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Sample records for accessory gland secretions

  1. Function and composition of male accessory gland secretions in Anopheles gambiae: a comparison with other insect vectors of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Baldini, Francesco; Gabrieli, Paolo; Rogers, David W.; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2012-01-01

    Human malaria, a major public health burden in tropical and subtropical countries, is transmitted exclusively by the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito. Malaria control strategies aimed at inducing sexual sterility in natural vector populations are an attractive alternative to the use of insecticides. However, despite their importance as disease vectors, limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms regulating fertility in Anopheles mosquitoes. In the major malaria vector, An. gambiae, the full complement of sperm and seminal fluid required for a female’s lifelong egg production is obtained from a single mating event. This single mating has important consequences for the physiology and behavior of An. gambiae females: in particular, they become refractory to further insemination, and they start laying eggs. In other insects including Drosophila, similar post-copulatory changes are induced by seminal proteins secreted by the male accessory glands and transferred to the female during mating. In this review, we analyze the current state of knowledge on the function and characterization of male seminal proteins in An. gambiae, and provide a comparative assessment of the role of these male reproductive factors in other mosquito vectors of human disease in which female post-copulatory behavior has been studied. Knowledge of the factors and mechanisms regulating fertility in An. gambiae and other vectors can help the design of novel control strategies to fight the spread of disease. PMID:22943543

  2. Proteome analysis of male accessory gland secretions in oriental fruit flies reveals juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting impact on female reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Dong; Li, Hui-Min; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Smagghe, Guy; Jia, Fu-Xian; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-01-01

    In insects, the accessory gland proteins (Acps) secreted by male accessory glands (MAGs) account for the majority of seminal fluids proteins. Mixed with sperm, they are transferred to the female at mating and so impact reproduction. In this project, we identified 2,927 proteins in the MAG secretions of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis, an important agricultural pest worldwide, using LC-MS analysis, and all sequences containing open reading frames were analyzed using signalP. In total, 90 Acps were identified. About one third (26) of these 90 Acps had a specific functional description, while the other two thirds (64) had no functional description including dozens of new classes of proteins. Hence, several of these novel Acps were abundant in the MAG secretions, and we confirmed their MAG-specific expression by qPCR. Finally and interestingly, one of these novel proteins was functionally predicted as juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting the impact of Acps with reproductive events in the female. Our results will aid in the development of an experimental method to identify Acps in insects, and in turn this information with new Acps in B. dorsalis will pave the way of further exploration their function in reproduction and potential development as new insecticide targets. PMID:26582577

  3. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  4. Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner’s body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection. PMID:24708537

  5. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Accessory Parotid Gland: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Das, Somdipto; Nayak, Umanath K; Buggavetti, Rahul; Sekhar, Shobana

    2016-05-01

    The accessory parotid gland is salivary gland tissue separated from the main gland at a variable distance. This gland is histologically similar to the main gland, but has a higher incidence of malignant neoplasms than the main gland. Regarding the various malignant neoplasms, studies have shown higher incidences of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, with less than 2% being adenoid cystic carcinoma. We present a case of swelling in the midcheek region that, after clinical examination, was diagnosed as a case of neoplasm of the accessory parotid gland. On the basis of auxiliary investigations including intraoperative frozen section, it was concluded that it was adenoid cystic carcinoma, grade I, and after wide surgical resection, the tumor was removed without undergoing superficial parotidectomy. The patient received postoperative radiotherapy (RT) and was followed for 14 months without any recurrence or substantial facial asymmetry. PMID:26851989

  6. Liquid secretion properties of airway submucosal glands

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Stephen T; Inglis, Sarah K

    2004-01-01

    The tracheobronchial submucosal glands secrete liquid that is important for hydrating airway surfaces, supporting mucociliary transport, and serving as a fluid matrix for numerous secreted macromolecules including the gel-forming mucins. This review details the essential structural elements of airway glands and summarizes what is currently known regarding the ion transport processes responsible for producing the liquid component of gland secretion. Liquid secretion most likely arises from serous cells and is principally under neural control with muscarinic agonists, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) functioning as effective secretogogues. Liquid secretion is driven by the active transepithelial secretion of both Cl− and HCO3− and at least a portion of this process is mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which is highly expressed in glands. The potential role of submucosal glands in cystic fibrosis lung disease is discussed. PMID:14660706

  7. Morphology and Ultrastructure of the Accessory Glands in the Female Genital Tract of the House Cricket, Acheta domesticus

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The accessory glands in the genital tract of female Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) were investigated in detail. The glands are situated within the 7th and 8th abdominal segment and lead to the genital chamber lateral to the terminal papilla of the ductus receptaculi. The shape of the gland is characterized by a complex system of tubules, including numerous ramifications. The gland's size ranges from 2 to 4 mm. The epithelium is constructed according to a simple scheme and consists of a cuticular intima at the luminal side, one layer of gland cells, and a basallamina at the outermost side. The observed morphology of the accessory glands widely corresponds with that in other cricket species (e.g., Teleogryllus commodus). This is also true for the structure of a single gland cell, which can be subdivided into a basal part with nucleus and intracellular cisternae, as well as an apical part with all those compartments responsible for the production of the secretion. The secretion itself may be classified as lipophilic and is produced for the first time 4 to 6 days after the imaginai moult. Several endogenic functions of the secretion are discussed (lubricant for oviposition, support for introducing the tube of the spermatophore into the ductus receptaculi, etc.). PMID:23425229

  8. Pleomorphic adenoma of an accessory submandibular salivary gland: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rajiv S; Meshram, Deepashree; Jangam, Sagar S; Singh, Jatinder S

    2015-10-01

    An accessory submandibular salivary gland is a rare anatomical variant, and a tumour within one is even rarer. We describe a 54-year-old man who presented with a slowly-enlarging mass in the right submandibular region which on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seemed to be close to, but not arising from, the right submandibular salivary gland. This was found to be a benign pleomorphic adenoma arising from an accessory submandibular salivary gland. To our knowledge it is only the second report of a pleomorphic adenoma that developed within an accessory submandibular salivary gland. PMID:26123656

  9. Role of the Accessory Parotid Gland in the Etiology of Parotitis: Statistical Analysis of Sialographic Features

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wangyong; Hu, Fengchun; Liu, Xingguang; Guo, Songcan; Tao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify if the existence of the accessory parotid gland correlated with the etiology of parotitis. This may aid the development of better treatment strategies in the future. Sialographic features of cases with parotitis and healthy subjects were reviewed. The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of accessory parotid gland between the groups. The Student’s t test was used to compare the length of Stensen’s duct, the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct, and the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen’s duct between the groups. The incidence of accessory parotid gland in patients with parotitis was 71.8% (28/39), which was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P = 0.005). Patients with parotitis had a longer Stensen’s duct than healthy subjects (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct or the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen’s duct (P = 0.136 and 0.511, respectively) between the groups. The accessory parotid gland might play a role in the pathogenesis of parotitis. The existence of an accessory parotid gland is likely to interfere with salivary flow. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis. PMID:26913509

  10. Role of the Accessory Parotid Gland in the Etiology of Parotitis: Statistical Analysis of Sialographic Features.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wangyong; Hu, Fengchun; Liu, Xingguang; Guo, Songcan; Tao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify if the existence of the accessory parotid gland correlated with the etiology of parotitis. This may aid the development of better treatment strategies in the future. Sialographic features of cases with parotitis and healthy subjects were reviewed. The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of accessory parotid gland between the groups. The Student's t test was used to compare the length of Stensen's duct, the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct, and the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct between the groups. The incidence of accessory parotid gland in patients with parotitis was 71.8% (28/39), which was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P = 0.005). Patients with parotitis had a longer Stensen's duct than healthy subjects (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct or the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct (P = 0.136 and 0.511, respectively) between the groups. The accessory parotid gland might play a role in the pathogenesis of parotitis. The existence of an accessory parotid gland is likely to interfere with salivary flow. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis. PMID:26913509

  11. Structure and expression of a Drosophila male accessory gland gene whose product resembles a peptide pheromone precursor.

    PubMed

    Monsma, S A; Wolfner, M F

    1988-09-01

    The accessory gland of male insects is a genital tissue that secretes many components of the ejaculatory fluid, some of which affect the female's receptivity to courtship and her rate of oviposition. We have examined the structure and expression of two tightly linked genes that are expressed exclusively in the male accessory glands of adult Drosophila melanogaster. The two genes are transcribed from the same strand of DNA, and are separated by 20 bases. Both genes are regulated by the sex determination hierarchy and are expressed in the absence of germ cells. Immunological analysis reveals the protein products of at least one of these genes in the secretion of the accessory gland. The proteins are transferred to the female fly during copulation and are rapidly altered in the female genital tract. The predicted sequence of one protein has features of a peptide hormone precursor, and a region in which 11 of 17 amino acids are identical to egg-laying hormone (ELH) of the California sea hare, Aplysia californica. PMID:3142802

  12. Male Accessory Gland Infection: Relevance of Serum Total Testosterone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, R. A.; Calogero, A. E.; Vicari, E.; Favilla, V.; Cimino, S.; Russo, G. I.; Morgia, G.; La Vignera, S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate the different ultrasound characterization of fertile symptomatic patients with MAGI (male accessory gland infection) according to different serum concentrations of total T (TT). We analyzed the ultrasound and hormonal data of 200 patients aged between 24.0 and 67.0 years. Patients were divided into six groups according to the sextile distribution of TT. Patients with serum concentrations of TT < 3.6 ng mL−1 had a higher mean duration of symptoms compared to the other examined groups. Patients with serum concentrations of TT > 6.6 ng mL−1 showed a frequency of ultrasound criteria suggestive for bilateral form of prostatitis and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis and significantly lower compared to the other examined groups. At multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and BMI, TT was an independent predictive factor of prostatovesiculitis (OR = 0.818 [95% CI: 0.675–0.992]; P < 0.01) and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis (OR = 0.714 [95% CI: 0.578–0.880]; P < 0.01), which represent the main forms of complicated MAGI. The results of this study suggest that male hypogonadism could be associated with a different ultrasound characterization of these patients. PMID:25276133

  13. Juvenile hormone regulation of male accessory gland activity in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, R.; Tan, A.; Sun, Z.; Chen, J.; Rainkin, M.; Palli, S. R.

    2009-01-01

    Male accessory gland proteins (Acps) act as key modulators of reproductive success in insects by influencing the female reproductive physiology and behavior. We used custom microarrays and identified 112 genes that were highly expressed in male accessory glands (MAG) in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Out of these 112 identified genes, 59 of them contained sequences coding for signal peptide and cleavage site and the remaining 53 contained transmembrane domains. The expression of 14 these genes in the MAG but not in other tissues of male or female was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. In virgin males, juvenile hormone (JH) levels increased from second day post adult emergence (PAE), remained high on third day PAE and declined on fourth day PAE. The ecdysteroid titers were high soon after adult emergence but declined to minimal levels from 1-5 days PAE. Feeding of juvenile hormone analog, hydroprene, but not the ecdysteroid analog, RH-2485, showed an increase in size of MAGs, as well as an increase in total RNA and protein content of MAG. Hydroprene treatment also increased the expression Acp genes in the MAG. RNAi-mediated knock-down in the expression of JHAMT gene decreased the size of MAGs and expression of Acps. JH deficiency influenced male reproductive fitness as evidenced by a less vigor in mating behavior, poor sperm transfer, low egg and the progeny production by females mated with the JH deficient males. These data suggest a critical role for JH in the regulation of male reproduction especially through MAG secretions. PMID:19324087

  14. Juvenile hormone regulation of male accessory gland activity in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, R; Tan, A; Sun, Z; Chen, Z; Rankin, M; Palli, S R

    2009-07-01

    Male accessory gland proteins (Acps) act as key modulators of reproductive success in insects by influencing the female reproductive physiology and behavior. We used custom microarrays and identified 112 genes that were highly expressed in male accessory glands (MAG) in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Out of these 112 identified genes, 59 of them contained sequences coding for signal peptide and cleavage site and the remaining 53 contained transmembrane domains. The expression of 14 of these genes in the MAG but not in other tissues of male or female was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. In virgin males, juvenile hormone (JH) levels increased from second day post adult emergence (PAE), remained high on third day PAE and declined on fourth day PAE. The ecdysteroid titers were high soon after adult emergence but declined to minimal levels from 1 to 5 days PAE. Feeding of juvenile hormone analog, hydroprene, but not the ecdysteroid analog, RH-2485, showed an increase in size of MAGs, as well as an increase in total RNA and protein content of MAG. Hydroprene treatment also increased the expression of Acp genes in the MAG. RNAi-mediated knock-down in the expression of JHAMT gene decreased the size of MAGs and expression of Acps. JH deficiency influenced male reproductive fitness as evidenced by a less vigor in mating behavior, poor sperm transfer, low egg and the progeny production by females mated with the JH deficient males. These data suggest a critical role for JH in the regulation of male reproduction especially through MAG secretions. PMID:19324087

  15. Male breast cancer originating in an accessory mammary gland in the axilla: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Jun; Masuda, Norikazu; Kodama, Yoshinori; Yasojima, Hiroyuki; Mizutani, Makiko; Kuriyama, Keiko; Mano, Masayuki; Nakamori, Shoji; Sekimoto, Mitsugu

    2012-01-01

    Carcinoma of an accessory mammary gland is an extremely rare tumor. A 61-year-old male patient presented with a hard mass measuring 85 mm × 51 mm in the left axilla. Incisional biopsy histopathologically showed an adenocarcinoma compatible with breast carcinoma originating in an accessory mammary gland. Systemic examinations revealed no evidence of malignant or occult primary lesion in the bilateral mammary glands or in other organs. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was performed for the locally advanced axillary tumor and reduced the tumor to 55 mm in size, and, then, he could undergo complete resection with a negative surgical margin in combination with reconstructive surgery to fill the resulting skin defect with a local flap of the latissimus dorsi muscle. The patient has presented with no metastatic lesion in four years since the operation. This unusual case shows that neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an effective and tolerated therapy for advanced accessory breast cancer in the axilla. PMID:23251170

  16. Steroidogenesis by testis and accessory glands of the Lusitanian toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus, during reproductive season.

    PubMed

    Modesto, Teresa; Freitas, Ana M M S; Canario, Adelino V M

    2015-11-01

    In teleost fish sex steroids are essential for gonadal function and have marked effects in reproductive and agonistic behavior and in the expression of secondary sexual characteristics. The Lusitanian toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus, has two male morphotypes: type I males are territorial nest-holders and have large accessory glands while type II males are smaller, have a relatively large testis and small accessory glands. In the present study, the steroidogenic activity of the testis and accessory testicular glands of the Lusitanian toadfish were examined in vitro as well as their presence in urine. The testis of type I males produced 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) and 11?-hydroxy-4-androstene-3,17-dione (11?A) from tritiated 17-hydroxyprogesterone, while those of type II males produced testosterone (T) and 11?,17?-dihydroxy-4-andosten-3-one (11?T), but not 11KT. Additionally, the testis and accessory glands of both morphs produced mostly 5?,3?-reduced and 17,20?-hydroxylated metabolites. Type I, but not of type II, males synthesised 5?-reduced androgens in their accessory glands. The presence of 11?A exclusively in the urine of type I males during reproductive season suggests an association with maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics and behavior in this morph. The urine of both types of males contained two 5?-androstane and 5?-pregnane glucuronides. Among the latter steroids, those that are 17,21-dihydroxylated are potentially metabolites from cortisol and were found only in type I males during the spawning season. The diversity of metabolites produced by the testis and accessory glands and the presence of some in urine is suggestive of a potential role in chemical communication and reproductive behavior. PMID:26435361

  17. Study on development of accessory sex glands in prepubertal kids using two-dimensional ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Sonu; Luthra, R. A.; Chandolia, R. K.; Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Parveen; Devender; Kumar, Ankit; Bishnoi, Nidhi; Bishnoi, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to study growth pattern of accessory sex glands in prepubertal kids from 2 weeks to 6 months of age using two-dimensional ultrasonography. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on six Beetal kids. The scanning of accessory sex glands was done in standing position using rectal probe and measurements were recorded. Data collected were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan multiple range test was performed using the SPSS (16.0) system for windows. Results: With the advancement of age all the dimensions of glands increased. Both the lobes of prostate gland showed an increase in width with advancement of age. Width of prostate above the urethra (W1) showed a significant increase at 2, 10, and 20 weeks of age, whereas non-significant increase from 2 to 8, 10 to 19, and 20 to 24 weeks of age was recorded. Width of prostate below the urethra (W2) showed a significant increase at 20 weeks of age, whereas non-significant increase was recorded during rest of period of growth. Left and right bulbourethral gland showed a similar pattern of growth with the advancement of age. The circumference dimensions increased significantly at 2, 16, 20, and 21 weeks of age for both glands. The increase was non-significant from 4 to 14, 16 to 19, and 20 to 23 weeks of age. The same pattern was observed for left and right seminal vesicular gland. Conclusion: Significant growth in three accessory sex glands in prepubertal kids was not observed at the same age. The trend observed was that the prostate was the first gland to show significant growth at 10 weeks of age followed by a significant increase in seminal vesicles and bulbourethral gland at 14 and 16 weeks of age, respectively. PMID:27182127

  18. Transcriptional Profiles of Mating-Responsive Genes from Testes and Male Accessory Glands of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Ribeiro, Jos M. C.; Siciliano, Paolo; Meraldi, Alice; Falchetto, Marco; Bonomi, Angelica; Manni, Mos; Gabrieli, Paolo; Malovini, Alberto; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Aksoy, Serap; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Insect seminal fluid is a complex mixture of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, produced in the male reproductive tract. This seminal fluid is transferred together with the spermatozoa during mating and induces post-mating changes in the female. Molecular characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is limited, although studies suggest that some of these proteins are biologically active. Methodology/Principal Findings We report on the functional annotation of 5914 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the testes and male accessory glands, to identify transcripts encoding putative secreted peptides that might elicit post-mating responses in females. The ESTs were assembled into 3344 contigs, of which over 33% produced no hits against the nr database, and thus may represent novel or rapidly evolving sequences. Extraction of the coding sequences resulted in a total of 3371 putative peptides. The annotated dataset is available as a hyperlinked spreadsheet. Four hundred peptides were identified with putative secretory activity, including odorant binding proteins, protease inhibitor domain-containing peptides, antigen 5 proteins, mucins, and immunity-related sequences. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of a subset of putative secretory protein-encoding transcripts from accessory glands indicated changes in their abundance after one or more copulations when compared to virgin males of the same age. These changes in abundance, particularly evident after the third mating, may be related to the requirement to replenish proteins to be transferred to the female. Conclusions/Significance We have developed the first large-scale dataset for novel studies on functions and processes associated with the reproductive biology of Ceratitis capitata. The identified genes may help study genome evolution, in light of the high adaptive potential of the medfly. In addition, studies of male recovery dynamics in terms of accessory gland gene expression profiles and correlated remating inhibition mechanisms may permit the improvement of pest management approaches. PMID:23071645

  19. Comparative genomics of Roseobacter clade bacteria isolated from the accessory nidamental gland of Euprymna scolopes

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Andrew J.; Fullmer, Matthew S.; Gogarten, Johann P.; Nyholm, Spencer V.

    2015-01-01

    The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) of the female Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, houses a consortium of bacteria including members of the Flavobacteriales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia but is dominated by members of the Roseobacter clade (Rhodobacterales) within the Alphaproteobacteria. These bacteria are deposited into the jelly coat of the squid’s eggs, however, the function of the ANG and its bacterial symbionts has yet to be elucidated. In order to gain insight into this consortium and its potential role in host reproduction, we cultured 12 Rhodobacterales isolates from ANGs of sexually mature female squid and sequenced their genomes with Illumina sequencing technology. For taxonomic analyses, the ribosomal proteins of 79 genomes representing both roseobacters and non-roseobacters along with a separate MLSA analysis of 33 housekeeping genes from Roseobacter organisms placed all 12 isolates from the ANG within two groups of a single Roseobacter clade. Average nucelotide identity analysis suggests the ANG isolates represent three genera (Leisingera, Ruegeria, and Tateyamaria) comprised of seven putative species groups. All but one of the isolates contains a predicted Type VI secretion system, which has been shown to be important in secreting signaling and/or effector molecules in host–microbe associations and in bacteria–bacteria interactions. All sequenced genomes also show potential for secondary metabolite production, and are predicted to be involved with the production of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) and/or siderophores. An AHL bioassay confirmed AHL production in three tested isolates and from whole ANG homogenates. The dominant symbiont, Leisingera sp. ANG1, showed greater viability in iron-limiting conditions compared to other roseobacters, possibly due to higher levels of siderophore production. Future comparisons will try to elucidate novel metabolic pathways of the ANG symbionts to understand their putative role in host development. PMID:25755651

  20. Ultrastructure of the principal and accessory submandibular glands of the common vampire bat.

    PubMed

    Tandler, B; Toyoshima, K; Phillips, C J

    1990-12-01

    The principal and accessory submandibular glands of the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus, were examined by electron microscopy. The secretory endpieces of the principal gland consist of serous tubules capped at their blind ends by mucous acini. The substructure of the mucous droplets and of the serous granules varies according to the mode of specimen preparation. With ferrocyanide-reduced osmium postfixation, the mucous droplets are moderately dense and homogeneous; the serous granules often have a polygonal outline and their matrix shows clefts in which bundles of wavy filaments may be present. With conventional osmium postfixation, the mucous droplets have a finely fibrillogranular matrix; the serous granules are homogeneously dense. Mucous cells additionally contain many small, dense granules that may be small peroxisomes, as well as aggregates of 10-nm cytofilaments. Intercalated duct cells are relatively unspecialized. Striated ducts are characterized by highly folded basal membranes and vertically oriented mitochondria. Luminal surfaces of all of the secretory and duct cells have numerous microvilli, culminating in a brush borderlike affair in the striated ducts. The accessory gland has secretory endpieces consisting of mucous acini with small mucous demilunes. The acinar mucous droplets contain a large dense region; the lucent portion has punctate densities. Demilune mucous droplets lack a dense region and consist of a light matrix in which fine fibrillogranular material is suspended. A ring of junctional cells, identifiable by their complex secretory granules, separates the mucous acini from the intercalated ducts. The intercalated ducts lack specialized structure. Striated ducts resemble their counterparts in the principal gland. As in the principal gland, all luminal surfaces are covered by an array of microvilli. At least some of the features of the principal and accessory submandibular glands of the vampire bat may be structural adaptations to the exigencies posed by the exclusively sanguivorous diet of these animals and its attendant extremely high intake of sodium chloride. PMID:2285039

  1. Comparative Study of the Labial Gland Secretion in Termites (Isoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Sillam-Dussès, David; Krasulová, Jana; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Pytelková, Jana; Cvačka, Josef; Kutalová, Kateřina; Bourguignon, Thomas; Miura, Toru; Šobotník, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Labial glands are present in all castes and developmental stages of all termite species. In workers, their secretion contains a food-marking pheromone and digestive enzymes, while soldier secretion plays a defensive role. However, these functions were studied only in a limited set of species, and do not allow drawing general conclusions. Hence, we have investigated the chemical composition of the labial gland extracts from soldiers and workers in 15 termite species belonging to 6 families using an integrative approach based on proteomic and small-molecule profiling. We confirmed the presence of hydroquinone and cellulase in the labial glands of workers, and we identified new toxic compounds in soldiers and workers of several species. Our results highlight the dual role of labial gland secretion, i.e. the defensive role in soldiers and workers of several termite species, and the digestive function in workers. PMID:23071569

  2. Postoperative evaluation of the surgical treatment of accessory teat and gland cistern complexes in dairy cows.

    PubMed Central

    Schmit, K A; Arighi, M; Dobson, H

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the long-term evaluation of a method of surgically repairing the abnormal condition of accessory teat and gland cistern complexes in dairy cattle. A prospective evaluation of three cows that had undergone the procedure was done. These cows were evaluated from four months to one year, postoperatively. A thorough history, physical examination, contrast radiography, and ultrasonic examination were done on each cow. A retrospective evaluation of an additional 13 cows that had also undergone the procedure was obtained four months to three years following the surgery, via owner communication. The prospective portion of this study demonstrated patency of the communication between main and accessory teat cisterns. Postoperative complications included initial slow milking and mild swelling of the involved teat. These problems resolved in all cows one to two months postoperatively. None of the 16 cows that had undergone the surgery either developed or was treated for mastitis. Likewise, none of these cows was sold or slaughtered as a result of postoperative teat problems or unsatisfactory milk production. Our study demonstrated that this particular method of surgical correction of accessory teat and gland cistern complexes is effective, is esthetically acceptable, produces minimal associated complications, and preserves the milk production capacity of the gland. Images Figure 2. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:8044754

  3. Effects of access to preen gland secretions on mallard plumage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraudeau, Mathieu; Duval, Camille; Guillon, Noel; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Gutierrez, Claude; Heeb, Philipp

    2010-06-01

    Preen glands exist in almost every bird species and several non-exclusive functions have been proposed for this gland and the oils that it produces. One function generally admitted is that the oily secretions of the preen gland would provide a waterproofing layer when spread over feathers. Alternatively, several authors have proposed that plumage waterproofness is mostly due to the spatial micro-structure of feathers. The purpose of this study was to examine, by manipulating the access to the preen gland, the effect of the preen oil on the plumage waterproofness and condition. To explore this question, we carried out two independent experiments where we temporarily blocked access to the preen gland secretions with a removable mechanism in one group of captive mallards ( Anas platyrhynchos), whilst a second group of birds had access to gland secretions. In a long-term experiment (3 months of treatment) and a short-term experiment (10 days), we measured plumage water retention and condition. After 3 months without access to preen glands, we found a significant decrease of plumage condition and an associated increase in plumage water retention. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between plumage condition and water retention ability. In contrast, after 10 days of treatment, no significant effect was found on plumage condition and water retention. Our study shows that preen oil acts to maintain plumage condition and suggests that feather microstructure is essential to maintain plumage waterproofness.

  4. The Ebner glands: a pancreatic-like gland secreting an acid lipase. Secretory regulation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ruellan, C; Moreau, J; Bouisson, M; Ribet, A

    1988-05-01

    The lingual serous glands of rat tongue, the Ebner glands, secrete a potent acid lipase that acts in the stomach where it initiates the digestion of dietary fat. The factors affecting its secretion were studied 'in vitro' on Ebner slices. The lipolytic activity was measured in the incubation medium using tributyrine as substrate and by titration at pH: 5.4. Cholecystokinin (10(-9) M) and carbachol (10(-5) M) efficiently stimulated lipase secretion (3 fold over basal rate). The parasympathetic agent triggered secretion involving a calcium dependent system. Atropin (10(-4) M) blocked this cholinergic effect by about 40%. Lipase secretion was stimulated by epinephrine and isoproterenol. Propranolol (beta-antagonist) inhibited the adrenergic stimulation, while phentolamine was ineffective. The inhibitory effect of the selective beta 1-antagonist (Betaxolol) and the lack of effect of the selective beta 2-antagonist (ICI 118551) suggest the participation of beta 1-adrenoceptors in the secretion mechanism. PMID:2898507

  5. Protein and Peptide Composition of Male Accessory Glands of Apis mellifera Drones Investigated by Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Blenau, Wolfgang; Koeniger, Gudrun; Römpp, Andreas; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, reproductive females usually mate early in their life with more than 10 males in free flight, often within 10 minutes, and then store male gametes for up to five years. Because of the extreme polyandry and mating in free flight special adaptations in males are most likely. We present here the results of an investigation of the protein content of four types of male reproductive glands from the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone, namely seminal vesicles (secretion in ejaculate), as well as bulbus, cornua and mucus glands (secretions for the mating plug). Using high resolution and accuracy mass spectrometry and a combination of database searching and de novo sequencing techniques it was possible to identify 50 different proteins in total, inside all mentioned glands, except in the mucus gland. Most of the proteins are unique for a specific gland type, only one of them (H9KEY1/ATP synthase subunit O) was found in three glands, and 7 proteins were found in two types of glands. The identified proteins represent a wide variety of biological functions and can be assigned to several physiological classes, such as protection, energy generation, maintaining optimal conditions, associated mainly with vesicula seminalis; signaling, cuticle proteins, icarpin and apolipoproteins located mainly in the bulbus and cornua glands; and some other classes. Most of the discovered proteins were not found earlier during investigation of semen, seminal fluid and tissue of reproductive glands of the bee drone. Moreover, we provide here the origin of each protein. Thus, the presented data might shed light on the role of each reproductive gland. PMID:25955586

  6. Protein and Peptide Composition of Male Accessory Glands of Apis mellifera Drones Investigated by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Blenau, Wolfgang; Koeniger, Gudrun; Römpp, Andreas; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, reproductive females usually mate early in their life with more than 10 males in free flight, often within 10 minutes, and then store male gametes for up to five years. Because of the extreme polyandry and mating in free flight special adaptations in males are most likely. We present here the results of an investigation of the protein content of four types of male reproductive glands from the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone, namely seminal vesicles (secretion in ejaculate), as well as bulbus, cornua and mucus glands (secretions for the mating plug). Using high resolution and accuracy mass spectrometry and a combination of database searching and de novo sequencing techniques it was possible to identify 50 different proteins in total, inside all mentioned glands, except in the mucus gland. Most of the proteins are unique for a specific gland type, only one of them (H9KEY1/ATP synthase subunit O) was found in three glands, and 7 proteins were found in two types of glands. The identified proteins represent a wide variety of biological functions and can be assigned to several physiological classes, such as protection, energy generation, maintaining optimal conditions, associated mainly with vesicula seminalis; signaling, cuticle proteins, icarpin and apolipoproteins located mainly in the bulbus and cornua glands; and some other classes. Most of the discovered proteins were not found earlier during investigation of semen, seminal fluid and tissue of reproductive glands of the bee drone. Moreover, we provide here the origin of each protein. Thus, the presented data might shed light on the role of each reproductive gland. PMID:25955586

  7. Accessory Gland as a Site for Prothoracicotropic Hormone Controlled Ecdysone Synthesis in Adult Male Insects

    PubMed Central

    Hentze, Julie L.; Moeller, Morten E.; Jørgensen, Anne F.; Bengtsson, Meghan S.; Bordoy, Anna M.; Warren, James T.; Gilbert, Lawrence I.; Andersen, Ole; Rewitz, Kim F.

    2013-01-01

    Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis of ecdysone (E), the precursor of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), are expressed in the tubular accessory glands (TAGs) of adult males. In contrast, expression of the gene encoding the enzyme mediating 20E synthesis was detected in the ovaries of females. Further, Spookiest (Spot), an enzyme presumably required for endowing tissues with competence to produce ecdysteroids, is male specific and predominantly expressed in the TAGs. We also show that prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), a regulator of E synthesis during larval development, regulates ecdysteroid levels in the adult stage in Drosophila melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises the possibility that E and 20E have sex-specific roles analogous to the vertebrate sex steroids, where males produce primarily testosterone, the precursor of estradiol. Furthermore this study provides the first evidence that PTTH regulates ecdysteroid synthesis in the adult stage and could explain the original finding that some adult insects are a rich source of PTTH. PMID:23383307

  8. The Toll/NF-κB pathway in cuttlefish symbiotic accessory nidamental gland.

    PubMed

    Cornet, Valérie; Henry, Joël; Corre, Erwan; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline

    2015-11-01

    The female genital apparatus of decapod cephalopods contains a symbiotic accessory nidamental gland (ANG) that harbors bacterial symbionts. Although the ANG bacterial consortium is now well described, the impact of symbiosis on Sepia officinalis innate immunity pathways remains unknown. In silico analysis of the de novo transcriptome of ANG highlighted for the first time the existence of the NF-κB pathway in S. officinalis. Several signaling components were identified, i.e. five Toll-like receptors, eight signaling cascade features, and the immune response target gene iNOS, previously described as being involved in the initiation of bacterial symbiosis in a cephalopod gland. This work provides a first key for studying bacterial symbiosis and its impact on innate immunity in S. officinalis ANG. PMID:26143243

  9. Recently Evolved Genes Identified From Drosophila yakuba and D. erecta Accessory Gland Expressed Sequence Tags

    PubMed Central

    Begun, David J.; Lindfors, Heather A.; Thompson, Melissa E.; Holloway, Alisha K.

    2006-01-01

    The fraction of the genome associated with male reproduction in Drosophila may be unusually dynamic. For example, male reproduction-related genes show higher-than-average rates of protein divergence and gene expression evolution compared to most Drosophila genes. Drosophila male reproduction may also be enriched for novel genetic functions. Our earlier work, based on accessory gland protein genes (Acp's) in D. simulans and D. melanogaster, suggested that the melanogaster subgroup Acp's may be lost and/or gained on a relatively rapid timescale. Here we investigate this possibility more thoroughly through description of the accessory gland transcriptome in two melanogaster subgroup species, D. yakuba and D. erecta. A genomic analysis of previously unknown genes isolated from cDNA libraries of these species revealed several cases of genes present in one or both species, yet absent from ingroup and outgroup species. We found no evidence that these novel genes are attributable primarily to duplication and divergence, which suggests the possibility that Acp's or other genes coding for small proteins may originate from ancestrally noncoding DNA. PMID:16361246

  10. Granular gland transcriptomes in stimulated amphibian skin secretions.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tianbao; Farragher, Susan; Bjourson, Anthony J; Orr, David F; Rao, Pingfan; Shaw, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Amphibian defensive skin secretions are complex, species-specific cocktails of biologically active molecules, including many uncharacterized peptides. The study of such secretions for novel peptide discovery is time-limited, as amphibians are in rapid global decline. While secretion proteome analysis is non-lethal, transcriptome analysis has until now required killing of specimens prior to skin dissection for cDNA library construction. Here we present the discovery that polyadenylated mRNAs encoding dermal granular gland peptides are present in defensive skin secretions, stabilized by endogenous nucleic acid-binding amphipathic peptides. Thus parallel secretory proteome and transcriptome analyses can be performed without killing the specimen in this model amphibian system--a finding that has important implications in conservation of biodiversity within this threatened vertebrate taxon and whose mechanistics may have broader implications in biomolecular science. PMID:12413397

  11. The chemical composition of the uropygial gland secretion of rock dove Columba livia.

    PubMed

    Montalti, Diego; Gutiérrez, Ana María; Reboredo, Guillermo; Salibián, Alfredo

    2005-03-01

    The uropygial gland is a holocrine secretory gland of birds. The lipid and the waxy sebum that the gland secretes is coated on the beak and transferred to the plumage in preening. The composition of the gland secretions from birds of different species has been determined, but little is known about the lipids of the secretion of the gland of the rock dove Columba livia. The amount of secretion, the total lipid content and the fatty acids composition of the secretion of C. livia captured in the nonbreeding season was reported. The mean amount of the secretion within the gland was 30 mg; the mean lipid content of the secretion was 0.385 mg/mg of secretion, which was equivalent to approximately 38% of the secretion. The weight of the secretion relative to gland weight was 32%. If we assume that the amount of the gland secretion constitutes a valid parameter to determine the degree of the gland development, our results indicate that the physiological role of the gland does not depend upon gland mass (GW); the rock dove in particular has a small gland, but its secretion represented 32% of the gland's mass. The composition of the lipids extracted from the gland secretion consisted of C14 to C20 fatty acids, most of them were unsaturated. The secretion of the gland contained approximately 59% of unsaturated fatty acids with a prevalence of oleic acid (37%) and a low content of linoleic (6%) and arachidonic acids (7%). The saturated long chain fatty acids were mainly 14:0, 16:0 and 18:0 in a percentage of approximately 34%. No sexual differences were found in any of the evaluated parameters. PMID:15792592

  12. Synchronous ipsilateral carcinoma of the accessory mammary gland and primary lymphoma of the breast with subsequent rectal carcinoma: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Akihiro; Kasai, Hide; Koyama, Yoshinori; Koide, Naohiko; Iijima, Akihiro; Shimojo, Hisashi; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi

    2014-01-01

    A case of synchronous carcinoma of the accessory mammary gland and primary breast lymphoma with subsequent rectal carcinoma has not been reported previously. We present a very rare case of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the left breast diagnosed simultaneously with invasive lobular carcinoma of the left axillary accessory mammary gland and rectal adenocarcinoma. An 82-year-old Japanese woman presented with two palpable masses on the left chest wall. She was given a diagnosis of suspected breast malignant tumor and axillary accessory mammary gland. She underwent excision of the axillary accessory mammary gland and left mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection. Histopathological examination revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the breast and invasive lobular carcinoma of the axillary accessory mammary gland with lymph nodes metastasis. Three months after the surgery, primary rectal adenocarcinoma was also detected by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Hartmann's operation was performed, since which time the patient has been doing well. PMID:25217973

  13. Odorant-Binding Protein: Localization to Nasal Glands and Secretions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pevsner, Jonathan; Sklar, Pamela B.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    1986-07-01

    An odorant-binding protein (OBP) was isolated from bovine olfactory and respiratory mucosa. We have produced polyclonal antisera to this protein and report its immunohistochemical localization to mucus-secreting glands of the olfactory and respiratory mucosa. Although OBP was originally isolated as a pyrazine binding protein, both rat and bovine OBP also bind the odorants [3H]methyldihydrojasmonate and 3,7-dimethyl-octan-1-ol as well as 2-isobutyl-3-[3H]methoxypyrazine. We detect substantial odorant-binding activity attributable to OBP in secreted rat nasal mucus and tears but not in saliva, suggesting a role for OBP in transporting or concentrating odorants.

  14. Regucalcin Expression in Bovine Tissues and Its Regulation by Sex Steroid Hormones in Accessory Sex Glands

    PubMed Central

    Starvaggi Cucuzza, Laura; Divari, Sara; Mulasso, Chiara; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Cannizzo, Francesca T.

    2014-01-01

    Regucalcin (RGN) is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle. PMID:25415588

  15. Selenophosphate synthetase in the male accessory glands of an insect without selenoproteins.

    PubMed

    Fuessl, Marion; Reinders, Jrg; Oefner, Peter J; Heinze, Jrgen; Schrempf, Alexandra

    2014-12-01

    Selenoproteins (containing the 21st proteinogenic amino acid selenocysteine) play important roles throughout all domains of life. Surprisingly, a number of taxa have small selenoproteomes, and Hymenopteran insects appear to have fully lost selenoproteins. Nevertheless, their genomes contain genes for several proteins of the selenocysteine insertion machinery, including selenophosphate synthetase 1 (SELD/SPS1). At present, it is unknown whether this enzyme has a selenoprotein-independent function, and whether the gene is actually translated into a protein in Hymenoptera. Here, we report that SELD/SPS1 is present as a protein in the accessory glands of males of the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior. It appears to be more abundant in the glands of winged disperser males than in those of wingless, local fighter males. Mating increases the lifespan and fecundity of queens in C. obscurior, and mating with winged males has a stronger effect on queen fitness than mating with a wingless male. SELD/SPS 1 has been suggested to play an important role in oxidative stress defense, and might therefore be involved in the life-prolonging effect of mating. PMID:25308180

  16. 9 CFR 94.3 - Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... secretions of ruminants or swine. 94.3 Section 94.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.3 Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine. The importation of fresh (chilled or frozen) organs, glands, extracts, or secretions derived from ruminants or...

  17. 9 CFR 94.3 - Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... secretions of ruminants or swine. 94.3 Section 94.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.3 Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine. The importation of fresh (chilled or frozen) organs, glands, extracts, or secretions derived from ruminants or...

  18. 9 CFR 94.3 - Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... secretions of ruminants or swine. 94.3 Section 94.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.3 Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine. The importation of fresh (chilled or frozen) organs, glands, extracts, or secretions derived from ruminants or...

  19. Odorant-binding protein: localization to nasal glands and secretions.

    PubMed Central

    Pevsner, J; Sklar, P B; Snyder, S H

    1986-01-01

    An odorant-binding protein (OBP) was isolated from bovine olfactory and respiratory mucosa. We have produced polyclonal antisera to this protein and report its immunohistochemical localization to mucus-secreting glands of the olfactory and respiratory mucosa. Although OBP was originally isolated as a pyrazine binding protein, both rat and bovine OBP also bind the odorants [3H]methyldihydrojasmonate and 3,7-dimethyl-octan-1-ol as well as 2-isobutyl-3-[3H]methoxypyrazine. We detect substantial odorant-binding activity attributable to OBP in secreted rat nasal mucus and tears but not in saliva, suggesting a role for OBP in transporting or concentrating odorants. Images PMID:3523479

  20. Odorant-binding protein: localization to nasal glands and secretions.

    PubMed

    Pevsner, J; Sklar, P B; Snyder, S H

    1986-07-01

    An odorant-binding protein (OBP) was isolated from bovine olfactory and respiratory mucosa. We have produced polyclonal antisera to this protein and report its immunohistochemical localization to mucus-secreting glands of the olfactory and respiratory mucosa. Although OBP was originally isolated as a pyrazine binding protein, both rat and bovine OBP also bind the odorants [3H]methyldihydrojasmonate and 3,7-dimethyl-octan-1-ol as well as 2-isobutyl-3-[3H]methoxypyrazine. We detect substantial odorant-binding activity attributable to OBP in secreted rat nasal mucus and tears but not in saliva, suggesting a role for OBP in transporting or concentrating odorants. PMID:3523479

  1. Antigenic homogeneity of male Müllerian gland (MG) secretory proteins of a caecilian amphibian with secretory proteins of the mammalian prostate gland and seminal vesicles: evidence for role of the caecilian MG as a male accessory reproductive gland.

    PubMed

    Radha, Arumugam; Sree, Sreesha; Faisal, Kunnathodi; Kumar, G Pradeep; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2014-10-01

    Whereas in all other vertebrates the Müllerian ducts of genetic males are aborted during development, under the influence of Müllerian-inhibiting substance, in the caecilian amphibians they are retained as a pair of functional glands. It has long been speculated that the Müllerian gland might be the male accessory reproductive gland but there has been no direct evidence to this effect. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the caecilian Müllerian gland secretory proteins would bear antigenic similarity to secretory proteins of the prostate gland and/or the seminal vesicles of a mammal. The secretory proteins of the Müllerian gland of Ichthyophis tricolor were evaluated for cross-reactivity with antisera raised against rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle secretory proteins, adopting SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot techniques. Indeed there was a cross-reaction of five Müllerian gland secretory protein fractions with prostatic protein antiserum and of three with seminal vesicle protein antiserum. A potential homology exists because in mammals the middle group of the prostate primordia is derived from a diverticulum of the Müllerian duct. Thus this study, by providing evidence for expression of prostatic and seminal vesicle proteins in the Müllerian gland, substantiates the point that in caecilians the Müllerian glands are the male accessory reproductive glands. PMID:25160003

  2. Vasoactive intestinal peptide stimulates tracheal submucosal gland secretion in ferret

    SciTech Connect

    Peatfield, A.C.; Barnes, P.J.; Bratcher, C.; Nadel, J.A.; Davis, B.

    1983-07-01

    We studied the effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on the output of 35S-labeled macromolecules from ferret tracheal explants either placed in beakers or suspended in modified Ussing chambers. In Ussing chamber experiments, the radiolabel precursor, sodium (35S)sulfate, and all drugs were placed on the submucosal side of the tissue. Washings were collected at 30-min intervals from the luminal side and were dialyzed to remove unbound 35S, leaving radiolabeled macromolecules. Vasoactive intestinal peptide at 3 X 10(-7) M stimulated bound 35S output by a mean of + 252.6% (n . 14). The VIP response was dose-dependent with a near maximal response and a half maximal response at approximately 10(-6) M and 10(-8), M, respectively. The VIP effect was not inhibited by a mixture of tetrodotoxin, atropine, I-propranolol, and phentolamine. Vasoactive intestinal peptide had no effect on the electrical properties of the of the tissues. We conclude that VIP stimulates output of sulfated-macromolecules from ferret tracheal submucosal glands without stimulating ion transport. Our studies also suggest that VIP acts on submucosal glands via specific VIP receptors. Vasoactive intestinal peptide has been shown to increase intracellular levels of cyclic AMP, and we suggest that this may be the mechanism for its effect on the output of macromolecules. This mechanism may be important in the neural regulation of submucosal gland secretion.

  3. LOCALIZATION AND SECRETION OF SALT BY THE SALT GLANDS OF Tamarix aphylla*

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, W. W.; Berry, W. L.; Liu, L. L.

    1969-01-01

    Analysis of salt secreted by the salt glands of Tamarix aphylla shows that the composition of the secreted salt is dependent on the salt composition of the root environment. Rubidium ion, if added to culture solutions in which the plants were growing, is also taken up by the plants and subsequently secreted by the glands. Electron micrographs of glands from the ribidium-secreting plants show accumulations of electron-dense material in the microvacuoles of the secretory cells. It is concluded that rubidium is accumulated in the microvacuoles and subsequently secreted by their fusion with the plasmalemma. Images PMID:16591764

  4. Molecular Mechanism of Pancreatic and Salivary Glands Fluid and HCO3− Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Goo; Ohana, Ehud; Park, Hyun Woo; Yang, Dongki; Muallem, Shmuel

    2013-01-01

    Fluid and HCO3− secretion is a vital function of all epithelia and is required for the survival of the tissue. Aberrant fluid and HCO3− secretion is associated with many epithelial diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, Sjögren’s syndrome and other epithelial inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Significant progress has been made over the last 20 years in our understanding of epithelial fluid and HCO3− secretion, in particular by secretory glands. Fluid and HCO3− secretion by secretory glands is a two step process. Acinar cells secrete isotonic fluid in which the major salt is NaCl. Subsequently, the duct modifies the volume and electrolyte composition of the fluid to absorb the Cl− and secrete HCO3−. The relative volume secreted by acinar and duct cells and modification of electrolyte composition of the secreted fluids varies among secretory glands to meet their physiological functions. In the pancreas, acinar cells secrete small amount of NaCl-rich fluid, while the duct absorbs the Cl− and secretes HCO3− and the bulk of the fluid in the pancreatic juice. Fluid secretion appears to be driven by active HCO3− secretion. In the salivary glands, acinar cells secrete the bulk of the fluid in the saliva that contains high concentrations of Na+ and Cl− and fluid secretion is mediated by active Cl− secretion. The salivary glands duct absorbs both the Na+ and Cl− and secretes K+ and HCO3−. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanism of fluid and HCO3− secretion by the pancreas and salivary glands, to highlight the similarities of the fundamental mechanisms of acinar and duct cell functions, and point the differences to meet glands specific secretions. PMID:22298651

  5. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference, Quantity of Accessory Gland Proteins, and Sperm Traits and Female Fitness in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Abolhasan; Krishna, Mysore Siddaiah; Santhosh, Hassan T

    2015-01-01

    For species in which mating is resource-independent and offspring do not receive parental care, theoretical models of age-based female mate preference predict that females should prefer to mate with older males as they have demonstrated ability to survive. Thus, females should obtain a fitness benefit from mating with older males. However, male aging is often associated with reductions in quantity of sperm. The adaptive significance of age-based mate choice is therefore unclear. Various hypotheses have made conflicting predictions concerning this issue, because published studies have not investigated the effect of age on accessory gland proteins and sperm traits. D. melanogaster exhibits resource-independent mating, and offspring do not receive parental care, making this an appropriate model for studying age-based mate choice. In the present study, we found that D. melanogaster females of all ages preferred to mate with the younger of two competing males. Young males performed significantly greater courtship attempts and females showed least rejection for the same than middle-aged and old males. Young males had small accessory glands that contained very few main cells that were larger than average. Nevertheless, compared with middle-aged or old males, the young males transferred greater quantities of accessory gland proteins and sperm to mated females. As a result, females that mated with young male produced more eggs and progeny than those that mated with older males. Furthermore, mating with young male reduced female's lifespan. These studies indicate that quantity of accessory gland proteins and sperm traits decreased with male age and females obtain direct fitness benefit from mating with preferred young males. PMID:25660692

  6. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of the Accessory Sex Gland and Testis from the Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    He, Lin; Jiang, Hui; Cao, Dandan; Liu, Lihua; Hu, Songnian; Wang, Qun

    2013-01-01

    The accessory sex gland (ASG) is an important component of the male reproductive system, which functions to enhance the fertility of spermatozoa during male reproduction. Certain proteins secreted by the ASG are known to bind to the spermatozoa membrane and affect its function. The ASG gene expression profile in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has not been extensively studied, and limited genetic research has been conducted on this species. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables the generation of genomic resources within a short period of time and at minimal cost. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for the ASG of E. sinensis using Illumina sequencing technology. This analysis yielded a total of 33,221,284 sequencing reads, including 2.6 Gb of total nucleotides. Reads were assembled into 85,913 contigs (average 218 bp), or 58,567 scaffold sequences (average 292 bp), that identified 37,955 unigenes (average 385 bp). We assembled all unigenes and compared them with the published testis transcriptome from E. sinensis. In order to identify which genes may be involved in ASG function, as it pertains to modification of spermatozoa, we compared the ASG and testis transcriptome of E. sinensis. Our analysis identified specific genes with both higher and lower tissue expression levels in the two tissues, and the functions of these genes were analyzed to elucidate their potential roles during maturation of spermatozoa. Availability of detailed transcriptome data from ASG and testis in E. sinensis can assist our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved with spermatozoa conservation, transport, maturation and capacitation and potentially acrosome activation. PMID:23342039

  7. Male accessory gland substances from Aedes albopictus affect the locomotor activity of Aedes aegypti females

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Codeço, Claudia Torres; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Lounibos, Leon Philip

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is one of the world’s most important mosquito-borne diseases and is usually transmitted by one of two vector species: Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus . These two diurnal mosquitoes are frequently found coexisting in similar habitats, enabling interactions between adults, such as cross-mating. The objective of this study was to assess cross-mating between Ae. aegypti females and Ae. albopictus males under artificial conditions and evaluate the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti virgin females injected with male accessory gland (MAG) homogenates to infer the physiological and behavioural responses to interspecific mating. After seven days of exposure, 3.3-16% of Ae. aegypti females mated with Ae. albopictus males. Virgin Ae. aegypti females injected with conspecific and heterospecific MAGs showed a general decrease in locomotor activity compared to controls and were refractory to mating with conspecific males. The reduction in diurnal locomotor activity induced by injections of conspecific or heterospecific MAGs is consistent with regulation of female reproductive activities by male substances, which are capable of sterilising female Ae. aegypti through satyrisation by Ae. albopictus . PMID:24473799

  8. Nutrition regulation of male accessory gland growth and maturation in Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingjing; Anciro, Ashlee L; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway is known to control growth, development and reproduction. Insulin-like peptide mediated body size plasticity in Drosophila melanogaster has been reported. Here, our studies showed that IIS pathway and nutrition regulate growth and maturation of the male accessory gland (MAG) in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. The size of MAG increased from day 1 to day 5 post-adult emergence (PAE). This increase in the size of MAG is contributed by an increase in cell size, but not cell number. The growth of MAG was impaired after double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated knockdown in the expression of genes coding for ILP3, InR, Chico, PI3k, AKT, and GATA1 involved in IIS pathway. Interestingly, starvation showed similar effects on the growth and maturation of MAG. The phenotypes observed in animals where IIS signaling pathway genes were knocked down are similar to the phenotypes observed after starving beetles for 5 days PAE. These data suggest that nutrition signals working through IIS pathway regulate maturation of MAG by promoting the growth of MAG cells. PMID:26035685

  9. Mimicry of queen Dufour's gland secretions by workers of Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sole, Catherine; Kryger, Per; Hefetz, Abraham; Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Crewe, Robin

    2002-10-01

    The development of the Dufour's gland of workers of the two honey bee races Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis was measured. The Dufour's glands of A. m. capensis workers were longer and increased in length more rapidly than the glands of workers of A. m. scutellata at comparable ages. Analysis of the Dufour's gland secretions of workers and queens of both races revealed that there were caste and racial differences. Secretions of queenright A. m. scutellata workers were dominated by a series of long-chain hydrocarbons. In contrast the secretions of the A. m. capensis workers both under queenright and queenless conditions were a mixture of hydrocarbons and wax-type esters, as were those of queens. Multivariate analysis of the secretion profiles indicated that laying workers of both races mimic queens. The secretions of the A. m. capensis laying workers mimicked queen secretions most closely, enabling them to act as successful social parasites.

  10. Variation in sperm displacement and its association with accessory gland protein loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.G.; Prout, T.; Harshman, L.G.

    1995-01-01

    Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophila melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female`s reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm. This lack of correlation, and the association of Acp alleles with resisting subsequent sperm only, suggests that different mechanisms mediate the two components of sperm displacement. 36 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Diversity and Partitioning of Bacterial Populations within the Accessory Nidamental Gland of the Squid Euprymna scolopes

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Andrew J.; LaBarre, Brenna A.; Wong Won, Brian S.; Shah, Monica V.; Heng, Steven; Choudhury, Momena H.; Haydar, Shahela A.; Santiago, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Microbial consortia confer important benefits to animal and plant hosts, and model associations are necessary to examine these types of host/microbe interactions. The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) is a female reproductive organ found among cephalopod mollusks that contains a consortium of bacteria, the exact function of which is unknown. To begin to understand the role of this organ, the bacterial consortium was characterized in the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, a well-studied model organism for symbiosis research. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the ANG revealed dense bacterial assemblages of rod- and coccus-shaped cells segregated by morphology into separate, epithelium-lined tubules. The host epithelium was morphologically heterogeneous, containing ciliated and nonciliated cells with various brush border thicknesses. Hemocytes of the host's innate immune system were also found in close proximity to the bacteria within the tubules. A census of 16S rRNA genes suggested that Rhodobacterales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia bacteria were prevalent, with members of the genus Phaeobacter dominating the consortium. Analysis of 454-shotgun sequencing data confirmed the presence of members of these taxa and revealed members of a fourth, Flavobacteria of the Bacteroidetes phylum. 16S rRNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that many ANG tubules were dominated by members of specific taxa, namely, Rhodobacterales, Verrucomicrobia, or Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroidetes, suggesting symbiont partitioning to specific host tubules. In addition, FISH revealed that bacteria, including Phaeobacter species from the ANG, are likely deposited into the jelly coat of freshly laid eggs. This report establishes the ANG of the invertebrate E. scolopes as a model to examine interactions between a bacterial consortium and its host. PMID:22504817

  12. Synthesis, depletion and cell-type expression of a protein from the male accessory glands of the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso-Parra, Catalina; Avila, Frank W.; Deewatthanawong, Prasit; Sirot, Laura K.; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Harrington, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes aegypti males transfer sperm and seminal fluid proteins (Sfps), primarily produced by male accessory glands (AGs), to females during mating. When collectively injected or transplanted into females, AG tissues and/or seminal fluid homogenates have profound effects on Aedes female physiology and behavior. To identify targets and design new strategies for vector control, it is important to understand the biology of the AGs. Thus, we examined characteristics of AG secretion and development in Ae. aegypti, using the AG-specific seminal fluid protein, AAEL010824, as a marker. We showed that AAEL010824 is first detectable by 12h post-eclosion, and increases in amount over the first 3 days of adult life. We then showed that the amount of AAEL0010824 in the AG decreases after mating, with each successive mating depleting it further; by 5 successive matings with no time for recovery, its levels are very low. AAEL010824 levels in a depleted male are replenished by 48hr post-mating. In addition to examining the level of AAEL010824 protein, we also characterized the expression of its gene. We did this by making a transgenic mosquito line that carries an Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein (EGFP) fused to the AAEL0010824 promoter that we defined here. We showed that AAEL010824 is expressed in the anterior cells of the accessory glands, and that its RNA levels also respond to mating. In addition to further characterizing AAEL010824 expression, our results with the EGFP fusion provide a promoter for driving AG expression. By providing this information on the biology of an important male reproductive tissue and the production of one of its seminal proteins, our results lay the foundation for future work aimed at identifying novel targets for mosquito population control. PMID:25107876

  13. Partial uncoupling of salt gland blood flow and secretion in the Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed Central

    Gerstberger, R

    1991-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the blood flow through and the secretion by the salt glands of conscious, salt-water-adapted Pekin ducks. 2. Intravenous loading with hypertonic saline induced a steady-state secretion from the salt glands with a concomitant increase in whole-organ blood flow. The distribution of elevated local glandular blood flow was, however, uneven and in addition demonstrated vasomotor patterns that ranged from constant to rhythmic. 3. During on-going salt gland secretion, the infusion of three vasoactive agents, 5Val-angiotensin II (ANG II), 8Arg-vasotocin (AVT) and noradrenaline, via the carotid artery had differential effects on salt gland blood flow and secretion. 4. ANG II (80 pmol min-1 (kg body wt)-1) had no effect on mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), produced a transient 30% decrease in glandular blood flow and strongly diminished salt gland secretion (retention of 6.4 mosmol NaCl). 5. AVT (20 pmol min-1 (kg body wt)-1) had no effect on MABP and did not alter salt gland secretion despite a 35% reduction in blood flow. 6. Noradrenaline (20 nmol min-1 (kg body wt)-1) elevated MABP by 15 mmHg, reduced salt gland blood flow by more than 50%, but diminished salt gland secretion only slightly (retention of 2.7 mosmol NaCl). 7. Using ANG II, AVT and noradrenaline as hormonal tools, integrated changes in blood flow rate did not correspond with integrated changes in salt gland excretion. The partial dissociation between both parameters shows that control of secretion by the salt gland is more complex than simply being linearly dependent upon blood flow through it. PMID:1770434

  14. Large tonsillolith associated with the accessory duct of the ipsilateral submandibular gland: support for saliva stasis hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Pirkl, I; Filipović, B; Goranović, T; Šimunjak, B

    2015-01-01

    Tonsillolith is a calcified mass in the tonsil and/or its surrounding tissue, which is considered to be caused by chronic tonsillitis. However, here we hypothesized that a tonsillolith can also be formed by chronic saliva stasis in the tonsillar tissue, without any signs of chronic inflammation. We present the case of a 32-year-old male patient with a large tonsillolith. We reviewed his medical files, pre-operative imaging and intraoperative findings. During a standard tonsillectomy, we encountered a large tonsillolith measuring 3.1 × 2.6 cm. Additionally, a careful dissection of the lower pole of the remaining tonsillar tissue revealed a large fistulous tract filled with saliva. Post-operative examination of the pre-operative CT scan found a hypodense fistulous tract extending from the lower tonsillar pole towards the left submandibular gland, measuring 36 mm in length, which was diagnosed as an accessory duct of the submandibular gland. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a large tonsillolith associated with the accessory duct of the ipsilateral major salivary gland. Furthermore, from the aetiopathological view, this finding supports the saliva stasis hypothesis for formation of the tonsillolith. However, larger studies, including a detailed radiological analysis as in our case, are needed to further investigate this possible aetiology of tonsilloliths. PMID:25993312

  15. Aspiration biopsy of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of accessory parotid gland: another diagnostic dilemma in matrix-containing tumors of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Levine, Pascale; Fried, Karen; Krevitt, Lane D; Wang, Beverly; Wenig, Bruce M

    2014-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a newly described rare salivary gland tumor, which shares morphologic features with acinic cell carcinoma, low-grade cystadenocarcinoma, and secretory carcinoma of the breast. This is the first reported case of MASC of an accessory parotid gland detected by aspiration biopsy with radiologic and histologic correlation in a 34-year-old patient. Sonographically-guided aspiration biopsy showed cytologic features mimicking those of low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, including sheets of bland epithelial cells, dissociated histiocytoid cells with intracytoplasmic mucinous material, and spindle cells lying in a web-like matrix. Histologic sections showed a circumscribed tumor with microcystic spaces lined by bland uniform epithelial cells and containing secretory material. The tumor cells expressed mammaglobin and BRST-2. The cytologic features, differential diagnosis, and pitfalls are discussed. The pathologic stage was pT1N0. The patient showed no evidence of disease at 1 year follow-up. PMID:22807408

  16. Proteome profiling reveals tissue-specific protein expression in male and female accessory glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhaoming; Wang, Xiaohuan; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Liping; Chen, Quanmei; Zhang, Xiaolu; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-05-01

    Male accessory gland (MAG) and female accessory gland (FAG) of the reproductive system are, respectively, responsible for producing seminal proteins and adhesive proteins during copulation and ovulation. Seminal proteins are ejaculated to female along with sperms, whereas adhesive proteins are excreted along with eggs. Proteins from the male and female reproductive organs are usually indicative of rapid adaptive evolution. Understanding the reproductive isolation and species divergence requires identifying reproduction-related proteins from many different species. Here, we present our proteomic analyses of male and female accessory glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Using LC/MS-MS, we identified 2133 MAG proteins and 1872 FAG proteins. In total, 652 proteins were significant more abundant in the MAG than in the FAG, including growth factors, odorant-binding proteins, enzymes, and proteins of unknown function. Growth factors and odorant-binding proteins are potential signaling molecules, whereas most of proteins of unknown function were found to be Lepidoptera-specific proteins with high evolutionary rates. Microarray experiments and semi-quantitative RT-PCR validated that MAG-specific proteins were expressed exclusively in male moths. Totally, 192 proteins were considered as FAG-specific proteins, including protease inhibitors, enzymes, and other proteins. Protease inhibitors were found to be the most abundant FAG-specific proteins, which may protect eggs from infection by inhibiting pathogen-derived proteases. These results provide comprehensive insights into copulation and oviposition. Moreover, the newly identified Lepidoptera-specific MAG proteins provide useful data for future research on the evolution of reproductive proteins in insects. PMID:26822097

  17. Suppression subtractive hybridization analysis reveals expression of conserved and novel genes in male accessory glands of the ant Leptothorax gredleri

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background During mating, insect males eject accessory gland proteins (Acps) into the female genital tract. These substances are known to affect female post-mating behavior and physiology. In addition, they may harm the female, e.g., in reducing its lifespan. This is interpreted as a consequence of sexual antagonistic co-evolution. Whereas sexual conflict abounds in non-social species, the peculiar life history of social insects (ants, bees, wasps) with lifelong pair-bonding and no re-mating aligns the reproductive interests of the sexes. Harming the female during mating would negatively affect male fitness and sexual antagonism is therefore not expected. Indeed, mating appears to increase female longevity in at least one ant species. Acps are presumed to play a role in this phenomenon, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we investigated genes, which are preferentially expressed in male accessory glands of the ant Leptothorax gredleri, to determine which proteins might be transferred in the seminal fluid. Results By a suppression subtractive hybridization protocol we obtained 20 unique sequences (USs). Twelve had mutual best matches with genes predicted for Apis mellifera and Nasonia vitripennis. Functional information (Gene Ontology) was available only for seven of these, including intracellular signaling, energy-dependent transport and metabolic enzyme activities. The remaining eight USs did not match sequences from other species. Six genes were further analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR in three life cycle stages of male ants. A gene with carboxy-lyase activity and one of unpredicted function were significantly overexpressed in accessory glands of sexually mature males. Conclusions Our study is the first one to investigate differential gene expression in ants in a context related to mating. Our findings indicate that male accessory glands of L. gredleri express a series of genes that are unique to this species, possibly representing novel genes, in addition to conserved ones for which functions can be predicted. Identifying differentially expressed genes might help to better understand molecular mechanisms involved in reproductive processes in eusocial Hymenoptera. While the novel genes could account for rapidly evolving ones driven by intra-sexual conflict between males, conserved genes imply that rather beneficial traits might get fixed by a process described as inter-sexual cooperation between males and females. PMID:20825642

  18. Secretion and fluid transport mechanisms in the mammary gland: comparisons with the exocrine pancreas and the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    McManaman, James L; Reyland, Mary E; Thrower, Edwin C

    2006-10-01

    Milk is a complex fluid composed of proteins, sugars, lipids and minerals, in addition to a wide variety of bioactive molecules including vitamins, trace elements and growth factors. The composition of these components reflects the integrated activities of distinct synthetic, secretion and transport processes found in mammary epithelial cells, and mirrors the differing nutritional and developmental requirements of mammalian neonates. Five general pathways have been described for secretion of milk components. With the exception of lipids, which are secreted a unique pathway, milk components are thought to be secreted by adaptations of pathways found in other secretory organs. However little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms that constitute these pathways or the physiological mechanisms by which they are regulated. Comparisons of current secretion and transport models in the mammary gland, exocrine pancreas and salivary gland indicate that significant differences exist between the mammary gland and other exocrine organs in how proteins and lipids are packaged and secreted, and how fluid is transported. PMID:17136613

  19. Lead accumulation, oxidative damage and histopathological alteration in testes and accessory glands of freshwater crab, Sinopotamon henanense, induced by acute lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Hou, Yu-hua; Ma, Dan-dan; Jing, Wei-xin; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Wang, Lan

    2015-07-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most toxic environmental pollutants and known to exert multiple toxic effects including gonadotoxic and spermiotoxic effects. In order to understand toxic mechanisms of lead (Pb) on the testes and the accessory glands of crabs, we investigated Pb accumulation in testes and accessory glands and the survival rate of sperms of freshwater crab, Sinopotamon henanense. The tissue damaging effects of Pb was also investigated by histopathological examination and analyses of antioxidant enzymes as well as lipid peroxidation. Crabs were exposed to different Pb concentrations (0, 3.675, 7.35, 14.7, 29.4 and 58.8 mg/L) for 3, 5 and 7 days. The results showed that Pb levels in testes and accessory glands increased significantly following Pb exposure for 5 and 7 days in almost all treated groups, and survival rate of sperm decreased with increasing Pb concentrations at 5 and 7 days. Morphological changes identified histologically were discovered in testes, including a disordered arrangement of germ cells, a decreased number of sperm in the lumina of the seminiferous tubules, extensive necrosis in the germinal layer of the seminiferous tubules, etc. At the same time, histological abnormalities were discovered in accessory glands, the wall cells were separated from the basement membrane, and wall cells were missing partly. The activities of SOD, GPx and CAT in testes showed no statistically significant changes compared to the control for 3 days, and initially increased and subsequently decreased with increasing Pb concentrations at 5 and 7 days. The antioxidant enzyme activities in accessory glands initially increased and subsequently decreased with increasing Pb concentrations and Pb exposure. This was accompanied with an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content in a concentration-dependent manner. These results showed that acute Pb exposure led to a reduction of survival rate of sperm and harmful effects at the cellular level of crab testes and accessory glands, which are most likely linked to Pb-induced oxidative stress. PMID:25828889

  20. Atrial natriuretic peptide stimulates salt secretion by shark rectal gland by releasing VIP

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, P.; Stoff, J.S.; Solomon, R.J.; Lear, S.; Kniaz, D.; Greger, R.; Epstein, F.H.

    1987-01-01

    Salt secretion by the isolated perfused rectal gland of the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, is stimulated by synthetic rat atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP II) as well as extracts of shark heart, but not by 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate. Cardiac peptides have no effect on isolated rectal gland cells or perfused tubules, suggesting that stimulation requires an intact gland. The stimulation of secretion by ANP II is eliminated by maneuvers that block neurotransmitter release. Cardiac peptides stimulate the release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), known to be present in rectal glands nerves, into the venous effluent of perfused glands in parallel with their stimulation of salt secretion, but the release of VIP induced by ANP II is prevented by perfusion with procaine. VIP was measured by radioimmunoassay. Cardiac peptides thus appear to regulate rectal gland secretion by releasing VIP from neural stores within the gland. It is possible that other physiological effects of these hormones might be explained by an action to enhanced local release of neurotransmitters.

  1. Novel structures in secreting the androgenic gland hormone.

    PubMed

    Negishi, S; Hasegawa, Y; Nakajima, Y

    2001-12-01

    The secretory granules in the androgenic gland of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare, which have been indistinct for long time because of vulnerable structures, were revealed by using the rapid-freezing and freeze-substitution method. The fine structure of the androgenic gland is conspicuous by the distribution of numerous particular organelles in the cytoplasm consisting of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex, and by having a number of highly organized structures developed between the androgenic gland cells. The structures connect to the intercellular space, which is seen as intercellular canaliculi for exporting the androgenic gland hormone. The plasma membranes near the particular structure of the intercellular canaliculi in the androgenic gland are often specialized to form cellular junctions. The secretory granules including the electron-dense materials, which are supposed to be peptides of androgenic gland hormone, are distributed beside the particular structure of the intercellular canaliculi. Some of the granules are seen to fuse with the plasma membranes. This observation suggests that, in the Armadillidium vulgare, the secretory granules containing androgenic gland hormone are transferred to the extracellular space through the intercellular canaliculi particularly developed for exporting the peptide hormone. This is the first evidence to show the secretory mechanism of the androgenic gland hormone in the Isopoda. PMID:11911080

  2. Fine structure of the vagina, accessory glands, uterus, oviducts and Gene's organ in the unfed tick, Ornithodoros (Pavlovskyella) erraticus (Ixodoidea: Argasidae).

    PubMed

    el Shoura, S M

    1988-03-01

    The fine structure of the reproductive system of the unfed female Ornithodoros (Pavloskyella) erraticus is described. The vagina consisting of vestibular (VV) and cervical (CV) regions is formed of a single epithelial layer lined with cuticle and surrounded by muscle layers. Epithelial cells of VV show no signs of activity, while those of CV have structural features of transporting epithelia. A pair of tubular accessory glands opening at the junction of the two vaginal regions consist of a layer of microvillate columnar cells containing rough endoplasmic reticulum; this is possibly involved in the formation of colloidal material which presumably coats the egg surface during its passage through the vagina. The bilobed uterus opening into the cervical vagina secretes material that is possibly responsible for the release of sperm from the endospermatophore. The paired oviducts joining the uterine lobes anteriorly have distinctive distal (DO) and proximal (PO) parts as well as 'ampullae' (AMP) at their junction. DO cells contain many lysosome-like structures which probably play a role in breaking down some sperms ascending to the ovary. Cells of AMP are packed with rickettsia-like Wolbachia, while those of PO contain a few granules. Gene's organ, present in female ticks only, consists of a stalk and two horns of epithelium lined internally by a cuticular layer. Bundles of microtubules are detected in the horn cell cytoplasm. This organ functions to waterproof the eggs with a waxy layer just before they are deposited. PMID:3409790

  3. Transcriptome analysis to identify genes for peptides and proteins involved in immunity and reproduction from male accessory glands and ejaculatory duct of Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Liu, Shi-Huo; Wang, Tao; Smagghe, Guy; Jia, Fu-Xian; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-06-01

    In the male reproductive system of insects, the male accessory glands and ejaculatory duct (MAG/ED) are important organs and their primary function is to enhance the fertility of spermatozoa. Proteins secreted by the MAG/ED are also known to induce post-mating changes and immunity responses in the female insect. To understand the gene expression profile in the MAG/ED of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), that is an important pest in fruits, we performed an Illumina-based deep sequencing of mRNA. This yielded 54,577,630 clean reads corresponding to 4.91Gb total nucleotides that were assembled and clustered to 30,669 unigenes (average 645bp). Among them, 20,419 unigenes were functionally annotated to known proteins/peptides in Gene Orthology, Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway databases. Typically, many genes were involved in immunity and these included microbial recognition proteins and antimicrobial peptides. Subsequently, the inducible expression of these immunity-related genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis when insects were challenged with immunity-inducible factors, suggesting their function in guaranteeing fertilization success. Besides, we identified some important reproductive genes such as juvenile hormone- and ecdysteroid-related genes in this de novo assembly. In conclusion, this transcriptomic sequencing of B. dorsalis MAG/ED provides insights to facilitate further functional research of reproduction, immunity and molecular evolution of reproductive proteins in this important agricultural pest. PMID:26297881

  4. Photoperiod regulates growth of male accessory glands through juvenile hormone signaling in the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus.

    PubMed

    Urbanov, Veronika; Bazalov, Olga; Van??kov, Hanka; Dolezel, David

    2016-03-01

    Adult reproductive diapause is characterized by lower behavioral activity, ceased reproduction and absence of juvenile hormone (JH). The role of JH receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met) in female reproduction is well established; however, its function in male reproductive development and behavior is unclear. In the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris, circadian genes are essential for mediating photoperiodically-dependent growth of the male accessory glands (MAGs). The present study explores the role of circadian genes and JH receptor in male diapause in the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus. These data indicate that circadian factors Clock, Cycle and Cry2 are responsible for photoperiod measurement, whereas Met andits partner protein Taiman participate in JH reception. Surprisingly, knockdown of the JH receptor neither lowered locomotor activity nor reduced mating behavior of males. These data suggest existence of a parallel, JH-independent or JH-upstream photoperiodic regulation of reproductive behavior. PMID:26826599

  5. Trehalase from male accessory gland of an insect, Tenebrio molitor. cDNA sequencing and developmental profile of the gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Takiguchi, M; Niimi, T; Su, Z H; Yaginuma, T

    1992-01-01

    A cDNA of alpha alpha-trehalase (EC 3.2.1.28) from a cDNA library of male bean-shaped accessory gland of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, has been isolated by the homology screening approach. Sequence analysis of the cDNA (1830 bp) revealed that the cDNA encoded a protein of 555 amino acids with a calculated M(r) of 64457. The deduced amino acid sequence had significant similarities to rabbit small intestine and Escherichia coli trehalases. Northern blotting and semi-quantitative PCR analyses revealed that a trehalase transcript with about 2.0 kb was abundant in bean-shaped accessory glands. In the glands, the amount of trehalase transcript increased from 1 to 2 days after adult ecdysis. These tissue- and stage-specific gene expressions of trehalase corresponded to the tissue- and stage-specificity of trehalase activity. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4 PMID:1445264

  6. Leg tendon glands in male bumblebees ( Bombus terrestris): structure, secretion chemistry, and possible functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarau, Stefan; Žáček, Petr; Šobotník, Jan; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Hadravová, Romana; Coppée, Audrey; Vašíčková, Soňa; Jiroš, Pavel; Valterová, Irena

    2012-12-01

    Among the large number of exocrine glands described in bees, the tarsal glands were thought to be the source of footprint scent marks. However, recent studies showed that the compounds used for marking by stingless bees are secreted by leg tendon instead of tarsal glands. Here, we report on the structure of leg tendon glands in males of Bombus terrestris, together with a description of the chemical composition of their secretions and respective changes of both during the males' lives. The ultrastructure of leg tendon glands shows that the secretory cells are located in three independent regions, separated from each other by unmodified epidermal cells: in the femur, tibia, and basitarsus. Due to the common site of secretion release, the organ is considered a single secretory gland. The secretion of the leg tendon glands of B. terrestris males differs in its composition from those of workers and queens, in particular by (1) having larger proportions of compounds with longer chain lengths, which we identified as wax esters; and (2) by the lack of certain hydrocarbons (especially long chain dienes). Other differences consist in the distribution of double bond positions in the unsaturated hydrocarbons that are predominantly located at position 9 in males but distributed at seven to nine different positions in the female castes. Double bond positions may change chemical and physical properties of a molecule, which can be recognized by the insects and, thus, may serve to convey specific information. The function of male-specific compounds identified from their tendon glands remains elusive, but several possibilities are discussed.

  7. Toxin ophthalmia caused by nuchal gland secretion of the Taiwan tiger keelback (Rhabdophis tigrinus formosanus).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Chia; Yen, David Hung-Tsang; Chen, Yen-Wen; Huang, Mu-Shung; Huang, Chun-I; Chen, Min-Hui

    2014-10-01

    Rhabdophis tigrinus is a common colubrid snake that can be found in an extensive geographical region in East Asia. It consists of two subspecies: R.t. tigrinus (yamakagashi) and R.t. formosanus (Taiwan tiger keelback). R. tigrinus possesses two different sets of poisonous glands: the Duvernoy's glands in the maxilla, and the nuchal glands in the dorsal skin of the neck. We report the first case in current English literature of toxin ophthalmia caused by the nuchal gland secretion of R.t. formosanus. The patient was a 40-year-old man whose right eye was sprayed by the nuchal gland fluid of R.t. formosanus. He presented with symptoms of foreign body sensation, progressive burning pain, and blurred vision. Ophthalmologic examination revealed diffuse superficial punctate keratitis, corneal stromal edema with Descemet folds, and conjunctival congestion. The patient responded well to topical treatment with a corticosteroid, antihistamine, and antibiotic, and had a favorable clinical course and outcome. PMID:25240304

  8. Volatile components in dorsal gland secretions of the Chacoan peccary, Catagonus wagneri.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, John S; Langley, Bridget; Weldon, Paul J

    2008-01-01

    The dorsal gland secretions of captive-reared male and female Chacoan peccaries (Catagonus wagneri) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. C8-C19 carboxylic acids, squalene, cholesterol, cholestanol, and cholest-7-en-3-ol were present in both males and females. Heptylbenzene, C14-C18 methyl esters, and an isomer of springene were observed in males. C15-C19 aldehydes were observed in females. The composition of the dorsal gland secretions of C. wagneri is compared to what has been reported for other peccaries (Tayassu spp.). PMID:19040119

  9. Neural control of submucosal gland and apical membrane secretions in airways.

    PubMed

    Cuthbert, Alan W; Murthy, Meena; Darlington, Alexander P S

    2015-06-01

    The mechanisms that lay behind the low-level secretions from airway submucosal glands and the surface epithelium in the absence of external innervation have been investigated in small areas (1.0-1.5 cm(2)) of mucosa from sheep tracheas, freshly collected from a local abattoir. Glandular secretion was measured by an optical method while short circuit current was used as a measure of surface secretion. Activation of neurones in the intrinsic nerve net by veratrine alkaloids caused an immediate increase in both glandular secretion and short circuit current, both effects being blocked by the addition of tetrodotoxin. However, agents known to be acting directly on the glands, such as muscarinic agonists (e.g., carbachol) or adenylate cyclase activators (e.g., forskolin) were not influenced by tetrodotoxin. The toxin alone had no discernable effect on the low-level basal secretion shown by unstimulated glands. Calu-3 cell monolayers, generally agreed to be a surrogate for the secretory cells of submucosal glands, showed no sensitivity to veratrine alkaloids, strengthening the view that the veratrine-like drugs acted exclusively on the intrinsic nerve net. The data are discussed in relation way in which transplanted lungs can maintain mucociliary clearance and hence a sterile environment in the absence of external innervation, as in transplanted lungs. PMID:26059031

  10. Neural control of submucosal gland and apical membrane secretions in airways

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbert, Alan W; Murthy, Meena; Darlington, Alexander P S

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms that lay behind the low-level secretions from airway submucosal glands and the surface epithelium in the absence of external innervation have been investigated in small areas (1.01.5cm2) of mucosa from sheep tracheas, freshly collected from a local abattoir. Glandular secretion was measured by an optical method while short circuit current was used as a measure of surface secretion. Activation of neurones in the intrinsic nerve net by veratrine alkaloids caused an immediate increase in both glandular secretion and short circuit current, both effects being blocked by the addition of tetrodotoxin. However, agents known to be acting directly on the glands, such as muscarinic agonists (e.g., carbachol) or adenylate cyclase activators (e.g., forskolin) were not influenced by tetrodotoxin. The toxin alone had no discernable effect on the low-level basal secretion shown by unstimulated glands. Calu-3 cell monolayers, generally agreed to be a surrogate for the secretory cells of submucosal glands, showed no sensitivity to veratrine alkaloids, strengthening the view that the veratrine-like drugs acted exclusively on the intrinsic nerve net. The data are discussed in relation way in which transplanted lungs can maintain mucociliary clearance and hence a sterile environment in the absence of external innervation, as in transplanted lungs. PMID:26059031

  11. Regulation and specificity of antifungal metapleural gland secretion in leaf-cutting ants

    PubMed Central

    Yek, Sze Huei; Nash, David R.; Jensen, Annette B.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2012-01-01

    Ants have paired metapleural glands (MGs) to produce secretions for prophylactic hygiene. These exocrine glands are particularly well developed in leaf-cutting ants, but whether the ants can actively regulate MG secretion is unknown. In a set of controlled experiments using conidia of five fungi, we show that the ants adjust the amount of MG secretion to the virulence of the fungus with which they are infected. We further applied fixed volumes of MG secretion of ants challenged with constant conidia doses to agar mats of the same fungal species. This showed that inhibition halos were significantly larger for ants challenged with virulent and mild pathogens/weeds than for controls and Escovopsis-challenged ants. We conclude that the MG defence system of leaf-cutting ants has characteristics reminiscent of an additional cuticular immune system, with specific and non-specific components, of which some are constitutive and others induced. PMID:22915672

  12. Correlation of secretion of retinol and protein by the lacrimal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Ubels, J.L.; Rismondo, V.

    1986-03-01

    Retinol, which is present in tears, is secreted by the lacrimal gland. Retinol secretion is stimulated by cholinergic drugs and vasoactive intestinal peptide with characteristics very similar to the exocytotic secretion of protein by the lacrimal gland, suggesting that retinol and protein are secreted by similar mechanisms. The authors investigated this by cannulating the lacrimal gland ducts of rabbits and collecting lacrimal gland fluid (LGF) under conditions of maximal flow stimulated by IV injection of pilocarpine (400 ..mu..g/kg) every 20 min for 4.5 hr. Over this period LGF protein concentration decreased 36.4% from 22.8 +/- 1.94 mg/ml to 8.29 1.86 mg/ml while retinol decreased 37% from 55.1 +/- 16.2 ng/ml to 20.4 +/- 6.5 ng/ml. The retinol/protein ratio remained constant at 2.88 ng/mg. This demonstrates a strong correlation between retinol and protein secretion, suggesting that retinol may be protein bound. To investigate binding of retinol to LGF protein, LGF was incubated with /sup 3/H-retinol. The bound and unbound retinol were separated on a Lipidex 1000 column. Retinol binding was linear over a range of 1.25-200 nM /sup 3/H-retinol. Binding was not inhibited by PCMBS or addition of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled retinol and was not increased by prior extraction of endogenous retinol from the LGF. This indicates that the binding of retinol to LGF protein is non-specific. Retinol therefore appears to be secreted by the lacrimal gland cells in non-specific association with protein.

  13. Mucociliary clearance and submucosal gland secretion in the ex vivo ferret trachea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin Hyeok; Joo, Nam Soo; Hwang, Peter H; Wine, Jeffrey J

    2014-07-01

    In many species submucosal glands are an important source of tracheal mucus, but the extent to which mucociliary clearance (MCC) depends on gland secretion is unknown. To explore this relationship, we measured basal and agonist-stimulated MCC velocities in ex vivo tracheas from adult ferrets and compared the velocities with previously measured rates of ferret glandular mucus secretion (Cho HJ, Joo NS, Wine JJ. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 299: L124-L136, 2010). Stimulated MCC velocities (mm/min, means ± SE for 10- to 35-min period poststimulation) were as follows: 1 μM carbachol: 19.1 ± 3.3 > 10 μM phenylephrine: 15.3 ± 2.4 ≈ 10 μM isoproterenol: 15.0 ± 1.9 ≈ 10 μM forskolin: 14.6 ± 3.1 > 1 μM vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP): 10.2 ± 2.2 > basal (t15): 1.8 ± 0.3; n = 5-10 for each condition. Synergistic stimulation of MCC was observed between low concentrations of carbachol (100 nM) and isoproterenol (300 nM). Bumetanide inhibited carbachol-stimulated MCC by ~70% and abolished the increase in MCC stimulated by forskolin + VIP, whereas HCO3 (-)-free solutions did not significantly inhibit MCC to either intracellular Ca(2+) concentration or intracellular cAMP concentration ([cAMP]i)-elevating agonists. Stimulation and inhibition of MCC and gland secretion differed in several respects: most importantly, elevating [cAMP]i increased MCC much more effectively than expected from its effects on gland secretion, and bumetanide almost completely inhibited [cAMP]i-stimulated MCC while it had a smaller effect on gland secretion. We conclude that changes in glandular fluid secretion are complexly related to MCC and discuss possible reasons for this. PMID:24793168

  14. Volatile components in dorsal gland secretions of the white-lipped peccary, Tayassu pecari, from Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Waterhous, J S; Hudson, M; Pickett, J A; Weldon, P J

    2001-12-01

    Secretions from the dorsal gland of male and female free-ranging adult white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) from Bolivia were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fifty compounds were identified, some provisionally. Secretions of both sexes contain saturated and unsaturated C5-C18 carboxylic acids as well as isomers of the diterpene springene. The females' secretions uniquely possess farnesyl esters of C8 and C10 carboxylic acids, whereas the males' secretions uniquely showed two compounds provisionally identified as monounsaturated C16 lactones. Saturated high-molecular-weight esters of C10 carboxylic acids are more abundant in the females' secretions than in those of the males. The secretions of both sexes also contain monoalkanoate esters of methylhydroquinone as major components. PMID:11789952

  15. 9 CFR 94.3 - Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine. 94.3 Section 94.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY)...

  16. The timing of acid-induced increase in saliva secretion in transplanted submandibular glands.

    PubMed

    Liu, X J; Li, M; Su, J Z; Xie, Z; Yu, G Y

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the timing of acid-induced increase in saliva secretion and to investigate the possibility of parasympathetic reinnervation of transplanted submandibular glands (SMGs). Citric acid stimulation-induced changes in secretion of transplanted SMGs were evaluated in 27 patients who underwent SMG transplantation for keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS); (99m)Tc scintigraphy and Schirmer tests were done at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months after transplantation. Acetylcholinesterase staining was conducted to confirm the presence of parasympathetic reinnervation in three SMGs at 6 and 9 months after transplantation. Schirmer tests showed significantly increased secretion of the transplanted SMGs after acid stimulation at 6 and 9 months, but not at 1 and 3 months. On (99m)Tc scintigraphy, no decline was detected on the dynamic time-activity curve after acid stimulation at 1 and 3 months, but a decline was detected in nine glands at 6 months and in 19 glands at 9 months. No decline was observed in the remaining eight glands at 9 months after transplantation. The histology findings were consistent with scintigraphy results. In conclusion, acid-induced increase in saliva secretion occurs at ≥6 months after SMG transplantation, and parasympathetic reinnervation of the transplanted SMG might occur. PMID:25697065

  17. 9 CFR 94.3 - Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine. 94.3 Section 94.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST,...

  18. Leaf-cutting ant faecal fluid and mandibular gland secretion: effects on microfungi spore germination.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, André; Carletti, Carla D; Bueno, Odair C; Pagnocca, Fernando C

    2008-01-01

    The mandibular gland secretion (MGS) and the faecal fluid (FF) of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel affected the spore germination of selected microfungi isolated from nests of this insect. MGS was more effective than the FF, completely inhibiting the spore germination of four out of six microfungi species. PMID:24031181

  19. A Syringe-Like Love Dart Injects Male Accessory Gland Products in a Tropical Hermaphrodite

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Joris M.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2013-01-01

    Sexual conflict shapes the evolution of many behaviours and processes involved in reproduction. Nearly all evidence supporting this comes from species where the sexes are separated. However, a substantial proportion of animals and most plants are hermaphroditic, and theoretical work predicts that sexual conflict plays an important role even when the sexes are joined within one individual. This seems to have resulted in bizarre mating systems, sophisticated sperm packaging and complex reproductive morphologies. By far the best-known example of such a strategy in hermaphrodites is the shooting of so-called love-darts in land snails. All known love darts carry a gland product on their outside and enter this into the partner’s hemolymph by stabbing. Here, we show that species of the snail genus Everettia possess a syringe-like dart that serves as a real injection needle. Their dart is round in cross-section, contains numerous channels, and has perforations along its side. Histology and electron microscopy show that these holes connect to the channels inside the dart and run all the way up to the elaborate mucus glands that are attached to the dart sac. This is the first report on a love dart that is used as a syringe to directly inject the gland product into the partner’s hemolymph. Although the exact use and function of this dart remains to be demonstrated, this clearly adds to the complexity of the evolution of reproductive strategies in hermaphrodites in general. Moreover, the perforations on the outside of the love dart resemble features of other injection devices, thus uncovering common design and repeated evolution of such features in animals. PMID:23894565

  20. A syringe-like love dart injects male accessory gland products in a tropical hermaphrodite.

    PubMed

    Koene, Joris M; Liew, Thor-Seng; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2013-01-01

    Sexual conflict shapes the evolution of many behaviours and processes involved in reproduction. Nearly all evidence supporting this comes from species where the sexes are separated. However, a substantial proportion of animals and most plants are hermaphroditic, and theoretical work predicts that sexual conflict plays an important role even when the sexes are joined within one individual. This seems to have resulted in bizarre mating systems, sophisticated sperm packaging and complex reproductive morphologies. By far the best-known example of such a strategy in hermaphrodites is the shooting of so-called love-darts in land snails. All known love darts carry a gland product on their outside and enter this into the partner's hemolymph by stabbing. Here, we show that species of the snail genus Everettia possess a syringe-like dart that serves as a real injection needle. Their dart is round in cross-section, contains numerous channels, and has perforations along its side. Histology and electron microscopy show that these holes connect to the channels inside the dart and run all the way up to the elaborate mucus glands that are attached to the dart sac. This is the first report on a love dart that is used as a syringe to directly inject the gland product into the partner's hemolymph. Although the exact use and function of this dart remains to be demonstrated, this clearly adds to the complexity of the evolution of reproductive strategies in hermaphrodites in general. Moreover, the perforations on the outside of the love dart resemble features of other injection devices, thus uncovering common design and repeated evolution of such features in animals. PMID:23894565

  1. Presynaptic effects of the pardaxins, polypeptides isolated from the gland secretion of the flatfish Pardachirus marmoratus.

    PubMed

    Renner, P; Caratsch, C G; Waser, P G; Lazarovici, P; Primor, N

    1987-10-01

    The effects of the two toxic proteins Pardaxin I and II isolated from the gland secretion of the flatfish Pardachirus marmoratus on frog neuromuscular transmission have been investigated and compared to those of the gland secretion. Pardaxin I and II showed pre- but not postsynaptic neurotoxic effects. They increased the frequency of the spontaneous release of transmitter quanta in a dose-dependent and temperature-influenced way up to more than 100 times control values. At the same time the quantal content of the evoked end-plate potentials was greatly elevated. Pardaxin I was about 5 times more effective than Pardaxin II, and both were roughly in the same range of efficacy as the original gland secretion (w/v). The glycosteroids isolated from the same gland secretion were relatively ineffective in promoting neurotransmitter release; however, at high doses they had postsynaptic effects, as shown by a diminution of the amplitude of the evoked end-plate potentials. They did not reinforce the effect of the Pardaxins. At higher doses both the Pardaxins and the gland secretion induced depolarization of postsynaptic membranes, muscle cell contractions which could not be blocked by (+)-tubocurarine or by tetrodotoxin, and eventually also physical disruption of muscle cells. No effects on nerve conductance were observed. Pore-forming activity of the Pardaxins has already been demonstrated. It is suggested that their presynaptic effects are a result of a possible affinity to the nerve terminals, of their hydrophobicity and mainly of this pore-forming activity. These toxins might be valuable tools in neuroscience research. PMID:2825076

  2. The “Vampirome”: Transcriptome and proteome analysis of the principal and accessory submaxillary glands of the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, a vector of human rabies

    PubMed Central

    Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Assumpção, Teresa C. F.; Ma, Dongying; Li, Yuan; Vicente, Eliane C.; Uieda, Wilson; Ribeiro, José M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Vampire bats are notorious for being the sole mammals that strictly feed on fresh blood for their survival. While their saliva has been historically associated with anticoagulants, only one antihemostatic (plasminogen activator) has been molecularly and functionally characterized. Here, RNAs from both principal submandibular and accessory glands of Desmodus rotundus were extracted, and ~ 200 million reads were sequenced by Illumina. The principal gland was enriched with plasminogen activators with fibrinolytic properties, members of lipocalin and secretoglobin families, which bind prohemostatic prostaglandins, and endonucleases, which cleave neutrophil-derived procoagulant NETs. Anticoagulant (tissue factor pathway inhibitor, TFPI), vasodilators (PACAP and C-natriuretic peptide), and metalloproteases (ADAMTS-1) were also abundantly expressed. Members of the TSG-6 (anti-inflammatory), antigen 5/CRISP, and CCL28-like (antimicrobial) protein families were also sequenced. Apyrases (which remove platelet agonist ADP), phosphatases (which degrade procoagulant polyphosphates), and sphingomyelinase were found at lower transcriptional levels. Accessory glands were enriched with antimicrobials (lysozyme, defensin, lactotransferrin) and protease inhibitors (TIL-domain, cystatin, Kazal). Mucins, heme-oxygenase, and IgG chains were present in both glands. Proteome analysis by nano LC-MS/MS confirmed that several transcripts are expressed in the glands. The database presented herein is accessible online at http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/D_rotundus/Supplemental-web.xlsx. These results reveal that bat saliva emerges as a novel source of modulators of vascular biology. PMID:23411029

  3. Mucus secretion by single tracheal submucosal glands from normal and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Ianowski, Juan P; Choi, Jae Young; Wine, Jeffrey J; Hanrahan, John W

    2007-01-01

    Submucosal glands line the cartilaginous airways and produce most of the antimicrobial mucus that keeps the airways sterile. The glands are defective in cystic fibrosis (CF), but how this impacts airway health remains uncertain. Although most CF mouse strains exhibit mild airway defects, those with the C57Bl/6 genetic background have increased airway pathology and susceptibility to Pseudomonas. Thus, they offer the possibility of studying whether, and if so how, abnormal submucosal gland function contributes to CF airway disease. We used optical methods to study fluid secretion by individual glands in tracheas from normal, wild-type (WT) mice and from cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) knockout mice (Cftrm1UNC/Cftrm1UNC; CF mice). Glands from WT mice qualitatively resembled those in humans by responding to carbachol and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), although the relative rates of VIP- and forskolin-stimulated secretion were much lower in mice than in large mammals. The pharmacology of mouse gland secretion was also similar to that in humans; adding bumetanide or replacement of HCO3− by Hepes reduced the carbachol response by ∼50%, and this inhibition increased to 80% when both manoeuvres were performed simultaneously. It is important to note that glands from CFTR knockout mice responded to carbachol but did not secrete when exposed to VIP or forskolin, as has been shown previously for glands from CF patients. Tracheal glands from WT and CF mice both had robust secretory responses to electrical field stimulation that were blocked by tetrodotoxin. It is interesting that local irritation of the mucosa using chili pepper oil elicited secretion from WT glands but did not stimulate glands from CF mice. These results clarify the mechanisms of murine submucosal gland secretion and reveal a novel defect in local regulation of glands lacking CFTR which may also compromise airway defence in CF patients. PMID:17204498

  4. Chemical constituents of the femoral gland secretions of male tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae) (Family teiidae).

    PubMed

    Martín, José; Chamut, Silvia; Manes, Mario E; López, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the importance of chemical signals (pheromones) in the reproductive behaviour of lizards, the chemical compounds secreted by their femoral glands, which may be used as sexual signals, are only known for a few lizard species. Based on mass spectra, obtained by GC-MS, we found 49 lipophilic compounds in femoral gland secretions of male tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae) (fam. Teiidae), including a very high proportion of carboxylic acids and their esters ranging between n-C8 and n-C20 (mainly octadecanoic and 9,12-octadecadienoic acids), with much less proportions of steroids, tocopherol, aldehydes, and squalene. We discuss the potential function of these compounds in secretions, and compare the compounds found here with those documented for other lizard species. PMID:21950170

  5. Detection of antidiabetic activity by crude paratoid gland secretions from common Indian toad (bufomelano stictus)

    PubMed Central

    Neerati, Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Amphibians have provided a remarkable array of biological active compounds, which are secreted from socalled granular skin glands which serve to protect the amphibians from predators due to its noxious effects on buccal tissue and at least in the case of some peptides, to protect from bacterial (or) protozoan infections. Given the respiratory and antimicrobial functions of amphibian skin, it is likely that some of the novel molecules found in amphibian granular gland secretions might be of use in the treatment of skin and respiratory infections. Secretions from common Indian toad (Bufo melanostictus) a member of Bufonidae family has the history of medicinal use however the anti-diabetic activity is not reported. The present study is aimed to determine whether paratoid gland extract have any influence on the diabetes and the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of glimepiride (GLM) in normal and diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: An aqueous and methanolic extracts of paratoid glandular secretions were prepared, air dried and used to determine the antidiabetic activity in rats. The blood sampling was done at preset time intervals between 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 h, using heparinized capillaries. The blood glucose levels are estimated by glucose oxidase-peroxidase method, and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography is used to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of GLM using glibenclamide as an internal standard. Results: Both the aqueous and methanolic extracts produced better glycemic control in diabetic rats, and methanolic extract is better than the aqueous extract. Serum concentrations of GLM increased at 2nd h, and the percentage glucose reduction is maximal at the 4th h with both aqueous and methanolic extracts of paratoid secretions of common Indian toad. Conclusions: Paratoid gland secretions of the common Indian toad is antidiabetic, in addition it has beneficial effects in combination with GLM. Further, it requires the systematic structure elucidation of the compounds and pharmacokinetic studies to explore the beneficial effects. PMID:26283844

  6. Nature and location of the receptors for salt-gland secretion in the goose

    PubMed Central

    Hanwell, Ann; Linzell, J. L.; Peaker, M.

    1972-01-01

    1. The nature and location of the receptors which stimulate salt-gland secretion in the goose have been investigated. 2. The rapid injection of homologous blood (sufficient to raise the blood volume by 16 and 9%) into the right atrium failed to induce secretion. In contrast, hypertonic sucrose, Na2SO4 and LiCl initiated secretion. 3. These results support the theory that osmoreceptors initiate secretion by detecting an increase in plasma tonicity. 4. The minimal amount of hypertonic NaCl required to initiate secretion when infusions were made into a carotid artery or into various arteries and veins in the splanchnic region was not less than that required by an I.V. route. 5. Cross-circulation and perfusion studies also showed that a raised [NaCl] in the blood perfusing the head was ineffective in evoking secretion and thus that plasma tonicity must be raised elsewhere in the body. 6. Secretion in response to salt-loading was abolished or prevented by cutting the vagus nerves or blocking them with local anaesthetic. Stimulation of the cephalic end of the cut vagi in an isolated, perfused decerebrate head induced secretion, indicating that the afferent fibres from the receptors to the C.N.S. lie in the vagus nerves. Cutting the vagi below the heart, however, had no effect on the secretory response. 7. Blocking nerves in the crop with local anaesthetic had no effect on secretion induced by salt-loading but when local anaesthetic was injected into the pericardial sac, secretion decreased immediately, stopped, and recovered with a time course similar to that seen after blocking the vagus nerves. 8. Section of the vagi in the neck abolished the tachycardia observed in response to the injection of hypertonic NaCl into the right atrium. 9. As in other species, stimulation of the `secretory nerve' induced secretion in anaesthetized or decerebrate geese. 10. Hexamethonium given I.V. or applied topically to the `secretory nerve ganglion' blocked secretion in response to salt-loading or to secretory nerve stimulation. 11. It appears that the receptors for salt-gland secretion are located in or near the heart and that afferent fibres from these receptors travel in the vagus nerves to the C.N.S. 12. A possible scheme of the secretory reflex which initiates and maintains salt-gland activity is proposed. PMID:5085337

  7. Male accessory gland protein reduces egg laying in a simultaneous hermaphrodite.

    PubMed

    Koene, Joris M; Sloot, Wiebe; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Cummins, Scott F; Degnan, Bernard M; Smith, John S; Nagle, Gregg T; ter Maat, Andries

    2010-01-01

    Seminal fluid is an important part of the ejaculate of internally fertilizing animals. This fluid contains substances that nourish and activate sperm for successful fertilization. Additionally, it contains components that influence female physiology to further enhance fertilization success of the sperm donor, possibly beyond the recipient's optimum. Although evidence for such substances abounds, few studies have unraveled their identities, and focus has been exclusively on separate-sex species. We present the first detailed study into the seminal fluid composition of a hermaphrodite (Lymnaea stagnalis). Eight novel peptides and proteins were identified from the seminal-fluid-producing prostate gland and tested for effects on oviposition, hatching and consumption. The gene for the protein found to suppress egg mass production, Ovipostatin, was sequenced, thereby providing the first fully-characterized seminal fluid substance in a simultaneous hermaphrodite. Thus, seminal fluid peptides and proteins have evolved and can play a crucial role in sexual selection even when the sexes are combined. PMID:20404934

  8. Theroa zethus Caterpillars Use Acid Secretion of Anti-Predator Gland to Deactivate Plant Defense.

    PubMed

    Dussourd, David E

    2015-01-01

    In North America, notodontid caterpillars feed almost exclusively on hardwood trees. One notable exception, Theroa zethus feeds instead on herbaceous plants in the Euphorbiaceae protected by laticifers. These elongate canals follow leaf veins and contain latex under pressure; rupture causes the immediate release of sticky poisonous exudate. T. zethus larvae deactivate the latex defense of poinsettia and other euphorbs by applying acid from their ventral eversible gland, thereby creating furrows in the veins. The acid secretion softens the veins allowing larvae to compress even large veins with their mandibles and to disrupt laticifers internally often without contacting latex. Acid secretion collected from caterpillars and applied to the vein surface sufficed to create a furrow and to reduce latex exudation distal to the furrow where T. zethus larvae invariably feed. Larvae with their ventral eversible gland blocked were unable to create furrows and suffered reduced growth on poinsettia. The ventral eversible gland in T. zethus and other notodontids ordinarily serves to deter predators; when threatened, larvae spray acid from the gland orifice located between the mouthparts and first pair of legs. To my knowledge, T. zethus is the first caterpillar found to use an antipredator gland for disabling plant defenses. The novel combination of acid application and vein constriction allows T. zethus to exploit its unusual latex-bearing hosts. PMID:26517872

  9. Theroa zethus Caterpillars Use Acid Secretion of Anti-Predator Gland to Deactivate Plant Defense

    PubMed Central

    Dussourd, David E.

    2015-01-01

    In North America, notodontid caterpillars feed almost exclusively on hardwood trees. One notable exception, Theroa zethus feeds instead on herbaceous plants in the Euphorbiaceae protected by laticifers. These elongate canals follow leaf veins and contain latex under pressure; rupture causes the immediate release of sticky poisonous exudate. T. zethus larvae deactivate the latex defense of poinsettia and other euphorbs by applying acid from their ventral eversible gland, thereby creating furrows in the veins. The acid secretion softens the veins allowing larvae to compress even large veins with their mandibles and to disrupt laticifers internally often without contacting latex. Acid secretion collected from caterpillars and applied to the vein surface sufficed to create a furrow and to reduce latex exudation distal to the furrow where T. zethus larvae invariably feed. Larvae with their ventral eversible gland blocked were unable to create furrows and suffered reduced growth on poinsettia. The ventral eversible gland in T. zethus and other notodontids ordinarily serves to deter predators; when threatened, larvae spray acid from the gland orifice located between the mouthparts and first pair of legs. To my knowledge, T. zethus is the first caterpillar found to use an antipredator gland for disabling plant defenses. The novel combination of acid application and vein constriction allows T. zethus to exploit its unusual latex-bearing hosts. PMID:26517872

  10. Ca²⁺ signaling and regulation of fluid secretion in salivary gland acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Ambudkar, Indu S

    2014-06-01

    Neurotransmitter stimulation of plasma membrane receptors stimulates salivary gland fluid secretion via a complex process that is determined by coordinated temporal and spatial regulation of several Ca(2+) signaling processes as well as ion flux systems. Studies over the past four decades have demonstrated that Ca(2+) is a critical factor in the control of salivary gland function. Importantly, critical components of this process have now been identified, including plasma membrane receptors, calcium channels, and regulatory proteins. The key event in activation of fluid secretion is an increase in intracellular [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]i) triggered by IP3-induced release of Ca(2+) from ER via the IP3R. This increase regulates the ion fluxes required to drive vectorial fluid secretion. IP3Rs determine the site of initiation and the pattern of [Ca(2+)]i signal in the cell. However, Ca(2+) entry into the cell is required to sustain the elevation of [Ca(2+)]i and fluid secretion. This Ca(2+) influx pathway, store-operated calcium influx pathway (SOCE), has been studied in great detail and the regulatory mechanisms as well as key molecular components have now been identified. Orai1, TRPC1, and STIM1 are critical components of SOCE and among these, Ca(2+) entry via TRPC1 is a major determinant of fluid secretion. The receptor-evoked Ca(2+) signal in salivary gland acinar cells is unique in that it starts at the apical pole and then rapidly increases across the cell. The basis for the polarized Ca(2+) signal can be ascribed to the polarized arrangement of the Ca(2+) channels, transporters, and signaling proteins. Distinct localization of these proteins in the cell suggests compartmentalization of Ca(2+) signals during regulation of fluid secretion. This chapter will discuss new concepts and findings regarding the polarization and control of Ca(2+) signals in the regulation of fluid secretion. PMID:24646566

  11. HCO3(-) secretion by murine nasal submucosal gland serous acinar cells during Ca2+-stimulated fluid secretion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Robert J; Harlow, Janice M; Limberis, Maria P; Wilson, James M; Foskett, J Kevin

    2008-07-01

    Airway submucosal glands contribute to airway surface liquid (ASL) composition and volume, both important for lung mucociliary clearance. Serous acini generate most of the fluid secreted by glands, but the molecular mechanisms remain poorly characterized. We previously described cholinergic-regulated fluid secretion driven by Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) secretion in primary murine serous acinar cells revealed by simultaneous differential interference contrast (DIC) and fluorescence microscopy. Here, we evaluated whether Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) secretion was accompanied by secretion of HCO(3)(-), possibly a critical ASL component, by simultaneous measurements of intracellular pH (pH(i)) and cell volume. Resting pH(i) was 7.17 +/- 0.01 in physiological medium (5% CO(2)-25 mM HCO(3)(-)). During carbachol (CCh) stimulation, pH(i) fell transiently by 0.08 +/- 0.01 U concomitantly with a fall in Cl(-) content revealed by cell shrinkage, reflecting Cl(-) secretion. A subsequent alkalinization elevated pH(i) to above resting levels until agonist removal, whereupon it returned to prestimulation values. In nominally CO(2)-HCO(3)(-)-free media, the CCh-induced acidification was reduced, whereas the alkalinization remained intact. Elimination of driving forces for conductive HCO(3)(-) efflux by ion substitution or exposure to the Cl(-) channel inhibitor niflumic acid (100 microM) strongly inhibited agonist-induced acidification by >80% and >70%, respectively. The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) inhibitor dimethylamiloride (DMA) increased the magnitude (greater than twofold) and duration of the CCh-induced acidification. Gene expression profiling suggested that serous cells express NHE isoforms 1-4 and 6-9, but pharmacological sensitivities demonstrated that alkalinization observed during both CCh stimulation and pH(i) recovery from agonist-induced acidification was primarily due to NHE1, localized to the basolateral membrane. These results suggest that serous acinar cells secrete HCO(3)(-) during Ca(2+)-evoked fluid secretion by a mechanism that involves the apical membrane secretory Cl(-) channel, with HCO(3)(-) secretion sustained by activation of NHE1 in the basolateral membrane. In addition, other Na(+)-dependent pH(i) regulatory mechanisms exist, as evidenced by stronger inhibition of alkalinization in Na(+)-free media. PMID:18591422

  12. HCO3− Secretion by Murine Nasal Submucosal Gland Serous Acinar Cells during Ca2+-stimulated Fluid Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Robert J.; Harlow, Janice M.; Limberis, Maria P.; Wilson, James M.; Foskett, J. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Airway submucosal glands contribute to airway surface liquid (ASL) composition and volume, both important for lung mucociliary clearance. Serous acini generate most of the fluid secreted by glands, but the molecular mechanisms remain poorly characterized. We previously described cholinergic-regulated fluid secretion driven by Ca2+-activated Cl− secretion in primary murine serous acinar cells revealed by simultaneous differential interference contrast (DIC) and fluorescence microscopy. Here, we evaluated whether Ca2+-activated Cl− secretion was accompanied by secretion of HCO3−, possibly a critical ASL component, by simultaneous measurements of intracellular pH (pHi) and cell volume. Resting pHi was 7.17 ± 0.01 in physiological medium (5% CO2–25 mM HCO3−). During carbachol (CCh) stimulation, pHi fell transiently by 0.08 ± 0.01 U concomitantly with a fall in Cl− content revealed by cell shrinkage, reflecting Cl− secretion. A subsequent alkalinization elevated pHi to above resting levels until agonist removal, whereupon it returned to prestimulation values. In nominally CO2–HCO3−-free media, the CCh-induced acidification was reduced, whereas the alkalinization remained intact. Elimination of driving forces for conductive HCO3− efflux by ion substitution or exposure to the Cl− channel inhibitor niflumic acid (100 μM) strongly inhibited agonist-induced acidification by >80% and >70%, respectively. The Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) inhibitor dimethylamiloride (DMA) increased the magnitude (greater than twofold) and duration of the CCh-induced acidification. Gene expression profiling suggested that serous cells express NHE isoforms 1–4 and 6–9, but pharmacological sensitivities demonstrated that alkalinization observed during both CCh stimulation and pHi recovery from agonist-induced acidification was primarily due to NHE1, localized to the basolateral membrane. These results suggest that serous acinar cells secrete HCO3− during Ca2+-evoked fluid secretion by a mechanism that involves the apical membrane secretory Cl− channel, with HCO3− secretion sustained by activation of NHE1 in the basolateral membrane. In addition, other Na+-dependent pHi regulatory mechanisms exist, as evidenced by stronger inhibition of alkalinization in Na+-free media. PMID:18591422

  13. Effect of ethanol on acid secretion by isolated gastric glands from rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Reichstein, B.J.; Okamoto, C.; Forte, J.G.

    1986-08-01

    Isolated gastric glands from rabbit, as well as basolateral and microsomal membranes derived therefrom, were used to examine the effect of ethanol on several parameters related to acid secretion. Low concentrations of ethanol, 0.2%-5% (vol/vol), had no effect on basal aminopyrine accumulation by isolated gastric glands but significantly potentiated aminopyrine accumulation stimulated by histamine. In contrast, this dose range of ethanol inhibited aminopyrine accumulation stimulated by forskolin or dibutyryl-cyclic adenosine monophosphate. This dose range of ethanol produced a similar effect on adenylate cyclase activity of basolateral membranes from isolated gastric glands, with potentiation of histamine stimulation and inhibition of forskolin stimulation. Low-dose ethanol was found to produce increased proton permeability of the apical membrane of the parietal cell but had no effect on hydrogen-potassium-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase activity. Ethanol (10%) significantly inhibited all parameters of acid secretion studied. Ethanol has a biphasic effect on acid secretion with potentiation of histamine-stimulated aminopyrine accumulation and adenylate cyclase activity at low doses and inhibition of all parameters of acid secretion at high doses.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of the pygidial gland secretion of three ground beetle species (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenadić, Marija; Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Tešević, Vele; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Todosijević, Marina; Vesović, Nikola; Ćurčić, Srećko

    2016-04-01

    The antimicrobial properties of the pygidial gland secretions released by the adults of the three ground beetle species, Carabus ullrichii, C. coriaceus, and Abax parallelepipedus, have been tested. Microdilution method was applied for detection of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). Additionally, morpho-histology of the pygidial glands is investigated. We have tested 16 laboratory and clinical strains of human pathogens—eight bacterial both gram-positive and gram-negative species and eight fungal species. The pygidial secretion samples of C. ullrichii have showed the strongest antimicrobial effect against all strains of treated bacteria and fungi. Staphylococcus aureus, Lysteria monocytogenes, and Salmonella typhimurium proved to be the most sensitive bacterial strains. Penicillium funiculosum proved to be the most sensitive micromycete, while P. ochrochloron and P. verrucosum var . cyclopium the most resistant micromycetes. The pygidial secretion of C. coriaceus has showed antibacterial potential solely against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, and P. ochrochloron. Antibacterial properties of pygidial gland secretion of A. parallelepipedus were achieved against P. aeruginosa, while antifungal activity was detected against five of the eight tested micromycetes (A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, Trichoderma viride, and P. verrucosum var . cyclopium). Commercial antibiotics Streptomycin and Ampicillin and mycotics Ketoconazole and Bifonazole, applied as the positive controls, showed higher antibacterial/antifungal properties for all bacterial and fungal strains. The results of this observation might have a significant impact on the environmental aspects and possible medical purpose in the future.

  15. Effect of Male Accessory Gland Products on Egg Laying in Gastropod Molluscs

    PubMed Central

    van Iersel, Sander; Swart, Elferra M.; Nakadera, Yumi; van Straalen, Nico M.; Koene, Joris M.

    2014-01-01

    In internally fertilizing animals, seminal fluid is usually added to the spermatozoa, together forming the semen or ejaculate. Besides nourishing and activating sperm, the components in the seminal fluid can also influence female physiology to augment fertilization success of the sperm donor. While many studies have reported such effects in species with separate sexes, few studies have addressed this in simultaneously hermaphroditic animals. This video protocol presents a method to study effects of seminal fluid in gastropods, using a simultaneously hermaphroditic freshwater snail, the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, as model organism. While the procedure is shown using complete prostate gland extracts, individual components (i.e., proteins, peptides, and other compounds) of the seminal fluid can be tested in the same way. Effects of the receipt of ejaculate components on egg laying can be quantified in terms of frequency of egg laying and more subtle estimates of female reproductive performance such as egg numbers within each egg masses. Results show that seminal fluid proteins affect female reproductive output in this simultaneous hermaphrodite, highlighting their importance for sexual selection. PMID:24998794

  16. Optical properties of the uropygial gland secretion: no evidence for UV cosmetics in birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delhey, Kaspar; Peters, Anne; Biedermann, Peter H. W.; Kempenaers, Bart

    2008-10-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) reflectance of the plumage is common in birds and plays an important role in sexual signalling. Recently, it has been proposed that birds are able to modify plumage UV reflectance by the application of uropygial gland secretion. Based on a survey of the optical properties of this secretion from 51 species belonging to 12 avian orders, we show that two main types of uropygial secretions exist, one predominantly found in passerines and one in non-passerines, both reducing relative UV reflectance of a white background (Teflon™ tape). We quantified how each type of secretion (exemplified by blue tit and mallard) affected feather UV reflectance. Both secretions reduced overall brightness and relative UV reflectance of white mallard feathers but hardly affected the reflectance of UV/blue blue tit crown feathers. According to models of avian colour vision, changes in reflectance due to application of the secretion were at or below the discrimination threshold of most birds. We conclude that the uropygial secretion is unlikely to play a major role in modifying plumage UV reflectance. However, the optical properties of the uropygial secretion may have been selected to interfere as little as possible with visual signaling through plumage reflectance.

  17. Comparative analysis of the male reproductive accessory glands of bat species from the five Brazilian subfamilies of the family Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Martins, Fabiane F; Puga, Cintia C I; Beguelini, Mateus R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to morphologically characterize and compare the male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) of bats belonging to the five Brazilian subfamilies of the family Phyllostomidae (Carollia perspicillata-Carollinae; Desmodus rotundus-Desmodontinae; Glossophaga soricina-Glossophaginae; Phyllostomus discolor-Phyllostominae and Platyrrhinus lineatus-Stenodermatinae). The study demonstrated that the RAGs of phyllostomid bats were comprised of a pair of extra-abdominal bulbourethral glands and an intra-abdominal complex, composed of paraurethral glands and a prostate with two (Desmodontinae and Stenodermatinae) or three (Carollinae, Glossophaginae and Phyllostominae) different regions, with the absence of the seminal vesicles; this pattern possibly evolved from a process of compaction of the prostatic regions from an ancestor with three regions. PMID:25471705

  18. Autophagy facilitates secretion and protects against degeneration of the Harderian gland.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Ulrich; Fobker, Manfred; Lengauer, Barbara; Brandstetter, Marlene; Resch, Guenter P; Gröger, Marion; Plenz, Gabriele; Pammer, Johannes; Barresi, Caterina; Hartmann, Christine; Rossiter, Heidemarie

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial derived Harderian gland consists of 2 types of secretory cells. The more numerous type A cells are responsible for the secretion of lipid droplets, while type B cells produce dark granules of multilamellar bodies. The process of autophagy is constitutively active in the Harderian gland, as confirmed by our analysis of LC3 processing in GFP-LC3 transgenic mice. This process is compromised by epithelial deletion of Atg7. Morphologically, the Atg7 mutant glands are hypotrophic and degenerated, with highly vacuolated cells and pyknotic nuclei. The mutant glands accumulate lipid droplets coated with PLIN2 (perilipin 2) and contain deposits of cholesterol, ubiquitinated proteins, SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) positive aggregates and other metabolic products such as porphyrin. Immunofluorescence stainings show that distinct cells strongly aggregate both proteins and lipids. Electron microscopy of the Harderian glands reveals that its organized structure is compromised, and the presence of large intracellular lipid droplets and heterologous aggregates. We attribute the occurrence of large vacuoles to a malfunction in the formation of multilamellar bodies found in the less abundant type B Harderian gland cells. This defect causes the formation of large tertiary lysosomes of heterologous content and is accompanied by the generation of tight lamellar stacks of endoplasmic reticulum in a pseudo-crystalline form. To test the hypothesis that lipid and protein accumulation is the cause for the degeneration in autophagy-deficient Harderian glands, epithelial cells were treated with a combination of the proteasome inhibitor and free fatty acids, to induce aggregation of misfolded proteins and lipid accumulation, respectively. The results show that lipid accumulation indeed enhanced the toxicity of misfolded proteins and that this was even more pronounced in autophagy-deficient cells. Thus, we conclude autophagy controls protein and lipid catabolism and anabolism to facilitate bulk production of secretory vesicles of the Harderian gland. PMID:25484081

  19. A comparative study of salivary secretion by parotid and mandibular glands of anaesthetized Capra hircus: effect of pilocarpine.

    PubMed

    Castellano, C; Moreno, M; Raggi, L A; Martinez de Victoria, E; Mataix, F J

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of basal secretion and the effect of the infusion of pilocarpine on the flow and composition of saliva in the parotid and mandibular glands of the anaesthetized lactating goat. In the parotid gland there was a basal flow (1.6 +/- 0.29 microliter/min) which was not present in the mandibular gland. There is a statistically significant dose-effect relationship between pilocarpine and salivary flow in both glands. Salival composition and its variation with respect to the flow of saliva did not conform to either of the two glands to an exclusive monogastric or ruminant model. PMID:2879688

  20. Murine nonvolatile pheromones: isolation of exocrine-gland secreting Peptide 1.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Hiroko; Touhara, Kazushige

    2013-01-01

    Our search for a substance recognized by the vomeronasal neurons revealed that the extra-orbital lacrimal gland (ELG) isolated from adult male mice produced the male-specific peptide pheromone exocrine gland-secreting peptide 1 (ESP1). The following protocol reveals how ESP1 may be extracted from the ELG, purified using anion-exchange and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and analyzed by mass spectrometry. This protocol has been specifically designed for the purification of ESP1, but may be modified to isolate a variety of peptides from the exocrine glands. Peptides purified in this manner may help further define the molecular mechanisms underlying pheromone communication in the vomeronasal system. PMID:24014353

  1. Patterns of transcriptome divergence in the male accessory gland of two closely related species of field crickets.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Jose A; Larson, Erica L; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Harrison, Richard G

    2013-02-01

    One of the central questions in evolutionary genetics is how much of the genome is involved in the early stages of divergence between populations, causing them to be reproductively isolated. In this article, we investigate genomic differentiation in a pair of closely related field crickets (Gryllus firmus and G. pennsylvanicus). These two species are the result of allopatric divergence and now interact along an extensive hybrid zone in eastern North America. Genes encoding seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) are often divergent between species, and it has been hypothesized that these proteins may play a key role in the origin and maintenance of reproductive isolation between diverging lineages. Hence, we chose to scan the accessory gland transcriptome to enable direct comparisons of differentiation for genes known to encode SFPs with differentiation in a much larger set of genes expressed in the same tissue. We have characterized differences in allele frequency between two populations for >6000 SNPs and >26,000 contigs. About 10% of all SNPs showed nearly fixed differences between the two species. Genes encoding SFPs did not have significantly elevated numbers of fixed SNPs per contig, nor did they seem to show larger differences than expected in their average allele frequencies. The distribution of allele frequency differences across the transcriptome is distinctly bimodal, but the relatively high proportion of fixed SNPs does not necessarily imply "ancient" divergence between these two lineages. Further studies of linkage disequilibrium and introgression across the hybrid zone are needed to direct our attention to those genome regions that are important for reproductive isolation. PMID:23172857

  2. Cidea Control of Lipid Storage and Secretion in Mouse and Human Sebaceous Glands

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shasha; Shui, Guanghou; Wang, Guanqun; Wang, Chao; Sun, Shuhong; Zouboulis, Christos C.; Xiao, Ran; Ye, Jing; Li, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Sebaceous glands are skin appendages that secrete sebum onto hair follicles to lubricate the hair and maintain skin homeostasis. In this study, we demonstrated that Cidea is expressed at high levels in lipid-laden mature sebocytes and that Cidea deficiency led to dry hair and hair loss in aged mice. In addition, Cidea-deficient mice had markedly reduced levels of skin surface lipids, including triacylglycerides (TAGs) and wax diesters (WDEs), and these mice were defective in water repulsion and thermoregulation. Furthermore, we observed that Cidea-deficient sebocytes accumulated a large number of smaller-sized lipid droplets (LDs), whereas overexpression of Cidea in human SZ95 sebocytes resulted in increased lipid storage and the accumulation of large LDs. Importantly, Cidea was highly expressed in human sebaceous glands, and its expression levels were positively correlated with human sebum secretion. Our data revealed that Cidea is a crucial regulator of sebaceous gland lipid storage and sebum lipid secretion in mammals and humans. PMID:24636991

  3. Apocrine Secretion in Drosophila Salivary Glands: Subcellular Origin, Dynamics, and Identification of Secretory Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Farkaš, Robert; Ďatková, Zuzana; Mentelová, Lucia; Löw, Péter; Beňová-Liszeková, Denisa; Beňo, Milan; Sass, Miklós; Řehulka, Pavel; Řehulková, Helena; Raška, Otakar; Kováčik, Lubomír; Šmigová, Jana; Raška, Ivan; Mechler, Bernard M.

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the well defined mechanism of merocrine exocytosis, the mechanism of apocrine secretion, which was first described over 180 years ago, remains relatively uncharacterized. We identified apocrine secretory activity in the late prepupal salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster just prior to the execution of programmed cell death (PCD). The excellent genetic tools available in Drosophila provide an opportunity to dissect for the first time the molecular and mechanistic aspects of this process. A prerequisite for such an analysis is to have pivotal immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, biochemical and proteomic data that fully characterize the process. Here we present data showing that the Drosophila salivary glands release all kinds of cellular proteins by an apocrine mechanism including cytoskeletal, cytosolic, mitochondrial, nuclear and nucleolar components. Surprisingly, the apocrine release of these proteins displays a temporal pattern with the sequential release of some proteins (e.g. transcription factor BR-C, tumor suppressor p127, cytoskeletal β-tubulin, non-muscle myosin) earlier than others (e.g. filamentous actin, nuclear lamin, mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase). Although the apocrine release of proteins takes place just prior to the execution of an apoptotic program, the nuclear DNA is never released. Western blotting indicates that the secreted proteins remain undegraded in the lumen. Following apocrine secretion, the salivary gland cells remain quite vital, as they retain highly active transcriptional and protein synthetic activity. PMID:24732043

  4. Calcium transport in human salivary glands: a proposed model of calcium secretion into saliva.

    PubMed

    Homann, Veronika; Kinne-Saffran, Evamaria; Arnold, Wolfgang H; Gaengler, Peter; Kinne, Rolf K-H

    2006-05-01

    Salivary calcium plays a vital role in bio-mineralization of dental enamel and exposed dentin. In order to elucidate the yet unknown cellular and molecular mechanisms of calcium secretion in human salivary glands the presence of various relevant plasma membrane transport systems for calcium were investigated. Using an RT-PCR approach, expression of the epithelial calcium channel (CaT-Like), the calcium binding protein (calbindin-2), the endoplasmic reticulum pumps (SERCA-2 and -3), and the plasma membrane calcium ATPases (PMCA-1, -2, and -4), were found in parotid and submandibular glands. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CaT-Like is located in the basolateral plasma membrane of acinar cells; while calbindin-2, SERCA-2 and SERCA-3 were found inside the acinar cells; and PMCA-2 was found in the apical membrane and in the secretory canaliculi between the cells. Based on these findings, we propose the following model of calcium secretion in human salivary glands: (1) calcium enters the acinar cell at the basolateral side via calcium channel CaT-Like (calcium influx); (2) intracellular calcium is taken up into the endoplasmic reticulum by SERCA-2 and possibly SERCA3 or bound to calbindin-2 (intracellular calcium pool); and (3) calcium is secreted by PMCAs at the apical plasma membrane (calcium efflux). PMID:16270201

  5. [Mycoplasmas and antibodies anti-Chlamydia in semen of infertile men and their relationship with seminal quality and markers of male accessory sex glands].

    PubMed

    Lozano-Hernández, Ricardo; Vivas-Acevedo, Giovanny; Muñoz de Vera, María Gladys

    2012-06-01

    Male infertility may be due to inflammation or infection of the genital tract among other causes. Male accessory sex glands and sperm function may also be involved in the problem of infertility. This study tries to associate the most frequent bacteria in semen of infertile men including Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum with the seminal characteristics and levels of fructose, citric acid and alpha-neutral glucosidase as markers of the accessory glands. Detection of antibodies anti Chlamydia trachomatis indicated that it was the most prevalent germ. Antibodies (Ab) anti-Chlamydia, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were associated with a decrease of the glandular markers fructose and alpha-neutral glucosidase. On the other hand, there were increased pH and leukocytospermia in men positive for antibodies anti-Chlamydia. Microbiological and biochemical evaluation of semen could orient more about the spread of infection and allow for the selection of the most effective therapy. We find that microbiological and glandular accessory markers assessments in semen are important to diagnose and to treat infections. PMID:22978046

  6. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in cholinergic neurons of exocrine glands: Functional significance of coexisting transmitters for vasodilation and secretion

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, Jan M.; Änggärd, Anders; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hökfelt, Tomas; Mutt, Viktor

    1980-01-01

    By a combination of the indirect immunofluorescence technique with acetylcholinesterase (acetylcholine acetylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.7) staining, it was shown that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is present in cholinergic (acetylcholinesterase-rich) neurons involved in control of secretion and vasodilation in exocrine glands of cat. The submandibular salivary gland was used as a functional model. Preganglionic nerve stimulation induced an atropine-resistant, hexamethonium-sensitive vasodilation and release of VIP into the venous outflow from the gland and an atropine- and hexamethonium-sensitive secretion. Infusion of VIP antiserum reduced both the vasodilation and secretion. Infusion of VIP caused vasodilation only, whereas acetylcholine caused both vasodilation and secretion. Simultaneous infusion of VIP and acetylcholine in low doses resulted in a marked potentiation of both vasodilation and secretion. The present morphological and functional data support the following hypothesis for regulation of vasodilation and secretion in exocrine glands. Preganglionic cholinergic nerves activate, via nicotinic receptors, postganglionic neurons, causing concomitant release from the same nerve endings of two coexisting putative transmitters, acetylcholine and VIP. Acetylcholine produces mainly secretion by a muscarinic action and VIP causes mainly vasodilation, but the two substances seem to cooperate directly or indirectly in both types of response. Thus, the coexistence of two putative neurotransmitters, VIP and acetylcholine, in one neuron may explain the dual effector response (i.e., the cholinergic secretion and the atropine-resistant vasodilation) caused by nerve stimulation in exocrine glands. Images PMID:6103537

  7. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide stimulates the secretion of catecholamines from the rat adrenal gland.

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, R K; Wakade, A R

    1987-01-01

    1. Our previous studies have indicated that splanchnic nerves release a substance(s), other than acetylcholine, that induces the secretion of catecholamines from the rat adrenal medulla. To identify the nature of the non-cholinergic substance, the effects of met-enkephalin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) were investigated in the perfused adrenal gland of the rat. 2. The secretion of catecholamines increased from a basal level of 8 ng to a maximum value of 18 ng during perfusion with 100 microM-met-enkephalin. The secretion evoked by 10 micrograms acetylcholine increased from 118 to 143 ng in the presence of 10 microM-met-enkephalin. Higher concentrations of met-enkephalin (100 microM) had no additional effect. Secretion of catecholamines evoked by stimulation of splanchnic nerves (10 Hz for 30 s) was even less (8%) affected by met-enkephalin. 3. 0.3 microM-VIP caused a significant increase in the secretion of catecholamines, and the effect increased with an increase in the concentration of VIP. About 115 ng of catecholamines were secreted during 15 min perfusion with 3 microM-VIP. 4. VIP-evoked secretion was not affected by antagonists of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, nor by chronic splanchnicotomy. However, removal of calcium ions from, and inclusion of 1 mM-EGTA in, the perfusion medium completely inhibited the secretion evoked by VIP. 5. VIP-evoked secretion was reduced (20-75%) in a concentration-dependent manner by 3-30 microM-naloxone. 6. It is suggested that VIP may be the non-cholinergic excitatory substance present in the splanchnic nerves and released along with acetylcholine during simulation of the nerves to evoke secretion of catecholamine from the rat chromaffin cells. PMID:3656194

  8. Pharmacogenetics of human ABC transporter ABCC11: new insights into apocrine gland growth and metabolite secretion

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Toshihisa; Toyoda, Yu; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro; Niikawa, Norio

    2013-01-01

    Cell secretion is an important physiological process that ensures smooth metabolic activities and tissue repair as well as growth and immunological functions in the body. Apocrine secretion occurs when the secretory process is accomplished with a partial loss of cell cytoplasm. The secretory materials are contained within secretory vesicles and are released during secretion as cytoplasmic fragments into the glandular lumen or interstitial space. The recent finding that the non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) 538G > A (rs17822931; Gly180Arg) in the ABCC11 gene determines the type of earwax in humans has shed light on the novel function of this ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter in apocrine glands. The wild-type (Gly180) of ABCC11 is associated with wet-type earwax, axillary osmidrosis, and colostrum secretion from the mammary gland as well as the potential risk of mastopathy. Furthermore, the SNP (538G > A) in the ABCC11 gene is suggested to be a clinical biomarker for the prediction of chemotherapeutic efficacy. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview on the discovery and characterization of genetic polymorphisms in the human ABCC11 gene and to explain the impact of ABCC11 538G > A on the apocrine phenotype as well as the anthropological aspect of this SNP in the ABCC11 gene and patients’ response to nucleoside-based chemotherapy. PMID:23316210

  9. Antimicrobial activity of the pygidial gland secretion of three ground beetle species (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Nenadić, Marija; Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Tešević, Vele; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Todosijević, Marina; Vesović, Nikola; Ćurčić, Srećko

    2016-04-01

    The antimicrobial properties of the pygidial gland secretions released by the adults of the three ground beetle species, Carabus ullrichii, C. coriaceus, and Abax parallelepipedus, have been tested. Microdilution method was applied for detection of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). Additionally, morpho-histology of the pygidial glands is investigated. We have tested 16 laboratory and clinical strains of human pathogens-eight bacterial both gram-positive and gram-negative species and eight fungal species. The pygidial secretion samples of C. ullrichii have showed the strongest antimicrobial effect against all strains of treated bacteria and fungi. Staphylococcus aureus, Lysteria monocytogenes, and Salmonella typhimurium proved to be the most sensitive bacterial strains. Penicillium funiculosum proved to be the most sensitive micromycete, while P. ochrochloron and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium the most resistant micromycetes. The pygidial secretion of C. coriaceus has showed antibacterial potential solely against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, and P. ochrochloron. Antibacterial properties of pygidial gland secretion of A. parallelepipedus were achieved against P. aeruginosa, while antifungal activity was detected against five of the eight tested micromycetes (A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, Trichoderma viride, and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium). Commercial antibiotics Streptomycin and Ampicillin and mycotics Ketoconazole and Bifonazole, applied as the positive controls, showed higher antibacterial/antifungal properties for all bacterial and fungal strains. The results of this observation might have a significant impact on the environmental aspects and possible medical purpose in the future. PMID:27000261

  10. Electrolyte and protein secretion by the perfused rabbit mandibular gland stimulated with acetylcholine or catecholamines

    PubMed Central

    Case, R. M.; Conigrave, A. D.; Novak, I.; Young, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    1. A method is described for the isolation and vascular perfusion in vitro of the mandibular gland of the rabbit. The perfusate is a physiological salt solution containing glucose as the only metabolic substrate. 2. During perfusion with solutions containing acetylcholine, the gland secretes vigorously at a rate and in a manner similar to that seen in vivo. Although the gland becomes oedematous during perfusion, the extent of this oedema appears to have no influence on secretory ability: the perfused glands were capable of functioning for at least 4 h, and often for more than 6 h. 3. Acetylcholine evoked a small secretory response at a concentration of 8 × 10-9 mol l-1 and a maximum response at 8 × 10-7 mol l-1. Eserine (2 × 10-5 mol l-1) evoked secretory responses comparable to those evoked by acetylcholine in a concentration of 8 × 10-9 mol l-1. Secretion, whether unstimulated or evoked by acetylcholine or eserine, could be blocked completely by atropine. 4. During prolonged stimulation with acetylcholine, the fluid secretory response declined rapidly over a period of about 15 min from an initial high value to a much lower plateau value. After 3 or more hours of stimulation, the secretory response began once more to decline, this time towards zero. If, before the second period of decline begins, stimulation is interrupted for about 30 min, the gland recovers its initial responsiveness to further stimulation with acetylcholine. 5. The Na, K, Cl and HCO3 concentrations and the osmolality of acetylcholine evoked saliva exhibited flow-dependency similar to that seen in vivo. The concentrations of Na and Cl, but not K and HCO3, increased by about 25 mmol l-1 during periods of prolonged stimulation with acetylcholine even though the salivary secretory rate was constant. The concentrations of K and HCO3, but not Na and Cl, increased progressively as the concentration of infused acetylcholine was increased. 6. Salivary protein secretion increased with increasing concentrations of acetylcholine to a greater extent than did fluid secretion. During continuous stimulation, the rate of protein secretion fell off much faster than the rate of fluid secretion. 7. The β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol evoked a fluid secretory response only equal to about 5% of that evoked by acetylcholine, but still the response declined during continued stimulation. The electrolyte composition of isoproterenol-evoked saliva was vastly different from that evoked by acetylcholine, being particularly rich in K and HCO3. The isoproterenol-evoked saliva was also extremely rich in protein so that the total protein secretion evoked by isoproterenol was much greater than that evoked by acetylcholine. 8. The α-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine was without stimulatory effect on salivary fluid secretion and caused a reduction in the secretory response to acetylcholine. The drug had little or no effect on the electrolyte content of acetylcholine-evoked saliva and appeared to reduce its protein content. PMID:7381794

  11. Hypertonic fluids are secreted by medial and lateral segments in duck (Anas platyrhynchos) nasal salt glands

    PubMed Central

    Butler, David G

    2002-01-01

    Indwelling catheters were used to collect fluid directly from the medial and lateral segments of duck nasal salt glands showing, for the first time, that the secretions are fully hypertonic before reaching the medial and lateral drainage ducts. Using this method it was possible to show that (a) there is a functional symmetry between the left and right salt glands, (b) the medial segment always secretes fluid at approximately twice the rate of the lateral segment and (c) fluid secreted by the medial segment has the same ionic composition but variable ion concentrations when compared with fluid from the lateral segment. A 12 % increase in post-segmental fluid osmolality was probably due to the evaporation of water from epithelial surfaces in the nasal cavities during breathing. A post-segmental outflux of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl− in the medial and lateral collecting ducts and/or nasal epithelium may be of adaptive significance when birds inhabit calcium- and magnesium-rich marine environments. PMID:11986388

  12. ( sup 3 H)protein secretion in rat parotid gland: Substance P-. beta. -adrenergic synergism

    SciTech Connect

    Dreux, C.; Imhoff, V.; Rossignol, B. )

    1987-12-01

    In parotid fragment ({sup 3}H)protein, secretion induced by substance P was moderate, but strongly Ca dependent. However, secretion induced by isoproterenol was large and Ca independent. Potentiation of protein secretion was observed when substance P (SP) and isoproterenol (ISO) acted together. Addition of 10{sup {minus}8} M SP caused a shift to the left in the secretion dose-response curve caused by ISO, but did not enhance ISO-induced maximal response. The potentiating effect seems to be a postreceptor event, since it can be mimicked by forskolin (FK), known to induce directly cAMP accumulation, thus bypassing the {beta}-adrenergic receptor. The synergism described above was, therefore, investigated at the second messenger production level. Stimulation of parotid gland fragments by simultaneous addition of SP plus ISO or FK did not modify cAMP nor inositol trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) accumulation induced independently by each secretagogue alone. The ionophore A23187 was also able to potentiate secretion induced by a {beta}-adrenergic agonist, this effect being totally abolished by external calcium omission, thus suggesting a role for external calcium in this potentiation phenomenon. These results suggest that the potentiation phenomenon observed is a postreceptor event that occurs at a step distal from the second messenger production.

  13. Lipids and proteins in the Rathke's gland secretions of the North American mud turtle (Kinosternon subrubrum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seifert, W.E., Jr.; Gotte, S.W.; Leto, T.L.; Weldon, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Lipids and proteins in the Rathke's gland secretions of the North American mud turtle (Kinosternon subrubrum, Kinosternidae) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), respectively. Analysis by GC-MS indicates 2,3-dihydroxypropanal and C3?C24 free or esterified fatty acids. Analysis by SDS-PAGE indicates a major protein component with an approximate molecular mass of 60 kDa and minor components ranging from ca. 23 to 34 kDa. The major component of K. subrubrum glandular secretions exhibits a mobility that matches that of the Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempi, Cheloniidae), suggesting that these proteins are evolutionarily conserved.

  14. Short-loop negative and positive feedback on ecdysone secretion by prothoracic gland in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, S; Williams, C M

    1989-08-01

    Ecdysteroid production by the prothoracic glands of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta was found to be under feedback control by the ecdysteroids in hemolymph using both culture in vivo in diapausing pupae lacking the brain-corpora cardiaca-corpora allata complex and the prothoracic glands and culture in vitro. Prothoracic glands having relatively high activity in larvae, prepupae, or developing pupae were inhibited by ecdysone or 20-hydroxyecdysone. By contrast, prothoracic glands with low activity from feeding larvae, day 1 non-diapausing pupae and diapausing pupae were activated by both ecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone in vivo and in vitro. Dose-response studies on diapausing pupal glands showed that ecdysone was the most effective activator. These findings suggest that prothoracic glands are either stimulated or inhibited by ecdysone or 20-hydroxyecdysone, depending on both the secretory activity of the gland and the effective level of ecdysteroids in hemolymph. Thus, when the glands are first activated, the ecdysteroids that are secreted show a positive feedback on the glands to increase ecdysteroid output. Then the activated glands are turned off by the increasing 20-hydroxyecdysone titer in the hemolymph leading to the rapid decrease in ecdysteroid titer at the end of the molt period. PMID:2806870

  15. Biological activities of skin and parotoid gland secretions of bufonid toads (Bufo bufo, Bufo verrucosissimus and Bufotes variabilis) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Karış, Mert; Yalcin, Husniye Tansel; Göçmen, Bayram

    2016-05-01

    Toad glandular secretions and skin extractions contain numerous natural agents which may provide unique resources for novel drug development. Especially the skin-parotoid gland secretions of toads from genus Bufo contain as many as 86 different types of active compounds, each with the potential of becoming a potent drug. In the present study, crude skin-parotoid gland secretions from Bufo bufo, Bufo verrucosissimus and Bufotes variabilis from Turkey were screened against various cancer cells together with normal cells using MTT assay. Furthermore, the antimicrobial properties of skin secretions were tested on selected bacterial and fungal species for assessing the possible medical applications. Antimicrobial activity of skin secretions was studied by determining minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in broth dilution method. Hemolytic activity of each skin-secretion was also estimated for evaluating pharmaceutical potential. Both skin-parotoid gland secretions showed high cytotoxic effect on all cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines with IC50 values varying between <0.1μg/ml and 6.02μg/ml. MIC results of antimicrobial activity tests were found to be between 3.9μg/ml and 250μg/ml. No hemolytic activities on rabbit red blood cells at concentrations between 0.5μg/ml and 50μg/ml were observed. In conclusion, skin-parotoid secretions of bufonid toads might be remarkable candidates for anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents without hemolytic activities. PMID:27133069

  16. Effect of transport inhibitors on secretion by perfused rat submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Martinez, J R; Cassity, N

    1983-11-01

    Ouabain (10(-3) M) caused a 95.8% reduction in the volume of saliva secreted during a 60-min period by the isolated, perfused submandibular gland of the rat exposed to acetylcholine (10(-6) M) and modified salivary cation (Na and K) concentrations but not salivary Cl concentrations. Furosemide (10(-3) M) caused a 74.9% reduction in saliva volume and significantly reduced salivary Cl concentrations but did not modify salivary Na or K. Ethacrynic acid (10(-4) M) resulted in a 58.6% reduction in saliva volume, increased salivary Na and Cl concentrations, and reduced salivary K+ concentrations at low rates of flow. The results suggest that an ouabain-sensitive Na+-K+-ATPase and a furosemide-sensitive NaCl cotransport system contribute to acetylcholine-induced fluid secretion in the rat submandibular gland. The Na+-K+-ATPase probably provides the energy or driving force for the NaCl cotransport system by maintaining a Na+ gradient in the salivary cells. The lesser effect of ethacrynic acid on saliva volumes may result from a quantitatively smaller action on the same NaCl cotransport affected by furosemide. An ouabain-sensitive pump present in salivary ducts regulates transductal transport of Na and K. PMID:6314825

  17. A Kazal-Type Serine Protease Inhibitor from the Defense Gland Secretion of the Subterranean Termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki

    PubMed Central

    Negulescu, Horia; Guo, Youzhong; Garner, Thomas P.; Goodwin, Octavia Y.; Henderson, Gregg; Laine, Roger A.; Macnaughtan, Megan A.

    2015-01-01

    Coptotermes formosanus is an imported, subterranean termite species with the largest economic impact in the United States. The frontal glands of the soldier caste termites comprising one third of the body mass, contain a secretion expelled through a foramen in defense. The small molecule composition of the frontal gland secretion is well-characterized, but the proteins remain to be identified. Herein is reported the structure and function of one of several proteins found in the termite defense gland secretion. TFP4 is a 6.9 kDa, non-classical group 1 Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor with activity towards chymotrypsin and elastase, but not trypsin. The 3-dimensional solution structure of TFP4 was solved with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and represents the first structure from the taxonomic family, Rhinotermitidae. Based on the structure of TFP4, the protease inhibitor active loop (Cys8 to Cys16) was identified. PMID:25978745

  18. A Kazal-Type Serine Protease Inhibitor from the Defense Gland Secretion of the Subterranean Termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki.

    PubMed

    Negulescu, Horia; Guo, Youzhong; Garner, Thomas P; Goodwin, Octavia Y; Henderson, Gregg; Laine, Roger A; Macnaughtan, Megan A

    2015-01-01

    Coptotermes formosanus is an imported, subterranean termite species with the largest economic impact in the United States. The frontal glands of the soldier caste termites comprising one third of the body mass, contain a secretion expelled through a foramen in defense. The small molecule composition of the frontal gland secretion is well-characterized, but the proteins remain to be identified. Herein is reported the structure and function of one of several proteins found in the termite defense gland secretion. TFP4 is a 6.9 kDa, non-classical group 1 Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor with activity towards chymotrypsin and elastase, but not trypsin. The 3-dimensional solution structure of TFP4 was solved with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and represents the first structure from the taxonomic family, Rhinotermitidae. Based on the structure of TFP4, the protease inhibitor active loop (Cys(8) to Cys(16)) was identified. PMID:25978745

  19. Mucin glycosylation changes in cystic fibrosis lung disease are not manifest in submucosal gland secretions.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Benjamin L; Sloane, Andrew J; Robinson, Leanne J; Sebastian, Lucille T; Glanville, Allan R; Song, Yuanlin; Verkman, Alan S; Harry, Jenny L; Packer, Nicolle H; Karlsson, Niclas G

    2005-05-01

    SMG (submucosal gland) secretions are a major component of the airway surface liquid, are associated with innate immunity in the lung, and have been reported to be altered in lung disease. Changes in lung mucosal glycosylation have been reported in CF (cystic fibrosis), which may be responsible for differential bacterial binding to glycosylated components in the lung mucosa and hence increased pre-disposition to pulmonary infection. Glycoproteomic analysis was performed on SMG secretions collected from explanted bronchial tissue of subjects with severe lung disease, with and without CF, and controls without lung disease. Mucins MUC5B and MUC5AC were shown to be the dominant high-molecular-mass glycoprotein components, with a minor non-mucin glycoprotein component, gp-340, also present. Oligosaccharides containing blood-group determinants corresponding to subjects' blood type were abundant on MUC5B/MUC5AC, as were Lewis-type epitopes and their sialylated analogues, which are ligands for pathogens and leucocytes. No significant differences were found in the glycosylation of MUC5B/MUC5AC or gp-340 between CF and non-CF subjects with severe lung disease, implying that CF does not influence SMG secretion mucin glycosylation in end-stage lung disease. There were also no significant differences found in the glycosylation of these components in severe lung disease compared with non-diseased lungs. This suggests that previously reported changes in the glycosylation of respiratory glycoconjugates in CF, and other pulmonary conditions, are not due to the glycosylation of components in SMG secretions, but may involve other secretions, responses or extracellular factors. PMID:15563276

  20. The effect of autonomic agonists and nerve stimulation on protein secretion from the rat submandibular gland.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, C J; Wilson, S M

    1985-01-01

    Saliva samples were obtained from the cannulated duct of the rat submandibular gland following intravenous administration of the autonomic agonists, acetyl beta-methyl choline (methacholine), phenylephrine and isoprenaline and by stimulating sympathetically at 5 and 20 Hz. Phenylephrine and isoprenaline produced a saliva approximately 50-fold richer in protein than that induced by methacholine. Protease activity was greatest in saliva induced by phenylephrine. Methacholine, phenylephrine and isoprenaline caused the secretion of markedly different protein populations, determined by separation on SDS-polyacrylamide gradient gels followed by staining with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R250. Many species in the molecular weight range 10000-40000 were secreted in response to phenylephrine and isoprenaline. Methacholine produced a saliva poor in protein and the resulting electrophoretic banding patterns were faint. Staining with periodic acid-Schiff's reagent showed that the largest protein species (mol. wt. 150000) secreted in response to isoprenaline was glycosylated and that small quantities of a similar protein were present in saliva produced by methacholine and phenylephrine but were not visualized by staining with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R250. Phosphorylated proteins of molecular weights 30000-35000 and 38000-45000 were detected in saliva produced by isoprenaline but not in saliva produced by methacholine or phenylephrine. Stimulation of the cervical sympathetic trunk at 5 Hz yielded a population of salivary proteins, many of which behaved similarly on electrophoresis to proteins secreted in response to isoprenaline. At 20 Hz a different population was secreted, resembling that present in phenylephrine-induced saliva. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PLATE 3 PLATE 4 PMID:2858587

  1. The Secretion of Areolar (Montgomery's) Glands from Lactating Women Elicits Selective, Unconditional Responses in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Doucet, Sébastien; Soussignan, Robert; Sagot, Paul; Schaal, Benoist

    2009-01-01

    Background The communicative meaning of human areolae for newborn infants was examined here in directly exposing 3-day old neonates to the secretion from the areolar glands of Montgomery donated by non related, non familiar lactating women. Methodology/Principal Findings The effect of the areolar stimulus on the infants' behavior and autonomic nervous system was compared to that of seven reference stimuli originating either from human or non human mammalian sources, or from an arbitrarily-chosen artificial odorant. The odor of the native areolar secretion intensified more than all other stimuli the infants' inspiratory activity and appetitive oral responses. These responses appeared to develop independently from direct experience with the breast or milk. Conclusion/Significance Areolar secretions from lactating women are especially salient to human newborns. Volatile compounds carried in these substrates are thus in a position to play a key role in establishing behavioral and physiological processes pertaining to milk transfer and production, and, hence, to survival and to the early engagement of attachment and bonding. PMID:19851461

  2. A fluid secretion pathway unmasked by acinar-specific Tmem16A gene ablation in the adult mouse salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Catalán, Marcelo A; Kondo, Yusuke; Peña-Munzenmayer, Gaspar; Jaramillo, Yasna; Liu, Frances; Choi, Sooji; Crandall, Edward; Borok, Zea; Flodby, Per; Shull, Gary E; Melvin, James E

    2015-02-17

    Activation of an apical Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel (CaCC) triggers the secretion of saliva. It was previously demonstrated that CaCC-mediated Cl(-) current and Cl(-) efflux are absent in the acinar cells of systemic Tmem16A (Tmem16A Cl(-) channel) null mice, but salivation was not assessed in fully developed glands because Tmem16A null mice die within a few days after birth. To test the role of Tmem16A in adult salivary glands, we generated conditional knockout mice lacking Tmem16A in acinar cells (Tmem16A(-/-)). Ca(2+)-dependent salivation was abolished in Tmem16A(-/-) mice, demonstrating that Tmem16A is obligatory for Ca(2+)-mediated fluid secretion. However, the amount of saliva secreted by Tmem16A(-/-) mice in response to the β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (IPR) was comparable to that seen in controls, indicating that Tmem16A does not significantly contribute to cAMP-induced secretion. Furthermore, IPR-stimulated secretion was unaffected in mice lacking Cftr (Cftr(∆F508/∆F508)) or ClC-2 (Clcn2(-/-)) Cl(-) channels. The time course for activation of IPR-stimulated fluid secretion closely correlated with that of the IPR-induced cell volume increase, suggesting that acinar swelling may activate a volume-sensitive Cl(-) channel. Indeed, Cl(-) channel blockers abolished fluid secretion, indicating that Cl(-) channel activity is critical for IPR-stimulated secretion. These data suggest that β-adrenergic-induced, cAMP-dependent fluid secretion involves a volume-regulated anion channel. In summary, our results using acinar-specific Tmem16A(-/-) mice identify Tmem16A as the Cl(-) channel essential for muscarinic, Ca(2+)-dependent fluid secretion in adult mouse salivary glands. PMID:25646474

  3. The Female Post-Mating Response Requires Genes Expressed in the Secondary Cells of the Male Accessory Gland in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sitnik, Jessica L; Gligorov, Dragan; Maeda, Robert K; Karch, François; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2016-03-01

    Seminal proteins from the Drosophila male accessory gland induce post-mating responses (PMR) in females. The PMR comprise behavioral and physiological changes that include increased egg laying, decreased receptivity to courting males, and changes in the storage and use of sperm. Many of these changes are induced by a "sex peptide" (SP) and are maintained by SP's binding to, and slow release from, sperm. The accessory gland contains two secretory cell types with distinct morphological and developmental characteristics. Products of these "main" and "secondary" cells work interdependently to induce and maintain the PMR. To identify individual genes needed for the morphology and function of secondary cells, we studied iab-6(cocu) males, whose secondary cells have abnormal morphology and fail to provide products to maintain the PMR. By RNA-seq, we identified 77 genes that are downregulated by a factor of >5× in iab-6(cocu) males. By functional assays and microscopy, we tested 20 candidate genes and found that at least 9 are required for normal storage and release of SP in mated females. Knockdown of each of these 9 genes consequently leads to a reduction in egg laying and an increase in receptivity over time, confirming a role for the secondary cells in maintaining the long-term PMR. Interestingly, only 1 of the 9 genes, CG3349, encodes a previously reported seminal fluid protein (Sfp), suggesting that secondary cells may perform essential functions beyond the production and modification of known Sfps. At least 3 of the 9 genes also regulate the size and/or abundance of secondary cell vacuoles, suggesting that the vacuoles' contents may be important for the machinery used to maintain the PMR. PMID:26746709

  4. Interleukin-1 β Modulates Melatonin Secretion in Ovine Pineal Gland: Ex Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Herman, A P; Bochenek, J; Skipor, J; Król, K; Krawczyńska, A; Antushevich, H; Pawlina, B; Marciniak, E; Tomaszewska-Zaremba, D

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the effect of proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin- (IL-) 1β, on melatonin release and expression enzymes essential for this hormone synthesis: arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) in ovine pineal gland, taking into account the immune status of animals before sacrificing. Ewes were injected by lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 400 ng/kg) or saline, two hours after sunset during short day period (December). Animals were euthanized three hours after the injection. Next, the pineal glands were collected and divided into four explants. The explants were incubated with (1) medium 199 (control explants), (2) norepinephrine (NE; 10 µM), (3) IL-1β (75 pg/mL), or (4) NE + IL-1β. It was found that IL-1β abolished (P < 0.05) NE-induced increase in melatonin release. Treatment with IL-1β also reduced (P < 0.05) expression of AA-NAT enzyme compared to NE-treated explants. There was no effect of NE or IL-1β treatment on gene expression of HIOMT; however, the pineal fragments isolated from LPS-treated animals were characterized by elevated (P < 0.05) expression of HIOMT mRNA and protein compared to the explants from saline-treated ewes. Our study proves that IL-1β suppresses melatonin secretion and its action seems to be targeted on the reduction of pineal AA-NAT protein expression. PMID:26339621

  5. Interleukin-1β Modulates Melatonin Secretion in Ovine Pineal Gland: Ex Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Herman, A. P.; Bochenek, J.; Skipor, J.; Król, K.; Krawczyńska, A.; Antushevich, H.; Pawlina, B.; Marciniak, E.; Tomaszewska-Zaremba, D.

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the effect of proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin- (IL-) 1β, on melatonin release and expression enzymes essential for this hormone synthesis: arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) in ovine pineal gland, taking into account the immune status of animals before sacrificing. Ewes were injected by lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 400 ng/kg) or saline, two hours after sunset during short day period (December). Animals were euthanized three hours after the injection. Next, the pineal glands were collected and divided into four explants. The explants were incubated with (1) medium 199 (control explants), (2) norepinephrine (NE; 10 µM), (3) IL-1β (75 pg/mL), or (4) NE + IL-1β. It was found that IL-1β abolished (P < 0.05) NE-induced increase in melatonin release. Treatment with IL-1β also reduced (P < 0.05) expression of AA-NAT enzyme compared to NE-treated explants. There was no effect of NE or IL-1β treatment on gene expression of HIOMT; however, the pineal fragments isolated from LPS-treated animals were characterized by elevated (P < 0.05) expression of HIOMT mRNA and protein compared to the explants from saline-treated ewes. Our study proves that IL-1β suppresses melatonin secretion and its action seems to be targeted on the reduction of pineal AA-NAT protein expression. PMID:26339621

  6. Do Eurasian beavers smear their pelage with castoreum and anal gland secretion?

    PubMed

    Rosell, Frank

    2002-08-01

    The scent-matching hypothesis postulates that scent marks provide an olfactory link between a resident owner and his territory, and that this enables intruding animals to recognize the chance of escalated conflicts. However, it is unclear if Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) mark their own pelage with castoreum from their castor sacs (i.e., the same material used in territorial marking); and/or if beavers mark their pelage with anal gland secretion (AGS) from the anal glands to waterproof the pelage and to act as a "living-scent mark." Chemical analysis (gas chromatography and mass spectrometry) of hair samples from 22 live-trapped beavers revealed that castoreum compounds were not present in any samples, AGS compounds were found from 3 animals (13.6%) around the cloaca, and the compound squalene was found in all the samples. Beavers may release castoreum directly into the water when it meets an intruder. Thereby, the "scent mark" in the water can provide an olfactory link between a resident owner and his territory. Squalene, in contrast to AGS, may be essential for keeping beaver pelts water-repellant. PMID:12371821

  7. Histochemical and ultrastructural evidence of lipid secretion by the silk gland of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Victoriano, Eliane; Pinheiro, Daniela O; Gregório, Elisa A

    2007-01-01

    The silk gland in Lepidoptera larvae is responsible for the silk production used for shelter or cocoon construction. The secretion of fibroin and sericin by the different silk gland regions are well established. There are few attempts to detect lipid components in the insect silk secretion, although the presence of such element may contribute to the resistance of the shelter to wet environment. This study characterizes the glandular region and detects the presence of lipid components in the secretion of the silk gland of Diatraea saccharalis(Fabricius). The silk gland was submitted to histochemical procedure for lipid detection or conventionally prepared for ultrastructural analyses. Lipid droplets were histochemically detected in both the apical cytoplasm of cell of the anterior region and in the lumen among the microvilli. Ultrastructural analyses of the anterior region showed lipid material, visualized as myelin-like structures within the vesicular Golgi complex and in the apical secretory globules, mixed up with the sericin; similar material was observed into the lumen, adjacent to the microvilli. Lipids were not detected in the cells neither in the lumen of the posterior region. Our results suggest that the silk produced by D. saccharalis has a minor lipid content that is secreted by the anterior region together with the sericin. PMID:18060296

  8. Tachykinin NK3 and NK1 receptor activation elicits secretion from porcine airway submucosal glands

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Jonathan E; Hey, John A; Corboz, Michel R

    2003-01-01

    We presently characterized the tachykinin receptor subtypes, using tachykinin receptor agonists and selective antagonists, that induce submucosal gland fluid flux (JG) from porcine tracheal explants with the hillocks technique. We also investigated the effects of the tachykinin receptor agonists on the electrophysiologic parameters of the tracheal epithelium in Ussing chambers. The NK1 tachykinin receptor agonist substance P (SP, 1 μM) and the NK3 tachykinin receptor agonist [MePhe7]neurokinin B ([MePhe7]NKB, 1 μM) induced gland fluid fluxes of 0.29±0.03 μl min−1 cm−2 (n=26) and 0.36±0.05 μl min−1 cm−2 (n=24), respectively; while the NK2 tachykinin receptor agonist [βAla8]neurokinin A (4-10) ([βAla8]NKA (4-10), 1 μM) had no effect on JG (n=10). The NK1 receptor antagonist CP99994 (1 μM, n=9) blocked 93% of the SP-induced JG, whereas the NK3 receptor antagonist SB223412 (1 μM, n=12) had no effect on the SP-induced JG. However, SB223412 (1 μM, n=9) blocked 89% of the [MePhe7]NKB-induced JG while CP99994 (1 μM, n=10) did not affect the [MePhe7]NKB-induced JG. The NK2 receptor antagonist SR48968 (1 μM) did not block the JG induced by either the NK1 (n=4) or NK3 (n=13) receptor agonists. The nicotinic ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antagonist hexamethonium (1 μM) and the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine (1 μM) also decreased the NK3 receptor agonist-induced JG by 67% (n=10) and 71% (n=12), respectively. The potential difference (PD), short-circuit current (ISC), and membrane resistance (RM) of the porcine tracheal epithelial membranes were not significantly affected by any of the neurokinin agonists or antagonists (1 μM, basolateral) used in this study, although SP and [βAla8]NKA (4-10) induced a slight transient epithelial hyperpolarization. These data suggest that NK1 and NK3 receptors induce porcine airway gland secretion by different mechanisms and that the NK3 receptor agonists induced secretion is likely due to activation of prejunctional NK3 receptors on parasympathetic nerves, resulting in acetylcholine-release. We conclude that tachykinin receptor antagonists may have therapeutic potential in diseases with pathophysiological mucus hypersecretion such as asthma and chronic bronchitis. PMID:12522097

  9. Cytotoxic profile of natural and some modified bufadienolides from toad Rhinella schneideri parotoid gland secretion.

    PubMed

    Cunha-Filho, Geraldino A; Resck, Ins S; Cavalcanti, Bruno C; Pessoa, Cludia O; Moraes, Manoel O; Ferreira, Jos R O; Rodrigues, Felipe A R; Dos Santos, Maria L

    2010-09-01

    Cutaneous secretions of toad species are an important source of bufadienolides, compounds that exhibit interesting structural features and biopharmacological properties. Here we describe the isolation of bufadienolides from the Brazilian toad Rhinella schneideri parotoid glands secretion, including: marinobufagin (1), bufalin (2), telocinobufagin (3), hellebrigenin (4), and the atypical 20S,21R-epoxymarinobufagin (5) besides the widespread beta-sitosterol (6). Starting from natural bufadienolides four derivatives were prepared: 3beta-acetoxy-marinobufagin (7), 3beta-acetoxy-bufalin (8), 3beta-acetoxy-telocinobufagin (9), and 3beta-acetoxy-20S,21R-epoxymarinobufagin (10). The cytotoxic evaluation showed that all natural bufadienolides and their derivatives exhibited moderate to strong activity against human HL-60, SF-295, MDA-MB-435, and HCT-8 cancer cell strains without hemolysis of mouse erythrocytes. The acetylated bufadienolides (7-9) and the epoxide 10 showed lesser peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) inhibitory activity than their precursors, suggesting that chemical modifications on such compounds can play an important role on the modulation of their cytotoxic profile. PMID:20381513

  10. Cytotoxic profile of natural and some modified bufadienolides from toad Rhinella schneideri parotoid gland secretion.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Cunha-Filho GA; Resck IS; Cavalcanti BC; Pessoa CO; Moraes MO; Ferreira JR; Rodrigues FA; Dos Santos ML

    2010-09-01

    Cutaneous secretions of toad species are an important source of bufadienolides, compounds that exhibit interesting structural features and biopharmacological properties. Here we describe the isolation of bufadienolides from the Brazilian toad Rhinella schneideri parotoid glands secretion, including: marinobufagin (1), bufalin (2), telocinobufagin (3), hellebrigenin (4), and the atypical 20S,21R-epoxymarinobufagin (5) besides the widespread beta-sitosterol (6). Starting from natural bufadienolides four derivatives were prepared: 3beta-acetoxy-marinobufagin (7), 3beta-acetoxy-bufalin (8), 3beta-acetoxy-telocinobufagin (9), and 3beta-acetoxy-20S,21R-epoxymarinobufagin (10). The cytotoxic evaluation showed that all natural bufadienolides and their derivatives exhibited moderate to strong activity against human HL-60, SF-295, MDA-MB-435, and HCT-8 cancer cell strains without hemolysis of mouse erythrocytes. The acetylated bufadienolides (7-9) and the epoxide 10 showed lesser peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) inhibitory activity than their precursors, suggesting that chemical modifications on such compounds can play an important role on the modulation of their cytotoxic profile.

  11. Secretion of Catecholamines from Adrenal Gland by a Single Electrical Shock: Electrotonic Depolarization of Medullary Cell Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakade, Arun R.; Wakade, Taruna D.

    1982-05-01

    Transmural stimulation of the isolated adrenal gland of the rat and guinea pig results in secretion of catecholamines. The secretion is due to activation of cholinergic receptors of the adrenal medulla by acetylcholine released from splanchnic nerve terminals after transmural stimulation. Our aim was to see whether the same experimental technique could be used to directly excite the adrenal medullary cell membrane by electrical stimulation and whether such stimulation would result in secretion of catecholamines. We demonstrate here that a single electrical shock to the perfused adrenal gland of the rat results in massive secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine. The secretion is directly related to the strength and duration of the applied stimulus over a wide range. Catecholamine secretion is unaffected by tetrodotoxin or hexamethonium/atropine but is abolished by Ca2+ lack or 3 mM Mn2+. We suggest that the adrenal medullary membrane undergoes nonpropagated electrotonic depolarization on electrical stimulation and thereby voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels are opened to initiate secretion.

  12. [Role of biopsy of the accessory salivary glands in Löfgren's syndrome and other forms of sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Michon-Pasturel, U; Hachulla, E; Bloget, F; Labalette, P; Hatron, P Y; Devulder, B; Janin, A

    1996-01-01

    The diagnosis of sarcoidosis requires histopathological analysis. Easy accessible site of biopsy is seldom. A systematic labial salivary gland biopsy was performed in 62 suspected sarcoidosis: 22 patients with Löfgren syndrome (group I), and 40 patients with systemic sarcoidosis (group II). Systematic bronchial biopsy was performed in eight patients of group I and ten patients of group II. If systematic biopsies were negative, direct biopsies were performed (lymph node, skin, kidney, liver). In group I, 8/22 labial salivary gland biopsies and 1/8 bronchial biopsies were positive; in group II, 17/40 labial salivary gland biopsies and 5/10 bronchial biopsies were positive. In the other patients, direct biopsies were positive: 27 lymph nodes, eight skin, eight hepatic, four kidney biopsies. In conclusion, labial salivary gland biopsy (even in the absence of sicca syndrome) is more reliable than systematic bronchial biopsies, particularly in Löfgren syndrome and may avoid in 30 to 50% of the cases more aggressive and dangerous biopsies such as liver, kidney or deep lymph nodes biopsies. PMID:8758530

  13. Potato root diffusate-induced secretion of soluble, basic proteins originating from the subventral esophageal glands of potato cyst nematodes.

    PubMed

    Smant, G; Goverse, A; Stokkermans, J P; De Boer, J M; Pomp, H R; Zilverentant, J F; Overmars, H A; Helder, J; Schots, A; Bakker, J

    1997-08-01

    ABSTRACT In preparasitic second-stage juveniles (J(2)) of potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis, six proteins with molecular masses of 30, 31a/b, 32, 39, and 49 kDa were recognized on Western blots by a monoclonal antibody (MGR48) specific for the subventral esophageal glands. All of these subventral gland proteins (svp's) focused in the basic range (pI 6.8 to 8.6) of an immobilized pH gradient. Western blotting showed that the svp's were present in preparasitic and parasitic J(2) and not in later juvenile stages and adult females. Minor svp quantities also were observed in adult males. Immunogold labeling of preparasitic J(2) showed that the svp's were localized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and secretory granules of the subventral esophageal glands. Potato root diffusate triggered the secretion of svp's through the stylet, and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine-hydrogen-oxalate had only a quantitative, additional effect. The forward flow of svp's through the metacorporal pump chamber was confirmed by the presence of svp's in the circular lumen of the esophagus (procorpus), as established by immunoelectron microscopy. Our data provide conclusive evidence that secretory proteins of the subventral glands of G. rostochiensis can be secreted through the stylet and support the hypothesis that the subventral esophageal glands play an important role in the early events of this nematode-plant interaction. PMID:18945052

  14. Cinacalcet Effectively Reduces Parathyroid Hormone Secretion and Gland Volume Regardless of Pretreatment Gland Size in Patients with Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Komaba, Hirotaka; Nakanishi, Shohei; Fujimori, Akira; Tanaka, Motoko; Shin, Jeongsoo; Shibuya, Koji; Nishioka, Masato; Hasegawa, Hirohito; Kurosawa, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Cinacalcet is effective in reducing serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. However, it has not been proven whether parathyroid gland size predicts response to therapy and whether cinacalcet is capable of inducing a reduction in parathyroid volume. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This 52-week, multicenter, open-label study enrolled hemodialysis patients with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (intact PTH >300 pg/ml). Doses of cinacalcet were adjusted between 25 and 100 mg to achieve intact PTH <180 pg/ml. Ultrasonography was performed to measure the parathyroid gland size at baseline, week 26, and week 52. Findings were also compared with those of historical controls. Results: Of the 81 subjects enrolled, 56 had parathyroid glands smaller than 500 mm3 (group S) and 25 had at least one enlarged gland larger than 500 mm3 (group L). Treatment with cinacalcet effectively decreased intact PTH by 55% from baseline in group S and by 58% in group L. A slightly greater proportion of patients in group S versus group L achieved an intact PTH <180 pg/ml (46 versus 32%) and a >30% reduction from baseline (88 versus 78%), but this was not statistically significant. Cinacalcet therapy also resulted in a significant reduction in parathyroid gland volume regardless of pretreatment size, which was in sharp contrast to historical controls (n = 87) where parathyroid gland volume progressively increased with traditional therapy alone. Conclusions: Cinacalcet effectively decreases serum PTH levels and concomitantly reduces parathyroid gland volume, even in patients with marked parathyroid hyperplasia. PMID:20798251

  15. The effect of caste and reproductive state on the chemistry of the cephalic labial glands secretion of Bombus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Amsalem, Etya; Kiefer, Julia; Schulz, Stefan; Hefetz, Abraham

    2014-08-01

    The cephalic labial glands are well developed in many bee species. In bumble bee males, they cover most of the head volume, and their secretion is used in marking reproductive territories and attracting virgin queens. In females, however, they are poorly studied. Here, we present chemical analyses of their secretion in queens and workers of Bombus terrestris under various social conditions. The secretion revealed a context-dependent composition with sterile females possessing large amounts of fatty acid dodecyl esters, ranging from dodecyl hexanoate to dodecyl oleate, compared to small amounts in fertile females. Significant reduction in the dodecyl esters also was found in queens at the competition phase, where worker reproduction, aggression, and gyne differentiation occur. The exclusive production of esters by sterile individuals also is typical of Dufour's gland secretion in this species, albeit in this case these are octyl rather than dodecyl esters, and the differences between sterile and fertile individuals are qualitative rather than quantitative. We propose that the labial gland esters provide yet another signal of reproductive inactivity. In virgin queens, it may signal that egg laying is deferred to the next season, while in workers it reinforces the message "I am sterile and out of the reproductive competition". Whether the reduction in dodecyl esters in fertile queens as a function of colony social development is involved in regulating gyne production and the onset of the competition phase is yet to be deciphered. PMID:25119875

  16. Glutamate transporter-mediated glutamate secretion in the mammalian pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mean-Hwan; Uehara, Shunsuke; Muroyama, Akiko; Hille, Bertil; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Koh, Duk-Su

    2008-10-22

    Glutamate transporters are expressed throughout the CNS where their major role is to clear released glutamate from presynaptic terminals. Here, we report a novel function of the transporter in rat pinealocytes. This electrogenic transporter conducted inward current in response to L-glutamate and L- or D-aspartate and depolarized the membrane in patch-clamp experiments. Ca2+ imaging demonstrated that the transporter-mediated depolarization induced a significant Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. The Ca2+ rise finally evoked glutamate exocytosis as detected by carbon-fiber amperometry and by HPLC. In pineal slices with densely packed pinealocytes, glutamate released from the cells effectively activated glutamate transporters in neighboring cells. The Ca2+ signal generated by KCl depolarization or acetylcholine propagated through several cell layers by virtue of the regenerative "glutamate-induced glutamate release." Therefore, we suggest that glutamate transporters mediate synchronized elevation of L-glutamate and thereby efficiently downregulate melatonin secretion via previously identified inhibitory metabotropic glutamate receptors in the pineal gland. PMID:18945893

  17. Glutamate Transporter-Mediated Glutamate Secretion in the Mammalian Pineal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mean-Hwan; Uehara, Shunsuke; Muroyama, Akiko; Hille, Bertil; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Koh, Duk-Su

    2008-01-01

    Glutamate transporters are expressed throughout the central nervous system where their major role is to clear released glutamate from presynaptic terminals. Here we report a novel function of the transporter in rat pinealocytes. This electrogenic transporter conducted inward current in response to L-glutamate and L- or D-aspartate and depolarized the membrane in patch clamp experiments. Ca2+ imaging demonstrated that the transporter-mediated depolarization induced a significant Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. The Ca2+ rise finally evoked glutamate exocytosis as detected by carbon-fiber amperometry and by high-performance liquid chromatography. In pineal slices with densely packed pinealocytes, glutamate released from the cells effectively activated glutamate transporters in neighboring cells. The Ca2+ signal generated by KCl depolarization or acetylcholine propagated through several cell layers by virtue of the regenerative ‘glutamate-induced glutamate release’. Therefore we suggest that glutamate transporters mediate synchronized elevation of L-glutamate and thereby efficiently down-regulate melatonin secretion via previously identified inhibitory metabotropic glutamate receptors in the pineal gland. PMID:18945893

  18. In Vivo Readout of CFTR Function: Ratiometric Measurement of CFTR-Dependent Secretion by Individual, Identifiable Human Sweat Glands

    PubMed Central

    Wine, Jeffrey J.; Char, Jessica E.; Chen, Jonathan; Cho, Hyung-ju; Dunn, Colleen; Frisbee, Eric; Joo, Nam Soo; Milla, Carlos; Modlin, Sara E.; Park, Il-Ho; Thomas, Ewart A. C.; Tran, Kim V.; Verma, Rohan; Wolfe, Marlene H.

    2013-01-01

    To assess CFTR function in vivo, we developed a bioassay that monitors and compares CFTR-dependent and CFTR-independent sweat secretion in parallel for multiple (∼50) individual, identified glands in each subject. Sweating was stimulated by intradermally injected agonists and quantified by optically measuring spherical sweat bubbles in an oil-layer that contained dispersed, water soluble dye particles that partitioned into the sweat bubbles, making them highly visible. CFTR-independent secretion (M-sweat) was stimulated with methacholine, which binds to muscarinic receptors and elevates cytosolic calcium. CFTR-dependent secretion (C-sweat) was stimulated with a β-adrenergic cocktail that elevates cytosolic cAMP while blocking muscarinic receptors. A C-sweat/M-sweat ratio was determined on a gland-by-gland basis to compensate for differences unrelated to CFTR function, such as gland size. The average ratio provides an approximately linear readout of CFTR function: the heterozygote ratio is ∼0.5 the control ratio and for CF subjects the ratio is zero. During assay development, we measured C/M ratios in 6 healthy controls, 4 CF heterozygotes, 18 CF subjects and 4 subjects with ‘CFTR-related’ conditions. The assay discriminated all groups clearly. It also revealed consistent differences in the C/M ratio among subjects within groups. We hypothesize that these differences reflect, at least in part, levels of CFTR expression, which are known to vary widely. When C-sweat rates become very low the C/M ratio also tended to decrease; we hypothesize that this nonlinearity reflects ductal fluid absorption. We also discovered that M-sweating potentiates the subsequent C-sweat response. We then used potentiation as a surrogate for drugs that can increase CFTR-dependent secretion. This bioassay provides an additional method for assessing CFTR function in vivo, and is well suited for within-subject tests of systemic, CFTR-directed therapeutics. PMID:24204751

  19. Variation and Genomic Localization of Genes Encoding DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER Male Accessory Gland Proteins Separated by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, Michael; Wilson, Thomas G.

    1986-01-01

    Accessory gland proteins from Drosophila melanogaster males have been separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis into nine major bands. When individual males from 175 strains were examined, considerable polymorphism for nearly one-half of the major protein bands was seen, including null alleles for three bands. Variation was observed not only among long-established laboratory strains but also among stocks recently derived from natural populations. There was little difference in the amount of variation between P and M strains, indicating that P element mutagenesis is not a factor producing the variation. Codominant expression of variants for each of five bands was found in heterozygotes, suggesting structural gene variation and not posttranslational modification variation. Stocks carrying electrophoretic variants of four of the major proteins were used to map the presumed structural genes for these proteins; the loci were found to be dispersed on the second chromosome. Since males homozygous for variant proteins were fertile, the polymorphism seems to have little immediate effect on successful sperm transfer. We propose that a high degree of polymorphism can be tolerated because these proteins play a nutritive rather than enzymatic role in Drosophila reproduction. PMID:3095182

  20. Unusual conservation among genes encoding small secreted salivary gland proteins from a gall midge

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In most protein-coding genes, greater sequence variation is observed in noncoding regions (introns and untranslated regions) than in coding regions due to selective constraints. During characterization of genes and transcripts encoding small secreted salivary gland proteins (SSSGPs) from the Hessian fly, we found exactly the opposite pattern of conservation in several families of genes: the non-coding regions were highly conserved, but the coding regions were highly variable. Results Seven genes from the SSSGP-1 family are clustered as one inverted and six tandem repeats within a 15 kb region of the genome. Except for SSSGP-1A2, a gene that encodes a protein identical to that encoded by SSSGP-1A1, the other six genes consist of a highly diversified, mature protein-coding region as well as highly conserved regions including the promoter, 5'- and 3'-UTRs, a signal peptide coding region, and an intron. This unusual pattern of highly diversified coding regions coupled with highly conserved regions in the rest of the gene was also observed in several other groups of SSSGP-encoding genes or cDNAs. The unusual conservation pattern was also found in some of the SSSGP cDNAs from the Asian rice gall midge, but not from the orange wheat blossom midge. Strong positive selection was one of the forces driving for diversification whereas concerted homogenization was likely a mechanism for sequence conservation. Conclusion Rapid diversification in mature SSSGPs suggests that the genes are under selection pressure for functional adaptation. The conservation in the noncoding regions of these genes including introns also suggested potential mechanisms for sequence homogenization that are not yet fully understood. This report should be useful for future studies on genetic mechanisms involved in evolution and functional adaptation of parasite genes. PMID:20920202

  1. Immunity to Escherichia coli in pigs: Antibody Secretion by the Mammary Gland after Intramammary or Intramuscular Vaccination with an E. coli Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, M. R.; Brown, Patricia; Svendsen, J.

    1972-01-01

    Indirect hemagglutinating antibody titres in individual gland samples of colostrum and milk from 13 sows were measured. Five of the sows were vaccinated via a mammary gland and five by the intramuscular route with a live formalinised Escherichia coli vaccine and three remained as non-vaccinated controls. Antibody titres were higher in colostral and milk whey from the vaccinated sows than from non-vaccinated groups. The inoculated gland in the group of sows given vaccine by the intramammary route secreted milk containing markedly more antibodies to the vaccine E. coli strain than did the non-vaccinated glands. Milk from the vaccinated gland did not contain higher titres to heterologous E. coli O antigens than milk from non-vaccinated glands. Serum titres were the same or higher than the titres in colostrum from non-vaccinated glands. PMID:4258544

  2. Intraspecies Competition in Serratia marcescens Is Mediated by Type VI-Secreted Rhs Effectors and a Conserved Effector-Associated Accessory Protein

    PubMed Central

    Alcoforado Diniz, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria and can deliver toxic effector proteins into eukaryotic cells or competitor bacteria. Antibacterial T6SSs are increasingly recognized as key mediators of interbacterial competition and may contribute to the outcome of many polymicrobial infections. Multiple antibacterial effectors can be delivered by these systems, with diverse activities against target cells and distinct modes of secretion. Polymorphic toxins containing Rhs repeat domains represent a recently identified and as-yet poorly characterized class of T6SS-dependent effectors. Previous work had revealed that the potent antibacterial T6SS of the opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens promotes intraspecies as well as interspecies competition (S. L. Murdoch, K. Trunk, G. English, M. J. Fritsch, E. Pourkarimi, and S. J. Coulthurst, J Bacteriol 193:6057–6069, 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.05671-11). In this study, two new Rhs family antibacterial effectors delivered by this T6SS have been identified. One of these was shown to act as a DNase toxin, while the other contains a novel, cytoplasmic-acting toxin domain. Importantly, using S. marcescens, it has been demonstrated for the first time that Rhs proteins, rather than other T6SS-secreted effectors, can be the primary determinant of intraspecies competition. Furthermore, a new family of accessory proteins associated with T6SS effectors has been identified, exemplified by S. marcescens EagR1, which is specifically required for deployment of its associated Rhs effector. Together, these findings provide new insight into how bacteria can use the T6SS to deploy Rhs-family effectors and mediate different types of interbacterial interactions. IMPORTANCE Infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens represent a continuing threat to health and economic prosperity. To counter this threat, we must understand how such organisms survive and prosper. The type VI secretion system is a weapon that many pathogens deploy to compete against rival bacterial cells by injecting multiple antibacterial toxins into them. The ability to compete is vital considering that bacteria generally live in mixed communities. We aimed to identify new toxins and understand their deployment and role in interbacterial competition. We describe two new type VI secretion system-delivered toxins of the Rhs class, demonstrate that this class can play a primary role in competition between closely related bacteria, and identify a new accessory factor needed for their delivery. PMID:25939831

  3. Overexpression of des(1-3)hIGF-I in the mammary gland during prolonged lactation enhances milk yield and elevates prolactin secretion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During prolonged lactation, the mammary gland loses the capacity to synthesize and secrete the large amounts of milk that are produced during early lactation. This loss occurs despite the continued presence of a suckling stimulus and complete removal of mammary secretions. The decline in milk synthe...

  4. The relationship between total mass and blood supply of parathyroid glands and their secretion of parathyroid hormone in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Farrokhlagha; Aghajanzadeh, Pegah; Yazdi, Hadi Rokni; Maziar, Sima; Gatmiri, Sayad Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics of parathyroid glands usually determined by ultrasonography such as its total weight or volume might be a good indicator for the induction or suppression of parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from these glands. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the volume and blood supply grade of the parathyroid glands, and its PTH secretion. Study subjects included 52 consecutive patients with the secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing maintenance hemodialysis therapy referred to dialysis wards of the Imam Khomeini and Amiralam University Hospitals in Tehran. Serum intact PTH (i-PTH) was measured by an ELISA assay. The parathyroid glands characteristics were identified by ultrasonography that was performed simultaneously with blood collection. Parathyroid blood flows were evaluated by power-Doppler color imaging. There was no significant correlation between the total mass of the glands and serum concentration of i-PTH. No significant correlations were also observed between both total central and peripheral parathyroid glands blood flow and serum i-PTH level. Dialysis duration and serum alkaline phosphatase were significantly correlated in a positive manner with i-PTH level. Furthermore, serum level of i-PTH was not correlated with the total signals of glands blood flow in a multivariable linear regression analysis. Serum secreted i-PTH level might not be predictable by a total mass of parathyroid glands as well as their blood supply. PMID:26997379

  5. A novel TMEM16A splice variant lacking the dimerization domain contributes to calcium-activated chloride secretion in human sweat gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ertongur-Fauth, Torsten; Hochheimer, Andreas; Buescher, Joerg Martin; Rapprich, Stefan; Krohn, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Sweating is an important physiological process to regulate body temperature in humans, and various disorders are associated with dysregulated sweat formation. Primary sweat secretion in human eccrine sweat glands involves Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels (CaCC). Recently, members of the TMEM16 family were identified as CaCCs in various secretory epithelia; however, their molecular identity in sweat glands remained elusive. Here, we investigated the function of TMEM16A in sweat glands. Gene expression analysis revealed that TMEM16A is expressed in human NCL-SG3 sweat gland cells as well as in isolated human eccrine sweat gland biopsy samples. Sweat gland cells express several previously described TMEM16A splice variants, as well as one novel splice variant, TMEM16A(acΔe3) lacking the TMEM16A-dimerization domain. Chloride flux assays using halide-sensitive YFP revealed that TMEM16A is functionally involved in Ca(2+) -dependent Cl(-) secretion in NCL-SG3 cells. Recombinant expression in NCL-SG3 cells showed that TMEM16A(acΔe3) is forming a functional CaCC, with basal and Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) permeability distinct from canonical TMEM16A(ac). Our results suggest that various TMEM16A isoforms contribute to sweat gland-specific Cl(-) secretion providing opportunities to develop sweat gland-specific therapeutics for treatment of sweating disorders. PMID:25220078

  6. Bufadienolides from parotoid gland secretions of Cuban toad Peltophryne fustiger (Bufonidae): Inhibition of human kidney Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Perera Córdova, Wilmer H; Leitão, Suzana Guimarães; Cunha-Filho, Geraldino; Bosch, Roberto Alonso; Alonso, Isel Pascual; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Gervou, Rodrigo; Touza, Natália Araújo; Quintas, Luis Eduardo M; Noël, François

    2016-02-01

    Parotoid gland secretions of toad species are a vast reservoir of bioactive molecules with a wide range of biological properties. Herein, for the first time, it is described the isolation by preparative reversed-phase HPLC and the structure elucidation by NMR spectroscopy and/or mass spectrometry of nine major bufadienolides from parotoid gland secretions of the Cuban endemic toad Peltophryne fustiger: ψ-bufarenogin, gamabufotalin, bufarenogin, arenobufagin, 3-(N-suberoylargininyl) marinobufagin, bufotalinin, telocinobufagin, marinobufagin and bufalin. In addition, the secretion was analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS which also allowed the identification of azelayl arginine. The effect of arenobufagin, bufalin and ψ-bufarenogin on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in a human kidney preparation was evaluated. These bufadienolides fully inhibited the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in a concentration-dependent manner, although arenobufagin (IC50 = 28.3 nM) and bufalin (IC50 = 28.7 nM) were 100 times more potent than ψ-bufarenogin (IC50 = 3020 nM). These results provided evidence about the importance of the hydroxylation at position C-14 in the bufadienolide skeleton for the inhibitory activity on the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. PMID:26615828

  7. Shewanella pealeana sp. nov., a member of the microbial community associated with the accessory nidamental gland of the squid Loligo pealei.

    PubMed

    Leonardo, M R; Moser, D P; Barbieri, E; Brantner, C A; MacGregor, B J; Paster, B J; Stackebrandt, E; Nealson, K H

    1999-10-01

    A new, mesophillic, facultatively anaerobic, psychrotolerant bacterium, strain ANG-SQ1T (T = type strain), was isolated from a microbial community colonizing the accessory nidamental gland of the squid Loligo pealei. It was selected from the community on the basis of its ability to reduce elemental sulfur. The cells are motile, Gram-negative rods (2.0-3.0 microns long, 0.4-0.6 micron wide). ANG-SQ1T grows optimally over the temperature range of 25-30 degrees C and a pH range of 6.5-7.5 degrees C in media containing 0.5 M NaCl. 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed that this organism belongs to the gamma-3 subclass of the Proteobacteria. The closest relative of ANG-SQ1T is Shewanella gelidimarina, with a 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 97.0%. Growth occurs with glucose, lactate, acetate, pyruvate, glutamate, citrate, succinate, Casamino acids, yeast extract or peptone as sole energy source under aerobic conditions. The isolate grows anaerobically by the reduction of iron, manganese, nitrate, fumarate, trimethylamine-N-oxide, thiosulfate or elemental sulfur as terminal electron acceptor with lactate. Growth of ANG-SQ1T was enhanced by the addition of choline chloride to growth media lacking Casamino acids. The addition of leucine or valine also enhanced growth in minimal growth media supplemented with choline. The results of both phenotypic and genetic characterization indicate that ANG-SQ1T is a Shewanella species. Thus it is proposed that this new isolate be assigned to the genus Shewanella and that it should be named Shewanella pealeana sp. nov., in recognition of its association with L. pealei. PMID:10555311

  8. Defensive ink pigment processing and secretion in Aplysia californica: concentration and storage of phycoerythrobilin in the ink gland.

    PubMed

    Prince, J; Nolen, T G; Coelho, L

    1998-05-01

    The marine snail Aplysia californica obtains its defensive ink exclusively from a diet of red seaweed. It stores the pigment (phycoerythrobilin, the red algal photosynthetic pigment, r-phycoerythrin, minus its protein) in muscular ink-release vesicles within the ink gland. Snails fed a diet of green seaweed or romaine lettuce do not secrete ink and their ink-release vesicles are largely devoid of ink. Successive activation of individual ink-release vesicles by ink motor neurons causes them to secrete approximately 55 % of their remaining ink (similar to the percentage of ink reserves released from the intact gland). The peripheral activation of vesicles appears to be cholinergic: 70 % of isolated vesicles were induced to squeeze ink from their valved end by solutions of acetylcholine at concentrations of 0.5 mmol l-1 or below. Ultrastructural analysis commonly found three cell types in the ink gland. The RER cells, the most numerous, were characterized by an extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum with greatly distended cisternae. This cell type is probably the site for synthesis of the high molecular mass protein of secreted ink. The granulate cells, less common than RER cells, had nuclear and cell areas significantly larger than those of RER cells. In addition, granulate cells of red-algal-fed snails had 4-14 vacuoles that contained electron-dense material with staining characteristics similar to that of ink in mature ink-release vesicles. The granulate cell's plasma membrane was regularly modified into grated areas, which both localized and expanded the surface area for coated vesicle formation and provided a sieve structure that prevented large particles in the hemolymph either from being taken up by, or from occluding, the coated vesicles. Electron-dense particles within coated vesicles were similar in size to those in granulate vacuoles but larger (on average by approximately 1 nm) than those that make up the ink. In green-seaweed-fed snails, granulate cells and their vacuoles were present but the vacuoles were empty. The third cell type, the vesicle cell, expands markedly, with its nucleus enlarging concurrent with cell growth until it is on average 50 times larger in cross-sectional area than the nuclei of either RER or granulate cells; the cytoplasm eventually becomes filled with ink, which obscures the mitochondria, vacuoles and nucleus. Continued cell expansion ceases with the appearance of an encircling layer of muscle and 1-3 layers of cells of unknown origin, thereby becoming the ink-release vesicle itself. The absorption spectra of the soluble contents of mature ink-release vesicles from snails fed red algae had peaks characteristic of the red algal pigment r-phycoerythrin or/and phycoerythrobilin. Immunogold localization of r-phycoerythrin showed no statistical difference in the amount of label within the ink-release vesicles, RER or granulate cell types. Furthermore, there was no localization of phycoerythrin immunoreactivity within the various cellular compartments of either the RER or granulate cells (nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, vacuoles). Immunogold labeling in the ink gland ranged from 11 to 16 % of that for the digestive vacuoles of the rhodoplast digestive cells lining the tubules of the digestive gland. Our observations suggest (a) that the main form of the ink pigment in the gland is phycoerythrobilin or/and a non-antigenic form of phycoerythrin, and (b) that separation of the bilin from phycoerythrin (or its modification so that it is no longer antigenic) occurs before it reaches the ink gland, probably within the vacuoles of the rhodoplast digestive cells of the digestive gland. We propose the following model. The ink pigment, phycoerythrobilin, is cleaved from its protein in rhodoplast digestive vacuoles in the digestive gland. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:9556541

  9. A super-family of genes coding for secreted salivary gland proteins from the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Shun; Fellers, John P; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Stuart, Jeffrey J; Hulbert, Scot; El-Bouhssini, Mustapha; Liu, Xiang

    2006-01-01

    We have previously characterized a gene coding for the secreted-salivary-gland-protein 11A1 (SSGP-11A1) from the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera Cecidomyiidae). Here we report the cloning and characterization of three new genes coding for proteins designated SSGP-11B1, SSGP-11C1, and SSGP-11C2, and their relationship with the SSGP-11A1-encoding gene. Based on their structural conservation, similar regulation, and clustered genomic organization, we conclude that the four genes represent a gene superfamily, designated SSGP-11, which originated from a common ancestor. Cloning, Southern blot and in situ hybridization data suggest that each of theSSGP-11 families has multiple members that cluster within short chromosome regions. The presence of a secretion signal peptide, the exclusive expression in the larval stage, and the clustered genomic organization indicate that this superfamily might be important for Hessian fly virulence/avirulence. PMID:19537963

  10. Dissection and weighing of accessory sex glands after formalin fixation, and a 5-day assay using young mature rats are reliable and feasible in the Hershberger assay.

    PubMed

    Yamada, T; Sunami, O; Kunimatsu, T; Kamita, Y; Okuno, Y; Seki, T; Nakatsuka, I; Matsuo, M

    2001-05-11

    The rodent Hershberger assay has been used predominantly by the pharmaceutical industry to evaluate androgenic and antiandrogenic chemicals for potential therapeutic use. However, this assay has not yet been formally validated and standardized for use in toxicology testing. There are many variations in the protocol used for this assay. The weight of androgen-dependent tissues is a definitive endpoint in the Hershberger assay. To find out the reliable assay protocol with feasibility, although many possible factors may affect assay reliability, the present study consist of a series of three separate experiments focused on method of dissection and weighing of accessory sex glands (ASGs: ventral and dorso-lateral prostate, seminal vesicles together with coagulating glands, and Cowper's glands), animal age and number of doses. Furthermore, male pubertal assay, an alternative to the Hershberger assay, was also examined its reliability. Experiment 1 explored whether reliably accurate ASG weights can be obtained after formalin fixation. The ASGs were collected from castrated male rats (11 weeks of age) treated daily with corn oil, or testosterone propionate (TP, 0.25 mg/kg/day, s.c.) and p,p'-DDE (0 or 100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 5 days. One day after the final treatment, the ASGs were removed carefully and weighed separately, and then fixed overnight in a 10% neutral-buffered formalin and weighed again. After that, the tissues were dried overnight in an oven and weighed again. A high correlation between fresh and fixed tissue weights, and a high correlation between fixed and dried tissue weights were noted. The changes in the tissue weight due to fixation were marginal and were proportional to the fresh weights of the individual tissue. Standard deviation of the fixed tissue weight in each group and the magnitude of responses to TP or p,p'-DDE in fixed tissues were equivalent to those in fresh or dried tissues. These findings indicate that formalin fixation does not interfere with interpretation of assay results, and this procedure was used in the subsequent experiments. Experiments 2 and 3 explored whether animal age or treatment duration altered assay sensitivity. In Experiment 2, antiandrogenic effect of p,p'-DDE (100 mg/kg/day) was detected after 5-and 10-day treatment irrespective of animal age (7 vs 11 weeks). In Experiment 3, antiandrogenic effects of flutamide (1 and 10 mg/kg/day) and p,p'-DDE (10 and 100 mg/kg/day) were compared between two different protocols, the 10-day assay using peripubertal rats and the 5-day assay using young mature rats. Results demonstrated that both protocols could significantly detect antiandrogenic effects of flutamide and p,p'-DDE. These findings demonstrate that (1) dissection and weighing of ASGs after formalin fixation is reliable in the Hershberger assay, (2) when this procedure is used, the 5-day Hershberger assay using young mature rats, expected to be more feasible assay than the 10-day assay using peripubertal rats, is also reliable as well as the 10-day assay using peripubertal rats. Furthermore, we confirmed that male pubertal assay with use of dissection and weighing of fixed tissues also reliable. PMID:11337110

  11. Effects of methotrexate on rat parotid and submandibular glands and their secretions

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with methotrexate for 3 days. Parotid and submandibular main ducts were cannulated and saliva flow was evoked by either intravenous infusion of acetylcholine or an intravenous injection of benthanechol. Methotrexate was found to reduce significantly mean food consumption, body weight, and parotid gland wet weights. Experimental animal salivary total gland DNA levels were not different, but total parotid gland RNA, protein, amylase and water content, and submandibular gland RNA were significantly lower compared to control. Acetylcholine, but not bethanechol, evoked parotid protein and amylase outputs and submandibular protein output from experimental animals were significantly higher than the control groups'. The increased outputs were apparently linked to ..beta..-adrenergic receptor activation, since hexamethonium or propranolol eliminated the significant increases while phenoxybenzamine did not. Plasma catecholamine levels were significantly higher in the methotrexate treated animals and probably played a role in the salivary gland ..beta..-adrenergic activation. Methotrexate treatment significantly increased the submandibular gland ..beta..-adrenergic receptor concentration as determined by (/sup 3/H)-dihydroalprenolol receptor binding assays. Muscarinic receptor concentrations determined with (/sup 3/H)-quinuclidninyl benzilate were not changed.

  12. Chemistry of the sternal gland secretion of the Mediterranean centipede Himantarium gabrielis (Linnaeus, 1767) (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Himantariidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujisić, Ljubodrag V.; Vučković, Ivan M.; Makarov, Slobodan E.; Ilić, Bojan S.; Antić, Dragan Ž.; Jadranin, Milka B.; Todorović, Nina M.; Mrkić, Ivan V.; Vajs, Vlatka E.; Lučić, Luka R.; Ćurčić, Božidar P. M.; Mitić, Bojan M.

    2013-09-01

    The geophilomorph centipede, Himantarium gabrielis, when disturbed, discharges a viscous and proteinaceous secretion from the sternal glands. This exudate was found by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry and NMR analyses to be composed of hydrogen cyanide, benzaldehyde, benzoyl nitrile, benzyl nitrile, mandelonitrile, mandelonitrile benzoate, 3,7,6 O-trimethylguanine (himantarine), farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate and farnesyl farnesoate. This is the first report on the presence of benzyl nitrile and mandelonitrile benzoate in secreted substances from centipedes. Farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate is a new compound, while himantarine and farnesyl farnesoate were not known as natural products. A post-secretion release of hydrogen cyanide by reaction of mandelonitrile and benzoyl nitrile was observed by NMR, and hydrogen cyanide signals were completely assigned. In addition, a protein component of the secretion was analysed by electrophoresis which revealed the presence of a major 55 kDa protein. Analyses of the defensive exudates of other geophilomorph families should produce further chemical surprises.

  13. Chemistry of the sternal gland secretion of the Mediterranean centipede Himantarium gabrielis (Linnaeus, 1767) (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Himantariidae).

    PubMed

    Vujisić, Ljubodrag V; Vučković, Ivan M; Makarov, Slobodan E; Ilić, Bojan S; Antić, Dragan Z; Jadranin, Milka B; Todorović, Nina M; Mrkić, Ivan V; Vajs, Vlatka E; Lučić, Luka R; Curčić, Božidar P M; Mitić, Bojan M

    2013-09-01

    The geophilomorph centipede, Himantarium gabrielis, when disturbed, discharges a viscous and proteinaceous secretion from the sternal glands. This exudate was found by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry and NMR analyses to be composed of hydrogen cyanide, benzaldehyde, benzoyl nitrile, benzyl nitrile, mandelonitrile, mandelonitrile benzoate, 3,7,6O-trimethylguanine (himantarine), farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate and farnesyl farnesoate. This is the first report on the presence of benzyl nitrile and mandelonitrile benzoate in secreted substances from centipedes. Farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate is a new compound, while himantarine and farnesyl farnesoate were not known as natural products. A post-secretion release of hydrogen cyanide by reaction of mandelonitrile and benzoyl nitrile was observed by NMR, and hydrogen cyanide signals were completely assigned. In addition, a protein component of the secretion was analysed by electrophoresis which revealed the presence of a major 55 kDa protein. Analyses of the defensive exudates of other geophilomorph families should produce further chemical surprises. PMID:23907296

  14. Chemosystematics in the Opiliones (Arachnida): a comment on the evolutionary history of alkylphenols and benzoquinones in the scent gland secretions of Laniatores

    PubMed Central

    Raspotnig, Günther; Bodner, Michaela; Schäffer, Sylvia; Koblmüller, Stephan; Schönhofer, Axel; Karaman, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Large prosomal scent glands constitute a major synapomorphic character of the arachnid order Opiliones. These glands produce a variety of chemicals very specific to opilionid taxa of different taxonomic levels, and thus represent a model system to investigate the evolutionary traits in exocrine secretion chemistry across a phylogenetically old group of animals. The chemically best-studied opilionid group is certainly Laniatores, and currently available chemical data allow first hypotheses linking the phylogeny of this group to the evolution of major chemical classes of secretion chemistry. Such hypotheses are essential to decide upon a best-fitting explanation of the distribution of scent-gland secretion compounds across extant laniatorean taxa, and hence represent a key toward a well-founded opilionid chemosystematics. PMID:26074662

  15. Evaluation of atorvastatin efficacy and toxicity on spermatozoa, accessory glands and gonadal hormones of healthy men: a pilot prospective clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention advocate lowering both cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol systemic levels, notably by statin intake. However, statins are the subject of questions concerning their impact on male fertility. This study aimed to evaluate, by a prospective pilot assay, the efficacy and the toxicity of a decrease of cholesterol blood levels, induced by atorvastatin on semen quality and sexual hormone levels of healthy, normocholesterolaemic and normozoospermic men. Methods Atorvastatin (10 mg daily) was administrated orally during 5 months to 17 men with normal plasma lipid and standard semen parameters. Spermatozoa parameters, accessory gland markers, semen lipid levels and blood levels of gonadal hormones were assayed before statin intake, during the treatment, and 3 months after its withdrawal. Results Atorvastatin treatment significantly decreased circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol concentrations by 42% and 24% (p < 0.0001) respectively, and reached the efficacy objective of the protocol. During atorvastatin therapy and/or 3 months after its withdrawal numerous semen parameters were significantly modified, such as total number of spermatozoa (-31%, p < 0.05), vitality (-9.5%, p < 0.05), total motility (+7.5%, p < 0.05), morphology (head, neck and midpiece abnormalities, p < 0.05), and the kinetics of acrosome reaction (p < 0.05). Seminal concentrations of acid phosphatases (p < 0.01), α-glucosidase (p < 0.05) and L-carnitine (p < 0.05) were also decreased during the therapy, indicating an alteration of prostatic and epididymal functions. Moreover, we measured at least one altered semen parameter in 35% of the subjects during atorvastatin treatment, and in 65% of the subjects after withdrawal, which led us to consider that atorvastatin is unsafe in the context of our study. Conclusions Our results show for the first time that atorvastatin significantly affects the sperm parameters and the seminal fluid composition of healthy men. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02094313. PMID:25016482

  16. Blood, pituitary, and brain renin-angiotensin systems and regulation of secretion of anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Ganong, W F

    1993-07-01

    In addition to increasing blood pressure, stimulating aldosterone and vasopressin secretion, and increasing water intake, angiotensin II affects the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones. Some of these effects are direct. There are angiotensin II receptors on lactotropes and corticotropes in rats, and there may be receptors on thyrotropes and other secretory cells. Circulating angiotensin II reaches these receptors, but angiotensin II is almost certainly generated locally by the pituitary renin-angiotensin system as well. There are also indirect effects produced by the effects of brain angiotensin II on the secretion of hypophyseotropic hormones. In the anterior pituitary of the rat, the gonadotropes contain renin, angiotensin II, and some angiotensin-converting enzyme. There is debate about whether these cells also contain small amounts of angiotensinogen, but most of the angiotensinogen is produced by a separate population of cells and appears to pass in a paracrine fashion to the gonadotropes. An analogous situation exists in the brain. Neurons contain angiotensin II and probably renin, but most angiotensin-converting enzyme is located elsewhere and angiotensinogen is primarily if not solely produced by astrocytes. Angiotensin II causes secretion of prolactin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) when added to pituitary cells in vitro. Paracrine regulation of prolactin secretion by angiotensin II from the gonadotropes may occur in vitro under certain circumstances, but the effects of peripheral angiotensin II on ACTH secretion appear to be mediated via the brain and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). In the brain, there is good evidence that locally generated angiotensin II causes release of norepinephrine that in turn stimulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone-secreting neurons, increasing circulating luteinizing hormone. In addition, there is evidence that angiotensin II acts in the arcuate nuclei to increase the secretion of dopamine into the portal-hypophyseal vessels, inhibiting prolactin secretion. Central as well as peripheral angiotensin II increases CRH secretion, but there is little if any evidence that angiotensin II mediates the ACTH responses to other stressful stimuli. PMID:8349004

  17. Activation of immune cells in bovine mammary gland secretions by zymosan treated bovine serum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mastitis, caused by bacterial infection of the mammary gland, is a major disease of dairy cattle. The greatest risks of intramammary infection occur at the end of lactation and at the initiation of the next lactation when the cow calves. Treating serum with zymosan (yeast cell wall preparation) ca...

  18. Effects of age and Reproductive Status on Tergal Gland Secretions in Queenless Honey bee Workers, Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis.

    PubMed

    Okosun, Olabimpe O; Yusuf, Abdullahi A; Crewe, Robin M; Pirk, Christian W W

    2015-10-01

    Secretions from tergal glands are part of a queen's pheromonal control of worker reproduction in honey bees. However, in queenless honey bee colonies, workers compete to gain pheromonal, and hence reproductive dominance, over nestmates with ontogenetic changes in their glandular secretions that affect the behavioral or physiological responses of other individuals. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we investigated for the first time the age-dependent changes in tergal gland secretions of queenless workers of the clonal lineage of Apis mellifera capensis and workers of A. m. scutellata. The reproductive status of honey bee workers was determined by recording the presence of spermathecae and the level of ovarian activation. The tergal gland chemicals identified in both A. m. scutellata workers and A. m. capensis clone workers were oleic acid, n-tricosene, n-pentacosene, and n-heptacosene, with three additional compounds, palmitic acid, n-heneicosene, and n-nonacosene, in A. m. capensis clones. We report ethyl esters as new compounds from honey bee worker tergal gland profiles; these compounds increased in amount with age. All A. m. capensis clone workers dissected had spermathecae and showed ovarian activation from day 4, while ovarian activation only started on day 7 for A. m. scutellata workers that had no spermathecae. Tergal gland secretions were present in higher quantities in bees with activated, rather than inactive ovaries. This suggests that tergal gland secretions from reproductive workers could act as releaser and primer pheromones in synergy with other glandular compounds to achieve pheromonal and reproductive dominance. PMID:26384295

  19. Secretory and basal cells of the epithelium of the tubular glands in the male Mullerian gland of the caecilian Uraeotyphlus narayani (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    George, Jancy M; Smita, Matthew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2004-12-01

    Caecilians are exceptional among the vertebrates in that males retain the Mullerian duct as a functional glandular structure. The Mullerian gland on each side is formed from a large number of tubular glands connecting to a central duct, which either connects to the urogenital duct or opens directly into the cloaca. The Mullerian gland is believed to secrete a substance to be added to the sperm during ejaculation. Thus, the Mullerian gland could function as a male accessory reproductive gland. Recently, we described the male Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and histochemistry. The present TEM study reports that the secretory cells of both the tubular and basal portions of the tubular glands of the male Mullerian gland of this caecilian produce secretion granules in the same manner as do other glandular epithelial cells. The secretion granules are released in the form of structured granules into the lumen of the tubular glands, and such granules are traceable to the lumen of the central duct of the Mullerian gland. This is comparable to the situation prevailing in the epididymal epithelium of several reptiles. In the secretory cells of the basal portion of the tubular glands, mitochondria are intimately associated with fabrication of the secretion granules. The structural and functional organization of the epithelium of the basal portion of the tubular glands is complicated by the presence of basal cells. This study suggests the origin of the basal cells from peritubular tissue leukocytes. The study also indicates a role for the basal cells in acquiring secretion granules from the neighboring secretory cells and processing them into lipofuscin material in the context of regression of the Mullerian gland during the period of reproductive quiescence. In these respects the basal cells match those in the epithelial lining of the epididymis of amniotes. PMID:15487004

  20. Oral Administration of Royal Jelly Restores Tear Secretion Capacity in Rat Blink-Suppressed Dry Eye Model by Modulating Lacrimal Gland Function

    PubMed Central

    Imada, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Shigeru; Kitamura, Naoki; Shibuya, Izumi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Tears are secreted from the lacrimal gland (LG), a dysfunction in which induces dry eye, resulting in ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Honey bee products are used as a nutritional source in daily life and medicine; however, little is known about their effects on dry eye. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of honey bee products on tear secretion capacity in dry eye. We selected raw honey, propolis, royal jelly (RJ), pollen, or larva from commercially available honey bee products. Tear secretion capacity was evaluated following the oral administration of each honey bee product in a rat blink-suppressed dry eye model. Changes in tear secretion, LG ATP content, and LG mitochondrial levels were measured. RJ restored the tear secretion capacity and decrease in LG ATP content and mitochondrial levels to the largest extent. Royal jelly can be used as a preventative intervention for dry eye by managing tear secretion capacity in the LG. PMID:25243778

  1. A group of related cDNAs encoding secreted proteins from Hessian fly [Mayetiola destructor (Say)] salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Chen, M-S; Fellers, J P; Stuart, J J; Reese, J C; Liu, X

    2004-02-01

    A group of cDNAs has been isolated and characterized from Hessian fly [Mayetiola destructor (Say)] salivary glands. Members in this group appear to encode proteins with secretion signal peptides at the N-terminals. The mature putative proteins are small, basic proteins with calculated molecular weights that ranged from 8.5 to 10 kDa, and isoelectric points from 9.92 to 10.90. Sequence analysis indicated a strong selection for mutations that generate amino acid changes within the coding region. Northern blot analysis revealed that these genes are expressed only in the first instar larvae, a critical stage that determines if the interaction between a specific Hessian fly biotype and a specific wheat cultivar is compatible. Genomic analysis demonstrated that multiple copies of similar genes are clustered within a short region on chromosome 2A. This is the same arm in which two avirulence genes have been mapped. PMID:14728671

  2. Rapid identification of primary constituents in parotoid gland secretions of the Australian cane toad using HPLC/MS-Q-TOF.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jing; Ren, Wei C; Li, Chun; Bose, Utpal; Parekh, Harendra S; Wei, Ming Q

    2013-06-01

    Toad parotoid gland secretion or toad venom has in recent years been increasingly shown to possess potentially beneficial pharmacological effects; this speculation has drawn much interest centred on elucidating the chemical basis of its multimodal effects. For this purpose, we explored the use of a rapid and accurate analysis method for systemic investigation of the parotoid gland chemistry, when extracted from Australian cane toads. Full-scan data of cane toad venom extract was acquired using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry system (HPLC/MS-Q-TOF), with multiple ionization sources (ESI and APCI) in positive and negative mixed modes. By measuring the exact mass differences between the theoretical and measured mass of each assumed compound, we confirmed the presence of 12 key constituents. The present results demonstrate that the use of HPLC/MS-Q-TOF with multiple ionization sources delivers exemplary selectivity and sensitivity, allowing for the rapid and accurate identification of constituents within cane toad venom. This paves the way for this technique to be used in future routine screening of components within the genus Bufo and for key analytes too, then reliably assessed for any purported beneficial (clinic) properties. PMID:23319165

  3. Functional role of phenylacetic acid from metapleural gland secretions in controlling fungal pathogens in evolutionarily derived leaf-cutting ants.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Nash, David R; Higginbotham, Sarah; Estrada, Catalina; van Zweden, Jelle S; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Wcislo, William T; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2015-05-22

    Fungus-farming ant colonies vary four to five orders of magnitude in size. They employ compounds from actinomycete bacteria and exocrine glands as antimicrobial agents. Atta colonies have millions of ants and are particularly relevant for understanding hygienic strategies as they have abandoned their ancestors' prime dependence on antibiotic-based biological control in favour of using metapleural gland (MG) chemical secretions. Atta MGs are unique in synthesizing large quantities of phenylacetic acid (PAA), a known but little investigated antimicrobial agent. We show that particularly the smallest workers greatly reduce germination rates of Escovopsis and Metarhizium spores after actively applying PAA to experimental infection targets in garden fragments and transferring the spores to the ants' infrabuccal cavities. In vitro assays further indicated that Escovopsis strains isolated from evolutionarily derived leaf-cutting ants are less sensitive to PAA than strains from phylogenetically more basal fungus-farming ants, consistent with the dynamics of an evolutionary arms race between virulence and control for Escovopsis, but not Metarhizium. Atta ants form larger colonies with more extreme caste differentiation relative to other attines, in societies characterized by an almost complete absence of reproductive conflicts. We hypothesize that these changes are associated with unique evolutionary innovations in chemical pest management that appear robust against selection pressure for resistance by specialized mycopathogens. PMID:25925100

  4. High degree of conservancy among secreted salivary gland proteins from two geographically distant Phlebotomus duboscqi sandflies populations (Mali and Kenya)

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hirotomo; Anderson, Jennifer M; Kamhawi, Shaden; Oliveira, Fabiano; Lawyer, Phillip G; Pham, Van My; Sangare, Constance Souko; Samake, Sibiry; Sissoko, Ibrahim; Garfield, Mark; Sigutova, Lucie; Volf, Petr; Doumbia, Seydou; Valenzuela, Jesus G

    2006-01-01

    Background Salivary proteins from sandflies are potential targets for exploitation as vaccines to control Leishmania infection; in this work we tested the hypothesis that salivary proteins from geographically distant Phlebotomus duboscqi sandfly populations are highly divergent due to the pressure exerted by the host immune response. Salivary gland cDNA libraries were prepared from wild-caught P. duboscqi from Mali and recently colonised flies of the same species from Kenya. Results Transcriptome and proteome analysis resulted in the identification of the most abundant salivary gland-secreted proteins. Orthologues of these salivary proteins were identified by phylogenetic tree analysis. Moreover, comparative analysis between the orthologues of these two different populations resulted in a high level of protein identity, including the predicted MHC class II T-cell epitopes from all these salivary proteins. Conclusion These data refute the hypothesis that salivary proteins from geographically distinct populations of the same Phlebotomus sandfly species are highly divergent. They also suggest the potential for using the same species-specific components in a potential vector saliva-based vaccine. PMID:16952314

  5. Common spectrum of polypeptides occurs in secretion granule membranes of different exocrine glands

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, R.S.; Cameron, P.L.; Castle, J.D.

    1986-10-01

    A highly purified membrane preparation from rat parotid secretion granules has been used as a comparative probe to examine the extent of compositional overlap in granule membranes of three other exocrine secretory tissues - pancreatic, lacrimal, and submandibular - from several standpoints. First, indirect immunofluorescent studies using a polyclonal polyspecific anti-parotid granule membrane antiserum has indicated a selective staining of granule membrane profiles in all acinar cells of all tissues. Second, highly purified granule membrane subfractions have been isolated from each exocrine tissue; comparative two-dimensional (isoelectric focusing; SDS) PAGE of radioiodinated granule membranes has identified 10-15 polypeptides of identical pI and apparent molecular mass. These species are likely to be integral membrane components since they are not extracted by either saponin-sodium sulfate or sodium carbonate (pH 11.5) treatments, and they do not have counterparts in the granule content. Finally, the identity among selected parotid and pancreatic radioiodinated granule membrane polypeptides has been documented using two-dimensional peptide mapping of chymotryptic and tryptic digests. These findings clearly indicate that exocrine secretory granules, irrespective of the nature of stored secretion, comprise a type of vesicular carrier with a common (and probably refined) membrane composition. Conceivably, the polypeptides identified carry out general functions related to exocrine secretion.

  6. Decreasing pH of mammary gland secretions is associated with parturition and is correlated with electrolyte concentrations in prefoaling mares.

    PubMed

    Canisso, I F; Ball, B A; Troedsson, M H; Silva, E S M; Davolli, G M

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine pH of the mammary gland secretions and the corresponding electrolyte concentrations in prefoaling mares. Pregnant mares (seven primiparous and seven multiparous) were monitored daily from 310-320 days of gestation until parturition. Prefoaling mammary gland secretions were collected, and pH was immediately determined with a pH meter and pH strip test. An aliquot of prefoaling mammary secretions was frozen and stored until further analyses. After parturition, samples from day -4 to 0 (day of foaling) were thawed and electrolyte concentrations (ie, Ca(2)(+), Mg(2)(+), Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-)) were determined with an automated analyser. Data were analysed via a mixed model with the mare as a random effect. Correlations were determined between pH and electrolyte concentrations by the Pearson product-moment for each pair. There was significant reduction in pH of mammary secretions on the day of foaling (P<0.0001), and most mares (11/14) with a pH ≤7 foaled within 24 hours. There was high correlation between the two pH methods (r=0.93). Additionally, there were significant (P<0.05) increases in Ca(2+) and K(+) concentrations, and significant decreases in Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations from one day before to the day of foaling. The pH of mammary secretions was highly and significantly (P<0.001) correlated with Na(+) (r=0.87), Cl(-) (r=0.85), Ca(2+) (r=-0.88); and K(+)(r=-0.80) concentrations, and moderately correlated with Mg(2+) (r=-0.58). Daily evening pH measure of the mammary gland secretions can predict foaling in most mares. PMID:23845941

  7. Potential chemosignals in the anogenital gland secretion of giant pandas, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, associated with sex and individual identity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Xu; Liu, Dingzhen; Sun, Lixing; Wei, Rongping; Zhang, Guiquan; Wu, Honglin; Zhang, Hemin; Zhao, Chenghua

    2008-03-01

    With a combination of dichloromethane extraction and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we found 39 compounds (corresponding to 38 GC peaks) in the anogenital gland secretion (AGS) of captive adult giant pandas, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, during the non-mating season. In addition to indole, squalene, and some of the straight-chain fatty acids that had been characterized previously from the AGS of giant pandas, we identified several new compounds such as decenal, two isomers of decadienal, phenylacetic acid, 5-methylhydantoin, hydroquinone, phenylpropanoic acid, and erucic acid. Quantitative comparison of the relative abundances of the 20 main GC peaks revealed that 5-methylhydantoin, indole, and erucic acid are putative female pheromones, whereas squalene and hydroquinone are putative male pheromones. In addition to the presence of a few individual-specific compounds, the relative abundances of most of the 21 constituents varied more among individuals than within individuals. This suggests that individual identity might be coded in both digital and analog form. The chemical composition of different AGS samples from the same pandas consistently displayed a minimum cluster distance, much smaller than that between samples from different individuals in a hierarchical linkage cluster (average linkage) dendrogram. Our results indicate that the AGS might contain an "odor fingerprint." Although putative sex pheromones such as squalene and erucic acid should be assessed further by bioassay, our study suggests that synthetic chemosignals might be useful in modulating the behavior and physiology of giant pandas. PMID:18293041

  8. Comparison of the in vitro effects of TCDD, PCB 126 and PCB 153 on thyroid-restricted gene expression and thyroid hormone secretion by the chicken thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Katarzyńska, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Kowalik, Kinga; Sechman, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126; a coplanar PCB congener) and 2,2'4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153; non-coplanar PCB) on mRNA expression of thyroid-restricted genes, i.e. sodium iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (TG), and thyroid hormone secretion from the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. Relative expression levels of NIS, TG and TPO genes and thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) secretion from the thyroidal explants were quantified by the real-time qPCR and RIA methods, respectively. In comparison with the control group, TCDD and PCB 126 significantly increased mRNA expression of TPO and TG genes. TCDD did not affect NIS mRNA levels, but PCB 126 decreased its expression. No effect of PCB 153 on the expression of these genes was observed. TCDD and PCB 126 significantly decreased T4 and T3 secretion. There was no significant effect of PCB 153 on these hormone secretions. In conclusion, the results obtained show that in comparison with non-coplanar PCB 153, TCDD and coplanar PCB 126 can directly affect thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion, and in consequence, they may disrupt the endocrine function of the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. PMID:25682001

  9. The Proteomes of Human Parotid and Submandibular/Sublingual Gland Salivas Collected as the Ductal Secretions

    PubMed Central

    Denny, Paul; Hagen, Fred K.; Hardt, Markus; Liao, Lujian; Yan, Weihong; Arellanno, Martha; Bassilian, Sara; Bedi, Gurrinder S.; Boontheung, Pinmannee; Cociorva, Daniel; Delahunty, Claire M.; Denny, Trish; Dunsmore, Jason; Faull, Kym F.; Gilligan, Joyce; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Halgand, Frdric; Hall, Steven C.; Han, Xuemei; Henson, Bradley; Hewel, Johannes; Hu, Shen; Jeffrey, Sherry; Jiang, Jiang; Loo, Joseph A.; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Malamud, Daniel; Melvin, James E.; Miroshnychenko, Olga; Navazesh, Mahvash; Niles, Richard; Park, Sung Kyu; Prakobphol, Akraporn; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Richert, Megan; Robinson, Sarah; Sondej, Melissa; Souda, Puneet; Sullivan, Mark A.; Takashima, Jona; Than, Shawn; Wang, Jianghua; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Wolinsky, Lawrence; Xie, Yongming; Xu, Tao; Yu, Weixia; Ytterberg, Jimmy; Wong, David T.; Yates, John R.; Fisher, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Saliva is a body fluid with important functions in oral and general health. A consortium of three research groups catalogued the proteins in human saliva collected as the ductal secretions: 1166 identifications914 in parotid and 917 in submandibular/sublingual salivawere made. The results showed that a high proportion of proteins that are found in plasma and/or tears are also present in saliva along with unique components. The proteins identified are involved in numerous molecular processes ranging from structural functions to enzymatic/catalytic activities. As expected, the majority mapped to the extracellular and secretory compartments. An immunoblot approach was used to validate the presence in saliva of a subset of the proteins identified by mass spectrometric approaches. These experiments focused on novel constituents and proteins for which the peptide evidence was relatively weak. Ultimately, information derived from the work reported here and related published studies can be used to translate blood-based clinical laboratory tests into a format that utilizes saliva. Additionally, a catalogue of the salivary proteome of healthy individuals allows future analyses of salivary samples from individuals with oral and systemic diseases, with the goal of identifying biomarkers with diagnostic and/or prognostic value for these conditions; another possibility is the discovery of therapeutic targets. PMID:18361515

  10. Contribution of the secretory material of caecilian (amphibia: Gymnophiona) male Mullerian gland to motility of sperm: a study in Uraeotyphlus narayani.

    PubMed

    George, Jancy M; Smita, Mathew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2005-02-01

    Caecilians are a unique group of limbless burrowing amphibians with discontinuous distribution. Several caecilian species are viviparous, and all practice internal fertilization. In amniotic vertebrates the sperm undergo post-testicular physiological maturation when they are initiated into motility under the influence of an epididymal secretion. Further, during ejaculation mammalian sperm are suspended in a fluid secreted by the male accessory sex glands, viz., prostate gland and seminal vesicles. Caecilians lack comparable glands, but still practice internal fertilization. Uniquely, male caecilians retain the Mullerian ducts in the adults as a pair of functional glands. It has long been hypothesized, based on indirect evidence, that the Mullerian gland would be a male accessory sex gland, secreting a fluid in which sperm are suspended during ejaculation and which would also provide nutritional support to the ejaculated sperm. In the present study, the secretory material of the Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani was mixed with sperm obtained from the testis, and the changes in motility were recorded. Uraeotyphlus narayani sperm possess a perforatorium of the acrosome proceeding deep into the endonuclear canal of the nucleus. The midpiece is characterized by closely applied centrioles, the anterior ends of the axoneme and axial fiber, and a mitochondrial sheath. The long tail has an undulating membrane on one side, supported by the axoneme and an axial fiber. The live sperm possess a mitochondrial vesicle, also known as the cytoplasmic droplet, anywhere along the head and the midpiece, as in anuran sperm, which is shed from sperm that have ceased motility. Uraeotyphlus narayani sperm are motile the moment they are released directly from the testis, indicating that the sperm do not require post-testicular physiological maturation. On being mixed with the secretory material of the Mullerian gland, the spermatozoa are enhanced in speed as well as duration of motility. Therefore, the caecilian male Mullerian gland is considered to be the male accessory sex gland. PMID:15605393

  11. Small molecule lactoferrin with an inflammatory effect but no apparent antibacterial activity in mastitic mammary gland secretion.

    PubMed

    Komine, Ken-ichi; Komine, Yumiko; Kuroishi, Toshinobu; Kobayashi, Jin; Obara, Yoshiaki; Kumagai, Katsuo

    2005-07-01

    We have identified various lactoferrin (Lf) molecules in mastitic mammary gland secretions (MGSs), and these Lf molecules were examined for their physiological function in MG. These Lf molecules were isolated by Con A affinity chromatography, and then analyzed by various electrophoresis methods and N-terminal amino acid sequencing. The low Con A affinity Lf was found to have low molecular peptides as compared with the 86 kDa of the high Con A affinity Lf, which is usually detected in healthy MGSs. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of each of the small molecular Lfs were confirmed as fragments of 86 kDa Lf. This low Con A affinity Lf stimulated spleen adherent cells to produce more O(2)(-) than 86 kDa Lf. Furthermore, the low Con A affinity Lf showed low antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus, and had decreased iron-binding capacity in comparison with 86 kDa Lf. Moreover, the 86 kDa Lf could stimulate bovine T cells or macrophages to produce IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-1alpha. However low Con A affinity Lf induced the production of TNFalpha, but not physiological T cell or macrophage cytokines. It was also found that when the healthy MGs of dry cows were injected with the low Con A affinity Lf, there was an increase in polymorphonuclear cells together with TNFalpha, MCP-1, and IL-8 production. These results suggested that low Con A affinity Lf in mastitic MGSs differed from 86 kDa Lf in physiological characteristics, and, that it induced an inflammatory reaction in MGs. PMID:16082114

  12. Inhibition of acid secretion by the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs diclofenac and piroxicam in isolated gastric glands: analysis of a multifocal mechanism.

    PubMed

    Salvatella, María; Rossi, Irma; Del Valle, Juan C; Gutiérrez, Yolanda; Pereda, Carmen; Samper, Begoña; Felíu, Juan E

    2004-05-01

    In nonstimulated rabbit gastric glands, acetylsalicylic acid (10-500 microM) and indomethacin (3-300 microM) did not significantly modify the basal rate of acid secretion, whereas diclofenac and piroxicam (10-1,000 microM each) caused a marked and dose-dependent inhibitory effect (EC(50) = 138 and 280 microM, respectively). In gastric glands stimulated by histamine (100 microM), diclofenac also reduced the rate of acid formation in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, acetylsalicylic acid, indomethacin, and piroxicam exerted a biphasic effect; thus low concentrations (3-100 microM) of these three agents significantly increased the rate of histamine-stimulated acid secretion (10-20% over the corresponding control value) by a cAMP-independent mechanism, whereas higher concentrations reduced the rate of acid formation. With respect to underlying biochemical mechanisms that could mediate inhibitory effects of NSAIDs on gastric acid formation, it was observed that both diclofenac and piroxicam, but not acetylsalicylic acid or indomethacin, decreased the glandular content of ATP, inhibited hydrolytic activity of gastric gland microsomal H(+)-K(+)-ATPase, and reduced the rate of H(+)-K(+)-ATPase-dependent proton transport across microsomal membranes in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, diclofenac and piroxicam also significantly increased passive permeability of microsomal membranes to protons. In conclusion, our work shows that diclofenac and piroxicam cause a significant reduction in the rate of basal and histamine-stimulated acid formation in isolated rabbit gastric glands at concentrations that can be attained in the gastric lumen of patients treated with these drugs. Mechanisms involved in these inhibitory effects appear to be multifocal and include different steps of stimulus-secretion coupling. PMID:14693505

  13. Sexual behavior attenuates the effects of chronic stress in body weight, testes, sexual accessory glands, and plasma testosterone in male rats.

    PubMed

    Retana-Mrquez, S; Vigueras-Villaseor, R M; Jurez-Rojas, L; Aragn-Martnez, A; Torres, G Reyes

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether continuous sexual behavior could attenuate the effects of chronic stress on spermatogenesis, sexual glands, plasma testosterone and corticosterone in sexually experienced male rats. Rats were exposed to stress by immersion in cold water (ICW) daily for 20 or 50 consecutive days. Plasma testosterone and corticosterone, masculine sexual behavior, as well as the number of offspring, the epithelial area of seminiferous, prostatic and seminal glands were assessed. In stressed males, body and testicular weights decreased, male sexual behavior was disrupted, and adrenal weights increased. In males stressed for 50 days, prostate and seminal glands had lower weights compared with controls. Prostate and seminal epithelial areas also decreased in these males. Seminiferous tubules in testes from rats stressed for 20 or 50 days showed several degenerative signs, such as vacuoles in the basal epithelium, with picnotic indicia; moderate to severe exfoliation of degenerative germinal cells in the tubule lumen was also observed. In males stressed for 50 days a significant decrease in seminiferous epithelial area was observed from stages I-VIII, regardless of copulation. The litters from females that copulated with males stressed for 50 days decreased significantly. Chronic stress caused increase in plasma levels of corticosterone, which were higher in males stressed for 20 days than in males stressed for 50 days. Testosterone decreased in stressed males and it was lower in males stressed for 50 days. In stressed males allowed to copulate, body and testicular weights were similar to controls. Adrenal, seminal glands, and prostate weights, as well as epithelial areas of males stressed for 50 days allowed to copulate were also similar to controls. Corticosterone was lower than in males stressed for 50 days, but still higher than in controls. Testosterone in males stressed for 50 days and allowed to copulate was higher than in stressed males not allowed to copulate and control males without copulation, but still lower than in control copulating males. These results show that chronic stress causes germ cell loss in testes and a decrease in prostate and seminal epithelium, possibly as a result of testosterone decrease, affecting fertility. Continuous copulation can attenuate the effects of stress on testosterone levels and on the epithelial area in male sexual glands, but not on the seminiferous epithelium after 50 days of stress. PMID:25236886

  14. Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Literature from the past 168 years has been filtered to provide a unified summary of the regional distribution of cutaneous water and electrolyte losses. The former occurs via transepidermal water vapour diffusion and secretion from the eccrine sweat glands. Daily insensible water losses for a standardised individual (surface area 1.8 m2) will be 0.6–2.3 L, with the hands (80–160 g.h−1) and feet (50–150 g.h−1) losing the most, the head and neck losing intermediate amounts (40–75 g.h−1) and all remaining sites losing 15–60 g.h−1. Whilst sweat gland densities vary widely across the skin surface, this same individual would possess some 2.03 million functional glands, with the highest density on the volar surfaces of the fingers (530 glands.cm−2) and the lowest on the upper lip (16 glands.cm−2). During passive heating that results in a resting whole-body sweat rate of approximately 0.4 L.min−1, the forehead (0.99 mg.cm−2.min−1), dorsal fingers (0.62 mg.cm−2.min−1) and upper back (0.59 mg.cm−2.min−1) would display the highest sweat flows, whilst the medial thighs and anterior legs will secrete the least (both 0.12 mg.cm−2.min−1). Since sweat glands selectively reabsorb electrolytes, the sodium and chloride composition of discharged sweat varies with secretion rate. Across whole-body sweat rates from 0.72 to 3.65 mg.cm−2.min−1, sodium losses of 26.5–49.7 mmol.L−1 could be expected, with the corresponding chloride loss being 26.8–36.7 mmol.L−1. Nevertheless, there can be threefold differences in electrolyte losses across skin regions. When exercising in the heat, local sweat rates increase dramatically, with regional glandular flows becoming more homogeneous. However, intra-regional evaporative potential remains proportional to each local surface area. Thus, there is little evidence that regional sudomotor variations reflect an hierarchical distribution of sweating either at rest or during exercise. PMID:23849497

  15. Physiological responses and characteristics of sperm collected after electroejaculation or transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands in anesthetized mouflons (Ovis musimon) and Iberian ibexes (Capra pyrenaica).

    PubMed

    Ungerfeld, Rodolfo; López-Sebastián, Antonio; Esteso, Milagros; Pradiee, Jorgea; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Castaño, Cristina; Labrador, Beatriz; Santiago-Moreno, Julián

    2015-10-15

    The objective was to characterize the stress response and the seminal parameters obtained with electroejaculation (EE) or transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands (TUMASG) in two captive but nondomestic ruminants, the mouflons and the Iberian ibex under general anesthesia. In mouflons, the physiological responses (heart and respiratory rate, rectal temperature, cortisol, creatine kinase, potassium and glucose concentrations) changed similarly with both procedures. The TUMASG procedure was faster than EE in mouflons (21.7 ± 1.4 vs. 12.4 ± 1.2 minutes, P < 0.01). In ibexes, respiratory rate, cortisol and creatine kinase concentration changes were greater with EE than with TUMASG (final respiratory rate: 62.7 ± 5.5 vs. 38.1 ± 5.6 breaths/min [P < 0.05]; final cortisol: 51.4 ± 5.1 vs. 25.3 ± 5.6 ng/mL [P < 0.001]; and final creatine kinase: 300.9 ± 99.9 vs. 87.1 ± 16.9 U/L [P < 0.001]). Electroejaculation provided better results in some sperm parameters (mouflons: sperm score: 3.4 ± 0.3 vs. 2.6 ± 0.2 [P < 0.01]; total number of sperm ejaculated: 982.4 ± 299 vs. 710.0 ± 542.2 [P < 0.05]; ibexes: sperm with progressive motility: 47.7 ± 6.2 vs. 20.5 ± 8.3 [P < 0.05]). The transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands appears to be an alternative technique to collect sperm from wild ruminants, reducing the need for electrical stimuli and thus decreasing the undesired responses of EE in the more sensitive species. On the other hand, better fresh sperm may be collected with EE. However, TUMASG provides practical advantages in animal welfare, firstly in these wild species more sensible to stress management and capture myopathy. PMID:26174035

  16. Characterization and expression analysis of a gene encoding a secreted lipase-like protein expressed in the salivary glands of the larval Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say).

    PubMed

    Shukle, Richard H; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Morton, Philip K; Chen, Ming-Shun

    2009-02-01

    In a salivary gland transcriptomics study we identified a cDNA with a full-length open reading frame for a gene (MdesL1) encoding a lipase-like protein expressed in the salivary glands of the larval Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say). Fluorescent in situ hybridization on salivary polytenes positioned MdesL1 on the long arm of Autosome 1. BLASTp and conserved domain searches revealed the deduced amino acid sequence contained a lipase superfamily domain with similarity to lipases and phospholipases from other insects. A secretion signal peptide was identified at the amino terminus of the deduced amino acid sequence. Analysis of the transcript of MdesL1 in larval Hessian fly tissues by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) revealed the greatest abundance was in salivary glands. Analysis of transcript levels during development showed the greatest level was detected in feeding 1st-instar and early 2nd-instar larvae. Transcript levels increased dramatically over time in larvae feeding on susceptible wheat but were detected at low levels in larvae feeding on resistant wheat. These data suggest the protein encoded by MdesL1 is likely secreted into host-plant cells during larval feeding and could be involved in extra-oral digestion and changes in host-cell permeability or in generating a second messenger in a host-cell-signaling cascade. PMID:19026654

  17. The role of Na+ in muscarinic receptor-mediated catecholamine secretion in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ in cat perfused adrenal glands.

    PubMed Central

    Teraoka, H.; Yamada, Y.; Nakazato, Y.; Ohga, A.

    1990-01-01

    1. The role of Na+ in muscarinic receptor-mediated catecholamine secretion, which is independent of extracellular Ca2+, was investigated by observing the effect of veratridine and ouabain in perfused adrenal glands of the cat. 2. Veratridine (10(-4) M) markedly enhanced catecholamine secretion evoked by acetylcholine (ACh, 10(-4) M) during perfusion with Ca2(+)-free Locke solution containing hexamethonium (10(-3) M). The enhancement tended to be larger for noradrenaline secretion than for adrenaline secretion. Qualitatively the same result was obtained in the response to pilocarpine (5 x 10(-4) M). 3. Ouabain (10(-4) M) also enhanced ACh- and pilocarpine-induced catecholamine secretions, especially noradrenaline secretion in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. 4. Tetrodotoxin (10(-6) M) blocked the enhancing effect of veratridine on ACh-induced catecholamine secretion, but not that of ouabain in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. 5. When NaCl was replaced with sucrose, there was no secretory response to ACh regardless of the presence or absence of veratridine or ouabain. However, when ouabain, but not veratridine, was infused with Na+ before the replacement of NaCl, the response to ACh was substantially augmented. 6. These results indicate that Na+ is essential in the initiation of muscarinic receptor-mediated catecholamine secretion and its enhancement by veratridine and ouabain in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. Both drugs seem to increase the intracellular concentration of Na+ through different mechanisms and result in increases in the efficiency of Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular Ca2+ pools linked to muscarinic receptors. PMID:2282468

  18. ZnT4 (SLC30A4)-null ("lethal milk") mice have defects in mammary gland secretion and hallmarks of precocious involution during lactation.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Nicholas H; Lee, Sooyeon; Hennigar, Stephen R; Kelleher, Shannon L

    2016-01-01

    During lactation, highly specialized secretory mammary epithelial cells (MECs) produce and secrete huge quantities of nutrients and nonnutritive factors into breast milk. The zinc (Zn) transporter ZnT4 (SLC30A4) transports Zn into the trans-Golgi apparatus for lactose synthesis, and across the apical cell membrane for efflux from MECs into milk. This is consistent with observations in "lethal milk" (lm/lm) mice, which have a truncation mutation in SLC30A4, and present with not only low milk Zn concentration, but also smaller mammary glands, decreased milk volume, and lactation failure by lactation day 2. However, the molecular underpinnings of these defects are not understood. Here, we used lactating C57BL/6J(lm/lm) (ZnT4-null) mice to explore the consequences of a ZnT4-null phenotype on mammary gland function during early lactation. Lactating C57BL/6J(lm/lm) mice had significantly fewer, smaller, and collapsed alveoli comprising swollen, lipid-filled MECs during early lactation. These defects were associated with decreased Akt expression and STAT5 activation, indicative of defects in MEC secretion. In addition, increased expression of ZnT2, TNF-α, and cleaved e-cadherin concomitant with increased activation of STAT3 implicated the loss of ZnT4 in precocious activation of involution. Collectively, our study indicates that the loss of ZnT4 has profound consequences on MEC secretion and may promote tissue remodeling in the mammary gland during early lactation. PMID:26538236

  19. Presence of calcitonin-like immunoreactivity (iCT) in human prostate gland: evidence for iCT secretion by cultured prostate cells.

    PubMed

    Shah, G V; Noble, M J; Austenfeld, M; Weigel, J; Deftos, L J; Mebust, W K

    1992-01-01

    Immunoreactive calcitonin (iCT) has been detected in human prostate tissue extracts as well as seminal plasma. The present studies were undertaken to examine whether iSCT (immunoreactive salmon CT-like human peptide) co-exists with iHCT (thyroid CT-like substance) in human prostate tissue extracts, and whether these substances are secreted by primary prostate cells in culture. Since the local secretion of these substances seems to increase in some neoplasms, a second objective of the study was to examine whether basal secretion of iCTs from primary prostate cells is increased in carcinoma. The present results have shown that both iHCT and iSCT were present in prostate tissue extracts. The mean iHCT levels in extracts of benign hyperplastic prostates (BPH) were 0.59 ng/g prostate, and these were significantly lower than iHCT concentrations in prostatic carcinoma (PC) (2.53 ng/g). No significant differences in their iSCT contents were observed. However, the results from culture of over 90 individual prostate tissue specimens from BPH or PC indicate that primary prostate cells secreted detectable quantities of iSCT and the basal release of this material from PC prostate cultures was almost four-fold higher than that from BPH prostate cultures. These results suggest that a CT-like immunoreactive material is secreted by primary prostate cells in culture, and the basal secretion of this material is significantly higher in PC cells as compared to BPH cells. Endogenous secretion of prostatic CT, and the elevation of its expression in PC suggest that it may serve as a regulatory factor in the pathophysiology of the prostate gland. PMID:1409122

  20. Ae4 (Slc4a9) Anion Exchanger Drives Cl− Uptake-dependent Fluid Secretion by Mouse Submandibular Gland Acinar Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Münzenmayer, Gaspar; Catalán, Marcelo A.; Kondo, Yusuke; Jaramillo, Yasna; Liu, Frances; Shull, Gary E.; Melvin, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Transcellular Cl− movement across acinar cells is the rate-limiting step for salivary gland fluid secretion. Basolateral Nkcc1 Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporters play a critical role in fluid secretion by promoting the intracellular accumulation of Cl− above its equilibrium potential. However, salivation is only partially abolished in the absence of Nkcc1 cotransporter activity, suggesting that another Cl− uptake pathway concentrates Cl− ions in acinar cells. To identify alternative molecular mechanisms, we studied mice lacking Ae2 and Ae4 Cl−/HCO3− exchangers. We found that salivation stimulated by muscarinic and β-adrenergic receptor agonists was normal in the submandibular glands of Ae2−/− mice. In contrast, saliva secretion was reduced by 35% in Ae4−/− mice. The decrease in salivation was not related to loss of Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter or Na+/H+ exchanger activity in Ae4−/− mice but correlated with reduced Cl− uptake during β-adrenergic receptor activation of cAMP signaling. Direct measurements of Cl−/HCO3− exchanger activity revealed that HCO3−-dependent Cl− uptake was reduced in the acinar cells of Ae2−/− and Ae4−/− mice. Moreover, Cl−/HCO3− exchanger activity was nearly abolished in double Ae4/Ae2 knock-out mice, suggesting that most of the Cl−/HCO3− exchanger activity in submandibular acinar cells depends on Ae2 and Ae4 expression. In conclusion, both Ae2 and Ae4 anion exchangers are functionally expressed in submandibular acinar cells; however, only Ae4 expression appears to be important for cAMP-dependent regulation of fluid secretion. PMID:25745107

  1. ANTIBODY-SECRETING CELL SPECIFICITY IN LABIAL SALIVARY GLANDS REFLECTS CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND SEROLOGY IN SJÖGREN’S SYNDROME PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Maier-Moore, Jacen S.; Koelsch, Kristi A.; Smith, Kenneth; Lessard, Christopher J.; Radfar, Lida; Lewis, David; Kurien, Biji T.; Wolska, Nina; Deshmukh, Umesh; Rasmussen, Astrid; Sivils, Kathy L.; James, Judith A.; Farris, A. Darise; Scofield, R. Hal

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The serologic hallmark of primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) is IgG antibodies specific for Ro (SSA) and La (SSB). Molecular characteristics of glandular-derived B cells at the site of pSS inflammation have been described; however, parallels between glandular antibody-secreting cells (ASC) and serologic antibody specificities have not been evaluated. We utilized recombinant monoclonal antibody (hmAb) technology to study salivary gland-(SG) derived ASC specificities, evaluating their molecular characteristics and identified IgG antibody specificity. Methods hmAbs were generated from glandular IgG ASC. Heavy and light chain usage and immunoglobulin subclass were analyzed by sequencing. ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence, enzyme immunoassay and 35S immunoprecipitation analysis were used to determine antibody specificity. Results Evaluation of single ASCs from SG biopsies of patients with primary SS or with SS and overlapping SLE revealed significant concordance between serum autoantibody and glandular ASC specificities. Glandular-derived ASC heavy and light chains were extensively somatically hypermutated, indicative of antigen-driven responses. Specifically, we produced the first fully human monoclonal autoantibodies derived from salivary glands in this study. Conclusions Salivary glands in SS patients are a site for antibody production, which extend beyond the canonical Ro and/or La SS specificities. Furthermore, we demonstrate that glandular antibody production strongly reflects the serological humoral response in the two patients studied herein. PMID:25199908

  2. Differential levels of mRNA transcripts encoding immunologic mediators in mammary gland secretions from dairy cows with subclinical environmental Streptococci infections.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Daniela R; Rossitto, Paul V; Bruno, Ralph G S; Blanchard, Myra T; Sitt, Tatjana; Yeargan, Bret V; Smith, Wayne L; Cullor, James S; Stott, Jeffrey L

    2010-11-15

    Dry-off, and the period around parturition, are associated with increased susceptibility to intramammary infections in dairy cows. The immunological profiles of mammary gland secretions during these periods are not well described. The objective of the present study was to better characterize association(s) between chronic subclinical Environmental Streptococci infections at dry-off and relative levels of mRNA transcripts encoding multiple immunologic mediators present in cells derived from mammary gland secretions at dry-off and continuing through parturition. The chronic subclinical bacterial infections in the present study were characterized by multiple isolations of Streptococcus species and elevated SSC for a minimum of three weeks prior to dry-off. The majority of differences between principal and control quarters were identified at dry-off. Transcript levels of IL-17, IL2Rα and iNOS were increased while pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, and the regulatory cytokine IL-10, were reduced. Following antibiotic treatment of mammary glands, IL-17 transcripts remained elevated over the course of the study, indicative of a persistent insult. IL-4 transcript levels were modestly elevated at 7 days following dry-off and significantly elevated at 14 days, consistent with activated T(H)1 and T(H)2 lymphocytes in the principal quarters, respectively. From a temporal perspective, transcript levels of IL-8 decreased in all animals through the dry-off period animals and returned to pre-dry-off levels at parturition; levels of iNOS peaked at parturition. Five of the six principal cows experienced recurrent bacterial mastitis during the subsequent lactation; four were in the same quarter as was initially infected with Streptococcus and three of these four were due to coliforms. Taken together, this apparent chronic susceptibility of select mammary glands to bacterial infection would suggest a physiologic and/or immunologic dysfunction. Identification of factor(s) that contribute to the predisposition of mammary glands to developing mastitis should facilitate development of new control strategies. PMID:20656361

  3. Odorous secretions in anurans: morphological and functional assessment of serous glands as a source of volatile compounds in the skin of the treefrog Hypsiboas pulchellus (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Andrés E; Hermida, Gladys N; Iurman, Mariana G; Faivovich, Julián

    2016-03-01

    Serous (granular or venom) glands occur in the skin of almost all species of adult amphibians, and are thought to be the source of a great diversity of chemical compounds. Despite recent advances in their chemistry, odorous volatile substances are compounds that have received less attention, and until now no study has attempted to associate histological data with the presence of these molecules in amphibians, or in any other vertebrate. Given the recent identification of 40 different volatile compounds from the skin secretions of H. pulchellus (a treefrog species that releases a strong odour when handled), we examined the structure, ultrastructure, histochemistry, and distribution of skin glands of this species. Histological analysis from six body regions reveals the presence of two types of glands that differ in their distribution. Mucous glands are homogeneously distributed, whereas serous glands are more numerous in the scapular region. Ultrastructural results indicate that electron-translucent vesicles observed within granules of serous glands are similar to those found in volatile-producing glands from insects and also with lipid vesicles from different organisms. Association among lipids and volatiles is also evidenced from chemical results, which indicate that at least some of the volatile components in H. pulchellus probably originate within the metabolism of fatty acids or the mevalonate pathway. As odorous secretions are often considered to be secreted under stress situations, the release of glandular content was assessed after pharmacological treatments, epinephrine administrated in vivo and on skin explants, and through surface electrical stimulation. Serous glands responded to all treatments, generally through an obvious contraction of myoepithelial cells that surround their secretory portion. No response was observed in mucous glands. Considering these morpho-functional results, along with previous identification of volatiles from H. pulchellus and H. riojanus after electrical stimulation, we suggest that the electron-translucent inclusions found within the granules of serous glands likely are the store sites of volatile compounds and/or their precursors. Histochemical and glandular distribution analyses in five other species of frogs of the hylid tribe Cophomantini, revealed a high lipid content in all the species, whereas a heterogeneous distribution of serous glands is only observed in species of the H. pulchellus group. The distribution pattern of serous glands in members of this species group, and the odorous volatile secretions are probably related to defensive functions. PMID:26555696

  4. Mammary glands of adipophilin-null mice produce an amino-terminally truncated form of adipophilin that mediates milk lipid droplet formation and secretion.

    PubMed

    Russell, Tanya D; Palmer, Carol A; Orlicky, David J; Bales, Elise S; Chang, Benny Hung-Junn; Chan, Lawrence; McManaman, James L

    2008-01-01

    Adipophilin (ADPH), a member of the perilipin family of lipid droplet-associated proteins, is hypothesized to mediate milk lipid formation and secretion. Unexpectedly, the fat content of milk from ADPH-null mice was only modestly lower than that of wild-type controls, and neither TIP47 nor perilipin appeared to fully compensate for ADPH loss. This prompted us to investigate the possibility that the mutated ADPH gene was not a genuine null mutation. ADPH transcripts were detected in ADPH-null mammary tissue by quantitative real-time PCR, and C-terminal-specific, but not N-terminal-specific, ADPH antibodies detected a single lower molecular weight product and immunostained cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs) and secreted milk fat globules in ADPH-null mammary tissue. Furthermore, stable cell lines expressing cDNA constructs corresponding to the ADPH-null mutation produced a product comparable in size to the one detected in ADPH-null mammary glands and localized to CLDs. Based on these data, we conclude that ADPH-null mice express an N-terminally truncated form of ADPH that retains the ability to promote the formation and secretion of milk lipids. PMID:17921437

  5. Ultrasound-assisted non-viral gene transfer of AQP1 to the irradiated minipig parotid gland restores fluid secretion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z; Zourelias, L; Wu, C; Edwards, PC; Trombetta, M; Passineau, MJ

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Xerostomia is a common side effect of ionizing radiation used to treat head and neck cancer. A groundbreaking Phase I human clinical trial utilizing Adenoviral gene transfer of Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) to a single salivary gland of individuals suffering from radiation-induced xerostomia has recently been reported. Unfortunately, the limitations of the Adenoviral vector system utilized in this pioneering trial preclude its advancement to a Phase II trial and we have thus undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic potential of ultrasound-assisted non-viral gene transfer (UAGT) as an alternative means of delivering AQP1 gene therapy to the salivary gland by comparing head-to-head with the canonical Adenoviral vector in a swine model. Findings Swine irradiated unilaterally with a 10Gy electron beam targeted at the parotid gland suffered from significant, sustained hyposalivation that was bilateral, despite irradiation being confined to the targeted gland. Unilateral AQP1 gene therapy with UAGT resulted in bilateral restoration of stimulated salivary flow at 48 hours and one week post-treatment (1.62+/−0.48ml, 1.87+/−0.45ml) to pre-injury levels (1.34+/−0.14ml) in a manner comparable to Adenoviral delivery (2.32+/−0.6ml, 1.33+/−0.97ml). Conclusions UAGT can replace the Adenoviral vector as a means of delivering AQP1 gene therapy in the irradiated swine model and is a candidate for advancement to a Phase I human clinical trial. PMID:25871828

  6. Effect of monochromatic light on melatonin secretion and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase mRNA expression in the retina and pineal gland of broilers.

    PubMed

    Jin, Erhui; Jia, Liujun; Li, Jian; Yang, Guang; Wang, Zixu; Cao, Jing; Chen, Yaoxing

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of various monochromatic lights on plasma melatonin (MT) levels and the expression of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) mRNA in the pineal gland and retina. A total of 160 newly hatched (posthatching day 1, P1) broilers, including intact, sham-operated, and pinealectomized groups were exposed to blue light (BL), green light (GL), red light (RL), and white light (WL) by light emitting diode (LED) system for short term (24 hr) or long term (2 weeks), separately. For intact and sham-operated birds, the plasma MT level exhibited marked circadian rhythms at P7 and P14 regardless of short-term and long-term exposure to four monochromatic lights. However, WL and BL showed a faint suppression of MT secretion in contrast to GL and RL at either light or dark time points, with the following rank order: GL < RL < WL < BL. Larger circadian amplitude of MT levels was observed in GL group versus BL group (at P14: 87.70 pg/mL vs. 19.85 pg/mL, respectively). Pinealectomy disturbed the MT rhythm under different light colors, especially in RL. Additionally, consistent with the alteration of plasma MT levels, we observed increased AANAT mRNA expression and immunoreactive cell numbers of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and c-Fos in the pineal gland or retina in GL than that of BL, whereas 5-HT immunoreactive cell number was significantly decreased in GL. These data suggested that GL enhanced chick pinealocytes and retinal cells to express AANAT mRNA and to secrete MT, which may be depended on promoting c-Fos expression and cell proliferation. PMID:21618440

  7. Dermal gland secretions of tropical bont tick,Amblyomma variegatum (Acarina: Ixodidae): Biological activity on predators and pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pavis, C; Mauleon, H; Barre, N; Maibeche, M

    1994-07-01

    When they are mechanically disturbed, all instars of the tropical bont tickAmblyomma variegatum exude droplets of a liquid on the dorsal, lateral, and ventral cuticle. These spread out and quickly evaporate. In this study, the possible role of these secretions was investigated in relation to predators and pathogens. In laboratory bioassays, it was demonstrated that the secretions from engorged larvae, nymphs, and females have an antibiotic activity against the bacteria speciesBacillus thuringiensis andSerratia marcescens, combined with a repellent effect on a potential predator, the fire-antSolenopsis geminata. PMID:24242646

  8. Changes in the lipid composition of the secretions of the bovine mammary gland during the dry period.

    PubMed

    Bitman, J; Wood, D L; Capuco, A V

    1992-02-01

    To study initiation of milk fat synthesis, lipid composition of mammary secretions at -60, -40, and -10 d prepartum was studied in lactating and nonlactating Holstein cows. Eleven cows were dried off, and 13 cows were milked twice per day throughout the normal dry period. Total neutral lipid was similar in late lactation milk (-60 d) from lactating cows, 2.1 g/dl, and in milk from the dry group, 2.2 g/dl. Neutral lipids decreased to 1.3 and .9 g/dl in quarters from dry cows at -40 and -10 d prepartum. In secretions from dry quarters, triglycerides were 97% of total lipids at -60 d and decreased to 85 and 91% at -40 and -10 d, respectively. Conversely, FFA and monoglycerides increased during the dry period. Lipids associated with fat globule membrane components increased during the dry period. These increases were 10 times for cholesterol, 20 times for cholesteryl esters, and twice for phospholipids. In general, the content of fat globule core lipids (triglycerides) exhibited a pattern opposite that of membrane lipids (cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids) during the prepartum period. Proportions of core lipids tended to decrease, whereas proportions of membrane lipids increased in prepartum mammary secretions. Lipid composition of prepartum secretions may be influenced by blood lipids, somatic cells, and alterations in mammary lipid synthesis. PMID:1560138

  9. Secretions from the ventral eversible gland of Spodoptera exigua caterpillars activate defense-related genes and induce emission of volatile organic compounds in tomato, Solanum lycopersicum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant induced defense against herbivory are generally associated with metabolic costs that result in the allocation of photosynthates from growth and reproduction to the synthesis of defense compounds. Therefore, it is essential that plants are capable of sensing and differentiating mechanical injury from herbivore injury. Studies have shown that oral secretions (OS) from caterpillars contain elicitors of induced plant responses. However, studies that shows whether these elicitors originated from salivary glands or from other organs associated with feeding, such as the ventral eversible gland (VEG) are limited. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the secretions from the VEG gland of Spodoptera exigua caterpillars contain elicitors that induce plant defenses by regulating the expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other defense-related genes. To test this hypothesis, we quantified and compared the activity of defense-related enzymes, transcript levels of defense-related genes and VOC emission in tomato plants damaged by S. exigua caterpillars with the VEG intact (VEGI) versus plants damaged by caterpillars with the VEG ablated (VEGA). Results The quantified defense-related enzymes (i.e. peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and lipoxigenase) were expressed in significantly higher amounts in plants damaged by VEGI caterpillars than in plants damaged by VEGA caterpillars. Similarly, the genes that encode for the key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid and terpene synthase genes that regulate production of terpene VOCs, were up-regulated in plants damaged by VEGI caterpillars. Moreover, the OS of VEGA caterpillars were less active in inducing the expression of defense genes in tomato plants. Increased emissions of VOCs were detected in the headspace of plants damaged by VEGI caterpillars compared to plants damaged by VEGA caterpillars. Conclusion These results suggest that the VEG of S. exigua caterpillars contains elicitors of late plant defense signaling in tomato which trigger defense-related enzymatic activity, regulate expression of defense-related genes, and induce emission of plant VOCs. These signaling cascades may have important ramifications for plant-insect and tritrophic interactions. PMID:24885633

  10. Anticomplementary fraction from the poisonous secretion of the paratoid gland of the toad (Bufo marinus paracnemis Lutz).

    PubMed

    de Assis, A I; Barbosa, J E; de Carvalho, I F

    1985-07-15

    Fractionation of the poisonous secretion of the toad Bufo marinus paracnemis Lutz, by dialysis and chromatography on QAE-Sephadex, led to the isolation of a fraction which was adsorbed to the ion exchanger. This fraction, when incubated with human serum, yielded an anticomplementary effect that was evaluated by measuring the kinetics of lytic activity on sensitized sheep red cells (classical pathway) and unsensitized rabbit cells (alternative pathway). PMID:3924651

  11. Mammary Glands: Developmental Changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mammary gland progresses from the accumulation of a few cells in the embryonic ectoderm to a highly arborescent tubulo-alveolar gland capable of secreting a highly nutritious product for consumption. Throughout this progression, various changes occur during each developmental stage: prenatal, pr...

  12. Isolated secretion granules from parotid glands of chronically stimulated rats possess an alkaline internal pH and inward-directed H/sup +/ pump activity

    SciTech Connect

    Arvan, P.; Castle, J.D.

    1986-10-01

    Secretion granules have been isolated from the parotid glands of rats that have been chronically stimulated with the ..beta..-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol. These granules are of interest because they package a quantitatively different set of secretory proteins in comparison with granules from the normal gland. Polypeptides enriched in proline, glycine, and glutamine, which are known to have pI's >10, replace ..cap alpha..-amylase (pI's = 6.8) as the principal content species. The internal pH of granules from the treated rats changes from 7.8 in a potassium sulfate medium to 6.9 in a choline chloride medium. The increased pH over that of normal parotid granules (approx.6.8) appears to protect the change in composition of the secretory contents. Whereas normal mature parotide granules have practically negligible levels of H/sup +/ pumping ATPase activity, the isolated granules from isoproterenol-treated rats undergo a time-dependent internal acidification that requires the presence of ATP and is abolished by an H/sup +/ ionophore. Additionally, an inside-positive granule transmembrane potential develops after ATP addition that depends upon ATP hydrolysis. Two independent methods have been used that exclude the possibility that contaminating organelles are the source of the H/sup +/-ATPase activity. Together these data provide clear evidence for the presence of an H/sup +/ pump in the membranes of parotid granules from chronically stimulated rats. However, despite the presence of H/sup +/-pump activity, fluorescence microscopy with the weak base, acridine orange, reveals that the intragranular pH in live cells is greater than that of the cytoplasm.

  13. Adrenal glands

    MedlinePlus

    The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands. One gland is located on top of each kidney. ... Each adrenal gland is about the size of the top part of the thumb. The outer part of the gland is ...

  14. CRTAC1 homolog proteins are conserved from cyanobacteria to man and secreted by the teleost fish pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Redruello, Begoña; Louro, Bruno; Anjos, Liliana; Silva, Nádia; Greenwell, Roger S; Canario, Adelino V M; Power, Deborah M

    2010-05-15

    Cartilage acidic protein 1 (CRTAC1) gene expression is used as a marker for chondrocyte differentiation in stem cell-based tissue engineering. It is also transcribed outside the skeleton where at least two different transcripts are expressed in lung and brain. In the pituitary gland of the teleost fish sea bream Sparus auratus, we have found a transcript with a high degree of sequence identity to CRTAC1 family members but lacking the EGF-like calcium-binding domain encoding sequence of CRTAC1 and designated it as CRTAC2. Database searches revealed many previously unidentified members of the CRTAC1 and CRTAC2 in phylogenetically distant organisms, such as cyanobacteria, bryophyta, lancelets, and diverse representatives of vertebrates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the genes encoding CRTAC1 and CRTAC2 proteins coexist in teleost fish genomes. Structural prediction analysis identified the N-terminal region of the CRTAC1/CRTAC2 family members as a potential seven-bladed beta-propeller structure, closely related to those of integrin alpha chains and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D1 protein families. This relationship is confirmed by phylogenetic analysis with the N-terminal domain of sea bream CRTAC2 as the most divergent sequence. Because teleost fishes are the only phylogenetic group where both CRTAC1 and CRTAC2 genes are present, they occupy a pivotal position in studies of the mechanisms governing the specific expression patterns of each gene/protein subfamily. This will be essential to elucidate their respective biological roles. PMID:20171266

  15. Coevolution of the ATPase ClpV, the Sheath Proteins TssB and TssC, and the Accessory Protein TagJ/HsiE1 Distinguishes Type VI Secretion Classes*

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Andreas; Planamente, Sara; Manoli, Eleni; Lossi, Nadine S.; Freemont, Paul S.; Filloux, Alain

    2014-01-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a bacterial nanomachine for the transport of effector molecules into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. It involves the assembly of a tubular structure composed of TssB and TssC that is similar to the tail sheath of bacteriophages. The sheath contracts to provide the energy needed for effector delivery. The AAA+ ATPase ClpV disassembles the contracted sheath, which resets the systems for reassembly of an extended sheath that is ready to fire again. This mechanism is crucial for T6SS function. In Vibrio cholerae, ClpV binds the N terminus of TssC within a hydrophobic groove. In this study, we resolved the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ClpV1 and observed structural alterations in the hydrophobic groove. The modification in the ClpV1 groove is matched by a change in the N terminus of TssC, suggesting the existence of distinct T6SS classes. An accessory T6SS component, TagJ/HsiE, exists predominantly in one of the classes. Using bacterial two-hybrid approaches, we showed that the P. aeruginosa homolog HsiE1 interacts strongly with ClpV1. We then resolved the crystal structure of HsiE1 in complex with the N terminus of HsiB1, a TssB homolog and component of the contractile sheath. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these differences distinguish T6SS classes that resulted from a functional co-evolution between TssB, TssC, TagJ/HsiE, and ClpV. The interaction of TagJ/HsiE with the sheath as well as with ClpV suggests an alternative mode of disassembly in which HsiE recruits the ATPase to the sheath. PMID:25305017

  16. Alkaline phosphatase activity in whitefly salivary glands and saliva.

    PubMed

    Funk, C J

    2001-04-01

    Alkaline phosphatase activity was histochemically localized in adult whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci B biotype, syn. B. argentifolii) with a chromogenic substrate (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolylphosphate) and a fluorogenic substrate (ELF-97). The greatest amount of staining was in the basal regions of adult salivary glands with additional activity traced into the connecting salivary ducts. Other tissues that had alkaline phosphatase activity were the accessory salivary glands, the midgut, the portion of the ovariole surrounding the terminal oocyte, and the colleterial gland. Whitefly nymphs had activity in salivary ducts, whereas activity was not detected in two aphid species (Rhodobium porosum and Aphis gossypii). Whitefly diet (15% sucrose) was collected from whitefly feeding chambers and found to have alkaline phosphatase activity, indicating the enzyme was secreted in saliva. Further studies with salivary alkaline phosphatase collected from diet indicated that the enzyme had a pH optimum of 10.4 and was inhibited by 1 mM cysteine and to a lesser extent 1 mM histidine. Dithiothreitol, inorganic phosphate, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) also inhibited activity, whereas levamisole only partially inhibited salivary alkaline phosphatase. The enzyme was heat tolerant and retained approximately 50% activity after a 1-h treatment at 65 degrees C. The amount of alkaline phosphatase activity secreted by whiteflies increased under conditions that stimulate increased feeding. These observations indicate alkaline phosphatase may play a role during whitefly feeding. PMID:11304750

  17. The Laser Accessory Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Ashvin

    1988-09-01

    Wandering through the exhibit hall yesterday, I noticed that if you look at the laser companies and if you look at the accessory companies, there are pretty much the same number of accessory booths as well as the laser companies. There was one difference. Laser company booths are all sexy looking, very flashy, big booths. Whereas if you look at the accessories booths, they were small, not so prominent.

  18. Airway Gland Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Widdicombe, Jonathan H; Wine, Jeffrey J

    2015-10-01

    Submucosal glands contribute to airway surface liquid (ASL), a film that protects all airway surfaces. Glandular mucus comprises electrolytes, water, the gel-forming mucin MUC5B, and hundreds of different proteins with diverse protective functions. Gland volume per unit area of mucosal surface correlates positively with impaction rate of inhaled particles. In human main bronchi, the volume of the glands is ∼ 50 times that of surface goblet cells, but the glands diminish in size and frequency distally. ASL and its trapped particles are removed from the airways by mucociliary transport. Airway glands have a tubuloacinar structure, with a single terminal duct, a nonciliated collecting duct, then branching secretory tubules lined with mucous cells and ending in serous acini. They allow for a massive increase in numbers of mucus-producing cells without replacing surface ciliated cells. Active secretion of Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) by serous cells produces most of the fluid of gland secretions. Glands are densely innervated by tonically active, mutually excitatory airway intrinsic neurons. Most gland mucus is secreted constitutively in vivo, with large, transient increases produced by emergency reflex drive from the vagus. Elevations of [cAMP]i and [Ca(2+)]i coordinate electrolyte and macromolecular secretion and probably occur together for baseline activity in vivo, with cholinergic elevation of [Ca(2+)]i being mainly responsive for transient increases in secretion. Altered submucosal gland function contributes to the pathology of all obstructive diseases, but is an early stage of pathogenesis only in cystic fibrosis. PMID:26336032

  19. Cloning and functional characterization of a fatty acid transport protein (FATP) from the pheromone gland of a lichen moth, Eilema japonica, which secretes an alkenyl sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Qian, Shuguang; Fujii, Takeshi; Ito, Katsuhiko; Nakano, Ryo; Ishikawa, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    Sex pheromones of moths are largely classified into two types based on the presence (Type I) or absence (Type II) of a terminal functional group. While Type-I sex pheromones are synthesized from common fatty acids in the pheromone gland (PG), Type-II sex pheromones are derived from hydrocarbons produced presumably in the oenocytes and transported to the PG via the hemolymph. Recently, a fatty acid transport protein (BmFATP) was identified from the PG of the silkworm Bombyx mori, which produces a Type-I sex pheromone (bombykol). BmFATP was shown to facilitate the uptake of extracellular fatty acids into PG cells for the synthesis of bombykol. To elucidate the presence and function of FATP in the PG of moths that produce Type-II sex pheromones, we explored fatp homologues expressed in the PG of a lichen moth, Eilema japonica, which secretes an alkenyl sex pheromone (Type II). A fatp homologue cloned from E. japonica (Ejfatp) was predominantly expressed in the PG, and its expression is upregulated shortly after eclosion. Functional expression of EjFATP in Escherichia coli enhanced the uptake of long chain fatty acids (C₁₈ and C₂₀), but not pheromone precursor hydrocarbons. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the cloning and functional characterization of a FATP in the PG of a moth producing a Type-II sex pheromone. Although EjFATP is not likely to be involved in the uptake of pheromone precursors in E. japonica, the expression pattern of Ejfatp suggests a role for EjFATP in the PG not directly linked to pheromone biosynthesis. PMID:20875854

  20. Insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in the bovine mammary gland: Receptors, endogenous secretion, and appearance in milk

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    This is the first study to characterize both insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) in bovine milk, to characterize the IGF-I receptor in the dry and lactating mammary gland, and to report de novo synthesis and secretion of IGF-I and IGFBP from normal mammary tissue. Immunoreactive IGF-I was principally associated with 45 kDa IGFBP in milk. Multiparous cows had a higher IGF-I concentration of 307 ng/ml than primiparous cows at 147 ng/ml. IGF-I concentration on day 56 of lactation was 34 ng/ml for combined parity groups. At parturition, IGF-I mass in blood and milk pools was 1.4 and 1.2 mg, respectively. Binding of {sup 125}I-IGF-I was specific for IGF-I with anIC{sub 50} of 2.2 ng which was a 10- and 1273-fold greater affinity than IGF-II and insulin, respectively. Association constants, as determined by Scatchard analysis, were similar for both pregnant and lactating cows at 3.5 and 4.0 L/nM, respectively. In addition, estimated mean receptor concentration was 0.25 and 0.23 pM/mg protein for pregnant and lactating cows, respectively. In a survey of mammary microscomes prepared from 48 cows, {sup 125}I-IGF-I binding declined with progressing lactation and a similar trend was observed during pregnancy.

  1. The ABCG2 Efflux Transporter in the Mammary Gland Mediates Veterinary Drug Secretion across the Blood-Milk Barrier into Milk of Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Mahnke, Hanna; Ballent, Mariana; Baumann, Sven; Imperiale, Fernanda; von Bergen, Martin; Lanusse, Carlos; Lifschitz, Adrian L; Honscha, Walther; Halwachs, Sandra

    2016-05-01

    In human and mice ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter ABCG2 represents the main route for active drug transport into milk. However, there is no detailed information on the role of ABCG2 in drug secretion and accumulation in milk of dairy animals. We therefore examined ABCG2-mediated drug transport in the bovine mammary gland by parallel pharmacokinetic studies in lactating Jersey cows and in vitro flux studies using the anthelmintic drug monepantel (MNP) as representative bovine ABCG2 (bABCG2) drug substrate. Animals received MNP (Zolvix, Novartis Animal Health Inc.) once (2.5 mg/kg per os) and the concentrations of MNP and the active MNP metabolite MNPSO2were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared with the parent drug MNP, we detected higher MNPSO2plasma concentrations (expressed as area under the concentration-versus-time curve). Moreover, we observed MNPSO2excretion into milk of dairy cows with a high milk-to-plasma ratio of 6.75. In mechanistic flux assays, we determined a preferential time-dependent basolateral-to-apical (B > A) MNPSO2transport across polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells-bABCG2 monolayers using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The B > A MNPSO2transport was significantly inhibited by the ABCG2 inhibitor fumitremorgin C in bABCG2- but not in mock-transduced MDCKII cells. Additionally, the antibiotic drug enrofloxacin, the benzimidazole anthelmintic oxfendazole and the macrocyclic lactone anthelmintic moxidectin caused a reduction in the MNPSO2(B > A) net efflux. Altogether, this study indicated that therapeutically relevant drugs like the anthelmintic MNP represent substrates of the bovine mammary ABCG2 transporter and may thereby be actively concentrated in dairy milk. PMID:26956640

  2. Urea concentration in minor mucous gland secretions and the effect of salivary film velocity on urea metabolism by Streptococcus vestibularis in an artificial plaque.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, L M; Dawes, C

    1991-09-01

    Our purpose was to determine the urea concentration in minor mucous gland (MMG) secretions and the pH at proximal and distal aspects of the lower surface of artificial plaque in vitro during infusion of urea solutions over the surface, at different film velocities. Saliva is present in the mouth as a slowly moving film (ca. 0.1 mm thick) with an estimated velocity in the range of 0.8-8.0 mm/min. At low velocities, due to the accumulation of bacterial products, a progressive increase in their concentration may occur in both the plaque and the overlying salivary film at the distal edge (where the film leaves the plaque). S. vestibularis, an oral micro-organism possessing ureolytic activity, was combined with 1% agarose, to give a urease Vmax similar to that of natural plaque. The artificial plaque was in the chamber (6.0 x 6.0 square and 0.5 or 1.5 mm deep) of a diffusion apparatus, and a urea-containing artificial saliva (3.3 or 13.2 mmol/l) was infused over the surface, as a film 0.1 mm deep, at velocities of 0.8, 8.2 and 86.2 mm/min. At the lower (physiologically normal) urea concentration and the two lower film velocities, most urea appeared to be metabolized at the proximal end of the plaque, which developed a higher pH. At the higher urea concentration, and a film velocity of 8 mm/min, a higher pH was found at the distal end. This was probably due to the combination of greater urea availability and a reduced rate of ammonia loss distally. At a film velocity of 86.2 mm/min, proximal/distal pH gradients did not develop.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1832451

  3. Characterization and expression analysis of a gene encoding a secreted lipase-like protein expressed in the salivary glands of larval Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Hessian fly is a destructive pest of wheat particularly in the soft-winter-wheat region of the United States. In a salivary gland transcriptomics study we identified a full-length cDNA encoding a lipase-like protein expressed in the salivary glands of the larval Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructo...

  4. Calcium Signaling in Lacrimal Glands

    PubMed Central

    Putney, James W.; Bird, Gary S.

    2014-01-01

    Lacrimal glands provide the important function of lubricating and protecting the ocular surface. Failure of proper lacrimal gland function results in a number of debilitating dry eye diseases. Lacrimal glands secrete lipids, mucins, proteins, salts and water and these secretions are at least partially regulated by neurotransmitter-mediated cell signaling. The predominant signaling mechanism for lacrimal secretion involves activation of phospholipase C, generation of the Ca2+-mobilizing messenger, IP3, and release of Ca2+ stored in the endoplasmic reticulum. The loss of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum then triggers a process known as store-operated Ca2+ entry, involving a Ca2+ sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum, STIM1, which activates plasma membrane store-operated channels comprised of Orai subunits. Recent studies with deletions of the channel subunit, Orai1, confirm the important role of SOCE in both fluid and protein secretion in lacrimal glands, both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:24507443

  5. Salivary Glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... salivary gland tumors usually show up as painless enlargements of these glands. Tumors rarely involve more than ... otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon should check these enlargements. Malignant tumors of the major salivary glands can ...

  6. [Unknown hepatoid glands of some species of cats and deer].

    PubMed

    Shabadash, S A; Zelikina, T I

    2003-01-01

    Our histological description of the fourth type of mammalian skin glands--hepatiod glands--allowed us to revise the obtained and published data mistaking the alveolar glands of the anal sacs in cats and the limb glands in deers as sebaceous. Large clusters of hepatiod glands were discovered in the anal sacs of the cat, lynx, and tiger, interdigital gland of elk, and the tarsal gland of reindeer. These glands secrete considerable amounts of protein to the clearance of the intercellular canaliculi and contain hydrophobic lipids. The available data substantiate revision of the data on the structure of many skin glandular organs with atypical sebaceous glands. PMID:12942753

  7. Bilateral Gigantomastia, Multiple Synchronous Nodular Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia Involving Breast and Bilateral Axillary Accessory Breast Tissue, and Perianal Mammary-Type Hamartoma of Anogenital Mammary-Like Glands: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Malcolm M; Konstantinova, Anastasia M; Kacerovska, Denisa; Michal, Michal; Kreuzberg, Boris; Suvova, Bozena; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2016-05-01

    Mammary-type fibroepithelial lesions involving ectopic breast and anogenital region are rare and usually coexist with normal orthotopic breast. We present what we believe to be a unique case of synchronous bilateral gestational gigantomastia resembling fibrous mastopathy, synchronous rapidly growing pregnancy-associated nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia involving right breast and bilateral axillary ectopic breast tissue, and metachronous perianal mammary-type hamartoma involving anogenital mammary-like glands occurring in a 34-year-old patient with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Also, we review the literature concerning these lesions. PMID:26863057

  8. Anesthetic Considerations on Adrenal Gland Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Domi, Rudin; Sula, Hektor; Kaci, Myzafer; Paparisto, Sokol; Bodeci, Artan; Xhemali, Astrit

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal gland surgery needs a multidisciplinary team including endocrinologist, radiologist, anesthesiologist, and surgeon. The indications for adrenal gland surgery include hormonal secreting and non-hormonal secreting tumors. Adrenal hormonal secreting tumors present to the anesthesiologist unique challenges requiring good preoperative evaluation, perioperative hemodynamic control, corrections of all electrolytes and metabolic abnormalities, a detailed and careful anesthetic strategy, overall knowledge about the specific diseases, control and maintaining of postoperative adrenal function, and finally a good collaboration with other involved colleagues. This review will focus on the endocrine issues, as well as on the above-mentioned aspects of anesthetic management during hormone secreting adrenal gland tumor resection. PMID:25368694

  9. The in vitro and in ovo effects of environmental illumination and temperature on the melatonin secretion from the embryonic chicken pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Faluhelyi, Nándor; Matkovits, Attila; Párniczky, Andrea; Csernus, Valér

    2009-04-01

    Pineal glands of chicken embryos were placed into a perifusion system for 4 days. The pineal glands were illuminated or exposed to elevated temperature for 8 or 12 h during the in vitro experiment and/or in ovo. Both daily illumination and repeated elevations of environmental temperature transitionally inhibited melatonin release before, and controlled the phase of melatonin rhythm after, the 17th day of embryonic life (E17). In addition, the in ovo rhythmic illumination applied before E13 advances the development of the circadian hormone synthesis. PMID:19456366

  10. Pituitary gland

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... gland is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus decides which hormones the pituitary should release by sending it either ... the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland releases the following hormones: GH (growth hormone) – increases size of muscle and ...

  11. BMP-regulated exosomes from Drosophila male reproductive glands reprogram female behavior

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Laura; Redhai, Siamak; Leiblich, Aaron; Fan, Shih-Jung; Perera, Sumeth M.W.; Patel, Rachel; Gandy, Carina; Wainwright, S. Mark; Morris, John F.; Hamdy, Freddie; Goberdhan, Deborah C.I.

    2014-01-01

    Male reproductive glands secrete signals into seminal fluid to facilitate reproductive success. In Drosophila melanogaster, these signals are generated by a variety of seminal peptides, many produced by the accessory glands (AGs). One epithelial cell type in the adult male AGs, the secondary cell (SC), grows selectively in response to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. This signaling is involved in blocking the rapid remating of mated females, which contributes to the reproductive advantage of the first male to mate. In this paper, we show that SCs secrete exosomes, membrane-bound vesicles generated inside late endosomal multivesicular bodies (MVBs). After mating, exosomes fuse with sperm (as also seen in vitro for human prostate-derived exosomes and sperm) and interact with female reproductive tract epithelia. Exosome release was required to inhibit female remating behavior, suggesting that exosomes are downstream effectors of BMP signaling. Indeed, when BMP signaling was reduced in SCs, vesicles were still formed in MVBs but not secreted as exosomes. These results demonstrate a new function for the MVB–exosome pathway in the reproductive tract that appears to be conserved across evolution. PMID:25154396

  12. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, Joseph J.

    1989-01-01

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention.

  13. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, J.J.

    1989-09-05

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

  14. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Delporte, Christine; Bryla, Angélic; Perret, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. PMID:26828482

  15. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Delporte, Christine; Bryla, Angélic; Perret, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. PMID:26828482

  16. Molecular cloning of mRNA from toad granular gland secretion and lyophilized skin: identification of Bo8--a novel prokineticin from Bombina orientalis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianbao; Xue, Yuanzhen; Zhou, Mei; Shaw, Chris

    2005-03-01

    Prokineticins are small (approximately 8 kDa), biologically active secretory proteins whose primary structures have been highly conserved throughout the Animal Kingdom. Representatives have been identified in the defensive skin secretions of several amphibians reflecting the immense structural/functional diversity of polypeptides in such. Here we describe the identification of a prokineticin homolog (designated Bo8) from the skin secretion of the Oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis). Full primary structural characterization was achieved using a combination of direct Edman microsequencing, mass spectrometry and cloning of encoding skin cDNA. The latter approach employed a recently described technique that we developed for the cloning of secretory peptide cDNAs from lyophilized skin secretion, and this was further extended to employ lyophilized skin as the starting material for cDNA library construction. The Bo8 precursor was found to consist of an open-reading frame of 96 amino acid residues consisting of a putative 19-residue signal peptide followed by a single 77-residue prokineticin (Mr=7990 Da). Amino acid substitutions in skin prokineticins from the skin secretions of bombinid toads are confined to discrete sites affording the necessary information for structure/activity studies and analog design. PMID:15652643

  17. Biomarker genes highlight intraspecific and interspecific variations in the responses of Pinus taeda L. and Pinus radiata D. Don to Sirex noctilio F. acid gland secretions.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Bordeaux JM; Lorenz WW; Dean JF

    2012-10-01

    Sirex noctilio F., a Eurasian horntail woodwasp recently introduced into North America, oviposits in pines and other conifers and in the process spreads a phytopathogenic fungus that serves as a food source for its larvae. During oviposition the woodwasp also deposits mucus produced in its acid (venom) gland that alters pine defense responses and facilitates infection by the fungus. A 26,496-feature loblolly pine cDNA microarray was used to survey gene expression of pine tissue responding to S. noctilio venom. Six genes were selected for further assessment by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), including one that encoded an apparent PR-4 protein and another that encoded a thaumatin-like protein. Expression of both was strongly induced in response to venom, while expression of an apparent actin gene (ACT1) was stable in response to the venom. The pattern of gene response was similar in Pinus taeda L. and Pinus radiata D. Don, but the magnitude of response in P. radiata was significantly stronger for each of the induced genes. The magnitude of the biomarker gene response to venom also varied according to genotype within these two species. The qRT-PCR assay was used to demonstrate that the primary bioactive component in S. noctilio venom is a polypeptide.

  18. Biomarker genes highlight intraspecific and interspecific variations in the responses of Pinus taeda L. and Pinus radiata D. Don to Sirex noctilio F. acid gland secretions.

    PubMed

    Bordeaux, John Michael; Lorenz, W Walter; Dean, Jeffrey F D

    2012-10-01

    Sirex noctilio F., a Eurasian horntail woodwasp recently introduced into North America, oviposits in pines and other conifers and in the process spreads a phytopathogenic fungus that serves as a food source for its larvae. During oviposition the woodwasp also deposits mucus produced in its acid (venom) gland that alters pine defense responses and facilitates infection by the fungus. A 26,496-feature loblolly pine cDNA microarray was used to survey gene expression of pine tissue responding to S. noctilio venom. Six genes were selected for further assessment by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), including one that encoded an apparent PR-4 protein and another that encoded a thaumatin-like protein. Expression of both was strongly induced in response to venom, while expression of an apparent actin gene (ACT1) was stable in response to the venom. The pattern of gene response was similar in Pinus taeda L. and Pinus radiata D. Don, but the magnitude of response in P. radiata was significantly stronger for each of the induced genes. The magnitude of the biomarker gene response to venom also varied according to genotype within these two species. The qRT-PCR assay was used to demonstrate that the primary bioactive component in S. noctilio venom is a polypeptide. PMID:23042767

  19. Morphology and volatile compounds of metathoracic scent gland in Tessaratoma papillosa (Drury) (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, D; Gao, J; Wang, Y; Jiang, J; Li, R

    2012-08-01

    Tessaratoma papillosa (Drury) (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae) is a serious insect pest of litchi and longan in South China. When disturbed, this insect could release large quantities of disagreeable odorous volatiles from its scent gland. Knowledge on the scent gland and its secretion is crucial for developing the semiochemical methods to manage this pest. Morphology and ultrastructure of the metathoracic scent glands (MTGs) were studied under stereo and scanning electron microscopy, and the volatile compounds of MTGs from both male and female T. papillosa were analyzed with coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The MTG complex is located between the metathorax and the first abdominal segment at the ventral surface of the insect, which has a well-developed single double valve cystic-shaped orange median reservoir, paired colorless lateral glands in both sides, and a long and wavy tubular accessory gland that inlays tightly into the ventral edge around the median reservoir. The MTG opens to the body surface through paired ostioles located between the meso- and metacoxae of the evaporatorium with mushroom bodies. The GC-MS analyses showed that female and male adults have nine major volatile components in common. Tridecane is the most abundant in both females and males, reaching up to 47.1% and 51.8% of relative amount, respectively. The minor component is benzophenone with only 0.28% and 0.14%. Furthermore, undecane, tetradecane, 3-methyl-tridecane, and cyclopentadecane were found only in males. The possible function of volatile compounds of MTG contents in T. papillosa is addressed. PMID:23950062

  20. Cancer of the accessory breast--a case report.

    PubMed

    Madej, B; Balak, B; Winkler, I; Burdan, F

    2009-01-01

    Breast neoplasm may develop in ectopically located glandular tissue. This paper presents an interesting and rare case of a 50-year-old female who despite regular mammography screening examination developed an invasive accessory breast cancer. Clinical examination revealed a 2 cm - tumour localized 4 cm below the left inframammary fold. The lesion was immobile, the skin and the atrophic nipple were retracted, the tumour infiltrated the thoracic wall. Oligobiopsy and additional examinations showed an invasive stage IIIB ductal breast cancer (Bloom II, G-2). The receptor status was: ER(+), PGR(+), HER2(-). The increased level of cancer antigen 15.3 was found. The patient was submitted to pre-operative chemotherapy. She also underwent surgery and subsequently post-operative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. On the basis of the presented case, it could be concluded that the accessory mammary glands are out of the image of screening breast examinations. Accessory breast cancer is usually diagnosed by clinical examination and ultrasonography. Preventive resection of accessory breast in women at high risk of developing breast cancer can be considered as the treatment of choice in most patients. PMID:19808163

  1. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... section, be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b... Controls and Accessories § 23.1163 Powerplant accessories. (a) Each engine mounted accessory must— (1) Be approved for mounting on the engine involved and use the provisions on the engines for mounting; or...

  2. 14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accessory attachments. 33.25 Section 33.25... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.25 Accessory attachments. The engine must operate properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive...

  3. 14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accessory attachments. 33.25 Section 33.25... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.25 Accessory attachments. The engine must operate properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive...

  4. 14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accessory attachments. 33.25 Section 33.25... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.25 Accessory attachments. The engine must operate properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive...

  5. 14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accessory attachments. 33.25 Section 33.25... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.25 Accessory attachments. The engine must operate properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive...

  6. Biological Roles of Uterine Glands in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, uterine receptivity, and stromal cell decidualization in humans and animal models. The infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss observed in the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model unequivocally supports a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid in survival and development of the conceptus. Further, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation as well as stromal cell decidualization. Similarly in humans, uterine glands and their secretory products are likely critical regulators of blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus growth and development during the first trimester. Circumstantial evidence suggests that deficient glandular activity may be a causative factor in pregnancy failure and complications in humans. Thus, an increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of fertility and pregnancy problems in mammals. PMID:24959816

  7. The physiology of salivary secretion.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Gordon B

    2016-02-01

    Saliva in the mouth is a biofluid produced mainly by three pairs of major salivary glands--the submandibular, parotid and sublingual glands--along with secretions from many minor submucosal salivary glands. Salivary gland secretion is a nerve-mediated reflex and the volume of saliva secreted is dependent on the intensity and type of taste and on chemosensory, masticatory or tactile stimulation. Long periods of low (resting or unstimulated) flow are broken by short periods of high flow, which is stimulated by taste and mastication. The nerve-mediated salivary reflex is modulated by nerve signals from other centers in the central nervous system, which is most obvious as hyposalivation at times of anxiety. An example of other neurohormonal influences on the salivary reflex is the circadian rhythm, which affects salivary flow and ionic composition. Cholinergic parasympathetic and adrenergic sympathetic autonomic nerves evoke salivary secretion, signaling through muscarinic M3 and adrenoceptors on salivary acinar cells and leading to secretion of fluid and salivary proteins. Saliva gland acinar cells are chloride and sodium secreting, and the isotonic fluid produced is rendered hypotonic by salivary gland duct cells as it flows to the mouth. The major proteins present in saliva are secreted by salivary glands, creating viscoelasticity and enabling the coating of oral surfaces with saliva. Salivary films are essential for maintaining oral health and regulating the oral microbiome. Saliva in the mouth contains a range of validated and potential disease biomarkers derived from epithelial cells, neutrophils, the microbiome, gingival crevicular fluid and serum. For example, cortisol levels are used in the assessment of stress, matrix metalloproteinases-8 and -9 appear to be promising markers of caries and periodontal disease, and a panel of mRNA and proteins has been proposed as a marker of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Understanding the mechanisms by which components enter saliva is an important aspect of validating their use as biomarkers of health and disease. PMID:26662479

  8. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and nervous systems work very closely together. The brain continuously sends instructions to the endocrine system, and ... master switchboard because it’s the part of the brain that controls the endocrine system. The pituitary gland, ...

  9. Microscopy of the echidna sublingual glands.

    PubMed

    Krause, William J

    2011-10-01

    The secretory units and duct system of the echidna sublingual glands exhibit subtle architectural modifications to accommodate the viscous secretion produced by these glands. The glands are compound tubular glands, the secretory units of which are elongate with open lumina and consist only of mucous cells. Closely packed spindle-shaped myoepithelial cells invest the secretory units, but are absent around the ducts. The branched secretory tubules open into an abbreviated duct system characterized by wide lumina. Striated ducts normally associated with the second portion of the intralobular duct system are absent. The duct system shows the most obvious modification of general salivary gland architecture presumably to accommodate the viscous secretion propelled from the secretory units by surrounding myoepithelial cells. PMID:21671992

  10. Accessory drive for a turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Brogdon, J.W.; Allen, K.D.; Barton, J.S.; Hicks, R.J.

    1987-02-03

    This patent describes, in combination: a radial flow turbine engine having a main shaft and a casing with air inlets open radially at one end, and an accessory drive comprising: an accessory housing positioned axially adjacent the one end of the turbine engine casing, a gear ring rotatably mounted within the accessory housing, means for mechanically drivingly connecting the gear ring to the turbine main shaft, the connecting means comprising a planetary gear arrangement contained in the accessory housing, the accessory housing having apertures open to the gear ring and circumferentially spaced from each other, at least one accessory having a driven gear, and means for mounting the at least one accessory to the accessory housing so that the accessory registers with one of the plurality of apertures and so that the gear ring meshes with the driven gear, wherein each aperture is adapted for connection with a separate accessory.

  11. The rodent accessory olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Mucignat-Caretta, Carla

    2010-10-01

    The accessory olfactory system contributes to the perception of chemical stimuli in the environment. This review summarizes the structure of the accessory olfactory system, the stimuli that activate it, and the responses elicited in the receptor cells and in the brain. The accessory olfactory system consists of a sensory organ, the vomeronasal organ, and its central projection areas: the accessory olfactory bulb, which is connected to the amygdala and hypothalamus, and also to the cortex. In the vomeronasal organ, several receptors-in contrast to the main olfactory receptors-are sensitive to volatile or nonvolatile molecules. In a similar manner to the main olfactory epithelium, the vomeronasal organ is sensitive to common odorants and pheromones. Each accessory olfactory bulb receives input from the ipsilateral vomeronasal organ, but its activity is modulated by centrifugal projections arising from other brain areas. The processing of vomeronasal stimuli in the amygdala involves contributions from the main olfactory system, and results in long-lasting responses that may be related to the activation of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal axis over a prolonged timeframe. Different brain areas receive inputs from both the main and the accessory olfactory systems, possibly merging the stimulation of the two sensory organs to originate a more complex and integrated chemosensory perception. PMID:20607541

  12. Anatomy, biogenesis and regeneration of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Kyle V; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients' quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland, which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting that nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of 3 general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph. PMID:24862590

  13. Anatomy, biogenesis, and regeneration of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Kyle V.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients per year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland (SMG), which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of three general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy, and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph. PMID:24862590

  14. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) innervation of the human eyelid glands.

    PubMed

    Seifert, P; Spitznas, M

    1999-06-01

    This study was conducted to obtain morphological proof of innervating nerve fibres in the glands of the human eyelid (accessory lacrimal glands of Wolfring, meibomian glands, goblet cells, glands of Zeis, glands of Moll, sweat glands, glands of lanugo hair follicles) and identification of the secretomotorically active neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) as a common transmitter. Epoxy-embedded ultrathin sections of tissue samples from human eyelids were studied using electron microscopy. Paraffin sections fixed in Bouin-Hollande solution were immunostained with rabbit antiserum against VIP. With the electron microscope we were able to identify nerves in the glandular stroma of all the glands examined with the exception of goblet cells. Intraepithelial single axons were only seen in the parenchyma of Wolfring glands. The morphological findings corresponded with the immunological finding of VIP-positive, nerve-like structures in the same locations, with the exception of lanugo hair follicle glands, and goblet cells. Our findings indicate that the glands of the eyelids and main lacrimal gland represent a functional unit with VIP as a possible common stimulating factor. PMID:10375432

  15. Moult-related changes in ampullate silk gland morphology and usage in the araneid spider Araneus cavaticus.

    PubMed

    Townley, M A; Tillinghast, E K; Cherim, N A

    1993-04-29

    Major ampullate (MaA) and minor ampullate (MiA) silk glands of juvenile Araneus cavaticus (third to penultimate instars) were examined by dissection at various times relative to ecdysis. Several days before ecdysis the larger pairs of MaA and MiA glands become non-functional and remain so until ecdysis. Nevertheless, proecdysial spiders are able to draw ampullate fibres due to the presence of smaller pairs of MaA and MiA glands which are functional at this time. Indeed, it appears that these smaller ampullate glands are intended for use only during proecdysis. Thus, larger MaA and MiA glands and smaller MaA and MiA glands are typically not used concurrently (a brief transitional period is an exception). The smaller ampullate glands functioning in one juvenile stadium regress in the following stadium and become (what have previously been referred to as) accessory MaA and MiA glands. These nonfunctional accessory ampullate glands do not re-develop into functional smaller ampullate glands until the following stadium. Thus, a given pair of smaller MaA or MiA glands is only functional in every other juvenile stadium. However, because there are two sets of smaller/accessory MaA and MiA glands which function alternately, the spider is able to produce ampullate fibres during the proecdysial portion of each stadium. A new terminology for the larger, smaller and accessory ampullate glands is proposed which emphasizes the kinship between the two sets of smaller/accessory ampullate glands. PMID:8099743

  16. IGF-I stimulation of luteinizing hormone secretion, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) and expression of mRNAs for IGFs, IGF receptors and IGFBPs in the ovine pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Adam, C L; Gadd, T S; Findlay, P A; Wathes, D C

    2000-08-01

    Circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) are reduced in juvenile sheep during nutritional growth restriction and the associated delay in puberty. Since exogenous IGF-I has been shown to stimulate luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, it is postulated that endogenous IGF-I may act as a stimulatory metabolic signal to the pubertal ovine hypothalamo-pituitary axis, yet its site of action is unknown. Using coronal hypothalamic and pituitary sections from pubertal ewe lambs, in vitro autoradiography was used to localise 125I-labelled IGF-I binding, and gene expression for components of the IGF system was localised by in situ hybridisation using oligonucleotide probes. High concentrations of 125I-IGF-I binding were seen in the pars tuberalis (PT) and pars distalis (PD) of the pituitary, and relatively little in the hypothalamus; binding in the PT but not the PD was displaced by excess unlabelled IGF-I. Large amounts of mRNA were detected for the type-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and for IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-5, localised to the PT and PD, and less intense specific hybridisation signals were obtained with mRNAs for IGF-II, type-2 receptor (IGF-2R) and IGFBP-3. There was some evidence for specific hybridisation to IGFBP-4 mRNA in the PT. IGF-I, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 mRNAs were not detected in PT and PD. None of the genes were expressed in hypothalamic tissue. Western-ligand binding on PD extracts from male castrates revealed by their molecular weights the likely presence of IGFBPs-2, -3, and -5. Finally, cultured PD cells from abattoir-killed sheep were challenged with IGF-I (0.1, 1, 10 or 30 nM) or luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH, 10 nM) alone, or both together. Basal LH output was stimulated by 10 nM IGF-I (120+/-11.2%, P>0.05), 30 nM IGF-I (148+/-12.8%, P<0.01), and LHRH alone (200+/-16.1%, P<0.001); there was no additive or subtractive effect of LHRH and IGF-I given together. Thus, an intrapituitary IGF system exists in sheep and the present results are consistent with an endocrine role for IGF-I in nutritional modulation of LH secretion at the level of the pituitary gland. PMID:10927614

  17. Review: The Lacrimal Gland and Its Role in Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Conrady, Christopher D.; Joos, Zachary P.; Patel, Bhupendra C. K.

    2016-01-01

    The human tear film is a 3-layered coating of the surface of the eye and a loss, or reduction, in any layer of this film may result in a syndrome of blurry vision and burning pain of the eyes known as dry eye. The lacrimal gland and accessory glands provide multiple components to the tear film, most notably the aqueous. Dysfunction of these glands results in the loss of aqueous and other products required in ocular surface maintenance and health resulting in dry eye and the potential for significant surface pathology. In this paper, we have reviewed products of the lacrimal gland, diseases known to affect the gland, and historical and emerging dry eye therapies targeting lacrimal gland dysfunction. PMID:27042343

  18. Review: The Lacrimal Gland and Its Role in Dry Eye.

    PubMed

    Conrady, Christopher D; Joos, Zachary P; Patel, Bhupendra C K

    2016-01-01

    The human tear film is a 3-layered coating of the surface of the eye and a loss, or reduction, in any layer of this film may result in a syndrome of blurry vision and burning pain of the eyes known as dry eye. The lacrimal gland and accessory glands provide multiple components to the tear film, most notably the aqueous. Dysfunction of these glands results in the loss of aqueous and other products required in ocular surface maintenance and health resulting in dry eye and the potential for significant surface pathology. In this paper, we have reviewed products of the lacrimal gland, diseases known to affect the gland, and historical and emerging dry eye therapies targeting lacrimal gland dysfunction. PMID:27042343

  19. Accessory chemosignaling mechanisms in primates.

    PubMed

    Evans, C S

    2006-06-01

    Accessory olfaction is defined as the chemoreceptive system that employs the vomeronasal complex (VNC) and its distinct central projections to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) and limbic/cortical systems. Comparisons of the structural and functional features of primate accessory olfaction can now be made at many levels. Advances in the understanding of molecular mechanisms of odorant transfer and detection, physiological analyses of signal processing, and appreciation of ontogenetic timetables have clarified the contribution of accessory chemoreception to the sensory map. Two principal functions dominate: the decoding of social information through the uptake of signals (often fluid-borne), and the provision of an essential pathway for the "migration" of presumptive neurocrine (GnRH) cells from the olfactory placode to the hypothalamus. VN "smelling" (vomerolfaction) is now seen to overlap with primary olfaction. Both systems detect signal compounds along the spectrum of volatility/molecular weight, and neither is an exclusive sensor. Both main and accessory chemoreception seem to require collaborative molecular devices to assist in odorant transfer (binding proteins) and (for the VNO) signal recognition (MHC1 proteins). Most adaptive-selective features of primate chemocommunication variously resemble those of other terrestrial mammals. VN function, along with its genome, has been maintained within the Strepsirrhines and tarsiers, reduced in Platyrrhines, and nearly extinguished at the Catarrhine up to hominin levels. It persists as an intriguing ancient sense that retains key features of past evolutionary events. PMID:16715503

  20. Ion and water transport by isolated cockroach salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Smith, R K; House, C R

    1979-12-31

    When the isolated salivary glands of the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea Oliver are stimulated by dopamine, the putative neurotransmitter, they secrete a fluid containing (mM):Na, 121; K, 47; Cl, 143. Stimulation of glands by 5-hydroxytryptamine or the neuro-transmitter evokes a secretion identical in Na composition to this. Dopamine-evoked secretion is abolished in the absence of extracellular Na. The relationship between the rates of fluid secretion and Na transport is linear. However, at very low rates of secretion the Na concentration falls. Calcium, K and Cl ions can be removed from the bathing solution without abolishing fluid secretion. Our evidence suggests that (i) the primary secretion is formed by active transport of Na in the acini, and (ii) the ionic composition of this secretion is modified by re-absorption of Na and an independent secretion of K in the ducts. PMID:537033

  1. Regulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) by accessory proteins.

    PubMed

    Rotin, D

    2000-09-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) plays a key role in the regulation of fluid absorption in the kidney, lung, colon and exocrine glands, and in the regulation of blood pressure. Abnormal functioning of ENaC is associated with several human diseases, including pseudohypoaldosteronism type I, Liddle's syndrome, pulmonary edema, and cystic fibrosis. ENaC is regulated by several hormones, ions and accessory proteins. This review focuses on the regulation of ENaC by recently described accessory proteins, mainly Nedd4, syntaxin 1A, CFTR, sgk, K-Ras2A and Cap-1. PMID:10990373

  2. New exocrine glands in ants: the hypostomal gland and basitarsal gland in the genus Melissotarsus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölldobler, Bert; Obermayer, Malu; Plowes, Nicola J. R.; Fisher, Brian L.

    2014-07-01

    Fisher and Robertson (Insect Soc 46: 78-83, 1999) discovered the production of silk-like secretions emerging from slit-shaped openings along the anterior margin of the ventral hypostoma of Melissotarsus ant workers. The current histological study describes a hitherto unknown hypostomal gland from which this silk-like substance originates. In addition, this study describes a new basitarsal gland in the three pairs of legs of Melissotarsus workers.

  3. Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins in adrenal disease and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, David S.; Ramachandrappa, Shwetha; Clark, Adrian J.; Chan, Li F.

    2015-01-01

    Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAPs) are regulators of the melanocortin receptor family. MRAP is an essential accessory factor for the functional expression of the MC2R/ACTH receptor. The importance of MRAP in adrenal gland physiology is demonstrated by the clinical condition familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 2. The role of its paralog melanocortin-2-receptor accessory protein 2 (MRAP2), which is predominantly expressed in the hypothalamus including the paraventricular nucleus, has recently been linked to mammalian obesity. Whole body deletion and targeted brain specific deletion of the Mrap2 gene result in severe obesity in mice. Interestingly, Mrap2 complete knockout (KO) mice have increased body weight without detectable changes to food intake or energy expenditure. Rare heterozygous variants of MRAP2 have been found in humans with severe, early-onset obesity. In vitro data have shown that Mrap2 interaction with the melanocortin-4-receptor (Mc4r) affects receptor signaling. However, the mechanism by which Mrap2 regulates body weight in vivo is not fully understood and differences between the phenotypes of Mrap2 and Mc4r KO mice may point toward Mc4r independent mechanisms. PMID:26113808

  4. The nasus gland: a new gland in soldiers of Angularitermes (Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae).

    PubMed

    Šobotník, Jan; Bourguignon, Thomas; Carrijo, Tiago F; Bordereau, Christian; Robert, Alain; Křížková, Barbora; Constantini, Joice P; Cancello, Eliana M

    2015-09-01

    Termites have developed many exocrine glands, generally dedicated to defence or communication. Although a few of these glands occur in all termite species, or represent synapomorphies of larger clades, others are morphological innovations of a single species, or a few related species. Here, we describe the nasus gland, a new gland occurring at the base of the nasus of Angularitermes soldiers. The nasus gland is composed of class 1, 2, and 3 secretory cells, a rare combination that is only shared by the sternal and tergal glands of some termites and cockroaches. The ultrastructural observations suggest that the secretion is produced by class 2 and 3 secretory cells, and released mostly by class 3 cells. The base of the nasus has a rough appearance due to numerous pits bearing openings of canals conducting the secretion from class 3 secretory cells to the exterior. We tentatively assign a defensive function to the nasus gland, although further research is needed to confirm this function. Although the gland is described only from species of Angularitermes, other genera of Nasutitermitinae also present a rough nasus base, suggesting the presence of a similar, possibly homologous, gland. PMID:26342422

  5. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Powerplant accessories. (a) Each engine mounted accessory must— (1) Be approved for mounting on the engine involved; (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing...

  6. 14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Powerplant accessories. (a) Each engine-mounted accessory must— (1) Be approved for mounting on the engine involved; (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Unless other means are provided,...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Powerplant accessories. (a) Each engine mounted accessory must— (1) Be approved for mounting on the engine involved; (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or...

  8. 14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... drive splines, or coupling by engine oil, must include provisions for sealing to prevent unacceptable... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.25 Accessory attachments. The engine must operate properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1167 - Accessory gearboxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accessory gearboxes. 25.1167 Section 25.1167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25.1167 Accessory gearboxes. For airplanes...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1167 - Accessory gearboxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accessory gearboxes. 25.1167 Section 25... Accessory gearboxes. For airplanes equipped with an accessory gearbox that is not certificated as part of an engine— (a) The engine with gearbox and connecting transmissions and shafts attached must be subjected...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1167 - Accessory gearboxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessory gearboxes. 25.1167 Section 25... Accessory gearboxes. For airplanes equipped with an accessory gearbox that is not certificated as part of an engine— (a) The engine with gearbox and connecting transmissions and shafts attached must be subjected...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1167 - Accessory gearboxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accessory gearboxes. 25.1167 Section 25... Accessory gearboxes. For airplanes equipped with an accessory gearbox that is not certificated as part of an engine— (a) The engine with gearbox and connecting transmissions and shafts attached must be subjected...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1167 - Accessory gearboxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accessory gearboxes. 25.1167 Section 25... Accessory gearboxes. For airplanes equipped with an accessory gearbox that is not certificated as part of an engine— (a) The engine with gearbox and connecting transmissions and shafts attached must be subjected...

  14. Teaching Techniques for Accessory Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Everyone is familiar with the main percussion instruments of the contemporary orchestra: bass drum, snare drum, suspended cymbal, vibraphone, and timpani. But as source material broadens, so do the demands placed on the percussion section. Accessory, or auxiliary percussion, can make the difference between a typical rendition of a well-known piece…

  15. Pheromones and exocrine glands in Isoptera.

    PubMed

    Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria; Haifig, Ives

    2010-01-01

    Termites are eusocial insects that have a peculiar and intriguing system of communication using pheromones. The termite pheromones are composed of a blend of chemical substances and they coordinate different social interactions or activities, including foraging, building, mating, defense, and nestmate recognition. Some of these sociochemicals are volatile, spreading in the air, and others are contact pheromones, which are transmitted by trophallaxis and grooming. Among the termite semiochemicals, the most known are alarm, trail, sex pheromones, and hydrocarbons responsible for the recognition of nestmates. The sources of the pheromones are exocrine glands located all over the termite body. The principal exocrine structures considered pheromone-producing glands in Isoptera are the frontal, mandibular, salivary or labial, sternal, and tergal glands. The frontal gland is the source of alarm pheromone and defensive chemicals, but the mandibular secretions have been little studied and their function is not well established in Isoptera. The secretion of salivary glands involves numerous chemical compounds, some of them without pheromonal function. The worker saliva contains a phagostimulating pheromone and probably a building pheromone, while the salivary reservoir of some soldiers contains defensive chemicals. The sternal gland is the only source of trail-following pheromone, whereas sex pheromones are secreted by two glandular sources, the sternal and tergal glands. To date, the termite semiochemicals have indicated that few molecules are involved in their chemical communication, that is, the same compound may be secreted by different glands, different castes and species, and for different functions, depending on the concentration. In addition to the pheromonal parsimony, recent studies also indicate the occurrence of a synergic effect among the compounds involved in the chemical communication of Isoptera. PMID:20831960

  16. Physiological and biochemical aspects of the avian uropygial gland.

    PubMed

    Salibian, A; Montalti, D

    2009-05-01

    This review discusses different aspects of the uropygial gland of birds. The gland exhibits a striking morphological diversity in size, shape and presence/absence of tufts of feathers. It was shown that acidic mucins, neutral lipids, glycolipids and phospholipids are normal components of secretion. Several morphological and physiological aspects of the gland were studied on Rock Pigeon Columba livia Gmelin, 1879. The amount of the uropygial gland secretion, its lipid content and fatty acids profile were determined. The extracted lipid mixture contained of C14 to C20 fatty acids, mostly unsaturated; the saturated fatty acids were mainly 14:0, 16:0 and 18:0. No correlation was found between the size of the gland and the aquatic/terrestrial nature of the species. Ablation of the gland did not affect survival, body weight, feeding rate and serum cholesterol, total lipids or calcium levels after 32-120 days. The possible role of the gland in the protection against lipophilic compounds was discussed. The function of the gland is still a subject of controversy. It is accepted that its secretion confers water-repellent properties on the feather coat and maintain the suppleness of the feathers. Other physiological roles of the gland secretion may be associated to pheromone production, control of plumage hygiene, thermal insulation and defence against predators. Concerning the endocrine regulation of the uropygial function, there is scarce information presenting evidence for steroid regulated mechanisms. PMID:19675950

  17. What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... statistics about salivary gland cancer? What is salivary gland cancer? Salivary gland cancer starts in one of ... can develop in these glands. About the salivary glands Salivary glands make saliva – the lubricating fluid found ...

  18. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. . E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Coppes, Rob P.; Vissink, Arjan

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells, but is also caused by damage to the extracellular environment, preventing proper cell functioning.

  19. Electronic enhancement of tear secretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinton, Mark; Lim Chung, Jae; Kossler, Andrea; Kook, Koung Hoon; Loudin, Jim; Franke, Manfred; Palanker, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Objective. To study electrical stimulation of the lacrimal gland and afferent nerves for enhanced tear secretion, as a potential treatment for dry eye disease. We investigate the response pathways and electrical parameters to safely maximize tear secretion. Approach. We evaluated the tear response to electrical stimulation of the lacrimal gland and afferent nerves in isofluorane-anesthetized rabbits. In acute studies, electrical stimulation was performed using bipolar platinum foil electrodes, implanted beneath the inferior lacrimal gland, and a monopolar electrode placed near the afferent ethmoid nerve. Wireless microstimulators with bipolar electrodes were implanted beneath the lacrimal gland for chronic studies. To identify the response pathways, we applied various pharmacological inhibitors. To optimize the stimulus, we measured tear secretion rate (Schirmer test) as a function of pulse amplitude (1.5-12 mA), duration (0.1-1 ms) and repetition rate (10-100 Hz). Main results. Stimulation of the lacrimal gland increased tear secretion by engaging efferent parasympathetic nerves. Tearing increased with stimulation amplitude, pulse duration and repetition rate, up to 70 Hz. Stimulation with 3 mA, 500 μs pulses at 70 Hz provided a 4.5 mm (125%) increase in Schirmer score. Modulating duty cycle further increased tearing up to 57%, compared to continuous stimulation in chronically implanted animals (36%). Ethmoid (afferent) nerve stimulation increased tearing similar to gland stimulation (3.6 mm) via a reflex pathway. In animals with chronically implanted stimulators, a nearly 6 mm increase (57%) was achieved with 12-fold less charge density per pulse (0.06-0.3 μC mm-2 with 170-680 μs pulses) than the damage threshold (3.5 μC mm-2 with 1 ms pulses). Significance. Electrical stimulation of the lacrimal gland or afferent nerves may be used as a treatment for dry eye disease. Clinical trials should validate this approach in patients with aqueous tear deficiency, and further optimize electrical parameters for maximum clinical efficacy.

  20. Accessory drive device in engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneyuki, K.

    1987-05-05

    A device is described which drives accessories such as an alternator, a cooling water pump, an air-conditioning compressor or the like, utilizing power taken from an output shaft of an engine. The device comprises: an input shaft rotatably supported on a stationary member and receiving output from the output shaft and rotated at a rotational speed corresponding to that of the output shaft; a transmission output member rotatably supported on the input shaft for transmitting the power to the accessories; a planetary cone rotates on the input shaft in a revolution around the axial center of the input shaft and in self-rotation on an axial center inclined with respect to the axial center of the input shaft.

  1. Ultrastructure of the intramandibular gland of workers and queens of the stingless bee, Melipona quadrifasciata.

    PubMed

    Da Cruz-Landim, Carminda; Gracioli-Vitti, Luciana F; Abdalla, Fábio C

    2011-01-01

    The intramandibular glands of workers and queens of Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae), at different ages and from different functional groups, were studied using light and transmission electron microscopy. The results demonstrated that these glands are composed of two types of secretory structures: 1.A hypertrophied epidermis on the dorsal side of the mandible that is an epithelial gland. 2. Free secretory cells filling the inner spaces of the appendices that constitute a unicellular gland. The epithelial gland is larger in the young (1-2-day-old workers), and the gland becomes involuted during the nurse worker stage. The unicellular glands of the workers posses some secretion during all of the studied phases, but secretory activity is more intensive in the foraging workers. Vesicles of secretion are absent in the unicellular glands of queens. These results demonstrate that these glands show functional adaptations in different castes corresponding to the functions of each caste. PMID:22220493

  2. Ultrastructure of the Intramandibular Gland of Workers and Queens of the Stingless Bee, Melipona quadrifasciata

    PubMed Central

    Da Cruz-Landim, Carminda; Gracioli-Vitti, Luciana F.; Abdalla, Fábio C.

    2011-01-01

    The intramandibular glands of workers and queens of Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae), at different ages and from different functional groups, were studied using light and transmission electron microscopy. The results demonstrated that these glands are composed of two types of secretory structures: 1.A hypertrophied epidermis on the dorsal side of the mandible that is an epithelial gland. 2. Free secretory cells filling the inner spaces of the appendices that constitute a unicellular gland. The epithelial gland is larger in the young (1-2-day-old workers), and the gland becomes involuted during the nurse worker stage. The unicellular glands of the workers posses some secretion during all of the studied phases, but secretory activity is more intensive in the foraging workers. Vesicles of secretion are absent in the unicellular glands of queens. These results demonstrate that these glands show functional adaptations in different castes corresponding to the functions of each caste. PMID:22220493

  3. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  4. Salivary Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your salivary glands make saliva - sometimes called spit - and empty it into your mouth through openings called ducts. Saliva makes your ... antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause the glands to become irritated and ...

  5. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Quick Search Image Details Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy View/Download: Small: 720x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  6. Molecular aspects of viviparous reproductive biology of the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans morsitans): Regulation of yolk and milk gland protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Guz, Nurper; Strickler-Dinglasan, Patricia; Aksoy, Serap

    2006-01-01

    Tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) viviparous reproductive physiology remains to be explored at the molecular level. Adult females carry their young in utero for the duration of embryonic and larval development, all the while supplying their offspring with nutrients in the form of a “milk” substance secreted from a modified accessory gland. Flies give birth to fully developed third instar larvae that pupariate shortly after birth. Here, we describe the spatial and temporal expression dynamics of two reproduction-associated genes and their products synthesized during the first and second gonotrophic cycles. The proteins studied include a putative yolk protein, Glossina morsitans morsitans yolk protein 1 (GmmYP1) and the major protein found in tsetse “milk” secretions (Glossina morsitans morsitans milk gland protein, GmmMGP). Developmental stage and tissue-specific expression of GmmYP1 show its presence exclusively in the reproductive tract of the fly during oogenesis, suggesting that GmmYP1 acts as a vitellogenic protein. Transcripts for GmmMGP are present only in the milk gland tissue and increase in coordination with the process of larvigenesis. Similarly, GmmMGP can be detected at the onset of larvigenesis in the milk gland, and is present during the full duration of pregnancy. Expression of GmmMGP is restricted to the adult stage and is not detected in the immature developmental stages. These phenomena indicate that the protein is transferred from mother to larvae as nourishment during its development. These results demonstrate that both GmmYP1 and GmmMGP are involved in tsetse reproductive biology, the former associated with the process of oogenesis and the latter with larvigenesis. PMID:17046784

  7. Parathyroid hormone - Secretion and metabolism in vivo.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habener, J. F.; Powell, D.; Murray, T. M.; Mayer, G. P.; Potts, J. T., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Gel filtration and radioimmunoassay were used to determine the molecular size and immunochemical reactivity of parathyroid hormone present in gland extracts, in the general peripheral circulation, and in parathyroid effluent blood from patients with hyperparathyroidism, as well as from calves and from cattle. It was found that parathyroid hormone secreted from the parathyroids in man and cattle is at least as large as the molecule extracted from normal bovine glands. However, once secreted into the circulation the hormone is cleaved, and one or more fragments, immunologically, dissimilar to the originally secreted hormone, constitute the dominant form of circulating immunoreactive hormone.

  8. The Accessory Genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Vanderlene L.; Ozer, Egon A.; Hauser, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains exhibit significant variability in pathogenicity and ecological flexibility. Such interstrain differences reflect the dynamic nature of the P. aeruginosa genome, which is composed of a relatively invariable core genome and a highly variable accessory genome. Here we review the major classes of genetic elements comprising the P. aeruginosa accessory genome and highlight emerging themes in the acquisition and functional importance of these elements. Although the precise phenotypes endowed by the majority of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome have yet to be determined, rapid progress is being made, and a clearer understanding of the role of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome in ecology and infection is emerging. PMID:21119020

  9. Engine starter and accessory drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Stockton, T.R.

    1986-10-07

    An engine starter and accessory drive system is described which consists of: an accessory drive means; a planetary gearset having a sun gear driveably connected to the accessory drive means, a ring gear, a carrier and planet pinions rotatably mounted on the carrier, fixed to the engine crankshaft, meshing with the sun gear and with the ring gear; means for holding the ring gear against rotation; and a starter motor and first clutch means for providing a one-way driving connection between the motor and the accessory drive means.

  10. Rodent eccrine sweat glands: a case of multiple efferent innervation.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, W R; Sakuta, M; Quick, D C

    1984-03-01

    The sweat territories of peripheral nerves to the hind-paw of the mouse were defined by a silastic impression mold method that allowed identification of every secreting sweat gland. It was found that the tibial, sural, saphenous and peroneal nerves all contribute to the innervation of foot pad sweat glands, and there is extensive overlapping of the sweat territories of the different peripheral nerves. Most sweat glands could be activated by electrical stimulation of axons in two or three peripheral nerves or in separate fascicles of one nerve. This was interpreted to indicate that these sweat glands receive multiple innervation and that sweat glands in the overlap regions between autonomous zones of adjacent cutaneous nerves can receive axons from each nerve. Partial denervation of sweat glands by section of one source of innervation did not prevent the gland from sweating during stimulation of intact axons to the gland, or after pilocarpine treatment. Totally denervated glands did not exhibit denervation hypersensitivity; they became unresponsive to pilocarpine, acetylcholine and adrenaline. These characteristics allowed detection of the appearance and progression of reinnervation (and reactivation) of denervated sweat glands by collateral branching from sudomotor fibers. Not only do these results increase our basic understanding of the anatomical relations between peripheral nerves and the sweat glands they innervate, but they also demonstrate that the mouse sweat gland provides a useful model system for studying neuropathology of the sympathetic nervous system. PMID:6717807

  11. Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Marlino, L.D.

    2010-06-15

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power. Two studies were conducted at ORNL. One was to put an additional winding in the motor slots to magnetically link with the high frequency of the controllable zero-sequence stator currents that do not produce any zero-sequence harmonic torques. The second approach was to utilize the corners of the square stator punching for the high-frequency transformers of the dc/dc inverter. Both approaches were successful. This CRADA validated the feasibility of GM’s desire to use the motor’s magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply. Three joint U.S. patents with GM were issued to ORNL and GM by the U.S. Patent Office for the research results produced by this CRADA.

  12. Mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, M.J.; Herndon, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems available, and an argument for force reflecting manipulation. The theme presented is that the accomplishment of humanlike endeavors in hostile environments will be most successful when man model capabilities are utilized. The application of recent electronic technology to manipulator development has made new tools available to be applied to emergency response activities. The development activities described are products of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Adrenal Gland Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Adrenal Gland Tumor Adrenal Gland Tumor This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Adrenal Gland Tumor. Use the menu below to choose the ... workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Adrenal Gland Tumor Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and Signs ...

  14. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the tubes (ducts) that drain the salivary glands or the gland itself. ... The salivary glands are located around the mouth. They produce saliva, which moistens food to help with chewing and swallowing. There ...

  15. Characterization of ocular gland morphology and tear composition of pinnipeds

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Robin Kelleher; Doane, Marshall G.; Knop, Erich; Knop, Nadja; Dubielzig, Richard R.; Colitz, Carmen M. H.; Argüeso, Pablo; Sullivan, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The importance of tear film integrity to ocular health in terrestrial mammals is well established, however, in marine mammals, the role of the tear film in protection of the ocular surface is not known. In an effort to better understand the function of tears in maintaining health of the marine mammal eye surface, we examined ocular glands of the California sea lion, and began to characterize the biochemical nature of the tear film of pinnipeds. Procedures Glands dissected from California sea lion eyelids and adnexa were examined for gross morphology, sectioned for microscopic analysis, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The tear film was examined using interferometry. Tears were collected from humans and pinnipeds for analysis of protein and carbohydrate content. Results The sea lion has sebaceous glands in the lid, but these glands are different in size and orientation compared to typical meibomian glands of terrestrial mammals. Two other accessory ocular glands located dorsotemporally and medially appeared to be identical in morphology, with tubulo-acinar morphology. An outer lipid layer on the ocular surface of the sea lion was not detected using interferometry, consistent with the absence of typical meibomian glands. Similar to human tears, the tears of pinnipeds contain several proteins but the ratio of carbohydrate to protein was greater than that in human tears. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the ocular gland architecture and biochemical nature of the tear film of pinnipeds have evolved to adapt to the challenges of an aquatic environment. PMID:23067374

  16. Adenocarcinoma of the ampullary glands of the ductus deferens in a Sprague-Dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Masaya; Wakui, Shin; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Ayaka; Mutou, Tomoko; Ikegami, Masahiro; Asari, Masao; Inomata, Tomo

    2015-06-01

    Spontaneously occurring proliferative lesions of the male accessory sex glands are infrequent in various strains of rats. In rodents, the ampullary glands are embedded in the prostate. Although 2 spontaneous cases of atypical hyperplastic lesions at the ampullary gland were previously described in Wistar rats, adenocarcinoma and/or adenoma in this gland have not been reported. This study describes adenocarcinomas in the bilateral ampullary glands in a 52-week-old intact male Sprague-Dawley rat housed as part of a control group in a toxicological experiment. At necropsy, the body weight (644.4 g) and the weight of the prostate with ampullary gland (2.75 g) were similar to others of the same control group, and it had a normal gross appearance. Histopathologically, both ampullary glands revealed microinvasive adenocarcinoma without vascular invasion. The morphological characteristics of the neoplasm varied in different regions of the gland. Other parts of the male accessory sex glands did not show proliferative lesions. PMID:25361752

  17. Accessory drive device in engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneyuki, K.

    1987-02-17

    A device is described for driving accessories such as an alternator, a cooling water pump, an air-conditioning compressor or the like, utilizing power taken from an output shaft of an engine, the device comprising: an input shaft pivotally supported to a stationary element and receiving output from the output shaft and rotated at the rotational speed corresponding to that of the output shaft; a transmission output member rotatably supported on the input shaft for transmitting the power to the accessory; a planetary cone which can rotate on the input shaft in the revolution around the axial center of the input shaft and in the rotation around the axial center inclined with respect to the axial center of the input shaft. The planetary cone has a first part of nearly conical shape, and a second part of nearly cylindrical shape leading to a bottom surface of the first part, and first, second and third frictional transmission surfaces being formed on the conical surface of the first part, the bottom periphery of the first part and the circumferential surface of the second part, respectively; and an input transmission member installed rotatable with the input shaft and engaged at outer periphery of frictional engagement with the second frictional transmission surface of the planetary cone.

  18. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and accessories. (a) Identification—(1) Cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories. A cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories is a device...

  19. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and accessories. (a) Identification—(1) Cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories. A cryosurgical unit with a liquid nitrogen cooled cryoprobe and accessories is a device...

  20. Bioengineered Lacrimal Gland Organ Regeneration in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Masatoshi; Tsubota, Kazuo; Tsuji, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The lacrimal gland plays an important role in maintaining a homeostatic environment for healthy ocular surfaces via tear secretion. Dry eye disease, which is caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction, is one of the most prevalent eye disorders and causes ocular discomfort, significant visual disturbances, and a reduced quality of life. Current therapies for dry eye disease, including artificial tear eye drops, are transient and palliative. The lacrimal gland, which consists of acini, ducts, and myoepithelial cells, develops from its organ germ via reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during embryogenesis. Lacrimal tissue stem cells have been identified for use in regenerative therapeutic approaches aimed at restoring lacrimal gland functions. Fully functional organ replacement, such as for tooth and hair follicles, has also been developed via a novel three-dimensional stem cell manipulation, designated the Organ Germ Method, as a next-generation regenerative medicine. Recently, we successfully developed fully functional bioengineered lacrimal gland replacements after transplanting a bioengineered organ germ using this method. This study represented a significant advance in potential lacrimal gland organ replacement as a novel regenerative therapy for dry eye disease. In this review, we will summarize recent progress in lacrimal regeneration research and the development of bioengineered lacrimal gland organ replacement therapy. PMID:26264034

  1. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  2. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  3. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  4. Three Accessories for a Rotating Platform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, James A.; Fryer, Oscar G.

    1980-01-01

    Describes three accessories developed to be used in conjunction with the rotating platform or turntable. Three demonstrations using these accessories are included. These demonstrations are: (a) conservation of angular momentum; (b) gravity-defying goblets; and (c) direct measurement of centripetal force. (HM)

  5. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special accessories. 15.27 Section 15.27 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.27 Special accessories. (a) Equipment marketed to a consumer must be capable of complying with the necessary...

  6. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special accessories. 15.27 Section 15.27 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.27 Special accessories. (a) Equipment marketed to a consumer must be capable of complying with the necessary...

  7. Characterization of a Lolium multiflorum Accessory Chromosome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accessory chromosomes, also called B-chromosomes, have been reported in more than 1300 species of plants. Accessory chromosomes show numerical polymorphism and when present in high number, are known to negatively affect the growth and vigor of the plants, while in low numbers they may be beneficial...

  8. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  9. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  10. Accessory tragus: a dentist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Vishal; Banda, Naveen Reddy; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Banda, Vanaja Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Accessory tragus (AT) also referred as preauricular tag is a rudimentary tag of ear tissue This paper presents two specific cases: one hereditary and another sporadic case of AT. A general clinical description of AT, its associated syndromes, embryology aetiopathogenesis and management is discussed. A dentist can play an important role in spotting the AT during their head and neck examination. The presence of this defect can be correlated to other congenital defects of first branchial arch. On recognising its occurrence, the dentist can refer to a specialist for thorough investigation management. A dentist can play a vital role in encouraging and counselling the parents for the correction of such defects as it improves the aesthetics of the face. Usually, children with these defects are often targets of teasing by peers. PMID:23761605

  11. Carcinoma in accessory axillary breast.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Seema; Mishra, Shashi Prakash; Kumar, Satendra; Khanna, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of carcinoma developing in an accessory breast. The patient presented with a progressive lump in her right axilla for 1 year. On examination, there was a well-developed nipple areola complex in the right axilla overlying a hard, fixed 5 × 3 cm lump. On investigation, core biopsy revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma of the breast. Mammography also revealed features of a malignant lesion with skin and muscle infiltration. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was administered followed by modified radical mastectomy after three cycles. Immunohistochemistry study showed positive status of oestrogen and progesterone receptors, and negative HER-2 neu. Three more cycles of chemotherapy along with 50 Gy radiotherapy were given in an adjuvant setting followed by hormone therapy. PMID:26260957

  12. Accessory drive device in engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneyuki, K.

    1987-08-11

    A device is described which drives accessories such as an alternator, a cooling water pump, an air-conditioning compressor or the like, utilizing power taken from an output shaft of an engine, the device comprising: an input shaft rotatably supported on a stationary plate and receiving output from the output shaft and rotated at a rotational speed corresponding to that of the output shaft; a transmission output member rotatably supported on the input shaft for transmitting the power to the accessories; a planetary cone which can rotate on the input shaft in revolution around the axis of the input shaft and in self-rotation about an axis inclined with respect to the axis of the input shaft; an input transmission member installed rotatable with the input shaft and engaged at its outer periphery in frictional engagement with the second frictional transmission surface of the planetary cone; a transmission ratio varying member for varying the position of the shifting ring in direction toward or away from the rotation center of the planetary cone using the rotational speed of the transmission output member as a parameter and suppressing the rise of the rotational speed of the transmission output member when the rotational speed of the transmission output member because larger than a prescribed value; the transmission output member having two end plate members positioned on both ends thereof; the end plate members together with the input shaft constituting an enclosed annular infusion chamber filled with an amount of frictional transmission oil; and a pressure adjusting device for adjusting the pressure of the frictional transmission oil in the infusion chamber.

  13. Ca2+-dependent K+ Channels in Exocrine Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Catalán, Marcelo A.; Peña-Munzenmayer, Gaspar; Melvin, James E.

    2014-01-01

    In the last 15 years, remarkable progress has been realized in identifying the genes that encode the ion-transporting proteins involved in exocrine gland function, including salivary glands. Among these proteins, Ca2+-dependent K+ channels take part in key functions including membrane potential regulation, fluid movement and K+ secretion in exocrine glands. Two K+ channels have been identified in exocrine salivary glands: 1) a Ca2+-activated K+ channel of intermediate single channel conductance encoded by the KCNN4 gene; and, 2) a voltage- and Ca2+-dependent K+ channel of large single channel conductance encoded by the KCNMA1 gene. This review focuses on the physiological roles of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels in exocrine salivary glands. We also discuss interesting recent findings on the regulation of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels by protein-protein interactions that may significantly impact exocrine gland physiology. PMID:24559652

  14. Immunohistochemical and Immunocytochemical Localization of Amylase in Rat Parotid Glands and von Ebner’s Glands by Ion Etching-Immunoscanning Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yahiro, Junko; Inai, Tetsuichiro; Tsutsui, Akihito; Sato, Atsuko; Nagato, Toshikazu; Taniguchi, Kunihisa; Tsuruga, Eichi; Sawa, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of amylase in rat parotid glands and von Ebner’s glands was examined using ion etching-immunoscanning electron microscopy, which enables both light and electron microscopic observations of identical semi-thin resin sections immunolabeled with anti-α-amylase and immunogold in association with silver enhancement. At the light microscopic level, most acinar secretory granules (SG) and striated duct secretions of parotid glands were strongly stained dark brown. In von Ebner’s glands, acinar SG and duct secretions were weakly to strongly stained light to dark brown. At the electron microscopic level, labeling was observed as bright gold-silver particles. The labeling intensity of acinar SG of parotid glands was higher than that of von Ebner’s glands. In parotid glands, weak labeling of SG in transitional cells between acini and intercalated ducts, very weak labeling of SG in intercalated ducts, and strong labeling of striated duct secretions were observed. In von Ebner’s glands, the secretions and some SG of interlobular ducts were strongly labeled compared to those of intralobular ducts and SG of acini. Less amylase was synthesized in von Ebner’s acini compared to parotid acini, whereas von Ebner’s ducts may secrete significantly more amylase to modify saliva than parotid ducts. PMID:22096260

  15. Random Secretion of Growth Hormone in Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prank, Klaus; Kloppstech, Mirko; Nowlan, Steven J.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Brabant, Georg

    1996-08-01

    In normal humans, growth hormone (GH) is secreted from a gland located adjacent to the brain (pituitary) into the blood in distinct pulses, but in patients bearing a tumor within the pituitary (acromegaly) GH is excessively secreted in an irregular manner. It has been hypothesized that GH secretion in the diseased state becomes random. This hypothesis is supported by demonstrating that GH secretion in patients with acromegaly cannot be distinguished from a variety of linear stochastic processes based on the predictability of the fluctuations of GH concentration in the bloodstream.

  16. Physiology of Epithelial Chloride and Fluid Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Frizzell, Raymond A.; Hanrahan, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial salt and water secretion serves a variety of functions in different organ systems, such as the airways, intestines, pancreas, and salivary glands. In cystic fibrosis (CF), the volume and/or composition of secreted luminal fluids are compromised owing to mutations in the gene encoding CFTR, the apical membrane anion channel that is responsible for salt secretion in response to cAMP/PKA stimulation. This article examines CFTR and related cellular transport processes that underlie epithelial anion and fluid secretion, their regulation, and how these processes are altered in CF disease to account for organ-specific secretory phenotypes. PMID:22675668

  17. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  18. Regulation and formation of the Drosophila salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Andrew, D J

    1998-04-15

    The homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr), is a master regulator of Drosophila salivary gland formation. Embryos in which Scr function is missing do not form salivary glands, and embryos in which SCR protein is expressed everywhere form extra salivary glands. However, other known proteins, including the homeotic protein Abdominal-B, the unusual zinc finger protein Teashirt, and the secreted signaling molecule Decapentaplegic (a TGF-beta family member), limit the recruitment of SCR-expressing cells to salivary glands. To learn the molecular details of how salivary gland gene expression is controlled and as a first step toward understanding how the SCR transcription factor controls salivary gland morphogenesis, we screened for genes expressed in the developing salivary gland. Among our best candidates for potential direct downstream targets of SCR in the salivary gland are the genes trachealess (trh), dCREB-A, jalapeño, and Semaphorin II (SemaII). Our genetic studies suggest distinct and important roles for each of these genes in salivary gland morphogenesis. Current work includes studying the molecular interactions between SCR and these downstream target genes and asking how target genes coordinate their activities to effect the cell biological changes required to build functional salivary glands. PMID:9599294

  19. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... manual is provided only in a form other than paper, such as on a computer disk or over the Internet, the... requiring special accessories is installed by or under the supervision of the party marketing the device,...

  20. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... manual is provided only in a form other than paper, such as on a computer disk or over the Internet, the... requiring special accessories is installed by or under the supervision of the party marketing the device,...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... continued rotation of an engine-driven cabin supercharger or any remote accessory driven by the engine will be a hazard if they malfunction, there must be means to prevent their hazardous rotation...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... continued rotation of an engine-driven cabin supercharger or any remote accessory driven by the engine will be a hazard if they malfunction, there must be means to prevent their hazardous rotation...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... continued rotation of an engine-driven cabin supercharger or any remote accessory driven by the engine will be a hazard if they malfunction, there must be means to prevent their hazardous rotation...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... continued rotation of an engine-driven cabin supercharger or any remote accessory driven by the engine will be a hazard if they malfunction, there must be means to prevent their hazardous rotation...

  5. [Effect of prednisolone on the basal gastric secretion in laboratory rats depending on functional state of the stomach adrenoreceptors].

    PubMed

    Trefilov, A B

    2002-04-01

    Activation of the stomach adrenoreceptors with adrenaline resulting in inhibition of fundal glands promotes stimulating effect of prednisolone glucocorticosteroid action on basal gastric secretion. PMID:12058541

  6. Neurologic complications of disorders of the adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Bertorini, Tulio E; Perez, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of the adrenal glands frequently have secondary neurological manifestations, while some diseases that involve the central nervous system are accompanied by adrenal gland dysfunction. Excessive corticosteroid secretions in primary or secondary Cushing's syndrome causes muscle weakness and behavioral disturbances, such as emotional lability and sometimes depression, while adrenal insufficiency may cause fatigue, weakness, and depression. Adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenoneuromyelopathy are X-linked recessive disorders of the metabolism of very long chain fatty acids that manifest with white matter abnormalities of the brain, myelopathy and/or neuropathy, as well as adrenal insufficiency. Other disorders of the adrenal glands include hyperaldosteroidism, which may cause weakness from hypokalemia. Dysfunction of the adrenal medulla causes excessive or deficient secretion of catecholamines, primarily causing cardiovascular symptoms. This chapter reviews the clinical manifestations and diagnostic aspects and treatment of the various disorders of the adrenal glands. Some of the congenital adrenal diseases are also discussed. PMID:24365350

  7. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1989-05-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. The clinical signs are usually the result of an overproduction of hormones that are normally biosynthesized by the neoplastic endocrine gland (orthoendocrine syndromes), as opposed to those that are the result of hormones that are not normally biosynthesized and secreted by those cells that have undergone neoplastic transformation (paraendocrine syndromes, also known as endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes or ectopic hormone syndromes). The biological effects produced by a neoplasm may be out of proportion to the actual size of the tumor. This report focuses on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal glands and pancreas. Discussion will focus on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis. 2 tabs.

  8. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Salivary Glands of an Invasive Whitefly

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yun-Lin; Li, Jun-Min; Li, Meng; Luan, Jun-Bo; Ye, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Some species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex cause tremendous losses to crops worldwide through feeding directly and virus transmission indirectly. The primary salivary glands of whiteflies are critical for their feeding and virus transmission. However, partly due to their tiny size, research on whitefly salivary glands is limited and our knowledge on these glands is scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of the Mediterranean species of B. tabaci complex using an effective cDNA amplification method in combination with short read sequencing (Illumina). In a single run, we obtained 13,615 unigenes. The quantity of the unigenes obtained from the salivary glands of the whitefly is at least four folds of the salivary gland genes from other plant-sucking insects. To reveal the functions of the primary glands, sequence similarity search and comparisons with the whole transcriptome of the whitefly were performed. The results demonstrated that the genes related to metabolism and transport were significantly enriched in the primary salivary glands. Furthermore, we found that a number of highly expressed genes in the salivary glands might be involved in secretory protein processing, secretion and virus transmission. To identify potential proteins of whitefly saliva, the translated unigenes were put into secretory protein prediction. Finally, 295 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins and some of them might play important roles in whitefly feeding. Conclusions/Significance: The combined method of cDNA amplification, Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly is suitable for transcriptomic analysis of tiny organs in insects. Through analysis of the transcriptome, genomic features of the primary salivary glands were dissected and biologically important proteins, especially secreted proteins, were predicted. Our findings provide substantial sequence information for the primary salivary glands of whiteflies and will be the basis for future studies on whitefly-plant interactions and virus transmission. PMID:22745728

  9. Morphological and biochemical evidence for the evolution of salt glands in snakes.

    PubMed

    Babonis, Leslie S; Evans, David H

    2011-11-01

    Vertebrate salt glands have evolved independently multiple times, yet there are few hypotheses about the processes underlying the convergent evolution of salt glands across taxa. Here, we compare the morphology and molecular biology of specialized salt-secreting glands from a marine snake (Laticauda semifasciata) with the cephalic glands from semi-marine (Nerodia clarkii clarkii) and freshwater (N. fasciata) watersnakes to look for evidence of a salt gland in the former and to develop hypotheses about the evolution of snake salt glands. Like the salt gland of L. semifasciata, the nasal and anterior/posterior sublingual glands in both species of Nerodia exhibit a compound tubular shape, and express basolateral Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-)cotransporter (NKCC); however, the abundance of NKA and NKCC in N. fasciata appears lower than in N. c. clarkii. Aquaporin 3 (AQP3) is also basolateral in the sublingual glands of both species of Nerodia, as is abundant neutral mucin; both AQP3 and mucin are absent from the salt gland in L. semifasciata. Thus, we propose that the evolution of the snake salt gland by co-option of an existing gland involved at least two steps: (i) an increase in the abundance of NKA and NKCC in the basolateral membranes of the secretory epithelia, and (ii) loss of AQP3/mucus secretion from these epithelia. PMID:21807110

  10. Plasma cells of the chicken Harderian gland.

    PubMed

    Scott, T R; Savage, M L; Olah, I

    1993-07-01

    The chicken Harderian gland (HG) is densely populated in its subepithelial spaces with plasma cells (PC). These immune cells produce and secrete Ig of the IgA, IgG, and IgM classes. Such Ig secretion into the tears affords the upper respiratory tract with protective antibodies. The immunological role of the HG is quite interesting; yet this gland is a site of unusual PC proliferation. Studies of the gland utilizing bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) incorporation into DNA and propidium iodide (PI) staining of PC DNA have verified previous suggestions in the literature that PC of the chicken HG proliferate. Both isolated PC suspensions and frozen sections of the HG from chicks aged 6 to 9 wk reveal that BrdUrd is incorporated into PC DNA. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis of PI-stained PC indicates a relatively high percentage of PC in S phase of the cell cycle. Continued studies are examining possible mechanisms controlling proliferation and differentiation of PC in the HG. It is believed that the stromal elements of the HG produce and secrete a factor(s) that influences PC proliferation and differentiation. Isolation and characterization of this influencing factor(s) will allow for the possible systemic application of the factor(s) for enhancement of immune responses. PMID:8346152

  11. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  12. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  13. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  14. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  15. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  16. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  17. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  19. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  1. Cyclic AMP in the sublingual glands of the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Amerongen, A V; Roukema, P A; Vreugdenhil, A P

    1980-01-01

    1. The cyclic AMP levels in the sublingual glands of the mouse has been determined in relation to mucin secretion under the influence of several agonists in vivo and in vitro. 2. Isoprenaline increased the cyclic AMP level in these glands only in the presence of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, indicating the presence of an active cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. 3. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase results in an increase of the cyclic AMP levels. EGTA prolonged the effect of the PDE-inhibitors, indicating that Ca2+-ions may be involved in the maintenance of the cyclic AMP concentration in the sublingual glands. 4. NaF is able to induce both a slight increase of the cyclic AMP level and a significant mucin secretion by the sublingual glands. However, other secretagogues do not significantly influence the cyclic AMP concentration in these glands, and compounds which do not elevate its level, do not significantly stimulate sublingual mucin secretion. 5. These data suggest that there is no direct relationship between cyclic AMP and sublingual mucin secretion. PMID:6107381

  2. Functional lacrimal gland regeneration by transplantation of a bioengineered organ germ

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Masatoshi; Ogawa, Miho; Oshima, Masamitsu; Sekine, Yurie; Ishida, Kentaro; Yamashita, Kentaro; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Shimmura, Shigeto; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Tsubota, Kazuo; Tsuji, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The lacrimal gland has a multifaceted role in maintaining a homeostatic microenvironment for a healthy ocular surface via tear secretion. Dry-eye disease, which is caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction, is one of the most prevalent eye diseases that cause corneal epithelial damage and results in significant loss of vision and a reduction in the quality of life. Here we demonstrate orthotopic transplantation of bioengineered lacrimal gland germs into adult mice with an extra-orbital lacrimal gland defect, a mouse model that mimics the corneal epithelial damage caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction. The bioengineered lacrimal gland germs and harderian gland germs both develop in vivo and achieve sufficient physiological functionality, including tear production in response to nervous stimulation and ocular surface protection. This study demonstrates the potential for bioengineered organ replacement to functionally restore the lacrimal gland. PMID:24084941

  3. Clinical Pathology of Bartholin's Glands: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Y.; Dalpiaz, Amanda; Schwamb, Richard; Miao, Yimei; Waltzer, Wayne; Khan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The Bartholin's glands are located symmetrically at the posterior region of the vaginal opening and play an important role in the female reproductive system. These two pea-sized glands are involved in mucus secretion and vaginal lubrication. Cyst formation in the glands is common and results from mucus build-up in gland ducts. It is important to monitor such cysts because they may occur in the form of carcinomas. Larger cysts and abscesses are found in the lower vestibular region and typically present with erythema and edema. Biopsy is an effective method for distinguishing between Bartholin's gland cysts and differential diagnosis. While smaller cysts may be asymptomatic and may be left untreated, larger cysts require medical attention. Several treatment options are available, including marsupialization and CO2 laser. Healing and recovery depend on the severity of infection and course of treatment. PMID:26195958

  4. Characterization of interdigital glands in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Lamps, L W; Smoller, B R; Rasmussen, L E; Slade, B E; Fritsch, G; Goodwin, T E

    2001-12-01

    In the Asian elephant, wetness akin to perspiration is commonly observed on the cuticles and interdigital areas of the feet; this observation has lead to speculation regarding the existence of an interdigital gland. Our goal was to search for interdigital glands and characterise them morphologically, histochemically, and immunohistochemically. Necropsy samples of interdigital areas from two Asian elephants were obtained. Multiple sections were fixed and processed routinely, then stained with hematoxylin/eosin and differential mucin stains. Immunohistochemistry was also performed for cytokeratins 8 and 10. Interdigital glands resembling human eccrine glands were detected deep within the reticular dermis. Histochemical staining indicated neutral mucopolysaccharides and nonsulphated acid mucopolysaccharides in glandular secretions, and the glandular epithelium also showed immunoreactivity to cytokeratins 8 and 10. Both the histochemical and immunohistochemical staining patterns are analogous to human eccrine structures. This study shows with certainty that Asian elephants possess sweat glands as they are defined histologically. PMID:11798294

  5. Larval salivary glands are a source of primer and releaser pheromone in honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Yves Le; Bécard, Jean-Marc; Costagliola, Guy; de Vaublanc, Gérard; Maâtaoui, Mohamed El; Crauser, Didier; Plettner, Erika; Slessor, Keith N.

    2006-05-01

    A brood pheromone identified in honeybee larvae has primer and releaser pheromone effects on adult bees. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate fatty acid esters—the pheromonal compounds—in different parts of the larvae, we have localized the source of the esters as the larval salivary glands. A histochemical study describes the glands and confirms the presence of lipids in the glands. Epithelial cells of the gland likely secrete the fatty acids into the lumen of the gland. These results demonstrate the salivary glands to be a reservoir of esters, components of brood pheromone, in honeybee larvae.

  6. [Medicines and thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Tajtáková, M

    2012-02-01

    From their primary pharmacological effect, many drugs may also affect the thyroid gland function or the results of thyroid function tests. In addition to the drugs with a known effect on thyroid gland, including thionamides, thyroid hormones, recombinant TSH, iodine, iodide, amiodarone, lithium and heparin, novel compounds, including tyrosin-kinase inhibitors, immunomodulators and cytokines also have adverse effects on the thyroid gland. Novel drugs are then associated with new types of adverse thyroid effects. PMID:22463095

  7. Fractionated irradiation and early changes in salivary glands. Different effects on potassium efflux, exocytotic amylase release and gland morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Franzen, L.; Funegard, U.S.; Sundstroem, S.G.; Gustafsson, H.; Danielsson, A.; Henriksson, R. )

    1991-02-01

    Irradiation is a potent treatment modality of head and neck cancer. However, the irradiation is usually associated with an influence on salivary glands with ensuing dryness and discomfort for the patients. In the present study we used different in vitro secretory models and morphologic characterization of rat parotid gland. Radiation was given to one gland on a 5-day schedule with 6 MV photons (total dose 20, 30, 35, 40, 45 Gy). The contralateral gland served as control, and the analysis of glands were performed 10 days after the last irradiation treatment. The noradrenaline stimulated electrolyte secretion (86rubidium tracer for potassium) was decreased in relation to the irradiation dose and in comparison to contralateral control glands. Noradrenaline stimulated exocytotic amylase release was not affected by irradiation and, there were no signs of obvious quantitative morphologic alterations after irradiation compared with controls. The results suggest that there are differences in the sensitivity to radiation for the two different secretory processes in salivary glands, and, thus, the structures regulating electrolyte and fluid secretion seem to be more vulnerable to irradiation than the process of exocytosis. The results, however, do not allow discrimination between temporary cellular impairment and irreversible damage leading to cell death.

  8. Accessory breast tissue mimicking pedunculated lipoma.

    PubMed

    Husain, Musharraf; Khan, Sabina; Bhat, Ashraf; Hajini, Firdoos

    2014-01-01

    Accessory breast tissue is an uncommon condition which occurs in 0.4-6% of women. It is mostly located in the axilla where it can cause diagnostic difficulty, especially if it is unilateral and large. Usually it is bilateral and presents as an asymptomatic mass during pregnancy or lactation. The diagnosis of ectopic breast tissue is important as it can undergo the same pathological changes that occur in a normal breast, such as mastitis, fibrocystic disease and carcinoma. We present a case of a large right-sided accessory breast in a 32-year-old woman that was clinically diagnosed as pedunculated lipoma. However, subsequent histopathological examination proved it to be an accessory breast tissue with lactational changes. PMID:25006058

  9. Controlled Speed Accessory Drive demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehn, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    A Controlled Speed Accessory Drive System was examined in an effort to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars. Concept feasibility and the performance of a typical system during actual road driving conditions were demonstrated. The CSAD system is described as a mechanical device which limits engine accessory speeds, thereby reducing parasitic horsepower losses and improving overall vehicle fuel economy. Fuel consumption data were compiled for fleets of GSA vehicles. Various motor pool locations were selected, each representing different climatic conditions. On the basis of a total accumulated fleet usage of nearly three million miles, an overall fuel economy improvement of 6 percent to 7 percent was demonstrated. Coincident chassis dynamometer tests were accomplished on selected vehicles to establish the effect of different accessory drive systems on exhaust emissions, and to evaluate the magnitude of the mileage benefits which could be derived.

  10. Evaluation of the Effects of Quercetin on Damaged Salivary Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Ayako; Inoue, Hiroko; Mishima, Kenji; Ide, Fumio; Nakayama, Ryoko; Hasaka, Ayaka; Ryo, Koufuchi; Ito, Yumi; Sakurai, Takashi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Saito, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of discovering an effective method to treat dry mouth, we analyzed the effects of quercetin on salivary secretion and its mechanism of action. We created a mouse model with impaired salivary secretion by exposure to radiation and found that impaired secretion is suppressed by quercetin intake. Moreover, secretion levels were enhanced in quercetin-fed normal mice. To elucidate the mechanisms of these effects on salivary secretion, we conducted an analysis using mouse submandibular gland tissues, a human salivary gland epithelial cell line (HSY), and mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs). The results showed that quercetin augments aquaporin 5 (AQP5) expression and calcium uptake, and suppresses oxidative stress and inflammatory responses induced by radiation exposure, suggesting that quercetin intake may be an effective method to treat impaired salivary secretion. PMID:25629520

  11. Fungating accessory breast carcinoma in Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Badejo, O A

    1984-03-01

    Three cases of fungating accessory breast carcinoma out of a total of 22 malignant breast formations seen and treated in Ile-Ife, Nigeria between January 1977 and November 1981 are described. The clinical presentations, features and histologic findings are presented. The methods of management and the need for close observation as well as follow up for at least two years is emphasized. A frequency of 14% as seen in this series appears so high that one cannot describe the occurrence of malignant changes in the accessory breast as rare. PMID:6328710

  12. The melanocortin receptors and their accessory proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandrappa, Shwetha; Gorrigan, Rebecca J.; Clark, Adrian J. L.; Chan, Li F.

    2013-01-01

    The five melanocortin receptors (MCRs) named MC1R–MC5R have diverse physiological roles encompassing pigmentation, steroidogenesis, energy homeostasis and feeding behavior as well as exocrine function. Since their identification almost 20 years ago much has been learnt about these receptors. As well as interacting with their endogenous ligands the melanocortin peptides, there is now a growing list of important peptides that can modulate the way these receptors signal, acting as agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists. The discovery of melanocortin 2 receptor accessory proteins as a novel accessory factor to the MCRs provides further insight into the regulation of these important G protein-coupled receptor. PMID:23404466

  13. Synthesis and regulation of accessory/proinflammatory cytokines by intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Panja, A; Siden, E; Mayer, L

    1995-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) have been shown to act as antigen-presenting cells (APC) in vitro and may have this capacity in vivo. In order to determine whether IEC, like other APC, are able to produce accessory cytokines which may play a role in T cell activation, we assessed the accessory cytokine profile of IEC constitutively or after stimulation. We measured expression, production and regulation of accessory cytokines (IL-1 beta, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) by the presence of mRNA as well as secreted protein. Freshly isolated IEC from surgical specimens were cultured in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), IL-1 beta or TNF-alpha. mRNA was assessed by a specific RNAse protection assay which controlled for contaminating cell populations while protein secretion was measured by ELISA (IL-1) or bioassay (TNF and IL-6). Neither IL-1 beta nor TNF-alpha were detectable in cultured IEC supernatants, supporting the lack of macrophage contamination. All IEC spontaneously secreted IL-6 at levels comparable to those of macrophages. IEC IL-6 mRNA also increased approximately 200-fold during the first 24 h of culture. LPS, IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha had no effect on spontaneous IL-6 production, and neither resulted in the secretion of IL-1 beta or TNF-alpha. However, IL-1 beta up-regulated IL-6 synthesis by 6-7-fold. IEC express a profile of cytokine mRNAs distinct from conventional APC (low level constitutive IL-6 expression but no detectable IL-1 beta, TGF-beta or TNF-alpha), adding to their uniqueness as APC. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7743669

  14. Silks produced by insect labial glands

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Tara

    2008-01-01

    Insect silks are secreted from diverse gland types; this chapter deals with the silks produced by labial glands of Holometabola (insects with pupa in their life cycle). Labial silk glands are composed of a few tens or hundreds of large polyploid cells that secrete polymerizing proteins which are stored in the gland lumen as a semi-liquid gel. Polymerization is based on weak molecular interactions between repetitive amino acid motifs present in one or more silk proteins; cross-linking by disulfide bonds may be important in the silks spun under water. The mechanism of long-term storage of the silk dope inside the glands and its conversion into the silk fiber during spinning is not fully understood. The conversion occurs within seconds at ambient temperature and pressure, under minimal drawing force and in some cases under water. The silk filament is largely built of proteins called fibroins and in Lepidoptera and Trichoptera coated by glue-type proteins known as sericins. Silks often contain small amounts of additional proteins of poorly known function. The silk components controlling dope storage and filament formation seem to be conserved at the level of orders, while the nature of polymerizing motifs in the fibroins, which determine the physical properties of silk, differ at the level of family and even genus. Most silks are based on fibroin ?-sheets interrupted with other structures such as ?-helices but the silk proteins of certain sawflies have predominantly a collagen-like or polyglycine II arrangement and the silks of social Hymenoptera are formed from proteins in a coiled coil arrangement. PMID:19221523

  15. Silks produced by insect labial glands.

    PubMed

    Sehnal, Frantisek; Sutherland, Tara

    2008-01-01

    Insect silks are secreted from diverse gland types; this chapter deals with the silks produced by labial glands of Holometabola (insects with pupa in their life cycle). Labial silk glands are composed of a few tens or hundreds of large polyploid cells that secrete polymerizing proteins which are stored in the gland lumen as a semi-liquid gel. Polymerization is based on weak molecular interactions between repetitive amino acid motifs present in one or more silk proteins; cross-linking by disulfide bonds may be important in the silks spun under water. The mechanism of long-term storage of the silk dope inside the glands and its conversion into the silk fiber during spinning is not fully understood. The conversion occurs within seconds at ambient temperature and pressure, under minimal drawing force and in some cases under water. The silk filament is largely built of proteins called fibroins and in Lepidoptera and Trichoptera coated by glue-type proteins known as sericins. Silks often contain small amounts of additional proteins of poorly known function. The silk components controlling dope storage and filament formation seem to be conserved at the level of orders, while the nature of polymerizing motifs in the fibroins, which determine the physical properties of silk, differ at the level of family and even genus. Most silks are based on fibroin beta-sheets interrupted with other structures such as alpha-helices but the silk proteins of certain sawflies have predominantly a collagen-like or polyglycine II arrangement and the silks of social Hymenoptera are formed from proteins in a coiled coil arrangement. PMID:19221523

  16. Uterine glands: biological roles in conceptus implantation, uterine receptivity, and decidualization

    PubMed Central

    Filant, Justyna; Spencer, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in uterine receptivity, blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, and stromal cell decidualization. Studies with the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model support a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid histrotroph for conceptus survival and development. In rodents, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are unequivocally required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation and also may influence blastocyst trophectoderm activation and stromal cell decidualization in the uterus. Similarly in humans, histotroph from uterine glands appears critical for blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus nutrition during the first trimester and uterine glands likely have a role in stromal cell decidualization. An increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of fertility problems, particularly infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, in domestic animals and humans. PMID:25023676

  17. Hoopoes color their eggs with antimicrobial uropygial secretions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, Juan J.; Martín-Vivaldi, M.; Peralta-Sánchez, J. M.; Arco, L.; Juárez-García-Pelayo, N.

    2014-09-01

    Uropygial gland secretions are used as cosmetics by some species of birds to color and enhance properties of feathers and teguments, which may signal individual quality. Uropygial secretions also reach eggshells during incubation and, therefore, may influence the coloration of birds' eggs, a trait that has attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists for more than one century. The color of hoopoe eggs typically changes along incubation, from bluish-gray to greenish-brown. Here, we test experimentally the hypothesis that dark uropygial secretion of females is responsible for such drastic color change. Moreover, since uropygial secretion of hoopoes has antimicrobial properties, we also explore the association between color and antimicrobial activity of the uropygial secretion of females. We found that eggs stayed bluish-gray in nests where female access to the uropygial secretion was experimentally blocked. Furthermore, experimental eggs that were maintained in incubators and manually smeared with uropygial secretion experienced similar color changes that naturally incubated eggs did, while control eggs that were not in contact with the secretions did not experience such color changes. All these results strongly support the hypothesis that female hoopoes use their uropygial gland secretion to color the eggs. Moreover, saturation of the uropygial secretion was associated with antimicrobial activity against Bacillus licheniformis. Given the known antimicrobial potential of uropygial secretions of birds, this finding opens the possibility that in scenarios of sexual selection, hoopoes in particular and birds in general signal antimicrobial properties of their uropygial secretion by mean of changes in egg coloration along incubation.

  18. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating ... sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ...

  19. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  20. Proteomic Characterisation of the Salt Gland-Enriched Tissues of the Mangrove Tree Species Avicennia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wee-Kee; Lim, Teck-Kwang; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Kumar, Prakash; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    Plant salt glands are natures desalination devices that harbour potentially useful information pertaining to salt and water transport during secretion. As part of the program toward deciphering secretion mechanisms in salt glands, we used shotgun proteomics to compare the protein profiles of salt gland-enriched (isolated epidermal peels) and salt gland-deprived (mesophyll) tissues of the mangrove species Avicennia officinalis. The purpose of the work is to identify proteins that are present in the salt gland-enriched tissues. An average of 2189 and 977 proteins were identified from the epidermal peel and mesophyll tissues, respectively. Among these, 2188 proteins were identified in salt gland-enriched tissues and a total of 1032 selected proteins were categorized by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. This paper reports for the first time the proteomic analysis of salt gland-enriched tissues of a mangrove tree species. Candidate proteins that may play a role in the desalination process of the mangrove salt glands and their potential localization were identified. Information obtained from this study paves the way for future proteomic research aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying secretion in plant salt glands. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000771. PMID:26193361

  1. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  2. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  3. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  4. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  5. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  6. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  7. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental electrosurgical unit and accessories is an...

  8. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental electrosurgical unit and accessories is an...

  9. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. 876.5980... tube and accessories. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal tube and accessories is a device that..., gastrointestinal string and tubes to locate internal bleeding, double lumen tube for intestinal decompression...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. 876.5980... tube and accessories. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal tube and accessories is a device that..., gastrointestinal string and tubes to locate internal bleeding, double lumen tube for intestinal decompression...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. 876.5980... tube and accessories. (a) Identification. A gastrointestinal tube and accessories is a device that..., gastrointestinal string and tubes to locate internal bleeding, double lumen tube for intestinal decompression...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  14. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  15. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  16. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  17. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  18. 19 CFR 10.600 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.600 Section... tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's standard accessories, spare parts, or tools will be treated as originating goods if...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192....1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192....1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192....1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm...

  2. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872.6300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is...

  3. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  4. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  5. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  6. Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.H., II; Varki, A.; Heaton, W.A.; Siegel, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets.

  7. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endoscope and accessories. 876.1500 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An endoscope and accessories is a device used to provide access,...

  8. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endoscope and accessories. 876.1500 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An endoscope and accessories is a device used to provide access,...

  9. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endoscope and accessories. 876.1500 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An endoscope and accessories is a device used to provide access,...

  10. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endoscope and accessories. 876.1500 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An endoscope and accessories is a device used to provide access,...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  15. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  16. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  17. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  18. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  19. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  20. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  1. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  2. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  3. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hemodialysis system and accessories. 876.5820... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification. A hemodialysis system and accessories is a device that...

  5. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  9. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864... Microscopes and accessories. (a) Identification. Microscopes and accessories are optical instruments used to enlarge images of specimens, preparations, and cultures for medical purposes. Variations of...

  10. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  11. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864... Microscopes and accessories. (a) Identification. Microscopes and accessories are optical instruments used to enlarge images of specimens, preparations, and cultures for medical purposes. Variations of...

  12. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  13. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864... Microscopes and accessories. (a) Identification. Microscopes and accessories are optical instruments used to enlarge images of specimens, preparations, and cultures for medical purposes. Variations of...

  14. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  15. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered...

  16. Electronic Position Sensor for Power Operated Accessory

    DOEpatents

    Haag, Ronald H.; Chia, Michael I.

    2005-05-31

    An electronic position sensor for use with a power operated vehicle accessory, such as a power liftgate. The position sensor includes an elongated resistive circuit that is mounted such that it is stationary and extends along the path of a track portion of the power operated accessory. The position sensor further includes a contact nub mounted to a link member that moves within the track portion such that the contact nub is slidingly biased against the elongated circuit. As the link member moves under the force of a motor-driven output gear, the contact nub slides along the surface of the resistive circuit, thereby affecting the overall resistance of the circuit. The position sensor uses the overall resistance to provide an electronic position signal to an ECU, wherein the signal is indicative of the absolute position of the power operated accessory. Accordingly, the electronic position sensor is capable of providing an electronic signal that enables the ECU to track the absolute position of the power operated accessory.

  17. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  18. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  19. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  20. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  1. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... continued operation of the engine must be provided. (e) Each accessory driven by a gearbox that is not approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the... gearbox for mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the gearbox oil system and...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... continued operation of the engine must be provided. (e) Each accessory driven by a gearbox that is not approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the... gearbox for mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the gearbox oil system and...

  4. Neuropeptides degranulate serous cells of ferret tracheal glands

    SciTech Connect

    Gashi, A.A.; Borson, D.B.; Finkbeiner, W.E.; Nadel, J.A.; Basbaum, C.B.

    1986-08-01

    To determine whether serous or mucous cells in tracheal submucosal glands respond to the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The authors studied the peptide-induced changes in gland cell morphology accompanying release of TVSO4-labeled macromolecules from tracheal explants of ferrets. Explants were labeled for 1 h in medium containing TVSO4 and washed for 3.5 additional hours. Base-line secretion in the absence of drugs declined between 1.5 and 3.5 h after the pulse. Between 2.5 and 3.5 h, the average percent change in counts per minute recovered per sample period was not significantly different from zero. Substance P and VIP added 4 h after labeling each increased greatly the release of TVSO4-labeled macromolecules above base line. Bethanechol, a muscarinic-cholinergic agonist, increased secretion by an average of 142% above base line. Light and electron microscopy of the control tissues showed glands with narrow lumens and numerous secretory granules. Glands treated with SP or VIP had enlarged lumens and the serous cells were markedly degranulated. These phenomena were documented by morphometry and suggest that SP and VIP cause secretion from glands at least partially by stimulating exocytosis from serous cells.

  5. Prothoracic gland semiochemicals of green lacewings (neuroptera: chrysopidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult chrysopids have paired prothoracic glands (PG) that are thought to produce defensive secretions (allomones). We analyzed PG extracts of the following green lacewings from North and South America, Australia, and China: Ceraeochrysa cubana (Brazil); Chrysopa (= Co.) oculata, Co. nigricornis, Co....

  6. A fine structural study of the turkey harderian gland.

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, M H; Rothwell, B; Burns, R B

    1986-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the turkey Harderian gland is described and the findings support previous histological descriptions of the gland. The gland is a compound tubulo-acinar structure composed of characteristic bipolar epithelial cells providing a predominantly merocrine secretion to the lumina. In the basal aspect of the cell, aggregations of non-secretory lipid-like droplets were evident and apically, the secretion was mucoid. The cells had abundant mitochondria, granular endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and a complex network of Golgi elements. In the subepithelial regions, myoepithelial cells and large numbers of plasma cells were seen. Within the granular endoplasmic reticulum cisternae of the epithelial cells, fibrillary or crystalline rods in some instances measuring up to 10 micron in length, with a 7.0 nm repeat pattern, were frequently seen. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:3693084

  7. Feather mites and birds: an interaction mediated by uropygial gland size?

    PubMed

    Galván, I; Barba, E; Piculo, R; Cantó, J L; Cortés, V; Monrós, J S; Atiénzar, F; Proctor, H

    2008-01-01

    Feather mites (Arachnida: Acari: Astigmata) feed mainly on secretions of the uropygial gland of birds. Here, we use analyses corrected for phylogeny and body size to show that there is a positive correlation between the size of this gland and mite abundance in passerine birds at an interspecific level during the breeding season, suggesting that the gland mediates interactions between mites and birds. As predicted on the basis of hypothesized waterproofing and antibiotic functions of uropygial gland secretions, riparian/marsh bird species had larger glands and higher mite loads than birds living in less mesic terrestrial environments. An unexpected pattern was a steeper relationship between mite load and gland size in migratory birds than in residents. If moderate mite loads are beneficial to a host but high loads detrimental, this could create complex selection regimes in which gland size influences mite load and vice versa. Mites may exert selective pressures on gland size of their hosts that has resulted in smaller glands among migratory bird species, suggesting that smaller glands may have evolved in these birds to attenuate a possible detrimental effect of feather mites when present in large numbers. PMID:18028353

  8. Filling dynamics of the Brindley's glands in the blood-sucking bug Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Palottini, Florencia; González, Andrés; Manrique, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    The filling dynamics of exocrine defensive glands is an important component of the defensive capacity of an insect in its natural environment. We studied the filling state and reloading rate of the Brindley's glands in the haematophagous Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Quantitative analyses of isobutyric acid, the main secretion component, were carried out with glands dissected from adults under different scenarios of development, number of discharging events and feeding conditions. The alarm-pheromone function of the gland secretion was also assessed in bioassays with conspecific nymphs. Although pharate adults have their glands completely developed, these were not full until imaginal ecdysis. If kept undisturbed, the adults maintained a constant gland load, and discharged about 75% of the gland contents upon one disturbance event. While the glands can be discharged several times, full replenishing was not complete after one week, unless the insect had access to food. The escape behavior of nymphs in bioassays correlated with the chemical analyses, with nymphs showing significant avoidance only toward gland discharges from undisturbed or disturbed/fed adults. The results are discussed in reference to the feeding frequency and gregarious behavior of T. infestans under natural conditions, which suggest a relevant role of the filling dynamics of the Brindley's glands in the intraspecific communication of the insect. PMID:25450424

  9. Sympathetic regulation of estradiol secretion from the ovary.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Sae

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that hormone secretion from endocrine glands is regulated by hierarchical feedback mechanisms. However, although Cannon revealed in the 1920s that sympathoadrenal medullary function increased during emergency situations, no studies on the autonomic nervous regulation of hormone secretion have been undertaken for many years. In the past 40 years, the autonomic nervous regulation of insulin secretion from the pancreas, gastrin secretion from the stomach, glucocorticoid secretion from the adrenal cortex, etc., has been demonstrated. Estradiol secretion from the ovary is strongly controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, and its possible regulation by autonomic nerves has been largely unnoticed. Some histological studies have revealed rich adrenergic sympathetic innervation in the ovary. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the activation of the sympathetic nerves to the ovary directly reduces estradiol secretion from the ovary. This article reviews physiological and morphological studies, primarily in rats, on the sympathetic regulation of estradiol secretion from the ovary. PMID:25465703

  10. Secret Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridolfi, Kerry

    1997-01-01

    Argues that children are as deep as the ocean, with secret places inside of them waiting to be opened. Notes that it is powerful for students to learn they can make sense of the world through words, and describes inviting them into poetry as they read poetry, create poetry packets, and write and revise poems. (SR)

  11. Secret Destinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, David

    2008-01-01

    "All journeys have secret destinations of which the traveller is unaware" (Martin Buber). All learning results in learning outcomes of some form, planned or otherwise, but the term is now widely used to refer only to those learning outcomes that predetermine what those outcomes will be--the "intended" or "specified" learning outcomes of the…

  12. Computed tomographic imaging characteristics of the normal canine lacrimal glands

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The canine lacrimal gland (LG) and accessory lacrimal gland of the third eyelid (TEG) are responsible for production of the aqueous portion of the precorneal tear film. Immune-mediated, toxic, neoplastic, or infectious processes can affect the glands directly or can involve adjacent tissues, with secondary gland involvement. Disease affecting these glands can cause keratoconjunctivitis sicca, corneal ulcers, and loss of vision. Due to their location in the orbit, these small structures are difficult to evaluate and measure, making cross-sectional imaging an important diagnostic tool. The detailed cross-sectional imaging appearance of the LG and TEG in dogs using computed tomography (CT) has not been reported to date. Results Forty-two dogs were imaged, and the length, width, and height were measured and the volume calculated for the LGs & TEGs. The glands were best visualized in contrast-enhanced CT images. The mean volume of the LG was 0.14 cm3 and the TEG was 0.1 cm3. The mean height, width, and length of the LG were, 9.36 mm, 4.29 mm, and 9.35 mm, respectively; the corresponding values for the TEG was 2.02 mm, 9.34 mm, and 7.90 mm. LG and TEG volume were positively correlated with body weight (p < 0.05). Conclusions Contrast-enhanced CT is a valuable tool for noninvasive assessment of canine lacrimal glands. PMID:24886364

  13. Gland With Cantilever Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Patrick B.

    1989-01-01

    Single-piece gland forms tight seal on probe or tube containing liquid or gas at high pressure. Gland and probe align as assembled by simple torquing procedure. Disconnected easily and reused at same site. Made from any of wide variety of materials so compatible with application. Cantilever ring at top of gland bites into wall of tube or probe, sealing it. Wall of tube or probe must be thick enough to accommodate deformation without rupturing. Maximum deformation designed in coordination with seating and deformation of boss or conical seal.

  14. Morphological Changes in Skin Glands During Development in Rhinella Arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Regueira, Eleonora; Dávila, Camila; Hermida, Gladys N

    2016-01-01

    Avoiding predation is critical to survival of animals; chemical defenses represent a common strategy among amphibians. In this study, we examined histologically the morphology of skin glands and types of secretions related to chemical skin defense during ontogeny of Rhinella arenarum. Prior to metamorphic climax the epidermis contains typical bufonid giant cells producing a mucous substance supposedly involved in triggering a flight reaction of the tadpole school. An apical layer of alcianophilic mucus covers the epidermis, which could produce the unpleasant taste of bufonid tadpoles. Giant cells disappear by onset of metamorphic climax, when multicellular glands start developing, but the apical mucous layer remains. By the end of climax, neither the granular glands of the dorsum nor the parotoid regions are completely developed. Conversely, by the end of metamorphosis the mucous glands are partially developed and secrete mucus. Adults have at least three types of granular glands, which we designate type A (acidophilic), type B (basophilic) and ventral (mucous). Polymorphic granular glands distribute differently in the body: dorsal granular glands between warts and in the periphery of parotoids contain protein; granular glands of big warts and in the central region of parotoids contain catecholamines, lipids, and glycoconjugates, whereas ventral granular glands produce acidic glycoconjugates. Mucous glands produce both mucus and proteins. Results suggest that in early juveniles the chemical skin defense mechanisms are not functional. Topographical differences in adult skin secretions suggest that granular glands from the big warts in the skin produce similar toxins to the parotoid glands. Anat Rec, 299:141-156, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26479879

  15. Prothoracic gland semiochemicals of green lacewings.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Jeffrey Richard; Le, Thanh C; Zhang, Qing-He; Torres, Jorge; Winterton, Shaun L; Han, Baoyu; Miller, Gary L; Chauhan, Kamlesh R

    2009-10-01

    Adult chrysopids have paired prothoracic glands (PG) that are thought to produce defensive secretions (allomones). We analyzed PG extracts of the following green lacewings from North and South America, Australia, and China: Ceraeochrysa cubana (Brazil); Chrysopa (= Co.) oculata, Co. nigricornis, Co. incompleta, Co. quadripunctata (USA), and Co. septempunctata (China); Chrysoperla (= Cl.) rufilabris (USA) and Cl. sp. (Brazil); Plesiochrysa ramburi and Mallada spp. (Australia). PG secretions are characteristic for species within a genus, except for Chrysopa spp. (Z)-4-Tridecene is ubiquitous, but (Z,Z)-4,7-tridecadiene is a major PG constituent in some Chrysopa spp. and in P. ramburi. Earlier reports that Co. oculata and Co. nigricornis produce 1-tridecene were shown to be in error. Chrysopa PG secretions are distinguished by the presence or absence of N-3-methylbutylacetamide, plus skatole (3-methylindole). Skatole is also identified for the first time from the Plesiochrysa and Ceraeochrysa. The PG secretion in Plesiochrysa ramburi is characterized by the presence of (Z)-4-undecene instead of (Z)-4-tridecene, and N-3-methylbutylpropanamide instead of the acetamide, resembling the PG secretions of Chrysopa nigricornis, Co. septempunctata and Co. incompleta. The chemotaxonomic value of PG semiochemicals is discussed, including evidence for subgroups within the genus Chrysopa as it now stands. PMID:19844760

  16. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Endocrine System » Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  17. Salivary gland infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physiology of the salivary glands. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 83. Jackson NM, Mitchell JL, Walvekar RR. ...

  18. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery to remove part or all of your thyroid gland. This operation is called thyroidectomy . You probably ... in just a few weeks. If you had thyroid cancer, you may need to have radioactive iodine ...

  19. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... enlarges in size in a process called benign hypertrophy, which means that the gland got larger without ... in several of the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, or BPH. Symptoms may include a slowed or ...

  20. Pineal and Pituitary Glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anatomy Neurons & Glial Cells Brain Meninges Spinal Cord Cranial Nerves Pineal and Pituitary Glands Abstracting, Coding, & Staging Topographic ... Anatomy & Physiology module on this Web site. « Previous (Cranial Nerves) Next (Abstracting, Coding, & Staging) » Contact Us | Privacy Policy | ...

  1. Soybean and Tobacco Floral nectary Glands: their Structural and Functional Similarities and Differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect attraction and pollination of flowers are controlled by characters such as: color (visual cue); shape (accommodation); opening and pollen dehiscence (timing); volatiles production (smell); and nectar secretion from nectary glands (reward). The floral nectary and its secretion products are tw...

  2. Defensive glands in the adult and larval stages of the darkling beetle, Luprops tristis.

    PubMed

    Abhitha, P; Vinod, K V; Sabu, T K

    2010-01-01

    Invasion by large populations of the litter-dwelling darkling beetle Luprops tristis Fabricius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) following the short spell of summer rains during April, and their extended state of dormancy is a regular event in rubber plantation habitats in south-western India. Strong smelling secretions of the beetle cause blisters on skin of human beings. Such secretions appear defensive because they appear to facilitate their avoidance by other predatory organisms. Defensive glands in the larvae and adults of L. tristis are described, as well as the mode of eversion of the glands. The glands in larvae consist of two pairs of noneversible glands in a conical depression on the 2(nd) and 3(rd) sternites, whereas in adults only one pair occurs between 7(th) and 8(th) sternal segments. These glands may be a major reason for avoidance of larvae and adults by their natural enemies and their very high numbers in the litter of rubber plantations. PMID:20569139

  3. Defensive Glands in the Adult and Larval Stages of the Darkling Beetle, Luprops tristis

    PubMed Central

    Abhitha, P.; Vinod, K.V; Sabu, T.K.

    2010-01-01

    Invasion by large populations of the litter-dwelling darkling beetle Luprops tristis Fabricius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) following the short spell of summer rains during April, and their extended state of dormancy is a regular event in rubber plantation habitats in south-western India. Strong smelling secretions of the beetle cause blisters on skin of human beings. Such secretions appear defensive because they appear to facilitate their avoidance by other predatory organisms. Defensive glands in the larvae and adults of L. tristis are described, as well as the mode of eversion of the glands. The glands in larvae consist of two pairs of noneversible glands in a conical depression on the 2nd and 3rd sternites, whereas in adults only one pair occurs between 7th and 8th sternal segments. These glands may be a major reason for avoidance of larvae and adults by their natural enemies and their very high numbers in the litter of rubber plantations. PMID:20569139

  4. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions. PMID:26614702

  5. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  6. HIV Accessory Proteins versus Host Restriction Factors

    PubMed Central

    Strebel, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Primate immunodeficiency viruses, including HIV-1, are characterized by the presence of accessory genes such as vif, vpr, vpx, vpu, and nef. Current knowledge indicates that none of the primate lentiviral accessory proteins has enzymatic activity. Instead, these proteins interact with cellular ligands to either act as adapter molecules to redirect the normal function of host factors for virus-specific purposes or to inhibit a normal host function by mediating degradation or causing intracellular mislocalization/sequestration of the factors involved. This review aims at providing an update of our current understanding of how Vif, Vpu, and Vpx control the cellular restriction factors APOBEC3G, BST-2, and SAMHD1, respectively. PMID:24246762

  7. Accessory cells for β-cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Staels, W; De Groef, S; Heremans, Y; Coppens, V; Van Gassen, N; Leuckx, G; Van de Casteele, M; Van Riet, I; Luttun, A; Heimberg, H; De Leu, N

    2016-02-01

    Despite recent advances, insulin therapy remains a treatment, not a cure, for diabetes mellitus with persistent risk of glycaemic alterations and life-threatening complications. Restoration of the endogenous β-cell mass through regeneration or transplantation offers an attractive alternative. Unfortunately, signals that drive β-cell regeneration remain enigmatic and β-cell replacement therapy still faces major hurdles that prevent its widespread application. Co-transplantation of accessory non-islet cells with islet cells has been shown to improve the outcome of experimental islet transplantation. This review will highlight current travails in β-cell therapy and focuses on the potential benefits of accessory cells for islet transplantation in diabetes. PMID:26289770

  8. Mechanism and synergism in epithelial fluid and electrolyte secretion.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jeong Hee; Park, Seonghee; Shcheynikov, Nikolay; Muallem, Shmuel

    2014-08-01

    A central function of epithelia is the control of the volume and electrolyte composition of bodily fluids through vectorial transport of electrolytes and the obligatory H2O. In exocrine glands, fluid and electrolyte secretion is carried out by both acinar and duct cells, with the portion of fluid secreted by each cell type varying among glands. All acinar cells secrete isotonic, plasma-like fluid, while the duct determines the final electrolyte composition of the fluid by absorbing most of the Cl(-) and secreting HCO3 (-). The key transporters mediating acinar fluid and electrolyte secretion are the basolateral Na(+)/K(+) /2Cl(-) cotransporter, the luminal Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel ANO1 and basolateral and luminal Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels. Ductal fluid and HCO3 (-) secretion are mediated by the basolateral membrane Na(+)-HCO3 (-) cotransporter NBCe1-B and the luminal membrane Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger slc26a6 and the Cl(-) channel CFTR. The function of the transporters is regulated by multiple inputs, which in the duct include major regulation by the WNK/SPAK pathway that inhibit secretion and the IRBIT/PP1 pathway that antagonize the effects of the WNK/SPAK pathway to both stimulate and coordinate the secretion. The function of these regulatory pathways in secretory glands acinar cells is yet to be examined. An important concept in biology is synergism among signaling pathways to generate the final physiological response that ensures regulation with high fidelity and guards against cell toxicity. While synergism is observed in all epithelial functions, the molecular mechanism mediating the synergism is not known. Recent work reveals a central role for IRBIT as a third messenger that integrates and synergizes the function of the Ca(2+) and cAMP signaling pathways in activation of epithelial fluid and electrolyte secretion. These concepts are discussed in this review using secretion by the pancreatic and salivary gland ducts as model systems. PMID:24240699

  9. Mechanism and Synergism in Epithelial Fluid and Electrolyte Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jeong Hee; Park, Seonghee; Shcheynikov, Nikolay; Muallem, Shmuel

    2014-01-01

    A central function of epithelia is the control of the volume and electrolyte composition of bodily fluids through vectorial transport of electrolytes and the obligatory H2O. In exocrine glands fluid and electrolyte secretion is carried out by both acinar and duct cells, with the portion of fluid secreted by each cell type vary among glands. All acinar cells secrete isotonic, plasma-like fluid, while the duct determines the final electrolyte composition of the fluid by absorbing most of the Cl− and secreting HCO3−. The key transporters mediating acinar fluid and electrolyte secretion are the basolateral Na+/K+/2Cl− cotransporter, the luminal Ca2+-activated Cl− channel ANO1 and basolateral and luminal Ca2+-activated K+ channels. Ductal fluid and HCO3− secretion are mediated by the basolateral membrane Na+-HCO3− cotransporter NBCe1-B and the luminal membrane Cl−/HCO3− exchanger slc26a6 and the Cl− channel CFTR. The function of the transporters is regulated by multiple inputs, which in the duct include major regulation by the WNK/SPAK pathway that inhibit secretion and the IRBIT/PP1 pathway that antagonize the effects of the WNK/SPAK pathway to both stimulate and coordinate the secretion. The function of these regulatory pathways in secretory glands acinar cells is yet to be examined. An important concept in biology is synergism among signaling pathways to generate the final physiological response that ensures regulation with high fidelity and guards against cell toxicity. While synergism is observed in all epithelial functions, the molecular mechanism mediating the synergism is not known. Recent work reveals a central role for IRBIT as a third messenger that integrates and synergizes the function of the Ca2+ and cAMP signaling pathways in activation of epithelial fluid and electrolyte secretion. These concepts are discussed in this review using secretion by the pancreatic and salivary gland ducts as model systems. PMID:24240699

  10. A Catalog of Proteins Expressed in the AG Secreted Fluid during the Mature Phase of the Chinese Mitten Crabs (Eriocheir sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    He, Lin; Li, Qing; Liu, Lihua; Wang, Yuanli; Xie, Jing; Yang, Hongdan; Wang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The accessory gland (AG) is an important component of the male reproductive system of arthropods, its secretions enhance fertility, some AG proteins bind to the spermatozoa and affect its function and properties. Here we report the first comprehensive catalog of the AG secreted fluid during the mature phase of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis). AG proteins were separated by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and analyzed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Altogether, the mass spectra of 1173 peptides were detected (1067 without decoy and contaminants) which allowed for the identification of 486 different proteins annotated upon the NCBI database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) and our transcritptome dataset. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited at the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000700. An extensive description of the AG proteome will help provide the basis for a better understanding of a number of reproductive mechanisms, including potentially spermatophore breakdown, dynamic functional and morphological changes in sperm cells and sperm acrosin enzyme vitality. Thus, the comprehensive catalog of proteins presented here can serve as a valuable reference for future studies of sperm maturation and regulatory mechanisms involved in crustacean reproduction. PMID:26305468

  11. Accessory mineral records of tectonic environments? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, C.; Marschall, H. R.; Enea, F.; Taylor, J.; Jennings, E. S.

    2010-12-01

    Accessory mineral research continues to gather momentum as we seek to unleash their full potential. It is now widely recognised that robust accessory minerals, such as zircon, rutile, titanite, allanite and monazite, are archives of important trace elements that can help deduce metamorphic reaction history in metapelites, metabasites and other rock types. Moreover, they are important carriers of certain trace elements and govern or influence the products of partial melting and of fluid-rock interaction (e.g. magmas and mineralisation) in settings like subduction zones and hydrothermal systems. Perhaps most importantly, they can often be dated using the U-Th-Pb system. More recently, radiogenic (Lu-Hf, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr) and stable (O) isotope systems have been applied and have further pushed the utility of accessory mineral research. In this talk I will discuss some of these advances towards one particular aim: the use of detrital accessory minerals for fingerprinting tectonic environments. This is a particularly laudable aim in Precambrian rocks, for which the preservation potential of orogenic belts and fossil subduction zones and their diagnostic metamorphic rocks is low. The implication is that our understanding of plate tectonics, particularly in the Archaean, is biased by the preserved in-tact rock record. An analogy is that Jack Hills zircons record evidence of Earth’s crust some 400 Ma before the preserved rock record begins. I will focus on some recent advances and new data from rutile and also the mineral inclusion record within zircon, which shows great promise for petrologic interpretation.

  12. Antimicrobial chemicals in hoopoe preen secretions are produced by symbiotic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Peña, Aránzazu; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Sánchez, Lourdes; Ananou, Samir; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan José

    2010-01-01

    Animals frequently use metabolites produced by symbiotic bacteria as agents against pathogens and parasites. Secretions from the preen gland of birds are used for this purpose, although its chemicals apparently are produced by the birds themselves. European hoopoes Upupa epops and green woodhoopoes Phoeniculus purpureus harbour symbiotic bacteria in the uropygial gland that might be partly responsible for the chemical composition of secretions. Here we investigate the antimicrobial activity of the volatile fraction of chemicals in hoopoe preen secretions, and, by means of experimental antibiotic injections, test whether symbiotic bacteria living within the uropygial gland are responsible for their production. Hoopoes produce two different kinds of secretions that differ drastically in their chemical composition. While the malodorous dark secretions produced by nestlings included a complex mix of volatiles, these chemicals did not appear in white secretions produced by non-nesting birds. All volatiles detected showed strong antibacterial activity, and a mixture of the chemicals at the concentrations measured in nestling glands inhibited the growth of all bacterial strains assayed. We found support for the hypothesized role of bacteria in the production of such antimicrobial chemicals because experimental clearance of bacteria from glands of nestlings with antibiotics resulted in secretions without most of the volatiles detected in control individuals. Thus, the presence of symbiotic bacteria in the uropygial gland provides hoopoes with potent antimicrobials for topical use. PMID:19812087

  13. The HLH-6 Transcription Factor Regulates C. elegans Pharyngeal Gland Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Ryan B.; Schnabel, Ralf; Gaudet, Jeb

    2008-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans pharynx (or foregut) functions as a pump that draws in food (bacteria) from the environment. While the “organ identity factor” PHA-4 is critical for formation of the C. elegans pharynx as a whole, little is known about the specification of distinct cell types within the pharynx. Here, we use a combination of bioinformatics, molecular biology, and genetics to identify a helix-loop-helix transcription factor (HLH-6) as a critical regulator of pharyngeal gland development. HLH-6 is required for expression of a number of gland-specific genes, acting through a discrete cis-regulatory element named PGM1 (Pharyngeal Gland Motif 1). hlh-6 mutants exhibit a frequent loss of a subset of glands, while the remaining glands have impaired activity, indicating a role for hlh-6 in both gland development and function. Interestingly, hlh-6 mutants are also feeding defective, ascribing a biological function for the glands. Pharyngeal pumping in hlh-6 mutants is normal, but hlh-6 mutants lack expression of a class of mucin-related proteins that are normally secreted by pharyngeal glands and line the pharyngeal cuticle. An interesting possibility is that one function of pharyngeal glands is to secrete a pharyngeal lining that ensures efficient transport of food along the pharyngeal lumen. PMID:18927627

  14. Simultaneous measurement and imaging of intracellular Ca(2+) and H(+) transport in isolated rabbit gastric glands.

    PubMed

    Pérez, J F; Ruiz, M C; Michelangeli, F

    2001-12-15

    1. Activation of H(+) secretion in the intracellular canaliculi of parietal cells occurs on an unknown time scale with ill-defined kinetics for the coupling of H(+) secretion and the elevation of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) stimulated by secretagogues. 2. We developed a method to determine H(+) secretion in isolated rabbit gastric glands with spatio-temporal resolution, using the fluorescent indicator Lysosensor Yellow-Blue (LYB). Glands accumulated the dye exclusively in the intracellular canaliculi of parietal cells and the gland lumen. Dye fluorescence in the acid spaces of the glands increased upon stimulation of acid secretion by carbachol, histamine and forskolin. Simultaneous fluorescence measurements of acid secretion and [Ca(2+)](i) at 1 s resolution were made by joint loading of LYB and Fluo-3. 3. Carbachol-stimulated H(+) secretion was detected in the gland lumen as early as 3 s after the onset of the [Ca(2+)](i) spike. H(+) accumulation appeared to be transient and paralleled the release component of the [Ca(2+)](i) spike. Short and repetitive stimulations with carbachol elicited repetitive responses in [Ca(2+)](i) and H(+) secretion. 4. Histamine or forskolin stimulated H(+) secretion with a delayed onset (around 2 min) and a sustained response. Acid secretion was temporally unrelated to the oscillatory Ca(2+) responses. 5. The striking difference in the kinetics of activation of H(+) secretion by cholinergic and cAMP-dependent secretagogues indicates that two distinct mechanisms are operating in the final stimulation of the pump, in spite of both eliciting a [Ca(2+)](i) response. PMID:11744751

  15. Efficacy of laser stimulation of the lacrimal gland and collagen punctual occlusion in the treatment of dry-eye syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switka-Wieclawska, Iwona; Kecik, Tadeusz; Ciszewska, Joanna

    1997-10-01

    In this study we would like to monitor the tear secretion during a 7 day period of temporary intracanalicular occlusion and laser stimulation of lacrimal gland in a small group of female suffering of dry eye syndrome.

  16. Reptilian chemistry: Characterization of a family of dianeackerone-related steroidal esters from a crocodile secretion

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhicai; Whyte, Authrine; Attygalle, Athula B.; Weldon, Paul J.; Eisner, Thomas; Meinwald, Jerrold

    1999-01-01

    The African dwarf crocodile, Osteolaemus tetraspis (Crocodilidae, Reptilia), possesses a pair of skin glands, the paracloacal glands, the secretion of which is thought to be used to mark nest sites or attract mates. Ten aromatic steroidal esters were isolated from this secretion and characterized on the basis of NMR spectroscopic investigations, electrospray ionization-MS analyses, and chemical degradation. These esters, which account for more than 90% of the paracloacal glandular secretion, are derived from either cholesterol or cholestanol, esterified with a C-20 or C-22 acid closely related to dianeackerone, the only significant volatile compound found in this secretion. PMID:10535907

  17. A new type of exocrine gland and its function in mass recruitment in the ant Cylindromyrmex whymperi (Formicidae, Cerapachyinae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Bruno; Rüppell, Olav; Hartmann, Annegret; Jungnickel, Harald; Morgan, David; Billen, Johan

    2001-08-01

    Workers of the ant Cylindromyrmex whymperi display mass trail recruitment. Bioassays show that the trail pheromone originates from a unique gland between abdominal sternites 6 and 7. The gland has a hitherto unknown structural organization. Upon leaving the secretory cell, the duct cell widens to form a sclerotized pear-shaped reservoir chamber, lined with multiple duct cells. Each duct thus forms a miniature reservoir for the secretions of each single secretory cell, a novel structural arrangement in exocrine glands of social Hymenoptera.

  18. Anatomy, Physiology, and Laboratory Evaluation of the Pituitary Gland.

    PubMed

    Hong, Gregory K; Payne, Spencer C; Jane, John A

    2016-02-01

    The pituitary gland functions prominently in the control of most endocrine systems in the body. Diverse processes such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, and water balance are tightly regulated by the pituitary in conjunction with the hypothalamus and various downstream endocrine organs. Benign tumors of the pituitary gland are the primary cause of pituitary pathology and can result in inappropriate secretion of pituitary hormones or loss of pituitary function. First-line management of clinically significant tumors often involves surgical resection. Understanding of normal pituitary physiology and basic testing strategies to assess for pituitary dysfunction should be familiar to any skull base surgeon. PMID:26614827

  19. Isolation of Viable Multicellular Glands from Tissue of the Carnivorous Plant, Nepenthes

    PubMed Central

    Rottloff, Sandy; Mithöfer, Axel; Müller, Ute; Kilper, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Many plants possess specialized structures that are involved in the production and secretion of specific low molecular weight compounds and proteins. These structures are almost always localized on plant surfaces. Among them are nectaries or glandular trichomes. The secreted compounds are often employed in interactions with the biotic environment, for example as attractants for pollinators or deterrents against herbivores. Glands that are unique in several aspects can be found in carnivorous plants. In so-called pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes, bifunctional glands inside the pitfall-trap on the one hand secrete the digestive fluid, including all enzymes necessary for prey digestion, and on the other hand take-up the released nutrients. Thus, these glands represent an ideal, specialized tissue predestinated to study the underlying molecular, biochemical, and physiological mechanisms of protein secretion and nutrient uptake in plants. Moreover, generally the biosynthesis of secondary compounds produced by many plants equipped with glandular structures could be investigated directly in glands. In order to work on such specialized structures, they need to be isolated efficiently, fast, metabolically active, and without contamination with other tissues. Therefore, a mechanical micropreparation technique was developed and applied for studies on Nepenthes digestion fluid. Here, a protocol is presented that was used to successfully prepare single bifunctional glands from Nepenthes traps, based on a mechanized microsampling platform. The glands could be isolated and directly used further for gene expression analysis by PCR techniques after preparation of RNA. PMID:24378909

  20. Isolation of viable multicellular glands from tissue of the carnivorous plant, Nepenthes.

    PubMed

    Rottloff, Sandy; Mithöfer, Axel; Müller, Ute; Kilper, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Many plants possess specialized structures that are involved in the production and secretion of specific low molecular weight compounds and proteins. These structures are almost always localized on plant surfaces. Among them are nectaries or glandular trichomes. The secreted compounds are often employed in interactions with the biotic environment, for example as attractants for pollinators or deterrents against herbivores. Glands that are unique in several aspects can be found in carnivorous plants. In so-called pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes, bifunctional glands inside the pitfall-trap on the one hand secrete the digestive fluid, including all enzymes necessary for prey digestion, and on the other hand take-up the released nutrients. Thus, these glands represent an ideal, specialized tissue predestinated to study the underlying molecular, biochemical, and physiological mechanisms of protein secretion and nutrient uptake in plants. Moreover, generally the biosynthesis of secondary compounds produced by many plants equipped with glandular structures could be investigated directly in glands. In order to work on such specialized structures, they need to be isolated efficiently, fast, metabolically active, and without contamination with other tissues. Therefore, a mechanical micropreparation technique was developed and applied for studies on Nepenthes digestion fluid. Here, a protocol is presented that was used to successfully prepare single bifunctional glands from Nepenthes traps, based on a mechanized microsampling platform. The glands could be isolated and directly used further for gene expression analysis by PCR techniques after preparation of RNA. PMID:24378909

  1. Longitudinal, 3D in vivo imaging of sebaceous glands by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy normal function and response to cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yookyung; Tam, Joshua; Jalian, H. Ray; Anderson, R. Rox; Evans, Conor L.

    2014-01-01

    Sebaceous glands perform complex functions, and are centrally involved in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Current techniques for studying sebaceous glands are mostly static in nature, whereas the glands main function excretion of sebum via the holocrine mechanism can only be evaluated over time. We present a longitudinal, real-time alternative the in vivo, label-free imaging of sebaceous glands using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy, which is used to selectively visualize lipids. In mouse ears, CARS microscopy revealed dynamic changes in sebaceous glands during the holocrine secretion process, as well as in response to damage to the glands caused by cooling. Detailed gland structure, plus the active migration of individual sebocytes and cohorts of sebocytes were measured. Cooling produced characteristic changes in sebocyte structure and migration. This study demonstrates that CARS microscopy is a promising tool for studying the sebaceous gland and its associated disorders in three-dimensions in vivo. PMID:25026458

  2. Do caterpillars secrete "oral secretions"?

    PubMed

    Peiffer, Michelle; Felton, Gary W

    2009-03-01

    The oral secretions or regurgitant of caterpillars contain potent elicitors of plant induced responses. These elicitors are recognized by host plants to differentiate between simple mechanical injury and the presence of herbivores. In some cases, this level of recognition is highly specific. Despite the in-depth chemical characterization of these elicitors, little is known about the amounts delivered in regurgitant during feeding. In this study, we use a fluorescent dye to label regurgitant in order to visualize caterpillar regurgitation during feeding. The procedure is highly sensitive and allows us to visualize nanoliter amounts of regurgitant. We examined the propensity of larval Helicoverpa zea, Heliothis virescens, Spodoptera exigua, Spodoptera frugiperda, and Manduca sexta to regurgitate on various host plants. These species were selected because they have been among the most intensely studied in terms of elicitors. Our results indicate that most larvae did not regurgitate following a brief feeding bout ( approximately 10 min) during which they ate ca. 0.40 cm(2) of leaf. When larvae did regurgitate, it was typically less than 10 nl. This is several orders of magnitude less than is typically used in most studies on oral secretions. The frequency of regurgitation appears to vary depending upon the host plant. Larval H. zea are less likely to regurgitate when feeding on tomato leaves compared to corn mid-whorl tissue. Our results have importance in understanding the role of oral secretions in plant recognition of herbivory. Because caterpillars did not routinely regurgitate during feeding, it is likely that they avoid the elicitation of some plant defensive responses during most feeding bouts. PMID:19221841

  3. Functional differences in the acinar cells of the murine major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Y; Nakamoto, T; Jaramillo, Y; Choi, S; Catalan, M A; Melvin, J E

    2015-05-01

    In humans, approximately 90% of saliva is secreted by the 3 major salivary glands: the parotid (PG), the submandibular (SMG), and the sublingual glands (SLG). Even though it is known that all 3 major salivary glands secrete saliva by a Cl(-)-dependent mechanism, salivary secretion rates differ greatly among these glands. The goal of this study was to gain insight into the properties of the ion-transporting pathways in acinar cells that might account for the differences among the major salivary glands. Pilocarpine-induced saliva was simultaneously collected in vivo from the 3 major salivary glands of mice. When normalized by gland weight, the amount of saliva secreted by the PG was more than 2-fold larger than that obtained from the SMG and SLG. At the cellular level, carbachol induced an increase in the intracellular [Ca(2+)] that was more than 2-fold larger in PG and SMG than in SLG acinar cells. Carbachol-stimulated Cl(-) efflux and the protein levels of the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel TMEM16A, the major apical Cl(-) efflux pathway in salivary acinar cells, were significantly greater in PG compared with SMG and SLG. In addition, we evaluated the transporter activity of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters (NKCC1) and anion exchangers (AE), the 2 primary basolateral Cl(-) uptake mechanisms in acinar cells. The SMG NKCC1 activity was about twice that of the PG and more than 12-fold greater than that of the SLG. AE activity was similar in PG and SLG, and both PG and SLG AE activity was about 2-fold larger than that of SMG. In summary, the salivation kinetics of the 3 major glands are distinct, and these differences can be explained by the unique functional properties of each gland related to Cl(-) movement, including the transporter activities of the Cl(-) uptake and efflux pathways, and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. PMID:25680367

  4. Adhesive secretions in the Platyhelminthes.

    PubMed

    Whittington, I D; Cribb, B W

    2001-01-01

    This review is the first to draw together knowledge about bioadhesives secreted by a group of parasites. Mechanisms of mechanical attachment are well known among parasites, but some can also attach to host surfaces by chemical means using a thin layer of adhesive material secreted at the parasite-host interface. Attachment by adhesives to living surfaces has not been studied in detail previously. A significant volume of research has determined much about the chemistry and nature of bioadhesives secreted by various marine macroinvertebrates from different phyla for attachment to inert substrates. Mussels and barnacles are sessile and adhere permanently, whereas starfish display temporary but firm adhesion during locomotion, feeding and burrowing. We focus on the Platyhelminthes that comprises the largely free-living Turbellaria and the wholly parasitic Monogenea, Cestoda, Digenea and Aspidogastrea. The term tissue adhesion is introduced to describe attachment by adhesives to epithelial surfaces such as fish epidermis and the lining of the vertebrate gut. These living layers regenerate rapidly, secrete mucus, are a site for immune activity and are therefore especially hostile environments for organisms that inhabit them, presenting a significant challenge for adhesion. Not all platyhelminths adhere to living surfaces and types of adhesion to inert substrates by the free-living turbellarians are also reviewed. Tissue adhesion is particularly well exemplified by monopisthocotylean monogeneans, parasites that are especially mobile as larvae, juveniles and adults on the epidermis of the body and gill surfaces of fish. These monogeneans secrete adhesives from the anterior end when they move from site to site, but some have secondarily developed adhesives at the posterior end to supplement or replace mechanical attachment by hooks and/or by suction. The temporary but tenacious anterior adhesives of monogeneans display remarkable properties of instant attachment to and detachment from their host fish surfaces. In contrast to the mobility of turbellarians and monopisthocotylean monogeneans and the simplicity of their direct life cycles, the largely endoparasitic Cestoda and Digenea are considered to be less mobile as adults. The complex cestode and digenean life cycles, involving intermediate hosts, place different demands on their various stages. Diverse, mostly anterior, gland cells in larvae, metacestodes and adults of the true tapeworms (Eucestoda), and in larval and adult Gyrocotylidea and Amphilinidea are reviewed. Conspicuous gland cells, mostly but not exclusively at the anterior end, in miracidia, cercariae and adults of digeneans and in cotylocidia and adults of aspidogastreans are also reviewed. Unlike turbellarians and monogeneans, accounts of unequivocal adhesive secretions in the Cestoda, but especially in the Digenea and Aspidogastrea, are relatively rare. The primary purpose of many conspicuous glands in the different stages of these mostly endoparasitic flatworms is for penetration into, or escape from, different hosts in their life cycle. We provide a detailed review of current knowledge about adhesion (in the sense of a thin layer of chemical material) in the Platyhelminthes including uses among eggs, larval, juvenile and adult stages. Information on structure, morphology and ultrastructure of the various adhesive systems that have been described is reviewed. Application of the 'duo gland' model is discussed. Comparisons are made between the little that is known about the chemistry of flatworm adhesives and the significant knowledge of the chemical nature of other invertebrate bioadhesives, especially those from marine macroinvertebrates. The potential importance of adhesives in parasitism is discussed. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:11013756

  5. Accessory slips of the extensor digiti minimi.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Mao, Qing Hua

    2014-01-01

    During the educational dissection of a 69-year-old Chinese male cadaver, an extensor digiti minimi (EDM) with five slips on the right hand was discovered. Except for the two slips of the little finger, the two radial slips were inserted into the dorsal aponeurosis of the middle finger and the ring finger, respectively. The middle slip was connected to the junctura tendinum in the fourth intermetacarpal spaces. Variations in this region are of paramount importance for the reconstructive surgeons, who may utilize the accessory slips to restore functional capacity of the fingers. PMID:24970007

  6. Lacrimal Gland Fistula following Severe Head Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Cemil; Toprak, Ibrahim; Gungen, Sukru; Arslan, Alp

    2015-01-01

    We aim to present a unique case with discharging lacrimal gland fistula secondary to severe head trauma by an animal. A 9-year-old girl presented with serous fluid discharge from a cutaneous fistula in the left orbital region. The patient had history of surgery for traumatic frontal bone fracture and skin laceration in the superior orbital rim three weeks earlier. She underwent a complete ophthalmological examination and there was no anterior segment or fundus pathology. The orifice of the fistula was detected in mediolateral part of the left superior orbital rim and fluid secretion was increasing with irritation of the left eye. Neurosurgical complications were excluded and radiological assessment was nonremarkable. The patient's legal representatives were informed and lacrimal gland fistulectomy was planned. However, the fistula was self-closed one week after initial ophthalmological examination, and the patient had no symptoms. In conclusion, traumatic injuries of superior orbital region should be carefully evaluated and wounds should be well closed to prevent consecutive lacrimal gland fistula. PMID:25834573

  7. Lacrimal Gland Fistula following Severe Head Trauma.

    PubMed

    Demir, Cemil; Toprak, Ibrahim; Gungen, Sukru; Arslan, Alp

    2015-01-01

    We aim to present a unique case with discharging lacrimal gland fistula secondary to severe head trauma by an animal. A 9-year-old girl presented with serous fluid discharge from a cutaneous fistula in the left orbital region. The patient had history of surgery for traumatic frontal bone fracture and skin laceration in the superior orbital rim three weeks earlier. She underwent a complete ophthalmological examination and there was no anterior segment or fundus pathology. The orifice of the fistula was detected in mediolateral part of the left superior orbital rim and fluid secretion was increasing with irritation of the left eye. Neurosurgical complications were excluded and radiological assessment was nonremarkable. The patient's legal representatives were informed and lacrimal gland fistulectomy was planned. However, the fistula was self-closed one week after initial ophthalmological examination, and the patient had no symptoms. In conclusion, traumatic injuries of superior orbital region should be carefully evaluated and wounds should be well closed to prevent consecutive lacrimal gland fistula. PMID:25834573

  8. Effect of melatonin on salt gland and kidney function of gulls, Larus glaucescens.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Maryanne R; Kitamura, Nobu; Bennett, Darin C; Gray, David A; Sharp, Peter J; Poon, Angela M S

    2007-05-01

    This study examined effects of exogenous melatonin on osmoregulatory hormones and water and sodium secretion by salt glands and excretion via the kidneys of Glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens). Six saline acclimated gulls were injected with inulin and paraminohippuric acid and then infused with 500 mM NaCl to stimulate salt gland secretion. Each bird was given infusions of NaCl alone and NaCl plus melatonin. Experiments were made one week apart in a randomized order. A large blood sample (to measure osmoregulatory hormones) was taken before infusion, at secretion, and at the end of infusion. A small blood sample was taken at the midpoint of each of six 10 min sequential collections of salt gland secretion and urine. Melatonin tended to increase plasma sodium concentration, did decrease plasma osmolality, but did not affect potassium concentration. Melatonin did not affect salt gland secretion rate or concentration nor renal plasma flow or glomerular filtration. Melatonin increased urine flow rate, tended to increase urine sodium concentration, and did decrease urine potassium concentration. Combined renal and extrarenal sodium excretion was greater during MT treatment. During NaCl infusion, angiotensin II increased, aldosterone decreased, and arginine vasotocin remained unchanged. Melatonin did not affect these responses. These data suggest an osmoregulatory role for melatonin in birds with salt glands. PMID:17350011

  9. Aquaporins in the adult mouse submandibular and sublingual salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Aure, Marit H; Ruus, Ann-Kristin; Galtung, Hilde K

    2014-02-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) is a family of membrane bound water channels found in most tissues. In addition to contribute to transepithelial water movement, AQPs are shown to be involved in a variety of processes such as proliferation, cell migration, and apoptosis. In salivary glands, it is well known that AQP5 plays an important role in fluid secretion. In recent years, several AQPs that demonstrate specific expression trends during development have been found in the mouse submandibular gland (SMG). In this study, we wanted to further investigate the presence and localization of the AQP family in the adult mouse SMG in addition to the less studied sublingual gland. Real time PCR and Western blot demonstrated the presence of AQP3, 4, 8, 9, and 11 transcripts and proteins. AQP1 and AQP7 were shown to be localized in endothelial cells, while AQP4 was found in the satellite cells of the parasympathetic ganglia in both glands. The result from this study shows that AQPs are found in defined subpopulations of cells in salivary glands, providing novel insights to their specific roles in salivary glands. PMID:23880985

  10. Intraduct papilloma of parotid gland.

    PubMed Central

    King, P H; Hill, J

    1993-01-01

    Intraduct papillomas of the salivary glands are rare solitary tumours. Most of the reported cases have occurred in minor salivary glands. A case which occurred in the parotid gland is reported. Fine needle aspiration was performed on this tumour, and the cytological appearances of the aspirate were suggestive of an adenoid cystic carcinoma. This is an important potential diagnostic pitfall which should be borne in mind when interpreting aspirates from salivary gland tumours. Images PMID:8384642

  11. The SNARE Machinery in Mast Cell Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Lorentz, Axel; Baumann, Anja; Vitte, Joana; Blank, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells are known as inflammatory cells which exert their functions in allergic and anaphylactic reactions by secretion of numerous inflammatory mediators. During an allergic response, the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, becomes cross-linked by receptor-bound IgE and antigen resulting in immediate release of pre-synthesized mediators – stored in granules – as well as in de novo synthesis of various mediators like cytokines and chemokines. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (SNAP) receptors (SNARE) proteins were found to play a central role in regulating membrane fusion events during exocytosis. In addition, several accessory regulators like Munc13, Munc18, Rab GTPases, secretory carrier membrane proteins, complexins, or synaptotagmins were found to be involved in membrane fusion. In this review we summarize our current knowledge about the SNARE machinery and its mechanism of action in mast cell secretion. PMID:22679448

  12. The buffer capacity of airway epithelial secretions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dusik; Liao, Jie; Hanrahan, John W.

    2014-01-01

    The pH of airway epithelial secretions influences bacterial killing and mucus properties and is reduced by acidic pollutants, gastric reflux, and respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). The effect of acute acid loads depends on buffer capacity, however the buffering of airway secretions has not been well characterized. In this work we develop a method for titrating micro-scale (30 μl) volumes and use it to study fluid secreted by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3, a widely used model for submucosal gland serous cells. Microtitration curves revealed that HCO−3 is the major buffer. Peak buffer capacity (β) increased from 17 to 28 mM/pH during forskolin stimulation, and was reduced by >50% in fluid secreted by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient Calu-3 monolayers, confirming an important role of CFTR in HCO−3 secretion. Back-titration with NaOH revealed non-volatile buffer capacity due to proteins synthesized and released by the epithelial cells. Lysozyme and mucin concentrations were too low to buffer Calu-3 fluid significantly, however model titrations of porcine gastric mucins at concentrations near the sol-gel transition suggest that mucins may contribute to the buffer capacity of ASL in vivo. We conclude that CFTR-dependent HCO−3 secretion and epithelially-derived proteins are the predominant buffers in Calu-3 secretions. PMID:24917822

  13. Accessory Cavitated Uterine Mass: A Rare Cause of Severe Dysmenorrhea in Young Women.

    PubMed

    Paul, P G; Chopade, Gaurav; Das, Tanuka; Dhivya, N; Patil, Saurabh; Thomas, Manju

    2015-01-01

    We present 3 case reports of a rare Müllerian anomaly called accessory and cavitated uterine mass (ACUM), which is found in young women >30 years of age. They presented with severe dysmenorrhea refractory to medical treatment. The patients were 17, 19, and 25 years old. The patients had the classic Müllerian anomalies. The hysteroscopic examination was normal in all 3 cases, and laparoscopic examination showed a 3- to 4-cm ill-defined mass on the right half of the uterus, without any communication to the uterine cavity. The chocolate-colored material was drained in all of the cases, during excision of the mass. The myometrial defect was sutured laparoscopically. On histological examination, the mass was found to be a cystic cavity, lined by endometrial glands and stroma, which confirmed the diagnosis of ACUM. PMID:26093186

  14. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... your screen to choose another section to continue reading this guide. ‹ Salivary Gland Cancer - Medical Illustrations up Salivary Gland Cancer - Screening › f t g e P + H Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us Salivary Gland ...

  15. Pediatric Salivary Gland Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ord, Robert A; Carlson, Eric R

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric malignant salivary gland tumors are extremely rare. The percentage of malignant tumors is higher than that seen in adults, although the outcomes in terms of survival are better in pediatric patients. The mainstay of treatment is surgical excision with negative margins. This article reviews current concepts in demographics, etiology, management, and outcomes of malignant salivary tumors in children. PMID:26614703

  16. Bartholin's Gland Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    MENU ... vagina were the face of a clock, these glands would be found at about 4 and 8 o'clock. Normally they are invisible. They make a small amount of fluid that lubricates the vaginal lips. If a flap of skin grows over ...

  17. Human Papilloma Virus Infection in Patients with Male Accessory Gland Infection: Usefulness of the Ultrasound Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, Rosita A.; Vicari, Enzo; Mongioi, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the ultrasound (US) features of 20 patients with MAGI and concomitant papilloma virus (HPV) infection compared to 20 patients with microbial (presence of Chlamydia trachomatis alone) MAGI and 20 patients with amicrobial (inflammatory) MAGI. Patients with HPV infection showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher total prostate, seminal vesicles, and epididymal US signs (18.0 ± 2.0) compared to the other 2 groups (12.0 ± 4.0 versus 10.0 ± 3.0, resp.). In addition, patients with MAGI and HPV had a higher prevalence of complicated forms of MAGI [prostatovesiculitis (PV) and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis (PVE)] and a higher frequency of the fibrosclerotic variant compared to the other groups (70.0 ± 10.0% versus 48.0 ± 5.0% versus 15.0 ± 10.0%). Moreover, HPV infected patients had a higher number of US criteria suggestive for MAGI in the periurethral region of the prostate compared to the other groups. In particular, the patients showed a higher ratio between periurethral and lobar US criteria distribution (5.0 versus 0.5). Finally, the seminal fluid concentration of CD45pos leukocytes (2.0 ± 0.2 versus 1.3 ± 0.3 versus 1.0 ± 0.3 mil/mL) was significantly higher and sperm progressive motility was significantly lower in these patients compared to other groups.

  18. Development and Structure of Internal Glands and External Glandular Trichomes in Pogostemon cablin

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jiansheng; Yuan, Yongming; Liu, Zhixue; Zhu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Pogostemon cablin possesses two morphologically and ontogenetically different types of glandular trichomes, one type of bristle hair on the surfaces of leaves and stems and one type of internal gland inside the leaves and stems. The internal gland originates from elementary meristem and is associated with the biosynthesis of oils present inside the leaves and stems. However, there is little information on mechanism for the oil biosynthesis and secretion inside the leaves and stems. In this study, we identified three kinds of glandular trichome types and two kinds of internal gland in the Pogostemon cablin. The oil secretions from internal glands of stems and leaves contained lipids, flavones and terpenes. Our results indicated that endoplasmic reticulum and plastids and vacuoles are likely involved in the biosynthesis of oils in the internal glands and the synthesized oils are transported from endoplasmic reticulum to the cell wall via connecting endoplasmic reticulum membranes to the plasma membrane. And the comparative analysis of the development, distribution, histochemistry and ultrastructures of the internal and external glands in Pogostemon cablin leads us to propose that the internal gland may be a novel secretory structure which is different from external glands. PMID:24205002

  19. Biomacromolecule conjugated nanofiber scaffold for salivary gland tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayarathanam, Kavitha

    Xerostomia or dry mouth, resulting from loss of salivary gland secretion can be alleviated by tissue engineering approaches to restore glandular cell function. Engineering an artificial salivary gland structure requires closely mimicking the natural environment, both physically and functionally, to promote epithelial cell proliferation, monolayer formation and apico-basal polarization. While the physical structure of the salivary gland extracellular matrix (ECM) can be reconstructed using biocompatible nanofiber scaffolds, the chemical signals from ECM macromolecules are equally involved in the gland morphogenesis. In these glands, Hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomacromolecule that is a major component of the ECM, plays a crucial role in recruiting growth factors to improve cell viability and growth in these glands. Another molecule of interest that improved salivary epithelial cell viability and apico-basal differentiation is laminin, a major protein found in the basement membrane. We hypothesize that these biomacromolecules, when conjugated nanofiber scaffolds, will provide the essential chemical signals that promote cell viability, proliferation, polarity in the salivary cell line of interest. These morphological changes will in turn promote the secretory function (salivary production). The nanofiber scaffold consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid is conjugated with HA using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamine crosslinker. This conjugation was confirmed using fluorescence spectrometry, water contact angle test and immunocytochemistry analysis using confocal microscopy. The effect of HA in promoting cell survival in-vitro was established with MTT assay using SIMS (mouse submandibular immortalized ductal SIMS cells) cells. The effect of HA in improving the apico - basal polarity of SIMS cells will be assessed. Chemical modification of synthetic nanopolymeric scaffolds with ECM molecules e.g., HA, laminin are the next step towards developing "smart scaffolds", that can be used to specifically induce proper salivary gland function. These scaffolds can potentially be used to provide a viable approach for creating future artificial tissue engineered glands.

  20. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  1. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic fluid... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories....

  2. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic fluid... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories....

  3. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic fluid... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories....

  4. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic fluid... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories....

  5. 21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884.5350 Section 884.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Devices § 884.5350 Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. (a) Identification. A contraceptive...

  6. 21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884.5350 Section 884.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Devices § 884.5350 Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. (a) Identification. A contraceptive...

  7. 21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884.5350 Section 884.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Devices § 884.5350 Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. (a) Identification. A contraceptive...

  8. 21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884.5350 Section 884.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Devices § 884.5350 Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. (a) Identification. A contraceptive...

  9. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  11. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  12. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  15. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  16. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  17. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  18. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  20. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  1. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  3. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884.2660... Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to transmit and receive ultrasonic energy into and from the pregnant...

  4. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories... Monitoring Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to apply ultrasonic energy to, and to receive...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope and accessories. (a) Identification....

  6. 21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884.5350 Section 884.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Devices § 884.5350 Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. (a) Identification. A contraceptive...

  7. Simon Effect with and without Awareness of the Accessory Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treccani, Barbara; Umilta, Carlo; Tagliabue, Mariaelena

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated whether a Simon effect could be observed in an accessory-stimulus Simon task when participants were unaware of the task-irrelevant accessory cue. In Experiment 1A a central visual target was accompanied by a suprathreshold visual lateral cue. A regular Simon effect (i.e., faster cue-response corresponding reaction times…

  8. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. 884... Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic...

  9. Multiscale modelling of saliva secretion.

    PubMed

    Sneyd, James; Crampin, Edmund; Yule, David

    2014-11-01

    We review a multiscale model of saliva secretion, describing in brief how the model is constructed and what we have so far learned from it. The model begins at the level of inositol trisphosphate receptors (IPR), and proceeds through the cellular level (with a model of acinar cell calcium dynamics) to the multicellular level (with a model of the acinus), finally to a model of a saliva production unit that includes an acinus and associated duct. The model at the level of the entire salivary gland is not yet completed. Particular results from the model so far include (i) the importance of modal behaviour of IPR, (ii) the relative unimportance of Ca(2+) oscillation frequency as a controller of saliva secretion, (iii) the need for the periodic Ca(2+) waves to be as fast as possible in order to maximise water transport, (iv) the presence of functional K(+) channels in the apical membrane increases saliva secretion, (v) the relative unimportance of acinar spatial structure for isotonic water transport, (vi) the prediction that duct cells are highly depolarised, (vii) the prediction that the secondary saliva takes at least 1mm (from the acinus) to reach ionic equilibrium. We end with a brief discussion of future directions for the model, both in construction and in the study of scientific questions. PMID:25014770

  10. Multiscale Modelling of Saliva Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Sneyd, James; Crampin, Edmund; Yule, David

    2014-01-01

    We review a multiscale model of saliva secretion, describing in brief how the model is constructed and what we have so far learned from it. The model begins at the level of inositol trisphosphate receptors (IPR), and proceeds through the cellular level (with a model of acinar cell calcium dynamics) to the multicellular level (with a model of the acinus), finally to a model of a saliva production unit that includes an acinus and associated duct. The model at the level of the entire salivary gland is not yet completed. Particular results from the model so far include (i) the importance of modal behaviour of IPR, (ii) the relative unimportance of Ca2+ oscillation frequency as a controller of saliva secretion, (iii) the need for the periodic Ca2+ waves to be as fast as possible in order to maximise water transport, (iv) the presence of functional K+ channels in the apical membrane increases saliva secretion, (v) the relative unimportance of acinar spatial structure for isotonic water transport, (vi) the prediction that duct cells are highly depolarised, (vii) the prediction that the secondary saliva takes at least 1 mm (from the acinus) to reach ionic equilibrium. We end with a brief discussion of future directions for the model, both in construction and in the study of scientific questions. PMID:25014770

  11. Chemical involution of the equine parotid salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Schmotzer, W B; Hultgren, B D; Huber, M J; Watrous, B J; Riebold, T W; Wagner, P C; Shires, G M

    1991-01-01

    The efficacy of eliminating parotid salivary secretions by retrograde infusion of 10% formalin, 2% chlorhexidine, or 2% or 3% silver nitrate solutions was evaluated in 10 horses. Solutions were kept within the parotid salivary gland for 90 seconds after infusion through parotid duct cannulae and then allowed to drain freely. Severed parotid ducts and surgical incisions were left to heal by second intention. All agents eliminated glandular secretions. There was less necrosis and suppurative inflammation after formalin infusion than after chlorhexidine and silver nitrate. Silver nitrate (2% and 3%) caused the most necrosis and inflammation. PMID:2042282

  12. Function of parotid gland following irradiation and its relation to biological parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Takeda, M.

    1980-09-01

    The function of the parotid gland in the mouse (synthesis and secretion of ..cap alpha..-amylase) following X irradiation was analyzed in relation to the parameters of surviving acinar cell fraction, DNA or protein content, and wet weight of the gland. Both synthesis and secretion of amylase in parotid were essentially unchanged when mice were irradiated with a dose of up to 3000 rad. When mice were irradiated and then given a proliferative stimulus of isoproterenol, latent lethal damage in the acinar cell population was expressed and resulted in cell degeneration in a dose-dependent manner. The mean value of amylase activity per gland in similarly treated parotids was, however, totally unaffected. The relationship between amylase activity per gland and the other biological parameters was analyzed by regression analysis. The results indicate that amylase activity per surviving acinar cell increased proportionately to compensate for the loss of acinar cells.

  13. Infanticide secrets

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Jennieffer A.; Beck, Cheryl T.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To explore thoughts of infanticide that did not lead to the act among mothers with postpartum depression. DESIGN A phenomenologic hermeneutic study in which women were invited to share their experiences of having thoughts of infanticide. SETTING Community setting in a large metropolitan city, Brisbane, Australia. PARTICIPANTS Fifteen women who had been diagnosed as clinically depressed with postpartum onset whose babies were 12 months of age or younger. METHOD Audiotaped, in-depth interviews were transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis commenced immediately after the first interview, and data collection continued until saturation was achieved. A questioning approach that reflected hermeneutics was facilitated by use of journals by the researchers. MAIN FINDINGS Six themes emerged from the data: imagined acts of infanticide, the experience of horror, distorted sense of responsibility, consuming negativity, keeping secrets, and managing the crisis. CONCLUSION Women who experienced nonpsychotic depression preferred not to disclose their thoughts of infanticide to health professionals, including trusted general practitioners or psychiatrists. These women were more likely to mention their suicidal thoughts than their infanticidal thoughts in order to obtain health care. General practitioners and other health professionals should directly ask about whether a woman has been experiencing thoughts of harming herself or her baby, regardless of the reason why she has presented. PMID:19074717

  14. Seasonal productivity of lizard femoral glands: relationship to social dominance and androgen levels.

    PubMed

    Alberts, A C; Pratt, N C; Phillips, J A

    1992-04-01

    Social and hormonal correlates of femoral gland productivity were investigated in groups of adult and juvenile green iguanas (Iguana iguana) over 12 months. Femoral gland productivity, pore size, and the percentage of lipids in the secretions were correlated with plasma testosterone (T) levels in dominant, although not in subordinate, adult males. Secretory activity peaked during the breeding months, at which time dominants produced more secretion than subordinates. Pore size in juvenile males was positively correlated with plasma T levels and frequency of headbob displays in the months corresponding to the adult breeding season. After 18 months of age, individuals that performed visual displays had significantly larger pores than individuals that did not display. These results indicate that femoral gland secretions could function in the ontogeny and maintenance of dominance relationships. PMID:1594671

  15. VPAC receptors: structure, molecular pharmacology and interaction with accessory proteins.

    PubMed

    Couvineau, Alain; Laburthe, Marc

    2012-05-01

    The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuropeptide with wide distribution in both central and peripheral nervous systems, where it plays important regulatory role in many physiological processes. VIP displays a large biological functions including regulation of exocrine secretions, hormone release, fetal development, immune responses, etc. VIP appears to exert beneficial effect in neuro-degenerative and inflammatory diseases. The mechanism of action of VIP implicates two subtypes of receptors (VPAC1 and VPAC2), which are members of class B receptors belonging to the super-family of GPCR. This article reviews the current knowledge regarding the structure and molecular pharmacology of VPAC receptors. The structure-function relationship of VPAC1 receptor has been extensively studied, allowing to understand the molecular basis for receptor affinity, specificity, desensitization and coupling to adenylyl cyclase. Those studies have clearly demonstrated the crucial role of the N-terminal ectodomain (N-ted) of VPAC1 receptor in VIP recognition. By using different approaches including directed mutagenesis, photoaffinity labelling, NMR, molecular modelling and molecular dynamic simulation, it has been shown that the VIP molecule interacts with the N-ted of VPAC1 receptor, which is itself structured as a 'Sushi' domain. VPAC1 receptor also interacts with a few accessory proteins that play a role in cell signalling of receptors. Recent advances in the structural characterization of VPAC receptor and more generally of class B GPCRs will lead to the design of new molecules, which could have considerable interest for the treatment of inflammatory and neuro-degenerative diseases. PMID:21951273

  16. [Endocrine pancreatic tumor secreting somatostatin and somatocrinin].

    PubMed

    Chadenas, D; Pinsard, D; Melliere, D; Trouillas, J; Zafrani, E S; Pradayrol, L; Sassolas, G; Li, Y; Girod, C; Aumaitre, J

    1985-12-01

    A case of endocrine pancreatic tumour secreting the 2 antagonistic peptides that regulate growth hormone, somatostatin and somatocrinin, is reported. Such tumours are extremely rare and only one other case has been published so far, although pancreatic malignant tumours frequently secrete several hormones. In our patient, the association of diabetes with steatorrhoea, hypochlorhydria, anaemia and biliary lithiasis suggested hypersecretion of somatostatin. Acromegaly, suggested by clinical signs, was confirmed by an excess of growth hormone and somatomedin, and pre-operative somatrocrinin assay confirmed its extra-pituitary origin. Finally, the presence of hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid gland hyperplasia and of a Recklinghausen disease constituted a multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome. The significance and implications of this double secretion in vivo are discussed. PMID:2868453

  17. Hunting for eruption ages in accessory minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    A primary goal in geochronology is to provide precise and accurate ages for tephras that serve as chronostratigraphic markers for constraining the timing and rates of volcanism, sedimentation, climate change, and catastrophic events in Earth history. Zircon remains the most versatile accessory mineral for dating silicic tephras due to its common preservation in distal pyroclastic deposits, as well as the robustness of its U-Pb and U-series systems even after host materials have been hydrothermally altered or weathered. Countless studies document that zircon may be complexly zoned in age due to inheritance, contamination, recycling of antecrysts, protracted crystallization in long-lived magma reservoirs, or any combination of these. Other accessory minerals such as allanite or chevkinite can retain similar records of protracted crystallization. If the goal is to date the durations of magmatic crystallization, differentiation, and/or magma residence, then these protracted chronologies within and between accessory minerals are a blessing. However, if the goal is to date the timing of eruption with high precision, i.e., absolute ages with millennial-scale uncertainties, then this age zoning is a curse. Observations from ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of Pleistocene zircon and allanite provide insight into the record of near-eruption crystallization in accessory minerals and serve as a guide for high-precision whole-crystal dating. Although imprecise relative to conventional techniques, ion probe analysis allows high-spatial resolution 238U-230Th dating that can document multi-millennial age distributions at the crystal scale. Analysis of unpolished rims and continuous depth profiling of zircon from small and large volume eruptions (e.g., Coso, Mono Craters, Yellowstone) reveals that the final several micrometers of crystallization often yield ages that are indistinguishable from associated eruption ages from the 40Ar/39Ar or (U-Th)/He methods. Using this approach, we have derived relatively precise (± ~ 5%, 2σ) U-Th isochron ages from the unpolished rims of pumice-derived allanite and zircon from late Pleistocene Wilson Creek Formation tephras in eastern California, whose ages are controversial and have been difficult to resolve via 40Ar/39Ar and radiocarbon dating. Allanite and zircon rims from Ashes 7-19 in the lower portion of Wilson Creek sediments yield stratigraphically consistent ages of ca. 27 ka to ca. 62 ka, with a minority of crystals identifiable as xenocrysts from early Mono Craters rhyolites. Model ages for the interiors of allanite crystals are mostly < 10 k.y. older than their rims. Tephra deposited during the geomagnetic excursion debated to be either the Mono Lake or Laschamp event yields a rim isochron age of ca. 41 ka. This age is indistinguishable from an independent age of 41 ka derived at the latter excursion's type locality in France (Singer et al., 2009) as well as from age-models for deep-sea sediments. The results are in excellent agreement with a previously determined chronology derived from magnetostratigraphy (Zimmerman et al., 2006). Refs: Singer et al., 2009, EPSL 286: 80-88; Zimmerman et al., 2006, EPSL 252: 94-106

  18. Fluid assisted installation of electrical cable accessories

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Robert W.; Silva, Frank A.

    1977-01-01

    An electrical cable accessory includes a generally tubular member of elastomeric material which is to be installed by placement over a cylindrical surface to grip the cylindrical surface, when in appropriate assembled relation therewith, with a predetermined gripping force established by dilation of the tubular member, the installation being facilitated by introducing fluid under pressure, through means provided in the tubular member, between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface, and simultaneously impeding the escape of the fluid under pressure from between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface by means adjacent one of the ends of the tubular member to cause dilation of the tubular member and establish a fluid layer between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface, thereby reducing the gripping force during installation.

  19. Lacrimal gland removal impairs sexual behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Cavaliere, Rosa Maria; Ghirardi, Filippo; Tirindelli, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Exocrine gland-secreting peptides (ESPs) are a protein family involved in the pheromonal communication of rodents. ESP1 is a lacrimal peptide synthesized by the extraorbital glands of males of specific mouse strains that modulates the sexual behavior in females. Reportedly, BALB/c males, that produce high level of ESP1 in the tear fluid, were shown to enhance the lordosis behavior in C57BL/6 females during mating. In contrast, C57BL/6 and ICR males, both unable to express ESP1, failed to modulate this sexual behavior. Nonetheless, ICR males did become competent to enhance lordosis behavior in C57BL/6 females providing these were pre-exposed to ESP1. To exclude any strain differences, here, we investigated the pheromonal role of the extraorbital glands and indirectly of ESP1 in animals of the same strain. This was performed by applying the lordosis experimental paradigm in BALB/c mice before and after the surgical removal of these glands in males. The excision of the extraorbital glands reduced but did not abolish the production of ESP1 in the lacrimal fluid of BALB/c mice. An immunological analysis on soluble extracts of the glands that drain into the conjunctival sac revealed that the intraorbital glands (ILGs) are also responsible for the production of ESP1. The removal of both the extra and ILGs completely eliminated the tear secretion of ESP1. Extraorbital gland-deficient BALB/c mice were still able to induce lordosis behavior in sexually receptive females. In contrast, males with the removal of both the extra and ILGs failed to enhance lordosis behavior in females. Unexpectedly, C57BL/6 males did improve this sexual performance in BALB/c females. However, an analysis of the tear fluid of C57BL/6 males revealed low but detectable levels of ESP1. Overall, our study highlights the relevance of the orbital glands in modulating reproductive behavior and the sensitivity of the vomeronasal system to detect trace amount of ESP1. PMID:25309342

  20. Morphology and Proteome Characterization of the Salivary Glands of the Western Chinch Bug (Hemiptera: Blissidae).

    PubMed

    Ramm, Crystal; Wayadande, Astri; Baird, Lisa; Nandakumar, Renu; Madayiputhiya, Nandakumar; Amundsen, Keenan; Donze-Reiner, Teresa; Baxendale, Frederick; Sarath, Gautam; Heng-Moss, Tiffany

    2015-08-01

    The western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus Barber, is a serious pest of buffalograss, Buchloe dactyloides (Nuttall) due to physical and chemical damage caused during the feeding process. Although previous work has investigated the feeding behaviors of chinch bugs in the Blissus complex, no study to date has explored salivary gland morphology and the associated salivary complex of this insect. Whole and sectioned B. occiduus salivary glands were visualized using light and scanning electron microscopy to determine overall structure and cell types of the salivary glands and their individual lobes. Microscopy revealed a pair of trilobed principal glands and a pair of tubular accessory glands of differing cellular types. To link structure with function, the salivary gland proteome was characterized using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The salivary proteome analysis resulted in B. occiduus sequences matching 228 nonhomologous protein sequences of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), with many specific to the proteins present in the salivary proteome of A. pisum. A number of sequences were assigned the molecular function of hydrolase and oxido-reductase activity, with one specific protein sequence revealing a peroxidase-like function. This is the first study to characterize the salivary proteome of B. occiduus and the first of any species in the family Blissidae. PMID:26470353