of connective tissue and investigated using the nystatin-permeabilized whole-cell patch-clamp configuration. The membrane potential in unstimulated acinar cells was -69.5ǂ.7 mV, and the conductance was dominated by K+, based on ion substitution experiments. The cells were electrically coupled through heptanol- and halothane-sensitive gap junctions. During application of gap junction blockers, the whole-cell current\\/voltage relationship displayed

Jakob Balslev Sørensen; Erik Hviid Larsen

1999-01-01

201

Container Handling and Accessory Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes a method for test and evaluation of handling and accessory equipment for oversized cargo containers. It discusses test planning, preparations for test, inspection, technical performance, beach mobility, logistics-over-the-shore, te...

1978-01-01

202

Sustained Exendin-4 Secretion through Gene Therapy Targeting Salivary Glands in Two Different Rodent Models of Obesity/Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Exendin-4 (Ex-4) is a Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist approved for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM), which requires daily subcutaneous administration. In T2DM patients, GLP-1 administration is reported to reduce glycaemia and HbA1c in association with a modest, but significant weight loss. The aim of present study was to characterize the site-specific profile and metabolic effects of Ex-4 levels expressed from salivary glands (SG) in vivo, following adeno-associated virus-mediated (AAV) gene therapy in two different animal models of obesity prone to impaired glucose tolerance and T2DM, specifically, Zucker fa/fa rats and high fed diet (HFD) mice. Following percutaneous injection of AAV5 into the salivary glands, biologically active Ex-4 was detected in the blood of both animal models and expression persisted in salivary gland ductal cell until the end of the study. In treated mice, Ex-4 levels averaged 138.9±42.3 pmol/L on week 6 and in treated rats, mean circulating Ex-4 levels were 238.2±72 pmol/L on week 4 and continued to increase through week 8. Expression of Ex-4 resulted in a significant decreased weight gain in both mice and rats, significant improvement in glycemic control and/or insulin sensitivity as well as visceral adipose tissue adipokine profile. In conclusion, these results suggest that sustained site-specific expression of Ex-4 following AAV5-mediated gene therapy is feasible and may be useful in the treatment of obesity as well as trigger improved metabolic profile.

Raimondi, Laura; Pagano, Claudio; Egan, Josephine M.; Cozzi, Andrea; Cinci, Lorenzo; Loreto, Andrea; Manni, Maria E.; Berretti, Silvia; Morelli, Annamaria; Zheng, Changyu; Michael, Drew G.; Maggi, Mario; Vettor, Roberto; Chiorini, John A.; Mannucci, Edoardo; Rotella, Carlo M.

2012-01-01

203

Dorsal abdominal glands in nymphs of southern green stink bug,Nezara viridula (L.) (heteroptera: Pentatomidae): Chemistry of secretions of five instars and role of (E)-4-oxo-2-decenal, compound specific to first instars.  

PubMed

We investigated the exocrine secretions from the five nymphal instars in the southern green stink bug,Nezara viridula, by analyzing separately the contents of the three dorsal abdominal reservoirs. All DAGs 1 produced a mixture of five alkanes with 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16 carbons. No differences were found between DAGs 2 and DAGs 3, for the five instars: the glands of first instars produce the same alkanes as DAGs 1,n-tridecane, traces of (E)-2-decenal, and a specific compound: (E)-4-oxo-2-decenal. In the other instars (second to fifth), (E)-4-oxo-2-decenal is absent from the secretion but another compound is present: (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal. The kinetics of production of the different compounds were studied, the maximum amounts produced occurring 36 hr after hatching. The biological function of (E)-4-oxo-2-decenal was investigated. Using olfactometry, we showed that this compound acts as an attractant and an arrestant on second instars, at physiological doses. Moreover, this semiochemical was shown to be repellent to the fire-antSolenopsis geminata, a potential predator ofN. viridula and we established the dose-response curve for the repellent activity. PMID:24242802

Pavis, C; Malosse, C; Ducrot, P H; Descoins, C

1994-09-01

204

A thermoactive secreted phospholipase A? purified from the venom glands of Scorpio maurus: relation between the kinetic properties and the hemolytic activity.  

PubMed

A lipolytic activity was located in the scorpion venom glands (telsons), from which a phospholipase A? (Sm-PLVG) was purified. Like known phospholipases A? from scorpion venom, which are 14-18 kDa proteins, the purified Scorpio maurus-Phospholipase from Venom Glands (Sm-PLVG) has a molecular mass of 17 kDa containing long and short chains linked by disulfide bridge. It has a specific activity of 5500 U/mg measured at 47 °C and pH 8.5 using phosphatidylcholine as a substrate in presence of 8 mM NaTDC and 12 mM CaCl?. The NH?-terminal amino acid sequences of the purified Sm-PLVG showed similarities with those of long and short chains of some previously purified phospholipases from venom scorpions. Moreover, the Sm-PLVG exhibits hemolytic activity toward human, rabbit or rat erythrocytes. This hemolytic activity was related to its ability to interact with phospholipids' monolayer at high surface pressure. These properties are similar to those of phospholipases isolated from snake venoms. PMID:23831286

Louati, Hanen; Krayem, Najeh; Fendri, Ahmed; Aissa, Imen; Sellami, Mohamed; Bezzine, Sofiane; Gargouri, Youssef

2013-09-01

205

Angiotensin III stimulates aldosterone secretion from adrenal gland partially via angiotensin II type 2 receptor but not angiotensin II type 1 receptor.  

PubMed

Angiotensin II (Ang II) and Ang III stimulate aldosterone secretion by adrenal glomerulosa, but the angiotensin receptor subtypes involved and the effects of Ang IV and Ang (1-7) are not clear. In vitro, different angiotensins were added to rat adrenal glomerulosa, and aldosterone concentration in the medium was measured. Ang II-induced aldosterone release was blocked (30.3 ± 7.1%) by an Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2R) antagonist, PD123319. Candesartan, an Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist, also blocked Ang II-induced aldosterone release (42.9 ± 4.8%). Coadministration of candesartan and PD123319 almost abolished the Ang II-induced aldosterone release. A selective AT2R agonist, CGP42112, was used to confirm the effects of AT2R. CGP42112 increased aldosterone secretion, which was almost completely inhibited by PD123319. In addition to Ang II, Ang III also induced aldosterone release, which was not blocked by candesartan. However, PD123319 blocked 22.4 ± 10.5% of the Ang III-induced aldosterone secretion. Ang IV and Ang (1-7) did not induce adrenal aldosterone secretion. In vivo, both Ang II and Ang III infusion increased plasma aldosterone concentration, but only Ang II elevated blood pressure. Ang IV and Ang (1-7) infusion did not affect blood pressure or aldosterone concentration. In conclusion, this report showed for the first time that AT2R partially mediates Ang III-induced aldosterone release, but not AT1R. Also, over 60% of Ang III-induced aldosterone release may be independent of both AT1R and AT2R. Ang III and AT2R signaling may have a role in the pathophysiology of aldosterone breakthrough. PMID:21303953

Yatabe, Junichi; Yoneda, Minoru; Yatabe, Midori S; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Felder, Robin A; Jose, Pedro A; Sanada, Hironobu

2011-04-01

206

UROPYGIAL GLAND SIZE AND AVIAN HABITAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological role of the uropygial gland is still controversial. Certain authors state that its function could be closely connected to the hydrophobic properties of its secretion, that may be essential for plumage waterproofing. Therefore, it could be hypothesized that the degree of this gland's develop- ment should be greater in aquatic birds than in terrestrial species. In order to

Diego Montalti; Alfredo Salibián

207

An unusual kynurenine-containing opioid tetrapeptide from the skin gland secretion of the Australian red tree frog Litoria rubella. Sequence determination by electrospray mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The Kyn-containing peptide FP-Kyn-L(NH(2)) is an unusual minor component of the skin peptide profile of the Australian red tree frog Litoria rubella collected from an area within a 20 kilometre radius of Alice Springs in central Australia. The structure was determined by electrospray mass spectrometry and synthesis. The major component of the skin secretion is the analogous tryptophyllin peptide FPWL(NH(2)). Both peptides show opioid activity at 10(-7) M, and are likely to act via the ? opioid receptor. PMID:21598333

Ellis-Steinborner, Simon T; Scanlon, Denis; Musgrave, Ian F; Tran, T T Nha; Hack, Sandra; Wang, Tianfang; Abell, Andrew D; Tyler, Michael J; Bowie, John H

2011-06-30

208

Pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in human Brunner's glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brunner's glands (duodenal glands) in humans are located mainly in the two proximal thirds of the duodenum. They are known to produce and secrete mucin. In recent years, human Brunner's glands have also been shown to express immunoreactivity toward epidermal growth factor-urogastrone (EGF-uro) and lysozyme. These proteins are considered to have a protective function within the gastrointestinal canal. Human pancreatic

H. Bohe; M. Bohe; C. Lindström; K. Ohlsson

1995-01-01

209

Scent glands in legume flowers.  

PubMed

Scent glands, or osmophores, are predominantly floral secretory structures that secrete volatile substances during anthesis, and therefore act in interactions with pollinators. The Leguminosae family, despite being the third largest angiosperm family, with a wide geographical distribution and diversity of habits, morphology and pollinators, has been ignored with respect to these glands. Thus, we localised and characterised the sites of fragrance production and release in flowers of legumes, in which scent plays an important role in pollination, and also tested whether there are relationships between the structure of the scent gland and the pollinator habit: diurnal or nocturnal. Flowers in pre-anthesis and anthesis of 12 legume species were collected and analysed using immersion in neutral red, olfactory tests and anatomical studies (light and scanning electron microscopy). The main production site of floral scent is the perianth, especially the petals. The scent glands are distributed in a restricted way in Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Anadenanthera peregrina, Inga edulis and Parkia pendula, constituting mesophilic osmophores, and in a diffuse way in Bauhinia rufa, Hymenaea courbaril, Erythrostemon gilliesii, Poincianella pluviosa, Pterodon pubescens, Platycyamus regnellii, Mucuna urens and Tipuana tipu. The glands are comprised of cells of the epidermis and mesophyll that secrete mainly terpenes, nitrogen compounds and phenols. Relationships between the presence of osmophores and type of anthesis (diurnal and nocturnal) and the pollinator were not found. Our data on scent glands in Leguminosae are original and detail the type of diffuse release, which has been very poorly studied. PMID:23574349

Marinho, C R; Souza, C D; Barros, T C; Teixeira, S P

2013-04-10

210

Salivary gland infections  

MedlinePLUS

Salivary gland infections affect the glands that produce saliva (spit). The infection may be due to bacteria or viruses. There are three pairs of major salivary glands: Parotid glands. These are the two largest glands. ...

211

Lacrimal glands in cystic fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Cystic fibrosis is a systemic disease involving defective mucus secretion in different parts of the body resulting in a wide range of systemic complications. We are presenting the histology of the lacrimal gland from a 25 year old male with cystic fibrosis using light microscopy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report.

Alghadyan, Abdulrahman; Aljindan, Mohana; Alhumeidan, Adra; Kazi, Gholam; Mcmhon, Robert

2013-01-01

212

Biomarker genes highlight intraspecific and interspecific variations in the responses of Pinus taeda L. and Pinus radiata D. Don to Sirex noctilio F. acid gland secretions.  

PubMed

Sirex noctilio F., a Eurasian horntail woodwasp recently introduced into North America, oviposits in pines and other conifers and in the process spreads a phytopathogenic fungus that serves as a food source for its larvae. During oviposition the woodwasp also deposits mucus produced in its acid (venom) gland that alters pine defense responses and facilitates infection by the fungus. A 26,496-feature loblolly pine cDNA microarray was used to survey gene expression of pine tissue responding to S. noctilio venom. Six genes were selected for further assessment by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), including one that encoded an apparent PR-4 protein and another that encoded a thaumatin-like protein. Expression of both was strongly induced in response to venom, while expression of an apparent actin gene (ACT1) was stable in response to the venom. The pattern of gene response was similar in Pinus taeda L. and Pinus radiata D. Don, but the magnitude of response in P. radiata was significantly stronger for each of the induced genes. The magnitude of the biomarker gene response to venom also varied according to genotype within these two species. The qRT-PCR assay was used to demonstrate that the primary bioactive component in S. noctilio venom is a polypeptide. PMID:23042767

Bordeaux, John Michael; Lorenz, W Walter; Dean, Jeffrey F D

2012-10-01

213

Teaching Techniques for Accessory Percussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everyone is familiar with the main percussion instruments of the contemporary orchestra: bass drum, snare drum, suspended cymbal, vibraphone, and timpani. But as source material broadens, so do the demands placed on the percussion section. Accessory, or auxiliary percussion, can make the difference between a typical rendition of a well-known piece…

Micallef, Ken

2007-01-01

214

Ectoparasites, uropygial glands and hatching success in birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uropygial gland of birds secretes wax that is applied to the plumage, where the secretions are hypothesized to eliminate\\u000a fungi and bacteria, thereby potentially providing important benefits in terms of plumage maintenance. We analyzed variation\\u000a in size of the uropygial gland in 212 species of birds to determine the function and the ecological correlates of variation\\u000a in gland size.

Anders Pape Møller; Johannes Erritzøe; Lajos Rózsa

2010-01-01

215

Biological roles of uterine glands in pregnancy.  

PubMed

All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, uterine receptivity, and stromal cell decidualization in humans and animal models. The infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss observed in the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model unequivocally supports a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid in survival and development of the conceptus. Further, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation as well as stromal cell decidualization. Similarly in humans, uterine glands and their secretory products are likely critical regulators of blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus growth and development during the first trimester. Circumstantial evidence suggests that deficient glandular activity may be a causative factor in pregnancy failure and complications in humans. Thus, an increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of fertility and pregnancy problems in mammals. PMID:24959816

Spencer, Thomas E

2014-09-01

216

Endocrine glands  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... and nervous systems work very closely together. The brain continuously sends instructions to the endocrine system, and ... master switchboard because it’s the part of the brain that controls the endocrine system. The pituitary gland, ...

217

Distribution of transglutaminase in quail uropygial glands.  

PubMed

The holocrine secretion of the uropygial gland has been explained as autolysis due to intracellular lysosomal enzymes. In the present study, the distribution of transglutaminase, a marker of epidermal differentiation, in quail uropygial glands was observed by histochemical methods to confirm whether a mechanism similar to epidermal differentiation also exists in the uropygial gland. The transglutaminase activity was positive in the deep and shallow portions of the secretory tubules as well as the transitional and degenerating cell layers of the uropygial gland. This activity was stronger in the deep portions than the shallow portions. These findings suggest that the process of secretion in the quail uropygial gland involves not only the autolysis due to lysosomal enzymes but also a mechanism similar to that of epidermal differentiation, and that a phenomenon similar to epidermal differentiation is more evident in the deep portions than the shallow portions. PMID:7756426

Suzuki, T; Maruyama, T; Morohashi, M

1995-02-01

218

Resident macrophages influence stem cell activity in the mammary gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Macrophages in the mammary gland are essential for morphogenesis of the ductal epithelial tree and have been implicated in promoting breast tumor metastasis. Although it is well established that macrophages influence normal mammopoiesis, the mammary cell types that these accessory cells influence have not been determined. Here we have explored a role for macrophages in regulating mammary stem cell

David E Gyorki; Marie-Liesse Asselin-Labat; Nico van Rooijen; Geoffrey J Lindeman; Jane E Visvader

2009-01-01

219

Accessory Cholera Enterotoxin (Ace), the Third Toxin of a Vibrio cholerae Virulence Cassette  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae causes the potentially lethal disease cholera through the elaboration of the intestinal secretogen cholera toxin. A second toxin of V. cholerae, Zot, decreases intestinal tissue resistance by modifying intercellular tight junctions. In this report, a third toxin of V. cholerae, Ace (accessory cholera enterotoxin), is described. Ace increases short-circuit current in Ussing chambers and causes fluid secretion in

Michele Trucksis; James E. Galen; Jane Michalski; Alessio Fasano; James B. Kaper

1993-01-01

220

Sebaceous gland lipids  

PubMed Central

The principal activity of mature sebaceous glands is producing and secreting sebum, which is a complex mixture of lipids. Sebum composition is different among species and this difference is probably due to the function that sebum has to absolve. In human sebum there are unique lipids, such as squalene and wax esters not found anywhere else in the body nor among the epidermal surface lipids. Moreover, they correspond to major components supplying the skin with protection. However, the ultimate role of human sebum, as well the metabolic pathways regulating its composition and secretion rate, are far from a complete understanding. Increased sebum secretion is considered, among all features, the major one involved in the pathophysiology of acne. Along with increased sebum secretion rate, quali- and quantitative modifications of sebum are likely to occur in this pathology. Understanding the factors and mechanisms that regulate sebum production is needed in order to identify new targets that can be addressed to achieve a selective modulation of lipid biosynthesis as a novel therapeutic strategy to correct lipid disregulations in acne and other disorders of the pilosebaceous unit.

Ottaviani, Monica; Camera, Emanuela; Mastrofrancesco, Arianna

2009-01-01

221

Salivary Gland Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... a roadmap to this full guide. About the salivary glands The salivary glands are tissues that produce saliva. ... are often called the minor salivary glands. About salivary gland cancer Cancer begins when normal cells change and ...

222

Accessory origin of the piriformis muscle.  

PubMed

Incidental finding of an accessory slip of the piriformis muscle in the gluteal region is reported. Following routine dissection of the gluteal region in three formalin-fixed cadavers, an accessory slip of the piriformis was observed. The accessory slip was cleaned, attachments were identified, and dimensions were measured in two parts as fleshy and tendinous parts with a graduated scale to the nearest millimetre. The accessory slip was innervated by a small twig from the sciatic nerve. Having considered the available literature, the accessory slip of piriformis is rare, and if found, could be a cause for the undiagnosed chronic pain in the back and gluteal region, as this accessory slip may compress the sciatic nerve. PMID:18756338

Ravindranath, Y; Manjunath, K Y; Ravindranath, R

2008-08-01

223

Anatomy and Histology of Rodent and Human Major Salivary Glands  

PubMed Central

Major salivary glands of both humans and rodents consist of three pairs of macroscopic glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638–1686), Thomas Wharton (1614–1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655–1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands. The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

2012-01-01

224

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

2013-04-01

225

Stretch-induced spinal accessory nerve palsy.  

PubMed

Left spinal accessory nerve palsy occurred in a young man when he quickly turned his head to the right while his shoulders were pulled down by heavy hand-held objects. Electrophysiologic studies demonstrated partial axonotmesis of the spinal accessory nerve branches innervating the sternocleidomastoid and upper and middle trapezius and complete axonotmesis of spinal accessory branches to the lower trapezius. There was a separate, although functionally minor, cervical plexus innervation of the lower trapezius. PMID:3343990

Logigian, E L; McInnes, J M; Berger, A R; Busis, N A; Lehrich, J R; Shahani, B T

1988-02-01

226

Melanocortin receptors and their accessory proteins.  

PubMed

The melanocortin receptor family consists of 5 members which belong to the GPCR superfamily. Their specific ligands, the melanocortins are peptide hormones which are formed by the proteolytic cleavage of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) protein. It is now recognised that certain GPCRs require accessory proteins for their function. Like these GPCRs the melanocortin receptor family is also known to be associated with accessory proteins that regulate their function. In this review we will summarise the accessory proteins involved in the function of the 5 melanocortin receptors and in particular focus on the melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP) which is crucial for the function of the MC2R. PMID:20654690

Cooray, Sadani N; Clark, Adrian J L

2011-01-15

227

[Cowper's canals and glands. Pathological manifestations and radiologic aspects].  

PubMed

From 11 personal case studies, the authors conduct a general review of the problems raised by Cowper's glands. Cowper's glands, accessory sexual glands, are made up of main glands situated behind and on either side of the bulbar urethra right at the level of the urolgenital diaphragm and of accessory glands situated in the thickness of the bulbar spongy body. The main glands are drained by long canals (several centimeters in length) which empty into the bulbar urethra by paramedian orifices. The fusion of these canals into one single canal at the urethral opening, although rare, could lead to obstruction. These canals can be the site of cystic dilatation ranging from a few millimeters to as much as 6 cm in diameter. These cysts are rarely due to terminal canal obstruction as the result of chronic inflammatory urethritis. Most often they are congenital. The cysts which develop at the level of the accessory glands are usually obstructive while those which develop at the level of the main glands rather have a perineal expansion. The indicative signs of this particular pathology are not specific (pyuria, hematuria, enureis, known urethral stenosis, dysuria with pollakuria, perineal pain with post voiding urethral dripping). Voiding urethrography investigation (the best) shows: --either cystic dilatation seen as a lacuna on the ventral aspect of the urethra, --or opacification of the dilated cavities of the exretory canals which have been spontaneously broken or opened by endoscopic manoeuvres. The opacification of these cavities leads often to the erroneous interpretation of "diverticula" of "incomplete duplication of the urethra" and yet their essential characteristic is twofold: they are oriented in an anterior-posterior direction with respect to the urethra and lead back and away from it; they have a canal type of morphology for at least part of their course. PMID:529372

Masson, J C; Suhler, A; Garbay, B

1979-01-01

228

Mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators  

SciTech Connect

The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems available, and an argument for force reflecting manipulation. The theme presented is that the accomplishment of humanlike endeavors in hostile environments will be most successful when man model capabilities are utilized. The application of recent electronic technology to manipulator development has made new tools available to be applied to emergency response activities. The development activities described are products of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 7 figs.

Feldman, M.J.; Herndon, J.N.

1985-01-01

229

New exocrine glands in ants: the hypostomal gland and basitarsal gland in the genus Melissotarsus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fisher and Robertson (Insect Soc 46: 78-83, 1999) discovered the production of silk-like secretions emerging from slit-shaped openings along the anterior margin of the ventral hypostoma of Melissotarsus ant workers. The current histological study describes a hitherto unknown hypostomal gland from which this silk-like substance originates. In addition, this study describes a new basitarsal gland in the three pairs of legs of Melissotarsus workers.

Hölldobler, Bert; Obermayer, Malu; Plowes, Nicola J. R.; Fisher, Brian L.

2014-06-01

230

Lipid transport in the lactating mammary gland.  

PubMed

Mammalian cells depend on phospholipid (PL) and fatty acid (FA) transport to maintain membrane structure and organization, and to fuel and regulate cellular functions. In mammary glands of lactating animals, copious milk secretion, including large quantities of lipid in some species, requires adaptation and integration of PL and FA synthesis and transport processes to meet secretion demands. At present few details exist about how these processes are regulated within the mammary gland. However, recent advances in our understanding of the structural and molecular biology of membrane systems and cellular lipid trafficking provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the regulation and integration of PL and FA transport processes the lactating mammary gland. This review discusses the PL and FA transport processes required to maintain the structural integrity and organization of the mammary gland and support its secretory functions within the context of current molecular and cellular models of their regulation. PMID:24567110

McManaman, James L

2014-03-01

231

Physiological and biochemical aspects of the avian uropygial gland.  

PubMed

This review discusses different aspects of the uropygial gland of birds. The gland exhibits a striking morphological diversity in size, shape and presence/absence of tufts of feathers. It was shown that acidic mucins, neutral lipids, glycolipids and phospholipids are normal components of secretion. Several morphological and physiological aspects of the gland were studied on Rock Pigeon Columba livia Gmelin, 1879. The amount of the uropygial gland secretion, its lipid content and fatty acids profile were determined. The extracted lipid mixture contained of C14 to C20 fatty acids, mostly unsaturated; the saturated fatty acids were mainly 14:0, 16:0 and 18:0. No correlation was found between the size of the gland and the aquatic/terrestrial nature of the species. Ablation of the gland did not affect survival, body weight, feeding rate and serum cholesterol, total lipids or calcium levels after 32-120 days. The possible role of the gland in the protection against lipophilic compounds was discussed. The function of the gland is still a subject of controversy. It is accepted that its secretion confers water-repellent properties on the feather coat and maintain the suppleness of the feathers. Other physiological roles of the gland secretion may be associated to pheromone production, control of plumage hygiene, thermal insulation and defence against predators. Concerning the endocrine regulation of the uropygial function, there is scarce information presenting evidence for steroid regulated mechanisms. PMID:19675950

Salibian, A; Montalti, D

2009-05-01

232

21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872...Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and accessories. (a) Identification. An orthodontic appliance and accessories is a...

2009-04-01

233

21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872...Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and accessories. (a) Identification. An orthodontic appliance and accessories is a...

2010-04-01

234

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01...2010-04-01 false Ostomy pouch and accessories. ...876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. ...Identification. An ostomy pouch and accessories...but excludes ostomy pouches which incorporate...

2010-04-01

235

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 8 2009-04-01...2009-04-01 false Ostomy pouch and accessories. ...876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. ...Identification. An ostomy pouch and accessories...but excludes ostomy pouches which incorporate...

2009-04-01

236

21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device...

2010-04-01

237

21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device...

2009-04-01

238

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2013-04-01

239

What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... key statistics about salivary gland cancer? What is salivary gland cancer? Salivary gland cancer starts in one of ... tumors can develop in these glands. About the salivary glands Salivary glands make saliva – the lubricating fluid found ...

240

On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells, but is also caused by damage to the extracellular environment, preventing proper cell functioning.

Konings, Antonius W.T. [Department of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Coppes, Rob P. [Department of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Vissink, Arjan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands)

2005-07-15

241

The CFTR-mediated protein secretion defect: pharmacological correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mediates secretion of mucins and serous proteins. The aim was to correct pharmacologically the CFTR defect in protein secretion in airway gland cells and so to correct the viscous mucous secretions in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways and lungs. The strategies tested included direct activation of CFTR, bypass of CFTR-mediated protein secretion and movement

M. A. McPherson; M. M. C. Pereira; D. Russell; C. M. McNeilly; R. M. Morris; F. L. L. Stratford; R. L. Dormer

2001-01-01

242

Accessory Gene Regulator Locus of Staphylococcus intermedius  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accessory gene regulator (agr) locus, a candidate system for the regulation of the production of virulence factors in Staphylococcus intermedius, has been characterized. Using PCR-based genome walking, we have obtained the first complete sequence (3,436 bp) of the accessory gene regulator (agr) gene in this organism. Sequence analysis of the agr gene has identified five open reading frames (ORFs),

Julia M. L. Sung; Peter D. Chantler; David H. Lloyd

2006-01-01

243

Molecular aspects of viviparous reproductive biology of the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans morsitans): Regulation of yolk and milk gland protein synthesis  

PubMed Central

Tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) viviparous reproductive physiology remains to be explored at the molecular level. Adult females carry their young in utero for the duration of embryonic and larval development, all the while supplying their offspring with nutrients in the form of a “milk” substance secreted from a modified accessory gland. Flies give birth to fully developed third instar larvae that pupariate shortly after birth. Here, we describe the spatial and temporal expression dynamics of two reproduction-associated genes and their products synthesized during the first and second gonotrophic cycles. The proteins studied include a putative yolk protein, Glossina morsitans morsitans yolk protein 1 (GmmYP1) and the major protein found in tsetse “milk” secretions (Glossina morsitans morsitans milk gland protein, GmmMGP). Developmental stage and tissue-specific expression of GmmYP1 show its presence exclusively in the reproductive tract of the fly during oogenesis, suggesting that GmmYP1 acts as a vitellogenic protein. Transcripts for GmmMGP are present only in the milk gland tissue and increase in coordination with the process of larvigenesis. Similarly, GmmMGP can be detected at the onset of larvigenesis in the milk gland, and is present during the full duration of pregnancy. Expression of GmmMGP is restricted to the adult stage and is not detected in the immature developmental stages. These phenomena indicate that the protein is transferred from mother to larvae as nourishment during its development. These results demonstrate that both GmmYP1 and GmmMGP are involved in tsetse reproductive biology, the former associated with the process of oogenesis and the latter with larvigenesis.

Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Guz, Nurper; Strickler-Dinglasan, Patricia; Aksoy, Serap

2006-01-01

244

Ectoparasites, uropygial glands and hatching success in birds.  

PubMed

The uropygial gland of birds secretes wax that is applied to the plumage, where the secretions are hypothesized to eliminate fungi and bacteria, thereby potentially providing important benefits in terms of plumage maintenance. We analyzed variation in size of the uropygial gland in 212 species of birds to determine the function and the ecological correlates of variation in gland size. Bird species with larger uropygial glands had more genera of chewing lice of the sub-order Amblycera, but not of the sub-order Ischnocera, and more feather mites. There was a fitness advantage associated with relatively large uropygial glands because such species had higher hatching success. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the uropygial gland functions to manage the community of microorganisms, and that certain taxa of chewing lice have diverged as a consequence of these defenses. PMID:20043177

Møller, Anders Pape; Erritzøe, Johannes; Rózsa, Lajos

2010-06-01

245

Pituitary Gland Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Excessive secretion of pituitary hormones, as well as their deficiency, may cause a constellation of clinical and pathological\\u000a manifestations involving major organ systems of the body, including the skin.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a There are no specific cutaneous signs or symptoms that are pathognomonic for the main manifestations of pituitary gland diseases\\u000a such as acromegaly, hyperprolactinemia, Cushing’s disease, or hypopituitarism.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In

Martina Montinari; Franco Rongioletti

246

Microstereological and histochemical studies of the salivary glands of the giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus, waterhouse).  

PubMed

The histology and histochemistry of the parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands were studied. The submandibular gland contained only serous acini as in the guinea pig, but unlike in many other mammals. The parotid gland contained only serous acini while the sublingual gland was mixed, mucous acini being the predominant secretory tissue interspersed by a few serous acini. Serous demilunes also commonly formed caps on the mucous acini. The ducts of the gland contributed over 30% of the volume of the submandibular gland, while those of the parotid and sublingual glands formed about 12 and 10% of the gland, respectively. The secretions of the parotid gland, as judged by histochemical methods, contained neutral mucins and some sialomucins. Neutral mucins, sulphomucins and sialomucins were detected in both the submandibular gland and sublingual gland. PMID:6356761

Asojo, T A; Aire, T A

1983-01-01

247

Ultrastructure of the Intramandibular Gland of Workers and Queens of the Stingless Bee, Melipona quadrifasciata  

PubMed Central

The intramandibular glands of workers and queens of Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae), at different ages and from different functional groups, were studied using light and transmission electron microscopy. The results demonstrated that these glands are composed of two types of secretory structures: 1.A hypertrophied epidermis on the dorsal side of the mandible that is an epithelial gland. 2. Free secretory cells filling the inner spaces of the appendices that constitute a unicellular gland. The epithelial gland is larger in the young (1-2-day-old workers), and the gland becomes involuted during the nurse worker stage. The unicellular glands of the workers posses some secretion during all of the studied phases, but secretory activity is more intensive in the foraging workers. Vesicles of secretion are absent in the unicellular glands of queens. These results demonstrate that these glands show functional adaptations in different castes corresponding to the functions of each caste.

Da Cruz-Landim, Carminda; Gracioli-Vitti, Luciana F.; Abdalla, Fabio C.

2011-01-01

248

Thymus Gland Anatomy  

MedlinePLUS

... Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Thymus Gland Anatomy Adult View/Download: Small: 720x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Thymus Gland Anatomy Adult Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; illustration ...

249

Salivary gland tumors  

MedlinePLUS

Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the ducts that drain the salivary glands. ... The salivary glands are located around the mouth. They produce saliva, which moistens food to help with chewing and swallowing. ...

250

Salivary Gland Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Your salivary glands make saliva - sometimes called spit - and empty it into your mouth through openings called ducts. Saliva makes ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause the glands to become irritated and ...

251

Electron microscopic study of the mandibular glands of Kalotermes flavicollis fabr. (isoptera; calotermitidae).  

PubMed

The mandibular glands of Kalotermes were examined in different castes. They show sexual dimorphism in the soldiers and primary reproductives, Moreover, in female soldiers and queens, mandibular gland cells contained numerous crystalline structures of mitochondrial origin. The role of these glands (secretion of saliva or pheromone) is discussed. PMID:922809

Cassier, P; Fain-Maurel, M A; Lebrun, D

1977-08-26

252

Accessory Mental Nerve: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

The presence of an Accessory Mental Nerve (AMN) is rare. The mental foramen is an important landmark in the mandible for administration of local anaesthesia and mental nerve identification and its preservation is of paramount importance in various surgical procedures. This article presents a case of an incidental finding of accessory mental nerves during open reduction and fixation of a compound fracture of left body of mandible. Knowledge on anatomic variations is helpful in diagnosis, treatment planning and management during surgical procedures.

N.S., Mamatha; N.S., Kedarnath; Singh, Madhumathi; Patel, Gourav

2013-01-01

253

The accessory costotransverse foramen: a radioanatomical study.  

PubMed

One hundred fifty-six anatomical specimens of cervical vertebrae and 55 C1 and 53 C2 vertebrae were examined for the presence of an accessory costotransverse foramen. We also reviewed 60 cervical spine computed tomographic (CT) scans. The variations of the costotransverse and accessory foramen are discussed. The frequency of the latter is 19% in the anatomical specimens and 45% in CT scans. The local anatomy and the excellent visualization on axial transverse CT are stressed. PMID:6690492

De Boeck, M; Potvliege, R; Roels, F; De Smedt, E

1984-02-01

254

Parathyroid hormone - Secretion and metabolism in vivo.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gel filtration and radioimmunoassay were used to determine the molecular size and immunochemical reactivity of parathyroid hormone present in gland extracts, in the general peripheral circulation, and in parathyroid effluent blood from patients with hyperparathyroidism, as well as from calves and from cattle. It was found that parathyroid hormone secreted from the parathyroids in man and cattle is at least as large as the molecule extracted from normal bovine glands. However, once secreted into the circulation the hormone is cleaved, and one or more fragments, immunologically, dissimilar to the originally secreted hormone, constitute the dominant form of circulating immunoreactive hormone.

Habener, J. F.; Powell, D.; Murray, T. M.; Mayer, G. P.; Potts, J. T., Jr.

1971-01-01

255

Unmasking of the trigemino-accessory reflex in accessory facial anastomosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo evaluate the possible blink reflex responses in facial muscles reinnervated by the accessory nerve.METHODEleven patients with a complete facial palsy were submitted to a surgical repair by an accessory facial nerve anastomosis (AFA). In this pathological group, blink reflex was studied by means of percutaneous electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve and recording from the orbicularis oculi muscle. A

Angel Esteban; Julio Prieto

1999-01-01

256

Interactions between developing nerves and salivary glands  

PubMed Central

Our aim is to provide a summary of the field of salivary gland development and regeneration from the perspective of what is known about the function of nerves during these processes. The primary function of adult salivary glands is to produce and secrete saliva. Neuronal control of adult salivary gland function has been a focus of research ever since Pavlov’s seminal experiments on salivation in dogs. Less is known about salivary gland innervation during development and how the developing nerves influence gland organogenesis and regeneration. Here, we will review what is known about the communication between the autonomic nervous system and the epithelium of the salivary glands during organogenesis. An important emerging theme is the instructive role of the nervous system on the epithelial stem/progenitor cells during development as well as regeneration after damage. We will provide a brief overview of the neuroanatomy of the salivary glands and discuss recent literature that begins to integrate neurobiology with epithelial organogenesis, which may provide paradigms for exploring these interactions in other organ systems.

Ferreira, Joao N; Hoffman, Matthew P

2013-01-01

257

Computed tomographic imaging characteristics of the normal canine lacrimal glands  

PubMed Central

Background The canine lacrimal gland (LG) and accessory lacrimal gland of the third eyelid (TEG) are responsible for production of the aqueous portion of the precorneal tear film. Immune-mediated, toxic, neoplastic, or infectious processes can affect the glands directly or can involve adjacent tissues, with secondary gland involvement. Disease affecting these glands can cause keratoconjunctivitis sicca, corneal ulcers, and loss of vision. Due to their location in the orbit, these small structures are difficult to evaluate and measure, making cross-sectional imaging an important diagnostic tool. The detailed cross-sectional imaging appearance of the LG and TEG in dogs using computed tomography (CT) has not been reported to date. Results Forty-two dogs were imaged, and the length, width, and height were measured and the volume calculated for the LGs & TEGs. The glands were best visualized in contrast-enhanced CT images. The mean volume of the LG was 0.14 cm3 and the TEG was 0.1 cm3. The mean height, width, and length of the LG were, 9.36 mm, 4.29 mm, and 9.35 mm, respectively; the corresponding values for the TEG was 2.02 mm, 9.34 mm, and 7.90 mm. LG and TEG volume were positively correlated with body weight (p?glands.

2014-01-01

258

Controlled Speed Accessory Drive demonstration program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Controlled Speed Accessory Drive System was examined in an effort to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars. Concept feasibility and the performance of a typical system during actual road driving conditions were demonstrated. The CSAD system is described as a mechanical device which limits engine accessory speeds, thereby reducing parasitic horsepower losses and improving overall vehicle fuel economy. Fuel consumption data were compiled for fleets of GSA vehicles. Various motor pool locations were selected, each representing different climatic conditions. On the basis of a total accumulated fleet usage of nearly three million miles, an overall fuel economy improvement of 6 percent to 7 percent was demonstrated. Coincident chassis dynamometer tests were accomplished on selected vehicles to establish the effect of different accessory drive systems on exhaust emissions, and to evaluate the magnitude of the mileage benefits which could be derived.

Hoehn, F. W.

1981-01-01

259

Accessory breast tissue mimicking pedunculated lipoma.  

PubMed

Accessory breast tissue is an uncommon condition which occurs in 0.4-6% of women. It is mostly located in the axilla where it can cause diagnostic difficulty, especially if it is unilateral and large. Usually it is bilateral and presents as an asymptomatic mass during pregnancy or lactation. The diagnosis of ectopic breast tissue is important as it can undergo the same pathological changes that occur in a normal breast, such as mastitis, fibrocystic disease and carcinoma. We present a case of a large right-sided accessory breast in a 32-year-old woman that was clinically diagnosed as pedunculated lipoma. However, subsequent histopathological examination proved it to be an accessory breast tissue with lactational changes. PMID:25006058

Husain, Musharraf; Khan, Sabina; Bhat, Ashraf; Hajini, Firdoos

2014-01-01

260

Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels in exocrine salivary glands.  

PubMed

In the last 15 years, remarkable progress has been realized in identifying the genes that encode the ion-transporting proteins involved in exocrine gland function, including salivary glands. Among these proteins, Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels take part in key functions including membrane potential regulation, fluid movement and K(+) secretion in exocrine glands. Two K(+) channels have been identified in exocrine salivary glands: (1) a Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel of intermediate single channel conductance encoded by the KCNN4 gene, and (2) a voltage- and Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channel of large single channel conductance encoded by the KCNMA1 gene. This review focuses on the physiological roles of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels in exocrine salivary glands. We also discuss interesting recent findings on the regulation of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels by protein-protein interactions that may significantly impact exocrine gland physiology. PMID:24559652

Catalán, Marcelo A; Peña-Munzenmayer, Gaspar; Melvin, James E

2014-06-01

261

The melanocortin receptors and their accessory proteins.  

PubMed

The five melanocortin receptors (MCRs) named MC1R-MC5R have diverse physiological roles encompassing pigmentation, steroidogenesis, energy homeostasis and feeding behavior as well as exocrine function. Since their identification almost 20 years ago much has been learnt about these receptors. As well as interacting with their endogenous ligands the melanocortin peptides, there is now a growing list of important peptides that can modulate the way these receptors signal, acting as agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists. The discovery of melanocortin 2 receptor accessory proteins as a novel accessory factor to the MCRs provides further insight into the regulation of these important G protein-coupled receptor. PMID:23404466

Ramachandrappa, Shwetha; Gorrigan, Rebecca J; Clark, Adrian J L; Chan, Li F

2013-01-01

262

21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884...Monitoring Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to...

2010-04-01

263

21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884...Monitoring Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to...

2009-04-01

264

21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. 884...Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to...

2009-04-01

265

21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. 884...Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to...

2010-04-01

266

21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120 Section...OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

267

21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120 Section...OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a)...

2009-04-01

268

21 CFR 884.4900 - Obstetric table and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Obstetric table and accessories. 884.4900...Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4900 Obstetric table and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric table is a device with adjustable...

2009-04-01

269

21 CFR 884.4900 - Obstetric table and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obstetric table and accessories. 884.4900...Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4900 Obstetric table and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric table is a device with adjustable...

2010-04-01

270

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

271

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

272

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2009-04-01

273

21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. 884...Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to...

2013-04-01

274

21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884...Monitoring Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to...

2013-04-01

275

Adrenal Gland Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

276

Removal of Accessory Breasts: A Novel Tumescent Liposuction Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Accessory breasts, usually with a protuberant appearance, are composed of both the central accessory breast tissue and adjacent\\u000a fat tissue. They are a palpable convexity and cosmetically unsightly. Consequently, patients often desire cosmetic improvement.\\u000a The traditional general surgical treatment for accessory breasts is removal of the accessory breast tissue, fat tissue, and\\u000a covering skin as a whole unit. A rather

Jufeng Fan

2009-01-01

277

Electronic Position Sensor for Power Operated Accessory  

DOEpatents

An electronic position sensor for use with a power operated vehicle accessory, such as a power liftgate. The position sensor includes an elongated resistive circuit that is mounted such that it is stationary and extends along the path of a track portion of the power operated accessory. The position sensor further includes a contact nub mounted to a link member that moves within the track portion such that the contact nub is slidingly biased against the elongated circuit. As the link member moves under the force of a motor-driven output gear, the contact nub slides along the surface of the resistive circuit, thereby affecting the overall resistance of the circuit. The position sensor uses the overall resistance to provide an electronic position signal to an ECU, wherein the signal is indicative of the absolute position of the power operated accessory. Accordingly, the electronic position sensor is capable of providing an electronic signal that enables the ECU to track the absolute position of the power operated accessory.

Haag, Ronald H.; Chia, Michael I.

2005-05-31

278

Biting palsy of the accessory nerve.  

PubMed

A young man was bitten by his girl friend at the anterior border of the left trapezius muscle. Weakness of the trapezius resulted and a longstanding ache in the shoulder developed. Clinically and neurophysiologically, an axonotmesis type crush injury of the accessory nerve was verified. PMID:7431036

Paljärvi, L; Partanen, J

1980-08-01

279

19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section 10.456 ...Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts or tools that form part of the good's...

2009-04-01

280

19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section 10.456 ...Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts or tools that form part of the good's...

2010-04-01

281

Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets  

SciTech Connect

In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets.

Davis, H.H., II; Varki, A.; Heaton, W.A.; Siegel, B.A.

1980-01-01

282

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

2013-04-01

283

Labial gland chemistry of three species of bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile secretion emanating from the cephalic part of the paired labial gland in male bumblebees of three North American species, viz. Bombus sonorus Say, Bombus huntii Greene and Psithyrus insularis (F. Smith) has been analysed by GC-MS and GC-FTIR. The secretion, which is deposited as a marking secretion on various objects along a repetitive flight path, is composed of

Gunnar Bergström; Peter Bergman; Monica Appelgren; Justin O. Schmidt

1996-01-01

284

Perspectives on the convergent evolution of tetrapod salt glands.  

PubMed

Since their discovery in 1958, the function of specialized salt-secreting glands in tetrapods has been studied in great detail, and such studies continue to contribute to a general understanding of transport mechanisms of epithelial water and ions. Interestingly, during that same time period, there have been only few attempts to understand the convergent evolution of this tissue, likely as a result of the paucity of taxonomic, embryological, and molecular data available. In this review, we synthesize the available data regarding the distribution of salt glands across extant and extinct tetrapod lineages and the anatomical position of the salt gland in each taxon. Further, we use these data to develop hypotheses about the various factors that have influenced the convergent evolution of salt glands across taxa with special focus on the variation in the anatomical position of the glands and on the molecular mechanisms that may have facilitated the development of a salt gland by co-option of a nonsalt-secreting ancestral gland. It is our hope that this review will stimulate renewed interest in the topic of the convergent evolution of salt glands and inspire future empirical studies aimed at evaluating the hypotheses we lay out herein. PMID:22586069

Babonis, Leslie S; Brischoux, François

2012-08-01

285

Random Secretion of Growth Hormone in Humans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In normal humans, growth hormone (GH) is secreted from a gland located adjacent to the brain (pituitary) into the blood in distinct pulses, but in patients bearing a tumor within the pituitary (acromegaly) GH is excessively secreted in an irregular manner. It has been hypothesized that GH secretion in the diseased state becomes random. This hypothesis is supported by demonstrating that GH secretion in patients with acromegaly cannot be distinguished from a variety of linear stochastic processes based on the predictability of the fluctuations of GH concentration in the bloodstream.

Prank, Klaus; Kloppstech, Mirko; Nowlan, Steven J.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Brabant, Georg

1996-08-01

286

Submandibular gland myoepithelioma.  

PubMed

Benign myoepithelioma is a very rare form of salivary gland tumor, composed entirely of myoepithelial cells. It accounts for approximately 1% of all salivary gland tumors and is most frequently located in the parotid gland and in the minor salivary glands of the hard palate. We describe herein the ninth reported case of myoepithelioma of the submandibular gland. Benign myoepithelioma must be differentiated from several benign and malignant epithelial and mesenchymal tumors. Immunohistochemical staining can help differentiate between these conditions, but histopathology remains the gold standard for diagnosing this neoplastic process. PMID:16076718

Testa, D; Galera, F; Insabato, L; Vassallo, A; Mesolella, M; Galli, V

2005-06-01

287

Neurologic complications of disorders of the adrenal glands.  

PubMed

Disorders of the adrenal glands frequently have secondary neurological manifestations, while some diseases that involve the central nervous system are accompanied by adrenal gland dysfunction. Excessive corticosteroid secretions in primary or secondary Cushing's syndrome causes muscle weakness and behavioral disturbances, such as emotional lability and sometimes depression, while adrenal insufficiency may cause fatigue, weakness, and depression. Adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenoneuromyelopathy are X-linked recessive disorders of the metabolism of very long chain fatty acids that manifest with white matter abnormalities of the brain, myelopathy and/or neuropathy, as well as adrenal insufficiency. Other disorders of the adrenal glands include hyperaldosteroidism, which may cause weakness from hypokalemia. Dysfunction of the adrenal medulla causes excessive or deficient secretion of catecholamines, primarily causing cardiovascular symptoms. This chapter reviews the clinical manifestations and diagnostic aspects and treatment of the various disorders of the adrenal glands. Some of the congenital adrenal diseases are also discussed. PMID:24365350

Bertorini, Tulio E; Perez, Angel

2014-01-01

288

Transcriptomic Analysis of the Salivary Glands of an Invasive Whitefly  

PubMed Central

Background Some species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex cause tremendous losses to crops worldwide through feeding directly and virus transmission indirectly. The primary salivary glands of whiteflies are critical for their feeding and virus transmission. However, partly due to their tiny size, research on whitefly salivary glands is limited and our knowledge on these glands is scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of the Mediterranean species of B. tabaci complex using an effective cDNA amplification method in combination with short read sequencing (Illumina). In a single run, we obtained 13,615 unigenes. The quantity of the unigenes obtained from the salivary glands of the whitefly is at least four folds of the salivary gland genes from other plant-sucking insects. To reveal the functions of the primary glands, sequence similarity search and comparisons with the whole transcriptome of the whitefly were performed. The results demonstrated that the genes related to metabolism and transport were significantly enriched in the primary salivary glands. Furthermore, we found that a number of highly expressed genes in the salivary glands might be involved in secretory protein processing, secretion and virus transmission. To identify potential proteins of whitefly saliva, the translated unigenes were put into secretory protein prediction. Finally, 295 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins and some of them might play important roles in whitefly feeding. Conclusions/Significance: The combined method of cDNA amplification, Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly is suitable for transcriptomic analysis of tiny organs in insects. Through analysis of the transcriptome, genomic features of the primary salivary glands were dissected and biologically important proteins, especially secreted proteins, were predicted. Our findings provide substantial sequence information for the primary salivary glands of whiteflies and will be the basis for future studies on whitefly-plant interactions and virus transmission.

Su, Yun-Lin; Li, Jun-Min; Li, Meng; Luan, Jun-Bo; Ye, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

2012-01-01

289

Airway Submucosal Glands: Physiology and Pharmacology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Secretory processes in airway submucosal glands contribute to homeostasis and to first-line defence against inhaled insult.\\u000a Secretion of high molecular weight mucous glycoproteins (mucins) and of water onto the internal surface of the airways are\\u000a two important processes which contribute to regulation of the volume and physicochemical properties of airway surface liquid.\\u000a Absorption of water is also an important homeostatic

Denis C. K. Fung; Duncan F. Rogers

290

Minor salivary glands and dental caries: Approach towards a new horizon  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Reduction of functioning minor salivary glands may contribute to emergence of mucosal infections, mucosal ulceration, and possibly dental caries. A study was, therefore, designed to understand the exact role of minor salivary gland secretions over dental caries. Methodology: We studied the average labial distribution of functional minor salivary glands using various pre-defined locations, counted the minor salivary gland secretion imprints, and correlated the decayed missing filledlevels in subjects. The functional level and amount of secretion of minor salivary gland were evaluated. The radial immunodiffusion was performed by Diffu-Plate kit and the dimensions of the ring were correlated with the amount of immunoglobulin A in saliva. Results: The mean number of functional labial minor salivary glands, amount of secretion, level of glycoprotein secretion, and immunoglobulin A secretion levels could very well dictate the functional status and role of minor salivary glands over caries assessment. Conclusion: The above-mentioned tests could be of major significance in routine diagnosis of the most common oral disease, i.e., dental caries.

Tandon, Ankita; Singh, Narendra Nath; Sreedhar, Gadiputi

2013-01-01

291

Androgen-secreting adrenal adenomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:The androgen source in women with hirsutism and signs of virilism may be the ovary or adrenal gland.CASES:Three patients with androgen excess are reported. Two had hyperandrogenemia and Cushing syndrome with an adrenal mass greater than 5.5 cm; the third had a small adrenal adenoma secreting only testosterone and responsive to human chorionic gonadotropin. In all cases, the pathologic report

K Danilowicz; N Albiger; M Vanegas; R. M Gómez; G Cross; O. D Bruno

2002-01-01

292

Efficacy of male scent glands and urine in masking poison bait odour in female house rats, Rattus rattus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out to possibly reduce bait shyness of female house rats by masking the poison (rodenticide-Zn3P2) with male pheromonal gland secretions, i.e. preputial\\/cheek glands and urine. The poison bait mixed with the extract of preputial and cheek glands, and urine was found to be effective in masking poison bait shyness. Preputial and cheek gland extracts cumulatively mixed with

R. Selvaraj; G. Archunan

2006-01-01

293

Unusual accessory tendon connecting the hallucal extensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

During routine dissection of an adult human cadaver, a suite of tendinous anomalies was discovered in the left hallucal region.\\u000a Whereas the main tendon of the extensor hallucis longus muscle inserted normally, two accessory tendons were found coursing\\u000a medial and lateral to the main tendon. The most lateral tendon originated from a supernumerary muscle belly and merged with\\u000a the tendon

Robert V. Hill; Luke Gerges

2008-01-01

294

Immunohistochemical localisation of urogastrone to human duodenal and submandibular glands.  

PubMed Central

Urogastrone has been localised by immunostaining to granules of the cells of human duodenal (Brunner's) glands and their ducts and of acinar cells in the human submandibular gland. The immunoreactive peptide is present in large quantities in duodenal glands and their secretory ducts. Urogastrone or human epidermal growth factor promotes cellular proliferation in vivo as well as in vitro and inhibits gastric acid secretion and may, therefore, be one of the duodenal factors inhibiting gastric activity. Thus it may have an important regulatory and protective function for the intestinal mucosa and may possibly become a useful therapeutic agent. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Heitz, P U; Kasper, M; van Noorden, S; Polak, J M; Gregory, H; Pearse, A G

1978-01-01

295

Larval salivary glands are a source of primer and releaser pheromone in honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brood pheromone identified in honeybee larvae has primer and releaser pheromone effects on adult bees. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate fatty acid esters—the pheromonal compounds—in different parts of the larvae, we have localized the source of the esters as the larval salivary glands. A histochemical study describes the glands and confirms the presence of lipids in the glands. Epithelial cells of the gland likely secrete the fatty acids into the lumen of the gland. These results demonstrate the salivary glands to be a reservoir of esters, components of brood pheromone, in honeybee larvae.

Conte, Yves Le; Bécard, Jean-Marc; Costagliola, Guy; de Vaublanc, Gérard; Maâtaoui, Mohamed El; Crauser, Didier; Plettner, Erika; Slessor, Keith N.

2006-05-01

296

Comparing the secretory pathway in honeybee venom and hypopharyngeal glands.  

PubMed

We provide insights into the secretory pathway of arthropod gland systems by comparing the royal jelly-producing hypopharyngeal glands and the venom-producing glands of the honeybee, Apis mellifera. These glands have different functions and different product release characteristics, but both belong to the class 3 types of insect glands, each being composed of two cells, a secretory cell and a microduct-forming cell. The hypopharyngeal secretory cells possess an extremely elongate tubular invagination that is filled with a cuticular structure, the end-apparatus, anchored against the cell membrane by a conspicuous series of actin rings. In contrast, venom glands have no actin rings, but instead have an actin-rich brush border surrounding the comparatively short and narrow end-apparatus. We relate these cytoskeletal differences to the production system and utilisation of secretions; venom is stored in a reservoir whereas royal jelly and enzymes are produced on demand. Fluorescence-based characterisation of the actin cytoskeleton combined with scanning electron microscopy of the end-apparatus allows for detailed characterisation of the point of secretion release in insect class 3 glands. PMID:23142089

Kheyri, Homayoun; Cribb, Bronwen W; Merritt, David J

2013-03-01

297

Secret Codon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, "write" a secret message in genetic code as beads on a string. Learners use an amino acid codon table to determine the DNA sequences that correspond to the one-letter amino acid abbreviations that make up their secret word(s). Learners also use start and stop codons in their sequences and follow a color key for the bases. Learners can trade strands with a friend to see if they can decode their secret message.

Yu, Julie

2008-01-01

298

Morphology of lacrimal gland in pig fetuses.  

PubMed

The morphological and histological examinations of the lacrimal gland were conducted on pig fetuses coming from the 20th, 24th, 27th, 30th, 35th, 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation. The morphological examinations were carried out using the method of macroscopic preparation with a forehead magnifying glass and binocular (magnification 1.5-5.0x). In order to better visualize the anatomical elements, 60-80% absolute alcohol and 0.5-4% acetic acid solution were used for the examinations. On the 20th, 24th, 27th, and 30th day of gestation the whole fetuses were collected for the histological examinations. The whole eyeball with developing accessory organs was collected from the pig fetuses on the 35th day of gestation. On the 50th, 63rd, 94th and 112th day of gestation only the lacrimal gland was collected. Staining with H-E and Azan method was performed. On the 20th, 24th, 27th, 30th and 35th day of gestation ectodermal cells were not found in the collected material. On the 50th and 63rd day of gestation the connective tissue divides the gland parenchyma into indistinct lobes composed of gland cells. On the 94th day of gestation the number of lobes is substantially higher than on the 50th and 63rd day of gestation, while the number of lobules forming lobes decreases. On the 112th day of gestation each lobe is composed of 8-22 excretory ducts made up of the simple cuboid epithelium with a round nucleus arranged less or more peripherally. PMID:18197904

Kle?kowska-Nawrot, J; Dziegiel, P

2008-02-01

299

[Bartholin's gland carcinoma].  

PubMed

Bartholin gland carcinoma is a rare tumor. Treatment is not consensual due to the absence of prospective and randomized controlled trials. Bartholin gland carcinoma is actually treated similarly to primary median squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Here we report two cases of 42- and 67-year-old females who developed respectively an adenoid cystic carcinoma, and a squamous carcinoma of Bartholin gland. PMID:24951185

Chraibi, Z; Hebert, T; Body, G; Arbion, F; Ouldamer, L

2014-01-01

300

Fractionated irradiation and early changes in salivary glands. Different effects on potassium efflux, exocytotic amylase release and gland morphology  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation is a potent treatment modality of head and neck cancer. However, the irradiation is usually associated with an influence on salivary glands with ensuing dryness and discomfort for the patients. In the present study we used different in vitro secretory models and morphologic characterization of rat parotid gland. Radiation was given to one gland on a 5-day schedule with 6 MV photons (total dose 20, 30, 35, 40, 45 Gy). The contralateral gland served as control, and the analysis of glands were performed 10 days after the last irradiation treatment. The noradrenaline stimulated electrolyte secretion (86rubidium tracer for potassium) was decreased in relation to the irradiation dose and in comparison to contralateral control glands. Noradrenaline stimulated exocytotic amylase release was not affected by irradiation and, there were no signs of obvious quantitative morphologic alterations after irradiation compared with controls. The results suggest that there are differences in the sensitivity to radiation for the two different secretory processes in salivary glands, and, thus, the structures regulating electrolyte and fluid secretion seem to be more vulnerable to irradiation than the process of exocytosis. The results, however, do not allow discrimination between temporary cellular impairment and irreversible damage leading to cell death.

Franzen, L.; Funegard, U.S.; Sundstroem, S.G.; Gustafsson, H.; Danielsson, A.; Henriksson, R. (University Hospital, Umea (Sweden))

1991-02-01

301

Submandibular gland tumors.  

PubMed

Tumors involving the submandibular gland are rare. However, the incidence of malignancy is much higher than in the parotid (approaching 50 percent). In addition, the 5-year survival rate in patients with malignant tumors of the submandibular gland is much poorer in our series--28 percent versus 71.8 percent for the parotid gland. Because of the poor prognosis in patients with malignant tumors involving the submandibular gland we feel that composite resections should be carried out for all tumors except low-grade mucoepidermoid tumors. In addition, postoperative radiation should be given for specific indications (detailed in the article). PMID:202980

Hanna, D C; Clairmont, A A

1978-02-01

302

Virilizing lipoadenoma of the adrenal gland in a pre-pubertal girl: A rare case  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a 12-year-old girl who presented with the history of hirsutism. On evaluation, she was found to have testosterone secreting adrenal gland tumor. Histopathological examination of the adrenalectomy specimen revealed a lipoadenoma.

Mylarappa, Prasad; Pathade, Amey; Javali, Tarun; Ramesh, D.

2014-01-01

303

Silks produced by insect labial glands  

PubMed Central

Insect silks are secreted from diverse gland types; this chapter deals with the silks produced by labial glands of Holometabola (insects with pupa in their life cycle). Labial silk glands are composed of a few tens or hundreds of large polyploid cells that secrete polymerizing proteins which are stored in the gland lumen as a semi-liquid gel. Polymerization is based on weak molecular interactions between repetitive amino acid motifs present in one or more silk proteins; cross-linking by disulfide bonds may be important in the silks spun under water. The mechanism of long-term storage of the silk dope inside the glands and its conversion into the silk fiber during spinning is not fully understood. The conversion occurs within seconds at ambient temperature and pressure, under minimal drawing force and in some cases under water. The silk filament is largely built of proteins called fibroins and in Lepidoptera and Trichoptera coated by glue-type proteins known as sericins. Silks often contain small amounts of additional proteins of poorly known function. The silk components controlling dope storage and filament formation seem to be conserved at the level of orders, while the nature of polymerizing motifs in the fibroins, which determine the physical properties of silk, differ at the level of family and even genus. Most silks are based on fibroin ?-sheets interrupted with other structures such as ?-helices but the silk proteins of certain sawflies have predominantly a collagen-like or polyglycine II arrangement and the silks of social Hymenoptera are formed from proteins in a coiled coil arrangement.

Sutherland, Tara

2008-01-01

304

The role of uropygial gland on sexual behavior in domestic chicken Gallus gallus domesticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have indicated that avian social behavior is influenced by olfactory cues. During the reproductive season a change in the chemical composition of uropygial gland secretion has been reported in some species and the hypothesis that olfactory signals may be produced by this gland has been proposed. To examine this hypothesis we performed two behavioral experiments to determine whether

Atsushi Hirao; Masato Aoyama; Shoei Sugita

2009-01-01

305

Long-term impairment of the lacrimal glands after radioiodine therapy: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impairment of the lacrimal glands after external radiation has been well documented, but there are only a few reports on the effects of radioiodine therapy on the lacrimal glands. Long-term effects of high-dose radioiodine therapy on tear secretion have not previously been studied. We investigated 175 eyes of 88 patients with a history of radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma (68

Georg Zettinig; Georg Hanselmayer; Barbara J. Fueger; Andrea Hofmann; Christian Pirich; Johannes Nepp; Robert Dudczak

2002-01-01

306

Use of semiconducting laser in drug-induced chronic bilateral inflammation of parotid glands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A case of chronic bilateral inflammation of parotid glands in a patient as a results of complication induced by the drug Ospolot in the treatment of epilepsy was presented. Apart from conventional methods a semiconducting laser was used. The laser beam had beneficial effect on elimination of pain and increase in the parotid gland secretion activity.

Grzesiak-Janas, Grazyna

1997-10-01

307

Effect of Androgen Deficiency on the Human Meibomian Gland and Ocular Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the chronic use of antiandrogen medications leads to meibomian gland dysfunction, altered lipid profiles in meibomian gland secretions, decreased tear film stability, and evaporative dry eye. Subjects taking antiandrogen therapy for prostatic indications, as well as age-related controls, were asked to complete a questionnaire that assessed dry eye symptoms and then

KATHLEEN L. KRENZER; M. REZA DANA; M. DAVID ULLMAN; JENNIFER M. CERMAK; DOROTHY B. TOLLS; JAMES E. EVANS; DAVID A. SULLIVAN; Edith Norse; Eunice Kennedy

2000-01-01

308

Alteration of tight junctional permeability in the rat parotid gland after isoproterenol stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The permeability of junctional complexes to ultrastructural tracers of different molecular weight and the freeze-fracture appearance of junctional structure were investigated in the resting and stimulated rat parotid gland . Tracers were administered retrogradely via the main excretory duct, and allowed to flow by gravity (16 mmHg) into the gland for 15-60 min . Secretion was induced in some animals

MARIO R. MAZARIEGOS; LOIS W. TICE; ARTHUR R. HAND

1984-01-01

309

Phagocytic capacity of leucocytes in sheep mammary secretions following weaning  

PubMed Central

Lactating animals are particularly susceptible to mastitis during the early stages of mammary gland involution following weaning. In this study we compared the phagocytic capacity of cells collected from sheep mammary secretions at different stages of involution. The ability of neutrophils and macrophages to ingest latex beads in an in vitro phagocytosis assay was found to be dependent on how heavily the phagocytes were loaded with milk constituents. There was a decline in the phagocytic capacity of neutrophils from 1 to 2 days after weaning, while macrophages collected from fully involuted glands were more effective phagocytes compared with earlier stages (7–15 days) of involution. In addition, dendritic cells present in fully involuted mammary gland secretions (30 days after weaning) were highly phagocytic. These studies demonstrate that neutrophils and macrophages in sheep mammary secretions at early stages of involution are incapacitated, and as such may compromise the immune status of the mammary gland.

Tatarczuch, Liliana; Bischof, Robert J; Philip, Christopher J; Lee, Chee-Seong

2002-01-01

310

Parasympathetic Control of Airway Submucosal Glands: Central Reflexes and the Airway Intrinsic Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Airway submucosal glands produce the mucus that lines the upper airways to protect them against insults. This review summarizes evidence for two forms of gland secretion, and hypothesizes that each is mediated by different but partially overlapping neural pathways. Airway innate defense comprises low level gland secretion, mucociliary clearance and surveillance by airway-resident phagocytes to keep the airways sterile in spite of nearly continuous inhalation of low levels of pathogens. Gland secretion serving innate defense is hypothesized to be under the control of intrinsic (peripheral) airway neurons and local reflexes, and these may depend disproportionately on non-cholinergic mechanisms, with most secretion being produced by VIP and tachykinins. In the genetic disease cystic fibrosis, airway glands no longer secrete in response to VIP alone and fail to show the synergy between VIP, tachykinins and ACh that is observed in normal glands. The consequent crippling of the submucosal gland contribution to innate defense may be one reason that cystic fibrosis airways are infected by mucus-resident bacteria and fungi that are routinely cleared from normal airways. By contrast, the acute (emergency) airway defense reflex is centrally mediated by vagal pathways, is primarily cholinergic, and stimulates copious volumes of gland mucus in response to acute, intense challenges to the airways, such as those produced by very vigorous exercise or aspiration of foreign material. In cystic fibrosis, the acute airway defense reflex can still stimulate the glands to secrete large amounts of mucus, although its properties are altered. Importantly, treatments that recruit components of the acute reflex, such as inhalation of hypertonic saline, are beneficial in treating cystic fibrosis airway disease. The situation for recipients of lung transplants is the reverse; transplanted airways retain the airway intrinsic nervous system but lose centrally mediated reflexes. The consequences of this for gland secretion and airway defense are poorly understood, but it is possible that interventions to modify submucosal gland secretion in transplanted lungs might have therapeutic consequences. Introduction and overviewProtecting the Airways: mucus and submucosal glands.The airway intrinsic nervous system: a special role in innate defense?Innate defense: prophylactic secretion and local responses.Acute ‘Emergency’ airway defense reflexesAirway receptors: Improved methods reveal greater diversityHijacking emergency defense for innate defense: receptor plasticity and airways sensitization.Conclusion: Implications for cystic fibrosis and lung transplantation.

Wine, Jeffrey J.

2007-01-01

311

Cross-Talk with Myeloid Accessory Cells Regulates Human Natural Killer Cell Interferon-? Responses to Malaria  

PubMed Central

Data from a variety of experimental models suggest that natural killer (NK) cells require signals from accessory cells in order to respond optimally to pathogens, but the precise identity of the cells able to provide such signals depends upon the nature of the infectious organism. Here we show that the ability of human NK cells to produce interferon-? in response to stimulation by Plasmodium falciparum–infected red blood cells (iRBCs) is strictly dependent upon multiple, contact-dependent and cytokine-mediated signals derived from both monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs). Contrary to some previous reports, we find that both monocytes and mDCs express an activated phenotype following short-term incubation with iRBCs and secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines. The magnitude of the NK cell response (and of the KIR? CD56bright NK cell population in particular) is tightly correlated with resting levels of accessory cell maturation, indicating that heterogeneity of the NK response to malaria is a reflection of deep-rooted heterogeneity in the human innate immune system. Moreover, we show that NK cells are required to maintain the maturation status of resting mDCs and monocytes, providing additional evidence for reciprocal regulation of NK cells and accessory cells. However, NK cell–derived signals are not required for activation of accessory cells by either iRBCs or bacterial lipolysaccharide. Together, these data suggest that there may be differences in the sequence of events required for activation of NK cells by non-viral pathogens compared to the classical model of NK activation by virus-infected or major histocompatibility complex–deficient cells. These findings have far-reaching implications for the study of immunity to infection in human populations.

Hafalla, Julius C; Riley, Eleanor M

2006-01-01

312

Ultrastructure and cytochemistry of salivary glands of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae.  

PubMed

Podisus nigrispinus Dallas (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a zoophytophagous insect with a potential for use as a biological control agent in agriculture because nymphs and adults actively prey on various insects by inserting mouthparts and regurgitating the contents of the salivary glands inside the prey, causing rapid paralysis and death. However, the substances found in saliva of P. nigrispinus that causes the death of the prey are unknown. As a first step to identify the component of the saliva of P. nigrispinus, this study evaluated the ultrastructure and cytochemistry of the salivary glands of P. nigrispinus. The salivary system of P. nigrispinus has a pair of principal salivary glands, which are bilobed with a short anterior lobe and a long posterior lobe, and a pair of tubular accessory glands. The principal gland epithelium is composed of a single layer of cells enclosing a large lumen. Epithelial cells of the principal salivary gland vary from cubic to columnar shape, with one or two spherical and well-developed nuclei. Cells of the anterior lobe of the principal salivary gland have an apical surface with narrow, short, and irregular plasma membrane foldings; apical and perinuclear cytoplasm rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum; and mitochondria with tubular cristae. The basal portion of the secretory cells has mitochondria associated with many basal plasma membrane infoldings that are short but form large extracellular canals. Secretory granules with electron-dense core and electron-transparent peripheral are dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Cells of the posterior lobe of the principal salivary gland are similar to those of the anterior lobe, except for the presence of mitochondria with transverse cristae. The accessory salivary gland cells are columnar with apical microvilli, have well-developed nucleus and cytoplasm rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum, and have secretory granules. Cytochemical tests showed positive reactions for carbohydrate, protein, and acid phosphatase in different regions of the glandular system. The principal salivary glands of P. nigrispinus do not have muscle cells attached to its wall, suggesting that saliva-releasing mechanism may occurs with the participation of some thorax muscles. The cytochemical and ultrastructural features suggest that the principal and accessory salivary glands play a role in protein synthesis of the saliva. PMID:24022679

Martínez, Luis Carlos; Fialho, Maria do Carmo Queiroz; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

2014-05-01

313

An accessory flexor digitorum longus muscle.  

PubMed

An accessory flexor digitorum longus muscle (M. flexor digitorum longus accessorius) in a 60-year-old male cadaver was encountered during routine dissections in our laboratory. The muscle originated from the deep transverse fascia of the leg, covering flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus, and tibialis posterior muscles, and additionally from some fibres of these muscles. After the tendon of the muscle passed behind the medial malleolus, it inserted into the tendon of the flexor digitorum longus muscle where the latter separated into four digital tendons. PMID:8273449

Yüksel, M; Ondero?lu, S; Yener, N; Yüksel, E

1993-01-01

314

Neuropeptides degranulate serous cells of ferret tracheal glands  

SciTech Connect

To determine whether serous or mucous cells in tracheal submucosal glands respond to the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The authors studied the peptide-induced changes in gland cell morphology accompanying release of TVSO4-labeled macromolecules from tracheal explants of ferrets. Explants were labeled for 1 h in medium containing TVSO4 and washed for 3.5 additional hours. Base-line secretion in the absence of drugs declined between 1.5 and 3.5 h after the pulse. Between 2.5 and 3.5 h, the average percent change in counts per minute recovered per sample period was not significantly different from zero. Substance P and VIP added 4 h after labeling each increased greatly the release of TVSO4-labeled macromolecules above base line. Bethanechol, a muscarinic-cholinergic agonist, increased secretion by an average of 142% above base line. Light and electron microscopy of the control tissues showed glands with narrow lumens and numerous secretory granules. Glands treated with SP or VIP had enlarged lumens and the serous cells were markedly degranulated. These phenomena were documented by morphometry and suggest that SP and VIP cause secretion from glands at least partially by stimulating exocytosis from serous cells.

Gashi, A.A.; Borson, D.B.; Finkbeiner, W.E.; Nadel, J.A.; Basbaum, C.B.

1986-08-01

315

The role of secreting structures position on the leaf volatile organic compounds of Hypericum androsaemum.  

PubMed

Hypericum androsaemum L. presents typical translucent, essential oil producing glands, which are distributed on the leaf along both margins (margin glands) and on the lamina (lamina glands). The gland secretion was studied by histochemical and chemical analysis; the gland content was sampled directly from the secretory glands, and the volatile organic compounds (VOC) of the margin and lamina glands were separately analyzed. The lipophilic fraction of the lamina glands had as main components: (E)-2-hexenal (15.5%), hexadecanoic acid (14.7%), beta-caryophyllene (11.2%), germacrene B (11.0%) and gamma-himachalene (9.8%). The lipophilic fraction of the margin glands had as its main components: beta-pinene (22.0%), limonene (17.6%), (E)-beta-ocimene (6.1%), methyl linoleate (5.7%), terpinolene (5.4 %), (E)-2-hexenal (4.9%) and alpha-pinene (4.1%). PMID:20184033

Giuliani, Claudia; Pellegrino, Roberto Maria; Tirillini, Bruno; Maleci Bini, Laura

2010-01-01

316

The metapleural gland of ants.  

PubMed

The metapleural gland (MG) is a complex glandular structure unique to ants, suggesting a critical role in their origin and ecological success. We synthesize the current understanding of the adaptive function, morphology, evolutionary history, and chemical properties of the MG. Two functions of the MG, sanitation and chemical defence, have received the strongest empirical support; two additional possible functions, recognition odour and territorial marking, are less well supported. The design of the MG is unusual for insects; glandular secretions are stored in a rigid, non-compressible invagination of the integument and the secretion is thought to ooze out passively through the non-closable opening of the MG or is groomed off by the legs and applied to target surfaces. MG loss has occurred repeatedly among the ants, particularly in the subfamilies Formicinae and Myrmicinae, and the MG is more commonly absent in males than in workers. MG chemistry has been characterized mostly in derived ant lineages with unique biologies (e.g. leafcutter ants, fire ants), currently precluding any inferences about MG chemistry at the origin of the ants. A synthetic approach integrating functional morphology, phylogenetic transitions and chemical ecology of the MGs of both the derived and the unstudied early-branching (basal) ant lineages is needed to elucidate the evolutionary origin and diversification of the MG of ants. PMID:21504532

Yek, Sze Huei; Mueller, Ulrich G

2011-11-01

317

Physiology of the pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pituitary gland is made of clusters of cells producing specific hormones that control growth (growth hormones, GH), thyroid function (TH), adrenal function (ACTH), gonadal function (FSH and LH). In addition, the neurons that join the posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) secrete vasopressin - the antidiuretic hormone involved in maintaining water balance.The negative feedback loop is the basic mechanism to control the

Radu Mihai

2011-01-01

318

Feather mites and birds: an interaction mediated by uropygial gland size?  

PubMed

Feather mites (Arachnida: Acari: Astigmata) feed mainly on secretions of the uropygial gland of birds. Here, we use analyses corrected for phylogeny and body size to show that there is a positive correlation between the size of this gland and mite abundance in passerine birds at an interspecific level during the breeding season, suggesting that the gland mediates interactions between mites and birds. As predicted on the basis of hypothesized waterproofing and antibiotic functions of uropygial gland secretions, riparian/marsh bird species had larger glands and higher mite loads than birds living in less mesic terrestrial environments. An unexpected pattern was a steeper relationship between mite load and gland size in migratory birds than in residents. If moderate mite loads are beneficial to a host but high loads detrimental, this could create complex selection regimes in which gland size influences mite load and vice versa. Mites may exert selective pressures on gland size of their hosts that has resulted in smaller glands among migratory bird species, suggesting that smaller glands may have evolved in these birds to attenuate a possible detrimental effect of feather mites when present in large numbers. PMID:18028353

Galván, I; Barba, E; Piculo, R; Cantó, J L; Cortés, V; Monrós, J S; Atiénzar, F; Proctor, H

2008-01-01

319

Intelligence Secrets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Review of James Rusbridger, Betrayal at Pearl Harbour: How Churchill Lured Roosevelt into World War II and Bradley Smith Eric Nave: The Ultra-Magic Deals and the Most Secret Special Relationship, 1940-1946

David Stafford

2012-01-01

320

Reviewing prescription spending and accessory usage.  

PubMed

This article aims to explore the role of the stoma nurse specialist in the community and how recent initiatives within the NHS have impacted on the roles in stoma care to react to the rising prescription costs in the specialty. The article will explore how the stoma care nurse conducted her prescription reviews within her own clinical commissioning group (CCG). The findings of the reviews will be highlighted by a small case history and a mini audit that reveals that some stoma patients may be using their stoma care accessories inappropriately, which may contribute to the rise in stoma prescription spending. To prevent the incorrect use of stoma appliances it may necessitate an annual review of ostomates (individuals who have a stoma), as the author's reviews revealed that inappropriate usage was particularly commonplace when a patient may have not been reviewed by a stoma care specialist for some considerable amount of time. Initial education of the ostomate and ongoing education of how stoma products work is essential to prevent the misuse of stoma appliances, particularly accessories, as the reviews revealed that often patients were not always aware of how their products worked in practice. PMID:24642774

Oxenham, Julie

321

Apocrine glands in the eyelid of primates contribute to the ocular host defense.  

PubMed

Apocrine glands of Moll are regular components of primate eyelids. We studied the distribution and localization of these glands in three different primate species, the common marmoset, the rhesus monkey, and the hamadryas baboon. In addition, we tested the primate glands of Moll with antibodies against antimicrobial proteins, cytoskeletal proteins and the androgen receptor. The glands of Moll differ in abundance and distribution in different monkeys. In the common marmoset, a representative of the New World monkeys, Platyrrhini, the apocrine glands are frequently found at the lid margin and in the overlying epidermis of the lid. In the rhesus monkey and the hamadryas baboon, representatives of Old World monkeys, Catarrhini, apocrine glands are rarer and located predominantly at the margin of the lid. The immunohistochemical analysis indicates the presence of a variety of antimicrobial proteins, e.g. lysozyme, beta-defensin-2, adrenomedullin, lactoferrin, and IgA, in these glands. Interestingly, there are basically no androgen receptors in the nuclei of apocrine glands at the lid margin in all three monkey species. In the common marmoset, however, androgen receptors are found in apocrine glands of the overlying epidermis of the lid. We speculate that the glands of Moll are derived from apocrine glands as found in the skin of the entire body in New World monkeys which developed at the lid margins of higher primates and humans into specialized glands secreting agents of host defense in the eye. PMID:15118398

Stoeckelhuber, Mechthild; Stoeckelhuber, Beate M; Welsch, Ulrich

2004-01-01

322

Gland With Cantilever Seal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single-piece gland forms tight seal on probe or tube containing liquid or gas at high pressure. Gland and probe align as assembled by simple torquing procedure. Disconnected easily and reused at same site. Made from any of wide variety of materials so compatible with application. Cantilever ring at top of gland bites into wall of tube or probe, sealing it. Wall of tube or probe must be thick enough to accommodate deformation without rupturing. Maximum deformation designed in coordination with seating and deformation of boss or conical seal.

Melton, Patrick B.

1989-01-01

323

Visual secret sharing for multiple secrets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional visual secret sharing schemes are designed for a single secret image so it is inefficient to generate numerous share images for multiple secret images simultaneously. Therefore, a novel visual secret sharing scheme for multiple secret images is proposed in this paper. In the proposed encryption process, a stacking relationship graph of secret pixels and share blocks is generated to

Jen-bang Feng; Hsien-chu Wu; Chwei-shyong Tsai; Ya-fen Chang; Yen-ping Chu

2008-01-01

324

Where to Find Hair Loss Accessories and Breast Cancer Products  

MedlinePLUS

Where to Find Hair Loss Accessories and Breast Cancer Products Cancer treatments can cause major changes in the way you look – like surgery that ... to find a retailer near you. Wigs and hair loss accessories This is a list of retailers that ...

325

21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. ...Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a...AC-powered, in which a patient sits. The device is...to properly position a patient to perform dental procedures... Class I. The dental chair without the...

2010-04-01

326

21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. ...Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a...AC-powered, in which a patient sits. The device is...to properly position a patient to perform dental procedures... Class I. The dental chair without the...

2009-04-01

327

21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. ...Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a...AC-powered, in which a patient sits. The device is...to properly position a patient to perform dental procedures... Class I. The dental chair without the...

2013-04-01

328

Salivary gland derived peptides as a new class of anti-inflammatory agents: review of preclinical pharmacology of C-terminal peptides of SMR1 protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limitations of steroidal and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have prompted investigation into other biologically based therapeutics, and identification of immune selective anti-inflammatory agents of salivary origin. The traditional view of salivary glands as accessory digestive structures is changing as their importance as sources of systemically active immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory factors is recognized. Salivary gland involvement in maintenance of whole

Ronald D Mathison; Joseph S Davison; A Dean Befus; Daniel A Gingerich

2010-01-01

329

Involvement of melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAPs) in the function of melanocortin receptors.  

PubMed

The melanocortin system integrates different agonists, competitive or inverse agonists, and receptors. Recent investigations have also discovered a specific system of melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAPs) that are involved in the regulation of the functional expression of these receptors. MRAP1 mutations are responsible for type 2 familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD2), a rare autosomal disorder characterized by high plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) levels but severe cortisol deficiency. ACTH binds melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), a G protein-coupled receptor, in the adrenal gland to promote corticosteroid synthesis. In the absence of MRAP1, MC2R cannot translocate from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane and ACTH-induced signaling is extinguished. A second MRAP protein, called MRAP2, also modulates MC2R activity. MRAPs also interact with the other melanocortin receptors, adjusting their pharmacological properties. In this paper, we briefly review the MRAP system and its interaction with melanocortin receptors. PMID:23410915

Cerdá-Reverter, J M; Agulleiro, M J; Cortés, R; Sánchez, E; Guillot, R; Leal, E; Fernández-Durán, B; Puchol, S; Eley, M

2013-07-01

330

Severe subfertility in mice with androgen receptor inactivation in sex accessory organs but not in testis.  

PubMed

Androgen action on sex accessory organs influences rodent fertility, but the mechanisms remain unclear and investigation is difficult without the ability to restrict androgen action in specific tissues. We used Cre-LoxP technology to generate male mice with prostate epithelial-specific androgen receptor deficiency (denoted PEARKO). In addition to prostate, these males have reduced androgen action due to tissue-selective androgen receptor inactivation in seminal vesicle, epididymis, and vas deferens, whereas the testis is unaffected. We find that fertility of PEARKO males was severely reduced, compared with littermates with prominent defects in copulatory plug formation, which were smaller, softer, and more friable than controls. Despite normal testis sperm production, sperm numbers were reduced in caput but increased in cauda epididymis, suggesting alterations in sperm epididymal transit kinetics associated with increased rate of spontaneous acrosome reaction and abnormal flagellar morphology in PEARKO cauda epididymal sperm. Whereas the quantitative in vitro fertilizing ability of PEARKO epididymal sperm was normal, fewer fertilized oocytes were flushed from the oviducts of females after natural mating with PEARKO males. These data show that sperm formed in mice with impaired androgen action restricted to accessory glands and epididymis are quantitatively normal in number and in vitro fertilizing function but that severe in vivo subfertility reflects other functions related to sperm transport and survival in female reproductive tract that determine fertility in vivo. PMID:18356274

Simanainen, Ulla; McNamara, Keely; Davey, Rachel A; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Handelsman, David J

2008-07-01

331

Adrenal Gland Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... of salt and water Controlling the "fight or flight" response to stress Maintaining pregnancy Initiating and controlling ... overview of the adrenal glands: Beyond fight or flight . Retrieved June 29, 2012 from http://www.endocrineweb. ...

332

Salivary gland biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

... 21. Lacey J.Diagnostic Imaging and Fine-Needle Aspiration of the Salivary Glands. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 5th ed. Philadelphia, ...

333

Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones  

MedlinePLUS

... Citation Help Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Endocrine System » Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life ...

334

Functional requirement of aquaporin-5 in plasma membranes of sweat glands  

PubMed Central

The distribution and function of aquaporins (AQPs) have not previously been defined in sweat glands. In this study, AQP1, AQP3, and AQP5 mRNA were demonstrated in rat paw by reverse transcription (RT)–PCR, but AQP2 and AQP4 were not. AQP1, AQP3, and AQP5 protein were confirmed in these tissues by immunoblotting. AQP1 was identified in capillary endothelial cells by immunohistochemical labeling, but not in sweat glands or epidermis. Abundant AQP3 expression was seen in basal levels of epidermis, but not in sweat glands. AQP2 and AQP4 were not observed in either skin or sweat glands. Immunohistochemical labeling revealed abundant AQP5 in secretory parts of rat and mouse sweat glands, where immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated abundant AQP5 labeling in the apical plasma membrane. AQP5 immunolabeling of human sweat glands yielded a similar pattern. To establish the role of AQP5 in sweat secretion, we tested the response of adult mice to s.c. injection of pilocarpine, as visualized by reaction of secreted amylase with iodine/starch. The number of active sweat glands was dramatically reduced in AQP5-null (?/?) mice compared with heterozygous (+/?) and wild-type (+/+) mice. We conclude that the presence of AQP5 in plasma membranes of sweat glands is essential for secretion, providing potential insight into mechanisms underlying mammalian thermoregulation, tactile sensitivity, and the pathophysiology of hyperhidrosis.

Nejsum, Lene N.; Kwon, Tae-Hwan; Jensen, Uffe B.; Fumagalli, Ornella; Fr?kiaer, J?rgen; Krane, Carissa M.; Menon, Anil G.; King, Landon S.; Agre, Peter C.; Nielsen, S?ren

2002-01-01

335

Radionuclide salivary gland imaging  

SciTech Connect

Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

Mishkin, F.S.

1981-10-01

336

Accessory mental foramen: a rare anatomical finding  

PubMed Central

Accessory mental foramen (AMF) is a rare anatomical variation with a prevalence ranging from 1.4 to 10%. Even so, in order to avoid neurovascular complications, particular attention should be paid to the possible occurrence of one or more AMF during surgical procedures involving the mandible. Careful surgical dissection should be performed in the region so that the presence of AMF can be detected and the occurrence of a neurosensory disturbance or haemorrhage can be avoided. Although this anatomical variation is rare, it should be kept in mind that an AMF may exist. Trigeminal neuralgia was diagnosed. On the basis of diagnostic test results, peripheral neurectomy of mental nerve was planned. Failure to do neurectomy of mental nerve branch in the reported case, coming out from AMF, would have resulted in recurrence of pain and eventually failure of the procedure.

Thakur, Gagan; Thomas, Shaji; Thayil, Sumeeth Cyriac; Nair, Preeti P

2011-01-01

337

Hunting for eruption ages in accessory minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary goal in geochronology is to provide precise and accurate ages for tephras that serve as chronostratigraphic markers for constraining the timing and rates of volcanism, sedimentation, climate change, and catastrophic events in Earth history. Zircon remains the most versatile accessory mineral for dating silicic tephras due to its common preservation in distal pyroclastic deposits, as well as the robustness of its U-Pb and U-series systems even after host materials have been hydrothermally altered or weathered. Countless studies document that zircon may be complexly zoned in age due to inheritance, contamination, recycling of antecrysts, protracted crystallization in long-lived magma reservoirs, or any combination of these. Other accessory minerals such as allanite or chevkinite can retain similar records of protracted crystallization. If the goal is to date the durations of magmatic crystallization, differentiation, and/or magma residence, then these protracted chronologies within and between accessory minerals are a blessing. However, if the goal is to date the timing of eruption with high precision, i.e., absolute ages with millennial-scale uncertainties, then this age zoning is a curse. Observations from ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of Pleistocene zircon and allanite provide insight into the record of near-eruption crystallization in accessory minerals and serve as a guide for high-precision whole-crystal dating. Although imprecise relative to conventional techniques, ion probe analysis allows high-spatial resolution 238U-230Th dating that can document multi-millennial age distributions at the crystal scale. Analysis of unpolished rims and continuous depth profiling of zircon from small and large volume eruptions (e.g., Coso, Mono Craters, Yellowstone) reveals that the final several micrometers of crystallization often yield ages that are indistinguishable from associated eruption ages from the 40Ar/39Ar or (U-Th)/He methods. Using this approach, we have derived relatively precise (± ~ 5%, 2?) U-Th isochron ages from the unpolished rims of pumice-derived allanite and zircon from late Pleistocene Wilson Creek Formation tephras in eastern California, whose ages are controversial and have been difficult to resolve via 40Ar/39Ar and radiocarbon dating. Allanite and zircon rims from Ashes 7-19 in the lower portion of Wilson Creek sediments yield stratigraphically consistent ages of ca. 27 ka to ca. 62 ka, with a minority of crystals identifiable as xenocrysts from early Mono Craters rhyolites. Model ages for the interiors of allanite crystals are mostly < 10 k.y. older than their rims. Tephra deposited during the geomagnetic excursion debated to be either the Mono Lake or Laschamp event yields a rim isochron age of ca. 41 ka. This age is indistinguishable from an independent age of 41 ka derived at the latter excursion's type locality in France (Singer et al., 2009) as well as from age-models for deep-sea sediments. The results are in excellent agreement with a previously determined chronology derived from magnetostratigraphy (Zimmerman et al., 2006). Refs: Singer et al., 2009, EPSL 286: 80-88; Zimmerman et al., 2006, EPSL 252: 94-106

Vazquez, J. A.

2012-12-01

338

Unusual accessory tendon connecting the hallucal extensors.  

PubMed

During routine dissection of an adult human cadaver, a suite of tendinous anomalies was discovered in the left hallucal region. Whereas the main tendon of the extensor hallucis longus muscle inserted normally, two accessory tendons were found coursing medial and lateral to the main tendon. The most lateral tendon originated from a supernumerary muscle belly and merged with the tendon of extensor hallucis brevis to form a composite tendon. The most medial tendon crossed the metatarsophalangeal joint and joined the composite tendon deep to the tendon of extensor hallucis longus. A terminal tendon, consisting of these three contributions, inserted upon the proximal hallucal phalanx. This variant likely arose due to atypical differentiation of the common extensor muscle mass during development, and is of particular significance to clinicians performing arthroscopy, tendon transfers, and other surgical procedures. PMID:19159364

Hill, Robert V; Gerges, Luke

2008-12-01

339

[Juxtabulbar neurinoma of the spinal accessory nerve].  

PubMed

A 27-year-old woman presented with right spinal accessory juxtabulbar schwannoma, associated with hydrocephalus. The only specific clinical symptom was long-standing weakness of the right trapezius. C.T. scan evoked a cerebellar tumor, whilst the jugular foramen appeared normal. Vertebral angiography was not decisive. M.R.I. suggested an extra-axial tumor. Post-operative evolution was entirely favourable. Schwannomas of the 9th, 10th and 11th cranial nerves are generally located at the level of the jugular foramen but can also be observed along the extracranial path of these nerves. An intracranial paramedial, or so-called "intracisternal" localization is rare and is best diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:1461336

Fransen, P; Dooms, G; Mathurin, P; Thauvoy, C; Stroobandt, G

1992-01-01

340

Unmasking of the trigemino-accessory reflex in accessory facial anastomosis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the possible blink reflex responses in facial muscles reinnervated by the accessory nerve.?METHOD—Eleven patients with a complete facial palsy were submitted to a surgical repair by an accessory facial nerve anastomosis (AFA). In this pathological group, blink reflex was studied by means of percutaneous electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve and recording from the orbicularis oculi muscle. A control group comprised seven normal people and seven patients with a complete Bell's facial palsy; in this group, responses on the sternocleidomastoideus (SCM) muscles were studied after supraorbital nerve stimulation.?RESULTS—All the patients with AFA showed a consistent degree of facial reinnervation. Ten out of the 11 patients with AFA showed reflex responses; in six, responses were configured by a double component pattern, resembling the R1 and R2 components of the blink reflex; three patients had an R1-like response and one patient showed a unique R2 component. Mean values of latencies were 15.2 (SD 4.6) ms for the R1 and 85.3 (SD 9.6) ms for the R2. In the control group, eight out of 14 people had evidence of reflex responses in the SCM muscles; these were almost exclusively configured by a bilateral late component (mean latency 63.5 (SD15.9) ms) and only one of the subjects showed an early response at 11ms.?CONCLUSION—The trigemino-accessory reflex response in the pathological group was more complex and of a significantly higher incidence than in the control group. These differences could be tentatively explained by a mechanism of synaptic plasticity induced by the impairment of the efferent portion of the reflex. This could unmask the central linking between the trigeminal and the accessory limbs of the reflex. The findings described could be a demonstration of neurobionomic function in the repairing process of the nervous system.??

Esteban, A.; Prieto, J.

1999-01-01

341

Proteomic analysis of Drosophila mojavensis male accessory glands suggests novel classes of seminal fluid proteins.  

PubMed

Fruit-flies of the genus Drosophila are characterized by overwhelming variation in fertilization traits such as copulatory plug formation, sperm storage organ use, and nutritional ejaculatory donation. Despite extensive research on the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster, little is known about the molecular underpinnings of these interspecific differences. This study employs a proteomic approach to pin-point candidate seminal fluid proteins in Drosophila mojavensis, a cactophilic fruit-fly that exhibits divergent reproductive biology when compared to D. melanogaster. We identify several classes of candidate seminal fluid proteins not previously documented in the D. melanogaster male ejaculate, including metabolic enzymes, nutrient transport proteins, and clotting factors. Conversely, we also define 29 SFPs that are conserved despite >40 million years of Drosophila evolution. We discuss our results in terms of universal processes in insect reproduction, as well as the specialized reproductive biology of D. mojavensis. PMID:19328853

Kelleher, Erin S; Watts, Thomas D; LaFlamme, Brooke A; Haynes, Paul A; Markow, Therese A

2009-01-01

342

Tokens of love: Functions and regulation of drosophila male accessory gland products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A male fruit fly influences the behavior and physiology of his mate via molecules that he transmits to her'in his semen. The mated female fly has an elevated rate of egg laying, a decreased receptivity to mating and a shorter life span; she also stores sperm from the mating. Molecular genetic analyses possible in this insect model system permit the

Mariana F. Wolfner

1997-01-01

343

The pygidial defense gland system of the Steninae (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae): morphology, ultrastructure and evolution.  

PubMed

The pygidial defense glands of the Steninae consist of two big (r1) and two smaller (r2) secretion filled sac-like reservoirs with associated secretory tissues and basal eversible membrane structures. The secretion is made up of deterrent and antimicrobial alkaloids stored in r1 as well as terpenes in r2. The gland cells filling r1 form a band shaped secretory tissue (g1) in an invagination of the reservoir membrane. The content of r2 is secreted by a tissue (g2) surrounding the efferent duct of r1 opposite to r2. In both gland tissues the secretion is produced in type IIIt gland cells and accumulates in an extracellular cavity surrounded by numerous microvilli of the gland cell membrane. After exocytosis the secretion enters an epicuticular duct and is transported to the corresponding reservoir via a conducting canal enclosed in at least one canal cell. While the structure of g1 is very similar in all species of the Steninae, g2 is often reduced. This reduction of the system r2/g2 is accompanied by a decreasing amount of terpenes in the total secretion and could be of interest for phylogenetic studies in the subfamily of the Steninae. PMID:23500955

Schierling, Andreas; Dettner, Konrad

2013-05-01

344

Circadian Regulation of Pineal Gland Rhythmicity  

PubMed Central

The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ of the brain. Its main task is to synthesize and secrete melatonin, a nocturnal hormone with diverse physiological functions. This review will focus on the central and pineal mechanisms in generation of mammalian pineal rhythmicity including melatonin production. In particular, this review covers the following topics: (1) local control of serotonin and melatonin rhythms; (2) neurotransmitters involved in central control of melatonin; (3) plasticity of the neural circuit controlling melatonin production; (4) role of clock genes in melatonin formation; (5) phase control of pineal rhythmicity; (6) impact of light at night on pineal rhythms; and (7) physiological function of the pineal rhythmicity.

Borjigin, Jimo; Zhang, L. Samantha; Calinescu, Anda-Alexandra

2011-01-01

345

Secret Messages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use Teflon (PTFE) tape to write secret messages. Learners may be familiar with Teflon-coated pans, but they probably do not know that Teflon is also made into tape that is used by plumbers. Teflon tape is great for plumbing because it stretches a little and makes a great seal, and since it is slippery, it makes pipes easier to screw together. Learners take advantage of Teflon tape's stretchiness to write secret messages. Use this activity to discuss the various types of polymer structures.

Mississippi, University O.

2003-01-01

346

Cell-to-cell propagation of intracellular signals fluorescently visualized with acridine orange in the gastric glands of guinea pigs.  

PubMed

Secretion from the gastric gland involves the activation of various types of cells in a coordinated manner. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the coordination of secretion, we studied live fluorescence images of guinea pig gastric glands stained with acridine orange (AO). On 2 ?M AO staining, individual cells were characterized by metachromatic colors and various intensities of fluorescence. When the gland was stimulated with 100 ?M of histamine, green fluorescence was transiently increased in parietal cells and intermediate cells and propagated along the gland for a long distance over many cells. Local stimulation in a couple of cells with histamine in the presence of suramin also induced propagation. However, the fluorescence response was suppressed by the addition of H-89, a protein kinase A inhibitor. These findings suggest that a cAMP-dependent signal propagates intercellularly through a variety of cells to induce coordinated secretion in the entire gastric gland. PMID:24680825

Fukushi, Yasuko; Sakurai, Takashi; Terakawa, Susumu

2014-04-25

347

The HLH-6 transcription factor regulates C. elegans pharyngeal gland development and function.  

PubMed

The Caenorhabditis elegans pharynx (or foregut) functions as a pump that draws in food (bacteria) from the environment. While the "organ identity factor" PHA-4 is critical for formation of the C. elegans pharynx as a whole, little is known about the specification of distinct cell types within the pharynx. Here, we use a combination of bioinformatics, molecular biology, and genetics to identify a helix-loop-helix transcription factor (HLH-6) as a critical regulator of pharyngeal gland development. HLH-6 is required for expression of a number of gland-specific genes, acting through a discrete cis-regulatory element named PGM1 (Pharyngeal Gland Motif 1). hlh-6 mutants exhibit a frequent loss of a subset of glands, while the remaining glands have impaired activity, indicating a role for hlh-6 in both gland development and function. Interestingly, hlh-6 mutants are also feeding defective, ascribing a biological function for the glands. Pharyngeal pumping in hlh-6 mutants is normal, but hlh-6 mutants lack expression of a class of mucin-related proteins that are normally secreted by pharyngeal glands and line the pharyngeal cuticle. An interesting possibility is that one function of pharyngeal glands is to secrete a pharyngeal lining that ensures efficient transport of food along the pharyngeal lumen. PMID:18927627

Smit, Ryan B; Schnabel, Ralf; Gaudet, Jeb

2008-10-01

348

The HLH-6 Transcription Factor Regulates C. elegans Pharyngeal Gland Development and Function  

PubMed Central

The Caenorhabditis elegans pharynx (or foregut) functions as a pump that draws in food (bacteria) from the environment. While the “organ identity factor” PHA-4 is critical for formation of the C. elegans pharynx as a whole, little is known about the specification of distinct cell types within the pharynx. Here, we use a combination of bioinformatics, molecular biology, and genetics to identify a helix-loop-helix transcription factor (HLH-6) as a critical regulator of pharyngeal gland development. HLH-6 is required for expression of a number of gland-specific genes, acting through a discrete cis-regulatory element named PGM1 (Pharyngeal Gland Motif 1). hlh-6 mutants exhibit a frequent loss of a subset of glands, while the remaining glands have impaired activity, indicating a role for hlh-6 in both gland development and function. Interestingly, hlh-6 mutants are also feeding defective, ascribing a biological function for the glands. Pharyngeal pumping in hlh-6 mutants is normal, but hlh-6 mutants lack expression of a class of mucin-related proteins that are normally secreted by pharyngeal glands and line the pharyngeal cuticle. An interesting possibility is that one function of pharyngeal glands is to secrete a pharyngeal lining that ensures efficient transport of food along the pharyngeal lumen.

Smit, Ryan B.; Schnabel, Ralf; Gaudet, Jeb

2008-01-01

349

Expression of the DBA/2J Ren-2 gene in the adrenal gland of transgenic mice.  

PubMed Central

To characterize further the tissue-specific control of the mouse Ren-2 gene, and in particular its expression in the adrenal gland, we have introduced the DBA/2 Ren-2 gene into the genome of Ren-1c/Ren-1c mice. Here we report our observations on Ren-2 transgenic mice. Expression was found in the correct spectrum of tissues and included appropriate hormonal control in the submandibular gland. Quantitatively transcript levels varied both positively (adrenal gland and sex-accessory tissue) and negatively (submandibular gland and kidney) with respect to normal Ren-2 expression. In the DBA/2 inbred mouse strain expression in the female adrenal gland cycles during oestrus between the X-zone and the zona fasciculata. Transgene expression within the adrenal gland was restricted to the X-zone. Therefore this phenotype, which is characteristic of most two-renin-gene strains of mice, contrasts with that found in the strain DBA/2 from which the transgene was derived. This suggests that cell-specific expression in the DBA/2 adrenal gland is mediated in trans by at least one additional locus. We demonstrate that suitable genetic crosses of the transgenic mice can partially restore the cycling phenotype. Images

Mullins, J J; Sigmund, C D; Kane-Haas, C; Gross, K W; McGowan, R A

1989-01-01

350

Secret Places.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that children are as deep as the ocean, with secret places inside of them waiting to be opened. Notes that it is powerful for students to learn they can make sense of the world through words, and describes inviting them into poetry as they read poetry, create poetry packets, and write and revise poems. (SR)

Ridolfi, Kerry

1997-01-01

351

Mechanism and synergism in epithelial fluid and electrolyte secretion.  

PubMed

A central function of epithelia is the control of the volume and electrolyte composition of bodily fluids through vectorial transport of electrolytes and the obligatory H2O. In exocrine glands, fluid and electrolyte secretion is carried out by both acinar and duct cells, with the portion of fluid secreted by each cell type varying among glands. All acinar cells secrete isotonic, plasma-like fluid, while the duct determines the final electrolyte composition of the fluid by absorbing most of the Cl(-) and secreting HCO3 (-). The key transporters mediating acinar fluid and electrolyte secretion are the basolateral Na(+)/K(+) /2Cl(-) cotransporter, the luminal Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel ANO1 and basolateral and luminal Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels. Ductal fluid and HCO3 (-) secretion are mediated by the basolateral membrane Na(+)-HCO3 (-) cotransporter NBCe1-B and the luminal membrane Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger slc26a6 and the Cl(-) channel CFTR. The function of the transporters is regulated by multiple inputs, which in the duct include major regulation by the WNK/SPAK pathway that inhibit secretion and the IRBIT/PP1 pathway that antagonize the effects of the WNK/SPAK pathway to both stimulate and coordinate the secretion. The function of these regulatory pathways in secretory glands acinar cells is yet to be examined. An important concept in biology is synergism among signaling pathways to generate the final physiological response that ensures regulation with high fidelity and guards against cell toxicity. While synergism is observed in all epithelial functions, the molecular mechanism mediating the synergism is not known. Recent work reveals a central role for IRBIT as a third messenger that integrates and synergizes the function of the Ca(2+) and cAMP signaling pathways in activation of epithelial fluid and electrolyte secretion. These concepts are discussed in this review using secretion by the pancreatic and salivary gland ducts as model systems. PMID:24240699

Hong, Jeong Hee; Park, Seonghee; Shcheynikov, Nikolay; Muallem, Shmuel

2014-08-01

352

Perineal Accessory Scrotum with Congenital Lipoma: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

A case of accessory scrotum in a 1-year-old boy is reported because of its rarity. A boy presented with a tumor mass attached with scrotum-like skin on its tip in the right side of perineum between the scrotum and anus. Both testes had descended into the scrotum. There was no other urological anomaly. Histological findings of the tumor indicated perineal lipoma, and the scrotum-like portion accessory scrotum. An overview of sequences during the normal development of male external genitalia has been provided and the deranged mechanism resulting in this anomaly has been reviewed with hypothesis regarding etiology of accessory scrotum.

Chatterjee, Souvik; Gajbhiye, Vishal; Nath, Sasanka; Ghosh, Dipak; Chattopadhyay, Sarbani; Das, Sukanta Kumar

2012-01-01

353

Antimicrobial chemicals in hoopoe preen secretions are produced by symbiotic bacteria.  

PubMed

Animals frequently use metabolites produced by symbiotic bacteria as agents against pathogens and parasites. Secretions from the preen gland of birds are used for this purpose, although its chemicals apparently are produced by the birds themselves. European hoopoes Upupa epops and green woodhoopoes Phoeniculus purpureus harbour symbiotic bacteria in the uropygial gland that might be partly responsible for the chemical composition of secretions. Here we investigate the antimicrobial activity of the volatile fraction of chemicals in hoopoe preen secretions, and, by means of experimental antibiotic injections, test whether symbiotic bacteria living within the uropygial gland are responsible for their production. Hoopoes produce two different kinds of secretions that differ drastically in their chemical composition. While the malodorous dark secretions produced by nestlings included a complex mix of volatiles, these chemicals did not appear in white secretions produced by non-nesting birds. All volatiles detected showed strong antibacterial activity, and a mixture of the chemicals at the concentrations measured in nestling glands inhibited the growth of all bacterial strains assayed. We found support for the hypothesized role of bacteria in the production of such antimicrobial chemicals because experimental clearance of bacteria from glands of nestlings with antibiotics resulted in secretions without most of the volatiles detected in control individuals. Thus, the presence of symbiotic bacteria in the uropygial gland provides hoopoes with potent antimicrobials for topical use. PMID:19812087

Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Peña, Aránzazu; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Sánchez, Lourdes; Ananou, Samir; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan José

2010-01-01

354

Antimicrobial chemicals in hoopoe preen secretions are produced by symbiotic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Animals frequently use metabolites produced by symbiotic bacteria as agents against pathogens and parasites. Secretions from the preen gland of birds are used for this purpose, although its chemicals apparently are produced by the birds themselves. European hoopoes Upupa epops and green woodhoopoes Phoeniculus purpureus harbour symbiotic bacteria in the uropygial gland that might be partly responsible for the chemical composition of secretions. Here we investigate the antimicrobial activity of the volatile fraction of chemicals in hoopoe preen secretions, and, by means of experimental antibiotic injections, test whether symbiotic bacteria living within the uropygial gland are responsible for their production. Hoopoes produce two different kinds of secretions that differ drastically in their chemical composition. While the malodorous dark secretions produced by nestlings included a complex mix of volatiles, these chemicals did not appear in white secretions produced by non-nesting birds. All volatiles detected showed strong antibacterial activity, and a mixture of the chemicals at the concentrations measured in nestling glands inhibited the growth of all bacterial strains assayed. We found support for the hypothesized role of bacteria in the production of such antimicrobial chemicals because experimental clearance of bacteria from glands of nestlings with antibiotics resulted in secretions without most of the volatiles detected in control individuals. Thus, the presence of symbiotic bacteria in the uropygial gland provides hoopoes with potent antimicrobials for topical use.

Martin-Vivaldi, Manuel; Pena, Aranzazu; Peralta-Sanchez, Juan Manuel; Sanchez, Lourdes; Ananou, Samir; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan Jose

2010-01-01

355

Salivary gland organogenesis.  

PubMed

Our understanding of vertebrate salivary gland organogenesis has been largely informed by the study of the developing mouse submandibular gland (SMG), which will be the major focus of this review. The mouse SMG has been historically used as a model system to study epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, growth factor-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions, and branching morphogenesis. SMG organogenesis involves interactions between a variety of cell types and their stem/progenitor cells, including the epithelial, neuronal, and mesenchymal cells, and their ECM microenvironment, or niche. Here, we will review recent literature that provides conceptual advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of salivary gland development. We will describe SMG organogenesis, introduce the model systems used to study development, and outline the key signaling pathways and cellular processes involved. We will also review recent research focusing on the identification of stem/progenitor cells in the SMG and how they are directed along a series of cell fate decisions to form a functional gland. The mechanisms that drive SMG organogenesis provide a template to regenerate functional salivary glands in patients who suffer from salivary hypofunction due to irreversible glandular damage after irradiation or removal of tumors. Additionally, these mechanisms may also control growth and development of other organ systems. PMID:23801668

Knosp, Wendy M; Knox, Sarah M; Hoffman, Matthew P

2012-01-01

356

Milk metabolites as indicators of mammary gland functions and milk quality.  

PubMed

The assumption, that metabolites derived from the activity of the mammary gland epithelial cells reflect changes in milk secretion and its coagulation properties, was tested in dairy cows. The experiment included cows with uninfected udders and cows with one of the glands infected by different bacteria specie. Analysis were carried at the cow level (including all four glands), or at the gland level. High and significant correlations among the concentrations of lactose, glucose, glucose-6-posphate, milk related respiratory index (the ratio between the concentrations of citrate/lactate+malate in milk) and milk-derived glycolytic index (the ratio between glucose-6-phosphate and glucose in milk) and milk clotting parameters were found. The physiological basis for these relations and their ability to predict the deterioration in milk quality in subclinically infected glands and in glands previously clinically infected with Escherichia coli are discussed. PMID:25052436

Silanikove, Nissim; Merin, Uzi; Shapiro, Fira; Leitner, Gabriel

2014-08-01

357

Secretion of old versus new exportable protein in rat parotid slics. Control by neurotransmitters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility that old and new secretory granules do not mix and that older exportable protein can be secreted preferentially was tested on parotid gland in vitro. Slices from fasted animals were pulse labeled for 3 min with L-(\\

Y. Sharoni; S. EIMERL; M. SCHRAMM

1976-01-01

358

21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4350 Cryosurgical unit and accessories. (a) Identification â(1)...

2013-04-01

359

21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical drape and drape accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

360

21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope...accessories is an AC-powered device intended for use during surgery to provide a magnified view of the surgical field....

2013-04-01

361

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical...

2013-04-01

362

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A speculum is a...

2013-04-01

363

21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic fluid pressure with a catheter placed...

2013-04-01

364

Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors  

MedlinePLUS

... Board , 4/2014 Risk Factors Cancer.Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer Overview Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Symptoms ... and health care choices. The cause(s) of most salivary gland cancers are unknown, but the following factors may ...

365

Accessory cardiac bronchus: 3D CT demonstration in nine cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Accessory cardiac bronchus (ACB) has been described mainly as isolated case reports in the literature. We report nine consecutive\\u000a cases of ACB, which occurred in five males and four females and were detected in 11,159 routine spiral CT examinations of\\u000a the chest, performed between 1994 and 1998. Frequency of the anomaly was 0.08 %. Accessory cardiac bronchus originated from

B. Ghaye; X. Kos; R. F. Dondelinger

1999-01-01

366

Alpha rhythm and the pineal gland.  

PubMed

Alpha rhythm is classically described as a bilateral posterior rhythm of substantially constant frequency in the range of 8-13 Hz which is enhanced by mental relaxation and blocked by attention. Since the full expression of alpha rhythm has been shown to occur coincident with puberty, it is possible that the establishment of alpha rhythm is subject to neuroendocrine influences which govern psychosexual maturation. There is ample evidence to indicate that the pineal gland is implicated in cerebral maturation and psychosexual development. Nocturnal plasma melatonin levels have been shown to decline progressively throughout childhood reaching a nadir at puberty. Since administration of melatonin has been reported to block alpha rhythm, it is proposed that the progressive decline in melatonin secretion during childhood facilitates the maturation of the alpha rhythm. Consequently, the presence of alpha rhythm could be used as a neurophysiological marker for the activity of the pineal gland and disorders associated with absent or delayed maturation of the alpha rhythm such as autism, dyslexia, personality disorders, epilepsy, Tourette's syndrome, and schizophrenia might be related to disturbances of pineal melatonin functions in early life. Moreover, since the EEG patterns associated with cerebral immaturity (i.e., slowing, absence of alpha activity) are more pronounced in the left hemisphere, this hypothesis implies differential influence of the pineal gland on hemispheric maturation potentially accounting for the vulnerability of the left hemisphere to cerebral insults. PMID:1304557

Sandyk, R

1992-04-01

367

Mechanism of isotonic water transport in glands.  

PubMed

Since water and electrolytes pass cell membranes via separate channels, there can be no interactions in the membranes, and osmotic interactions between water and solutes can be expressed as the product of solute flux, frictional coefficient of solute, and length of pathway. It becomes clear that isotonic transport via a cell is impossible. In glands, where cation-selective junctions impede anion flux between the cells, isotonic water transport is only possible if sodium, after having passed the junction, is reabsorbed in the acinus and returned to the serosal side. Thus it can be recycled via the cation-selective junction and exert its drag on water more than once. This hypothesis was tested on frog skin glands. Skins were mounted in flux chambers with identical Ringer solutions on both sides. Na channels of the principal cells were closed with amiloride in the outside solution, and secretion stimulated with noradrenaline in the inside solution. Influx and efflux of Na, K and Br (used as tracer for Cl) were measured on paired half-skins during the constant-secretion phase. Flux ratios for both Na and K were higher than expected for electrodiffusion, indicating outgoing solvent drag. Flux ratios for K were much higher than those for Na. This is an agreement with the concept that Na is reabsorbed in the acinus and K is not. Two independent expressions for the degree of sodium recycling are developed. Under all experimental conditions these expressions give values for the recycling which are in good agreement. PMID:2473601

Ussing, H H; Eskesen, K

1989-07-01

368

Accessory soleus muscle: a problem of awareness.  

PubMed

Reports of accessory soleus muscle are rare, perhaps as a result of it often remaining unrecognized. It presents as a swelling behind the ankle and may be mistaken for a tumour or inflammatory lesion, as occurred in the first of a series of three cases. The other two were incidental findings, one in a 30 year old man with an open tibial fracture and the other in a 9 month old child with a club foot. Patients present with either pain or a diagnostic problem. When large, it may make wearing of footwear difficult. Computerized tomography with electromyography enables confirmation of the diagnosis. Pain is relieved by epimysiotomy and when encountered incidentally during surgery, incision of the epimysium is all that is needed. Excision of the muscle may be considered only if wearing of footwear is difficult. The significance of its presence in a case of club foot is unknown. Disinsertion of its insertion was all that was required to obtain surgical correction of the deformity in the present case. Awareness of the condition will prevent unnecessary surgery in asymptomatic cases. PMID:8010925

Chittaranjan, B S; Babu, N V; Abraham, G

1994-07-01

369

Accessory brachialis muscle: a case report.  

PubMed

Variations of arm flexors are not uncommon with the exception of brachialis muscle. The role of brachialis is critical as it is the primary flexor of the elbow joint. Variations of brachialis are rare in literature. We present a case of an accessory-brachialis muscle (AcBr), found during routine cadaveric dissection. The AcBr originated from the lateral aspect of the brachialis muscle and lateral intermuscular septum. During its course towards the elbow, it crossed over the radial nerve and the distal tendon splits into two. The medial slip ran over the ulnar artery and merged with the deep fascia covering the pronator teres muscle, whereas lateral slip was inserted to the fascia covering the supinator. In the ipsilateral arm, an additional lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm (LCNF) was found coursing over the brachialis muscle medial to the LCNF. Clinical consideration of the present variations has been discussed. The present variation should be considered in the etiology of radial-tunnel syndrome (RTS). PMID:18487066

Pai, M M; Nayak, S R; Vadgaonkar, R; Ranade, A V; Prabhu, L V; Thomas, M; Sugavasi, R

2008-03-01

370

Salivary gland pathology as a new finding in Treacher Collins syndrome.  

PubMed

In our clinical experience, individuals with Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) present with more complaints of oral dryness and higher caries activity than seen in the general population. A literature review identified no reports of salivary gland pathology and glandular dysfunction associated with TCS. Twenty-one Norwegian individuals with TCS underwent ultrasound examinations and salivary secretion tests of the submandibular and parotid glands. Intraglandular architecture patterns were analyzed and subsequently classified as either normal, dysplastic, or aplastic. The results were compared with salivary secretion rates and subjective reports of oral dryness. Ultrasound examination revealed pathological appearance of the salivary glands in approximately half (48%) of the individuals, with dysplasia identified in six (29%) participants and aplasia in four (19%). Almost all participants had co-existing low salivary secretion rates. A few individuals had low salivary secretion rates despite normal appearance of the salivary gland tissue on ultrasound examination. Subjective experience of oral dryness did not correlate significantly with low salivary secretion rates. We conclude that mild to severe salivary gland pathology and dysfunction can be associated with TCS. Further investigation is needed to clarify this association. PMID:22585367

Østerhus, Ingvild N; Skogedal, Nina; Akre, Harriet; Johnsen, Ulf L-H; Nordgarden, Hilde; Åsten, Pamela

2012-06-01

371

Antimicrobial chemicals in hoopoe preen secretions are produced by symbiotic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals frequently use metabolites produced by symbiotic bacteria as agents against pathogens and para- sites. Secretions from the preen gland of birds are used for this purpose, although its chemicals apparently are produced by the birds themselves. European hoopoes Upupa epops and green woodhoopoes Phoeniculus purpureus harbour symbiotic bacteria in the uropygial gland that might be partly responsible for the

M. Martin-Vivaldi; A. Pena; J. M. Peralta-Sanchez; L. Sanchez; S. Ananou; M. Ruiz-Rodriguez; J. J. Soler

2010-01-01

372

Plasticity in caste-related exocrine secretion biosynthesis in the honey bee ( Apis mellifera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasticity of Dufour's gland secretion in the honey bee is correlated with the individual's plasticity. Queens and queenless (QL) egg-laying workers possess a bouquet of esters and hydrocarbons, whereas queenright (QR) workers produce exclusively hydrocarbons. The effects of social environment (QR vs. QL conditions) and possible physiological constraints on the gland were studied by following the biosynthesis of these classes

Tamar Katzav-Gozansky; Victoria Soroker; Abraham Hefetz

2000-01-01

373

Bioartificial Lacrimal Gland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention provides a bioartificial lacrimal gland which contains at least one unit that includes (a) a permeable housing having an interior and an exterior; (b) an outlet connecting the housing interior to the housing exterior; and (c) a popul...

A. K. Mircheff J. Jacob M. Trousdale R. E. Smith S. C. Yiu

2004-01-01

374

Comparative genomics of the core and accessory genomes of 48 Sinorhizobium strains comprising five genospecies  

PubMed Central

Background The sinorhizobia are amongst the most well studied members of nitrogen-fixing root nodule bacteria and contribute substantial amounts of fixed nitrogen to the biosphere. While the alfalfa symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti RM 1021 was one of the first rhizobial strains to be completely sequenced, little information is available about the genomes of this large and diverse species group. Results Here we report the draft assembly and annotation of 48 strains of Sinorhizobium comprising five genospecies. While S. meliloti and S. medicae are taxonomically related, they displayed different nodulation patterns on diverse Medicago host plants, and have differences in gene content, including those involved in conjugation and organic sulfur utilization. Genes involved in Nod factor and polysaccharide biosynthesis, denitrification and type III, IV, and VI secretion systems also vary within and between species. Symbiotic phenotyping and mutational analyses indicated that some type IV secretion genes are symbiosis-related and involved in nitrogen fixation efficiency. Moreover, there is a correlation between the presence of type IV secretion systems, heme biosynthesis and microaerobic denitrification genes, and symbiotic efficiency. Conclusions Our results suggest that each Sinorhizobium strain uses a slightly different strategy to obtain maximum compatibility with a host plant. This large genome data set provides useful information to better understand the functional features of five Sinorhizobium species, especially compatibility in legume-Sinorhizobium interactions. The diversity of genes present in the accessory genomes of members of this genus indicates that each bacterium has adopted slightly different strategies to interact with diverse plant genera and soil environments.

2013-01-01

375

Development and Structure of Internal Glands and External Glandular Trichomes in Pogostemon cablin  

PubMed Central

Pogostemon cablin possesses two morphologically and ontogenetically different types of glandular trichomes, one type of bristle hair on the surfaces of leaves and stems and one type of internal gland inside the leaves and stems. The internal gland originates from elementary meristem and is associated with the biosynthesis of oils present inside the leaves and stems. However, there is little information on mechanism for the oil biosynthesis and secretion inside the leaves and stems. In this study, we identified three kinds of glandular trichome types and two kinds of internal gland in the Pogostemon cablin. The oil secretions from internal glands of stems and leaves contained lipids, flavones and terpenes. Our results indicated that endoplasmic reticulum and plastids and vacuoles are likely involved in the biosynthesis of oils in the internal glands and the synthesized oils are transported from endoplasmic reticulum to the cell wall via connecting endoplasmic reticulum membranes to the plasma membrane. And the comparative analysis of the development, distribution, histochemistry and ultrastructures of the internal and external glands in Pogostemon cablin leads us to propose that the internal gland may be a novel secretory structure which is different from external glands.

Guo, Jiansheng; Yuan, Yongming; Liu, Zhixue; Zhu, Jian

2013-01-01

376

The SNARE Machinery in Mast Cell Secretion  

PubMed Central

Mast cells are known as inflammatory cells which exert their functions in allergic and anaphylactic reactions by secretion of numerous inflammatory mediators. During an allergic response, the high-affinity IgE receptor, Fc?RI, becomes cross-linked by receptor-bound IgE and antigen resulting in immediate release of pre-synthesized mediators – stored in granules – as well as in de novo synthesis of various mediators like cytokines and chemokines. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (SNAP) receptors (SNARE) proteins were found to play a central role in regulating membrane fusion events during exocytosis. In addition, several accessory regulators like Munc13, Munc18, Rab GTPases, secretory carrier membrane proteins, complexins, or synaptotagmins were found to be involved in membrane fusion. In this review we summarize our current knowledge about the SNARE machinery and its mechanism of action in mast cell secretion.

Lorentz, Axel; Baumann, Anja; Vitte, Joana; Blank, Ulrich

2012-01-01

377

Pygidial gland chemistry and potential alarm-recruitment function in column foraging, but not solitary, Nearctic Messor harvesting ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae).  

PubMed

We investigated the role of the pygidial gland on foraging behavior in two ecologically dominant column foraging Nearctic harvesting ants (Messor pergandei and Messor andrei). Using chemical analyses and behavioral tests, we show that n-tridecane is the major biologically active compound of pygidial gland secretions in both species, and that this chemical functions as a powerful alarm-recruitment pheromone. Another major compound of pygidial gland contents is benzaldehyde; this substance does not release behavioral reactions in M. pergandei workers but might function as a defensive secretion. Six solitary foraging Nearctic Messor and two column foraging Palearctic Messor species, did not have large pygidial gland reservoirs. PMID:23811189

Hölldobler, Bert; Plowes, Nicola J R; Johnson, Robert A; Nishshanka, Upul; Liu, Chongming; Attygalle, Athula B

2013-09-01

378

Ideal secret sharing schemes with multiple secrets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider secret sharing schemes which, through an initial issuing of shares to a group of participants, permit a number of different secrets to be protected. Each secret is associated with a (potentially different) access structure and a particular secret can be reconstructed by any group of participants from its associated access structure without the need for further broadcast information.

Wen-Ai Jackson; Keith M. Martin; Christine M. O'Keefe

1996-01-01

379

About the Parathyroid Glands  

MedlinePLUS

... make and secrete more of their active hormone – parathyroid hormone (PTH). This sets off a chain of events ... a kidney stone should have blood calcium and parathyroid hormone measured. There are even more subtle changes that ...

380

Radioisotope study of salivary glands  

SciTech Connect

The book discusses the use of radioisotope methods in the diagnosis of salivary gland diseases. Anatomical and physiological features of the salivary gland are summarized and radiotracer deposition processes are described. Clinical applications of scintigraphy are detailed. The degree of functional impairment due to various inflammatory diseases is contrasted by means of semiquantitative computerized methods with follow-up therapeutic results. Post-irradiatory involvement and possible functional recovery of salivary glands are also considered. The contents discussed are: Salivary Gland Physiology and Radioisotope Uptake. Radioisotope Study of Salivary Glands. Radioisotope Studies Under Normal Conditions. Survey of Radiographic Methods. Dosimetric Assessment. Conclusions and Index.

De Rossi, G.

1987-01-01

381

Autocrine regulation of milk secretion by a protein in milk.  

PubMed Central

Frequency or completeness of milk removal from the lactating mammary gland regulates the rate of milk secretion by a mechanism which is local, chemical and inhibitory in nature. Screening of goat's milk proteins in rabbit mammary explant cultures identified a single whey protein of M(r) 7600 able to inhibit synthesis of milk constituents. The active whey protein, which we term FIL (Feedback inhibitor of Lactation), also decreased milk secretion temporarily when introduced into a mammary gland of lactating goats. FIL was synthesized by primary cultures of goat mammary epithelial cells, and was secreted vectorially together with other milk proteins. N-terminal amino acid sequencing indicated that it is a hitherto unknown protein. The evidence indicates that local regulation of milk secretion by milk removal is through autocrine feedback inhibition by this milk protein. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5

Wilde, C J; Addey, C V; Boddy, L M; Peaker, M

1995-01-01

382

The process of apoptosis in a holocrine gland as shown by the avian uropygial gland.  

PubMed

This study was designed to elucidate the presence of apoptosis and the localization of apoptosis-related Bax and survivin proteins and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) within the chicken uropygial gland, a specialized holocrine secretory gland. In day-old chicks, survivin and Bax immunoreactivities were observed in the cell cytoplasm of the germinative and secretory layers of the luminal epithelium and tubules. During this period, the TUNEL reaction, an indication of apoptosis, was only sporadically positive in the tubules. From the 7th day to the 150th day of posthatching, survivin was detected in the cytoplasm of cells in the germinative layer and in the nuclei of some cells in the secretory layers of the gland. The germinative layer cells showed weak homogeneous cytoplasmic staining for Bax, whereas the cells of the secretory and intermediate layers of luminal epithelium and tubules exhibited granular cytoplasmic staining. After day 7, TUNEL-positive cells were observed in the secretory and degenerative layers of the luminal epithelium and central tubules. After day 12, some TUNEL-positive cells were also seen in the peripheral tubules. At all posthatch ages, the cytoplasm and nucleus of the germinative layers of luminal epithelium and tubules reacted with PCNA, whereas only a small number of cell nuclei in the secretory layers were immunopositive. These results support the theory that specific PCNA/Bax/survivin expression patterns could reflect particular cell differentiation states in the uropygial gland and that holocrine secretion in the gland is realized mainly by way of apoptosis. PMID:23362229

Liman, Narin; Alan, Emel

2013-03-01

383

The buffer capacity of airway epithelial secretions  

PubMed Central

The pH of airway epithelial secretions influences bacterial killing and mucus properties and is reduced by acidic pollutants, gastric reflux, and respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). The effect of acute acid loads depends on buffer capacity, however the buffering of airway secretions has not been well characterized. In this work we develop a method for titrating micro-scale (30 ?l) volumes and use it to study fluid secreted by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3, a widely used model for submucosal gland serous cells. Microtitration curves revealed that HCO?3 is the major buffer. Peak buffer capacity (?) increased from 17 to 28 mM/pH during forskolin stimulation, and was reduced by >50% in fluid secreted by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient Calu-3 monolayers, confirming an important role of CFTR in HCO?3 secretion. Back-titration with NaOH revealed non-volatile buffer capacity due to proteins synthesized and released by the epithelial cells. Lysozyme and mucin concentrations were too low to buffer Calu-3 fluid significantly, however model titrations of porcine gastric mucins at concentrations near the sol-gel transition suggest that mucins may contribute to the buffer capacity of ASL in vivo. We conclude that CFTR-dependent HCO?3 secretion and epithelially-derived proteins are the predominant buffers in Calu-3 secretions.

Kim, Dusik; Liao, Jie; Hanrahan, John W.

2014-01-01

384

Identification of putative proteins involved in granule biogenesis of tick salivary glands.  

PubMed

Ticks secrete bioactive components during feeding that assist them in gaining a blood meal. Compounds secreted are stored in granules until a stimulus induces secretion during feeding. Biogenesis of tick secretory granules has not been investigated before. An adequate understanding of granule biogenesis could advance our understanding of tick salivary gland biology and could aid in the rational design of tick control methods. Putative tick salivary gland proteins 1-4 (TSGP1-4) involved in granule biogenesis were identified in this study based on their abundance in salivary gland extracts and granule preparations and their ability to aggregate under conditions of slight acidity and high calcium concentration. TSGP2 and TSGP3 have been identified as previously described toxic and nontoxic homologues, respectively, while toxicity was also associated with TSGP4. PMID:11425229

Mans, B J; Venter, J D; Vrey, P J; Louw, A I; Neitz, A W

2001-05-01

385

Intervention of D-glucose ameliorates the toxicity of streptozotocin in accessory sex organs of rat  

SciTech Connect

Streptozotocin (STZ) is a naturally occurring compound isolated from Streptomyces achromogens. It is used extensively for inducing diabetes in experimental animals. Diabetes mellitus is known to have proven adverse effects on male sexual organs and their reproductive functions. The atrophy of prostate gland and other organs of the genitourinary tract were observed in experimental diabetic animals. STZ exhibits a structural resemblance to D-glucose due to the presence of sugar moiety in its structure. Pancreatic {beta}-cells mainly contain GLUT1 and GLUT2 glucose transporters. Possibly due to structural resemblance, STZ and D-glucose, share a common recognition site for entry into the {beta}-cells. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of D-glucose on STZ-induced toxicity in accessory sex organs of male rats. Animals were kept on overnight fasting. One group received vehicle and served as negative control, while all other groups were given STZ (45 mg/kg). Animals that received only STZ served as positive control. The effect of D-glucose was studied on STZ treated animals with different dosage of D-glucose (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg). Restoration of body weight, plasma glucose and plasma insulin was evident only at 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of D-glucose. The protective effect of D-glucose is evident only when it is administered simultaneously with STZ. In the present investigation, we report that simultaneous administration of D-glucose along with STZ ameliorates STZ-induced toxicity. This is evident from the restoration of accessory sex organ's weight, cellular morphology as well as insulin level.

Vikram, A.; Tripathi, D.N.; Ramarao, P. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab-160062 (India); Jena, G.B. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab-160062 (India)], E-mail: gbjena@gmail.com

2008-01-01

386

Morphophysiological Differences between the Metapleural Glands of Fungus-Growing and Non-Fungus-Growing Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)  

PubMed Central

The metapleural gland is an organ exclusive to ants. Its main role is to produce secretions that inhibit the proliferation of different types of pathogens. The aim of the present study was to examine the morphophysiological differences between the metapleural gland of 3 non–fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini, Myrmicini, and Blepharidattini and that of 5 fungus-growing ants from 2 basal and 3 derived attine genera. The metapleural gland of the non–fungus-growing ants and the basal attine ants has fewer secretory cells than that of the derived attine ants (leaf-cutting ants). In addition, the metapleural gland of the latter had more clusters of secretory cells and sieve plates, indicating a greater storage capacity and demand for secretion in these more advanced farming ants. The glands of the derived attine ants also produced higher levels of polysaccharides and acidic lipids than those of Myrmicini, Blepharidattini, and basal attines. Our results confirm morphophysiological differences between the metapleural glands of the derived attines and those of the basal attines and non–fungus-growing ants, suggesting that the metapleural glands of the derived attines (leaf-cutting ants) are more developed in morphology and physiology, with enhanced secretion production (acidic lipids and protein) to protect against the proliferation of unwanted fungi and bacteria in the fungal garden, it is possible that leaf-cutting ants may have evolved more developed metapleural glands in response to stronger pressure from parasites.

Vieira, Alexsandro Santana; Bueno, Odair Correa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

2012-01-01

387

Zonal organization of the mammalian main and accessory olfactory systems.  

PubMed Central

Zonal organization is one of the characteristic features observed in both main and accessory olfactory systems. In the main olfactory system, most of the odorant receptors are classified into four groups according to their zonal expression patterns in the olfactory epithelium. Each group of odorant receptors is expressed by sensory neurons distributed within one of four circumscribed zones. Olfactory sensory neurons in a given zone of the epithelium project their axons to the glomeruli in a corresponding zone of the main olfactory bulb. Glomeruli in the same zone tend to represent similar odorant receptors having similar tuning specificity to odorants. Vomeronasal receptors (or pheromone receptors) are classified into two groups in the accessory olfactory system. Each group of receptors is expressed by vomeronasal sensory neurons in either the apical or basal zone of the vomeronasal epithelium. Sensory neurons in the apical zone project their axons to the rostral zone of the accessory olfactory bulb and form synaptic connections with mitral tufted cells belonging to the rostral zone. Signals originated from basal zone sensory neurons are sent to mitral tufted cells in the caudal zone of the accessory olfactory bulb. We discuss functional implications of the zonal organization in both main and accessory olfactory systems.

Mori, K; von Campenhause, H; Yoshihara, Y

2000-01-01

388

The monoptychic glands of the jugulo-sternal scent gland field of Tupaia: a TEM and SEM study.  

PubMed Central

The monoptychic 'apocrine' scent glands of the sternal region of two adult male Tupaia belangeri were studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, in order to assess the modes of release of their secretory products. In segments of the secretory tubules with a narrow lumen the epithelial cells are columnar and are firmly connected to each other by desmosomes and junctional complexes. Myoepithelial cells are interspersed between the secretory epithelium and the basement membrane. The cytoplasm of the secretory epithelial cells contains granular and agranular endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes and secretory granules. The free surface of the secretory epithelium is furnished with densely arranged microvilli. The apices of the cells protrude as dome-shaped extensions into the glandular lumen. At the tip of these extensions cellular processes of irregular shape are found. The surface of these processes shows no microvilli. They contain densely packed and dilated cisternae of agranular endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes. The constriction of the base of these processes and the occasional observation of a 'demarcation membrane' between a process and the secretory cell indicate that these secretory processes become detached from the secretory cells according to the apocrine mode of extrusion. Within the glandular lumen they break down and form secretion. Parallel to this apocrine extrusion the same cells produce secretory granules, the diameter of which measures 300-900 nm. The contents of these granules are released into the glandular lumen by exocytosis according to the eccrine mode of secretion. This resembles the situation in other mammals in which monoptychic glands release their secretory products by means of both apocrine and eccrine extrusion. Therefore monoptychic skin glands should not be classified into apocrine and eccrine glands. Our results corroborate Schaffer's (1927, 1940) more general classification of exocrine glands according to the nature of the secretory epithelium into monoptychic and polyptychic glands. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12

Zeller, U; Richter, J

1990-01-01

389

[Functional distinction of secreting pools of the pancreas and participation of the pancreatic ductal system in the development of the pancreatic secret properties].  

PubMed

Acute experiments on dogs with separate secretion of the pancreatic enzymes, either stimulated or inhibited, from two lobes of pancreas, and investigation into the character of kinetics of the secretion from 5-7 ductal pools of the pancreas showed the functional specifics, with the device of ductal valves and microdepot of a secret of the pancreas ductal system playing an important role. The conclusion is made that the final secret of pancreas removed to the duodenum is a product of a secret-motor activation of non-equipotentional microregions of the gland, being the components of an intervisceral dynamical mosaic. PMID:12503451

Korot'ko, G F; Voskanian, S E; Gladki?, E Iu; Makarova, T M; Bulgakov, V A

2002-08-01

390

Perlecan Domain IV Peptide Stimulates Salivary Gland Cell Assembly In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Treatment of xerostomia would benefit from development of a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. Salivary gland tissue from surgical patients was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Ductal and acinar cells were identified in tissue and cultured cells from dispersed tissue. High levels of laminin and perlecan/HSPG2 (heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2) were noted in basement membranes, and perlecan also was secreted and organized by cultured acinar populations, which formed lobular structures that mimicked intact glands when cultured on Matrigel™ or a bioactive peptide derived from domain IV of perlecan. On either matrix, large acini-like lobular structures grew and formed connections between the lobes. ?-Amylase secretion was confirmed by staining and activity assay. Biomarkers, including tight junction protein E-cadherin and water channel protein aquaporin 5 found in tissue, were expressed in cultured acinar cells. Cells cultured on Matrigel or domain IV of perlecan peptide organized stress fibers and activated focal adhesion kinase. We report a novel technique to isolate acinar cells from human salivary gland and identify a human peptide sequence in perlecan that triggers differentiation of salivary gland cells into self-assembling acini-like structures that express essential biomarkers and which secrete ?-amylase.

Pradhan, Swati; Zhang, Chu; Jia, Xinqiao; Carson, Daniel D.; Witt, Robert

2009-01-01

391

Seminal vesicle production and secretion of growth hormone into seminal fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of foreign proteins in the tissues of transgenic animals represents an efficient and economical method of producing therapeutic and pharmaceutical proteins. In this study, we demonstrate that the mouse P12 gene promoter specific to the male accessory sex gland can be used to generate transgenic mice that express human growth hormone (hGH) in their seminal vesicle epithelium. The hGH

Michael K. Dyck; Dominic Gagné; Mariette Ouellet; Jean-François Sénéchal; Edith Bélanger; Dan Lacroix; Marc-André Sirard; François Pothier

1999-01-01

392

Convenient and reproducible in vivo gene transfer to mouse parotid glands  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Published studies of gene transfer to mouse salivary glands have not employed the parotid glands. Parotid glands are the likely target tissue for most clinical applications of salivary gene transfer. The purpose of the present study was to develop a convenient and reproducible method of retroductal gene transfer to mouse parotid glands. METHODS The volume for vector delivery was assessed by infusion of Toluidine Blue into Stensen’s ducts of Balb/c mice after direct intraoral cannulation. Recombinant, serotype 5 adenoviral vectors, encoding either firefly luciferase or human erythropoietin (hEpo), were constructed and then administered to parotid glands (107 vector particles/gland). Transgene expression in vivo was measured by enzyme activity (luciferase) or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (hEpo). Vector biodistribution was measured by real-time quantitative (Q) PCR. RESULTS The chosen volume for mouse parotid vector delivery was 20 µL. Little vector was detected outside of the targeted glands, with both QPCR and luciferase assays. Transgene expression was readily detected in glands (luciferase, hEpo), and serum and saliva (hEpo). Most secreted hEpo was detected in saliva. CONCLUSION These studies show that mouse parotid glands can be conveniently and reproducibly targeted for gene transfer, and should be useful for pre-clinical studies with many murine disease models.

Zheng, C; Shinomiya, T; Goldsmith, CM; Di Pasquale, G; Baum, BJ

2010-01-01

393

[The functional activity of the minor salivary glands of the lips in allergic cheilitis].  

PubMed

Functional activity of minor salivary glands is studied in 289 children, 52 of these without signs of cheilitis and 237 with allergic cheilitis at different stages. Three variants of secretion are distinguished: fast, medium, and slow. The ratio of these variants changed in exacerbation of disease in comparison with that in health or remission. The activity of the glands depends on clinical manifestations of cheilitis. Changes in the activity of minor salivary glands determine the clinical picture, localization, and type of involvement in cheilitis. PMID:10368598

Obraztsov, Iu L; Gorbatova, A N

1999-01-01

394

Accessory tragus: a possible sign of Goldenhar syndrome.  

PubMed

The accessory tragus is a relatively common benign congenital anomaly. The tragus is a cartilaginous projection that normally occurs anterior to the external auditory meatus. Although aberrancy of the tragus may occur in isolation and is exclusively derived from the first branchial arch, it may occasionally signal a defect in the first or second branchial arches. Thus it may be a sign of other syndromes, such as oculoauricularvertebral dysplasia (Goldenhar syndrome). In fact, accessory tragus is a constant feature of this syndrome and may be associated with other syndromes. Accessory tragi are polypoid and should be distinguished from acrochordon (skin tags), as the shave excision commonly employed for skin tags may expose cartilage and cause slow healing or chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis. PMID:21916271

Rankin, James S; Schwartz, Robert A

2011-08-01

395

Ultrastructure of posterior sternal glands of Macrotermes annandalei (Silvestri): new members of the sexual glandular set found in termites (Insecta).  

PubMed

In female alates of Macrotermes annandalei, two types of abdominal glands are involved in the secretion of sex pheromone. Tergal glands are found at the anterior margin of tergites 6-10 and posterior sternal glands (PSGs) are located at the anterior margin of sternites 6-7. The cytological features of both types of glands are quite similar. The fine structural organization of PSGs is studied more precisely and described for the first time. The glandular cuticle is pitted with narrow apertures corresponding to the openings of numerous subcuticular pouches. Several Class 3 glandular units open in each pouch. One canal cell and one secretory cell make an individual glandular unit. The canal cell is enlarged apically and is connected with the other canal cells to form a common pouch. Based on the structural features found in these glands, we propose a common secretory process for PSGs and tergal glands. During the physiological maturation of alates inside the nest, secretory vesicles amass in the cytoplasm of secretory cells, while large intercellular spaces collapse the cuticular pouches. At the time of dispersal flight, pouches are filled with the content of secretory vesicles while intercellular spaces are sharply reduced. After calling behavior, no secretion remains in the glands and pouches collapse again, while secretory cells are drastically reduced in size. The structure and the secretory processes of PSGs and tergal glands are compared to those of abdominal sexual glands known in termites. PMID:15487007

Quennedey, André; Peppuy, Alexis; Courrent, Annie; Robert, Alain; Everaerts, Claude; Bordereau, Christian

2004-12-01

396

Atypical course of the rare accessory extensor carpi radialis muscle.  

PubMed Central

The description of a bilaterally well developed, bicipital and bipennate accessory extensor carpi radialis muscle is reported. The muscle arose between the origins of the long and short radial carpal extensor muscles and inserted by 2 tendons into the 1st 2 metacarpal bones. The ulnar tendinous insertion was simultaneously the origin of abductor pollicis brevis. Both heads of the accessory extensor carpi radialis muscle were innervated by a branch of the deep branch of the radial nerve. The present observation supplements our knowledge on variations in the antebrachial and carpal regions, which are important in hand surgery. Images Fig. 1

Khaledpour, C; Schindelmeiser, J

1994-01-01

397

An Accessory Peroneocalcaneus Internus Muscle with MRI and US Correlation  

PubMed Central

The peroneocalcaneus internus (PCI) is a rare accessory muscle of the medial ankle with typical MRI anatomic features allowing differentiation from the more common accessory flexor digitorum longus muscle. To our knowledge, there have been no previously published sonographic images of the peroneocalcaneus internus. A PCI is typically an incidental, asymptomatic finding, but knowledge of the entity may avoid confusion when initially encountered by diagnostic ultrasound. We review the anatomic imaging features which allow for a confident imaging diagnosis and the clinical relevance of this anomaly.

Howe, Benjamin Matthew; Murthy, Naveen Srinivasa

2012-01-01

398

Taxonomy of Salivary Gland Neoplasm  

PubMed Central

Classification of neoplasms of any organ should be predicted on the patterns of differentiation that reflect the organization and cell types of the parental tissue. The ability to classify a neoplasm instills confidence in its predicted biologic behavior and the selection of treatment. There has not been a single universally used classification system for salivary gland tumor. Histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts and the developing information on various molecular parameters will have significant influence on the classification of salivary glands tumors. In this article we would highlight the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts in salivary gland neoplasms and elaborate on the taxonomic system of classification of salivary gland neoplasms.

Sreeja, C.; Shahela, Tanveer; Aesha, Syeda; Satish, Muthu Kumar

2014-01-01

399

Morphology and preliminary enzyme characterization of the salivary glands from the predatory bug Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).  

PubMed

Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) is a common predator in agricultural and natural systems in Neotropical America. Its feeding strategy involves extra-oral digestion and to better understand this process its salivary glands were extracted and subjected to morphological and preliminary enzyme characterization. The salivary glands of P. nigrispinus are formed by a pair of main and accessory gland complexes. The main salivary glands are further divided into an anterior and a posterior lobe. The compartmentalization of the salivary gland complex is likely to be important for the production, activation and release of the digestive enzymes used in the extra-oral digestion of prey items. Proteases and lipase, important digestive enzymes involved in zoophagy, were detected in the salivary glands of P. nigrispinus. The prevailing trypsin-like protease activity was characterized by using the serine-protease substrate N-alpha-benzoyl-L-Arg-p-nitroanilidine (L-BApNA) and the trypsin inhibitors tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) and benzamidine. The KM value obtained for trypsin-like activity was 1.57 mm and the different peaks of optimum pH and temperature activity suggest the presence of multiple forms of this enzyme in P. nigrispinus. Detection of amylase activity in the salivary glands of this predator suggests its ability to digest starch and obtain nutrients from plants, which may have adaptative value under prey scarcity. PMID:16768813

Oliveira, J A; Oliveira, M G A; Guedes, R N C; Soares, M J

2006-06-01

400

Dietary monosodium glutamate enhances gastric secretion.  

PubMed

Dietary L-glutamate (Glu), an amino acid abundant in many foodstuffs in a free form, is able to modulate physiological functions in the stomach, including secretion and motility. Recently, specific receptors for Glu were identified in the apical membrane of chief cells in the lower region of fundic glands and in the somatostatin-secreting D-cell fraction of the gastric mucosa. This Glu-sensing system in the stomach is linked to activation of the vagal afferents. Among 20 kinds of amino acid, luminal Glu alone activated the vagal afferents in the stomach through a paracrine cascade led by nitric oxide and followed by serotonin (5-HT). In dogs with Pavlov pouches, found that supplementation of an amino acid-rich diet lacking Glu with monosodium Glu (MSG) enhanced the secretion of acid, pepsinogen, and fluid. However, MSG did not affect these secretions induced by a carbohydrate-rich diet and it had no effect on basal secretion when MSG was applied alone without the diet. Enhancement of gastric secretion by MSG was abolished by blockage of the gastric afferents using intra-gastric applied lidocaine. This effect of MSG was due in part to stimulation of 5-HT(3) receptors in the gastric mucosa. PMID:20224184

Khropycheva, Raisa; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Torii, Kunio; Zolotarev, Vasiliy

2009-01-01

401

21 CFR 884.4150 - Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories...Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4150 Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories. (a) Identification. A bipolar endoscopic...

2010-04-01

402

21 CFR 884.4150 - Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories...Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4150 Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories. (a) Identification. A bipolar endoscopic...

2009-04-01

403

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 Section 121...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...is not limited to circuits into which software has been programmed. (f)...

2013-04-01

404

29 CFR 1919.28 - Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto. 1919...OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification...Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons ...proof testsâcranes and gear accessory...

2010-07-01

405

29 CFR 1919.27 - Unit proof tests-winches, derricks and gear accessory thereto.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tests-winches, derricks and gear accessory thereto. 1919...OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification...Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons ...winches, derricks and gear accessory thereto....

2009-07-01

406

29 CFR 1919.28 - Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto. 1919...OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification...Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons ...proof testsâcranes and gear accessory...

2009-07-01

407

29 CFR 1919.27 - Unit proof tests-winches, derricks and gear accessory thereto.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tests-winches, derricks and gear accessory thereto. 1919...OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification...Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons ...winches, derricks and gear accessory thereto....

2010-07-01

408

Study of Reduction of Accessory Horsepower Requirements. Seventh Quarterly Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported for a program whose objective is to evolve and define an accessory drive system that will minimize system power consumption of driven accessories on an internal combustion engine in a passenger automobile. Although the primary goal is...

1976-01-01

409

21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...devices intended for use during surgical procedures to provide power to operate various accessories or attachments to cut hard tissue or bone and soft tissue. Accessories or attachments may include a bur, chisel (osteotome), dermabrasion...

2010-04-01

410

21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...devices intended for use during surgical procedures to provide power to operate various accessories or attachments to cut hard tissue or bone and soft tissue. Accessories or attachments may include a bur, chisel (osteotome), dermabrasion...

2009-04-01

411

Two Immunoregulatory Peptides with Antioxidant Activity from Tick Salivary Glands*  

PubMed Central

Ticks are blood-feeding arthropods that may secrete immunosuppressant molecules, which inhibit host inflammatory and immune responses and provide survival advantages to pathogens at tick bleeding sites in hosts. In the current work, two families of immunoregulatory peptides, hyalomin-A and -B, were first identified from salivary glands of hard tick Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum. Three copies of hyalomin-A are encoded by an identical gene and released from the same protein precursor. Both hyalomin-A and -B can exert significant anti-inflammatory functions, either by directly inhibiting host secretion of inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor-?, monocyte chemotectic protein-1, and interferon-? or by indirectly increasing the secretion of immunosuppressant cytokine of interleukin-10. Hyalomin-A and -B were both found to potently scavenge free radical in vitro in a rapid manner and inhibited adjuvant-induced inflammation in mouse models in vivo. The JNK/SAPK subgroup of the MAPK signaling pathway was involved in such immunoregulatory functions of hyalomin-A and -B. These results showed that immunoregulatory peptides of tick salivary glands suppress host inflammatory response by modulating cytokine secretion and detoxifying reactive oxygen species.

Wu, Jing; Wang, Yipeng; Liu, Han; Yang, Hailong; Ma, Dongying; Li, Jianxu; Li, Dongsheng; Lai, Ren; Yu, Haining

2010-01-01

412

Infanticide secrets  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To explore thoughts of infanticide that did not lead to the act among mothers with postpartum depression. DESIGN A phenomenologic hermeneutic study in which women were invited to share their experiences of having thoughts of infanticide. SETTING Community setting in a large metropolitan city, Brisbane, Australia. PARTICIPANTS Fifteen women who had been diagnosed as clinically depressed with postpartum onset whose babies were 12 months of age or younger. METHOD Audiotaped, in-depth interviews were transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis commenced immediately after the first interview, and data collection continued until saturation was achieved. A questioning approach that reflected hermeneutics was facilitated by use of journals by the researchers. MAIN FINDINGS Six themes emerged from the data: imagined acts of infanticide, the experience of horror, distorted sense of responsibility, consuming negativity, keeping secrets, and managing the crisis. CONCLUSION Women who experienced nonpsychotic depression preferred not to disclose their thoughts of infanticide to health professionals, including trusted general practitioners or psychiatrists. These women were more likely to mention their suicidal thoughts than their infanticidal thoughts in order to obtain health care. General practitioners and other health professionals should directly ask about whether a woman has been experiencing thoughts of harming herself or her baby, regardless of the reason why she has presented.

Barr, Jennieffer A.; Beck, Cheryl T.

2008-01-01

413

Renaissance Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed as part of a partnership between the Open University and the BBC, the Renaissance Secrets (based in part on a television series) addresses four different historical questions dealing with various aspects of the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance, along with providing helpful material on the practice and art of writing about and understanding history. The four topics include a discussion of the many faces of Venice during the Renaissance, medical care and hospitals during the Renaissance, the conspiracy to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I, and Johannes Gutenberg. Within each of these four topic areas, visitors can read short thematic essays about related topics and find out more about the evidence and historical knowledge that informs each related topic. By doing so, visitors (particularly students) will be able to better understand how historians "do" history. Finally, from the site's home page, visitors can also read essays from practicing historians about their own work and how they begin to collect evidence and interpret the past.

2001-01-01

414

Expression cloning of a human ?1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase that forms GlcNAc?1->4Gal?->R, a glycan specifically expressed in the gastric gland mucous cell-type mucin  

PubMed Central

Among mucus-secreting cells, the gastric gland mucous cells, Brunner’s glands, accessory glands of pancreaticobiliary tract, and pancreatic ducts exhibiting gastric metaplasia are unique in that they express class III mucin identified by paradoxical Con A staining composed of periodate oxidation, sodium borohydride reduction, Con A, and horseradish peroxidase reaction. Recently it was shown that these mucous cells secrete glycoproteins having GlcNAc?1?4Gal??R at nonreducing terminals of the carbohydrate moieties. Herein we describe the expression cloning of a cDNA encoding a human ?1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (?4GnT), a key enzyme for the formation of GlcNAc?1?4Gal?1?R. COS-1 cells were thus cotransfected with a stomach cDNA library and a leukosialin cDNA. Transfected COS-1 cells were screened by using monoclonal antibodies specific for GlcNAc?1?4Gal??R and enriched by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Sibling selection of recovered plasmids resulted in a cDNA clone that directs the expression of GlcNAc?1?4Gal??R. The deduced amino acid sequence predicts a type II membrane protein with 340 amino acids, showing no significant similarity with any other proteins. The ?4GnT gene is located at chromosome 3p14.3, and its transcripts are expressed in the stomach and pancreas. An in vitro GlcNAc transferase assay by using a soluble ?4GnT revealed that ?1,4-linked GlcNAc residues are transferred most efficiently to core 2 branched O-glycans (Gal?1?4GlcNAc?1?6(Gal?1?3)GalNAc), forming GlcNAc?1?4Gal?1?4GlcNAc?1?6(GlcNAc?1?4Gal?1?3)GalNAc. Transfection of ?4GnT cDNA into gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells produced class III mucin, indicating that ?4GnT is responsible for the formation of class III Con A reactivity. These results indicate that the ?4GnT is a glycosyltransferase that forms ?1,4-linked GlcNAc residues, preferentially in O-glycans.

Nakayama, Jun; Yeh, Jiunn-Chern; Misra, Anup K.; Ito, Susumu; Katsuyama, Tsutomu; Fukuda, Minoru

1999-01-01

415

Production of a cyanogenic secretion by a thyridid caterpillar (Calindoea trifascialis, Thyrididae, Lepidoptera)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thyridid caterpillar, Calindoea trifascialis, when disturbed, emits a defensive secretion from two sac-like glands that open dorsolaterally on the first abdominal segment. The larva has two arm-like protuberances that project outward from the body just in front of the gland openings. These "arms", which are wetted by secretion when the larva activates its glands, appear to function specifically for administration of the fluid. A primary component of the secretion is mandelonitrile, a cyanogenic compound, but the fluid also contains other potential deterrents, including benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, (E,E)-?-farnesene, and 3-methylbutyl-3-methylbutanoate. Tests done in the field in Vietnam, where the species is native, showed the secretion to be protective against ants.

Darling, Christopher; Schroeder, Frank; Meinwald, Jerrold; Eisner, Maria; Eisner, Thomas

2001-06-01

416

Aspirin prevents diabetic oxidative changes in rat lacrimal gland structure and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to evaluate whether aspirin reduces Diabetis Mellitus (DM) oxidative damage in the lacrimal gland\\u000a (LG), and ocular surface (OS). Ten weeks after streptozotocin induced DM and aspirin treatment, LG and OS of rats were compared\\u000a for tear secretion, hidtology, peroxidase activity, and expression of uncoupling proteins (UCPs). DM reduction of tear secretion\\u000a was prevented

Angélica Gobbi Jorge; Carolina Maria Módulo; Ana Carolina Dias; Alexandre Martins Braz; Rubens Bertazolli Filho; Alceu A. Jordão; Jayter Silva de Paula; Eduardo Melani Rocha

2009-01-01

417

Differentiation of immortalized epithelial cells derived from cystic fibrosis airway submucosal glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Cystic fibrosis (CF) involves abnormalities in mucus production and secretion of the airway. Studies of the regulation of\\u000a a