Sample records for accessory gland secretions

  1. Function and composition of male accessory gland secretions in Anopheles gambiae: a comparison with other insect vectors of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Baldini, Francesco; Gabrieli, Paolo; Rogers, David W.; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2012-01-01

    Human malaria, a major public health burden in tropical and subtropical countries, is transmitted exclusively by the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito. Malaria control strategies aimed at inducing sexual sterility in natural vector populations are an attractive alternative to the use of insecticides. However, despite their importance as disease vectors, limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms regulating fertility in Anopheles mosquitoes. In the major malaria vector, An. gambiae, the full complement of sperm and seminal fluid required for a female’s lifelong egg production is obtained from a single mating event. This single mating has important consequences for the physiology and behavior of An. gambiae females: in particular, they become refractory to further insemination, and they start laying eggs. In other insects including Drosophila, similar post-copulatory changes are induced by seminal proteins secreted by the male accessory glands and transferred to the female during mating. In this review, we analyze the current state of knowledge on the function and characterization of male seminal proteins in An. gambiae, and provide a comparative assessment of the role of these male reproductive factors in other mosquito vectors of human disease in which female post-copulatory behavior has been studied. Knowledge of the factors and mechanisms regulating fertility in An. gambiae and other vectors can help the design of novel control strategies to fight the spread of disease. PMID:22943543

  2. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  3. Effects of Pygidial Secretion (Zoopesticide) on Histopathological Changes in the Male Accessory Reproductive Glands of Adult Male Insect Odontopus varicornis in Relation to Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Lousia, M.; Selvisabhanayakam; Mathivanan, V.

    2010-01-01

    Indiscriminate use of pesticides for the eradication of pests causes tremendous changes to the environment and also to other nontarget organisms. To prevent such contamination of the environment and save nontarget species, zoopesticides are increasingly used as they are cost effective, eco-friendly, safe, and sustainable in the field of agriculture. The present study was undertaken to find out the effect of pygidial secretion (zoopesticide) on Odontopus varicornis. The insects were exposed to pygidial secretion for 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours and its sublethal concentration was found to be about 2.8% for 48 hours. When the insects were injected with sublethal concentration 2.8% for 48 hours, the study revealed certain remarkable changes in the histopathology of the male accessory reproductive glands (MARGs) such as disintegration of epithelial cell wall, swollen nucleus, vacuolization of cytoplasm, highly pycnotic and necrotic epithelium, enlargement of epithelial cells, and disorganized tissues. It is suggested that zoopesticide causes several histopathological damages in the MARGs of O. varicornis and affects the reproductive potentiality of O. varicornis. PMID:21042469

  4. Nectar-Secreting Glands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis Darwin

    1877-01-01

    I HAVE briefly described in vol. xv. of the Linnćan Society's Journal, the nectar-glands found at the base of the fronds of the brake fern (Pteris aquilina) which are visited by ants for the sake of their sweet secretion. This case seemed to me to show in a striking manner that extra-floral nectar-glands are not necessarily protective in function, because

  5. Trehalase from the bean-shaped accessory glands and the spermatophore of the male mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshinobu Yaginuma; George M. Happ

    1988-01-01

    InTenebrio molitor, male adults transfer sperm to the female via a spermatophore or sperm sac. The spermatophore is formed from secretions of the bean-shaped accessory glands (BAGs) and the tubular accessory glands (TAGs) of the male beetle. Trehalase is found in the adult BAGs. During the pupal stage, the activity in the BAGs was very low. After adult ecdysis, the

  6. Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner’s body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection. PMID:24708537

  7. Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products.

    PubMed

    Zizzari, Z Valentina; Smolders, Irene; Koene, Joris M

    2014-01-01

    To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner's body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection. PMID:24708537

  8. Morphology and Ultrastructure of the Accessory Glands in the Female Genital Tract of the House Cricket, Acheta domesticus

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The accessory glands in the genital tract of female Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) were investigated in detail. The glands are situated within the 7th and 8th abdominal segment and lead to the genital chamber lateral to the terminal papilla of the ductus receptaculi. The shape of the gland is characterized by a complex system of tubules, including numerous ramifications. The gland's size ranges from 2 to 4 mm. The epithelium is constructed according to a simple scheme and consists of a cuticular intima at the luminal side, one layer of gland cells, and a basallamina at the outermost side. The observed morphology of the accessory glands widely corresponds with that in other cricket species (e.g., Teleogryllus commodus). This is also true for the structure of a single gland cell, which can be subdivided into a basal part with nucleus and intracellular cisternae, as well as an apical part with all those compartments responsible for the production of the secretion. The secretion itself may be classified as lipophilic and is produced for the first time 4 to 6 days after the imaginai moult. Several endogenic functions of the secretion are discussed (lubricant for oviposition, support for introducing the tube of the spermatophore into the ductus receptaculi, etc.). PMID:23425229

  9. Morphology and ultrastructure of the accessory glands in the female genital tract of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The accessory glands in the genital tract of female Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) were investigated in detail. The glands are situated within the 7(th) and 8(th) abdominal segment and lead to the genital chamber lateral to the terminal papilla of the ductus receptaculi. The shape of the gland is characterized by a complex system of tubules, including numerous ramifications. The gland's size ranges from 2 to 4 mm. The epithelium is constructed according to a simple scheme and consists of a cuticular intima at the luminal side, one layer of gland cells, and a basallamina at the outermost side. The observed morphology of the accessory glands widely corresponds with that in other cricket species (e.g., Teleogryllus commodus). This is also true for the structure of a single gland cell, which can be subdivided into a basal part with nucleus and intracellular cisternae, as well as an apical part with all those compartments responsible for the production of the secretion. The secretion itself may be classified as lipophilic and is produced for the first time 4 to 6 days after the imaginai moult. Several endogenic functions of the secretion are discussed (lubricant for oviposition, support for introducing the tube of the spermatophore into the ductus receptaculi, etc.). PMID:23425229

  10. Structure and expression of a Drosophila male accessory gland gene whose product resembles a peptide pheromone precursor.

    PubMed

    Monsma, S A; Wolfner, M F

    1988-09-01

    The accessory gland of male insects is a genital tissue that secretes many components of the ejaculatory fluid, some of which affect the female's receptivity to courtship and her rate of oviposition. We have examined the structure and expression of two tightly linked genes that are expressed exclusively in the male accessory glands of adult Drosophila melanogaster. The two genes are transcribed from the same strand of DNA, and are separated by 20 bases. Both genes are regulated by the sex determination hierarchy and are expressed in the absence of germ cells. Immunological analysis reveals the protein products of at least one of these genes in the secretion of the accessory gland. The proteins are transferred to the female fly during copulation and are rapidly altered in the female genital tract. The predicted sequence of one protein has features of a peptide hormone precursor, and a region in which 11 of 17 amino acids are identical to egg-laying hormone (ELH) of the California sea hare, Aplysia californica. PMID:3142802

  11. Original article Honeybee queen tergal gland secretion affects

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Honeybee queen tergal gland secretion affects ovarian development in caged workers 1998; accepted 9 March 1999) Abstract - The inhibitory effects of honeybee queen tergal gland secretion on worker ovarian devel- opment was studied using a laboratory bioassay with the honeybee races Apis

  12. Male Accessory Gland Secretory Proteins in a Few Members of the Drosophila nasuta Subgroup

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Ravi Ram; S. R. Ramesh

    2001-01-01

    Male accessory gland secretory proteins in seven members of the Drosophila nasuta subgroup have been analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The study revealed remarkable simplicity in the patterns. The protein fractions, which migrate in three groups, could be categorized as “major” and “minor.” The number of major fractions varies from a maximum of eight to a minimum of four. Group I consists

  13. Sexual Selection on Accessory Glands, Genitalia and Protarsal Pads in the Whirligig Beetle Dineutus nigrior Roberts

    E-print Network

    Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht

    Sexual Selection on Accessory Glands, Genitalia and Protarsal Pads in the Whirligig Beetle Dineutus­male competition (e.g. Simmons & Tomkins 1996; Bean & Cook 2001; Kelly 2005; Kodric-Brown et al. 2006 selection the trait often exhibits positive allometry. Mating behavior in whirligig beetles consists

  14. Immunohistochemical characterisation of cholinergic nerve fibres supplying accessory genital glands in the pig

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. KLIMCZUK; J. KALECZYC; A. FRANKE-RADOWIECKA; K. CZAJA; P. PODLASZ; M. LAKOMY

    2005-01-01

    Our previous immunohistochemical investigations revealed three major populations of nerve fibres supplying the porcine accessory genital glands (AGG) including noradrenergic, non-noradrenergic putative cholin - ergic and sensory nerve terminals (Kaleczyc et al., 1997). However, it is still unclear whether the non-noradrenergic nerve fibres are cholinergic in nature. The knowledge of the population of cholinergic nerve fibres in mammalian AGG based

  15. Transcriptional Profiles of Mating-Responsive Genes from Testes and Male Accessory Glands of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Siciliano, Paolo; Meraldi, Alice; Falchetto, Marco; Bonomi, Angelica; Manni, Mosč; Gabrieli, Paolo; Malovini, Alberto; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Aksoy, Serap; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Insect seminal fluid is a complex mixture of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, produced in the male reproductive tract. This seminal fluid is transferred together with the spermatozoa during mating and induces post-mating changes in the female. Molecular characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is limited, although studies suggest that some of these proteins are biologically active. Methodology/Principal Findings We report on the functional annotation of 5914 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the testes and male accessory glands, to identify transcripts encoding putative secreted peptides that might elicit post-mating responses in females. The ESTs were assembled into 3344 contigs, of which over 33% produced no hits against the nr database, and thus may represent novel or rapidly evolving sequences. Extraction of the coding sequences resulted in a total of 3371 putative peptides. The annotated dataset is available as a hyperlinked spreadsheet. Four hundred peptides were identified with putative secretory activity, including odorant binding proteins, protease inhibitor domain-containing peptides, antigen 5 proteins, mucins, and immunity-related sequences. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of a subset of putative secretory protein-encoding transcripts from accessory glands indicated changes in their abundance after one or more copulations when compared to virgin males of the same age. These changes in abundance, particularly evident after the third mating, may be related to the requirement to replenish proteins to be transferred to the female. Conclusions/Significance We have developed the first large-scale dataset for novel studies on functions and processes associated with the reproductive biology of Ceratitis capitata. The identified genes may help study genome evolution, in light of the high adaptive potential of the medfly. In addition, studies of male recovery dynamics in terms of accessory gland gene expression profiles and correlated remating inhibition mechanisms may permit the improvement of pest management approaches. PMID:23071645

  16. Comparative genomics of Roseobacter clade bacteria isolated from the accessory nidamental gland of Euprymna scolopes.

    PubMed

    Collins, Andrew J; Fullmer, Matthew S; Gogarten, Johann P; Nyholm, Spencer V

    2015-01-01

    The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) of the female Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, houses a consortium of bacteria including members of the Flavobacteriales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia but is dominated by members of the Roseobacter clade (Rhodobacterales) within the Alphaproteobacteria. These bacteria are deposited into the jelly coat of the squid's eggs, however, the function of the ANG and its bacterial symbionts has yet to be elucidated. In order to gain insight into this consortium and its potential role in host reproduction, we cultured 12 Rhodobacterales isolates from ANGs of sexually mature female squid and sequenced their genomes with Illumina sequencing technology. For taxonomic analyses, the ribosomal proteins of 79 genomes representing both roseobacters and non-roseobacters along with a separate MLSA analysis of 33 housekeeping genes from Roseobacter organisms placed all 12 isolates from the ANG within two groups of a single Roseobacter clade. Average nucelotide identity analysis suggests the ANG isolates represent three genera (Leisingera, Ruegeria, and Tateyamaria) comprised of seven putative species groups. All but one of the isolates contains a predicted Type VI secretion system, which has been shown to be important in secreting signaling and/or effector molecules in host-microbe associations and in bacteria-bacteria interactions. All sequenced genomes also show potential for secondary metabolite production, and are predicted to be involved with the production of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) and/or siderophores. An AHL bioassay confirmed AHL production in three tested isolates and from whole ANG homogenates. The dominant symbiont, Leisingera sp. ANG1, showed greater viability in iron-limiting conditions compared to other roseobacters, possibly due to higher levels of siderophore production. Future comparisons will try to elucidate novel metabolic pathways of the ANG symbionts to understand their putative role in host development. PMID:25755651

  17. Comparative genomics of Roseobacter clade bacteria isolated from the accessory nidamental gland of Euprymna scolopes

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Andrew J.; Fullmer, Matthew S.; Gogarten, Johann P.; Nyholm, Spencer V.

    2015-01-01

    The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) of the female Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, houses a consortium of bacteria including members of the Flavobacteriales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia but is dominated by members of the Roseobacter clade (Rhodobacterales) within the Alphaproteobacteria. These bacteria are deposited into the jelly coat of the squid’s eggs, however, the function of the ANG and its bacterial symbionts has yet to be elucidated. In order to gain insight into this consortium and its potential role in host reproduction, we cultured 12 Rhodobacterales isolates from ANGs of sexually mature female squid and sequenced their genomes with Illumina sequencing technology. For taxonomic analyses, the ribosomal proteins of 79 genomes representing both roseobacters and non-roseobacters along with a separate MLSA analysis of 33 housekeeping genes from Roseobacter organisms placed all 12 isolates from the ANG within two groups of a single Roseobacter clade. Average nucelotide identity analysis suggests the ANG isolates represent three genera (Leisingera, Ruegeria, and Tateyamaria) comprised of seven putative species groups. All but one of the isolates contains a predicted Type VI secretion system, which has been shown to be important in secreting signaling and/or effector molecules in host–microbe associations and in bacteria–bacteria interactions. All sequenced genomes also show potential for secondary metabolite production, and are predicted to be involved with the production of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) and/or siderophores. An AHL bioassay confirmed AHL production in three tested isolates and from whole ANG homogenates. The dominant symbiont, Leisingera sp. ANG1, showed greater viability in iron-limiting conditions compared to other roseobacters, possibly due to higher levels of siderophore production. Future comparisons will try to elucidate novel metabolic pathways of the ANG symbionts to understand their putative role in host development. PMID:25755651

  18. Cyclic guanosine 3'-5'-monphosphate. High levels in the male accessory gland of Acheta domesticus and related crickets.

    PubMed

    Fallon, A M; Wyatt, G R

    1975-12-01

    Guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic GMP) was found in the accessory gland of reproductively mature male house crickets (Acheta domesticus (L.)) up to the exceptionally high level of 500 pmol/mg protein (10(-4) mol/kg wet weight). The identity of cricket cyclic GMP was confirmed by enzymatic and spectral analysis. A survey of 10 closely related species of Orthoptera indicated that high levels of cyclic GMP in the accessory gland occur in the subfamily Gryllinae, to which A. domesticus belongs. In these crickets, cyclic GMP in the accessory gland increases together with protein content during two weeks after the final molt. Levels are not augmented by dissection, and are independent of the presence of sperm in the seminal vesicles and of the production of spermatophores by the gland. The function of cyclic GMP in the accessory gland is not yet understood. PMID:172136

  19. Adhesive Exocrine Glands in Insects: Morphology, Ultrastructure, and Adhesive Secretion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Betz

    \\u000a A literature survey is provided summarizing the available information on exocrine epidermal glands that produce adhesive secretions\\u000a in insects. The focus is on both the ultrastructure of the gland cells and the identity and function of the chemical secretion\\u000a produced by them. Insects employ adhesives for various functions such as tarsal attachment during locomotion, resisting external\\u000a detachment forces, mating, phoresy

  20. Comparative Study of the Labial Gland Secretion in Termites (Isoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Sillam-Dussčs, David; Krasulová, Jana; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Pytelková, Jana; Cva?ka, Josef; Kutalová, Kate?ina; Bourguignon, Thomas; Miura, Toru; Šobotník, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Labial glands are present in all castes and developmental stages of all termite species. In workers, their secretion contains a food-marking pheromone and digestive enzymes, while soldier secretion plays a defensive role. However, these functions were studied only in a limited set of species, and do not allow drawing general conclusions. Hence, we have investigated the chemical composition of the labial gland extracts from soldiers and workers in 15 termite species belonging to 6 families using an integrative approach based on proteomic and small-molecule profiling. We confirmed the presence of hydroquinone and cellulase in the labial glands of workers, and we identified new toxic compounds in soldiers and workers of several species. Our results highlight the dual role of labial gland secretion, i.e. the defensive role in soldiers and workers of several termite species, and the digestive function in workers. PMID:23071569

  1. Induction of Excessive Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Drosophila Male Accessory Gland Results in Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Clement Y.; Avila, Frank W.; Clark, Andrew G.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs when misfolded proteins accumulate in the lumen of the ER. A cell responds to ER stress with the unfolded protein response (UPR), a complex program of transcriptional and translational changes aimed at clearing misfolded proteins. Secretory tissues and cells are particularly well adapted to respond to ER stress because their function requires high protein production and secretory load. The insect male accessory gland (AG) is a secretory tissue involved in male fertility. The AG secretes many seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) essential for male reproduction. Among adult Drosophila tissues, we find that genes upregulated by ER stress are most highly expressed in the AG, suggesting that the AG is already undergoing high levels of ER stress due to its normal secretory functions. We hypothesized that induction of excessive ER stress in the AG above basal levels, would perturb normal function and provide a genetic tool for studying AG and SFP biology. To test this, we genetically induced excessive ER stress in the AG by conditional 1) expression of a misfolded protein or 2) knockdown of the UPR regulatory protein, BiP. Both genetic manipulations induced excessive ER stress in the AG, as indicated by the increase in Xbp1 splicing, a marker of ER stress. Both models resulted in a large decrease in or loss of SFP production and male infertility. Sperm production, motility, and transfer appeared unaffected. The induction of strong ER stress in the insect male AG may provide a simple way for studying or manipulating male fertility, as it eliminates AG function while preserving sperm production. PMID:25742606

  2. Chloride secretion by cultures of pig tracheal gland cells.

    PubMed

    Widdicombe, J H; Borthwell, Rachel M; Hajighasemi-Ossareh, Mohammad; Lachowicz-Scroggins, Marrah E; Finkbeiner, W E; Stevens, Jeremy E; Modlin, Sara

    2012-05-15

    Malfunction of airway submucosal glands contributes to the pathology of cystic fibrosis (CF), and cell cultures of CF human airway glands show defects in Cl(-) and water transport. Recently, a transgenic pig model of CF (the CF pig) has been developed. Accordingly, we have developed cell cultures of pig airway gland epithelium for use in investigating alterations in gland function in CF. Our cultures form tight junctions (as evidenced by high transepithelial electrical resistance) and show high levels of active anion secretion (measured as amiloride-insensitive short-circuit current). In agreement with recent results on human airway glands, neurohumoral agents that elevate intracellular Ca(2+) potently stimulated anion secretion, while elevation of cAMP was comparatively ineffective. Our cultures express lactoferrin and lysozyme (serous gland cell markers) and MUC5B (the main mucin of airway glands). They are, therefore, potentially useful in determining if CF-related alterations in anion transport result in altered secretion of serous cell antimicrobial agents or mucus. PMID:22367783

  3. Chloride secretion by cultures of pig tracheal gland cells

    PubMed Central

    Borthwell, Rachel M.; Hajighasemi-Ossareh, Mohammad; Lachowicz-Scroggins, Marrah E.; Finkbeiner, W. E.; Stevens, Jeremy E.; Modlin, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Malfunction of airway submucosal glands contributes to the pathology of cystic fibrosis (CF), and cell cultures of CF human airway glands show defects in Cl? and water transport. Recently, a transgenic pig model of CF (the CF pig) has been developed. Accordingly, we have developed cell cultures of pig airway gland epithelium for use in investigating alterations in gland function in CF. Our cultures form tight junctions (as evidenced by high transepithelial electrical resistance) and show high levels of active anion secretion (measured as amiloride-insensitive short-circuit current). In agreement with recent results on human airway glands, neurohumoral agents that elevate intracellular Ca2+ potently stimulated anion secretion, while elevation of cAMP was comparatively ineffective. Our cultures express lactoferrin and lysozyme (serous gland cell markers) and MUC5B (the main mucin of airway glands). They are, therefore, potentially useful in determining if CF-related alterations in anion transport result in altered secretion of serous cell antimicrobial agents or mucus. PMID:22367783

  4. Effects of access to preen gland secretions on mallard plumage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraudeau, Mathieu; Duval, Camille; Guillon, Noel; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Gutierrez, Claude; Heeb, Philipp

    2010-06-01

    Preen glands exist in almost every bird species and several non-exclusive functions have been proposed for this gland and the oils that it produces. One function generally admitted is that the oily secretions of the preen gland would provide a waterproofing layer when spread over feathers. Alternatively, several authors have proposed that plumage waterproofness is mostly due to the spatial micro-structure of feathers. The purpose of this study was to examine, by manipulating the access to the preen gland, the effect of the preen oil on the plumage waterproofness and condition. To explore this question, we carried out two independent experiments where we temporarily blocked access to the preen gland secretions with a removable mechanism in one group of captive mallards ( Anas platyrhynchos), whilst a second group of birds had access to gland secretions. In a long-term experiment (3 months of treatment) and a short-term experiment (10 days), we measured plumage water retention and condition. After 3 months without access to preen glands, we found a significant decrease of plumage condition and an associated increase in plumage water retention. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between plumage condition and water retention ability. In contrast, after 10 days of treatment, no significant effect was found on plumage condition and water retention. Our study shows that preen oil acts to maintain plumage condition and suggests that feather microstructure is essential to maintain plumage waterproofness.

  5. Ion Secretion by Salt Glands of Desert Iguanas (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) Lisa C. Hazard*

    E-print Network

    Hazard, Lisa C.

    22 Ion Secretion by Salt Glands of Desert Iguanas (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) Lisa C. Hazard* DepartmentCl-secreting salt glands of many birds and reptiles, the nasal salt glands of lizards can secrete potassium as well iguana, Dipsosaurus dorsalis. Lizards were given combinations of ions for several days, and secreted salt

  6. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects.

    PubMed

    Hentze, Julie L; Moeller, Morten E; Jřrgensen, Anne F; Bengtsson, Meghan S; Bordoy, Anna M; Warren, James T; Gilbert, Lawrence I; Andersen, Ole; Rewitz, Kim F

    2013-01-01

    Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis of ecdysone (E), the precursor of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), are expressed in the tubular accessory glands (TAGs) of adult males. In contrast, expression of the gene encoding the enzyme mediating 20E synthesis was detected in the ovaries of females. Further, Spookiest (Spot), an enzyme presumably required for endowing tissues with competence to produce ecdysteroids, is male specific and predominantly expressed in the TAGs. We also show that prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), a regulator of E synthesis during larval development, regulates ecdysteroid levels in the adult stage in Drosophila melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises the possibility that E and 20E have sex-specific roles analogous to the vertebrate sex steroids, where males produce primarily testosterone, the precursor of estradiol. Furthermore this study provides the first evidence that PTTH regulates ecdysteroid synthesis in the adult stage and could explain the original finding that some adult insects are a rich source of PTTH. PMID:23383307

  7. Positive Selection Drives the Evolution of the Acp29AB Accessory Gland Protein in Drosophila

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Montserrat Aguade

    ABSTRACT Nucleotide sequence,variation at the Acp29AB gene region,has been,surveyed,in Drosophila melanogaster from Spain (12 lines), Ivory Coast (14 lines), and Malawi (13 lines) and in one line of D. simulans. The z1.7-kb region studied encompasses,the Acp29AB gene,that codes for a male accessory gland protein and its flanking regions. Seventy-seven nucleotide,and 8 length polymorphisms,were detected. Nonsynonymous polymorphism was an order of

  8. Anal gland secretion codes for family membership in the beaver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lixing Sun; Dietland Müller-Schwarze

    1998-01-01

    We investigated how information about family membership is coded by the individually specific anal gland secretion (AGS)\\u000a in the beaver, Castor canadensis. Because beavers live in strict family units and relatives share more features in the AGS profile than non-relatives, family\\u000a members share more AGS features than non-family members. Therefore, family recognition seems to be a natural consequence of\\u000a the

  9. Regucalcin Expression in Bovine Tissues and Its Regulation by Sex Steroid Hormones in Accessory Sex Glands

    PubMed Central

    Starvaggi Cucuzza, Laura; Divari, Sara; Mulasso, Chiara; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Cannizzo, Francesca T.

    2014-01-01

    Regucalcin (RGN) is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle. PMID:25415588

  10. Glycosaminoglycans in the accessory sex glands, testes and seminal plasma of alpaca and ram.

    PubMed

    Kershaw-Young, Claire M; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2012-01-01

    The viscous nature of alpaca semen limits its use in cryopreservation and other assisted reproductive technologies. The cause and source of this viscosity is unknown although it has been postulated, but never proven, that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) secreted by the bulbourethral gland are responsible. The present study investigated the concentration and composition of GAGs in alpaca seminal plasma, testes, bulbourethral gland and prostate gland and compared them to those in the ram to determine the relationship between seminal plasma GAGs and viscosity and to identify the source of seminal plasma GAGs. Alpaca seminal plasma contained more GAGs than ram (P<0.001) and the predominant GAG, keratan sulfate, was correlated with viscosity (P=0.05, R(2)=0.2635). The alpaca bulbourethral gland contained most GAGs compared with prostate or testis (P<0.001). In the ram, the prostate contained most GAGs. These findings suggest that GAGs, particularly keratan sulfate, may be the cause of seminal plasma viscosity in alpacas, and that the seminal plasma GAGs originate from the bulbourethral gland. PMID:22281083

  11. Chronic prostatitis and male accessory gland infection - is there an impact on male infertility (diagnosis and therapy)?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Everaert; A. Mahmoud; C. Depuydt; M. Maeyaert; F. Comhaire

    2003-01-01

    Summary. The aim of this article was to discuss by means of a review of the literature and own study material the multifactorial aetiology of male infer- tility, extrapolate this hypothesis to male accessory gland infection (MAGI) and relate it to chronic prostatitis and its treatment. Infertility is a multifac- torial disease and diagnosis and therapy must be oriented as

  12. Extracellular localization of cyclic GMP in the house cricket male accessory reproductive gland and its fate in mating.

    PubMed

    Murtaugh, M P; Kapoor, C L; Denlinger, D L

    1985-03-01

    The male accessory reproductive gland (ARG) of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (L.), contains an exceedingly high concentration of cyclic GMP, about 1,000 pmol/mg protein. Immunofluorescent localization and radioimmunoassay measurements show that cyclic GMP is concentrated in a small number of tubules. It accumulates in the tubule lumina where it is protected from degradation by phosphodiesterases. Cyclic GMP is secreted by the ARG and is incorporated into spermatophores. Over 80% of spermatophore cyclic GMP is found in the handle-capillary tube, a thin conduit through which sperm pass during transfer to the female. The concentration of cyclic GMP in the insemination fluid is about 20 microM but does not appear to be specifically associated with the sperm. Cyclic GMP enters the female spermatheca during insemination but disappears rapidly. Physiological effects of cyclic GMP on sperm were not observed nor was an effect of cyclic GMP observed on egg laying by mated females. Cyclic AMP was localized on sperm flagella in the spermatophore and in the spermatheca. These studies indicate that cyclic nucleotides have important roles in insect reproduction and that the house cricket is a good model for elucidating these functions. PMID:2982997

  13. The RED domain of Paired is specifically required for Drosophila accessory gland maturation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Li, Ping; Xue, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved paired domain consists of the N-terminal PAI and the C-terminal RED domains, each containing a helix–turn–helix motif capable of binding DNA. Despite its conserved sequence, the physiological functions of the RED domain remain elusive. Here, we constructed a prd transgene expressing a truncated Paired (Prd) protein without the RED domain, and examined its rescue ability in prd mutants. We found that the RED domain is specifically required for the expression of Acp26Aa and sex peptide in male accessory glands, and the induction of female post-mating response. Our data thus identified an important physiological function for the evolutionarily conserved RED domain. PMID:25694546

  14. Persistence of ultrasound alterations after antibiotic treatment with levofloxacin in patients with male accessory gland infection

    PubMed Central

    La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita A; Calogero, Aldo E; Bellanca, Salvatore; Salmeri, Mario; Vicari, Enzo

    2012-01-01

    No studies have evaluated the ultrasound features of the male sex accessory glands in infertile patients with bacterial male accessory gland infection (MAGI) according to the microbiological outcomes of bacterial cultures (absent, partial or complete) following antibiotic therapy administration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound characteristics of the prostate, seminal vesicles, and epididymal tracts after treatment with levofloxacin (a common quinolone antibiotic), in patients with infections caused by Escherichia coli (a Gram-negative bacterium) according to the Naber's classification, which includes the following categories: eradication, eradication with superinfection, persistence and persistence with superinfection. The study was conducted in 100 patients aged 25±8 years (range: 20–40 years) with bacterial MAGI and bacterial cultures positive only for E. coli (colony forming units ?106 per ml). Retrospective analysis was conducted only on patients treated with oral levofloxacin (500 mg) administered once daily for 28 days who were recruited over the last 5 years. Following antibiotic treatment, patients with microbiological persistence or persistence with superinfection had a significantly higher percentage of ultrasound abnormalities suggestive of prostato-vesiculitis (PV) (30.2% and 36.0%, respectively) or prostato-vesiculo-epididymitis (PVE) (60.2% and 70.0%, respectively) compared with patients with microbiological eradication (PV=10.2% and PVE=8.2%, respectively) or eradication with superinfection (PV=18.8% and PVE=21.2%, respectively). In conclusion, patients with microbiological persistence or persistence plus superinfection showed the highest prevalence of complicated forms of MAGI (PV and PVE), compared with patients with microbiological eradication or eradication with superinfection. PMID:23064686

  15. Acetylcholine synthesis, muscarinic receptor subtypes, neuropeptides and secretion of ferret salivary glands with special reference to the zygomatic gland.

    PubMed

    Khosravani, Nina; Ekman, Rolf; Ekström, Jörgen

    2007-05-01

    Studies on salivary secretion are usually focused on parotid and submandibular glands. However, the film of mucin, that protects the oral structures and is responsible for the feeling of oral comfort, is produced by the submucosal glands. The submucosal zygomatic and molar glands are particularly large in carnivores such as the ferret. Comparisons between the mucous sublingual, zygomatic and molar glands, serous parotid and sero-mucous submandibular glands showed the acetylcholine synthesis, in terms of concentration, to be three to four times higher in the mucous glands than in the parotid and submandibular glands. Bromoacetylcholine inhibited 95-99% of the synthesis of acetylcholine in the incubates of the five types of glands, showing the acetylcholine synthesis to depend on the activity of choline acetyltransferase. The high acetylcholine synthesis in the zygomatic gland was of nervous origin, since cutting the buccal nerve, aiming at parasympathetic denervation, and allowing time for nerve degeneration, reduced the acetylcholine synthesising capacity of the gland by 95%. A similar reduction (96%) in the parotid gland followed upon the avulsion of the parasympathetic auriculo-temporal nerve. Zygomatic saliva was very viscous. The salivary flow rate in response to electrical stimulation (20 Hz) of the buccal nerve (zygomatic gland), expressed per gland weight, was one-third of that to stimulation of the auriculo-temporal nerve (parotid gland) or the chorda-lingual nerve (submandibular gland). As previously shown for the parotid and submandibular gland, a certain fraction (25%) of the parasympathetic secretory response of the zygomatic gland depended on non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic transmission mechanisms, probably involving substance P and vasoactive intestinal peptide and possibly calcitonin gene-related peptide. Particularly, high concentrations of vasoactive intestinal peptide were found in the sublingual and molar glands, and of substance P in the submandibular, zygomatic and molar glands; notably, the concentration of calcitonin gene-related peptide of the sublingual gland was not detectable. All five muscarinic receptor subtypes were detected in the five glands. The receptor protein profile, as judged by immunoblotting and semi-quantitative estimations, was about the same in the glands: high level of M3, low level of M2 and levels roughly in the same range of M1, M4 and M5. Compared to the parotid and submandibular glands, the M5 receptor level was particularly low in the mucin-secreting glands. The present study points out both similarities and dissimilarities between the five types of glands investigated. The zygomatic gland, in particular, appears to be a suitable model for future studies aiming at causing relief of dry mouth by local pharmacological treatment. PMID:17123459

  16. Antigenic homogeneity of male Müllerian gland (MG) secretory proteins of a caecilian amphibian with secretory proteins of the mammalian prostate gland and seminal vesicles: evidence for role of the caecilian MG as a male accessory reproductive gland.

    PubMed

    Radha, Arumugam; Sree, Sreesha; Faisal, Kunnathodi; Kumar, G Pradeep; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2014-10-01

    Whereas in all other vertebrates the Müllerian ducts of genetic males are aborted during development, under the influence of Müllerian-inhibiting substance, in the caecilian amphibians they are retained as a pair of functional glands. It has long been speculated that the Müllerian gland might be the male accessory reproductive gland but there has been no direct evidence to this effect. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the caecilian Müllerian gland secretory proteins would bear antigenic similarity to secretory proteins of the prostate gland and/or the seminal vesicles of a mammal. The secretory proteins of the Müllerian gland of Ichthyophis tricolor were evaluated for cross-reactivity with antisera raised against rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle secretory proteins, adopting SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot techniques. Indeed there was a cross-reaction of five Müllerian gland secretory protein fractions with prostatic protein antiserum and of three with seminal vesicle protein antiserum. A potential homology exists because in mammals the middle group of the prostate primordia is derived from a diverticulum of the Müllerian duct. Thus this study, by providing evidence for expression of prostatic and seminal vesicle proteins in the Müllerian gland, substantiates the point that in caecilians the Müllerian glands are the male accessory reproductive glands. PMID:25160003

  17. Molecular Mechanism of Pancreatic and Salivary Glands Fluid and HCO3? Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Goo; Ohana, Ehud; Park, Hyun Woo; Yang, Dongki; Muallem, Shmuel

    2013-01-01

    Fluid and HCO3? secretion is a vital function of all epithelia and is required for the survival of the tissue. Aberrant fluid and HCO3? secretion is associated with many epithelial diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, Sjögren’s syndrome and other epithelial inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Significant progress has been made over the last 20 years in our understanding of epithelial fluid and HCO3? secretion, in particular by secretory glands. Fluid and HCO3? secretion by secretory glands is a two step process. Acinar cells secrete isotonic fluid in which the major salt is NaCl. Subsequently, the duct modifies the volume and electrolyte composition of the fluid to absorb the Cl? and secrete HCO3?. The relative volume secreted by acinar and duct cells and modification of electrolyte composition of the secreted fluids varies among secretory glands to meet their physiological functions. In the pancreas, acinar cells secrete small amount of NaCl-rich fluid, while the duct absorbs the Cl? and secretes HCO3? and the bulk of the fluid in the pancreatic juice. Fluid secretion appears to be driven by active HCO3? secretion. In the salivary glands, acinar cells secrete the bulk of the fluid in the saliva that contains high concentrations of Na+ and Cl? and fluid secretion is mediated by active Cl? secretion. The salivary glands duct absorbs both the Na+ and Cl? and secretes K+ and HCO3?. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanism of fluid and HCO3? secretion by the pancreas and salivary glands, to highlight the similarities of the fundamental mechanisms of acinar and duct cell functions, and point the differences to meet glands specific secretions. PMID:22298651

  18. Molecular mechanism of pancreatic and salivary gland fluid and HCO3 secretion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Goo; Ohana, Ehud; Park, Hyun Woo; Yang, Dongki; Muallem, Shmuel

    2012-01-01

    Fluid and HCO(3)(-) secretion is a vital function of all epithelia and is required for the survival of the tissue. Aberrant fluid and HCO(3)(-) secretion is associated with many epithelial diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, Sjögren's syndrome, and other epithelial inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Significant progress has been made over the last 20 years in our understanding of epithelial fluid and HCO(3)(-) secretion, in particular by secretory glands. Fluid and HCO(3)(-) secretion by secretory glands is a two-step process. Acinar cells secrete isotonic fluid in which the major salt is NaCl. Subsequently, the duct modifies the volume and electrolyte composition of the fluid to absorb the Cl(-) and secrete HCO(3)(-). The relative volume secreted by acinar and duct cells and modification of electrolyte composition of the secreted fluids varies among secretory glands to meet their physiological functions. In the pancreas, acinar cells secrete a small amount of NaCl-rich fluid, while the duct absorbs the Cl(-) and secretes HCO(3)(-) and the bulk of the fluid in the pancreatic juice. Fluid secretion appears to be driven by active HCO(3)(-) secretion. In the salivary glands, acinar cells secrete the bulk of the fluid in the saliva that is driven by active Cl(-) secretion and contains high concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-). The salivary glands duct absorbs both the Na(+) and Cl(-) and secretes K(+) and HCO(3)(-). In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanism of fluid and HCO(3)(-) secretion by the pancreas and salivary glands, to highlight the similarities of the fundamental mechanisms of acinar and duct cell functions, and to point out the differences to meet gland-specific secretions. PMID:22298651

  19. Anal gland secretions of the stoat ( Mustela erminea ) and the ferret ( Mustela putorius forma furo )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas R. Crump; Philip J. Moors

    1985-01-01

    Two new thietanes,cis- andtrans-2-ethyl-3-methylthietane, have been identified in the anal gland secretion of the stoat, and 2-isopropyl thietane has been characterized from the anal gland secretion of the ferret. Conflicting published data are reevaluated.

  20. ADRENAL GLAND SIZE AS AN INDEX OF ADRENOCORTICAL SECRETION RATE IN THE CALIFORNIA GROUND SQUIRREL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LOWELL ADAMS; SATOSHI HANE

    The question, Is adrenal gland weight a useful index of adrenocortical secretion rate?, is answered by correlation analysis of gland weights and secretion rates in California ground squirrels. The weights and rates had a highly significant correlation coefficient of 0.75 in a combined sample of 12 females and 17 males. For the sexes separately the coefficients were significant at 0.55

  1. Male accessory gland substances from Aedes albopictus affect the locomotor activity of Aedes aegypti females

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Codeço, Claudia Torres; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Lounibos, Leon Philip

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is one of the world’s most important mosquito-borne diseases and is usually transmitted by one of two vector species: Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus . These two diurnal mosquitoes are frequently found coexisting in similar habitats, enabling interactions between adults, such as cross-mating. The objective of this study was to assess cross-mating between Ae. aegypti females and Ae. albopictus males under artificial conditions and evaluate the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti virgin females injected with male accessory gland (MAG) homogenates to infer the physiological and behavioural responses to interspecific mating. After seven days of exposure, 3.3-16% of Ae. aegypti females mated with Ae. albopictus males. Virgin Ae. aegypti females injected with conspecific and heterospecific MAGs showed a general decrease in locomotor activity compared to controls and were refractory to mating with conspecific males. The reduction in diurnal locomotor activity induced by injections of conspecific or heterospecific MAGs is consistent with regulation of female reproductive activities by male substances, which are capable of sterilising female Ae. aegypti through satyrisation by Ae. albopictus . PMID:24473799

  2. Prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in patients with male accessory gland infection.

    PubMed

    La Vignera, S; Vicari, E; Condorelli, R A; Franchina, C; Scalia, G; Morgia, G; Perino, A; Schillaci, R; Calogero, A E

    2015-04-01

    The frequency of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the semen of patients with male accessory gland infection (MAGI) was evaluated. One hundred infertile patients with MAGI were classified into group A: patients with an inflammatory MAGI (n = 48) and group B: patients with a microbial form (n = 52). Healthy age-matched fertile men (34.0 ± 4.0 years) made up the control group (n = 20). Amplification of HPV DNA was carried out by HPV-HS Bio nested polymerase chain reaction for the detection of HPV DNA sequences within the L1 ORF. Ten patients in group A (20.8%) and 15 patients in group B (28.8%) had a HPV infection; two controls (10.0%) had HPV infection. Patients with MAGI had a significantly higher frequency of HPV infection compared with controls; patients with a microbial MAGI had significantly higher frequency of HPV infection compared with patients with an inflammatory form (both P < 0.05). Patients with MAGI and HPV had a slight, but significantly lower sperm progressive motility and normal morphology compared with patients with MAGI HPV-negative (P < 0.05). Elevated frequency of HPV infection occurred in patients with MAGI, suggesting that HPV should be investigated in the diagnostic work-up of these patients. PMID:25684094

  3. Male accessory gland inflammation prevalence in type 2 diabetic patients with symptoms possibly reflecting autonomic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E; La Vignera, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Male accessory gland inflammation or infection (MAGI) is a potentially underdiagnosed complication of type 2 diabetes (DM2); specifically, we reported in a recent study that the frequency of MAGI was 43% among DM2 patients. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is associated with a peculiar ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles (SVs) in DM2 patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of MAGI in two different categories of DM2 patients (i.e. patients with and without symptoms that possibly reflect DAN) and the respective ultrasound characterizations. Sixty DM2 patients with a mean (± s.e.m.) age of 42.0 ± 6.0 years (range: 34–47 years) were classified according to the presence or the absence of symptoms that could possibly reflect DAN (group A: DM2 with symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 28 patients and group B: DM2 without symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 32 patients). The patients in Group A exhibited a significantly higher frequency of MAGI compared with those in group B patients (P < 0.05); moreover, the Group A patients exhibited a significantly higher frequency of ultrasound signs suggestive of vesiculitis (P < 0.05). Finally, the concentrations of lymphocytes but not the concentrations of the leukocytes in the semen were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in group A compared with group B. PMID:24799635

  4. SOURCES OF LARVAL SALIVARY GLAND SECRETION IN THE DIPTERAN CHIRONOMUS TENTANS

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, D.; Laufer, H.

    1969-01-01

    The soluble proteins in the hemolymph, the salivary gland, and the salivary secretion of fourth instar Chironomus tentans were examined by disc electrophoresis in acrylamide gels. Of the 11 protein fractions detected in buffered saline extracts of the gland, 10 are present also in the hemolymph. Amino acid isotope incorporation experiments indicate that the protein fractions shared by the salivary gland and the hemolymph are not synthesized in the gland but are synthesized in other larval tissues. Immunochemical studies show that most of these proteins eventually are secreted from the gland. The salivary gland in vivo and in vitro is active in de novo protein synthesis. The protein synthesized tends to form large molecular weight aggregates. As demonstrated by radioautography, at least 80% of this protein is secreted from the 30 large cells forming most of the gland. The proteins synthesized in the salivary gland cannot be detected in the hemolymph. The results of this investigation are consistent with a mechanism of secretion formation involving both de novo synthesis of some secretion proteins and the selective uptake, transport, and secretion of hemal proteins by the salivary gland. PMID:5782452

  5. Bone morphogenetic protein- and mating-dependent secretory cell growth and migration in the Drosophila accessory gland

    PubMed Central

    Leiblich, Aaron; Marsden, Luke; Gandy, Carina; Corrigan, Laura; Jenkins, Rachel; Hamdy, Freddie; Wilson, Clive

    2012-01-01

    The paired male accessory glands of Drosophila melanogaster enhance sperm function, stimulate egg production, and reduce female receptivity to other males by releasing a complex mixture of glycoproteins from a secretory epithelium into seminal fluid. A small subpopulation of about 40 specialized secretory cells, called secondary cells, resides at the distal tip of each gland. We show that these cells grow via mechanisms promoted by mating. If aging males mate repeatedly, a subset of these cells delaminates from and migrates along the apical surface of the glandular epithelium toward the proximal end of the gland. Remarkably, these secretory cells can transfer to females with sperm during mating. The frequency of this event increases with age, so that more than 50% of triple-mated, 18-d-old males transfer secondary cells to females. Bone morphogenetic protein signaling specifically in secondary cells is needed to drive all of these processes and is required for the accessory gland to produce its normal effects on female postmating behavior in multiply mated males. We conclude that secondary cells are secretory cells with unusual migratory properties that can allow them to be transferred to females, and that these properties are a consequence of signaling that is required for secondary cells to maintain their normal reproductive functions as males age and mate. PMID:23129615

  6. Secretion of saliva in X-irradiated rat submandibular glands.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Koji; Yamaguchi, Kazue; Sakurai, Takashi; Asari, Tetsuya; Hashimoto, Kenji; Terakawa, Susumu

    2003-03-01

    The mechanism of radiation-induced dysfunction in rat submandibular glands was investigated at the cellular level. After X irradiation (single dose, 15 Gy), a vacuolation in the acinar cells or an enlargement of the acinar lumen was observed as a typical morphological change for 2 weeks. As observed using a video-enhanced contrast differential interference contrast (VEC-DIC) microscope, exocytosis and shrinkage of the acinar cells induced by application of pilocarpine (100 microM) were markedly suppressed for 5 days and then recovered to 80% of the control levels. Using an immunohistochemical method, no significant change was observed in amylase distribution, but a marked loss of aquaporin 5 was found in the acinar cells after the irradiation. The extent and time course of pilocarpine-induced mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+) did not change after the irradiation. We conclude that radiation-induced dysfunction in the salivary glands is due to an impairment of exocytosis and a reduction of water secretion. The loss of aquaporin 5 and possibly other membrane-fusion proteins in acinar cells may be the major mechanism underlying such a dysfunction. PMID:12600238

  7. Mimicry of queen Dufour's gland secretions by workers of Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sole, Catherine; Kryger, Per; Hefetz, Abraham; Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Crewe, Robin

    2002-10-01

    The development of the Dufour's gland of workers of the two honey bee races Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis was measured. The Dufour's glands of A. m. capensis workers were longer and increased in length more rapidly than the glands of workers of A. m. scutellata at comparable ages. Analysis of the Dufour's gland secretions of workers and queens of both races revealed that there were caste and racial differences. Secretions of queenright A. m. scutellata workers were dominated by a series of long-chain hydrocarbons. In contrast the secretions of the A. m. capensis workers both under queenright and queenless conditions were a mixture of hydrocarbons and wax-type esters, as were those of queens. Multivariate analysis of the secretion profiles indicated that laying workers of both races mimic queens. The secretions of the A. m. capensis laying workers mimicked queen secretions most closely, enabling them to act as successful social parasites.

  8. Variation in sperm displacement and its association with accessory gland protein loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Prout, T.; Harshman, L.G. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-01-01

    Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophila melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female`s reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm. This lack of correlation, and the association of Acp alleles with resisting subsequent sperm only, suggests that different mechanisms mediate the two components of sperm displacement. 36 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Diversity and Partitioning of Bacterial Populations within the Accessory Nidamental Gland of the Squid Euprymna scolopes

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Andrew J.; LaBarre, Brenna A.; Wong Won, Brian S.; Shah, Monica V.; Heng, Steven; Choudhury, Momena H.; Haydar, Shahela A.; Santiago, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Microbial consortia confer important benefits to animal and plant hosts, and model associations are necessary to examine these types of host/microbe interactions. The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) is a female reproductive organ found among cephalopod mollusks that contains a consortium of bacteria, the exact function of which is unknown. To begin to understand the role of this organ, the bacterial consortium was characterized in the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, a well-studied model organism for symbiosis research. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the ANG revealed dense bacterial assemblages of rod- and coccus-shaped cells segregated by morphology into separate, epithelium-lined tubules. The host epithelium was morphologically heterogeneous, containing ciliated and nonciliated cells with various brush border thicknesses. Hemocytes of the host's innate immune system were also found in close proximity to the bacteria within the tubules. A census of 16S rRNA genes suggested that Rhodobacterales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia bacteria were prevalent, with members of the genus Phaeobacter dominating the consortium. Analysis of 454-shotgun sequencing data confirmed the presence of members of these taxa and revealed members of a fourth, Flavobacteria of the Bacteroidetes phylum. 16S rRNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that many ANG tubules were dominated by members of specific taxa, namely, Rhodobacterales, Verrucomicrobia, or Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroidetes, suggesting symbiont partitioning to specific host tubules. In addition, FISH revealed that bacteria, including Phaeobacter species from the ANG, are likely deposited into the jelly coat of freshly laid eggs. This report establishes the ANG of the invertebrate E. scolopes as a model to examine interactions between a bacterial consortium and its host. PMID:22504817

  10. Partial uncoupling of salt gland blood flow and secretion in the Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed Central

    Gerstberger, R

    1991-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the blood flow through and the secretion by the salt glands of conscious, salt-water-adapted Pekin ducks. 2. Intravenous loading with hypertonic saline induced a steady-state secretion from the salt glands with a concomitant increase in whole-organ blood flow. The distribution of elevated local glandular blood flow was, however, uneven and in addition demonstrated vasomotor patterns that ranged from constant to rhythmic. 3. During on-going salt gland secretion, the infusion of three vasoactive agents, 5Val-angiotensin II (ANG II), 8Arg-vasotocin (AVT) and noradrenaline, via the carotid artery had differential effects on salt gland blood flow and secretion. 4. ANG II (80 pmol min-1 (kg body wt)-1) had no effect on mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), produced a transient 30% decrease in glandular blood flow and strongly diminished salt gland secretion (retention of 6.4 mosmol NaCl). 5. AVT (20 pmol min-1 (kg body wt)-1) had no effect on MABP and did not alter salt gland secretion despite a 35% reduction in blood flow. 6. Noradrenaline (20 nmol min-1 (kg body wt)-1) elevated MABP by 15 mmHg, reduced salt gland blood flow by more than 50%, but diminished salt gland secretion only slightly (retention of 2.7 mosmol NaCl). 7. Using ANG II, AVT and noradrenaline as hormonal tools, integrated changes in blood flow rate did not correspond with integrated changes in salt gland excretion. The partial dissociation between both parameters shows that control of secretion by the salt gland is more complex than simply being linearly dependent upon blood flow through it. PMID:1770434

  11. Ability of multicellular salt glands in Tamarix species to secrete Na+ and K+ selectively.

    PubMed

    Ma, Haiyan; Tian, Changyan; Feng, Gu; Yuan, Junfeng

    2011-03-01

    The present study aimed to determine the mechanism of cation-selective secretion by multicellular salt glands. Using a hydroponic culture system, the secretion and accumulation of Na(+) and K(+) in Tamarix ramosissima and T. laxa under different salt stresses (NaCl, KCl and NaCl+KCl) were studied. Additionally, the effects of salt gland inhibitors (orthovanadate, Ba(2+), ouabain, tetraethylammonium (TEA) and verapamil) on Na(+) and K(+) secretion and accumulation were examined. Treatment with NaCl (at 0-200 mmol L(-1) levels) significantly increased Na(+) secretion, whereas KCl treatment (at 0-200 mmol L(-1) levels) significantly increased K(+) secretion. The ratio of secretion to accumulation of Na(+) was higher than that of K(+). The changes in Na(+) and K(+) secretion differed after adding different ions into the single-salt solutions. Addition of NaCl to the KCl solution (at 100 mmol L(-1) level, respectively) led to a significant decrease in K(+) secretion rate, whereas addition of KCl to the NaCl solution (at 100 mmol L(-1) level, respectively) had little impact on the Na(+) secretion rate. These results indicated that Na+ secretion in Tamarix was highly selective. In addition, Na(+) secretion was significantly inhibited by orthovanadate, ouabain, TEA and verapamil, and K(+) secretion was significantly inhibited by ouabain, TEA and verapamil. The different impacts of orthovanadate on Na(+) and K(+) secretion might be the primary cause for the different Na(+) and K(+) secretion abilities of multicellular salt glands in Tamarix. PMID:21416329

  12. Structure, histochemistry and seasonal variations of the male reproductive accessory glands in the Pallas's mastiff bat, Molossus molossus (Chiroptera: Molossidae).

    PubMed

    Christante, Caroline M; Beguelini, Mateus R; Puga, Cintia C I; Negrin, Ana C; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patrícia S L; Taboga, Sebastiăo R

    2015-01-01

    Due to their wide geographical distribution, bats suffer considerable influence from abiotic factors on their reproductive strategies, detected through behavioural or functional assessment of the gonads and accessory glands. The present study aimed to characterise anatomically and morphologically the reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) of Molossus molossus (Molossidae) and evaluate their seasonal variations. The RAGs were removed, fixed, sectioned after histological processing and submitted to the following stains: haematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid--Schiff (PAS) and Gömöri's reticulin. Our data demonstrated that the RAGs of M. molossus are composed of a semi-lobed prostatic complex associated with the urethra and a pair of inguinal bulbourethral glands. Histology and three-dimensional reconstruction of the prostatic complex demonstrated the existence of two regions: ventral and dorsal (named according to the position around the urethra). The two regions had distinctive morphological and histological differences, with the ventral region being the most prominent and the dorsal formed by four lobes. Considering the seasonal evaluation, we can infer that the prostatic complex of M. molossus is active throughout the seasons in Săo Paulo State (Brazil) and, although each of the prostatic regions has inherent characteristics, they synchronise to establish the main reproductive peak in spring (early rainy season). PMID:25482215

  13. Variation in sperm displacement and its association with accessory gland protein loci in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Clark, A G; Aguadé, M; Prout, T; Harshman, L G; Langley, C H

    1995-01-01

    Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophilia melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female's reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes, Glucose dehydrogenase (Gld), and Esterase-6 (Est-6). Acp genes encode proteins that are in some cases known to be transmitted to the female in the seminal fluid and are likely candidates for genes that might mediate the phenomenon of sperm displacement. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm. This lack of correlation, and the association of Acp alleles with resisting subsequent sperm only, suggests that different mechanisms mediate the two components of sperm displacement. PMID:7705622

  14. Introduction The pituitary gland is a key regulator of hormone secretion in

    E-print Network

    Westerfield, Monte

    1579 Introduction The pituitary gland is a key regulator of hormone secretion in vertebrates pituitary Hedgehog signaling is required for formation and patterning of the anterior pituitary gland. The anterior lobe of the pituitary contains several cell types distinguished by their morphologies, locations

  15. The effect of metacestodes of Hymenolepis diminuta on the bean-shaped accessory glands in male Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Carver, F J; Hurd, H

    1998-02-01

    Metacestodes of Hymenolepis diminuta affect several aspects of female reproductive physiology in Tenebrio molitor and such effects are mediated via the endocrine system. The effects on male reproduction are less well known and were studied with respect to the Bean-Shaped Accessory Glands (BAGs). The size and wet and dry weight of BAGs from infected and uninfected beetles were compared and rose to a plateau from 0-6 days post-emergence in uninfected beetles but in infected individuals continued to increase in both size and weight. These effects were density independent. Glands from both infected and uninfected beetles were assayed for trehalase activity measured by its ability to convert the sugar trehalose to glucose. The activity of this enzyme, per mg wet weight, was not affected by the parasite. However, total activity per gland increased in infected males. Total protein content and electrophoretic profiles of BAGs from infected and uninfected individuals showed no change in profile but showed an increase in all protein subunits per gland over a broad molecular weight range. PMID:9509029

  16. Seasonal, sexual and developmental differences in hoopoe Upupa epops preen gland morphology and secretions: evidence for a role of bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Martín-Vivaldi; Magdalena Ruiz-Rodríguez; Juan José Soler; Juan Manuel Peralta-Sánchez; María Méndez; Eva Valdivia; Antonio Manuel Martín-Platero; Manuel Martínez-Bueno

    2009-01-01

    The uropygial glands of birds serve multiple functions, and there is great interspecific variability in the composition and properties of their secretions. A special case is the secretion in the hoopoes Upupa epops, and green woodhoopoes Phoeniculus purpureus, which, contrary to the commonly white and odourless secretions, are dark with pungent odour. Recently, bacteria have been isolated from glands of

  17. Volatile components in scent gland secretions of garter snakes (Thamnophis spp.).

    PubMed

    Wood, W F; Parker, J M; Weldon, P J

    1995-02-01

    Previous analyses of the scent gland secretions of snakes have focused on the nonvolatile components. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of secretions from North American garter snakes (Thamnophis butleri, T. couchi, T. elegans, T. melanogaster, andT. sirtalis) indicated the following seven major volatile components: acetic, propanoic, 2-methylpropanoic, butanoic, and 3-methylbutanoic acids, trimethylamine, and 2-piperidone. Five or more of these compounds were observed in secretions of select boid, colubrid, pythonid, and viperid snakes, suggesting that they are widespread scent gland products. 3-Methylbutanal also was detected in some snake species. PMID:24234020

  18. Adaptive Evolution of Recently Duplicated Accessory Gland Protein Genes in Desert Drosophila

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley J. Wagstaff; David J. Begun

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between animal mating system variation and patterns of protein polymorphism and divergence is poorly understood. Drosophila provides an excellent system for addressing this issue, as there is abundant interspecific mating system variation. For example, compared toD.melanogaster subgroup species, repleta group species have higher remating rates, delayed sexual maturity, and several other interesting differences. We previously showed that accessory

  19. cJun NH2-terminal kinase mediates Interleukin-1? induced inhibition of lacrimal gland secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Zoukhri, Driss; Macari, Elizabeth; Choi, Sun H.; Kublin, Claire L.

    2005-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SS), an inflammatory disease affecting the lacrimal and salivary glands, is the leading cause of aqueous tear-deficient type of dry eye. We previously showed that IL-1? protein is up regulated in the lacrimal gland of a murine model of SS and that exogenous addition of this cytokine inhibits neurotransmitter release and lacrimal gland protein secretion. In the present study we investigated the role cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in IL-1? mediated inhibition of lacrimal gland secretion and tear production. In vitro, IL-1? induced a time-dependent activation of JNK with a maximum 7.5-fold at 30 min. SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, IL-1? induced activation of JNK with a maximum of 87% at 10-4 M. In vivo, IL-1? stimulated JNK and the expression of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). IL-1? inhibited high KCl and adrenergic agonist induced protein secretion by 85% and 66%, respectively. SP600125 alleviated the inhibitory effect of IL-1? on KCl- and agonist-induced protein secretion by 79% and 47%, respectively and completely blocked the expression of iNOS. Treatment for 7 days with SP600125 increased tear production in a murine model of SS dry eye. We conclude that JNK plays a pivotal role in IL-1? mediated inhibition of lacrimal gland secretion and subsequent dry eye. PMID:16300639

  20. Composition of the secretion from the eccrine sweat glands of the cat's foot pad

    PubMed Central

    Foster, K. G.

    1966-01-01

    1. The sweat composition from the cat's foot pad was examined at various rates of secretion. Sodium pentobarbitone or chloralose anaesthesia were used. 2. Cat's pad sweat contains lactate, glucose is almost absent, and the sodium and chloride concentrations increased with increasing sweat rate. In these respects the secretion resembles human eccrine sweat. 3. The sodium, chloride, and potassium concentrations are much higher than in human sweat; also the potassium level decreased with increasing rate. Consequently, whereas human sweat is hypotonic with respect to the plasma, cat's pad sweat is slightly hypertonic with respect to the plasma even at low rates of secretion. In contrast to human sweat glands, which produce a slightly acidic secretion containing ammonia, cat's pad sweat glands produce an alkaline secretion containing bicarbonate. Also in contrast to human sweat, lactate levels decreased with increasing sweat rate. PMID:5922325

  1. Detection of 90K/MAC-2BP in the seminal plasma of infertile males with accessory gland infection and the autoimmune pathogenetic hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Caroppo, Ettore; Niederberger, Craig; Iacovazzi, Palma A; Correale, Mario; D'Amato, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate 90K/MAC-2BP, a glycoprotein member of the Scavenger Receptor Cystein Rich superfamily, in the seminal plasma of infertile male patients with male accessory gland infection in order to investigate a putative autoimmune pathogenesis. 90K seminal concentration and sperm parameters were evaluated in 50 patients with male accessory gland infection at baseline and after cycles of treatment with Levofluoxacin 500 mg daily for 15 days plus serratiopeptidase 10 mg daily for 30 days. Treatment was continued for up to 6 cycles in cases of persistant bacteriospermia and/or clinical and ejaculatory signs of the disease. Patients with persistant male accessory gland infection after 6 cycles were defined as nonresponders. The same parameters were evaluated at baseline and after a 2-month period in 30 healthy controls. Patients with male accessory gland infection showed impaired sperm parameters and had lower seminal 90K concentration compared to controls. After treatment, seminal 90K level significantly increased in patients compared to controls. Twenty-two patients responded to treatment (44%), while 28 were nonresponders (56%). No difference in pretreatment and posttreatment sperm parameters and seminal 90K was observed between the 2 subgroups. Thirteen patients (26%) had identifiable bacteriospermia: significantly less pretreatment seminal 90K was observed compared to patients without bacteriospermia. Seminal 90K is decreased in patients with male accessory gland infection, and may be restored by a treatment with quinolones. However, the clinical utility of a 90K assay in these patients remains uncertain, as its level is not predictive of response to treatment. PMID:16837737

  2. Function of secretion of mandibular gland of male in territorial behavior of Xylocopa sulcatipes (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abraham Hefetz

    1983-01-01

    Males of the carpenter bee,Xylocopa sulcatipes, establish and defend territories which they mark with the secretions of their mandibular glands. Chemical analysis of the glandular blend revealed that it is composed of guaiacol,p-cresol, and vanillin. Territorial males recognize other intruding males either by sight or by the odor emitted from their mandibular glands. They chase the intruder out of the

  3. Leg tendon glands in male bumblebees ( Bombus terrestris): structure, secretion chemistry, and possible functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarau, Stefan; Žá?ek, Petr; Šobotník, Jan; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Hadravová, Romana; Coppée, Audrey; Vaší?ková, So?a; Jiroš, Pavel; Valterová, Irena

    2012-12-01

    Among the large number of exocrine glands described in bees, the tarsal glands were thought to be the source of footprint scent marks. However, recent studies showed that the compounds used for marking by stingless bees are secreted by leg tendon instead of tarsal glands. Here, we report on the structure of leg tendon glands in males of Bombus terrestris, together with a description of the chemical composition of their secretions and respective changes of both during the males' lives. The ultrastructure of leg tendon glands shows that the secretory cells are located in three independent regions, separated from each other by unmodified epidermal cells: in the femur, tibia, and basitarsus. Due to the common site of secretion release, the organ is considered a single secretory gland. The secretion of the leg tendon glands of B. terrestris males differs in its composition from those of workers and queens, in particular by (1) having larger proportions of compounds with longer chain lengths, which we identified as wax esters; and (2) by the lack of certain hydrocarbons (especially long chain dienes). Other differences consist in the distribution of double bond positions in the unsaturated hydrocarbons that are predominantly located at position 9 in males but distributed at seven to nine different positions in the female castes. Double bond positions may change chemical and physical properties of a molecule, which can be recognized by the insects and, thus, may serve to convey specific information. The function of male-specific compounds identified from their tendon glands remains elusive, but several possibilities are discussed.

  4. Regulation and specificity of antifungal metapleural gland secretion in leaf-cutting ants

    PubMed Central

    Yek, Sze Huei; Nash, David R.; Jensen, Annette B.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2012-01-01

    Ants have paired metapleural glands (MGs) to produce secretions for prophylactic hygiene. These exocrine glands are particularly well developed in leaf-cutting ants, but whether the ants can actively regulate MG secretion is unknown. In a set of controlled experiments using conidia of five fungi, we show that the ants adjust the amount of MG secretion to the virulence of the fungus with which they are infected. We further applied fixed volumes of MG secretion of ants challenged with constant conidia doses to agar mats of the same fungal species. This showed that inhibition halos were significantly larger for ants challenged with virulent and mild pathogens/weeds than for controls and Escovopsis-challenged ants. We conclude that the MG defence system of leaf-cutting ants has characteristics reminiscent of an additional cuticular immune system, with specific and non-specific components, of which some are constitutive and others induced. PMID:22915672

  5. Anal gland secretions of the stoat (Mustela erminea) and the ferret (Mustela putorius formafuro) : Some additional thietane components.

    PubMed

    Crump, D R; Moors, P J

    1985-08-01

    Two new thietanes,cis- andtrans-2-ethyl-3-methylthietane, have been identified in the anal gland secretion of the stoat, and 2-isopropyl thietane has been characterized from the anal gland secretion of the ferret. Conflicting published data are reevaluated. PMID:24310328

  6. Optical properties of the uropygial gland secretion: no evidence for UV cosmetics in birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaspar Delhey; Anne Peters; Peter H. W. Biedermann; Bart Kempenaers

    2008-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) reflectance of the plumage is common in birds and plays an important role in sexual signalling. Recently,\\u000a it has been proposed that birds are able to modify plumage UV reflectance by the application of uropygial gland secretion.\\u000a Based on a survey of the optical properties of this secretion from 51 species belonging to 12 avian orders, we show

  7. Volatile components in scent gland secretions of garter snakes ( Thamnophis spp.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William F. Wood; Joshua M. Parker; Paul J. Weldon

    1995-01-01

    Previous analyses of the scent gland secretions of snakes have focused on the nonvolatile components. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of secretions from North American garter snakes (Thamnophis butleri, T. couchi, T. elegans, T. melanogaster, andT. sirtalis) indicated the following seven major volatile components: acetic, propanoic, 2-methylpropanoic, butanoic, and 3-methylbutanoic acids, trimethylamine, and 2-piperidone. Five or more of these compounds were observed

  8. The gross and micro anatomy of the accessory sex glands of the male agouti (Dasyprocta leporina).

    PubMed

    Mollineau, W M; Adogwa, A O; Garcia, G W

    2009-06-01

    This study was a follow up to the study on the gross anatomy of the male agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) reproductive system. The seminal vesicles of the agouti are lobulated structures. The mean diameter of the large lumen is 883.6 +/- 76.83 microm. The mucosa (24.1 +/- 0.92 microm), which is lined by pseudo-stratified columnar epithelium is thrown into folds, which often branch. The lamina muscularis mucosa is thin and is made of loose connective tissue containing blood vessels. The mucosa of the leaf-like coagulating glands of the agouti is folded. The mean diameter of the lumen is 488.3 +/- 41.96 microm. The mucosa contains tubuloalveolar glands, which have a mean length of 199.5 +/- 28.83 microm. The thin epithelium, 15.0 +/- 1.25-microm wide, consists mostly of pseudo-stratified columnar cells. The epithelium also has surface modifications in the form of apical blebs and cilia. The epithelium of the agouti's lobulated prostate gland is also folded creating a large lumen with a mean diameter of 995.5 +/- 55.70 microm. The mucosa contains tubular and tubuloalveolar glands, each having a mean length of 134.4 +/- 13.59 microm. The epithelium (13.9 +/- 1.16 microm) consists of pseudo-stratified columnar cells. The pea-shaped bulbourethral gland (BG) of the agouti consists of convoluted tubular, mucous secretory units, which are irregularly shaped each with a mean length of 177.9 +/- 7.10 microm and a mean width of 63.5 +/- 3.97 microm. The BG of the agouti are ventro-lateral to the rectum and dorsally positioned to the pubic symphysis, and connected to the urethra by short ducts. PMID:19007350

  9. Mucociliary clearance and submucosal gland secretion in the ex vivo ferret trachea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin Hyeok; Joo, Nam Soo; Hwang, Peter H; Wine, Jeffrey J

    2014-07-01

    In many species submucosal glands are an important source of tracheal mucus, but the extent to which mucociliary clearance (MCC) depends on gland secretion is unknown. To explore this relationship, we measured basal and agonist-stimulated MCC velocities in ex vivo tracheas from adult ferrets and compared the velocities with previously measured rates of ferret glandular mucus secretion (Cho HJ, Joo NS, Wine JJ. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 299: L124-L136, 2010). Stimulated MCC velocities (mm/min, means ± SE for 10- to 35-min period poststimulation) were as follows: 1 ?M carbachol: 19.1 ± 3.3 > 10 ?M phenylephrine: 15.3 ± 2.4 ? 10 ?M isoproterenol: 15.0 ± 1.9 ? 10 ?M forskolin: 14.6 ± 3.1 > 1 ?M vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP): 10.2 ± 2.2 > basal (t15): 1.8 ± 0.3; n = 5-10 for each condition. Synergistic stimulation of MCC was observed between low concentrations of carbachol (100 nM) and isoproterenol (300 nM). Bumetanide inhibited carbachol-stimulated MCC by ~70% and abolished the increase in MCC stimulated by forskolin + VIP, whereas HCO3 (-)-free solutions did not significantly inhibit MCC to either intracellular Ca(2+) concentration or intracellular cAMP concentration ([cAMP]i)-elevating agonists. Stimulation and inhibition of MCC and gland secretion differed in several respects: most importantly, elevating [cAMP]i increased MCC much more effectively than expected from its effects on gland secretion, and bumetanide almost completely inhibited [cAMP]i-stimulated MCC while it had a smaller effect on gland secretion. We conclude that changes in glandular fluid secretion are complexly related to MCC and discuss possible reasons for this. PMID:24793168

  10. Vasoactive intestinal peptide stimulates blood flow and secretion of avian salt glands.

    PubMed

    Gerstberger, R; Sann, H; Simon, E

    1988-10-01

    The neuromodulatory role of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in avian salt gland secretion and blood flow was investigated in conscious saltwater-acclimated Pekin ducks. Glandular blood flow was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry or the radioactive microspheres technique. Osmolal excretion was closely related to salt gland blood flow during salt loading. At threshold conditions of salt gland secretion, VIP infused intracarotidally induced both osmolal excretion and arteriolar vasodilation dose dependently (30-240 pmol.min-1.kg body wt-1). The VIPergic effect on the secretory process for NaCl was enhanced by simultaneous intracarotid application of acetylcholine (5 nmol.min-1.kg body wt-1), whereas the intrinsic vasodilatory potency of acetylcholine appeared to be nonadditive in coinfusion experiments. Ongoing secretion induced by systemic infusion of hypertonic saline could be suppressed by muscarinic antagonists, with salt gland blood flow being sustained at the reduced level of atropine-resistant vasodilation. Subsequent intracarotid infusion of VIP stimulated glandular blood perfusion and also, to a minor extent, osmolal excretion, suggesting an independent, functional VIP system in efferent salt gland control. PMID:3177690

  11. [The value of biopsy of the accessory labial salivary glands for the diagnosis of amylosis].

    PubMed

    Chomette, G; Auriol, M; Habib, K; Biaggi, A

    1992-01-01

    Diagnosis of amyloidosis depends on the demonstration of amyloid deposits in biopsies using specific stains. Recently, in addition to classical biopsies (kidney, liver, gum, skin, rectal mucosa), labial salivary gland biopsy has been recommended as safe diagnostic method. In our recruitment, it allowed the fortuitous discovery of amyloidosis in three patients suffering from rheumatoid polyarthritis or spondylarthritis. In five other patients (2 cases of familial amyloidosis, 1 dysglobulinemia, 2 primary cardiac amyloidosis), biopsy was performed for systematic search of amyloidosis. In five of these eight cases, a sicca syndrome was associated with the salivary deposits. These deposits were stained with congo red viewed in polarized light and with T thioflavine. Besides, Wright's method allowed to know the AL or AA type of amyloidosis and thus to guide the treatment. On the whole, labial salivary gland biopsy is a highly sensitive method for diagnosis of primary and secondary amyloidosis. PMID:1371889

  12. Do anogenital gland secretions of giant panda code for their sexual ability?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dingzhen Liu; Hong Yuan; Hong Tian; Rongping Wei; Guiquan Zhang; Lixing Sun; Liwen Wang; Ruyong Sun

    2006-01-01

    To test the hypothesis of whether anogenital gland secretions (AGS) of giant panda code for their sexual ability, we collected\\u000a AGS samples of 11 male (5 adult and 6 subadult) and 14 female (7 adult and 7 subadult) captive giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) from China Research and Conservation Center for the Giant Panda at Wolong, Sichuan, China from 1994 to

  13. Mechanism of NaCl secretion in rectal gland tubules of spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Greger; Eberhard Schlatter; Fong Wang; John N. Forrest Jr

    1984-01-01

    Segments of rectal gland tubules (RGT) the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) were perfused in vitro to study the cellular mechanism by which NaCl secretion is stimulated. Transepithelial PD (PDte), transepithelial resistance (Rte), the PD across the basolateral membrane (PDbl), the fractional resistance of the lumen membrane (FR1), and the cellular activities for Cl-, Na+, and K+ (axcell) were measured. In

  14. Use of anal gland secretion to distinguish the two beaver species Castor canadensis and C. fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Rosell; Lixing Sun

    Rosell, F. & Sun, L. 1999: Use of anal gland secretion to distinguish the two beaver species Castor canadensis and C. fiber. - Wildl. Biol. 5: 119-123. Introduced North American beavers Castor canadensis pose a potential threat to the continuing recovery of Eurasian beaver C. fiber populations in several European countries. For management purposes, it is necessary to be able

  15. Sebaceous Gland Secretion is a Major Physiologic Route of Vitamin E Delivery to Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens J. Thiele; Stefan U. Weber; Lester Packer

    1999-01-01

    Skin plays an important part in the protection against oxidative stressors, such as ultraviolet radiation, ozone, and chemicals. This study was based on the observation that upper facial stratum corneum contained significantly higher levels of the antioxidant ?-tocopherol than corresponding layers of arm stratum corneum. We hypothesized that the underlying mechanism involves sebaceous gland secretion of vitamin E. To test

  16. Mucus secretion by single tracheal submucosal glands from normal and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Ianowski, Juan P; Choi, Jae Young; Wine, Jeffrey J; Hanrahan, John W

    2007-01-01

    Submucosal glands line the cartilaginous airways and produce most of the antimicrobial mucus that keeps the airways sterile. The glands are defective in cystic fibrosis (CF), but how this impacts airway health remains uncertain. Although most CF mouse strains exhibit mild airway defects, those with the C57Bl/6 genetic background have increased airway pathology and susceptibility to Pseudomonas. Thus, they offer the possibility of studying whether, and if so how, abnormal submucosal gland function contributes to CF airway disease. We used optical methods to study fluid secretion by individual glands in tracheas from normal, wild-type (WT) mice and from cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) knockout mice (Cftrm1UNC/Cftrm1UNC; CF mice). Glands from WT mice qualitatively resembled those in humans by responding to carbachol and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), although the relative rates of VIP- and forskolin-stimulated secretion were much lower in mice than in large mammals. The pharmacology of mouse gland secretion was also similar to that in humans; adding bumetanide or replacement of HCO3? by Hepes reduced the carbachol response by ?50%, and this inhibition increased to 80% when both manoeuvres were performed simultaneously. It is important to note that glands from CFTR knockout mice responded to carbachol but did not secrete when exposed to VIP or forskolin, as has been shown previously for glands from CF patients. Tracheal glands from WT and CF mice both had robust secretory responses to electrical field stimulation that were blocked by tetrodotoxin. It is interesting that local irritation of the mucosa using chili pepper oil elicited secretion from WT glands but did not stimulate glands from CF mice. These results clarify the mechanisms of murine submucosal gland secretion and reveal a novel defect in local regulation of glands lacking CFTR which may also compromise airway defence in CF patients. PMID:17204498

  17. Chemical compounds from the preanal gland secretions of the male tree agama (Acanthocercus atricollis) (fam. Agamidae).

    PubMed

    Martín, José; Ortega, Jesús; López, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Chemical signals have an important role in the reproductive behaviour of many lizards. However, the compounds secreted by their femoral or preanal glands, which may be used as sexual signals, are mainly known for lizard species within the Scleroglossa clade, whereas compounds in secretions of lizards within the Iguania clade are much less studied. Based on mass spectra, obtained by GC-MS, we found 60 lipophilic compounds in preanal gland secretions of the male tree agama (Acanthocercus atricollis) (fam. Agamidae), including steroids (mainly cholesterol, cholest-3-ene, and some of their derivatives), fatty acids ranging between n-C12 and n-C18 (mainly hexadecanoic and octadecenoic acids), ketones from n-C17 to n-C25, and other minor compounds, such as tocopherol, squalene, waxy esters, and furanones. We compare the compounds found with those present in other lizard species and discuss their potential function in social behaviour. PMID:23923623

  18. The “Vampirome”: Transcriptome and proteome analysis of the principal and accessory submaxillary glands of the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, a vector of human rabies

    PubMed Central

    Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Assumpçăo, Teresa C. F.; Ma, Dongying; Li, Yuan; Vicente, Eliane C.; Uieda, Wilson; Ribeiro, José M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Vampire bats are notorious for being the sole mammals that strictly feed on fresh blood for their survival. While their saliva has been historically associated with anticoagulants, only one antihemostatic (plasminogen activator) has been molecularly and functionally characterized. Here, RNAs from both principal submandibular and accessory glands of Desmodus rotundus were extracted, and ~ 200 million reads were sequenced by Illumina. The principal gland was enriched with plasminogen activators with fibrinolytic properties, members of lipocalin and secretoglobin families, which bind prohemostatic prostaglandins, and endonucleases, which cleave neutrophil-derived procoagulant NETs. Anticoagulant (tissue factor pathway inhibitor, TFPI), vasodilators (PACAP and C-natriuretic peptide), and metalloproteases (ADAMTS-1) were also abundantly expressed. Members of the TSG-6 (anti-inflammatory), antigen 5/CRISP, and CCL28-like (antimicrobial) protein families were also sequenced. Apyrases (which remove platelet agonist ADP), phosphatases (which degrade procoagulant polyphosphates), and sphingomyelinase were found at lower transcriptional levels. Accessory glands were enriched with antimicrobials (lysozyme, defensin, lactotransferrin) and protease inhibitors (TIL-domain, cystatin, Kazal). Mucins, heme-oxygenase, and IgG chains were present in both glands. Proteome analysis by nano LC-MS/MS confirmed that several transcripts are expressed in the glands. The database presented herein is accessible online at http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/D_rotundus/Supplemental-web.xlsx. These results reveal that bat saliva emerges as a novel source of modulators of vascular biology. PMID:23411029

  19. A Syringe-Like Love Dart Injects Male Accessory Gland Products in a Tropical Hermaphrodite

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Joris M.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2013-01-01

    Sexual conflict shapes the evolution of many behaviours and processes involved in reproduction. Nearly all evidence supporting this comes from species where the sexes are separated. However, a substantial proportion of animals and most plants are hermaphroditic, and theoretical work predicts that sexual conflict plays an important role even when the sexes are joined within one individual. This seems to have resulted in bizarre mating systems, sophisticated sperm packaging and complex reproductive morphologies. By far the best-known example of such a strategy in hermaphrodites is the shooting of so-called love-darts in land snails. All known love darts carry a gland product on their outside and enter this into the partner’s hemolymph by stabbing. Here, we show that species of the snail genus Everettia possess a syringe-like dart that serves as a real injection needle. Their dart is round in cross-section, contains numerous channels, and has perforations along its side. Histology and electron microscopy show that these holes connect to the channels inside the dart and run all the way up to the elaborate mucus glands that are attached to the dart sac. This is the first report on a love dart that is used as a syringe to directly inject the gland product into the partner’s hemolymph. Although the exact use and function of this dart remains to be demonstrated, this clearly adds to the complexity of the evolution of reproductive strategies in hermaphrodites in general. Moreover, the perforations on the outside of the love dart resemble features of other injection devices, thus uncovering common design and repeated evolution of such features in animals. PMID:23894565

  20. Trehalase in the spermatophore from the bean-shaped accessory gland of the male mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor : purification, kinetic properties and localization of the enzyme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Yaginuma; T. Mizuno; C. Mizuno; M. Ikeda; T. Wada; K. Hattori; O. Yamashita; G. M. Happ

    1996-01-01

    Trehalase from the bean-shaped accessory glands of the male mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, was purified by acid treatment, with subsequent chromatography on columns of DEAE-cellulofine and Sephacryl S-300. The molecular masses of the native and the denatured forms were estimated to be 43 and 62 kDa by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE, respectively, an indication that the trehalase may be composed

  1. The growth arrest specific gene ( gas6 ) protein is expressed in abnormal embryos sired by male golden hamsters with accessory sex glands removed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Y. Jiang; K. H. Lee; C. Schneider; W. S. O; P. L. Tang; P. H. Chow

    2001-01-01

    Expression of growth arrest specific gene (gas6) and its receptors in embryonic and uterine tissues in normal pregnancy and pregnancy that produces abnormal embryos sired by hamsters with partial or total deletion of male accessory sex glands was studied by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, reverse-transcription polymerization reaction and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay. At oestrus, very strong gas6 mRNA and Gas6 expression

  2. Male Accessory Gland Protein Reduces Egg Laying in a Simultaneous Hermaphrodite

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Joris M.; Sloot, Wiebe; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Cummins, Scott F.; Degnan, Bernard M.; Smith, John S.; Nagle, Gregg T.; ter Maat, Andries

    2010-01-01

    Seminal fluid is an important part of the ejaculate of internally fertilizing animals. This fluid contains substances that nourish and activate sperm for successful fertilization. Additionally, it contains components that influence female physiology to further enhance fertilization success of the sperm donor, possibly beyond the recipient's optimum. Although evidence for such substances abounds, few studies have unraveled their identities, and focus has been exclusively on separate-sex species. We present the first detailed study into the seminal fluid composition of a hermaphrodite (Lymnaea stagnalis). Eight novel peptides and proteins were identified from the seminal-fluid-producing prostate gland and tested for effects on oviposition, hatching and consumption. The gene for the protein found to suppress egg mass production, Ovipostatin, was sequenced, thereby providing the first fully-characterized seminal fluid substance in a simultaneous hermaphrodite. Thus, seminal fluid peptides and proteins have evolved and can play a crucial role in sexual selection even when the sexes are combined. PMID:20404934

  3. Dopamine-induced amylase secretion from guinea-pig submandibular gland.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, G D; Carlsöö, B; Danielsson, A

    1975-01-01

    1. The effects of dopamine, 5-hydroxydopamine (5-OHDA) and noradrenaline on amylase secretion from the guinea-pig submandibular gland were investigated under in vitro conditions. 2. All three amines greatly enhanced amylase secretion. Blockade of dopamine beta-hydroxylase did not inhibit the response to dopamine. 3. Noradrenaline and dopamine stimulated amylase release from salivary glands of reserpine-treated animals, whereas 5-OHDA had no stimulatory effect on secretion in guinea-pigs pretreated with reserpine. 4. Haloperidol completely inhibited dopamine-induced enzyme discharge, but did not affect noradrenaline-initiated secretion. 5. Apomorphine caused a slight enzyme release by itself; it diminished the dopamine secretory effect, but did not modify that of noradrenaline. 6. Pimozide and fluspirilene attenuated the dopamine-induced enzyme discharge, but compared with haloperidol they were less effective. 7. It is concluded that dopamine exerts a secretagogic action different from that of noradrenaline. The possible presence of a specific dopamine receptor in salivary glands is discussed. PMID:169937

  4. Effect of Male Accessory Gland Products on Egg Laying in Gastropod Molluscs

    PubMed Central

    van Iersel, Sander; Swart, Elferra M.; Nakadera, Yumi; van Straalen, Nico M.; Koene, Joris M.

    2014-01-01

    In internally fertilizing animals, seminal fluid is usually added to the spermatozoa, together forming the semen or ejaculate. Besides nourishing and activating sperm, the components in the seminal fluid can also influence female physiology to augment fertilization success of the sperm donor. While many studies have reported such effects in species with separate sexes, few studies have addressed this in simultaneously hermaphroditic animals. This video protocol presents a method to study effects of seminal fluid in gastropods, using a simultaneously hermaphroditic freshwater snail, the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, as model organism. While the procedure is shown using complete prostate gland extracts, individual components (i.e., proteins, peptides, and other compounds) of the seminal fluid can be tested in the same way. Effects of the receipt of ejaculate components on egg laying can be quantified in terms of frequency of egg laying and more subtle estimates of female reproductive performance such as egg numbers within each egg masses. Results show that seminal fluid proteins affect female reproductive output in this simultaneous hermaphrodite, highlighting their importance for sexual selection. PMID:24998794

  5. Effect of male accessory gland products on egg laying in gastropod molluscs.

    PubMed

    van Iersel, Sander; Swart, Elferra M; Nakadera, Yumi; van Straalen, Nico M; Koene, Joris M

    2014-01-01

    In internally fertilizing animals, seminal fluid is usually added to the spermatozoa, together forming the semen or ejaculate. Besides nourishing and activating sperm, the components in the seminal fluid can also influence female physiology to augment fertilization success of the sperm donor. While many studies have reported such effects in species with separate sexes, few studies have addressed this in simultaneously hermaphroditic animals. This video protocol presents a method to study effects of seminal fluid in gastropods, using a simultaneously hermaphroditic freshwater snail, the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, as model organism. While the procedure is shown using complete prostate gland extracts, individual components (i.e., proteins, peptides, and other compounds) of the seminal fluid can be tested in the same way. Effects of the receipt of ejaculate components on egg laying can be quantified in terms of frequency of egg laying and more subtle estimates of female reproductive performance such as egg numbers within each egg masses. Results show that seminal fluid proteins affect female reproductive output in this simultaneous hermaphrodite, highlighting their importance for sexual selection. PMID:24998794

  6. Comparative analysis of the male reproductive accessory glands of bat species from the five Brazilian Subfamilies of the family Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Martins, Fabiane F; Puga, Cintia C I; Beguelini, Mateus R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastiăo R

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to morphologically characterize and compare the male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) of bats belonging to the five Brazilian subfamilies of the family Phyllostomidae (Carollia perspicillata-Carollinae; Desmodus rotundus-Desmodontinae; Glossophaga soricina-Glossophaginae; Phyllostomus discolor-Phyllostominae and Platyrrhinus lineatus-Stenodermatinae). The study demonstrated that the RAGs of phyllostomid bats were comprised of a pair of extra-abdominal bulbourethral glands and an intra-abdominal complex, composed of paraurethral glands and a prostate with two (Desmodontinae and Stenodermatinae) or three (Carollinae, Glossophaginae and Phyllostominae) different regions, with the absence of the seminal vesicles; this pattern possibly evolved from a process of compaction of the prostatic regions from an ancestor with three regions. J. Morphol. 276:470-480, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25471705

  7. Autophagy Facilitates Secretion and Protects against Degeneration of the Harderian Gland.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Ulrich; Fobker, Manfred; Lengauer, Barbara; Brandstetter, Marlene; Resch, Guenter P; Gröger, Marion; Plenz, Gabriele; Pammer, Johannes; Barresi, Caterina; Hartmann, Christine; Rossiter, Heidemarie

    2014-11-11

    Abstract The epithelial derived Harderian gland consists of 2 types of secretory cells. The more numerous type A cells are responsible for the secretion of lipid droplets, while type B cells produce dark granules of multilamellar bodies. The process of autophagy is constitutively active in the Harderian gland, as confirmed by our analysis of LC3 processing in GFP-LC3 transgenic mice. This process is compromised by epithelial deletion of Atg7. Morphologically, the Atg7 mutant glands are hypotrophic and degenerated, with highly vacuolated cells and pyknotic nuclei. The mutant glands accumulate lipid droplets coated with PLIN2 (perilipin 2) and contain deposits of cholesterol, ubiquitinated proteins, SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) positive aggregates and other metabolic products such as porphyrin. Immunofluorescence stainings show that distinct cells strongly aggregate both proteins and lipids. Electron microscopy of the Harderian glands reveals that its organized structure is compromised, and the presence of large intracellular lipid droplets and heterologous aggregates. We attribute the occurrence of large vacuoles to a malfunction in the formation of multilamellar bodies found in the less abundant type B Harderian gland cells. This defect causes the formation of large tertiary lysosomes of heterologous content and is accompanied by the generation of tight lamellar stacks of endoplasmic reticulum in a pseudo-crystalline form. To test the hypothesis that lipid and protein accumulation is the cause for the degeneration in autophagy-deficient Harderian glands, epithelial cells were treated with a combination of the proteasome inhibitor and free fatty acids, to induce aggregation of misfolded proteins and lipid accumulation, respectively. The results show that lipid accumulation indeed enhanced the toxicity of misfolded proteins and that this was even more pronounced in autophagy-deficient cells. Thus, we conclude autophagy controls protein and lipid catabolism and anabolism to facilitate bulk production of secretory vesicles of the Harderian gland. PMID:25484081

  8. Murine nonvolatile pheromones: isolation of exocrine-gland secreting Peptide 1.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Hiroko; Touhara, Kazushige

    2013-01-01

    Our search for a substance recognized by the vomeronasal neurons revealed that the extra-orbital lacrimal gland (ELG) isolated from adult male mice produced the male-specific peptide pheromone exocrine gland-secreting peptide 1 (ESP1). The following protocol reveals how ESP1 may be extracted from the ELG, purified using anion-exchange and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and analyzed by mass spectrometry. This protocol has been specifically designed for the purification of ESP1, but may be modified to isolate a variety of peptides from the exocrine glands. Peptides purified in this manner may help further define the molecular mechanisms underlying pheromone communication in the vomeronasal system. PMID:24014353

  9. Role of ovarian secretions in mammary gland development and function in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Yart, L; Lollivier, V; Marnet, P G; Dessauge, F

    2014-01-01

    The mammary gland is a dynamic organ that undergoes cyclic developmental and regressive changes during the lifetime of a female mammal. Mammogenesis begins during embryonic life with the development of the first mammary gland rudiments and ductal system. After birth, during the pre-pubertal period, the ductal growth of the mammary parenchyma occurs through the fat pad. In most of the ruminant species allometric mammary parenchyma development begins with the onset of cyclic ovarian secretions activity. The two main hormones secreted during an ovarian cycle are estradiol and progesterone. These steroid hormones are derived from cholesterol and are synthesized by theca and granulosa cells in ovaries. During puberty, the mammary parenchyma develops in a compact, highly arborescent parenchymal mass surrounded by a dense connective matrix. Ductal elongation and lobulo-alveolar development are accomplished during growth and pregnancy to prepare for future milk production. At the end of lactation, the mammary gland undergoes involution, which corresponds to a regression of the secretory tissue, a reduction in the alveolar size and a loss of mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Ovarian steroids (estradiol and progesterone) appear to be key regulators of the different stages of mammogenesis and mammary function. Through this review, the role and the importance of ovarian steroids on mammary gland and on MECs is described. PMID:24103527

  10. The elasmobranch rectal gland secretes a plasma-hypertonic solution that is generally considered to play a major role in

    E-print Network

    Evans, David H.

    transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR; Marshall, 1991). Secretion of fluid from the shark rectal gland+/K+-ATPase on the same membrane; Forrest, 1996) and an apical Cl- channel homologous to the mammalian cystic fibrosis

  11. TRPV1 in Salivary Gland Epithelial Cells Is Not Involved in Salivary Secretion via Transcellular Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seulki; Shin, Yong-Hwan; Namkoong, Eun; Hwang, Sung-Min; Cong, Xin; Yu, Guangyan

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) was originally found in sensory neurons. Recently, it has been reported that TRPV1 is expressed in salivary gland epithelial cells (SGEC). However, the physiological role of TRPV1 in salivary secretion remains to be elucidated. We found that TRPV1 is expressed in mouse and human submandibular glands (SMG) and HSG cells, originated from human submandibular gland ducts at both mRNA and protein levels. However, capsaicin (CAP), TRPV1 agonist, had little effect on intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in these cells, although carbachol consistently increased [Ca2+]i. Exposure of cells to high temperature (>43?) or acidic bath solution (pH5.4) did not increase [Ca2+]i, either. We further examined the role of TRPV1 in salivary secretion using TRPV1 knock-out mice. There was no significant difference in the pilocarpine (PILO)-induced salivary flow rate between wild-type and TRPV1 knock-out mice. Saliva flow rate also showed insignificant change in the mice treated with PILO plus CAP compared with that in mice treated with PILO alone. Taken together, our results suggest that although TRPV1 is expressed in SGEC, it appears not to play any direct roles in saliva secretion via transcellular pathway. PMID:25598668

  12. Cidea control of lipid storage and secretion in mouse and human sebaceous glands.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shasha; Shui, Guanghou; Wang, Guanqun; Wang, Chao; Sun, Shuhong; Zouboulis, Christos C; Xiao, Ran; Ye, Jing; Li, Wei; Li, Peng

    2014-05-01

    Sebaceous glands are skin appendages that secrete sebum onto hair follicles to lubricate the hair and maintain skin homeostasis. In this study, we demonstrated that Cidea is expressed at high levels in lipid-laden mature sebocytes and that Cidea deficiency led to dry hair and hair loss in aged mice. In addition, Cidea-deficient mice had markedly reduced levels of skin surface lipids, including triacylglycerides (TAGs) and wax diesters (WDEs), and these mice were defective in water repulsion and thermoregulation. Furthermore, we observed that Cidea-deficient sebocytes accumulated a large number of smaller-sized lipid droplets (LDs), whereas overexpression of Cidea in human SZ95 sebocytes resulted in increased lipid storage and the accumulation of large LDs. Importantly, Cidea was highly expressed in human sebaceous glands, and its expression levels were positively correlated with human sebum secretion. Our data revealed that Cidea is a crucial regulator of sebaceous gland lipid storage and sebum lipid secretion in mammals and humans. PMID:24636991

  13. Apocrine Secretion in Drosophila Salivary Glands: Subcellular Origin, Dynamics, and Identification of Secretory Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Farkaš, Robert; ?atková, Zuzana; Mentelová, Lucia; Löw, Péter; Be?ová-Liszeková, Denisa; Be?o, Milan; Sass, Miklós; ?ehulka, Pavel; ?ehulková, Helena; Raška, Otakar; Ková?ik, Lubomír; Šmigová, Jana; Raška, Ivan; Mechler, Bernard M.

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the well defined mechanism of merocrine exocytosis, the mechanism of apocrine secretion, which was first described over 180 years ago, remains relatively uncharacterized. We identified apocrine secretory activity in the late prepupal salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster just prior to the execution of programmed cell death (PCD). The excellent genetic tools available in Drosophila provide an opportunity to dissect for the first time the molecular and mechanistic aspects of this process. A prerequisite for such an analysis is to have pivotal immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, biochemical and proteomic data that fully characterize the process. Here we present data showing that the Drosophila salivary glands release all kinds of cellular proteins by an apocrine mechanism including cytoskeletal, cytosolic, mitochondrial, nuclear and nucleolar components. Surprisingly, the apocrine release of these proteins displays a temporal pattern with the sequential release of some proteins (e.g. transcription factor BR-C, tumor suppressor p127, cytoskeletal ?-tubulin, non-muscle myosin) earlier than others (e.g. filamentous actin, nuclear lamin, mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase). Although the apocrine release of proteins takes place just prior to the execution of an apoptotic program, the nuclear DNA is never released. Western blotting indicates that the secreted proteins remain undegraded in the lumen. Following apocrine secretion, the salivary gland cells remain quite vital, as they retain highly active transcriptional and protein synthetic activity. PMID:24732043

  14. Ultrastructure of secretion in the atrial gland of a mollusc (Aplysia).

    PubMed

    Beard, M; Millecchia, L; Masuoka, C; Arch, S

    1982-01-01

    Extracts of the atrial gland of the sea hare Aplysia californica (Mollusca) induce egg laying when injected into mature individuals. Since egg laying is controlled endogenously by a peptide secreted by neuroendocrine cells in the central nervous system, the relationship between the atrial gland and these central neurons has become an issue of interest. With the particular objective of examining secretory structures we undertook an ultrastructural study of the atrial gland and adjacent tissues. This study revealed that the atrial gland epithelium in composed of two major cell types: 'goblet-like' exocrine cells containing large electron-dense granules, and ciliated 'capping cells'. A non-secretory, and possibly post-secretory, cell containing electron-lucent granules was noted. A region of the large hermaphroditic duct contiguous ot the atrial gland, known as the red hemiduct, also displayed capping cells and secretory cells with large granules. The content of these granules is organized into crista-like condensations. The cell also contains iron-rich pigment inclusions. PMID:7112536

  15. Spermatogenesis, Overview 539 treatments with secretion of female accessory gland and

    E-print Network

    Hess, Rex A.

    Reproduction. Pergamon, New York. Gillett, C. 0 988). Arthropoda-Insecta. In Reproductive Biology.), pp. 33-55. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Hinsch, G. W. (1990). Arthropoda-Crustacca. In Reproduc tive. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Reger, J. F., and Fitzgerald, M. E. C. (1983). Arthropoda

  16. Pharmacogenetics of human ABC transporter ABCC11: new insights into apocrine gland growth and metabolite secretion.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Toshihisa; Toyoda, Yu; Yoshiura, Koh-Ichiro; Niikawa, Norio

    2012-01-01

    Cell secretion is an important physiological process that ensures smooth metabolic activities and tissue repair as well as growth and immunological functions in the body. Apocrine secretion occurs when the secretory process is accomplished with a partial loss of cell cytoplasm. The secretory materials are contained within secretory vesicles and are released during secretion as cytoplasmic fragments into the glandular lumen or interstitial space. The recent finding that the non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) 538G > A (rs17822931; Gly180Arg) in the ABCC11 gene determines the type of earwax in humans has shed light on the novel function of this ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter in apocrine glands. The wild-type (Gly180) of ABCC11 is associated with wet-type earwax, axillary osmidrosis, and colostrum secretion from the mammary gland as well as the potential risk of mastopathy. Furthermore, the SNP (538G > A) in the ABCC11 gene is suggested to be a clinical biomarker for the prediction of chemotherapeutic efficacy. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview on the discovery and characterization of genetic polymorphisms in the human ABCC11 gene and to explain the impact of ABCC11 538G > A on the apocrine phenotype as well as the anthropological aspect of this SNP in the ABCC11 gene and patients' response to nucleoside-based chemotherapy. PMID:23316210

  17. Pharmacogenetics of human ABC transporter ABCC11: new insights into apocrine gland growth and metabolite secretion

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Toshihisa; Toyoda, Yu; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro; Niikawa, Norio

    2013-01-01

    Cell secretion is an important physiological process that ensures smooth metabolic activities and tissue repair as well as growth and immunological functions in the body. Apocrine secretion occurs when the secretory process is accomplished with a partial loss of cell cytoplasm. The secretory materials are contained within secretory vesicles and are released during secretion as cytoplasmic fragments into the glandular lumen or interstitial space. The recent finding that the non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) 538G > A (rs17822931; Gly180Arg) in the ABCC11 gene determines the type of earwax in humans has shed light on the novel function of this ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter in apocrine glands. The wild-type (Gly180) of ABCC11 is associated with wet-type earwax, axillary osmidrosis, and colostrum secretion from the mammary gland as well as the potential risk of mastopathy. Furthermore, the SNP (538G > A) in the ABCC11 gene is suggested to be a clinical biomarker for the prediction of chemotherapeutic efficacy. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview on the discovery and characterization of genetic polymorphisms in the human ABCC11 gene and to explain the impact of ABCC11 538G > A on the apocrine phenotype as well as the anthropological aspect of this SNP in the ABCC11 gene and patients’ response to nucleoside-based chemotherapy. PMID:23316210

  18. Luteinizing hormone secretion by dispersed anterior pituitary gland cells from middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Krieg, R J; Brito, A N; Sayles, T E; Matt, D W

    1995-03-01

    Several studies have shown that a certain subpopulation of middle-aged rats have an attenuated preovulatory LH surge, and that this is an early indicator of a general decline in reproductive cyclicity. The pituitary glands of middle-aged animals with attenuated LH surges have been shown to be significantly less responsive to GnRH than those from young (Y) animals. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between the in vivo LH surge and the in vitro secretory capacity of dispersed anterior pituitary gland cells from the same animals. Individual LH-secreting cells were also studied with respect to their LH secretory capacity and proportionate numbers in the pituitary gland using reverse hemolytic plaque assay (RHPA). Two groups of animals, young (4-5 months old) and middle-aged (10-12 months old), were sampled on the afternoon of proestrus to determine the amplitudes of their preovulatory LH surges. The middle-aged animals were then classified as either normal (MAN) or attenuated (MAA) with regard to the peak levels of the surges. On the next proestrus, dispersed anterior pituitary gland cells were prepared for either perifusion or RHPA. Perifused anterior pituitary gland cells were exposed to three 2.5-min pulses of GnRH(30 nM) at 60-min intervals. In the RHPA, red blood cells were treated with protein-A to allow coating with rabbit antiovine LH-beta, and then co-incubated with anterior pituitary gland cells. The cells were then treated with one of several concentrations of GnRH (0.01, 1.0, 10, or 100 nM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7898637

  19. Secretion rate from minor salivary glands in patients with malignant haematological diseases receiving chemotherapy--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Blomgren, Johan; Jansson, Sigbritt; Rödjer, Stig; Birkhed, Dowen

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the secretion rate from minor salivary glands in 16 patients (mean age 62 years) with myeloma, lymphoma or other malignant haematological diseases receiving chemotherapy (study group). An age- and sex-matched control group (n = 16) was recruited. The secretion rate from the minor salivary glands on the inside of the lower lip, measured using the Periotron method, was in mean 2.8 microliters/cm2/min in the study group compared with 4.5 microliters/cm2/min in the control group (p < 0.01). No difference was found in the secretion rate of paraffin-stimulated whole saliva. There were more individuals who experienced dry mouth in the study group (n = 7) than in the control group (n = 2). The conclusion from this pilot study is that the secretion rate from the minor salivary glands might be reduced in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. PMID:12462875

  20. Synthesis and secretion of phosphorylated growth hormone by rat pituitary glands in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Liberti, J.P.; Joshi, G.S.

    1986-06-13

    Rat anterior pituitary glands were incubated in buffered medium, pH 7.4, containing /sup 32/Pi. After incubation the tissue and medium were separated and a post-mitochondrial supernate (PMS) of the tissue homogenate was prepared. Gel filtration of the PMS and medium resulted in a radioactive peak which coincided with the elution volume of authentic rat growth hormone (rGH). Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the radioactive peak under denaturing condition resulted in a protein-staining band having the same mobility as authentic rGH. Autoradiography of the gels revealed radioactivity precisely at the position of growth hormone as well as elsewhere. The specific radioactivity of the PMS (/sup 32/P)GH was estimated to be 5 to 10 times greater than that of tissue (/sup 32/P)GH. These results indicate that phosphorylated GH is synthesized and secreted by pituitary glands in vitro.

  1. Role of calcium channels in catecholamine secretion in the rat adrenal gland

    PubMed Central

    Nagayama, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Kuwakubo, Fumiyo; Fukushima, Yasuo; Yoshida, Makoto; Suzuki-Kusaba, Mizue; Hisa, Hiroaki; Kimura, Tomohiko; Satoh, Susumu

    1999-01-01

    We elucidated the contribution of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels to cholinergic control of catecholamine secretion in the isolated perfused rat adrenal gland. Nifedipine (0.3–3 ?m) inhibited increases in noradrenaline output induced by transmural electrical stimulation (1–10 Hz) and acetylcholine (6–200 ?m), whereas it only slightly inhibited the adrenaline output responses. Nifedipine also inhibited the catecholamine output response induced by 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl-piperazinium (DMPP; 5-40 ?m) but not by methacholine (10–300 ?m). ?-Conotoxin MVIIC (10–1000 nm) inhibited the catecholamine output responses induced by electrical stimulation but not by acetylcholine, DMPP and methacholine. ?-Conotoxin GVIA (50–500 nm) had no inhibitory effect on the catecholamine output responses. These results suggest that L-type Ca2+ channels are responsible for adrenal catecholamine secretion mediated by nicotinic receptors but not by muscarinic receptors, and that their contribution to noradrenaline secretion may be greater than that to adrenaline secretion. P/Q-type Ca2+ channels may control the secretion at a presynaptic site. PMID:10523418

  2. Mechanism involved in Danshen-induced fluid secretion in salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fei; Wei, Mu-Xin; Murakami, Masataka

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Danshen’s capability to induce salivary fluid secretion and its mechanisms were studied to determine if it could improve xerostomia. METHODS: Submandibular glands were isolated from male Wistar rats under systemic anesthesia with pentobarbital sodium. The artery was cannulated and vascularly perfused at a constant rate. The excretory duct was also cannulated and the secreted saliva was weighed in a cup on an electronic balance. The weight of the accumulated saliva was measured every 3 s and the salivary flow rate was calculated. In addition, the arterio-venous difference in the partial oxygen pressure was measured as an indicator of oxygen consumption. In order to assess the mechanism involved in Danshen-induced fluid secretion, either ouabain (an inhibitor of Na+/K+ ATPase) or bumetanide (an inhibitor of NKCC1) was additionally applied during the Danshen stimulation. In order to examine the involvement of the main membrane receptors, atropine was added to block the M3 muscarinic receptors, or phentolamine was added to block the ?1 adrenergic receptors. In order to examine the requirement for extracellular Ca2+, Danshen was applied during the perfusion with nominal Ca2+ free solution. RESULTS: Although Danshen induced salivary fluid secretion, 88.7 ± 12.8 ?L/g-min, n = 9, (the highest value around 20 min from start of DS perfusion was significantly high vs 32.5 ± 5.3 ?L/g-min by carbamylcholine, P = 0.00093 by t-test) in the submandibular glands, the time course of that secretion differed from that induced by carbamylcholine. There was a latency associated with the fluid secretion induced by Danshen, followed by a gradual increase in the secretion to its highest value, which was in turn followed by a slow decline to a near zero level. The application of either ouabain or bumetanide inhibited the fluid secretion by 85% or 93%, and suppressed the oxygen consumption by 49% or 66%, respectively. These results indicated that Danshen activates Na+/K+ ATPase and NKCC1 to maintain Cl- release and K+ release for fluid secretion. Neither atropine or phentolamine inhibited the fluid secretion induced by Danshen (263% ± 63% vs 309% ± 45%, 227% ± 63% vs 309% ± 45%, P = 0.899, 0.626 > 0.05 respectively, by ANOVA). Accordingly, Danshen does not bind with M3 or ?1 receptors. These characteristics suggested that the mechanism involved in DS-induced salivary fluid secretion could be different from that induced by carbamylcholine. Carbamylcholine activates the M3 receptor to release inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and quickly releases Ca2+ from the calcium stores. The elevation of [Ca2+]i induces chloride release and quick osmosis, resulting in an onset of fluid secretion. An increase in [Ca2+]i is essential for the activation of the luminal Cl- and basolateral K+ channels. The nominal removal of extracellular Ca2+ totally abolished the fluid secretion induced by Danshen (1.8 ± 0.8 ?L/g-min vs 101.9 ± 17.2 ?L/g-min, P = 0.00023 < 0.01, by t-test), suggesting the involvement of Ca2+ in the activation of these channels. Therefore, IP3-store Ca2+ release signalling may not be involved in the secretion induced by Danshen, but rather, there may be a distinct signalling process. CONCLUSION: The present findings suggest that Danshen can be used in the treatment of xerostomia, to avoid the systemic side effects associated with muscarinic drugs. PMID:25663764

  3. Cryopreservation of aoudad (Ammotragus lervia sahariensis) sperm obtained by transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands and electroejaculation.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Moreno, J; Castańo, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Esteso, M C; López-Sebastián, A; Guerra, R; Ruiz, M J; Mendoza, N; Luna, C; Cebrián-Pérez, J A; Hildebrandt, T B

    2013-01-15

    This study examines (1) the effectiveness of transrectal, ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands (TUMASG) combined with electroejaculation for obtaining aoudad (Ammotragus lervia sahariensis) sperm samples for cryopreservation, and (2) the effectiveness of a Tris-citric acid-glucose-based medium (TCG; usually used for freezing ibex sperm) and a TES-Tris-glucose-based medium (TTG; typically used in the cryopreservation of mouflon sperm) as sperm extenders. After TUMASG, just one to three electrical pulses were required for ejaculation to occur in five of the six animals studied; one ejaculated after TUMASG alone. Transrectal, ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands would therefore appear to be useful in obtaining sperm samples from this species, requiring few subsequent electrical electroejaculation stimuli and sometimes none at all. After thawing, the membrane integrity (assessed by nigrosin-eosin staining) of sperm extended with TTG was greater than that of sperm extended with TCG (P < 0.05). The total percentage of sperm showing an intact acrosome, as assessed by fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut (Arachis hypogea) agglutinin, was also higher in the TTG-extended sperm (P < 0.05), and the percentage of dead sperm with a damaged acrosome was lower (P < 0.05). No differences were seen between TCG and TTG in terms of apoptotic manifestations (DNA damage, caspase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, and plasmalemma stability). Therefore, TTG appears to be a better extender than TCG for cryopreserving aoudad sperm. PMID:23158213

  4. Lipids and proteins in the Rathke's gland secretions of the North American mud turtle (Kinosternon subrubrum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seifert, W.E., Jr.; Gotte, S.W.; Leto, T.L.; Weldon, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Lipids and proteins in the Rathke's gland secretions of the North American mud turtle (Kinosternon subrubrum, Kinosternidae) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), respectively. Analysis by GC-MS indicates 2,3-dihydroxypropanal and C3?C24 free or esterified fatty acids. Analysis by SDS-PAGE indicates a major protein component with an approximate molecular mass of 60 kDa and minor components ranging from ca. 23 to 34 kDa. The major component of K. subrubrum glandular secretions exhibits a mobility that matches that of the Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempi, Cheloniidae), suggesting that these proteins are evolutionarily conserved.

  5. Rat submandibular glands secrete nanovesicles with NTPDase and 5'-nucleotidase activities.

    PubMed

    González, Débora A; Egido, Patricia; Balcarcel, Noelia B; Hattab, Claude; Barbieri van Haaster, Martín M; Pelletier, Julie; Sévigny, Jean; Ostuni, Mariano A

    2015-03-01

    Extracellular nucleotides modulate a wide number of biological processes such as neurotransmission, platelet aggregation, muscle contraction, and epithelial secretion acting by the purinergic pathway. Nucleotidases as NTPDases and ecto-5'-nucleotidase are membrane-anchored proteins that regulate extracellular nucleotide concentrations. In a previous work, we have partially characterized an NTPDase-like activity expressed by rat submandibular gland microsomes, giving rise to the hypothesis that membrane NTPDases could be released into salivary ducts to regulate luminal nucleotide concentrations as was previously proposed for ovarian, prostatic, and pancreatic secretions. Present results show that rat submandibular glands incubated in vitro release membrane-associated NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase activities. Electron microscopy images show that released membranes presenting nucleotidase activity correspond to exosome-like vesicles which are also present at microsomal fraction. Both exosome release and nucleotidase activities are raised by adrenergic stimulation. Nucleotidase activities present the same kinetic characteristics than microsomal nucleotidase activity, corresponding mainly to the action of NTPDase2 and NTPDase3 isoforms as well as 5'-nucleotidase. This is consistent with Western blot analysis revealing the presence of these enzymes in the microsomal fraction. PMID:25523180

  6. The effect of vitamin D deficiency on secretion of saliva by rat parotid gland in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Glijer, B; Peterfy, C; Tenenhouse, A

    1985-01-01

    The role of vitamin D in parotid gland function was investigated by measuring the composition and rate of production of parotid saliva in response to pilocarpine injection in vitamin-D-deficient and replete rats in vivo. Rats fed a vitamin-D-free diet from weaning (G1) were studied after 8 weeks of diet at which time they had a decreased rate of growth, were hyperparathyroid and hypocalcaemic but still had detectable serum 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3). Rats which were the offspring of vitamin-D-deficient mothers and which were maintained on a vitamin-D-free diet from weaning (G2) had a decreased rate of growth from birth, were hypocalcaemic and hyperparathyroid and at no time had any detectable serum 1,25(OH)2D3. In response to pilocarpine, the volume of parotid saliva produced by G1 animals was no different from the controls (G1 animals receiving supplemental vitamin D) whereas that produced by G2 animals was reduced more than 65%. The total amount of amylase secreted was unchanged in either group of experimental animals so that the concentration of amylase in the parotid saliva from G2 animals was increased. The concentration of calcium in parotid saliva changed in parallel with the changes in serum calcium in G1 and G2 animals. It is concluded that the primary source of parotid saliva calcium is the extracellular fluid and not zymogen granules and the transepithelial transport of this calcium is independent of vitamin D; the secretion of electrolytes and water, which in the parotid gland require extracellular calcium, is dependent on vitamin D. It is proposed that the vitamin is necessary for the synthesis of a protein(s) which is essential for the utilization of extracellular calcium in this secretion process. PMID:2410606

  7. The Secretion of Areolar (Montgomery's) Glands from Lactating Women Elicits Selective, Unconditional Responses in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Doucet, Sébastien; Soussignan, Robert; Sagot, Paul; Schaal, Benoist

    2009-01-01

    Background The communicative meaning of human areolae for newborn infants was examined here in directly exposing 3-day old neonates to the secretion from the areolar glands of Montgomery donated by non related, non familiar lactating women. Methodology/Principal Findings The effect of the areolar stimulus on the infants' behavior and autonomic nervous system was compared to that of seven reference stimuli originating either from human or non human mammalian sources, or from an arbitrarily-chosen artificial odorant. The odor of the native areolar secretion intensified more than all other stimuli the infants' inspiratory activity and appetitive oral responses. These responses appeared to develop independently from direct experience with the breast or milk. Conclusion/Significance Areolar secretions from lactating women are especially salient to human newborns. Volatile compounds carried in these substrates are thus in a position to play a key role in establishing behavioral and physiological processes pertaining to milk transfer and production, and, hence, to survival and to the early engagement of attachment and bonding. PMID:19851461

  8. Correlation Between Vasodilatation and Secretion in the Lacrimal Gland Elicited by Stimulation of the Cornea and Facial Nerve Root of the Cat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoki Yasui; Keishiro Karita; Hiroshi Izumi; Makoto Tamai

    Purpose. To determine whether reflex vasodilatation can be elicited in the cat lacrimal gland by electrical stimulation of the cornea, whether the vasodilatation elicited by electrical stimula- tion of the facial nerve root found to be the efferent arm of the cornea-lacrimal gland reflex pathway correlates with the evoked secretion in the lacrimal gland, and what kind of receptors and

  9. The cytokines interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-? stimulate CFTR-mediated fluid secretion by swine airway submucosal glands.

    PubMed

    Baniak, Nicholas; Luan, Xiaojie; Grunow, Amber; Machen, Terry E; Ianowski, Juan P

    2012-08-15

    The airway is kept sterile by an efficient innate defense mechanism. The cornerstone of airway defense is mucus containing diverse antimicrobial factors that kill or inactivate pathogens. Most of the mucus in the upper airways is secreted by airway submucosal glands. In patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), airway defense fails and the lungs are colonized by bacteria, usually Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Accumulating evidence suggests that airway submucosal glands contribute to CF pathogenesis by failing to respond appropriately to inhalation of bacteria. However, the regulation of submucosal glands by the innate immune system remains poorly understood. We studied the response of submucosal glands to the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-?. These are released into the airway submucosa in response to infection with the bacterium P. aeruginosa and are elevated in CF airways. Stimulation with IL-1? and TNF-? increased submucosal gland secretion in a concentration-dependent manner with a maximal secretion rate of 240 ± 20 and 190 ± 40 pl/min, respectively. The half maximal effective concentrations were 11 and 20 ng/ml, respectively. The cytokine effect was dependent on cAMP but was independent of cGMP, nitric oxide, Ca(2+), or p38 MAP kinase. Most importantly, IL-1?- and TNF-?-stimulated secretion was blocked by the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) blocker, CFTRinh172 (100 ?mol/l) but was not affected by the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel blocker, niflumic acid (1 ?mol/l). The data suggest, that during bacterial infections and resulting release of proinflammatory cytokines, the glands are stimulated to secrete fluid, and this response is mediated by cAMP-activated CFTR, a process that would fail in patients with CF. PMID:22683572

  10. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in milk gland secretion of cows in perinatal period

    SciTech Connect

    Sitarska, E.; Klucinski, W.; Winnicka, A. (Agricultural Univ., Warsaw (Poland)); Ludwicki, J. (National Inst. of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland))

    1991-12-01

    Persistent organochlorine (OC) compounds such as DDT and its derivatives, isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may pose toxicological and ecological impact due to their persistence in some biological compartments. Despite the fact that agriculture has discontinued the use of the majority of these pesticides in many countries, the considerable differences in their concentrations in samples of human and animal origin are evidence that biological magnification via the food chain still exists in the case of OC compounds. This phenomenon may by illustrated by the close relationship between OC compound concentration in the fat of human and cow milk. The purpose of the present study was to determine the rate of excretion of the OC pesticide complex including their metabolites in the perinatal and postnatal period during various gland secretion phases.

  11. Role of endogenous endothelins in catecholamine secretion in the rat adrenal gland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takahiro Nagayama; Fumiyo Kuwakubo; Takayuki Matsumoto; Yasuo Fukushima; Makoto Yoshida; Mizue Suzuki-Kusaba; Hiroaki Hisa; Yasuo Matsumura; Tomohiko Kimura; Susumu Satoh

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the role of endogenous endothelins in catecholamine secretion in response to transmural electrical stimulation in the retrogradely perfused rat adrenal gland. (R)2-[(R)-2-[(S)-2-[[1-(hexahydro-1H-azepinyl)]carbonyl]amino-4-methyl-pentanoyl]amino-3-[3-(1-methyl-1H-indoyl)]propionyl]amino-3-(2-pyridyl) propionic acid (FR139317; 0.03–3 ?M), an endothelin ETA receptor antagonist, inhibited the electrical stimulation-induced epinephrine and norepinephrine output. Neither N-cis-2,6-dimethylpiperidinocarbonyl-l-?-methylleucyl-d-1-methoxycarbonyltryptophanyl-d-norleucine (BQ-788; 0.03–3 ?M), an endothelin ETB receptor antagonist, nor phosphoramidon (1–100 mM), an endothelin-converting enzyme inhibitor,

  12. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1998 Origin and Secretion of Milk Lipids

    E-print Network

    Mather, Ian

    Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1998 Origin and Secretion of Milk Lipids Ian H. Mather1,3 and Thomas W. Keenan2 The cream fraction of milk comprises droplets-bounded compartments of the secretory pathway. Milk lipids originate as small droplets of triacylglycerol, synthesized

  13. Secretion of Catecholamines from Adrenal Gland by a Single Electrical Shock: Electrotonic Depolarization of Medullary Cell Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakade, Arun R.; Wakade, Taruna D.

    1982-05-01

    Transmural stimulation of the isolated adrenal gland of the rat and guinea pig results in secretion of catecholamines. The secretion is due to activation of cholinergic receptors of the adrenal medulla by acetylcholine released from splanchnic nerve terminals after transmural stimulation. Our aim was to see whether the same experimental technique could be used to directly excite the adrenal medullary cell membrane by electrical stimulation and whether such stimulation would result in secretion of catecholamines. We demonstrate here that a single electrical shock to the perfused adrenal gland of the rat results in massive secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine. The secretion is directly related to the strength and duration of the applied stimulus over a wide range. Catecholamine secretion is unaffected by tetrodotoxin or hexamethonium/atropine but is abolished by Ca2+ lack or 3 mM Mn2+. We suggest that the adrenal medullary membrane undergoes nonpropagated electrotonic depolarization on electrical stimulation and thereby voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels are opened to initiate secretion.

  14. [Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 serves as a novel pathway to modulate secretion in submandibular gland].

    PubMed

    Cong, X; Zhang, Y; Yu, G Y; Wu, L L

    2015-02-18

    Our work focused on the studies on the expression and function of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) in the submandibular gland. By using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and immunofluorescence, our data demonstrated the expression and distribution characteristics of TRPV1 in rabbit and human submandibular glands, as well as rat submandibular gland cell line SMG-C6. Furthermore, the possible intracellular signal molecules involved in the TRPV1-modulated saliva secretion were explored. Activation of TRPV1 increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, upregulated the expression of aquaporin 5 (AQP5), the main transporter that mediate water secretion through transcellular pathway, and led to AQP5 redistribution. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) was involved in the TRPV1-regulated AQP5 content. Besides, TRPV1 activation also modulated the expression, distribution, and function of tight junction protein, and increased paracellular permeability. ERK1/2 and myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) were responsible for the regulation of TRPV1on tight junction properties. Taken together, our work suggested that TRPV1 was a potential target to promote saliva secretion, and activation of TRPV1 might provide a new and safe therapeutic strategy to ameliorate submandibular gland hypofunction. PMID:25686321

  15. Radioprotection by WR-2721 of gamma-irradiated rat parotid gland: effect on gland weight and secretion at 8-10 days post irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Menard, T.W.; Izutsu, K.T.; Ensign, W.Y.; Keller, P.J.; Morton, T.H.; Truelove, E.L.

    1984-09-01

    Changes in rat parotid salivary gland weight and functional parameters were evaluated at 8 to 10 days post irradiation in WR-2721 protected and non-protected animals following exposure to a single 15.3 Gy dose of Cs-137 radiation to the head. Glandular fluid secretory capacity was assessed by maximum flow rate, total volume of saliva and duration of secretion following pilocarpine stimulation. Protection against radiomucositis was also evaluated indirectly by daily monitoring of food and water intake, body weight and paraoral symptomatology. WR-2721 provided a significant degree of protection for all glandular functional parameters as well as gland weight. Relative protective factors (RPF) were computed for irradiated protected and non-protected animals compared to their sham-irradiated, pair-fed controls. Protection against radiomucositis and preservation of residual parotid gland secretory capacity as determined by functional parameters suggests that WR-2721 may be of significant benefit in alleviating oral symptoms and maintaining salivary gland function for patients receiving radiotherapy for head and neck tumors.

  16. Salivary Glands

    MedlinePLUS

    ... parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. They all secrete saliva into your mouth, the parotid through tubes that drain saliva, called salivary ducts, near your upper teeth, submandibular ...

  17. Effect of semen collection by transrectal massage of accessory sexual glands or artificial vagina on the outcome of breeding soundness examinations of Italian yearling beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Sylla, Lakamy; Palombi, Claudio; Stradaioli, Giuseppe; Vagniluca, Antonio; Monaci, Maurizio

    2015-03-15

    Although semen quality is one of the major traits that influence breeding soundness examination outcomes in bulls, field conditions occasionally do not allow for the collection of semen samples by means of an artificial vagina. The aims of the present study were to report the results of a large number of semen collections that were performed via the transrectal massage (TRM) of the accessory sexual glands of Italian yearling beef bulls and compare this semen collection method to the artificial vagina (AV) method in term of breeding soundness examination outcomes; furthermore, we determined whether the breed affected the semen characteristics. In the TRM group (n = 475), the semen samples were collected via TRM of the accessory sexual glands, and in the AV group (n = 502), the AV method was used. In the TRM group, semen samples were obtained from 81.3% of the bulls and penile protrusion was observed in 87.6% of the animals during semen collection. The sperm concentrations (920.5 ± 439.0 vs. 281.0 ± 259.8 × 10(6)/mL) and the percentages of total abnormal spermatozoa (22.8 ± 15.0 vs. 18.8 ± 12.9) were significantly higher in the AV group than those in the TRM group. The percentage of bulls that did not meet the minimum requirement for normal cells (?70%) was 6.2% higher in the AV group than that in the TRM group (P < 0.05). Moreover, the samples collected from Chianina bulls by TRM exhibited a lower percentage of motile sperm and a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa when compared with the other two breeds. The major drawbacks of the TRM technique were the inability to conduct complete evaluation of the libido and mating ability of the yearling bulls, a significant reduction of the number of spermatozoa collected, and an increase in the variability of the semen characteristics due to breed. In conclusion, despite the drawbacks, TRM guarantees that semen evaluation can be conducted in cases in which the semen samples cannot be collected with the AV method. PMID:25488791

  18. Mucins secreted by a transformed cell line derived from human tracheal gland cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lo-Guidice, J M; Merten, M D; Lamblin, G; Porchet, N; Houvenaghel, M C; Figarella, C; Roussel, P; Perini, J M

    1997-01-01

    High-molecular-mass glycoconjugates are secreted by the continuous cell line MM-39, which has been obtained from cultured human tracheal gland cells transformed by simian virus 40. They were purified on Sepharose(R) CL-4B and then by two steps of density-gradient centrifugation. High-molecular-mass glycoproteins resistant to digestion by hyaluronidase, chondroitin ABC lyase and heparitinase were obtained, in addition to hyaluronic acid and proteoglycans. They were susceptible to beta-elimination. They contained polylactosaminoglycan chains as well as carbohydrate chains with a terminal sialic acid in the NeuAc alpha2-3 sequence. Most of them have a buoyant density of 1.45 g/ml in CsCl-density-gradient centrifugation, except for MUC1. The MM-39 cells were also characterized by a high expression of MUC1 and MUC4 genes, but they did not express MUC2, MUC3, MUC5B and MUC5AC. Therefore the MM-39 cells synthesized mucin-like glycoproteins as well as lysozyme and mucous proteinase inhibitor [Merten, Kammouni, Renaud, Birg, Mattéi and Figarella (1996) Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. 15, 520-528]; they should be considered as having a mixed, both serous and mucous, phenotype. PMID:9291115

  19. In Vivo Readout of CFTR Function: Ratiometric Measurement of CFTR-Dependent Secretion by Individual, Identifiable Human Sweat Glands

    PubMed Central

    Wine, Jeffrey J.; Char, Jessica E.; Chen, Jonathan; Cho, Hyung-ju; Dunn, Colleen; Frisbee, Eric; Joo, Nam Soo; Milla, Carlos; Modlin, Sara E.; Park, Il-Ho; Thomas, Ewart A. C.; Tran, Kim V.; Verma, Rohan; Wolfe, Marlene H.

    2013-01-01

    To assess CFTR function in vivo, we developed a bioassay that monitors and compares CFTR-dependent and CFTR-independent sweat secretion in parallel for multiple (?50) individual, identified glands in each subject. Sweating was stimulated by intradermally injected agonists and quantified by optically measuring spherical sweat bubbles in an oil-layer that contained dispersed, water soluble dye particles that partitioned into the sweat bubbles, making them highly visible. CFTR-independent secretion (M-sweat) was stimulated with methacholine, which binds to muscarinic receptors and elevates cytosolic calcium. CFTR-dependent secretion (C-sweat) was stimulated with a ?-adrenergic cocktail that elevates cytosolic cAMP while blocking muscarinic receptors. A C-sweat/M-sweat ratio was determined on a gland-by-gland basis to compensate for differences unrelated to CFTR function, such as gland size. The average ratio provides an approximately linear readout of CFTR function: the heterozygote ratio is ?0.5 the control ratio and for CF subjects the ratio is zero. During assay development, we measured C/M ratios in 6 healthy controls, 4 CF heterozygotes, 18 CF subjects and 4 subjects with ‘CFTR-related’ conditions. The assay discriminated all groups clearly. It also revealed consistent differences in the C/M ratio among subjects within groups. We hypothesize that these differences reflect, at least in part, levels of CFTR expression, which are known to vary widely. When C-sweat rates become very low the C/M ratio also tended to decrease; we hypothesize that this nonlinearity reflects ductal fluid absorption. We also discovered that M-sweating potentiates the subsequent C-sweat response. We then used potentiation as a surrogate for drugs that can increase CFTR-dependent secretion. This bioassay provides an additional method for assessing CFTR function in vivo, and is well suited for within-subject tests of systemic, CFTR-directed therapeutics. PMID:24204751

  20. Variation and Genomic Localization of Genes Encoding DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER Male Accessory Gland Proteins Separated by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, Michael; Wilson, Thomas G.

    1986-01-01

    Accessory gland proteins from Drosophila melanogaster males have been separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis into nine major bands. When individual males from 175 strains were examined, considerable polymorphism for nearly one-half of the major protein bands was seen, including null alleles for three bands. Variation was observed not only among long-established laboratory strains but also among stocks recently derived from natural populations. There was little difference in the amount of variation between P and M strains, indicating that P element mutagenesis is not a factor producing the variation. Codominant expression of variants for each of five bands was found in heterozygotes, suggesting structural gene variation and not posttranslational modification variation. Stocks carrying electrophoretic variants of four of the major proteins were used to map the presumed structural genes for these proteins; the loci were found to be dispersed on the second chromosome. Since males homozygous for variant proteins were fertile, the polymorphism seems to have little immediate effect on successful sperm transfer. We propose that a high degree of polymorphism can be tolerated because these proteins play a nutritive rather than enzymatic role in Drosophila reproduction. PMID:3095182

  1. Seminal vesicles of infertile patients with male accessory gland infection: ultrasound evaluation after prolonged treatment with tadalafil, a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    La Vignera, S

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible ultrasound seminal vesicle (SV) changes in infertile patients with 'hypertrophic-congestive' (HCUF) or 'fibro-sclerotic' (FSUF) ultrasound form of male accessory gland infection (MAGI) after prolonged administration of tadalafil (TAD), a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor. Forty infertile patients with HCUF and 40 patients with FSUF and erectile dysfunction were selected and arbitrarily divided into two groups, who were prescribed TAD 5 mg daily for 3 months, the first 20 consecutive patients with HCUF (group A1) or FSUF (group A2) or placebo, the second 20 consecutive patients with HCUF (group B1) or FSUF (group B2). All patients underwent scrotal and prostate-vesicular transrectal ultrasound evaluation and semen analysis (WHO, 2010) before and after treatment. Group A1 patients showed a significant reduction in fundus/body ratio and higher pre- and post-ejaculatory body SV antero-posterior diameter difference compared with the other three groups. These patients showed also a significant increase in SV ejection fraction and a significant improvement in the total sperm count, progressive motility, seminal levels of fructose and ejaculate volume. These results suggest that infertile patients with HCUF had an improvement in SV ultrasound features suggestive of chronic inflammation after daily treatment with low doses of TAD. PMID:23116230

  2. Fine structure and chemical analysis of the metathoracic scent gland secretion in Graphosoma lineatum (Linnaeus, 1758) (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Durak, Dilek; Kalender, Yusuf

    2009-01-01

    Morphology and ultrastructure of metathoracic scent glands (MTGs) of Graphosoma lineatum (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Extracts of the volatile fraction of the MTG secretion from males and females were subjected to initial analysis. One pair of the MTG is composed of a reservoir and a pair of lateral glands connected to the reservoir with a duct. MTGs are open in between the meso- and metacoxae, on evaporation areas with a mushroom-like structure. Reservoir walls embody two types of cells, type I and type II, respectively. Cells of type I have numerous organelles, while type II cells have only been found in a certain area of the reservoir wall. They have large secretory ducts lined by a cuticular intima layer. The lateral glands connected to reservoir have two further types of cells. Lateral glands are lined by type A secretory cells and secretory duct is found in their cytoplasm. Type B cells are poor in organelles and are smaller than type A cells. Coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry examinations revealed that both in males and females of G. lineatum MTGs 14 chemical compounds occur, among which only 10 are common. These secretions indicate information such as defensive and pheromonal activities, other functions could be attributed to the secretion of the MTG of G. lineatum by comparison with other closely related bug species. In the analyses of MTGs of females of G. lineatum, n-octadecanoic acid was observed at the most and n-undecane was determined at lowest level, while males of G. lineatum n-tridecane was determined at the highest level; and (E)-2-hexenyl acetate has been observed at the lowest. PMID:19200924

  3. Secretion of electrolytes, protein and urea by the mandibular gland of the common wombat (Vombatus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Beal, A M

    1995-01-01

    Saliva was collected from the mandibular glands of anaesthetized common wombats (Vombatus ursinus) to ascertain maximal flow rates, salivary composition and possible adaptations, particularly PO4(3-) secretion, to assist digestion. After temporary catheterization of the main duct through its oral opening, salivary secretion was evoked at flow rates ranging from 0.02 +/- 0.002 (+/- SEM) ml.min-1 (0.7 +/- 0.07 microliter.min-1.kg body weight-1) to 0.4 +/- 0.05 ml.min-1 (14 +/- 1.9 microliters.min-1.kg body weight-1) by ipsilateral intracarotid infusion of acetylcholine. The [Na+] (15 +/- 5.1 to 58 +/- 8.6 mmol.l-1) and [HCO3-] (35 +/- 1.9 to 60 +/- 1.9 mmol.l-1) were positively correlated with salivary flow rate. The [K+] (58 +/- 5.2 to 30 +/- 2.4 mmol.l-1), [Ca2+] (10.4 +/- 1.67 to 4.1 +/- 0.44 mmol.l-1), [Mg2+] (0.94 +/- 0.137 to 0.17 +/- 0.032 mmol.l-1), [Cl-] (71 +/- 9.2 to 45 +/- 6.0 mmol.l-1), [urea] (9.3 +/- 0.79 to 5.1 +/- 0.54 mmol.l-1), H+ activity (29 +/- 1.6 to 17 +/- 1.6 nEq.l-1) and amylase activity (251 +/- 57.4 to 92 +/- 23.3 mu kat.l-1) were negatively correlated with flow. Both concentration and osmolality fell with increasing flow at the lower end of the flow range but osmolality always increased again by maximal flow whereas the relation between protein and flow was not consistent at the higher levels of flow and stimulation. Salivary [PO4(3+)] was not correlated with flow and at 3-14% of the plasma concentration was extremely low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7738231

  4. Overexpression of des(1-3)hIGF-I in the mammary gland during prolonged lactation enhances milk yield and elevates prolactin secretion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During prolonged lactation, the mammary gland loses the capacity to synthesize and secrete the large amounts of milk that are produced during early lactation. This loss occurs despite the continued presence of a suckling stimulus and complete removal of mammary secretions. The decline in milk synthe...

  5. Prolactin release, oestrogens and proliferation of prolactin-secreting cells in the anterior pituitary gland of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Pérez, R L; Machiavelli, G A; Romano, M I; Burdman, J A

    1986-03-01

    Relationships among the release of prolactin, the effect of oestrogens and the proliferation of prolactin-secreting cells were studied under several experimental conditions. Administration of sulpiride or oestradiol released prolactin and stimulated cell proliferation in the anterior pituitary gland of adult male rats. Clomiphene completely abolished the rise in cell proliferation, but did not interfere with the sulpiride-induced release of prolactin. Treatment with oestradiol plus sulpiride significantly increased serum prolactin concentrations and the mitotic index compared with the sum of the stimulation produced by both drugs separately. Bromocriptine abolished the stimulatory effect of oestradiol on the serum prolactin concentration and on cell proliferation. In oestradiol- and/or sulpiride-treated rats, 80% of the cells in mitoses were lactotrophs. The remaining 20% did not stain with antisera against any of the pituitary hormones. The number of prolactin-secreting cells in the anterior pituitary gland significantly increased after the administration of oestradiol or sulpiride. The results demonstrate that treatment with sulpiride and/or oestradiol increases the proliferation and the number of lactotrophs in the anterior pituitary gland of the rat. PMID:3701233

  6. Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter-mediated fluid secretion increases under hypotonic osmolarity in the mouse submandibular salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Kidokoro, Manami; Nakamoto, Tetsuji; Mukaibo, Taro; Kondo, Yusuke; Munemasa, Takashi; Imamura, Atsushi; Masaki, Chihiro; Hosokawa, Ryuji

    2014-05-15

    Water-handling epithelia are sensitive to the osmotic environment. In this study, the effects of a hypo-osmotic challenge on carbachol (CCh)-induced fluid secretion was investigated using an ex vivo submandibular gland perfusion technique and intracellular pH and Ca(2+) measurements. The osmolality of the perfusion solution was altered to examine the response of the gland to a hypotonic challenge. The flow rate was increased by 34% with a 30% hypotonic solution (225 mosmol/kgH2O), although the Ca(2+) response was unchanged. The lowering of the external Cl(-) by 50% abolished this increase in the 30% hypotonic solution. Furthermore, bumetanide, an inhibitor of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1), completely inhibited the fluid secretion increase caused by the 30% hypotonic solution, and both the total amount of fluid and the flow rate were identical to those of the isotonic solution. This finding was confirmed by measuring the NKCC1 bumetanide-dependent NH4 (+) transport; Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) transport was upregulated >40% by a 30% hypotonic challenge. Therefore, the increase in CCh-induced fluid secretion in response to hypotonic conditions can be attributed, to a large extent, to the specific activation of the NKCC1. PMID:24623142

  7. Evaluation of atorvastatin efficacy and toxicity on spermatozoa, accessory glands and gonadal hormones of healthy men: a pilot prospective clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention advocate lowering both cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol systemic levels, notably by statin intake. However, statins are the subject of questions concerning their impact on male fertility. This study aimed to evaluate, by a prospective pilot assay, the efficacy and the toxicity of a decrease of cholesterol blood levels, induced by atorvastatin on semen quality and sexual hormone levels of healthy, normocholesterolaemic and normozoospermic men. Methods Atorvastatin (10 mg daily) was administrated orally during 5 months to 17 men with normal plasma lipid and standard semen parameters. Spermatozoa parameters, accessory gland markers, semen lipid levels and blood levels of gonadal hormones were assayed before statin intake, during the treatment, and 3 months after its withdrawal. Results Atorvastatin treatment significantly decreased circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol concentrations by 42% and 24% (p?

  8. Effects of methotrexate on rat parotid and submandibular glands and their secretions

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with methotrexate for 3 days. Parotid and submandibular main ducts were cannulated and saliva flow was evoked by either intravenous infusion of acetylcholine or an intravenous injection of benthanechol. Methotrexate was found to reduce significantly mean food consumption, body weight, and parotid gland wet weights. Experimental animal salivary total gland DNA levels were not different, but total parotid gland RNA, protein, amylase and water content, and submandibular gland RNA were significantly lower compared to control. Acetylcholine, but not bethanechol, evoked parotid protein and amylase outputs and submandibular protein output from experimental animals were significantly higher than the control groups'. The increased outputs were apparently linked to ..beta..-adrenergic receptor activation, since hexamethonium or propranolol eliminated the significant increases while phenoxybenzamine did not. Plasma catecholamine levels were significantly higher in the methotrexate treated animals and probably played a role in the salivary gland ..beta..-adrenergic activation. Methotrexate treatment significantly increased the submandibular gland ..beta..-adrenergic receptor concentration as determined by (/sup 3/H)-dihydroalprenolol receptor binding assays. Muscarinic receptor concentrations determined with (/sup 3/H)-quinuclidninyl benzilate were not changed.

  9. Secretory and basal cells of the epithelium of the tubular glands in the male Mullerian gland of the caecilian Uraeotyphlus narayani (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    George, Jancy M; Smita, Matthew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2004-12-01

    Caecilians are exceptional among the vertebrates in that males retain the Mullerian duct as a functional glandular structure. The Mullerian gland on each side is formed from a large number of tubular glands connecting to a central duct, which either connects to the urogenital duct or opens directly into the cloaca. The Mullerian gland is believed to secrete a substance to be added to the sperm during ejaculation. Thus, the Mullerian gland could function as a male accessory reproductive gland. Recently, we described the male Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and histochemistry. The present TEM study reports that the secretory cells of both the tubular and basal portions of the tubular glands of the male Mullerian gland of this caecilian produce secretion granules in the same manner as do other glandular epithelial cells. The secretion granules are released in the form of structured granules into the lumen of the tubular glands, and such granules are traceable to the lumen of the central duct of the Mullerian gland. This is comparable to the situation prevailing in the epididymal epithelium of several reptiles. In the secretory cells of the basal portion of the tubular glands, mitochondria are intimately associated with fabrication of the secretion granules. The structural and functional organization of the epithelium of the basal portion of the tubular glands is complicated by the presence of basal cells. This study suggests the origin of the basal cells from peritubular tissue leukocytes. The study also indicates a role for the basal cells in acquiring secretion granules from the neighboring secretory cells and processing them into lipofuscin material in the context of regression of the Mullerian gland during the period of reproductive quiescence. In these respects the basal cells match those in the epithelial lining of the epididymis of amniotes. PMID:15487004

  10. beta -Endrophin and Adrenocorticotropin Are Secreted Concomitantly by the Pituitary Gland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Guillemin; Therese Vargo; Jean Rossier; Scott Minick; Nicholas Ling; Catherine Rivier; Wylie Vale; Floyd Bloom

    1977-01-01

    The opiate-like peptide beta -endorphin and adrenocorticotropin are concomitantly secreted in increased amounts by the adenohypophysis in response to acute stress or long-term adrenalectomy as well as in vitro in response to purified corticotropin releasing factor and other secretagogues. Conversely, administration of the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone inhibits the secretion of both adrenocorticotropin and beta -endorphin. Thus, both hormones possess common

  11. The mode of secretion in the anterior pituitary gland of the cow and the ewe.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, R; Fath el-Bab, M R; Peukert-Adam, I

    1988-01-01

    In the present study of the bovine and ovine pars distalis adenohypophysis another secretion mechanism besides the well established exocytosis is described. Within cellular accumulations surrounded by a sparse connective tissue the process of secretion seems to be induced by fusion of the glandular cells. The direct passage of glandular cell material out of these syncytia into the adjacent sinusoidal capillaries is demonstrated in light and electron microscopic photographs. This secretion mechanism must be considered to be holocrine in nature, because the nuclei of the glandular cells are also found to pass directly into the blood vessels. The question concerning the replacement of the glandular cells, however, could not be finally clarified. The significance of the holocrine secretion in the adenohypophysis might be seen in the maintenance of a certain base-line secretion, while the fine hormonal regulation presumably is controlled by exocytosis, with the release of individual hormones being receptor mediated. PMID:3202321

  12. Glue Secretion in the Drosophila Salivary Gland: A Model for Steroid-Regulated Exocytosis

    E-print Network

    Andres, Andrew

    60611-3093 Small hydrophobic hormones like steroids control many tissue-specific physiological responses demonstrate that 20E treatment of salivary glands leads to Ca2 elevations by a genomic mechanism; RNAi. INTRODUCTION Regulation of exocytosis by small hydrophobic hormones has been previously

  13. Activation of immune cells in bovine mammary gland secretions by zymosan treated bovine serum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mastitis, caused by bacterial infection of the mammary gland, is a major disease of dairy cattle. The greatest risks of intramammary infection occur at the end of lactation and at the initiation of the next lactation when the cow calves. Treating serum with zymosan (yeast cell wall preparation) ca...

  14. Leptin Inhibits Directly Glucocorticoid Secretion by Normal Human and Rat Adrenal Gland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRANCOIS P. PRALONG; RAPHAEL RODUIT; GERARD WAEBER; EINAR CASTILLO; FRANCOIS MOSIMANN; BERNARD THORENS; ROLF C. GAILLARD

    1998-01-01

    Different interactions have been described between glucocorticoids and the product of the ob gene leptin. Leptin can inhibit the activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis by stressful stimuli, whereas adrenal glucocorticoids stimulate leptin production by the adipocyte. The present study was designed to investigate the poten- tial direct effects of leptin to modulate glucocorticoid production by the adrenal. Human adrenal glands

  15. Endoscopic approach to a collision tumor of growth hormone-secreting adenoma and gangliocytoma in the pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Tanriover, Necmettin; Aydin, Ovgu; Kucukyuruk, Baris; Abuzayed, Bashar; Guler, Huseyin; Oz, Buge; Gazioglu, Nurperi

    2014-07-01

    The authors share their experience on a collision tumor of growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenoma and gangliocytoma in the pituitary gland, which was reported by few articles in the literature. Also, an intraoperative view of this tumor, operated via endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach, is presented for the first time. A 39-year-old female patient was admitted with clinical manifestation of acromegaly present in a 2-year period. Laboratory investigations revealed high levels of GH and insulinlike growth factor 1. Sellar computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging showed a sellar mass diagnosed as a pituitary adenoma. Based on clinical, biochemical, and radiologic evaluations, GH-secreting pituitary adenoma was diagnosed and operated by endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach achieving total removal of the tumor. Histopathologic examination revealed a collision tumor of GH-secreting adenoma and gangliocytoma. Postoperative radiologic and biochemical investigations showed no residual tumor and total remission. The endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach promotes a close intraoperative view of sellar pathologies. We believe that a detailed histopathologic workup is necessary to diagnose collision tumors, because even a close intraoperative view does not facilitate to differentiate these tumors from a regular pituitary adenoma. PMID:25006908

  16. Proteins in spermathecal gland secretion and spermathecal fluid and the properties of a 29 kDa protein in queens of Apis mellifera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl-von-Frisch-Weg Frankfurt

    One and two dimensional SDS-PAGE were used to characterize the protein pattern of the spermathecal gland secretion and spermathecal fluid in Apis mellifera queen pupae and emerged queens of different ages. The concentration of protein varied from 8.5 and 15.3 mg\\/mL in the spermathecal fluid, and from 5 to 8.5 mg\\/mL in the secretion. Development of the protein pattern of

  17. Oral administration of royal jelly restores tear secretion capacity in rat blink-suppressed dry eye model by modulating lacrimal gland function.

    PubMed

    Imada, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Shigeru; Kitamura, Naoki; Shibuya, Izumi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Tears are secreted from the lacrimal gland (LG), a dysfunction in which induces dry eye, resulting in ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Honey bee products are used as a nutritional source in daily life and medicine; however, little is known about their effects on dry eye. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of honey bee products on tear secretion capacity in dry eye. We selected raw honey, propolis, royal jelly (RJ), pollen, or larva from commercially available honey bee products. Tear secretion capacity was evaluated following the oral administration of each honey bee product in a rat blink-suppressed dry eye model. Changes in tear secretion, LG ATP content, and LG mitochondrial levels were measured. RJ restored the tear secretion capacity and decrease in LG ATP content and mitochondrial levels to the largest extent. Royal jelly can be used as a preventative intervention for dry eye by managing tear secretion capacity in the LG. PMID:25243778

  18. Mechanism of NaCl secretion in rectal gland tubules of spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Greger; Eberhard Schlatter

    1984-01-01

    Rectal gland tubule (RGT) segements of the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) were perfused in vitro. The effects of inhibitors of known mode of action on transepithelial PD (PDte resistance (Rte), the PD across the basolateral membrane (PDbl), the fractional resistance of this membrane (FRbl), and intracellular activities of Na+, Cl-, K+ (acell) were examined. Furosemide (5·10-4 mol·l-1) reduced PDte from

  19. Mechanism of NaCl secretion in the rectal gland of spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Greger; Eberhard Schlatter

    1984-01-01

    Rectal gland tubules (RGT) of spiny dogfish were dissected and perfused in vitro. Transepithelial PD (PDte), resistance (Rte), the PD across the basolateral membrane (PDbl) and intracellular chloride and potassium activities (aCl-cell,aK+cell) were measured. In a first series, 67 RGT segments were perfused with symmetric shark “Ringers” solution. The bath perfusate contained in addition db-cAMP 10-4, forskolin 10-6, and adenosine

  20. Ultrastructural Evidence of Secretion by Exocytosis and of ``Synaptic Vesicle'' Formation in Posterior Pituitary Glands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Nagasawa; W. W. Douglas; R. A. Schulz

    1970-01-01

    EARLY electron microscopic studies of the posterior pituitary glands of rats and toads1,2 revealed that the neurosecretory terminals contained, in addition to the electron-dense neurosecretory granules (correctly assumed to contain posterior pituitary hormones), certain structures of the same size, but electron-lucent, which were interpreted as being empty neurosecretory granules. It was concluded that on stimulation, granules release their contents in

  1. Vps15 is required for stress induced and developmentally triggered autophagy and salivary gland protein secretion in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Anding, A L; Baehrecke, E H

    2015-03-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic process used to deliver cellular material to the lysosome for degradation. The core Vps34/class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) complex, consisting of Atg6, Vps15, and Vps34, is highly conserved throughout evolution, critical for recruiting autophagy-related proteins to the preautophagosomal structure and for other vesicular trafficking processes, including vacuolar protein sorting. Atg6 and Vps34 have been well characterized, but the Vps15 kinase remains poorly characterized with most studies focusing on nutrient deprivation-induced autophagy. Here, we investigate the function of Vps15 in different cellular contexts and find that it is necessary for both stress-induced and developmentally programmed autophagy in various tissues in Drosophila melanogaster. Vps15 is required for autophagy that is induced by multiple forms of stress, including nutrient deprivation, hypoxia, and oxidative stress. Furthermore, autophagy that is triggered by physiological stimuli during development in the fat body, intestine, and salivary gland also require the function of Vps15. In addition, we show that Vps15 is necessary for efficient salivary gland protein secretion. These data illustrate the broad importance of Vps15 in multiple forms of autophagy in different animal cells, and also highlight the pleiotropic function of this kinase in multiple vesicle-trafficking pathways. PMID:25342466

  2. Transcapillary exchange in the cat salivary gland during secretion, bradykinin infusion and after chronic duct ligation.

    PubMed Central

    Mann, G E; Smaje, L H; Yudilevich, D L

    1979-01-01

    1. Capillary permeability-surface area products for 86Rb, [51Cr]EDTA (mol. wt. 357), [57Co]cyanocobalamin (mol. wt. 1353) and [125I]insulin (approximate mol. wt. 6000) have been measured using the single-circulation, multiple-tracer dilution technique in the in situ perfused submandibular salivary gland during parasympathetic nerve stimulation, close-arterial bradykinin infusion and following chronic duct ligation. 2. In glands with a natural blood supply, permeability-surface area for 86Rb and [51Cr]EDTA increased during parasympathetic stimulation, but this was shown to be related to the concomitant increase in blood flow rather than to a change in capillary permeability or in surface area. 3. In glands perfused at constant flow, parasympathetic stimulation led to a decrease in permeability-surface area for EDTA (-19.1 +/- 5.2%, mean +/- S.E., n = 5, P less than 0.05) cyanocobalamin (-12.3 +/- 6.0, n = 12, P less than 0.05), and insulin (-15.3 +/- 4.8, n = 11, P less than 0.02). It is suggested that this may be the result of a redistribution of flow from the acinar microcirculation to a less permeable ductal vasculature. 4. Bradykinin infusion had no significant effect on permeability-surface area for EDTA and cyanocobalamin in perfused glands. 5. In perfused glands, ligation of the submandibular duct for 3--12 days reduced permeability-surface area (ml.min-1.g-1) for [51Cr]EDTA from 5.26 +/- 0.60 (mean +/- S.E., n = 9) to 4.20 +/- 0.12 (n = 4, P less than 0.30), [57Co]cyanocobalamin from 3.22 +/- 0.12 (n = 48) to 2.02 +/- 0.08 (n = 15, P less than 0.001) and [125I]insulin from 1.52 +/- 0.07 (n = 39) to 0.72 +/- 0.23 (n = 11, P less than 0.001). PMID:119844

  3. Molecular aspects of viviparous reproductive biology of the tsetse fly ( Glossina morsitans morsitans): Regulation of yolk and milk gland protein synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey M. Attardo; Nurper Guz; Patricia Strickler-Dinglasan; Serap Aksoy

    2006-01-01

    Tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) viviparous reproductive physiology remains to be explored at the molecular level. Adult females carry their young in utero for the duration of embryonic and larval development, all the while supplying their offspring with nutrients in the form of a “milk” substance secreted from a modified accessory gland. Flies give birth to fully developed third instar larvae

  4. Mammalian pheromone studies, VII. Identification of thiazole derivatives in the preorbital gland secretions of the grey duiker, Sylvicapra grimmia, and the red duiker, Cephalophus natalensis.

    PubMed

    Burger, B V; Pretorius, P J; Stander, J; Grierson, G R

    1988-01-01

    2-Isobutyl-1,3-thiazole and its 4,5-dihydro derivative were identified in the preorbital gland secretions of the grey duiker, Sylvicapra grimmia, and the red duiker, Cephalophus natalensis, but are absent from the preorbital secretion of the blue duiker, C. monticola. These two compounds which are present in high, but varying concentrations in the secretions of male grey duikers, are present in low concentrations in the secretions of females. This seems to be the only consistent significant difference between the secretions of male and female grey duikers and together with the fact that only males mark out their territories, was construed as evidence in favour of these two compounds playing a significant role in the territorial behaviour of male grey duikers. PMID:3245266

  5. Mechanism of NaCl secretion in the rectal gland of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). I. Experiments in isolated in vitro perfused rectal gland tubules.

    PubMed

    Greger, R; Schlatter, E

    1984-09-01

    Rectal gland tubules (RGT) of spiny dogfish were dissected and perfused in vitro. Transepithelial PD (PDte), resistance (Rte), the PD across the basolateral membrane (PDbl) and intracellular chloride and potassium activities (a cell Cl-, a cell K+) were measured. In a first series, 67 RGT segments were perfused with symmetric shark "Ringers" solution. The bath perfusate contained in addition db-cAMP 10(-4), forskolin 10(-6), and adenosine 10(-4) mol X 1(-1). PDte was -11 +/- 1 (n = 67) mV lumen negative, Rte 27 +/- 2 (n = 47) omega cm2, PDbl -75 +/- 0.4 (n = 260) mV. a cell K+ and a cell Cl- were 109 +/- 22 (n = 4) and 38 +/- 4 (n = 36) mmol X 1(-1) respectively. These data indicate that Cl-secretion across the RGT must be an uphill transport process, whereas secretion of Na+ could be driven by the lumen negative PDte. Intracellular K+ is 14 mV above equilibrium with respect to the basolateral membrane PD and Cl- is 23 mV above equilibrium across the apical membrane. In series 2, the conductivity properties of the apical and basolateral membrane as well as that of the paracellular pathway were examined in concentration step experiments. Decrease of the basolateral K+ concentration led to a rapid hyperpolarization of PDbl with a mean slope of 19 mV per decade of K+ concentration change. Addition of 0.5 mmol X 1(-1) Ba2+ to the bath solution lead to a marked depolarization and abolished the response to K+ concentration steps. In the lumen a Cl- concentration downward step led to a depolarization of the lumen membrane; resulting in a mean slope of 18 mV per decade of Cl- concentration change. When dilution potentials were generated across the epithelium, the polarity indicated that the paracellular pathway is cation selective. In series 3 the equivalent short circuit current (Isc = PDte/Rte) was determined as a function of symmetrical changes in Na+ concentration, with Cl- held at 276 mmol X 1(-1), and as a function of symmetrical changes in Cl- concentration, with Na+ held at 278 mmol X 1(-1). Isc was a saturable function of Na+ concentration (Hill coefficient 0.9 +/- 0.1, K1/2 4.4 mmol X 1(-1), n = 7) and also a saturable function of Cl- concentration (Hill coefficient 2.0 +/- 0.1, K1/2 75 mmol X 1(-1), n = 11).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6095178

  6. Diurnal variation of amylase secretion is coupled with alterations of ?-adrenoceptors in the rat parotid gland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Ishikawa; I. Amano; C. Chen; H. Ishida

    1992-01-01

    Summary  Diurnal changes in the neurotransmitter receptors are important for studying the receptor function in neurophysiology. The\\u000a purpose of this study is to gain an insight into the regulatory mechanisms of the diurnal variation of amylase secretion.\\u000a Rat salivary amylase levels showed a diurnal variation with two peaks, a marked peak at 13 h and a lesser peak at 21 h.

  7. A strong association between human earwax-type and apocrine colostrum secretion from the mammary gland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyonori Miura; Koh-ichiro Yoshiura; Shoko Miura; Takako Shimada; Kentaro Yamasaki; Atsushi Yoshida; Daisuke Nakayama; Yoshisada Shibata; Norio Niikawa; Hideaki Masuzaki

    2007-01-01

    Here we provided the first genetic evidence for an association between the degree of apocrine colostrum secretion and human\\u000a earwax type. Genotyping at the earwax-type locus, rs17822931 within the ABCC11 gene, revealed that 155 of 225 Japanese women were dry-type and 70 wet-type. Frequency of women without colostrum among dry-type\\u000a women was significantly higher than that among wet-type women (P P = 0.0341).

  8. Lacrimal gland (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The lacrimal gland lies within the orbit on the outer portion of the upper eye. The gland continually secretes tears which moisten, lubricate, and protect the surface of the eye. Excess tears drain into small ducts which ...

  9. ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF THE OXYNTIC CELL IN THE GASTRIC GLANDS OF THE BULLFROG, RANA CATESBIANA: II. The Acid-Secreting Gastric Mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALBERT W. SEDAR

    1961-01-01

    The oxyntic cell in the gastric glands of the bullfrog was examined in lead hydroxide-stained sections of gastric mucosae fixed in buffered osmium tetroxide and embedded in n-butyl methacrylate. During gastric acid secretion (pH 1-2) induced by histamine administration in cannulated frogs, the pattern of fine structure in the oxyntic cell differs strikingly from that in the oxyntic cell of

  10. Expression of receptors for luteinizing hormone, gastric-inhibitory polypeptide, and vasopressin in normal adrenal glands and cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors in dogs.

    PubMed

    Galac, S; Kars, V J; Klarenbeek, S; Teerds, K J; Mol, J A; Kooistra, H S

    2010-07-01

    Hypercortisolism caused by an adrenocortical tumor (AT) results from adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent hypersecretion of glucocorticoids. Studies in humans demonstrate that steroidogenesis in ATs may be stimulated by ectopic or overexpressed eutopic G protein-coupled receptors. We report on a screening of 23 surgically removed, cortisol-secreting ATs for the expression of receptors for luteinizing hormone (LH), gastric-inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), and vasopressin (V(1a), V(1b), and V(2)). Normal adrenal glands served as control tissues. Abundance of mRNA for these receptors was quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR), and the presence and localization of these receptors were determined by immunohistochemistry. In both normal adrenal glands and ATs, mRNA encoding for all receptors was present, although the expression abundance of the V(1b) receptor was very low. The mRNA expression abundance for GIP and V(2) receptors in ATs were significantly lower (0.03 and 0.01, respectively) than in normal adrenal glands. The zona fasciculata of normal adrenal glands stained immunonegative for the GIP receptor. In contrast, islands of GIP receptor-immunopositive cells were detected in about half of the ATs. The zona fasciculata of both normal adrenal glands and AT tissue were immunopositive for LH receptor; in ATs in a homogenous or heterogenous pattern. In normal adrenal glands, no immunolabeling for V(1b)R and V(2) receptor was present, but in ATs, V(2) receptor-immunopositive cells were detected. In conclusion, QPCR analysis did not reveal overexpression of LH, GIP, V(1a), V(1b), or V(2) receptors in the ATs. However, the ectopic expression of GIP and V(2) receptor proteins in tumorous zona fasciculata tissue may play a role in the pathogenesis of canine cortisol-secreting ATs. PMID:20399066

  11. Contribution of the secretory material of caecilian (amphibia: Gymnophiona) male Mullerian gland to motility of sperm: a study in Uraeotyphlus narayani.

    PubMed

    George, Jancy M; Smita, Mathew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2005-02-01

    Caecilians are a unique group of limbless burrowing amphibians with discontinuous distribution. Several caecilian species are viviparous, and all practice internal fertilization. In amniotic vertebrates the sperm undergo post-testicular physiological maturation when they are initiated into motility under the influence of an epididymal secretion. Further, during ejaculation mammalian sperm are suspended in a fluid secreted by the male accessory sex glands, viz., prostate gland and seminal vesicles. Caecilians lack comparable glands, but still practice internal fertilization. Uniquely, male caecilians retain the Mullerian ducts in the adults as a pair of functional glands. It has long been hypothesized, based on indirect evidence, that the Mullerian gland would be a male accessory sex gland, secreting a fluid in which sperm are suspended during ejaculation and which would also provide nutritional support to the ejaculated sperm. In the present study, the secretory material of the Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani was mixed with sperm obtained from the testis, and the changes in motility were recorded. Uraeotyphlus narayani sperm possess a perforatorium of the acrosome proceeding deep into the endonuclear canal of the nucleus. The midpiece is characterized by closely applied centrioles, the anterior ends of the axoneme and axial fiber, and a mitochondrial sheath. The long tail has an undulating membrane on one side, supported by the axoneme and an axial fiber. The live sperm possess a mitochondrial vesicle, also known as the cytoplasmic droplet, anywhere along the head and the midpiece, as in anuran sperm, which is shed from sperm that have ceased motility. Uraeotyphlus narayani sperm are motile the moment they are released directly from the testis, indicating that the sperm do not require post-testicular physiological maturation. On being mixed with the secretory material of the Mullerian gland, the spermatozoa are enhanced in speed as well as duration of motility. Therefore, the caecilian male Mullerian gland is considered to be the male accessory sex gland. PMID:15605393

  12. Mechanism of NaCl secretion in rectal gland tubules of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). III. Effects of stimulation of secretion by cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    Greger, R; Schlatter, E; Wang, F; Forrest, J N

    1984-12-01

    Segments of rectal gland tubules (RGT) the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) were perfused in vitro to study the cellular mechanism by which NaCl secretion is stimulated. Transepithelial PD (PDte), transepithelial resistance (Rte), the PD across the basolateral membrane (PDbl), the fractional resistance of the lumen membrane (FR1), and the cellular activities for Cl-, Na+, and K+ (alpha cell x) were measured. In series 1 the effects of stimulation (S) (dbcAMP 10(-4, adenosine 10(-4), and forskolin 10(-6) mol x 1(-1) on these parameters were recorded and compared to nonstimulated state (NS). PDte increased from -1.9 +/- 0.2 mV to -11.0 +/- 0.9 mV (n = 51). PDbl depolarized from -86 +/- 1 to -74 +/- 1.4 mV (n =52), Rte fell from 29 +/- 2.8 to 21 +/- 2 omega cm2 (n = 23), and FR1 fell from 0.96 +/- 0.005 to 0.79 +/- 0.04 (n = 9). alpha cell K+ was constant (123 +/- 13 versus 128 +/- 17 mmol x 1(-1) (n = 6), but alpha cell cl- fell significantly from 48 +/- 4 to 41 +/- 3 mmol x 1(-1) (n = 7). alpha cell Na+ increased from 11 +/- 2.1 to 29.5 +/- 6.6 mmol x 1(-1) (n = 4). In series 2 the conductivity properties were examined by rapid K+, and Cl- concentration steps on the basolateral and luminal cell side respectively in NS and S states. In NS-segments reduction of bath K+ led to a hyperpolarization of PDbl with a mean slope of 28 +/- 1.3 mV/decade (n = 9) (as compared to 19 mV/decade for S-state).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6097873

  13. The Proteomes of Human Parotid and Submandibular/Sublingual Gland Salivas Collected as the Ductal Secretions

    PubMed Central

    Denny, Paul; Hagen, Fred K.; Hardt, Markus; Liao, Lujian; Yan, Weihong; Arellanno, Martha; Bassilian, Sara; Bedi, Gurrinder S.; Boontheung, Pinmannee; Cociorva, Daniel; Delahunty, Claire M.; Denny, Trish; Dunsmore, Jason; Faull, Kym F.; Gilligan, Joyce; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Halgand, Frédéric; Hall, Steven C.; Han, Xuemei; Henson, Bradley; Hewel, Johannes; Hu, Shen; Jeffrey, Sherry; Jiang, Jiang; Loo, Joseph A.; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Malamud, Daniel; Melvin, James E.; Miroshnychenko, Olga; Navazesh, Mahvash; Niles, Richard; Park, Sung Kyu; Prakobphol, Akraporn; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Richert, Megan; Robinson, Sarah; Sondej, Melissa; Souda, Puneet; Sullivan, Mark A.; Takashima, Jona; Than, Shawn; Wang, Jianghua; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Wolinsky, Lawrence; Xie, Yongming; Xu, Tao; Yu, Weixia; Ytterberg, Jimmy; Wong, David T.; Yates, John R.; Fisher, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Saliva is a body fluid with important functions in oral and general health. A consortium of three research groups catalogued the proteins in human saliva collected as the ductal secretions: 1166 identifications—914 in parotid and 917 in submandibular/sublingual saliva—were made. The results showed that a high proportion of proteins that are found in plasma and/or tears are also present in saliva along with unique components. The proteins identified are involved in numerous molecular processes ranging from structural functions to enzymatic/catalytic activities. As expected, the majority mapped to the extracellular and secretory compartments. An immunoblot approach was used to validate the presence in saliva of a subset of the proteins identified by mass spectrometric approaches. These experiments focused on novel constituents and proteins for which the peptide evidence was relatively weak. Ultimately, information derived from the work reported here and related published studies can be used to translate blood-based clinical laboratory tests into a format that utilizes saliva. Additionally, a catalogue of the salivary proteome of healthy individuals allows future analyses of salivary samples from individuals with oral and systemic diseases, with the goal of identifying biomarkers with diagnostic and/or prognostic value for these conditions; another possibility is the discovery of therapeutic targets. PMID:18361515

  14. First Transcriptome of the Testis-Vas Deferens-Male Accessory Gland and Proteome of the Spermatophore from Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel E. Sonenshine; Brooke W. Bissinger; Noble Egekwu; Kevin V. Donohue; Sayed M. Khalil; R. Michael Roe

    2011-01-01

    Ticks are important vectors of numerous human diseases and animal diseases. Feeding stimulates spermatogenesis, mating and insemination of male factors that trigger female reproduction. The physiology of male reproduction and its regulation of female development are essentially a black box. Several transcriptomes have catalogued expression of tick genes in the salivary glands, synganglion and midgut but no comprehensive investigation has

  15. Proteins of the accessory sex glands associated with the oocyte-penetrating capacity of cauda epididymal sperm from holstein bulls of documented fertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arlindo A. Moura; David A. Chapman; Gary J. Killian

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported that ac- cessory sex gland fluid (AGF) from high fertility (HF) bulls influenced the oocyte-penetrating capacity of cauda epididymal sperm from low fertility (LF) bulls, based on in vitro fertilization (IVF) assays. The present study determined if AGF proteins were associated with these effects. Nineteen IVF assays with 12 bulls were grouped as follows. Group I (n

  16. Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Literature from the past 168 years has been filtered to provide a unified summary of the regional distribution of cutaneous water and electrolyte losses. The former occurs via transepidermal water vapour diffusion and secretion from the eccrine sweat glands. Daily insensible water losses for a standardised individual (surface area 1.8 m2) will be 0.6–2.3 L, with the hands (80–160 g.h?1) and feet (50–150 g.h?1) losing the most, the head and neck losing intermediate amounts (40–75 g.h?1) and all remaining sites losing 15–60 g.h?1. Whilst sweat gland densities vary widely across the skin surface, this same individual would possess some 2.03 million functional glands, with the highest density on the volar surfaces of the fingers (530 glands.cm?2) and the lowest on the upper lip (16 glands.cm?2). During passive heating that results in a resting whole-body sweat rate of approximately 0.4 L.min?1, the forehead (0.99 mg.cm?2.min?1), dorsal fingers (0.62 mg.cm?2.min?1) and upper back (0.59 mg.cm?2.min?1) would display the highest sweat flows, whilst the medial thighs and anterior legs will secrete the least (both 0.12 mg.cm?2.min?1). Since sweat glands selectively reabsorb electrolytes, the sodium and chloride composition of discharged sweat varies with secretion rate. Across whole-body sweat rates from 0.72 to 3.65 mg.cm?2.min?1, sodium losses of 26.5–49.7 mmol.L?1 could be expected, with the corresponding chloride loss being 26.8–36.7 mmol.L?1. Nevertheless, there can be threefold differences in electrolyte losses across skin regions. When exercising in the heat, local sweat rates increase dramatically, with regional glandular flows becoming more homogeneous. However, intra-regional evaporative potential remains proportional to each local surface area. Thus, there is little evidence that regional sudomotor variations reflect an hierarchical distribution of sweating either at rest or during exercise. PMID:23849497

  17. Matching Accessories

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Steven M. Foord (Stevenage; Target Bioinformatics, GlaxoSmithKline Medicine Research Centre REV)

    2003-07-08

    Heterodimerization enhances the complexity of ligand recognition and diversity of signaling responses of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Many accessory proteins (for ion channels or GPCRs) appear to associate with their partners relatively early in the process whereby proteins are transported to the cell surface; their roles in modulating function may have evolved out of simple proximity to a protein that once upon a time they either facilitated or accompanied through the maturation process. The receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) are a family of single-transmembrane accessory proteins that heterodimerize with GPCRs and, thereby, allow individual GPCRs to recognize multiple ligands and to activate various signaling pathways in response to ligand binding. The M10 family of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class 1b proteins has recently been shown to associate with murine vomeronasal V2R receptors, as well as to escort them to the cell surface. The exact role of M10 in modulating V2R function (or vice versa) remains to be determined.

  18. Correlation between LH secretion in castrated rats with cellular proliferation and synthesis of DNA in the anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Romano, M I; Machiavelli, G A; Pérez, R L; Carricarte, V; Burdman, J A

    1984-07-01

    The relationship between the release of LH and the synthesis of DNA was studied in the anterior pituitary gland of castrated rats. Cell types were characterized immunocytochemically. Castration significantly (P less than 0.01) increased the concentration of LH in serum (1326%) and the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into pituitary DNA (72%). This was accompanied by an increment in the activity of the enzyme DNA polymerase-alpha (58%) and in the number of mitoses (from 2 +/- 0.1/mm2 in intact rats to 21 +/- 0.8/mm2 15 days after castration). Only 20% of the mitoses found in the pituitary gland of castrated rats were positively stained with the antiserum against the beta-subunit of LH. The other 80% did not stain either with LH antiserum or with antisera against the other pituitary hormones. There was a significant (P less than 0.01) increase in the number of LH cells in castrated rats (48%). All the changes produced in the anterior pituitary gland after castration were prevented by the administration of dihydrotestosterone. The results demonstrate that a stimulation of LH release is followed by an increase of DNA synthesis and cell proliferation of gonadotrophs in the anterior pituitary gland. PMID:6736850

  19. Lacrimal gland anatomy (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The lacrimal gland is located within the orbit above the lateral end of the eye. It continually releases fluid which cleanses and protects the eye's surface as it lubricates and moistens it. These lacrimal secretions are commonly known ...

  20. Secretions from the ventral eversible gland of Spodoptera exigua caterpillars activate defense-related genes and induce emission of volatile organic compounds in tomato, Solanum lycopersicum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant induced defense against herbivory are generally associated with metabolic costs that result in the allocation of photosynthates from growth and reproduction to the synthesis of defense compounds. Therefore, it is essential that plants are capable of sensing and differentiating mechanical injury from herbivore injury. Studies have shown that oral secretions (OS) from caterpillars contain elicitors of induced plant responses. However, studies that shows whether these elicitors originated from salivary glands or from other organs associated with feeding, such as the ventral eversible gland (VEG) are limited. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the secretions from the VEG gland of Spodoptera exigua caterpillars contain elicitors that induce plant defenses by regulating the expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other defense-related genes. To test this hypothesis, we quantified and compared the activity of defense-related enzymes, transcript levels of defense-related genes and VOC emission in tomato plants damaged by S. exigua caterpillars with the VEG intact (VEGI) versus plants damaged by caterpillars with the VEG ablated (VEGA). Results The quantified defense-related enzymes (i.e. peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and lipoxigenase) were expressed in significantly higher amounts in plants damaged by VEGI caterpillars than in plants damaged by VEGA caterpillars. Similarly, the genes that encode for the key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid and terpene synthase genes that regulate production of terpene VOCs, were up-regulated in plants damaged by VEGI caterpillars. Moreover, the OS of VEGA caterpillars were less active in inducing the expression of defense genes in tomato plants. Increased emissions of VOCs were detected in the headspace of plants damaged by VEGI caterpillars compared to plants damaged by VEGA caterpillars. Conclusion These results suggest that the VEG of S. exigua caterpillars contains elicitors of late plant defense signaling in tomato which trigger defense-related enzymatic activity, regulate expression of defense-related genes, and induce emission of plant VOCs. These signaling cascades may have important ramifications for plant-insect and tritrophic interactions. PMID:24885633

  1. Seasonal Variation in Volatile Compound Profiles of Preen Gland Secretions of the Dark-eyed Junco ( Junco hyemalis )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helena A. Soini; Sara E. Schrock; Kevin E. Bruce; Donald Wiesler; Ellen D. Ketterson; Milos V. Novotny

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative stir bar sorptive extraction methodology, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and element-specific\\u000a atomic emission detection (AED) were utilized to analyze seasonal changes in volatile components of preen oil secretions in\\u000a Junco hyemalis. Juncos were held in long days to simulate breeding conditions, or short days to simulate nonbreeding conditions. Linear\\u000a alcohols (C10–C18) were the major volatile compounds found

  2. Adrenal glands

    MedlinePLUS

    The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands, one gland is located on top of each kidney. ... Each adrenal gland is about the size of the thumb. The outer part of the gland is called the cortex. ...

  3. Secretion granules of the rabbit parotid gland. Isolation, subfractionation, and characterization of the membrane and content subfractions

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    A fraction of secretion granules has been isolated from rabbit parotid by a procedure which was found to be especially effective in reducing contamination resulting from aggregation and/or cosedimentation of granules with other cell particulates. The fraction, representing 15 percent (on the average) of the total tissue amylase activity, was homogeneous as judged by electron microscopy and contaminated to exceedingly low levels by other cellular organelles as judged by marker enzymatic and chemical assays. Lysis of the granules was achieved by their gradual exposure to hypotonic NaHCO3, containing 0.5 mM EDTA. The content and the membranes separated by centrifugation of the granule lysate were characterized primarily by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis which indicated that the content was composed of a limited number of molecular weight classes of polypeptides of which three bands (having approximate mol wt 58,000, 33, 000, and 12,000) could be considered major components. The gel profile of the membrane subfraction was characterized by 20-30 Coomassie brilliant blue-staining bands of which a single species of mol wt 40,000 was the conspicuous major polypeptide. Two types of experiments employing gel electrophoretic analysis were carried out for identifying and assessing the extent of residual secretory protein adsorbed to purified granule membranes: (a) examination of staining and radioactivity profiles after mixing of radioactive secretion granule extract with nonradioactively labeled granule membranes and (b) comparison of gel profiles of secretion granule extract and granule membranes with those of unlysed secretion granules and secretory protein dischraged from lobules in vitro or collected by cannulation of parotid ducts, the last two samples being considered physiologic secretory standards. The results indicated that the membranes were contaminated to a substantial degree by residual, poorly extractable secretory protein even though assays of membrane fractions for a typical secretory enzyme activity (amylase) indicated quite through separation of membranes and content. Hence, detailed examination of membrane subfractions for residual content species by gel electrophoresis points to the general unity and sensitivity of this technique as a means for accurately detecting a defined set of polypeptides occurring as contaminants in cellular fractions or organelle subfractions. PMID:162790

  4. Isolated secretion granules from parotid glands of chronically stimulated rats possess an alkaline internal pH and inward-directed H/sup +/ pump activity

    SciTech Connect

    Arvan, P.; Castle, J.D.

    1986-10-01

    Secretion granules have been isolated from the parotid glands of rats that have been chronically stimulated with the ..beta..-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol. These granules are of interest because they package a quantitatively different set of secretory proteins in comparison with granules from the normal gland. Polypeptides enriched in proline, glycine, and glutamine, which are known to have pI's >10, replace ..cap alpha..-amylase (pI's = 6.8) as the principal content species. The internal pH of granules from the treated rats changes from 7.8 in a potassium sulfate medium to 6.9 in a choline chloride medium. The increased pH over that of normal parotid granules (approx.6.8) appears to protect the change in composition of the secretory contents. Whereas normal mature parotide granules have practically negligible levels of H/sup +/ pumping ATPase activity, the isolated granules from isoproterenol-treated rats undergo a time-dependent internal acidification that requires the presence of ATP and is abolished by an H/sup +/ ionophore. Additionally, an inside-positive granule transmembrane potential develops after ATP addition that depends upon ATP hydrolysis. Two independent methods have been used that exclude the possibility that contaminating organelles are the source of the H/sup +/-ATPase activity. Together these data provide clear evidence for the presence of an H/sup +/ pump in the membranes of parotid granules from chronically stimulated rats. However, despite the presence of H/sup +/-pump activity, fluorescence microscopy with the weak base, acridine orange, reveals that the intragranular pH in live cells is greater than that of the cytoplasm.

  5. The effect of water quality on the immunoreactivity of stress-response cells and gonadotropin-secreting cells in the pituitary gland of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Mostafa A; Ibrahim, Amal A E; Hashem, Amal M; Khalil, Noha A

    2015-03-01

    The present experiments investigated the effect of water quality characteristics on the condition factor, the ovarian activity, cortisol level, and the immunoreactivity of stress-response cells (adrenocorticotropic hormone; ACTH- and melanin stimulating hormone; MSH- and somatolactin; SL- secreting cells) and gonadotropin (GTH)-secreting cells in the pituitary gland of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. After 3 months of exposure to mixtures of water from different sources (Tap and Lake Manzalah waters), with high levels of minerals and heavy metals, water quality affected the number, size, and immunostaining of stress-response-immunoreactive (ir) cells and GTH-ir cells, which showed a dramatic decrease in their size. The integrated optical density (IOD) of immunoreactivity of MSH- and GTH- cells was significantly increased; however, it was significantly decreased for ACTH- and SL- cells. Also, high levels of cortisol were observed in females exposed to waters with high concentrations of minerals and heavy metals. In parallel, low values of gonadosomatic index (GSI%) and the ovarian histology revealed a decrease of maturing follicles concomitant with an increase of atretic follicles in females exposed to Lake Manzalah polluted water. Taken together, the increased activity of stress-response-ir pituitary cells, serum cortisol level and ovarian atretic follicles in response to elevated concentrations of minerals and heavy metals, supports the possible role of ACTH, MSH, and SL in the adaptive stress response of fish. Therefore, minerals and heavy metals must be considered when discussing tilapia aquaculture status. J. Exp. Zool. 323A: 146-159, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25675939

  6. Seasonal variation in volatile compound profiles of preen gland secretions of the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis).

    PubMed

    Soini, Helena A; Schrock, Sara E; Bruce, Kevin E; Wiesler, Donald; Ketterson, Ellen D; Novotny, Milos V

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative stir bar sorptive extraction methodology, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and element-specific atomic emission detection (AED) were utilized to analyze seasonal changes in volatile components of preen oil secretions in Junco hyemalis. Juncos were held in long days to simulate breeding conditions, or short days to simulate nonbreeding conditions. Linear alcohols (C(10)-C(18)) were the major volatile compounds found in preen oil, and in both sexes their levels were higher when birds were housed on long as opposed to short days. Methylketones were found at lower levels, but were enhanced in both sexes during long days. Levels of 2-tridecanone, 2-tetradecanone, and 2-pentadecanone were also greater on long days, but only in males. Among carboxylic acids (C(12), C(14), and C(16)), linear but not branched acids showed some differences between the breeding and nonbreeding conditions, although the individual variation for acidic compounds was large. Qualitatively, more sulfur-containing compounds were found in males than females during the breeding season. Functionally, the large increase in linear alcohols in male and female preen oil during the breeding season may be an indication of altered lipid biosynthesis, which might signal reproductive readiness. Linear alcohols might also facilitate junco odor blending with plant volatiles in the habitat to distract mammalian predators. Some of the volatile compounds from preen oil, including linear alcohols, were also found on the wing feather surface, along with additional compounds that could have been of either metabolic or environmental origin. PMID:17146717

  7. Mechanism of NaCl secretion in rectal gland tubules of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). II. Effects of inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Greger, R; Schlatter, E

    1984-12-01

    Rectal gland tubule (RGT) segments of the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) were perfused in vitro. The effects of inhibitors of known mode of action on transepithelial PD (PDte resistance (Rte), the PD across the basolateral membrane (PDbl), the fractional resistance of this membrane (FRbl), and intracellular activities of NA+, Cl-, K+ (apha cell) were examined. Furosemide (5 x 10(-4) mol x 1(-1)) reduced PDte from -12 +/- 0.7 to -2.3 +/- 0.2 mV (n = 63), hyperpolarized PDbl from -71 +/- 1.3 to -79 +/- 0.9 mV (n = 59), FRbl decreased from 0.2 +/- 0.03 to 0.13 +/- 0.01 (n = 21), alpha cell cl- fell from 38 +/- 4 to 11 +/- 2 mmol x 1(-1) (n = 21), alpha cell Na+ fell from 37 +/- 4 to 17 +/- 2 mmol x 1(-1) (n = 12) and alpha cell K+ was constant [113 +/- 14 vs. 117 +/- 15 mmol x 1(-1) (n = 6)]. Furosemide exerted its effects within some 20-40s. Its action was completely reversible. Analysis of the time courses revealed that the furosemide induced initial fall in alpha cell cl- was approximately twice as rapid when compared to that of alpha cell Na+. Ba2+ 0.5 mmol x 1(-1) (bath) reduced PDte from -7.1 +/- 1.2 to -4.1 +/- 0.6 mV (n = 24), increased Rte from 18 +/- 2 to 22 +/- 2.5, omega cm2 (n = 14). PDbl depolarized from -75 +/- 2 to -48 +/- 2 mV (n = 42), FRbl increased from 0.2 +/- 0.02 to 0.34 +/- 0.04 (n = 14) and alpha cell K+ increased from 143 +/-28 to 188 +/- mmol x 1(-1) (n = 4). Ouabain (50 x 10(-6) mol x 1(-1), bath) reduced PDte from -12 +/-2 to -3 +/- 0.5 mV (n = 9), Rte increased from 18 +/- 3 to 21 +/- 3 omega cm2 (n = 5). PDbl depolarized from -67 +/- 4 to -26 + 3 mV (n = 14), FRbl increased from 0.23 +/- 0.04 to 0.45 +/- 0.05 (n = 6), alpha cell K+ fell only slightly from 135 +/- 15 to 112 +/- 30 mmol x 1(-1) (n = 4), but alpha cell cl- increased from 35 +/- 12 to 111 +/- 37 mmol x 1(-1) (n = 3). These effects of ouabain were slow when compared to those exerted by furosemide or Ba2+. The ouabain effects on PDte and PDbl were completely prevented if furosemide was applied first.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6522244

  8. Coevolution of the ATPase ClpV, the Sheath Proteins TssB and TssC, and the Accessory Protein TagJ/HsiE1 Distinguishes Type VI Secretion Classes*

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Andreas; Planamente, Sara; Manoli, Eleni; Lossi, Nadine S.; Freemont, Paul S.; Filloux, Alain

    2014-01-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a bacterial nanomachine for the transport of effector molecules into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. It involves the assembly of a tubular structure composed of TssB and TssC that is similar to the tail sheath of bacteriophages. The sheath contracts to provide the energy needed for effector delivery. The AAA+ ATPase ClpV disassembles the contracted sheath, which resets the systems for reassembly of an extended sheath that is ready to fire again. This mechanism is crucial for T6SS function. In Vibrio cholerae, ClpV binds the N terminus of TssC within a hydrophobic groove. In this study, we resolved the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ClpV1 and observed structural alterations in the hydrophobic groove. The modification in the ClpV1 groove is matched by a change in the N terminus of TssC, suggesting the existence of distinct T6SS classes. An accessory T6SS component, TagJ/HsiE, exists predominantly in one of the classes. Using bacterial two-hybrid approaches, we showed that the P. aeruginosa homolog HsiE1 interacts strongly with ClpV1. We then resolved the crystal structure of HsiE1 in complex with the N terminus of HsiB1, a TssB homolog and component of the contractile sheath. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these differences distinguish T6SS classes that resulted from a functional co-evolution between TssB, TssC, TagJ/HsiE, and ClpV. The interaction of TagJ/HsiE with the sheath as well as with ClpV suggests an alternative mode of disassembly in which HsiE recruits the ATPase to the sheath. PMID:25305017

  9. Insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in the bovine mammary gland: Receptors, endogenous secretion, and appearance in milk

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    This is the first study to characterize both insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) in bovine milk, to characterize the IGF-I receptor in the dry and lactating mammary gland, and to report de novo synthesis and secretion of IGF-I and IGFBP from normal mammary tissue. Immunoreactive IGF-I was principally associated with 45 kDa IGFBP in milk. Multiparous cows had a higher IGF-I concentration of 307 ng/ml than primiparous cows at 147 ng/ml. IGF-I concentration on day 56 of lactation was 34 ng/ml for combined parity groups. At parturition, IGF-I mass in blood and milk pools was 1.4 and 1.2 mg, respectively. Binding of {sup 125}I-IGF-I was specific for IGF-I with anIC{sub 50} of 2.2 ng which was a 10- and 1273-fold greater affinity than IGF-II and insulin, respectively. Association constants, as determined by Scatchard analysis, were similar for both pregnant and lactating cows at 3.5 and 4.0 L/nM, respectively. In addition, estimated mean receptor concentration was 0.25 and 0.23 pM/mg protein for pregnant and lactating cows, respectively. In a survey of mammary microscomes prepared from 48 cows, {sup 125}I-IGF-I binding declined with progressing lactation and a similar trend was observed during pregnancy.

  10. Characterization and expression analysis of a gene encoding a secreted lipase-like protein expressed in the salivary glands of larval Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Hessian fly is a destructive pest of wheat particularly in the soft-winter-wheat region of the United States. In a salivary gland transcriptomics study we identified a full-length cDNA encoding a lipase-like protein expressed in the salivary glands of the larval Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructo...

  11. Review of accessory tragus with highlights of its associated syndromes.

    PubMed

    Bahrani, Bahar; Khachemoune, Amor

    2014-12-01

    Accessory tragus is a developmental defect involving malformation of part of the external ear. It is a moderately rare congenital condition reported in 1858 by Birkett for the first time. Histological features of accessory tragus include a thin layer of stratum corneum with a rugated epidermis, presence of eccrine glands, and irregular spatial positioning of vellus hair follicles accompanied by sebaceous glands. Accessory tragus is commonly a limited deformity; however, it can be a sign of associated congenital syndromes. It has been shown to be associated with Goldenhar syndrome, Townes-Brocks syndrome, Treacher-Collins syndrome, VACTERL syndrome, and Wolf-Hirschhron syndrome. Surgical excision, the most common form of management of accessory tragus lesions, typically leads to a positive outcome. An extensive search was performed using pubmed.gov, Embase, MedLine, and Googlescholar.com using key words: accessory tragus, congenital malformations of ear, first branchial arch, and embryology. In this paper, we review the clinical and histological presentation, associated syndromes, management, and outcome of accessory tragus. PMID:25266223

  12. Original article Cornual gland of the honeybee drone

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Cornual gland of the honeybee drone (Apis mellifera L): structure and secretion G 1996) Summary — The cornual gland of the drone's endophallus is an epithelial gland, whose cells subtended by a layer of fatty tissue, and oenocytes can also be attached. The secretion in a 3-day-old drone

  13. Constitutive Expression of a Bacterial Pattern Recognition Receptor, CD14, in Human Salivary Glands and Secretion as a Soluble Form in Saliva

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akiko Uehara; Shunji Sugawara; Kouichi Watanabe; Seishi Echigo; Mitsunobu Sato; Takahiro Yamaguchi; Haruhiko Takada

    2003-01-01

    Saliva contains a number of proteins and glycoproteins that protect oral tissues, but little is known about the role of human saliva in innate immunity. Here we showed that human major salivary gland cells consti- tutively expressed a bacterial pattern recognition receptor, CD14, by immunohistochemistry. Human salivary gland cells in culture express CD14 mRNA and a 55-kDa CD14 protein in,

  14. Anesthetic considerations on adrenal gland surgery.

    PubMed

    Domi, Rudin; Sula, Hektor; Kaci, Myzafer; Paparisto, Sokol; Bodeci, Artan; Xhemali, Astrit

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal gland surgery needs a multidisciplinary team including endocrinologist, radiologist, anesthesiologist, and surgeon. The indications for adrenal gland surgery include hormonal secreting and non-hormonal secreting tumors. Adrenal hormonal secreting tumors present to the anesthesiologist unique challenges requiring good preoperative evaluation, perioperative hemodynamic control, corrections of all electrolytes and metabolic abnormalities, a detailed and careful anesthetic strategy, overall knowledge about the specific diseases, control and maintaining of postoperative adrenal function, and finally a good collaboration with other involved colleagues. This review will focus on the endocrine issues, as well as on the above-mentioned aspects of anesthetic management during hormone secreting adrenal gland tumor resection. PMID:25368694

  15. REGULAR ARTICLE Calcitonin is expressed in the chicken pituitary gland

    E-print Network

    Ramachandran, Ramesh

    REGULAR ARTICLE Calcitonin is expressed in the chicken pituitary gland: influence of gonadal in mammals or by the ultimobranchial gland in chickens. CT is also expressed by the pituitary gland in rats) secretion. Gonadal steroids influence CT expression in the rat pituitary gland. However, the expression

  16. EFFECT OF INFLAMMATION ON LACRIMAL GLAND FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Zoukhri, Driss

    2005-01-01

    The lacrimal gland is the main contributor to the aqueous layer of the tear film. It secretes proteins, electrolytes and water, which helps to nourish and protect the ocular surface. Lacrimal gland secretion is primarily under neural control, which is achieved through a neural reflex arc. Stimuli to the ocular surface activate afferent sensory nerves in the cornea and conjunctiva. This in turn activates efferent parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves in the lacrimal gland to stimulate secretion. Sex steroid hormones are also important regulators of lacrimal gland functions. A decrease or lack of lacrimal gland secretion is the leading cause of aqueous tear deficient dry eye syndrome (DES). It has been suggested that DES is an inflammatory disorder that affects the ocular surface and the lacrimal gland. In several pathological instances, the lacrimal gland can become a target of the immune system and show signs of inflammation. This can result from autoimmune diseases (Sjögren's syndrome), organ transplantation (graft versus host disease), or simply as a result of aging. The hallmarks of lacrimal gland inflammation are the presence of focal lymphocytic infiltrates and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. The mechanisms leading to lacrimal gland dysfunction are still poorly understood. Apoptosis, production of autoantibodies, hormonal imbalance, alterations in signaling molecules, neural dysfunction, and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines have been proposed as possible mediators of lacrimal gland insufficiency in disease states. PMID:16309672

  17. BMP-regulated exosomes from Drosophila male reproductive glands reprogram female behavior

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Laura; Redhai, Siamak; Leiblich, Aaron; Fan, Shih-Jung; Perera, Sumeth M.W.; Patel, Rachel; Gandy, Carina; Wainwright, S. Mark; Morris, John F.; Hamdy, Freddie; Goberdhan, Deborah C.I.

    2014-01-01

    Male reproductive glands secrete signals into seminal fluid to facilitate reproductive success. In Drosophila melanogaster, these signals are generated by a variety of seminal peptides, many produced by the accessory glands (AGs). One epithelial cell type in the adult male AGs, the secondary cell (SC), grows selectively in response to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. This signaling is involved in blocking the rapid remating of mated females, which contributes to the reproductive advantage of the first male to mate. In this paper, we show that SCs secrete exosomes, membrane-bound vesicles generated inside late endosomal multivesicular bodies (MVBs). After mating, exosomes fuse with sperm (as also seen in vitro for human prostate-derived exosomes and sperm) and interact with female reproductive tract epithelia. Exosome release was required to inhibit female remating behavior, suggesting that exosomes are downstream effectors of BMP signaling. Indeed, when BMP signaling was reduced in SCs, vesicles were still formed in MVBs but not secreted as exosomes. These results demonstrate a new function for the MVB–exosome pathway in the reproductive tract that appears to be conserved across evolution. PMID:25154396

  18. The Pineal Gland and Mammalian Photoperiodism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce D. Goldman; Janet M. Darrow

    1983-01-01

    The mammalian pineal gland appears to be a major endocrine component in the regulation of photoperiodic responses. The circadian pattern of secretion of the pineal hormone, melatonin, is regulated by the nervous system. Changes in photoperiod, acting via the nervous system, alter the temporal pattern of melatonin secretion. The changes in secretion pattern convey information about daylength from neural components

  19. Pituitary gland

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... gland is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus decides which hormones the pituitary should release by sending it either ... the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland releases the following hormones: GH (growth hormone) – increases size of muscle and ...

  20. Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Rat Anterior Pituitary Gland and the Role of Nitric Oxide in Regulation of Luteinizing Hormone Secretion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Ceccatelli; Anna-Lena Hulting; Xu Zhang; Lars Gustafsson; Marcelo Villar; Tomas Hokfelt

    1993-01-01

    By using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we have demonstrated that the nitric oxide (NO)-synthesizing enzyme NO synthase is present in gonadotrophs and in folliculo-stellate cells of the anterior pituitary gland of male and female rats. A marked increase in levels of NO synthase protein and mRNA was observed after gonadectomy. In vitro studies on dispersed anterior pituitary cells suggest

  1. The adrenal glands and their functions.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Deepthi C; Wijesiriwardene, Bandula

    2007-09-01

    The adrenal glands secrete hormones essential for metabolism, regulation of blood pressure, and sodium and glucose homeostasis. Hypo- or hypersecretion of these hormones is life threatening. Understanding the physiological functions of adrenal hormones is a prerequisite to the management of adrenal gland disease. PMID:18020028

  2. Defensive Secretion of a Caterpillar (Papilio)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Eisner; Yvonne C. Meinwald

    1965-01-01

    The eversible cervical gland (osmeterium) of the caterpillar of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio machaon, produces a secretion containing isobutyric and 2-methylbutyric acid. The gland is effective in defense against ants. Even when caterpillars were fed on one of three unbelliferous plants (fennel, carrot, parsnip) the secretion contained the same two acids.

  3. Activation of the Prothoracic Glands of Antheraea polyphemus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl N. McDaniel; Spencer J. Berry

    1967-01-01

    EVIDENCE has accumulated that the moulting cycle in insects follows a basic pattern involving the activation of the prothoracic glands by a hormone from the brain. The active prothoracic glands then secrete into the blood the moulting hormone, ecdysone. Secretion of the brain hormone has therefore been thought critical in the induction of moulting. The central role of the brain

  4. High expression of the human hepatocarcinoma-intestine-pancreas/pancreatic-associated protein (HIP/PAP) gene in the mammary gland of lactating transgenic mice. Secretion into the milk and purification of the HIP/PAP lectin.

    PubMed

    Christa, L; Pauloin, A; Simon, M T; Stinnakre, M G; Fontaine, M L; Delpal, S; Ollivier-Bousquet, M; Bréchot, C; Devinoy, E

    2000-03-01

    The human hepatocarcinoma-intestine-pancreas/pancreatic-associated protein (HIP/PAP) gene was previously identified because of its increased expression in primary liver cancers and during the acute phase of pancreatitis. In normal tissues, HIP/PAP is expressed both in endocrine and exocrine cells of the intestine and pancreas. HIP/PAP is a lactose binding C-type lectin which acts as an adhesion molecule for rat hepatocytes. The aim of the work was to study the HIP/PAP secretory pathway and to produce high levels of HIP/PAP in the milk of lactating transgenic mice. In view of its lactose C-type lectin properties, we have studied the consequences of the expression of HIP/PAP on mammary epithelial cells. In homozygous mice, production reached 11.2 mg.mL-1 of milk. High levels of soluble and pure HIP/PAP (18.6 mg) were purified from 29 mL of milk. The purified protein was sequenced and the N-terminal amino acid of the mature HIP/PAP was identified as Glu27, thus localizing the site of cleavage of the signal peptide. The HIP/PAP transgene was only expressed in the mammary gland of lactating transgenic mice. HIP/PAP was detected by immunofluorescence in the whole gland, but labelling was heterogeneous between alveolar clusters, with strongly positive sparse cells. Using immuno electron microscopy, HIP/PAP was observed in all the compartments of the secretory pathway within the mammary epithelial cells. We provide evidence that HIP/PAP is secreted through the Golgi pathway. However, the number of distended Golgi saccules was increased when compared to that found in wild-type mouse mammary cells. These modifications could be related to HIP/PAP C-type lectin specific properties. PMID:10712597

  5. Morphology and volatile compounds of metathoracic scent gland in Tessaratoma papillosa (Drury) (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, D; Gao, J; Wang, Y; Jiang, J; Li, R

    2012-08-01

    Tessaratoma papillosa (Drury) (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae) is a serious insect pest of litchi and longan in South China. When disturbed, this insect could release large quantities of disagreeable odorous volatiles from its scent gland. Knowledge on the scent gland and its secretion is crucial for developing the semiochemical methods to manage this pest. Morphology and ultrastructure of the metathoracic scent glands (MTGs) were studied under stereo and scanning electron microscopy, and the volatile compounds of MTGs from both male and female T. papillosa were analyzed with coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The MTG complex is located between the metathorax and the first abdominal segment at the ventral surface of the insect, which has a well-developed single double valve cystic-shaped orange median reservoir, paired colorless lateral glands in both sides, and a long and wavy tubular accessory gland that inlays tightly into the ventral edge around the median reservoir. The MTG opens to the body surface through paired ostioles located between the meso- and metacoxae of the evaporatorium with mushroom bodies. The GC-MS analyses showed that female and male adults have nine major volatile components in common. Tridecane is the most abundant in both females and males, reaching up to 47.1% and 51.8% of relative amount, respectively. The minor component is benzophenone with only 0.28% and 0.14%. Furthermore, undecane, tetradecane, 3-methyl-tridecane, and cyclopentadecane were found only in males. The possible function of volatile compounds of MTG contents in T. papillosa is addressed. PMID:23950062

  6. Boar seminal vesicles secrete arylsulfatases into seminal plasma: evidence that desulfation of seminolipid occurs only after ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Gadella, B M; Colenbrander, B; Van Golde, L M; Lopes-Cardozo, M

    1993-03-01

    The presence and composition of arylsulfatases in secretions of various glands of the boar genital tract were studied. Arylsulfatase A was present in seminal plasma but not in extracellular fluids of the testis and epididymis nor in blood serum of boars. On the other hand, arylsulfatase B was present in both seminal plasma and extracellular fluids of the testis but was completely resorbed in the epididymis. The acrosomal arylsulfatase A did not leak out of spermatozoa before ejaculation. We conclude that arylsulfatases A and B present in seminal plasma are secreted by the seminal vesicles, for three reasons: 1) secretions from seminal vesicles contained 2.3-fold higher arylsulfatase activities than did those from seminal plasma, but had an identical composition; 2) cauda epididymal fluids did not contain arylsulfatase; and 3) other accessory glands of the boar genital tract did not secrete arylsulfatase. When intact boar spermatozoa were incubated with arylsulfatase A, complete desulfation of seminolipid was observed. The most important arguments favoring our hypothesis that desulfation of seminolipid does not start before ejaculation are the following: 1) desulfoseminolipid is not detectable in epididymal or freshly ejaculated sperm samples; 2) the acrosomal arylsulfatase A cannot desulfate seminolipid present at the surface of the plasma membrane of intact spermatozoa because of its intracellular localization; 3) extracellular arylsulfatase A is stored in seminal vesicles and thus can interact with spermatozoa during and after ejaculation. PMID:8095813

  7. Biological roles of uterine glands in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Thomas E

    2014-09-01

    All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, uterine receptivity, and stromal cell decidualization in humans and animal models. The infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss observed in the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model unequivocally supports a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid in survival and development of the conceptus. Further, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation as well as stromal cell decidualization. Similarly in humans, uterine glands and their secretory products are likely critical regulators of blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus growth and development during the first trimester. Circumstantial evidence suggests that deficient glandular activity may be a causative factor in pregnancy failure and complications in humans. Thus, an increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of fertility and pregnancy problems in mammals. PMID:24959816

  8. Biological Roles of Uterine Glands in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, uterine receptivity, and stromal cell decidualization in humans and animal models. The infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss observed in the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model unequivocally supports a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid in survival and development of the conceptus. Further, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation as well as stromal cell decidualization. Similarly in humans, uterine glands and their secretory products are likely critical regulators of blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus growth and development during the first trimester. Circumstantial evidence suggests that deficient glandular activity may be a causative factor in pregnancy failure and complications in humans. Thus, an increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of fertility and pregnancy problems in mammals. PMID:24959816

  9. Microscopy of the echidna sublingual glands.

    PubMed

    Krause, William J

    2011-10-01

    The secretory units and duct system of the echidna sublingual glands exhibit subtle architectural modifications to accommodate the viscous secretion produced by these glands. The glands are compound tubular glands, the secretory units of which are elongate with open lumina and consist only of mucous cells. Closely packed spindle-shaped myoepithelial cells invest the secretory units, but are absent around the ducts. The branched secretory tubules open into an abbreviated duct system characterized by wide lumina. Striated ducts normally associated with the second portion of the intralobular duct system are absent. The duct system shows the most obvious modification of general salivary gland architecture presumably to accommodate the viscous secretion propelled from the secretory units by surrounding myoepithelial cells. PMID:21671992

  10. Salivary Gland Development: A Template for Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vaishali N.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian salivary gland develops as a highly branched structure designed to produce and secrete saliva. This review will focus on research on mouse submandibular gland development and the translation of this basic research towards therapy for patients suffering from salivary hypofunction. Here we review the most recent literature that has enabled a better understanding of the mechanisms of salivary gland development. Additionally, we discuss approaches proposed to restore salivary function using gene and cell-based therapy. Increasing our understanding of the developmental mechanisms involved during development is critical to design effective therapies for regeneration and repair of damaged glands. PMID:24333774

  11. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and nervous systems work very closely together. The brain continuously sends instructions to the endocrine system, and ... master switchboard because it’s the part of the brain that controls the endocrine system. The pituitary gland, ...

  12. Anatomy, biogenesis and regeneration of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Kyle V; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients' quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland, which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting that nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of 3 general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph. PMID:24862590

  13. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) innervation of the human eyelid glands.

    PubMed

    Seifert, P; Spitznas, M

    1999-06-01

    This study was conducted to obtain morphological proof of innervating nerve fibres in the glands of the human eyelid (accessory lacrimal glands of Wolfring, meibomian glands, goblet cells, glands of Zeis, glands of Moll, sweat glands, glands of lanugo hair follicles) and identification of the secretomotorically active neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) as a common transmitter. Epoxy-embedded ultrathin sections of tissue samples from human eyelids were studied using electron microscopy. Paraffin sections fixed in Bouin-Hollande solution were immunostained with rabbit antiserum against VIP. With the electron microscope we were able to identify nerves in the glandular stroma of all the glands examined with the exception of goblet cells. Intraepithelial single axons were only seen in the parenchyma of Wolfring glands. The morphological findings corresponded with the immunological finding of VIP-positive, nerve-like structures in the same locations, with the exception of lanugo hair follicle glands, and goblet cells. Our findings indicate that the glands of the eyelids and main lacrimal gland represent a functional unit with VIP as a possible common stimulating factor. PMID:10375432

  14. Existence of salt glands on leaves of kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca L. Kunth.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Wieneke; G. Sarwar; M. Roeb

    1987-01-01

    Light microscopic studies have established the existence of salt glands on “Kallar grass”; leaf blades. The salt glands resembled the two?cell type structure described for some halophytic genera within the Gramineae. The secreted salts crystallized and formed whiskers when the plants were grown under continuously high saline conditions. The salt secretion appears to be selective. The secretion of Na exceeded

  15. Cancer of the accessory breast--a case report.

    PubMed

    Madej, B; Balak, B; Winkler, I; Burdan, F

    2009-01-01

    Breast neoplasm may develop in ectopically located glandular tissue. This paper presents an interesting and rare case of a 50-year-old female who despite regular mammography screening examination developed an invasive accessory breast cancer. Clinical examination revealed a 2 cm - tumour localized 4 cm below the left inframammary fold. The lesion was immobile, the skin and the atrophic nipple were retracted, the tumour infiltrated the thoracic wall. Oligobiopsy and additional examinations showed an invasive stage IIIB ductal breast cancer (Bloom II, G-2). The receptor status was: ER(+), PGR(+), HER2(-). The increased level of cancer antigen 15.3 was found. The patient was submitted to pre-operative chemotherapy. She also underwent surgery and subsequently post-operative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. On the basis of the presented case, it could be concluded that the accessory mammary glands are out of the image of screening breast examinations. Accessory breast cancer is usually diagnosed by clinical examination and ultrasonography. Preventive resection of accessory breast in women at high risk of developing breast cancer can be considered as the treatment of choice in most patients. PMID:19808163

  16. Subunits of flagellar accessory tubules.

    PubMed

    Shay, J W; Dobson, W J; Simmons, E E; Biesele, J J; Breland, O P

    1969-01-01

    Many sperm flagella contain a central pair of singlet tubules surrounded by nine doublet tubules. Insect sperm flagella, however, usually contain in addition to the typical 9+2 arrangement of tubules, an additional row of nine singlet tubules which are called accessory tubules. Each of these accessory tubules in the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) contains a single central prototubule surrounded by an array of 15 or 16 peripheral prototubules. The number of prototubules in the accessory tubules of Leptinotarsa decemlineata was determined with an electron microscope and image details were reinforced by the rotation techniques of Markham. PMID:18631486

  17. ACCESSORY RENAL VESSELS

    PubMed Central

    Ali Mohammed, Ammar Mohammed; Elseed Abdalrasol, Rami Gusm; Alamin Abdalhai, Khatim; Gommaa Hamad, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the variations of the renal artery has grown in importance with increasing of renal transplants, vascular reconstructions and various surgical and radiologic techniques performing in recent years. We report the presence of unilateral doubled renal vessels, discovered on routine dissection of a male cadaver, on the right side; additional renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta. In addition the right suprarenal gland received arteries from right renal and inferior phrenic arteries only. The right inferior phrenic originated from the right renal artery. PMID:23322980

  18. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    The adrenal glands are small glands located on top of each kidney. They produce hormones that you can't live ... stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not ...

  19. Anatomy and Histology of Rodent and Human Major Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Major salivary glands of both humans and rodents consist of three pairs of macroscopic glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638–1686), Thomas Wharton (1614–1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655–1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands. The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands. PMID:23209333

  20. New exocrine glands in ants: the hypostomal gland and basitarsal gland in the genus Melissotarsus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölldobler, Bert; Obermayer, Malu; Plowes, Nicola J. R.; Fisher, Brian L.

    2014-07-01

    Fisher and Robertson (Insect Soc 46: 78-83, 1999) discovered the production of silk-like secretions emerging from slit-shaped openings along the anterior margin of the ventral hypostoma of Melissotarsus ant workers. The current histological study describes a hitherto unknown hypostomal gland from which this silk-like substance originates. In addition, this study describes a new basitarsal gland in the three pairs of legs of Melissotarsus workers.

  1. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. [Department of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Coppes, Rob P. [Department of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Vissink, Arjan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells, but is also caused by damage to the extracellular environment, preventing proper cell functioning.

  2. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2) of this section, be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. ...mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the gearbox oil system and the accessory system....

  3. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2) of this section, be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. ...mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the gearbox oil system and the accessory system....

  4. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2) of this section, be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. ...mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the gearbox oil system and the accessory system....

  5. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2) of this section, be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. ...mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the gearbox oil system and the accessory system....

  6. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2) of this section, be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. ...mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the gearbox oil system and the accessory system....

  7. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A wheelchair accessory is a device...

  8. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A wheelchair accessory is a device...

  9. The clypeal gland: a new exocrine gland in termite imagoes (Isoptera: Serritermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae).

    PubMed

    K?ížková, Barbora; Bourguignon, Thomas; Vytisková, Blahoslava; Sobotník, Jan

    2014-11-01

    Social insects possess a rich set of exocrine organs producing diverse pheromones and defensive compounds. This is especially true for termite imagoes, which are equipped with several glands producing, among others, sex pheromones and defensive compounds protecting imagoes during the dispersal flight and colony foundation. Here, we describe the clypeal gland, a new termite exocrine organ occurring in the labro-clypeal region of imagoes of most Rhinotermitidae, Serritermitidae and Termitidae species. The clypeal gland of Coptotermes testaceus consists of class 1 (modified epidermal cell) and class 3 (bicellular gland unit) secretory cells. Ultrastructural features suggest that the gland secretes volatile compounds and proteins, probably after starting the reproduction. One peculiar feature of the gland is the presence of multiple secretory canals in a single canal cell, a feature never observed before in other insect glands. Although the function of the gland remains unknown, we hypothesize that it could produce secretion signalling the presence of functional reproductives or their need to be fed. PMID:25280798

  10. Ultrastructure of the Intramandibular Gland of Workers and Queens of the Stingless Bee, Melipona quadrifasciata

    PubMed Central

    Da Cruz-Landim, Carminda; Gracioli-Vitti, Luciana F.; Abdalla, Fábio C.

    2011-01-01

    The intramandibular glands of workers and queens of Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae), at different ages and from different functional groups, were studied using light and transmission electron microscopy. The results demonstrated that these glands are composed of two types of secretory structures: 1.A hypertrophied epidermis on the dorsal side of the mandible that is an epithelial gland. 2. Free secretory cells filling the inner spaces of the appendices that constitute a unicellular gland. The epithelial gland is larger in the young (1-2-day-old workers), and the gland becomes involuted during the nurse worker stage. The unicellular glands of the workers posses some secretion during all of the studied phases, but secretory activity is more intensive in the foraging workers. Vesicles of secretion are absent in the unicellular glands of queens. These results demonstrate that these glands show functional adaptations in different castes corresponding to the functions of each caste. PMID:22220493

  11. Accessory Gene Regulator Locus of Staphylococcus intermedius

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Julia M. L.; Chantler, Peter D.; Lloyd, David H.

    2006-01-01

    The accessory gene regulator (agr) locus, a candidate system for the regulation of the production of virulence factors in Staphylococcus intermedius, has been characterized. Using PCR-based genome walking, we have obtained the first complete sequence (3,436 bp) of the accessory gene regulator (agr) gene in this organism. Sequence analysis of the agr gene has identified five open reading frames (ORFs), agrB, agrD, agrC, agrA, and hld. The translated ORF contained amino acid motifs characteristic of the response regulator and histidine protein kinase signal transducer of the classic two-component regulatory system. Sequencing of the agrD PCR products amplified from DNA from 20 different isolates has facilitated detection of genetic variation in the putative autoinducing peptide (AIP) within the agr gene of S. intermedius, revealing the presence of at least three agr specificity groups within this species. Classification of the agr gene from S. intermedius was supported by phylogenetic analysis. Real-time PCR also revealed that the effector molecule of the agr system, RNAIII, was regulated in an autocrine manner in S. intermedius and demonstrated positive correlation with the temporal gene expression patterns of luk and entC. Transcription of RNAIII was also dependent on self secreted cues. Cyclic self and nonself peptides were synthesized on the basis of the novel AIPs produced by S. intermedius, which lack the cysteine necessary to form the thiolactone ring in analogous peptides from Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Experiments with these synthetic cyclic peptides indicated that self peptides led to up-regulation of RNAIII—findings in support of the assumption that activation of the agr gene is initiated by growth- and species-specific factors generated during bacterial growth. PMID:16622233

  12. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special accessories. 15.27 Section 15.27 Telecommunication...DEVICES General § 15.27 Special accessories. (a) Equipment marketed...equipment is marketed. Where special accessories, such as shielded cables...

  13. Teaching Techniques for Accessory Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Everyone is familiar with the main percussion instruments of the contemporary orchestra: bass drum, snare drum, suspended cymbal, vibraphone, and timpani. But as source material broadens, so do the demands placed on the percussion section. Accessory, or auxiliary percussion, can make the difference between a typical rendition of a well-known piece…

  14. news update Fashion Accessory Design

    E-print Network

    Evans, Paul

    news update let's talk Fashion Accessory Design Fashion Design Fashion Knitwear Design and Knitted in the fashion and textile industry. Through Texprint, Alice will receive mentoring and benefit from being and fashion fabrics. Following an exhibition in London, Alice will have her own stand at the Texprint Village

  15. Salt secretion in Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth) under conditions of excess magnesium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidekazu Kobayashi; Yoshikuni Masaoka

    2008-01-01

    Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth) is known to be a salt-tolerant grass, and its tolerance is related to the presence of salt glands that secrete excess salts transported into the leaves. The salt glands of Rhodes grass reportedly have a high ability to secrete Na, but their ability to secrete Mg remains unclear. In the present study, we examined salt

  16. Rhythmic Secretion of Prolactin in Rats: Action of Oxytocin Coordinated by Vasoactive Intestinal

    E-print Network

    Bertram, Richard

    lactotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland of rats in a unique pattern in response to uterine cervical is synthesized and secreted by lactotrophs in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (1). Its release is under

  17. The Human Submandibular Gland: Immunohistochemical Analysis of SNAREs and Cytoskeletal Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mechthild Stoeckelhuber; Elias Q. Scherer; Klaus-Peter Janssen; Julia Slotta-Huspenina; Denys J. Loeffelbein; Nils H. Rohleder; Markus Nieberler; Rafael Hasler; Marco R. Kesting

    2012-01-01

    Submandibular acinar glands secrete numerous proteins such as digestive enzymes and defense proteins on the basis of the exocrine secretion mode. Exocytosis is a complex process, including a soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE)–mediated membrane fusion of vesicles and target membrane and the additional activation of cytoskeletal proteins. Relevant data are available predominantly for animal salivary glands, especially of the

  18. Thietanes and dithiolanes from the anal gland of the stoat ( Mustela erminea )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas R. Crump

    1980-01-01

    2-Propylthietane (1), 2-pentylthietane (3), and 3-propyl-1, 2-dithiolane (4) were identified as the sulfur-containing components of the male stoat anal gland secretion. Additional sulfur containing compounds identified in female stoat anal gland secretions were 2-ethylthietane (7) and 3-ethyl-1,2-dithiolane (8).

  19. The exocrine secretions of the jumping ant Harpegnathos saltator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R DONASCIMENTO; J BILLEN; E MORGAN

    1993-01-01

    l. The mandibular glands of H. saltator contain chiefly 4-methyl-3-heptanone, a substance found as a mandibular gland secretion in several subfamilies of ants. 2. The Dufour gland contains a complex mixture of linear hydrocarbons from C~5 to C25 with (Z)-9- tricosene representing approximately half the total. The Dufour glands also contain tetradecyl propionate and traces of tetradecyl acetate and dodecyl

  20. THE FOREGUT GLANDS OF VERMIVOROUS CONE SHELLS [Manuscript received 8 July 19711

    E-print Network

    Marsh, Helene

    and histochemistry of these glands in C. Javidus and C, lividus is investigated. The salivary gland secretion and stained with Harris' haematoxylin and eosin, Mallory's connective tissue stain, or Masson's trichrome stain. Some pieces of salivary and secondary salivary glands were fixed in 2 % buffered glutaral- dehyde

  1. A cytochemical study of the leaf-gland enzymes of insectivorous plants of the genus Pinguicula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yolande Heslop-Harrison; R. B. Knox

    1971-01-01

    Cytochemical methods have been used to study the distribution of acid phosphatase, esterase, ribonuclease, amylase and protease activity in the stimulated and unstimulated leaf glands of Pinguicula grandiflora, P. vulgaris, P. lusitanica, and P. caudata. Two gland types are present, stalked and sessile. The stalked glands bear a muco-polysaccharide secretion droplet, and are concerned with capture of the prey; the

  2. Volatile Compounds from Anal Glands of the Wolverine, Gulo gulo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William F. Wood; Miranda N. Terwilliger; Jeffrey P. Copeland

    2005-01-01

    Dichloromethane extracts of wolverine (Gulo gulo, Mustelinae, Mustelidae) anal gland secretion were examined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The secretion composition was complex and variable for the six samples examined: 123 compounds were detected in total, with the number per animal ranging from 45 to 71 compounds. Only six compounds were common to all extracts: 3-methylbutanoic acid, 2-methylbutanoic acid, phenylacetic acid,

  3. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Larynx & Trachea Bronchi, Bronchial Tree, & Lungs Review Quiz Digestive System General Structure Regions of the Digestive System Mouth Pharynx & Esophagus Stomach Small & Large Intestine Accessory ...

  4. Modification of accessory molecule signaling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary K. Crow; Springer Semin

    2006-01-01

    The concept of costimulation, the requirement for an independent accessory cellular activation signal that supplements the\\u000a signal delivered to a lymphocyte by antigen, has been a focal point of progress in understanding the regulation of the immune\\u000a system. While considerable attention has been directed to new developments related to the activation of cells of the innate\\u000a immune system through Toll-like

  5. Characterization of ocular gland morphology and tear composition of pinnipeds

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Robin Kelleher; Doane, Marshall G.; Knop, Erich; Knop, Nadja; Dubielzig, Richard R.; Colitz, Carmen M. H.; Argüeso, Pablo; Sullivan, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The importance of tear film integrity to ocular health in terrestrial mammals is well established, however, in marine mammals, the role of the tear film in protection of the ocular surface is not known. In an effort to better understand the function of tears in maintaining health of the marine mammal eye surface, we examined ocular glands of the California sea lion, and began to characterize the biochemical nature of the tear film of pinnipeds. Procedures Glands dissected from California sea lion eyelids and adnexa were examined for gross morphology, sectioned for microscopic analysis, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The tear film was examined using interferometry. Tears were collected from humans and pinnipeds for analysis of protein and carbohydrate content. Results The sea lion has sebaceous glands in the lid, but these glands are different in size and orientation compared to typical meibomian glands of terrestrial mammals. Two other accessory ocular glands located dorsotemporally and medially appeared to be identical in morphology, with tubulo-acinar morphology. An outer lipid layer on the ocular surface of the sea lion was not detected using interferometry, consistent with the absence of typical meibomian glands. Similar to human tears, the tears of pinnipeds contain several proteins but the ratio of carbohydrate to protein was greater than that in human tears. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the ocular gland architecture and biochemical nature of the tear film of pinnipeds have evolved to adapt to the challenges of an aquatic environment. PMID:23067374

  6. Secreting Glandular Trichomes: More than Just Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, George J.

    1991-01-01

    Secreting glandular plant trichome types which accumulate large quantities of metabolic products in the space between their gland cell walls and cuticle permit the plant to amass secretions in a compartment that is virtually outside the plant body. These structures not only accumulate and store what are often phytotoxic oils but they position these compounds as an apparent first line of defense at the surface of the plant. Recent advances in methods for isolation and study of trichome glands have allowed more precise analysis of gland cell metabolism and enzymology. Isolation of mutants with altered trichome phenotypes provides new systems for probing the genetic basis of trichome development. These advances and their continuation can pave the way for future attempts at modification of trichome secretion. The biochemical capability of glandular secreting trichomes and the potential for its future manipulation to exploit this external storage compartment is the focus of this review. PMID:16668241

  7. Secreting glandular trichomes: more than just hairs.

    PubMed

    Wagner, G J

    1991-07-01

    Secreting glandular plant trichome types which accumulate large quantities of metabolic products in the space between their gland cell walls and cuticle permit the plant to amass secretions in a compartment that is virtually outside the plant body. These structures not only accumulate and store what are often phytotoxic oils but they position these compounds as an apparent first line of defense at the surface of the plant. Recent advances in methods for isolation and study of trichome glands have allowed more precise analysis of gland cell metabolism and enzymology. Isolation of mutants with altered trichome phenotypes provides new systems for probing the genetic basis of trichome development. These advances and their continuation can pave the way for future attempts at modification of trichome secretion. The biochemical capability of glandular secreting trichomes and the potential for its future manipulation to exploit this external storage compartment is the focus of this review. PMID:16668241

  8. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SECRETION OF NITROGEN IN SHEEP SALIVA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Somers

    1961-01-01

    Measurements were made on the distribution of nitrogen in the mixed and parotid salivary secretion of sheep and on the amount of nitrogen secreted daily in the parotid saliva.The distribution of nitrogen in the mixed saliva followed the same pattern as that in the parotid secretions obtained when the glands were in a quiescent state. The concentration of nitrogen in

  9. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

  10. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

  11. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

  12. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

  13. Insights learned from pBTAi1, a 229-kb accessory plasmid from Bradyrhizobium sp. strain BTAi1 and prevalence of accessory plasmids in other Bradyrhizobium sp. strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eddie J Cytryn; Siriluck Jitacksorn; Eric Giraud; Michael J Sadowsky

    2008-01-01

    In silico, physiological and in planta analyses were used to characterize pBTAi1, a 229-kb accessory plasmid from Bradyrhizobium sp. strain BTAi1, and assess its potential ecological function under free-living and symbiotic growth conditions. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of an uptake hydrogenase system, a repABC family plasmid replication module and open reading frames encoding type IV secretion system, TraI and

  14. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  15. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  16. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  17. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  18. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  19. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  20. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  1. Engine starter and accessory drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Stockton, T.R.

    1986-10-07

    An engine starter and accessory drive system is described which consists of: an accessory drive means; a planetary gearset having a sun gear driveably connected to the accessory drive means, a ring gear, a carrier and planet pinions rotatably mounted on the carrier, fixed to the engine crankshaft, meshing with the sun gear and with the ring gear; means for holding the ring gear against rotation; and a starter motor and first clutch means for providing a one-way driving connection between the motor and the accessory drive means.

  2. Effect of long-term testosterone propionate or human chorionic gonadotrophin administration on reproductive glands in adult male rabbits.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Raouf, M; Hussein, H A

    2015-05-01

    The study was aimed to investigate the effect of testosterone propionate (TP) or human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) treatment on reproductive glands in sexually mature male rabbits. A total 36 adult male rabbits were randomly distributed to six equal groups. The first control group (CON), the second treated with low-dose TP (TPL), the third treated with high-dose TP (TPH), the fourth treated with low-dose hCG (CGL), the fifth treated with medium-dose hCG (CGM) and sixth treated with high-dose hCG (CGH). At the 16th post-treatment week, the animals were sacrificed, and the testes and accessory sex glands dissected, weighted and stored at -20 °C until assay. Testosterone propionate treatment in both doses resulted in reduction (P < 0.01) in testicular weight and increase (P < 0.01) in weight of vesicular gland, paraprostate and proprostate glands. High-dose TP increased the weight of prostate and bulbouretheral gland (BUG). Testosterone propionate increased total androgen (P < 0.01) with Testosterone (T) predominating in serum, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) predominating in testes and most accessory sex glands. High dose of hCG increased the weight of proprostate and paraprostate glands. Androgen level in serum, testes and accessory sex glands increased (P < 0.01) after hCG treatment. PMID:24811403

  3. Insulin signaling pathways in lepidopteran ecdysone secretion

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Wendy A.; Lamattina, Anthony; Collins, McKensie

    2014-01-01

    Molting and metamorphosis are stimulated by the secretion of ecdysteroid hormones from the prothoracic glands. Insulin-like hormones have been found to enhance prothoracic gland activity, providing a mechanism to link molting to nutritional state. In silk moths (Bombyx mori), the prothoracic glands are directly stimulated by insulin and the insulin-like hormone bombyxin. Further, in Bombyx, the neuropeptide prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) appears to act at least in part through the insulin-signaling pathway. In the prothoracic glands of Manduca sexta, while insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and Akt, neither insulin nor bombyxin II stimulate ecdysone secretion. Involvement of the insulin-signaling pathway in Manduca prothoracic glands was explored using two inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), LY294002 and wortmannin. PI3K inhibitors block the phosphorylation of Akt and 4EBP but have no effect on ecdysone secretion, or on the phosphorylation of the MAPkinase, ERK. Inhibitors that block phosphorylation of ERK, including the MEK inhibitor U0126, and high doses of the RSK inhibitor SL0101, effectively inhibit ecdysone secretion. The results highlight differences between the two lepidopteran insects most commonly used to directly study ecdysteroid secretion. In Bombyx, the PTTH and insulin-signaling pathways intersect; both insulin and PTTH enhance the phosphorylation of Akt and stimulate ecdysteroid secretion, and inhibition of PI3K reduces ecdysteroid secretion. By contrast, in Manduca, the action of PTTH is distinct from insulin. The results highlight species differences in the roles of translational regulators such as 4EBP, and members of the MAPkinase pathway such as ERK and RSK, in the regulation of insect ecdysone secretion, and in the impact of nutritionally-sensitive hormones such as insulin in the control of ecdysone secretion and molting. PMID:24550835

  4. Caffeoyltartronic acid from catnip ( Nepeta cataria ): A precursor for catechol in lubber grasshopper ( Romalea guttata ) defensive secretions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurice E. Snook; Murray S. Blum; Douglas W. Whitman; Richard F. Arrendale; Catherine E. Costello; John S. Harwood

    1993-01-01

    Adults of the lubber grasshopper (Romalea guttata) secrete increased amounts of catechol from their defensive glands when fed diets containing only catnip leaves (Nepeta cataria). Model compound bioassays showed that these insects were able to sequester and biomagnify simple phenols, such as catechol and hydroquinone, in their defense gland secretions. Excessive catechol secretions from caffeic acid-fortified diets indicated metabolic pathways

  5. Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Marlino, L.D.

    2010-06-15

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power. Two studies were conducted at ORNL. One was to put an additional winding in the motor slots to magnetically link with the high frequency of the controllable zero-sequence stator currents that do not produce any zero-sequence harmonic torques. The second approach was to utilize the corners of the square stator punching for the high-frequency transformers of the dc/dc inverter. Both approaches were successful. This CRADA validated the feasibility of GM’s desire to use the motor’s magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply. Three joint U.S. patents with GM were issued to ORNL and GM by the U.S. Patent Office for the research results produced by this CRADA.

  6. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872...DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a... Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually...of endosseous dental implants and abutments,...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872...DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a... Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually...of endosseous dental implants and abutments,...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872...DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a... Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually...of endosseous dental implants and abutments,...

  9. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

  10. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

  11. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

  12. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

  13. 21 CFR 870.4200 - Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment. 870.4200 Section...870.4200 Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment. (a) Identification. Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment is a device that...

  14. 21 CFR 884.4900 - Obstetric table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Obstetric table and accessories. 884.4900 Section 884.4900... § 884.4900 Obstetric table and accessories. (a) Identification. An...type of device may include the following accessories: patient equipment, support...

  15. 14 CFR 121.251 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 121.251 Section...Airworthiness Requirements § 121.251 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent...of the exhaust system from the engine accessory...

  16. 49 CFR 393.3 - Additional equipment and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Additional equipment and accessories. 393.3 Section 393.3...SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION...3 Additional equipment and accessories. Nothing contained in...

  17. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section 868.5860... § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices...

  18. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section 872.4200...872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered,...

  19. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149 Section...Airworthiness Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent...of the exhaust system from the engine accessory...

  20. 21 CFR 884.2640 - Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. 884.2640 Section 884.2640...Fetal phonocardiographic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A...type of device includes the following accessories: signal analysis and display...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872.6250...Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually...

  2. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120 Section 872.4120...4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device...

  3. 49 CFR 192.147 - Flanges and flange accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Flanges and flange accessories. 192.147 Section 192.147 Transportation...Components § 192.147 Flanges and flange accessories. (a) Each flange or flange accessory (other than cast iron) must meet...

  4. 21 CFR 884.4120 - Gynecologic electrocautery and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Gynecologic electrocautery and accessories. 884.4120 Section 884.4120...4120 Gynecologic electrocautery and accessories. (a) Identification. ...of device may include the following accessories: an electrical generator, a...

  5. Computed tomographic imaging characteristics of the normal canine lacrimal glands

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The canine lacrimal gland (LG) and accessory lacrimal gland of the third eyelid (TEG) are responsible for production of the aqueous portion of the precorneal tear film. Immune-mediated, toxic, neoplastic, or infectious processes can affect the glands directly or can involve adjacent tissues, with secondary gland involvement. Disease affecting these glands can cause keratoconjunctivitis sicca, corneal ulcers, and loss of vision. Due to their location in the orbit, these small structures are difficult to evaluate and measure, making cross-sectional imaging an important diagnostic tool. The detailed cross-sectional imaging appearance of the LG and TEG in dogs using computed tomography (CT) has not been reported to date. Results Forty-two dogs were imaged, and the length, width, and height were measured and the volume calculated for the LGs & TEGs. The glands were best visualized in contrast-enhanced CT images. The mean volume of the LG was 0.14 cm3 and the TEG was 0.1 cm3. The mean height, width, and length of the LG were, 9.36 mm, 4.29 mm, and 9.35 mm, respectively; the corresponding values for the TEG was 2.02 mm, 9.34 mm, and 7.90 mm. LG and TEG volume were positively correlated with body weight (p?glands. PMID:24886364

  6. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  7. Bartholin's Gland Cyst

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the glands, the fluid backs up. It causes a round swelling called a cyst (say: "sis- ... cyst and to find out whether it's infected. Causes & Risk Factors Are Bartholin's gland cysts caused by ...

  8. Three Accessories for a Rotating Platform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, James A.; Fryer, Oscar G.

    1980-01-01

    Describes three accessories developed to be used in conjunction with the rotating platform or turntable. Three demonstrations using these accessories are included. These demonstrations are: (a) conservation of angular momentum; (b) gravity-defying goblets; and (c) direct measurement of centripetal force. (HM)

  9. An accessory limb with an imperforate anus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kun-Bo; Kim, Yeon-Mee; Park, Ji-Yong; Chung, Mi-Lim; Jung, Yu-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Congenital accessory limbs are very rare anomalies with many causative factors. We describe the case of a 1-day-old female neonate-born to a healthy, 27-year-old mother-who presented with an accessory limb (foot) attached to the buttock and an imperforate anus. We also provide a review of the relevant literature. PMID:25317418

  10. Gas turbine engine with convertible accessories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargisson, D. F.; Adamson, A. P. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    Drive means for connecting a gas turbine engine to its accessories are so constructed as to allow the accessories to be selectively positioned to any one of several predetermined circumferential positions about the perimeter of the engine. This feature permits convenient mounting of the same engine upon vehicles demanding radically different engine mounting arrangements.

  11. Keratin-like components of gland thread cells modulate the properties of mucus from hagfish ( Eptatretus stouti )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Koch; Robert H. Spitzer; Ron B. Pithawalla; Stephen W. Downing

    1991-01-01

    The hagfishes (cyclostomes) are known to secrete copious amounts of mucus mainly by the holocrine mode from the slime glands. Stressed animals release two types of cells (gland thread cells, GTCs; gland mucous cells, GMCs) which rupture on contact with water and rapidly form a mass of viscous mucus. Herein we report some key sequential events of this process and

  12. Random Secretion of Growth Hormone in Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prank, Klaus; Kloppstech, Mirko; Nowlan, Steven J.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Brabant, Georg

    1996-08-01

    In normal humans, growth hormone (GH) is secreted from a gland located adjacent to the brain (pituitary) into the blood in distinct pulses, but in patients bearing a tumor within the pituitary (acromegaly) GH is excessively secreted in an irregular manner. It has been hypothesized that GH secretion in the diseased state becomes random. This hypothesis is supported by demonstrating that GH secretion in patients with acromegaly cannot be distinguished from a variety of linear stochastic processes based on the predictability of the fluctuations of GH concentration in the bloodstream.

  13. Physiology of Epithelial Chloride and Fluid Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Frizzell, Raymond A.; Hanrahan, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial salt and water secretion serves a variety of functions in different organ systems, such as the airways, intestines, pancreas, and salivary glands. In cystic fibrosis (CF), the volume and/or composition of secreted luminal fluids are compromised owing to mutations in the gene encoding CFTR, the apical membrane anion channel that is responsible for salt secretion in response to cAMP/PKA stimulation. This article examines CFTR and related cellular transport processes that underlie epithelial anion and fluid secretion, their regulation, and how these processes are altered in CF disease to account for organ-specific secretory phenotypes. PMID:22675668

  14. Combined development of thyroid gland and reproductive system benign diseases.

    PubMed

    Makaridze, T; Mardaleishvili, K

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study is to establish the role of endocrine disturbances in development of malignant tumors in patients with thyroid gland and reproductive system pathology. We studied 207 patients with synchronic and metachronic development of thyroid gland and reproductive system benign tumors. The patients' average age was 35-58 years. According to study the following aspects were determined: clinical and hormonal aspect of thyroid gland and reproductive system benign tumor disease coincidence, analyses of thyroid gland and reproductive system pre-cancer disease pathogenesis, neuroendocrine relations-like increased thyrotrophic hormone secretion causes strengthening of prolactin secretion, which depresses luteinizing hormone release and increases production of follicular stimulating hormone. It has been proved that fibromyomas absolute hyperestrogenemia which develops during hypersecretion of follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) plays a role in etiology of uterine Gonadoliberin hypersecretion, especially follicular stimulating hormone FSH and corpus luteum deficiency is very important in development of ovarian pre-cancer and cancer diseases. PMID:22155802

  15. Neurologic complications of disorders of the adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Bertorini, Tulio E; Perez, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of the adrenal glands frequently have secondary neurological manifestations, while some diseases that involve the central nervous system are accompanied by adrenal gland dysfunction. Excessive corticosteroid secretions in primary or secondary Cushing's syndrome causes muscle weakness and behavioral disturbances, such as emotional lability and sometimes depression, while adrenal insufficiency may cause fatigue, weakness, and depression. Adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenoneuromyelopathy are X-linked recessive disorders of the metabolism of very long chain fatty acids that manifest with white matter abnormalities of the brain, myelopathy and/or neuropathy, as well as adrenal insufficiency. Other disorders of the adrenal glands include hyperaldosteroidism, which may cause weakness from hypokalemia. Dysfunction of the adrenal medulla causes excessive or deficient secretion of catecholamines, primarily causing cardiovascular symptoms. This chapter reviews the clinical manifestations and diagnostic aspects and treatment of the various disorders of the adrenal glands. Some of the congenital adrenal diseases are also discussed. PMID:24365350

  16. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1989-05-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. The clinical signs are usually the result of an overproduction of hormones that are normally biosynthesized by the neoplastic endocrine gland (orthoendocrine syndromes), as opposed to those that are the result of hormones that are not normally biosynthesized and secreted by those cells that have undergone neoplastic transformation (paraendocrine syndromes, also known as endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes or ectopic hormone syndromes). The biological effects produced by a neoplasm may be out of proportion to the actual size of the tumor. This report focuses on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal glands and pancreas. Discussion will focus on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis. 2 tabs.

  17. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Salivary Glands of an Invasive Whitefly

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yun-Lin; Li, Jun-Min; Li, Meng; Luan, Jun-Bo; Ye, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Some species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex cause tremendous losses to crops worldwide through feeding directly and virus transmission indirectly. The primary salivary glands of whiteflies are critical for their feeding and virus transmission. However, partly due to their tiny size, research on whitefly salivary glands is limited and our knowledge on these glands is scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of the Mediterranean species of B. tabaci complex using an effective cDNA amplification method in combination with short read sequencing (Illumina). In a single run, we obtained 13,615 unigenes. The quantity of the unigenes obtained from the salivary glands of the whitefly is at least four folds of the salivary gland genes from other plant-sucking insects. To reveal the functions of the primary glands, sequence similarity search and comparisons with the whole transcriptome of the whitefly were performed. The results demonstrated that the genes related to metabolism and transport were significantly enriched in the primary salivary glands. Furthermore, we found that a number of highly expressed genes in the salivary glands might be involved in secretory protein processing, secretion and virus transmission. To identify potential proteins of whitefly saliva, the translated unigenes were put into secretory protein prediction. Finally, 295 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins and some of them might play important roles in whitefly feeding. Conclusions/Significance: The combined method of cDNA amplification, Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly is suitable for transcriptomic analysis of tiny organs in insects. Through analysis of the transcriptome, genomic features of the primary salivary glands were dissected and biologically important proteins, especially secreted proteins, were predicted. Our findings provide substantial sequence information for the primary salivary glands of whiteflies and will be the basis for future studies on whitefly-plant interactions and virus transmission. PMID:22745728

  18. Family Secrets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NAIMA BROWN-SMITH

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the literature that reveals extensive classifications of the family secrets. The review includes definitions, comparisons of family secrecy to family privacy, types of family secrets, reasons why families avoid exposing certain activities, and factors contributing to the maintenance of a secret. The disclosing of hidden information is discussed with

  19. Effects of anterior and posterior hypothalamic deafferentation on gonadotrophin and prolactin secretion in ovariectomized

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to the pituitary gland and participating in both tonic and cyclic mechanisms. Posterior deafferentation of the MBH, pituitary stalk section is followed by a continuous, low-level, pro- lactin secretion (Bryant et al., 1971). This damping of the secretion was attributed both to partial necrosis of the gland and to elimination

  20. Airway Submucosal Glands: Physiology and Pharmacology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis C. K. Fung; Duncan F. Rogers

    \\u000a Secretory processes in airway submucosal glands contribute to homeostasis and to first-line defence against inhaled insult.\\u000a Secretion of high molecular weight mucous glycoproteins (mucins) and of water onto the internal surface of the airways are\\u000a two important processes which contribute to regulation of the volume and physicochemical properties of airway surface liquid.\\u000a Absorption of water is also an important homeostatic

  1. Accessory liver lobes: anatomical description and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Glenisson, M; Salloum, C; Lim, C; Lacaze, L; Malek, A; Enriquez, A; Compagnon, P; Laurent, A; Azoulay, D

    2014-12-01

    Accessory liver lobes are a rare condition and appear to be due to excessive development of the liver. The presence of an accessory hepatic lobe is often diagnosed incidentally and sometimes revealed if it develops torsion, especially in pedunculated forms. In most cases, the accessory lobe is located below the liver, i.e., infrahepatic. Riedel's lobe is the best-known example of an accessory lobe, corresponding to hypertrophy of segments V and VI. While accessories lobes can simulate tumors, there have also been reports of hepatocellular tumor(s) that developed in these accessory lobes. Based on a review of the literature, this update focuses on accessory hepatic lobes. PMID:25448768

  2. Larval salivary glands are a source of primer and releaser pheromone in honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Yves Le; Bécard, Jean-Marc; Costagliola, Guy; de Vaublanc, Gérard; Maâtaoui, Mohamed El; Crauser, Didier; Plettner, Erika; Slessor, Keith N.

    2006-05-01

    A brood pheromone identified in honeybee larvae has primer and releaser pheromone effects on adult bees. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate fatty acid esters—the pheromonal compounds—in different parts of the larvae, we have localized the source of the esters as the larval salivary glands. A histochemical study describes the glands and confirms the presence of lipids in the glands. Epithelial cells of the gland likely secrete the fatty acids into the lumen of the gland. These results demonstrate the salivary glands to be a reservoir of esters, components of brood pheromone, in honeybee larvae.

  3. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or sparking must be...

  4. 14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Unless other means are provided, torque limiting means...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...engine involved; (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or sparking must be...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or sparking must be...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or sparking must be...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or sparking must be...

  9. 14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Unless other means are provided, torque limiting means...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...engine involved; (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or sparking must be...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...engine involved; (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or sparking must be...

  12. 14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Unless other means are provided, torque limiting means...

  13. 14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Unless other means are provided, torque limiting means...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...engine involved; (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or sparking must be...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or sparking must be...

  16. 14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed in such a way as to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Unless other means are provided, torque limiting means...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...engine involved; (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or sparking must be...

  18. Successful treatment of crocodile tears by injection of botulinum toxin into the lacrimal gland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randolf Riemann; Stefan Pfennigsdorf; Elke Riemann; Markus Naumann

    1999-01-01

    ObjectivePathologic lacrimation (crocodile tears) is a rare but stigmatizing symptom after facial nerve paralysis. The aim of this pilot study was to examine whether botulinum toxin injection into the lacrimal gland is effective in reducing pathologic tear secretion.

  19. Giant epithelial cyst of the accessory spleen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaki Mori; Taro Ishii; Toru Iida; Fumihiko Tanaka; Hajime Takikawa; Kota Okinaga

    2003-01-01

    Splenic cysts are uncommon, and cysts derived from the accessory spleen are rare. We report a case of a huge splenic cyst\\u000a derived from the accessory spleen in the omentum, concomitant with multiple epithelial cysts of the primary spleen. Both serum\\u000a and cystic fluid concentrations of carbohydrate antigen (CA)19-9 were markedly elevated. A huge monolocular cyst occupied\\u000a the entire abdomen.

  20. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Patients with salivary gland disease present with certain objective and/or subjective signs. An accurate diagnosis for these patients requires a range of techniques that includes the organized integration of information derived from their history, clinical examination, imaging, serology, and histopathology. This article highlights the signs and symptoms of the salivary gland disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center, and emphasizes the methodology used to achieve a definitive diagnosis and therapy. PMID:25443682

  1. Secret Codon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Julie Yu

    2008-01-01

    In this activity, "write" a secret message in genetic code as beads on a string. Learners use an amino acid codon table to determine the DNA sequences that correspond to the one-letter amino acid abbreviations that make up their secret word(s). Learners also use start and stop codons in their sequences and follow a color key for the bases. Learners can trade strands with a friend to see if they can decode their secret message.

  2. Properties and function of KCNQ1 K + channels isolated from the rectal gland of Squalus acanthias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunter Kerst; Ulrich Beschorner; Bernhard Unsöld; Thomas von Hahn; Rainer Schreiber; Rainer Greger; Uwe Gerlach; Hans Lang; Karl Kunzelmann; Markus Bleich

    2001-01-01

    KCNQ1 (KVLQT1) K+ channels play an important role during electrolyte secretion in airways and colon. KCNQ1 was cloned recently from NaCl-secreting shark rectal glands. Here we study the properties and regulation of the cloned sKVLQT1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and compare the results with those obtained from in vitro perfused rectal gland tubules (RGT).

  3. Cuticle and mucous glands in the oesophagus of an annelid (Nereis virens).

    PubMed

    Michel, C; DeVillez, E J

    1980-01-01

    The oesophagus of Nereis virens is divided into anterior and posterior regions and possesses several peculiar features not previously described for cuticle or glands of Polychaetes either in body or foregut integument. The mucous cells which are permanent glands in both regions secrete a carboxylated acidic mucus and possess apical mechanisms permitting the opening and closing of the neck of the glands. The cuticle of the posterior oesophagus bears numerous striated spines and several hypotheses concerning their physiological role are discussed. PMID:7209958

  4. Uterine glands: biological roles in conceptus implantation, uterine receptivity and decidualization.

    PubMed

    Filant, Justyna; Spencer, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in uterine receptivity, blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, and stromal cell decidualization. Studies with the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model support a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid histrotroph for conceptus survival and development. In rodents, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are unequivocally required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation and also may influence blastocyst trophectoderm activation and stromal cell decidualization in the uterus. Similarly in humans, histotroph from uterine glands appears critical for blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus nutrition during the first trimester and uterine glands likely have a role in stromal cell decidualization. An increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of fertility problems, particularly infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, in domestic animals and humans. PMID:25023676

  5. Effect of Androgen Deficiency on the Human Meibomian Gland and Ocular Surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KATHLEEN L. KRENZER; M. REZA DANA; M. DAVID ULLMAN; JENNIFER M. CERMAK; DOROTHY B. TOLLS; JAMES E. EVANS; DAVID A. SULLIVAN; Edith Norse; Eunice Kennedy

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the chronic use of antiandrogen medications leads to meibomian gland dysfunction, altered lipid profiles in meibomian gland secretions, decreased tear film stability, and evaporative dry eye. Subjects taking antiandrogen therapy for prostatic indications, as well as age-related controls, were asked to complete a questionnaire that assessed dry eye symptoms and then

  6. Uterine glands: biological roles in conceptus implantation, uterine receptivity, and decidualization

    PubMed Central

    Filant, Justyna; Spencer, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in uterine receptivity, blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, and stromal cell decidualization. Studies with the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model support a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid histrotroph for conceptus survival and development. In rodents, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are unequivocally required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation and also may influence blastocyst trophectoderm activation and stromal cell decidualization in the uterus. Similarly in humans, histotroph from uterine glands appears critical for blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus nutrition during the first trimester and uterine glands likely have a role in stromal cell decidualization. An increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of fertility problems, particularly infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, in domestic animals and humans. PMID:25023676

  7. The Electron Microscopy of the Left Colleterial Gland of the Cockroach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H. Mercer; P. C. J. BRUNET; D. Phil

    1959-01-01

    A study has been made of the cells of the left colleterial gland o f the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.), using the electron microscope, and the results com- pared with previous histological and histochemical studies. The colleterial gland consists of an arborescent bunch of long tubules composed mainly of the cells which secrete the structural protein of the egg case

  8. Silks produced by insect labial glands

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Tara

    2008-01-01

    Insect silks are secreted from diverse gland types; this chapter deals with the silks produced by labial glands of Holometabola (insects with pupa in their life cycle). Labial silk glands are composed of a few tens or hundreds of large polyploid cells that secrete polymerizing proteins which are stored in the gland lumen as a semi-liquid gel. Polymerization is based on weak molecular interactions between repetitive amino acid motifs present in one or more silk proteins; cross-linking by disulfide bonds may be important in the silks spun under water. The mechanism of long-term storage of the silk dope inside the glands and its conversion into the silk fiber during spinning is not fully understood. The conversion occurs within seconds at ambient temperature and pressure, under minimal drawing force and in some cases under water. The silk filament is largely built of proteins called fibroins and in Lepidoptera and Trichoptera coated by glue-type proteins known as sericins. Silks often contain small amounts of additional proteins of poorly known function. The silk components controlling dope storage and filament formation seem to be conserved at the level of orders, while the nature of polymerizing motifs in the fibroins, which determine the physical properties of silk, differ at the level of family and even genus. Most silks are based on fibroin ?-sheets interrupted with other structures such as ?-helices but the silk proteins of certain sawflies have predominantly a collagen-like or polyglycine II arrangement and the silks of social Hymenoptera are formed from proteins in a coiled coil arrangement. PMID:19221523

  9. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  10. INVIVOGENETRANSFER TOSALIVARY GLANDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Baum; B. C. O'Connell

    Considerable progress hasoccurred recently intransferring foreign genes todifferent tissues invivo. Genetrans- fer tosalivary glands hasmirrored progress inthegeneral field. Mostsalivary studies haveutilized replication-deficient, recom- binant adenoviruses asgenetransfer vectors inratmodels. These vectors areable totransduce almost all ratsalivary epithe- lial cell types andlead torelatively highlevels oftransgene expression. Additionally, successful, though quite modest, gene transfer tosalivary glands hasbeenachieved withretroviral vectors andwithdifferent plasmid conjugates (liposomes;

  11. Evaluation of the Effects of Quercetin on Damaged Salivary Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Ayako; Inoue, Hiroko; Mishima, Kenji; Ide, Fumio; Nakayama, Ryoko; Hasaka, Ayaka; Ryo, Koufuchi; Ito, Yumi; Sakurai, Takashi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Saito, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of discovering an effective method to treat dry mouth, we analyzed the effects of quercetin on salivary secretion and its mechanism of action. We created a mouse model with impaired salivary secretion by exposure to radiation and found that impaired secretion is suppressed by quercetin intake. Moreover, secretion levels were enhanced in quercetin-fed normal mice. To elucidate the mechanisms of these effects on salivary secretion, we conducted an analysis using mouse submandibular gland tissues, a human salivary gland epithelial cell line (HSY), and mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs). The results showed that quercetin augments aquaporin 5 (AQP5) expression and calcium uptake, and suppresses oxidative stress and inflammatory responses induced by radiation exposure, suggesting that quercetin intake may be an effective method to treat impaired salivary secretion. PMID:25629520

  12. Sweat gland recruitment following thermal and psychological stimuli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christiano A. Machado-Moreira; Elizabeth Edkins; Alexandre S. Iabushita; Peter Maruca; Nigel A. S. Taylor

    2009-01-01

    Eccrine sweat glands are present across almost the entire body surface. The distinction between glabrous (hairless) and non-glabrous skin has frequently been used to describe differences in human sudomotor function and, in particular, to help differentiate between the thermal and nonthermal mechanisms that modulate sweat secretion. Indeed, the widely accepted consensus is that psychological (psychogenic) sweating is limited to the

  13. Hoopoes color their eggs with antimicrobial uropygial secretions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, Juan J.; Martín-Vivaldi, M.; Peralta-Sánchez, J. M.; Arco, L.; Juárez-García-Pelayo, N.

    2014-09-01

    Uropygial gland secretions are used as cosmetics by some species of birds to color and enhance properties of feathers and teguments, which may signal individual quality. Uropygial secretions also reach eggshells during incubation and, therefore, may influence the coloration of birds' eggs, a trait that has attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists for more than one century. The color of hoopoe eggs typically changes along incubation, from bluish-gray to greenish-brown. Here, we test experimentally the hypothesis that dark uropygial secretion of females is responsible for such drastic color change. Moreover, since uropygial secretion of hoopoes has antimicrobial properties, we also explore the association between color and antimicrobial activity of the uropygial secretion of females. We found that eggs stayed bluish-gray in nests where female access to the uropygial secretion was experimentally blocked. Furthermore, experimental eggs that were maintained in incubators and manually smeared with uropygial secretion experienced similar color changes that naturally incubated eggs did, while control eggs that were not in contact with the secretions did not experience such color changes. All these results strongly support the hypothesis that female hoopoes use their uropygial gland secretion to color the eggs. Moreover, saturation of the uropygial secretion was associated with antimicrobial activity against Bacillus licheniformis. Given the known antimicrobial potential of uropygial secretions of birds, this finding opens the possibility that in scenarios of sexual selection, hoopoes in particular and birds in general signal antimicrobial properties of their uropygial secretion by mean of changes in egg coloration along incubation.

  14. Filling dynamics of the Brindley's glands in the blood-sucking bug Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Palottini, Florencia; González, Andrés; Manrique, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    The filling dynamics of exocrine defensive glands is an important component of the defensive capacity of an insect in its natural environment. We studied the filling state and reloading rate of the Brindley's glands in the haematophagous Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Quantitative analyses of isobutyric acid, the main secretion component, were carried out with glands dissected from adults under different scenarios of development, number of discharging events and feeding conditions. The alarm-pheromone function of the gland secretion was also assessed in bioassays with conspecific nymphs. Although pharate adults have their glands completely developed, these were not full until imaginal ecdysis. If kept undisturbed, the adults maintained a constant gland load, and discharged about 75% of the gland contents upon one disturbance event. While the glands can be discharged several times, full replenishing was not complete after one week, unless the insect had access to food. The escape behavior of nymphs in bioassays correlated with the chemical analyses, with nymphs showing significant avoidance only toward gland discharges from undisturbed or disturbed/fed adults. The results are discussed in reference to the feeding frequency and gregarious behavior of T. infestans under natural conditions, which suggest a relevant role of the filling dynamics of the Brindley's glands in the intraspecific communication of the insect. PMID:25450424

  15. Synergy Versus Potency in the Defensive Secretions from Nymphs of two Pentatomomorphan Families

    E-print Network

    Becerra, Judith X.

    Synergy Versus Potency in the Defensive Secretions from Nymphs of two Pentatomomorphan Families. Within the infraorder Pentatomomorpha, the known secretions of nymphs of Pentatomidae tend to contain. In the Coreidae, the dorsal abdominal gland secretions of nymphs often contain little or no hydro- carbon

  16. Multiple KCNQ Potassium Channel Subtypes Mediate Basal Anion Secretion from the Human Airway Epithelial Cell Line

    E-print Network

    Dellaire, Graham

    Multiple KCNQ Potassium Channel Subtypes Mediate Basal Anion Secretion from the Human Airway force for anion secretion from secretory epithelia. To investigate the role of KCNQ K+ channels in mediating rates of basal anion secretion across the human airway submucosal gland serous cell model

  17. THE EFFECT OF PROSTAGLANDIN E2 ON THYROIDAL SECRETION OF HORMONAL IODINE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    THE EFFECT OF PROSTAGLANDIN E2 ON THYROIDAL SECRETION OF HORMONAL IODINE IN THE PIG G. CABELLO A. D a significant dose-dependent reduction in hormonal iodine secretion rate was observed. These results confirm secretion of hormonal iodine in the pig.. METHODS AND RESULTS The thyroid gland in 4 pigs was isolated

  18. Controlled Speed Accessory Drive demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehn, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    A Controlled Speed Accessory Drive System was examined in an effort to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars. Concept feasibility and the performance of a typical system during actual road driving conditions were demonstrated. The CSAD system is described as a mechanical device which limits engine accessory speeds, thereby reducing parasitic horsepower losses and improving overall vehicle fuel economy. Fuel consumption data were compiled for fleets of GSA vehicles. Various motor pool locations were selected, each representing different climatic conditions. On the basis of a total accumulated fleet usage of nearly three million miles, an overall fuel economy improvement of 6 percent to 7 percent was demonstrated. Coincident chassis dynamometer tests were accomplished on selected vehicles to establish the effect of different accessory drive systems on exhaust emissions, and to evaluate the magnitude of the mileage benefits which could be derived.

  19. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section...PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

  20. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section...PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various abrasives, such as diamond chips, that are glued to shellac-based paper. The device is intended to remove excessive restorative materials,...

  2. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120 Section...OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120 Section...OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a)...

  4. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120 Section...OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. 884...Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to...

  6. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. 884...Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...accessory compartment diaphragm. 23.1192 Section 23.1192 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL...accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem...

  8. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories....

  9. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories....

  10. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. 872...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories....

  11. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories....

  12. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. 872...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories....

  13. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. 872...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories....

  14. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories....

  15. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. 872...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories....

  16. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories....

  17. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories. 872...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories....

  18. Reducing Exposure: Hands-free Kits and Other Accessories

    MedlinePLUS

    ... kits Hand-free kits may include audio or Bluetooth headsets and various types of body-worn accessories ... Other Accessories Interference with Pacemakers and Other Medical Devices Hearing Aids and Cell Phones Children and Cell ...

  19. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section...PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

  20. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.537 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. Accessories,...

  1. 21 CFR 884.1720 - Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories. 884.1720 ...Devices § 884.1720 Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A gynecologic laparoscope is a device used to...

  2. 21 CFR 884.1720 - Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories. 884.1720 ...Devices § 884.1720 Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A gynecologic laparoscope is a device used to...

  3. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various abrasives, such as diamond chips, that are glued to shellac-based paper. The device is intended to remove excessive restorative materials,...

  4. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various abrasives, such as diamond chips, that are glued to shellac-based paper. The device is intended to remove excessive restorative materials,...

  5. 21 CFR 884.1175 - Endometrial suction curette and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Endometrial suction curette and accessories. 884.1175...Devices § 884.1175 Endometrial suction curette and accessories. (a) Identification. An endometrial suction curette is a device used to...

  6. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

  7. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

  8. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

  9. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

  10. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

  11. Soybean and Tobacco Floral nectary Glands: their Structural and Functional Similarities and Differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect attraction and pollination of flowers are controlled by characters such as: color (visual cue); shape (accommodation); opening and pollen dehiscence (timing); volatiles production (smell); and nectar secretion from nectary glands (reward). The floral nectary and its secretion products are tw...

  12. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Thymus Gland Anatomy Adult View/Download: Small: 720x576 View Download Add ... Search | Accessibility | Staff U.S. Department of Health and Human Services | National Institutes of Health | National Cancer Institute | ...

  13. Pineal and Pituitary Glands

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Casefinding Anticipated Impact on Registries Review Brain & CNS Tumors Signs & Symptoms Anatomy Neurons & Glial Cells Brain Meninges Spinal Cord Cranial Nerves Pineal and Pituitary Glands Abstracting, Coding, & Staging Topographic Sites Histological Types ...

  14. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the salivary glands. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund VJ, et al., eds. Cummings Otolaryngology Head and ... NCCN Guidelines): Head and neck cancers. Version 2.2013. Available at: http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_ ...

  15. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is encased within the prostate gland. As a man ages, the prostate typically enlarges in size in ... urinate, and incontinence. Less than half of all men with BPH have symptoms of the disease, or ...

  16. Adrenal glands (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. They produce hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, steroids, cortisol, and cortisone, and chemicals such as adrenalin (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and dopamine.

  17. Sympathetic regulation of estradiol secretion from the ovary.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Sae

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that hormone secretion from endocrine glands is regulated by hierarchical feedback mechanisms. However, although Cannon revealed in the 1920s that sympathoadrenal medullary function increased during emergency situations, no studies on the autonomic nervous regulation of hormone secretion have been undertaken for many years. In the past 40 years, the autonomic nervous regulation of insulin secretion from the pancreas, gastrin secretion from the stomach, glucocorticoid secretion from the adrenal cortex, etc., has been demonstrated. Estradiol secretion from the ovary is strongly controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, and its possible regulation by autonomic nerves has been largely unnoticed. Some histological studies have revealed rich adrenergic sympathetic innervation in the ovary. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the activation of the sympathetic nerves to the ovary directly reduces estradiol secretion from the ovary. This article reviews physiological and morphological studies, primarily in rats, on the sympathetic regulation of estradiol secretion from the ovary. PMID:25465703

  18. Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harmon H. Davis; Ajit Varki; W. A. Heaton; B. A. Siegel

    1980-01-01

    In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets.

  19. Nonobstructing Accessory Mitral Valve Tissue and Ventricular Septal Defect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Izumoto; Kazuaki Ishihara; Masaaki Ogawa; Yutaka Fujii; Kotaro Oyama; Kohei Kawazoe

    1996-01-01

    A 4-month-old boy with ventricular septal defect was found to have accessory mitral valve tissue attached to the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. Operation was successfully performed to excise the accessory mitral tissue in the left ventricular outflow tract and close the ventricular septal defect. Most previously reported cases with accessory mitral valve tissue were associated with left ventricular

  20. 49 CFR 390.17 - Additional equipment and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Additional equipment and accessories. 390.17 Section 390.17 Transportation...390.17 Additional equipment and accessories. Nothing in this subchapter shall...prohibit the use of additional equipment and accessories, not inconsistent with or...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192 Section...Fire Protection § 25.1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating...system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm that...

  2. Visualization of cement exocytosis in the cypris cement gland of the barnacle Megabalanus rosa

    PubMed

    Okano; Shimizu; Satuito; Fusetani

    1996-01-01

    Cementation to substrata during permanent attachment concludes the planktonic larval phase in many sessile marine invertebrates, including barnacles. However, the neural control and the mechanism of cement secretion from cement organs are poorly understood. In the present study, using isolated cement glands from cyprids of Megabalanus rosa, we have visualized cement secretion and demonstrated the stimulatory effect of dopamine and noradrenaline on such secretion. The abrupt disappearance of secretory granules and subsequent omega-figure formation indicated that exocytosis was the major mode of cement secretion. Exocytosis was localized at the apical surface of cement-secreting cells and lasted for over 30 min. Dopamine and noradrenaline also activated the directional transport of secretory granules to the sites of exocytosis. Glyoxylic acid staining provided histochemical evidence for catecholaminergic innervation to the cement glands. These results suggest that gradual, localized exocytotic secretion of cement triggered by catecholaminergic neurones is a key mechanism during permanent attachment by barnacle cyprids. PMID:9320045

  3. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  4. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair...

  6. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

  7. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

  8. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

  10. Tracminer: traction-enhancing mining equipment accessory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Armada; Mario Maza; Jean-Guy Fontaine; Pablo Gonzalez de Santos; Vasilios Papantoniou

    1997-01-01

    Explains how the Tracminer project aimed to provide a robust, low cost device to be mounted as an accessory on the motorized wheels of traction machines, in order to increase grip on loose soils. The main goal was to provide a device increasing by 30-40 per cent the traction capacity of the given machine in soft or marshy soil working

  11. Home Economics Careers in Apparel and Accessories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

    This course of study on careers in apparel and accessories is one of a series on home economics careers designed to assist teacher-coordinators in Texas in promotion and/or teaching home economics cooperative education programs. The course of study consists of (1) an overview and job description, (2) a job analysis, (3) a course outline, (4)…

  12. Electronic Position Sensor for Power Operated Accessory

    DOEpatents

    Haag, Ronald H.; Chia, Michael I.

    2005-05-31

    An electronic position sensor for use with a power operated vehicle accessory, such as a power liftgate. The position sensor includes an elongated resistive circuit that is mounted such that it is stationary and extends along the path of a track portion of the power operated accessory. The position sensor further includes a contact nub mounted to a link member that moves within the track portion such that the contact nub is slidingly biased against the elongated circuit. As the link member moves under the force of a motor-driven output gear, the contact nub slides along the surface of the resistive circuit, thereby affecting the overall resistance of the circuit. The position sensor uses the overall resistance to provide an electronic position signal to an ECU, wherein the signal is indicative of the absolute position of the power operated accessory. Accordingly, the electronic position sensor is capable of providing an electronic signal that enables the ECU to track the absolute position of the power operated accessory.

  13. Department of Pharmacology Shared Equipment Centrifugation & Accessories

    E-print Network

    Department of Pharmacology Shared Equipment Centrifugation & Accessories 1 Sorvall RC-5B High Speed Centrifuge (2-233) 2 Sorvall RC-5C+ High Speed Centrifuges (2-233) 1 Beckman LE80 Ultracentrifuge (2-233) 1 Thermo-Sorvall Discovery M150 Ultracentrifuge (2-270) 1 Eppendorf High Speed 581OR Tabletop Centrifuge (2

  14. The HLH-6 Transcription Factor Regulates C. elegans Pharyngeal Gland Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Ryan B.; Schnabel, Ralf; Gaudet, Jeb

    2008-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans pharynx (or foregut) functions as a pump that draws in food (bacteria) from the environment. While the “organ identity factor” PHA-4 is critical for formation of the C. elegans pharynx as a whole, little is known about the specification of distinct cell types within the pharynx. Here, we use a combination of bioinformatics, molecular biology, and genetics to identify a helix-loop-helix transcription factor (HLH-6) as a critical regulator of pharyngeal gland development. HLH-6 is required for expression of a number of gland-specific genes, acting through a discrete cis-regulatory element named PGM1 (Pharyngeal Gland Motif 1). hlh-6 mutants exhibit a frequent loss of a subset of glands, while the remaining glands have impaired activity, indicating a role for hlh-6 in both gland development and function. Interestingly, hlh-6 mutants are also feeding defective, ascribing a biological function for the glands. Pharyngeal pumping in hlh-6 mutants is normal, but hlh-6 mutants lack expression of a class of mucin-related proteins that are normally secreted by pharyngeal glands and line the pharyngeal cuticle. An interesting possibility is that one function of pharyngeal glands is to secrete a pharyngeal lining that ensures efficient transport of food along the pharyngeal lumen. PMID:18927627

  15. Salivary gland derived peptides as a new class of anti-inflammatory agents: review of preclinical pharmacology of C-terminal peptides of SMR1 protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald D Mathison; Joseph S Davison; A Dean Befus; Daniel A Gingerich

    2010-01-01

    The limitations of steroidal and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have prompted investigation into other biologically based therapeutics, and identification of immune selective anti-inflammatory agents of salivary origin. The traditional view of salivary glands as accessory digestive structures is changing as their importance as sources of systemically active immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory factors is recognized. Salivary gland involvement in maintenance of whole

  16. Secret Messages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Southern Mississippi

    2003-01-01

    In this activity, learners use Teflon (PTFE) tape to write secret messages. Learners may be familiar with Teflon-coated pans, but they probably do not know that Teflon is also made into tape that is used by plumbers. Teflon tape is great for plumbing because it stretches a little and makes a great seal, and since it is slippery, it makes pipes easier to screw together. Learners take advantage of Teflon tape's stretchiness to write secret messages. Use this activity to discuss the various types of polymer structures.

  17. Llama oviductal sperm reservoirs: involvement of bulbourethral glands.

    PubMed

    Apichela, S A; Argańaraz, M E; Giuliano, S; Zampini, R; Carretero, I; Miragaya, M; Miceli, D C

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of llama seminal plasma in the formation of oviductal sperm reservoirs. Female llamas with follicles in the mature phase were mated with a bulbourethral glands-removed male. Females mated with nonbulbourethral glands-removed males were used as control. Oviducts were obtained by surgery 24 h after mating. The uterotubal junction and isthmus were examined by scanning electron microscopy, and mucopolysaccharides were identified by Alcian blue staining. To know the proteins probably involved in sperm reservoir formation, SDS-PAGE of seminal plasma (8% and 18% resolving gel) was made. Spermatozoa only adhered to the oviductal mucosa surface of uterotubal junction of females mated with nonbulbourethral glands-removed males confirming that seminal plasma and, in particular, bulbourethral secretions are related with the oviductal sperm reservoir formation. Histological sections showed sperm in the lumen, immersed in substance, positive for acid mucopolysaccharides. Alcian blue staining of seminal plasma proteins SDS-PAGE showed a band of high molecular weight containing mucopolysaccharides, only present in nonbulbourethral glands-removed males. Bulbourethral glands would secrete at least eight different proteins that most likely participate in the process of sperm storage in the oviduct. PMID:23463949

  18. Treatment Options for Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Espańol Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) Treatment Options for Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment of recurrent salivary gland cancer may include the ...

  19. Antimicrobial chemicals in hoopoe preen secretions are produced by symbiotic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Peńa, Aránzazu; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Sánchez, Lourdes; Ananou, Samir; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan José

    2010-01-01

    Animals frequently use metabolites produced by symbiotic bacteria as agents against pathogens and parasites. Secretions from the preen gland of birds are used for this purpose, although its chemicals apparently are produced by the birds themselves. European hoopoes Upupa epops and green woodhoopoes Phoeniculus purpureus harbour symbiotic bacteria in the uropygial gland that might be partly responsible for the chemical composition of secretions. Here we investigate the antimicrobial activity of the volatile fraction of chemicals in hoopoe preen secretions, and, by means of experimental antibiotic injections, test whether symbiotic bacteria living within the uropygial gland are responsible for their production. Hoopoes produce two different kinds of secretions that differ drastically in their chemical composition. While the malodorous dark secretions produced by nestlings included a complex mix of volatiles, these chemicals did not appear in white secretions produced by non-nesting birds. All volatiles detected showed strong antibacterial activity, and a mixture of the chemicals at the concentrations measured in nestling glands inhibited the growth of all bacterial strains assayed. We found support for the hypothesized role of bacteria in the production of such antimicrobial chemicals because experimental clearance of bacteria from glands of nestlings with antibiotics resulted in secretions without most of the volatiles detected in control individuals. Thus, the presence of symbiotic bacteria in the uropygial gland provides hoopoes with potent antimicrobials for topical use. PMID:19812087

  20. A Ca(2+)-sensing receptor modulates shark rectal gland function.

    PubMed

    Fellner, Susan K; Parker, Laurel

    2002-07-01

    The elasmobranch Squalus acanthias controls plasma osmolality and extracellular fluid volume by secreting a hypertonic fluid from its rectal gland. Because we found a correlation between extracellular Ca(2+) concentration and changes in cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)), we sought the possible presence of a calcium-sensing receptor in rectal gland artery and tubules. Cytosolic Ca(2+) of both tissues responded to the addition of external Ca(2+) (0.8-5.3 mmol l(-1)) in a linear fashion. Spermine, Gd(3+) and Ni(2+), known agonists of the calcium-sensing receptor, increased [Ca(2+)](i). To assess the participation of inositol triphosphate (IP(3)) generation, sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) Ca(2+) depletion, and activation of store-operated Ca(2+) entry, we utilized thapsigargin and ryanodine to deplete Ca(2+) SR/ER stores and the inhibitory reagents TMB-8 and 2-APB to block IP(3) receptors. In each case, these agents inhibited the [Ca(2+)](i) response to agonist stimulation by approximately 50 %. Blockade of L-channels with nifedipine had no significant effect. Increases in ionic strength are known to inhibit the calcium-sensing receptor. We postulate that the CaSR stimulates Ca(2+)-mediated constriction of the rectal gland artery and diminishes cyclic AMP-mediated salt secretion in rectal gland tubules during non-feeding conditions. When the shark ingests sea water and fish, an increase in blood and interstitial fluid ionic strength inhibits the activity of the calcium-sensing receptor, relaxing the rectal gland artery and permitting salt secretion by the rectal gland tubules. PMID:12077165

  1. Identification of SNARE and cell trafficking regulatory proteins in the salivary glands of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Karim; R. C Essenberg; J. W Dillwith; J. S Tucker; A. S Bowman; J. R Sauer

    2002-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulates secretion of tick salivary gland proteins via a phosphoinositide signaling pathway and mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ (Qian et al., 1998; Yuan et al., 2000). Highly conserved intracellular SNARE (soluble NSF attachment protein receptors) complex proteins are associated with the mechanism of protein secretion in vertebrate and invertebrate neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Proteins in the salivary glands

  2. Histological changes in male accessory reproductive organs in rats exposed to cigarette smoke and the protective effect of honey supplementation.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mahaneem; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Jaafar, Hasnan

    2012-01-01

    The effect of cigarette smoke (CS) on histology of male accessory reproductive organs and the possible protective effect of honey supplementation in rats were investigated in this study. Rats received distilled water, honey, CS exposure or honey plus CS exposure. Honey (1.2 g/kg body weight/day) was administered by gavage and CS exposure (3 times per day) was done in a chamber for 13 weeks. CS exposure significantly increased relative weight of epididymis and ventral prostate. There were also significantly increased number of clear cells and epithelial height of cauda epididymis as well as severe interstitial oedema and decreased epithelial height of prostate gland. However, with the supplementation of honey, these histological changes were significantly reversed suggesting the protective effect of honey against the toxic effect of CS on male accessory reproductive organs in rats. PMID:23983363

  3. Soldier Formation Regulated by a Primer Pheromone from the Soldier Frontal Gland in a Higher Termite, Nasutitermes lujae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Lefeuve; Christian Bordereau

    1984-01-01

    In the nasute higher termite Nasutitermes lujae, the differentiation of new soldiers is suppressed or delayed by the soldiers themselves. Experimental data strongly suggest that this inhibitory effect results from the action of a primer phermone secreted by the frontal gland of soldiers. The pheromone must be contacted directly. Thus, the frontal gland of termite soldiers assumes a new role

  4. The mammary gland produces and delivers milk from mother to newborn. The only organ after which an entire

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Celeste M.

    The mammary gland produces and delivers milk from mother to newborn. The only organ after which, primarily owing to milk's nutritional and antimicrobial content1 . Lactation, the synthesis and secretion of milk, is made possible by the architecture of the gland. Like other organs used for fluid transport

  5. Pioglitazone induced gastric acid secretion.

    PubMed

    Rotte, Anand; Mack, Andreas F; Bhandaru, Madhuri; Kempe, Daniela S; Beier, Norbert; Scholz, Wolfgang; Dicks, Edith; Pötzsch, Sven; Kuhl, Dietmar; Lang, Florian

    2009-01-01

    PPARgamma agonists, such as pioglitazone, are widely used in the treatment of diabetes and several further disorders. They enhance transcription of the serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase SGK1, which could in turn enhance gastric acid secretion by stimulating KCNQ1 K+ channels. The present study explored whether pioglitazone upregulates SGK1 protein expression in gastric glands and thus modifies gastric acid secretion. Food containing the PPARgamma agonist pioglitazone (approximately 25 mg/kg bw/day) was administered to gene-targeted mice lacking SGK1 (sgk1-/-, n=11) and their wild-type littermates (sgk1+/+, n=11). Western blotting was employed to analyze SGK1 expression, BCECF-fluorescence to determine acid secretion in isolated gastric glands and immunohistochemistry to elucidate KCNQ1 and H+/K+-ATPase protein abundance in the parietal cell membrane. Pioglitazone significantly increased SGK1 expression. Cytosolic pH and cellular buffer capacity were not significantly different between sgk1+/+ and sgk1-/- mice and not significantly modified in either genotype by pioglitazone. Without pioglitazone treatment, Na+-independent pH-recovery following an ammonium pulse (DeltapH/min) reflecting H+/K+-ATPase activity was again similar in sgk1+/+ and sgk1-/- mice. Pioglitazone significantly increased DeltapH/min (approximately 3 fold) in sgk1+/+ but not in sgk1-/- mice. H+/K+-ATPase inhibitor omeprazole (100 microM) abolished DeltapH/min in both genotypes irrespective of pioglitazone treatment. Increase in local K+ concentrations to 35 mM (replacing Na+/NMDG) significantly increased DeltapH/min and abrogated the differences between genotypes. KCNQ1 and H+/K+-ATPase protein abundance in the parietal cell membrane was enhanced by pioglitazone treatment in sgk1+/+ but not in sgk1-/- mice. In conclusion, pioglitazone increases gastric acid secretion, an effect at least partially due to stimulation of SGK1 expression and SGK1-dependent upregulation of KCNQ1. PMID:19710534

  6. Comparison of renal and salt gland function in three species of wild ducks.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Darin C; Hughes, Maryanne R

    2003-09-01

    Three processes central to osmoregulation of marine birds were compared in three species of ducks that differ in habitat affinity, diet and saline tolerance. These processes are filtration of Na+ and water from the plasma by the kidneys, their reabsorption along the renal tubules, and secretion by the salt glands. Barrow's goldeneyes Bucephala islandica, the most marine species, have the highest rates for all three processes and only this species can secrete all the infused salt via the salt glands. Rates of all three processes are lower in mallards Anas platyrhynchos, the most freshwater species. Following saline acclimation, mallards could excrete all the infused Na+ by a combined Na+ excretion of the kidneys and salt glands. Canvasbacks Aythya valisineria, despite being more saline tolerant than mallards, are unable to excrete all the infused Na+. They produce a large volume of urine (like mallards) that has a low [Na+] (like goldeneyes). Salt gland secretion Na+ concentration did not differ among the three species, but only goldeneyes secrete at a rate sufficient to eliminate all infused Na+ via the salt glands. Differences in saline tolerance of these ducks species cannot be fully explained by differences in their filtration, reabsorption and secretion of Na+ and water, suggesting that the intestinal tract plays an important role. PMID:12909708

  7. Percutaneous laser balloon coagulation of accessory pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMath, Linda P.; Schuger, Claudio D.; Crilley, Richard J.; Spears, J. Richard

    1991-05-01

    Nonsurgical ablation techniques have been proposed to cease conduction through accessory pathways which electrically connect the atrium and ventricle. The intent of this research was to investigate further the potential use of laser energy, delivered via a balloon catheter in the canine coronary sinus to photocoagulate the myocardial fibers responsible for accessory pathway conduction. Based on histological evaluation of the lesions created in acute and chronic studies, the extent of coagulation necrosis is sufficient to ablate most pathways which lie adjacent to the coronary sinus. Results from surface temperature measurements using repetitive laser exposures suggest that optical and/or thermal changes occurring in the myocardium are of greater importance than those occurring in the adipose tissue. Since the laser balloon catheter is surrounded by various tissue types, a Monte Carlo model was developed to determine the distribution of light in the atrioventricular groove.

  8. Lacrimal Gland Fistula following Severe Head Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Cemil; Toprak, Ibrahim; Gungen, Sukru; Arslan, Alp

    2015-01-01

    We aim to present a unique case with discharging lacrimal gland fistula secondary to severe head trauma by an animal. A 9-year-old girl presented with serous fluid discharge from a cutaneous fistula in the left orbital region. The patient had history of surgery for traumatic frontal bone fracture and skin laceration in the superior orbital rim three weeks earlier. She underwent a complete ophthalmological examination and there was no anterior segment or fundus pathology. The orifice of the fistula was detected in mediolateral part of the left superior orbital rim and fluid secretion was increasing with irritation of the left eye. Neurosurgical complications were excluded and radiological assessment was nonremarkable. The patient's legal representatives were informed and lacrimal gland fistulectomy was planned. However, the fistula was self-closed one week after initial ophthalmological examination, and the patient had no symptoms. In conclusion, traumatic injuries of superior orbital region should be carefully evaluated and wounds should be well closed to prevent consecutive lacrimal gland fistula.

  9. Functioning Oxyphil Adenoma of Parathyroid Gland

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Douglas H.; Lotuaco, Luisa G.; Rao, M. S.; Chu, Luke L. H.

    1978-01-01

    Oxyphil cells and oxyphil cell adenomas of parathyroid glands are, in most instances, regarded to be nonfunctioning. Although 21 cases of hyperparathyroidism associated with parathyroid oxyphil cell adenoma have been reported, secretion of hormone by these tumors has not been conclusively demonstrated. A parathyroid adenoma, diagnosed by light microscopy as oxyphil type, together with the results from ultrastructural and biochemical studies of the patient's adenomatous tissue, are reported here. The patient, a 64-year-old male, was found to have elevated serum calcium, low serum phosphorus, and elevated serum immunoreactive parathormone: findings consistent with hyperparathyroidism. After excision of two small normal-appearing glands and one greatly enlarged (1.9 g) parathyroid gland, those laboratory values returned to normal. Light microscopy of the enlarged parathyroid indicated that it consisted almost entirely of an oxyphil adenoma. Electron microscopy revealed that the adenoma was composed mainly of mitochondria-rich oxyphil cells but also of interspersed transitional oxyphil cells and rare scattered chief cells. Golgi zones, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and prosecretory and secretory-like granules were observed in some oxyphil cells, in most transitional oxyphil cells, and in the infrequent chief cells. Thus, many of these cells appear to contribute to the production and secretion of parathormone. Biochemical studies performed directly on the adenomatous tissue demonstrated that it was able to synthesize proparathormone and parathormone, although the proportion of hormonal peptide synthesis relative to that of the total protein synthesis in this tissue was much smaller (0.9%) than that found in normal parathyroid tissue (5.7%). There was a small increase in immunoreactive parathormone when the adenoma tissue was incubated in a low-calcium medium. These findings indicate that this oxyphil adenoma of the parathyroid gland synthesized and secreted parathormone, apparently to some extent autonomously, but suggest that its capacity to do so was largely dependent on its component of cells other than fully developed oxyphil cells, such as transitional oxyphil cells. ImagesFigure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 9Figure 5Figure 10 PMID:686153

  10. Excretory transport of xenobiotics by dogfish shark rectal gland tubules.

    PubMed

    Miller, D S; Masereeuw, R; Henson, J; Karnaky, K J

    1998-09-01

    Marine elasmobranch rectal gland is a specialized, osmoregulatory organ composed of numerous blind-ended, branched tubules emptying into a central duct. To date, NaCl excretion has been its only described function. Here we use isolated rectal gland tubule fragments from dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias), fluorescent xenobiotics, and confocal microscopy to describe a second function, xenobiotic excretion. Isolated rectal gland tubules rapidly transported the fluorescent organic anion sulforhodamine 101 from bath to lumen. Luminal accumulation was concentrative, saturable, and inhibited by cyclosporin A (CSA), chlorodinitrobenzene, leukotriene C4, and KCN. Inhibitors of renal organic anion transport (probenecid, p-aminohippurate), organic cation transport (tetraethylammonium and verapamil), and P-glycoprotein (verapamil) were without effect. Cellular accumulation of sulforhodamine 101 was not concentrative, saturable, or inhibitable. Rectal gland tubules did not secrete fluorescein, daunomycin, or a fluorescent CSA derivative. Finally, frozen rectal gland sections stained with an antibody to a hepatic canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT or MRP2) showed heavy and specific staining on the luminal membrane of the epithelial cells. We conclude that rectal gland is capable of active and specific excretion of xenobiotics and that such transport is mediated by a shark analog of MRP2, an ATP-driven xenobiotic transporter, but not by P-glycoprotein. PMID:9728065

  11. Management of Salivary Gland Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura D. Locati; Marco Guzzo; Patrizia Olmi; Lisa Licitra

    \\u000a Carcinomas of the salivary glands are uncommon representing only 2–6.5% of all head and neck cancer and less than 1% of all\\u000a cancers. About 85% of salivary gland tumors arise in the parotid glands and approximately 75% of these are benign while about\\u000a 75% of tumors arising from minor salivary glands are malignant. The latest WHO’s histological classification (2005) includes

  12. [Age and ventricular secretion in healthy men].

    PubMed

    Lebedev, V P

    1989-01-01

    Gastric secretion was evaluated in 821 male inpatients aged 18-55 years with unaffected gastrointestinal, nervous and endocrine systems. With age, there was a tendency to increasing manufacture of gastric juice, hydrochloric acid, pepsin and gastric mucoprotein in 70% of the examinees. Reaching its maximum at the age of 25, the secretion remained stable for the following 15 years, progressively reducing thereafter. To the age of 50 gastric secretion diminished by 16.7%, the parameters lowing in the following order: volume of secretion, concentrations of hydrochloric acid, pepsin, gastric mucoprotein From the onset of physiological involution of the gastric glands observed usually at the age of 40 the response of the glands to reflex intestinal stimuli fell (explanation for basal secretion reduction), while that to humoral stimuli rose (cabbage-water). Hyposecretion may be, however, observed early in adolescence (10% of the examinees) and hypersecretion in middle life (20% of the examinees over 50). The results are thought helpful in clinical practice, occupational selection and mass health examinations of the population. PMID:2497542

  13. Development and Structure of Internal Glands and External Glandular Trichomes in Pogostemon cablin

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jiansheng; Yuan, Yongming; Liu, Zhixue; Zhu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Pogostemon cablin possesses two morphologically and ontogenetically different types of glandular trichomes, one type of bristle hair on the surfaces of leaves and stems and one type of internal gland inside the leaves and stems. The internal gland originates from elementary meristem and is associated with the biosynthesis of oils present inside the leaves and stems. However, there is little information on mechanism for the oil biosynthesis and secretion inside the leaves and stems. In this study, we identified three kinds of glandular trichome types and two kinds of internal gland in the Pogostemon cablin. The oil secretions from internal glands of stems and leaves contained lipids, flavones and terpenes. Our results indicated that endoplasmic reticulum and plastids and vacuoles are likely involved in the biosynthesis of oils in the internal glands and the synthesized oils are transported from endoplasmic reticulum to the cell wall via connecting endoplasmic reticulum membranes to the plasma membrane. And the comparative analysis of the development, distribution, histochemistry and ultrastructures of the internal and external glands in Pogostemon cablin leads us to propose that the internal gland may be a novel secretory structure which is different from external glands. PMID:24205002

  14. Development and structure of internal glands and external glandular trichomes in Pogostemon cablin.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiansheng; Yuan, Yongming; Liu, Zhixue; Zhu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Pogostemon cablin possesses two morphologically and ontogenetically different types of glandular trichomes, one type of bristle hair on the surfaces of leaves and stems and one type of internal gland inside the leaves and stems. The internal gland originates from elementary meristem and is associated with the biosynthesis of oils present inside the leaves and stems. However, there is little information on mechanism for the oil biosynthesis and secretion inside the leaves and stems. In this study, we identified three kinds of glandular trichome types and two kinds of internal gland in the Pogostemon cablin. The oil secretions from internal glands of stems and leaves contained lipids, flavones and terpenes. Our results indicated that endoplasmic reticulum and plastids and vacuoles are likely involved in the biosynthesis of oils in the internal glands and the synthesized oils are transported from endoplasmic reticulum to the cell wall via connecting endoplasmic reticulum membranes to the plasma membrane. And the comparative analysis of the development, distribution, histochemistry and ultrastructures of the internal and external glands in Pogostemon cablin leads us to propose that the internal gland may be a novel secretory structure which is different from external glands. PMID:24205002

  15. Pygidial gland chemistry and potential alarm-recruitment function in column foraging, but not solitary, Nearctic Messor harvesting ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae).

    PubMed

    Hölldobler, Bert; Plowes, Nicola J R; Johnson, Robert A; Nishshanka, Upul; Liu, Chongming; Attygalle, Athula B

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the role of the pygidial gland on foraging behavior in two ecologically dominant column foraging Nearctic harvesting ants (Messor pergandei and Messor andrei). Using chemical analyses and behavioral tests, we show that n-tridecane is the major biologically active compound of pygidial gland secretions in both species, and that this chemical functions as a powerful alarm-recruitment pheromone. Another major compound of pygidial gland contents is benzaldehyde; this substance does not release behavioral reactions in M. pergandei workers but might function as a defensive secretion. Six solitary foraging Nearctic Messor and two column foraging Palearctic Messor species, did not have large pygidial gland reservoirs. PMID:23811189

  16. Gonadotropin secretion in rats bearing a prolactin-secreting pituitary tumor: effects of naloxone administration.

    PubMed

    Lamberts, S W; Zuiderwijk, J M; Bons, E G; Uitterlinden, P; de Jong, F H

    1981-05-01

    In this study the effects of the implantation of the transplantable rat prolactin (PRL)-secreting pituitary tumor 7315a on gonadotropin secretion were investigated. Hyperprolactinemia was accompanied by suppressed plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The total PRL content of the host's pituitary gland was decreased, but the glands of tumor-bearing animals contained greatly increased amounts of LH and FSH. Chronic administration of naloxone to tumor-bearing rats for 5 days further diminished the already suppressed total PRL content of the pituitary gland, normalized the total LH content, and did not affect the FSH content. The pituitary glands from tumor-bearing rats given naloxone showed a higher ability to release LH in vitro. Hyperprolactinemia in rats is accompanied by an increased total gonadotropin content of the pituitary gland with lowered circulating gonadotropin levels. Some of the PRL-induced changes on LH synthesis and release are mediated by opioid receptors in the hypothalamus, as naloxone administration reversed some of these effects. PMID:6785115

  17. 30 CFR 75.1106-5 - Maintenance and tests of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; accessories and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; accessories and equipment; requirements...nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; accessories and equipment; requirements...gages, and other cylinder accessories shall be maintained in a...

  18. Biomacromolecule conjugated nanofiber scaffold for salivary gland tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayarathanam, Kavitha

    Xerostomia or dry mouth, resulting from loss of salivary gland secretion can be alleviated by tissue engineering approaches to restore glandular cell function. Engineering an artificial salivary gland structure requires closely mimicking the natural environment, both physically and functionally, to promote epithelial cell proliferation, monolayer formation and apico-basal polarization. While the physical structure of the salivary gland extracellular matrix (ECM) can be reconstructed using biocompatible nanofiber scaffolds, the chemical signals from ECM macromolecules are equally involved in the gland morphogenesis. In these glands, Hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomacromolecule that is a major component of the ECM, plays a crucial role in recruiting growth factors to improve cell viability and growth in these glands. Another molecule of interest that improved salivary epithelial cell viability and apico-basal differentiation is laminin, a major protein found in the basement membrane. We hypothesize that these biomacromolecules, when conjugated nanofiber scaffolds, will provide the essential chemical signals that promote cell viability, proliferation, polarity in the salivary cell line of interest. These morphological changes will in turn promote the secretory function (salivary production). The nanofiber scaffold consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid is conjugated with HA using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamine crosslinker. This conjugation was confirmed using fluorescence spectrometry, water contact angle test and immunocytochemistry analysis using confocal microscopy. The effect of HA in promoting cell survival in-vitro was established with MTT assay using SIMS (mouse submandibular immortalized ductal SIMS cells) cells. The effect of HA in improving the apico - basal polarity of SIMS cells will be assessed. Chemical modification of synthetic nanopolymeric scaffolds with ECM molecules e.g., HA, laminin are the next step towards developing "smart scaffolds", that can be used to specifically induce proper salivary gland function. These scaffolds can potentially be used to provide a viable approach for creating future artificial tissue engineered glands.

  19. Autocrine regulation of milk secretion by a protein in milk.

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, C J; Addey, C V; Boddy, L M; Peaker, M

    1995-01-01

    Frequency or completeness of milk removal from the lactating mammary gland regulates the rate of milk secretion by a mechanism which is local, chemical and inhibitory in nature. Screening of goat's milk proteins in rabbit mammary explant cultures identified a single whey protein of M(r) 7600 able to inhibit synthesis of milk constituents. The active whey protein, which we term FIL (Feedback inhibitor of Lactation), also decreased milk secretion temporarily when introduced into a mammary gland of lactating goats. FIL was synthesized by primary cultures of goat mammary epithelial cells, and was secreted vectorially together with other milk proteins. N-terminal amino acid sequencing indicated that it is a hitherto unknown protein. The evidence indicates that local regulation of milk secretion by milk removal is through autocrine feedback inhibition by this milk protein. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:7826353

  20. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

  1. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

  3. 21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

  4. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

  6. 21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

  8. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

  9. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

  12. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

  15. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  20. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  1. 21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  4. 21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

  6. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

  8. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

  10. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

  12. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

  14. Nitric oxide synthase in human parathyroid glands and parathyroid adenomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lena Luts; Anders Bergenfelz; Jan Alumets; Frank Sundler

    1996-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a novel gaseous intercellular transmitter thought to play important physiological roles in the regulation\\u000a of blood flow and hormone secretion in, for example, the pituitary, the thyroid, and the endocrine pancreas. Whether nitric\\u000a oxide synthase (NOS) is present in the human parathyroid glands has not yet been demonstrated. In the present study, histologically\\u000a normal, but functionally

  15. Characterization of ixodid tick salivary-gland gene products, using recombinant DNA technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glen R. Needham; Deborah C. Jaworski; Frank A. Simmen; Nour Sherif; Mark T. Muller

    1989-01-01

    Ticks secrete an array of lesion-maintenance factors into the host via the salivary glands while feeding, some of which elicit an immune response by the host that adversely affects the ability of the tick to feed and reproduce. Our approach to characterizing these factors has been to make expression libraries from mRNA of salivary glands (from unfed and 3-day-feedingAmblyomma americanum

  16. The buffer capacity of airway epithelial secretions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dusik; Liao, Jie; Hanrahan, John W.

    2014-01-01

    The pH of airway epithelial secretions influences bacterial killing and mucus properties and is reduced by acidic pollutants, gastric reflux, and respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). The effect of acute acid loads depends on buffer capacity, however the buffering of airway secretions has not been well characterized. In this work we develop a method for titrating micro-scale (30 ?l) volumes and use it to study fluid secreted by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3, a widely used model for submucosal gland serous cells. Microtitration curves revealed that HCO?3 is the major buffer. Peak buffer capacity (?) increased from 17 to 28 mM/pH during forskolin stimulation, and was reduced by >50% in fluid secreted by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient Calu-3 monolayers, confirming an important role of CFTR in HCO?3 secretion. Back-titration with NaOH revealed non-volatile buffer capacity due to proteins synthesized and released by the epithelial cells. Lysozyme and mucin concentrations were too low to buffer Calu-3 fluid significantly, however model titrations of porcine gastric mucins at concentrations near the sol-gel transition suggest that mucins may contribute to the buffer capacity of ASL in vivo. We conclude that CFTR-dependent HCO?3 secretion and epithelially-derived proteins are the predominant buffers in Calu-3 secretions. PMID:24917822

  17. Angiotensin II Receptors in Paraventricular Nucleus, Subfornical Organ, and Pituitary Gland of Hypophysectomized, Adrenalectomized, and Vasopressin-Deficient Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eero Castren; Juan M. Saavedra

    1989-01-01

    Angiotensin II has been implicated in the regulation of adrenocorticotropin and vasopressin secretion. Angiotensin II may influence the secretion of these hormones either directly at the pituitary gland or by increasing corticotropin-releasing hormone or vasopressin release from cells that are located in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Pituitary hormone release may also be influenced by circulating angiotensin II through receptors outside

  18. Uterine Gland Formation in Mice Is a Continuous Process, Requiring the Ovary after Puberty, But Not after Parturition1

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, C. Allison; Fisher, Sara J.; Wang, Ying; Stewart, M. David; Hewitt, Sylvia C.; Rodriguez, Karina F.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Behringer, Richard R.

    2011-01-01

    Uterine gland formation occurs postnatally in an ovary- and steroid-independent manner in many species, including humans. Uterine glands secrete substances that are essential for embryo survival. Disruption of gland development during the postnatal period prevents gland formation, resulting in infertility. Interestingly, stabilization of beta-catenin (CTNNB1) in the uterine stroma causes a delay in gland formation rather than a complete absence of uterine glands. Thus, to determine if a critical postnatal window for gland development exists in mice, we tested the effects of extending the endocrine environment of pregnancy on uterine gland formation by treating neonatal mice with estradiol, progesterone, or oil for 5 days. One uterine horn was removed before puberty, and the other was collected at maturity. Some mice were also ovariectomized before puberty. The hormone-treated mice exhibited a delay in uterine gland formation. Hormone-treatment increased the abundance of uterine CTNNB1 and estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) before puberty, indicating possible mechanisms for delayed gland formation. Despite having fewer glands, progesterone-treated mice were fertile, suggesting that a threshold number of glands is required for pregnancy. Mice that were ovariectomized before puberty did not undergo further uterine growth or gland development. Finally, to establish the role of the ovary in postpartum uterine gland regeneration, mice were either ovariectomized or given a sham surgery after parturition, and uteri were evaluated 1 wk later. We found that the ovary is not required for uterine growth or gland development following parturition. Thus, uterine gland development occurs continuously in mice and requires the ovary after puberty, but not after parturition. PMID:21734259

  19. Morphophysiological Differences between the Metapleural Glands of Fungus-Growing and Non–Fungus-Growing Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Alexsandro Santana; Bueno, Odair Correa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2012-01-01

    The metapleural gland is an organ exclusive to ants. Its main role is to produce secretions that inhibit the proliferation of different types of pathogens. The aim of the present study was to examine the morphophysiological differences between the metapleural gland of 3 non–fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini, Myrmicini, and Blepharidattini and that of 5 fungus-growing ants from 2 basal and 3 derived attine genera. The metapleural gland of the non–fungus-growing ants and the basal attine ants has fewer secretory cells than that of the derived attine ants (leaf-cutting ants). In addition, the metapleural gland of the latter had more clusters of secretory cells and sieve plates, indicating a greater storage capacity and demand for secretion in these more advanced farming ants. The glands of the derived attine ants also produced higher levels of polysaccharides and acidic lipids than those of Myrmicini, Blepharidattini, and basal attines. Our results confirm morphophysiological differences between the metapleural glands of the derived attines and those of the basal attines and non–fungus-growing ants, suggesting that the metapleural glands of the derived attines (leaf-cutting ants) are more developed in morphology and physiology, with enhanced secretion production (acidic lipids and protein) to protect against the proliferation of unwanted fungi and bacteria in the fungal garden, it is possible that leaf-cutting ants may have evolved more developed metapleural glands in response to stronger pressure from parasites. PMID:22927993

  20. INTRODUCTION Submucosal glands (SMGs) secrete fluid, mucous and

    E-print Network

    Engelhardt, John F.

    in the pathogenesis of a number of hypersecretory lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic bronchitis by several findings, including the high level of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR demonstrated that transcription of the lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 (Lef1) gene is upregulated

  1. Positive Selection on Nucleotide Substitutions and Indels in Accessory Gland Proteins of the Drosophila pseudoobscura Subgroup

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheri Dixon Schully; Michael E. Hellberg

    2006-01-01

    Genes encoding reproductive proteins often diverge rapidly due to positive selection on nucleotide substitutions. While this\\u000a general pattern is well established, the extent to which specific reproductive genes experience similar selection in different\\u000a clades has been little explored, nor have possible targets of positive selection other than nucleotide substitutions, such\\u000a as indels, received much attention. Here, we inspect for the

  2. The impact of epididymal and accessory sex gland function on sperm motility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Elzanaty; J. Richthoff; J. Malm; A. Giwercman

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the regulation of sperm motility, which is an important predictor of male fertility. However, both testicular and post-testicular factors may be involved, although the impact of the latter has been relatively poorly investigated. METHODS: In semen samples from 301 young men from the general Swedish population (mean SD age 18.2 0.4 years), we assessed sperm

  3. Proteomic analysis of Drosophila mojavensis male accessory glands suggests novel classes of seminal fluid proteins

    E-print Network

    Dean, Matthew D.

    , and nutritional ejaculatory donation. Despite extensive research on the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster model D. melanogaster. In these animals, no fewer than 138 unique proteins in an array of biochemical the most divergent between closely related organisms. In particular, the genus Drosophila exhibits

  4. EST analysis of male accessory glands from Heliconius butterflies with divergent mating systems

    E-print Network

    Walters, James R.; Harrison, Richard G.

    2008-12-08

    at 95° then 6 min at 68°, and a final extension step of 6 min at 68°. Primers provided by the manufacturer were used for these reactions. Seventy-five ?L of the PCR-amplified cDNA were cleaned with Qiaquick PCR clean-up kits (Qiagen, Valencia, CA... labeling kit (BioRad). This probe was added to the hybridization buffer at the same time as the probe generated from female cDNA. See Additional file 6 for primer details. Clones which failed to hybridize were manually picked into 50 ?L 5 mM Tris (pH 8...

  5. Distinct regulation by lipopolysaccharides of the expression of interleukin-1? by murine macrophages and salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Seil, M; El Ouaaliti, M; Abdou Foumekoye, S; Pochet, S; Dehaye, J P

    2012-02-01

    The regulation of interleukin (IL)-1 expression and secretion by salivary glands and macrophages in response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) was compared. In wild-type mice, injection of LPS significantly decreased the volume of saliva stimulated by pilocarpine and increased its protein and amylase concentration. It did not modify the salivary concentration of IL-1?. The cytokine was expressed by submandibular acini and ducts. Macrophages also expressed IL-1? but at lower concentration than salivary glands. The pre-incubation of macrophages with LPS increased the phosphorylation of I?B and the expression of IL-1?. Adenosine triphosphate also promoted the secretion of the cytokine by these cells. These responses were absent in submandibular gland cells. These glands expressed CD14, TLR4 and MyD88. P2X(7)-KO mice secreted a lower volume of saliva which contained less proteins and amylase. In conclusion, IL-1? is constitutively expressed by submandibular glands and its secretion is not regulated by a P2X(7) agonist. In these cells, LPS do not activate the nuclear factor-?B-pro-IL-1? axis in spite of the expression of the proteins involved in their recognition. PMID:20682589

  6. 76 FR 585 - In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories and Packaging Thereof; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ...In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories and Packaging Thereof...after importation of certain handbags. luggage, accessories and packaging thereof by...after importation of certain handbags, luggage, accessories and packaging thereof...

  7. 49 CFR 178.255-7 - Protection of valves and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Protection of valves and accessories. 178.255-7 Section 178.255-7...178.255-7 Protection of valves and accessories. (a) All valves, fittings, accessories, safety devices, gauging...

  8. Longitudinal, 3D in vivo imaging of sebaceous glands by coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: normal function and response to cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yookyung; Tam, Joshua; Jalian, H Ray; Anderson, R Rox; Evans, Conor L

    2015-01-01

    Sebaceous glands perform complex functions, and they are centrally involved in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Current techniques for studying sebaceous glands are mostly static in nature, whereas the gland's main function-excretion of sebum via the holocrine mechanism-can only be evaluated over time. We present a longitudinal, real-time alternative-the in vivo, label-free imaging of sebaceous glands using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy, which is used to selectively visualize lipids. In mouse ears, CARS microscopy revealed dynamic changes in sebaceous glands during the holocrine secretion process, as well as in response to damage to the glands caused by cooling. Detailed gland structure, plus the active migration of individual sebocytes and cohorts of sebocytes, were measured. Cooling produced characteristic changes in sebocyte structure and migration. This study demonstrates that CARS microscopy is a promising tool for studying the sebaceous gland and its associated disorders in three dimensions in vivo. PMID:25026458

  9. Effects of hormones and gonadal status on the midventral gland of the grasshopper mouse Onychomys leucogaster.

    PubMed

    Pinter, A J

    1985-03-01

    A midventrally located fusiform sebaceous gland is found in the northern grasshopper mouse Onychomys leucogaster. Microscopically, the gland consists of numerous multilobular units. Copious secretory material collects in the central duct of each unit and is extruded to the outside. The gland is larger in the male than in the female. Castration causes an involution of the gland in both sexes. Testosterone propionate (1.0 mg/0.1 cc olive oil, subcutaneously every other day for 4 weeks) restores the gland to full activity in castrates of both sexes. Estradiol benzoate (0.1 mg/0.1 cc olive oil, subcutaneously every other day for 4 weeks) has no effect on the midventral gland of ovariectomized females. A long photoperiod (18 L/6 D) leads to the development of testes, ovaries, and uteri that are significantly heavier than those of animals from a short photoperiod (6 L/18 D) regime. Midventral glands in animals of both sexes from the long photoperiod are larger and more active than glands from animals from the short photoperiod. The secretions of the midventral gland of Onychomys are probably used for communications such as territorial marking, advertisement of gonadal status, or pup identification. PMID:3887990

  10. A direct influence of moonlight intensity on changes in melatonin production by cultured pineal glands of the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Akihiro; Ueda, Satomi; Hiyakawa, Nanae; Nikaido, Yoshiaki

    2006-04-01

    Rabbitfish are a restricted lunar-synchronized spawner that spawns around a species-specific lunar phase. It is not known how the fish perceive changes in cues from the moon. One possible explanation is that rabbitfish utilize changes in moonlight intensity to establish synchrony. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether or not the pineal gland of the golden rabbitfish can directly perceive changes in moonlight intensity. Isolated pineal glands were statically cultured under natural or artificial light conditions and melatonin secreted into the culture medium was measured using a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Under an artificial light/dark cycle, melatonin secretion significantly increased during the dark phase. Under continuous light conditions, melatonin secretion was suppressed, while culture under continuous dark conditions seemed to duplicate melatonin secretion corresponding to the light/dark cycle in which the fish were acclimated. When cultured pineal glands were kept under natural light conditions on the dates of the full and the new moon, small amounts of melatonin were secreted at night. Moreover, exposure of cultured pineal glands to artificial and natural light conditions resulted in a significant decrease of melatonin secretion within 2 hr. These results suggest that the isolated pineal gland of golden rabbitfish responds to environmental light cycles and that 'brightness' of the night moon has an influence on melatonin secretion from the isolated pineal gland. PMID:16499560

  11. Pitx1 and Pitx2c are required for ectopic cement gland formation in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Schweickert, A; Deissler, K; Blum, M; Steinbeisser, H

    2001-07-01

    The mucus secreting cement gland is the anterior-most ectodermal organ of the Xenopus embryo. The homeobox genes Pltx1 and Pitx2c are expressed in the cement gland primordium. Misexpression of both genes induced ectopic cement gland tissue in whole embryos and transcription of the marker genes Xag1 and Xag2 in animal cap explant cultures. Antisense morpholino oligonucleotides against Pitx1 and Pitx2c inhibited ectopic cement gland formation induced by otx2. Gene knock downs generated by morpholino oligonucleotides were specific and could be rescued by coinjection of Pitx mRNAs. These data demonstrate for the first time the requirement of specific genes for cement gland formation by loss-of-function experiments. genesis 30:144--148, 2001. PMID:11477694

  12. Reviewing prescription spending and accessory usage.

    PubMed

    Oxenham, Julie

    This article aims to explore the role of the stoma nurse specialist in the community and how recent initiatives within the NHS have impacted on the roles in stoma care to react to the rising prescription costs in the specialty. The article will explore how the stoma care nurse conducted her prescription reviews within her own clinical commissioning group (CCG). The findings of the reviews will be highlighted by a small case history and a mini audit that reveals that some stoma patients may be using their stoma care accessories inappropriately, which may contribute to the rise in stoma prescription spending. To prevent the incorrect use of stoma appliances it may necessitate an annual review of ostomates (individuals who have a stoma), as the author's reviews revealed that inappropriate usage was particularly commonplace when a patient may have not been reviewed by a stoma care specialist for some considerable amount of time. Initial education of the ostomate and ongoing education of how stoma products work is essential to prevent the misuse of stoma appliances, particularly accessories, as the reviews revealed that often patients were not always aware of how their products worked in practice. PMID:24642774

  13. Accessory and anomalous atrioventricular valvar tissue causing outflow tract obstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doff B. McElhinney; V. Mohan Reddy; Norman H. Silverman; Frank L. Hanley

    1998-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of accessory or anomalous atrioventricular valvar apparatus on relief of outflow tract obstruction.Background. Outflow tract obstruction due to accessory tissue or anomalous attachments of the atrioventricular valvar apparatus is an unusual but well-recognized problem. In addition to obstruction, anomalous attachments of the atrioventricular valvar apparatus may interfere with procedures

  14. Simon Effect with and without Awareness of the Accessory Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treccani, Barbara; Umilta, Carlo; Tagliabue, Mariaelena

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated whether a Simon effect could be observed in an accessory-stimulus Simon task when participants were unaware of the task-irrelevant accessory cue. In Experiment 1A a central visual target was accompanied by a suprathreshold visual lateral cue. A regular Simon effect (i.e., faster cue-response corresponding reaction times…

  15. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

  16. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

  17. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

  18. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

  19. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

  20. The Rapalogue, CCI-779, Improves Salivary Gland Function following Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Bathke, Maria; Harris, Zoey I.; Arnett, Deborah G.; Klein, Rob R.; Burd, Randy; Ann, David K.; Limesand, Kirsten H.

    2014-01-01

    The standard of care for head and neck cancer typically includes surgical resection of the tumor followed by targeted head and neck radiation. However depending on tumor location and stage, some cases may not require surgical resection while others may be treated with chemoradiation. Unfortunately, these radiation treatments cause chronic negative side effects for patients. These side effects are associated with damage to surrounding normal salivary gland tissue and include xerostomia, changes in taste and malnutrition. The underlying mechanisms of chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction are unknown, however, in rodent models persistently elevated proliferation is correlated with reduced stimulated salivary flow. The rapalogue, CCI-779, has been used in other cell systems to induce autophagy and reduce proliferation, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if CCI-779 could be utilized to ameliorate chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Four to six week old Atg5f/f; Aqp5-Cre, Atg5+/+; Aqp5-Cre and FVB mice were treated with targeted head and neck radiation. FVB mice were treated with CCI-779, chloroquine, or DMSO post-radiation. Stimulated salivary flow rates were determined and parotid and submandibular salivary gland tissues were collected for analyses. Mice with a defect in autophagy, via a conditional knockout of Atg5 in the salivary glands, display increased compensatory proliferation in the acinar cell compartment and hypertrophy at 24-72 hours following radiation. FVB mice treated with post-therapy CCI-779 have significant improvements in salivary gland physiology as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates, proliferation indices and amylase production and secretion. Consequently, post-radiation use of CCI-779 allows for improvement of salivary gland function and reestablishment of glandular homeostasis. As CCI-779 is already FDA approved for other uses, it could have a secondary use to alleviate the chronic side effects in head and neck cancer patients who have completed anti-tumor therapy. PMID:25437438

  1. Original article Synthesis and secretion of beeswax in honeybees

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Synthesis and secretion of beeswax in honeybees HR Hepburn RTF Bernard BC Davidson November 1990) Summary — The ultrastructure of the cells of the wax gland complex in honeybee workers of the hydrocarbon fraction of beeswax is consistent with histo- chemical and autoradiographic data for honeybees

  2. Effects of sublethal methoprene dosages on egg rafts and reproductive tracts of female Culex quinquefasciatus say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    E-print Network

    Hausser, Nicole Lynne

    1995-01-01

    . Consequently, hatchability was greatly reduced. The female accessory gland also was studied to investigate its role in the synthesis of egg raft secretions. The gland consisted of a layer of glandular epithelium surrounding a central lumen which connects...

  3. Composition of indolealkylamines of Bufo rubescens cutaneous secretions compared to six other Brazilian bufonids with phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Natan M; Schwartz, Carlos Alberto; Rodrigues Pires Júnior, Osmindo; Sebben, Antonio; Castro, Mariana S; Sousa, Marcelo V; Fontes, Wagner; Ferroni Schwartz, Elisabeth N

    2003-04-01

    The composition of indolealkylamines of Bufo rubescens cutaneous secretions was compared to those from six other Brazilian bufonids. Skin, parotoid and tibial gland secretions were obtained for analysis by thin-layer chromatography. A triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to confirm the indolealkylamines standards (serotonin, 5-HT; bufotenin, BTN; dehydrobufotenin, DHB and bufotenidin, BTD). We observed clear variation in the composition of indolealkylamines of the cutaneous secretions studied and also between those found in the skin and parotoid gland secretions of the same species. We discuss the utility of indolealkylamines to the phylogeny of this group of toads. PMID:12670790

  4. VPAC receptors: structure, molecular pharmacology and interaction with accessory proteins.

    PubMed

    Couvineau, Alain; Laburthe, Marc

    2012-05-01

    The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuropeptide with wide distribution in both central and peripheral nervous systems, where it plays important regulatory role in many physiological processes. VIP displays a large biological functions including regulation of exocrine secretions, hormone release, fetal development, immune responses, etc. VIP appears to exert beneficial effect in neuro-degenerative and inflammatory diseases. The mechanism of action of VIP implicates two subtypes of receptors (VPAC1 and VPAC2), which are members of class B receptors belonging to the super-family of GPCR. This article reviews the current knowledge regarding the structure and molecular pharmacology of VPAC receptors. The structure-function relationship of VPAC1 receptor has been extensively studied, allowing to understand the molecular basis for receptor affinity, specificity, desensitization and coupling to adenylyl cyclase. Those studies have clearly demonstrated the crucial role of the N-terminal ectodomain (N-ted) of VPAC1 receptor in VIP recognition. By using different approaches including directed mutagenesis, photoaffinity labelling, NMR, molecular modelling and molecular dynamic simulation, it has been shown that the VIP molecule interacts with the N-ted of VPAC1 receptor, which is itself structured as a 'Sushi' domain. VPAC1 receptor also interacts with a few accessory proteins that play a role in cell signalling of receptors. Recent advances in the structural characterization of VPAC receptor and more generally of class B GPCRs will lead to the design of new molecules, which could have considerable interest for the treatment of inflammatory and neuro-degenerative diseases. PMID:21951273

  5. Secret War, Secret Science Brad Osgood

    E-print Network

    Osgood, Brad

    Secret War, Secret Science Brad Osgood Stanford University #12;Tehran meeting November 28th expansion, neither German diplomacy nor German war preparation could have carried the weight they did. In the

  6. High levels of GM(1)-ganglioside and GM(1)-ganglioside beta-galactosidase in the parotid gland: a new model for secretory mechanisms of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Nowroozi, N; Kim, S; Segawa, A; Warita, H; Rice, D H; Denny, P C; Zernik, J H

    1999-10-01

    A new model for the subcellular basis of parotid secretion is presented in this article. GM(1)-ganglioside, typically found in neural tissues, is shown to be abundant in the parotid gland. This ganglioside may play a central role in membrane turnover mechanisms underlying exocytosis/endocytosis in its role as a promoter of membrane fusion or a fusogen. The lysosome and lysosomal hydrolases also play a central role in this model in catabolism of GM(1)-ganglioside. Consequently, high levels of the lysosomal hydrolase acidic beta-galactosidase are demonstrated in the salivary gland. GM(1)-gangliosidosis of the parotid glands, as described in mice, appears to be the first single-gene heritable disease found so far in the salivary glands. PMID:10477786

  7. Renaissance Secrets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Developed as part of a partnership between the Open University and the BBC, the Renaissance Secrets (based in part on a television series) addresses four different historical questions dealing with various aspects of the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance, along with providing helpful material on the practice and art of writing about and understanding history. The four topics include a discussion of the many faces of Venice during the Renaissance, medical care and hospitals during the Renaissance, the conspiracy to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I, and Johannes Gutenberg. Within each of these four topic areas, visitors can read short thematic essays about related topics and find out more about the evidence and historical knowledge that informs each related topic. By doing so, visitors (particularly students) will be able to better understand how historians "do" history. Finally, from the site's home page, visitors can also read essays from practicing historians about their own work and how they begin to collect evidence and interpret the past.

  8. Computed tomographic study of hormone-secreting microadenomas

    SciTech Connect

    Hemminghytt, S.; Kalkhoff, R.K.; Daniels, D.L.; Williams, A.L.; Grogan, J.P.; Haughton, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    A review was made of the computed tomographic (CT) studies of 33 patients with hormone-secreting microadenomas that had been verified by transsphenoidal surgery and endocrinologic evaluation. In previous studies in small series of patients, the CT appearance of pituitary microadenomas has been reported as hypodense, isodense, and hyperdense. In this study, CT showed a region of diminished enhancement and ususally an enlarged pituitary gland in cases of prolactin-secreting adenomas. HGH- or ACTH-secreting adenomas were less consistently hypodense. It is concluded that hypodensity and enlargement in the pituitary gland are the most useful criteria for identification of microadenomas. Some technical factors that may affect the CT appearance of microadenomas and lead to conflicting reports are discussed.

  9. MiR-486 Regulates Lactation and Targets the PTEN Gene in Cow Mammary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Xie, Xuejiao; Wang, Jie; Bian, Yanjie; Li, Qingzhang; Gao, Xuejun; Wang, Chunmei

    2015-01-01

    Mammary gland development is controlled by several genes. Although miRNAs have been implicated in mammary gland function, the mechanism by which miR-486 regulates mammary gland development and lactation remains unclear. We investigated miR-486 expression in cow mammary gland using qRT-PCR and ISH and show that miR-486 expression was higher during the high-quality lactation period. We found that miR-486 targets phosphoinositide signaling in the cow mammary gland by directly downregulating PTEN gene expression and by altering the expression of downstream genes that are important for the function of the mammary gland, such as AKT, mTOR. We analyzed the effect of ?-casein, lactose and triglyceride secretion in bovine mammary gland epithelial cells (BMECs) transfected by an inhibitor and by mimics of miR-486. Our results identify miR-486 as a downstream regulator of PTEN that is required for the development of the cow mammary gland. PMID:25738494

  10. The development of the oviducal gland in the Rajid thornback ray, Raja clavata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra-Pereira, Bárbara; Afonso, Fernando; Farias, Inęs; Joyce, Pedro; Ellis (Nee Storrie), Megan; Figueiredo, Ivone; Gordo, Leonel Serrano

    2011-09-01

    The reproductive processes of chondrichthyans are complex. Knowledge of the development and maturation of the oviducal gland is vital for understanding the reproductive biology of a species. This study represents the first contribution of this subject for skates. In the oviparous thornback ray, Raja clavata, oviducal gland development begins early in the developing stage with the formation of gland tubules and the distinct lamellae of each zone: club, papillary, baffle and terminal. Oviducal development is complete by the end of the developing stage when the storage and secretion of products is evident within the gland tubules of each zone. Periodic acid-Schiff and alcian blue histological staining showed that the secretory mucous cells of the club and papillary zones produce neutral and sulfated acid mucins. The last row of gland tubules of the papillary zone stains intensely for sulfated acid mucins. The baffle zone, which is responsible for the production of the egg capsule, represented 60-80% of the glandular zone of the oviducal gland. Sperm bundles were observed in the deeper recesses of the baffle zone during the maturation process, and during capsule extrusion, sperm were detected near the lumen. The terminal zone was composed of two types of gland tubules: serous (producing protein fibres) and mucous glands (producing sulfated acid mucins).

  11. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  12. Autocrine/paracrine dopamine in the salivary glands of the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis.

    PubMed

    Ko?i, Juraj; Simo, Ladislav; Park, Yoonseong

    2014-03-01

    Dopamine (DA) is known to be the most potent activator of tick salivary secretion, which is an essential component of successful tick feeding. We examined the quantitative changes of catecholamines using a method coupling high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). We also investigated the levels of catecholamines conjugated to other molecules utilising appropriate methods to hydrolyse the conjugates. Three different biological samples, salivary glands, synganglia, ovaries and haemolymph were compared, and the largest quantity of DA was detected in salivary gland extracts (up to ?100pg/tick), supporting the hypothesis that autocrine/paracrine dopamine activates salivary secretion. Quantitative changes of catecholamines in the salivary glands over the entire blood feeding duration were examined. The amount of dopamine in the salivary glands increased until the day 5 of feeding, at which the rapid engorgement phase began. We also detected a small but significant amount of norepinephrine in the salivary glands. Interestingly, saliva collected after induction of salivary secretion by the cholinergic agonist pilocarpine contained a large amount of DA sulphate with a trace amount of DA, suggesting a potential biological role of DA sulphate in tick saliva. PMID:24503219

  13. Ex vivo preparations of the intact vomeronasal organ and accessory olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Wayne I; Hammen, Gary F; Meeks, Julian P

    2014-01-01

    The mouse accessory olfactory system (AOS) is a specialized sensory pathway for detecting nonvolatile social odors, pheromones, and kairomones. The first neural circuit in the AOS pathway, called the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), plays an important role in establishing sex-typical behaviors such as territorial aggression and mating. This small (<1 mm(3)) circuit possesses the capacity to distinguish unique behavioral states, such as sex, strain, and stress from chemosensory cues in the secretions and excretions of conspecifics. While the compact organization of this system presents unique opportunities for recording from large portions of the circuit simultaneously, investigation of sensory processing in the AOB remains challenging, largely due to its experimentally disadvantageous location in the brain. Here, we demonstrate a multi-stage dissection that removes the intact AOB inside a single hemisphere of the anterior mouse skull, leaving connections to both the peripheral vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) and local neuronal circuitry intact. The procedure exposes the AOB surface to direct visual inspection, facilitating electrophysiological and optical recordings from AOB circuit elements in the absence of anesthetics. Upon inserting a thin cannula into the vomeronasal organ (VNO), which houses the VSNs, one can directly expose the periphery to social odors and pheromones while recording downstream activity in the AOB. This procedure enables controlled inquiries into AOS information processing, which can shed light on mechanisms linking pheromone exposure to changes in behavior. PMID:25145699

  14. Innervation and Vasculature of Human Sweat Glands: An lmmunohistochemistry-Laser Scanning Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Ft; Gwen Wendelschafer-Crabb; T. Clark Brelje

    Secreting tubules, nerves fibers, and blood vessels in human sweat glands (SGs) were fluorescently stained by immu- nohistochemical and lectin methods for examination with a laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM). Using these techniques, the three-dimensional distribution of up to three substances within a single specimen was investigated by collecting a series of optical sections for each of three fluo- rophores.

  15. THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE WAX GLAND OF THE HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.)

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE WAX GLAND OF THE HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.) Malcolin T. SANFORD Alfred wax secreting worker honey bee. The investigation showed that the cuticle is penetrated by bundles is a common phenomenon in insects. The honey bee, in addition to this protec- tive layer, also produces wax

  16. GENES EXPRESSED EXCLUSIVELY IN THE SALIVARY GLANDS OF THE FIRST INSTAR LARVAE OF HESSIAN FLY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several families of genes that are exclusively expressed in the salivary glands of the first instar larvae have been identified and characterized by sequencing clones from a Hessian fly [Mayetiola destructor (Say)] salivary cDNA library. All of these genes encode putative proteins with secretion sig...

  17. Chromosome Puff Activity and Protein Synthesis in Larval Salivary Glands of Drosophila melanogaster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunter Korge

    1975-01-01

    Secretion proteins from larval salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster were analyzed with acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Four fractions were found; three showed electrophoretic variants in different wild-type stocks. Crossbreeding and cytogenetic techniques were used to localize the genes responsible for the two main fractions: The gene for fraction 3 was found to lie within a segment of the third chromosome which

  18. Salivary histatins in human deep posterior lingual glands (of von Ebner)

    E-print Network

    Terasaki, Mark

    ; Secretory granules; Antimicrobial proteins; Electron microscopy Summary Objective: Human saliva contains, confirming that all human major salivary glands are involved in the secretion of histatins into saliva histidine-rich proteins whose major mem- bers histatin 1 and 3 have been isolated from human saliva

  19. X-ray microanalysis of exocrine glands in animal models for cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, R.M.R.; Roomans, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Elemental distribution and ultrastructure of the submandibular gland, the parotid gland and the pancreas were investigated in three suggested animal models of the disease cystic fibrosis: the chronically reserpinized rat, the chronically isoproterenol-treated rat, and the chronically pilocarpine-treated rat. To elucidate the cellular mechanism underlying the effects of these treatments, chronic effects of specific alpha - and beta -adrenergic agonists, as well as acute effects of reserpine and various agonists were also investigated. Reserpine, isoproterenol, and pilocarpine cause an increase in the calcium concentration in submandibular gland acinar cells, due to an increased calcium content of the intracellular mucus. In the parotid gland, reserpine and isoproterenol cause a decrease of the calcium concentration in acinar cells, due to a lower calcium content of the zymogen granules. In the submandibular gland, a decreased cellular Na concentration was noted after chronic treatment with isoproterenol or pilocarpine, and after a single dose of reserpine or isoproterenol. Ultrastructural changes in the exocrine glands investigated included excessive accumulation of intracellular secretory material and formation of abnormal uncondensed secretion granules. A common pattern in the animal models appears to be (1) inhibition of secretion resulting in intracellular accumulation of secretory material, (2) synthesis of secretory macromolecules with altered cation-binding properties.

  20. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  1. [Revisiting meibomian gland dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Baudouin, C

    2014-12-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunctions (MGD) are frequent affections, sometimes asymptomatic, more often responsible for disabling, potentially severe, manifestations. MGD is indeed the most frequent cause of dry eye, through the induction of tear film instability. However, eyelid inflammation, microbial proliferation that modifies melting temperature of meibum, frequent association with skin diseases, as well as potentially severe corneal complications make them complex multifactorial disorders. Complementary mechanisms combine to actually result in a vicious circle, or more accurately a double vicious cycle. The first one is self-stimulated by the microbiological changes, which create their own conditions for MGD development. The second one is related to tear film instability that results from MGD and is also self-stimulated through hyperosmolarity and inflammatory phenomena, which are both consequence and cause of dry eye. We herein propose a new pathophysiological schema on MGD, in order to better identify mechanisms and more efficiently target therapeutics. PMID:25455142

  2. [Physiology and pathophysiology of bronchial secretion].

    PubMed

    Ficker, J H

    2008-03-01

    The mechanisms of bronchial secretion are an important part of the innate defense system that protects the airways against pathogens and environmental toxins. Bronchial secretions are mainly produced by goblet cells and submucosal glands but also small amounts of surfactant from clara cells and some other fluids are part of the airway epithelium fluid. Together with the ciliary system the bronchial secretions are essential for the bronchial clearance ("mucociliary clearance"). Cilia beat within a periciliary layer with low viscosity ("sol-phase"). They move the overlying mucous sheet ("gel-phase") by their tips towards the nose to remove those mucous particles together with foreign material and pathogens from the airways. The gel-layer of the airway epithelium fluid is formed mainly by water, mucins (MUC) and free proteins. Mucins are highly glycosylated macromolecules, to date more than 18 different MUC-genes have been described. In addition the airway epithelium fluids contains many antibacterial proteins and peptides including lysozyme, lactoferrin, secretory IgA, complement, beta-defensines as well as many others. Acute inflammatory or toxic stimuli can promote hypersecretion of mucins mediated by a large variety of cytokines and chemokines or even directly like some toxins. Chronic inflammatory conditions like asthma or COPD are associated with hyperplasia of goblet cells and submucosal glands thus increasing the secretory capacity of the airways. The system of mucociliary clearance forms a functional unit together with the coughing mechanisms discussed elsewhere in this journal. PMID:18317975

  3. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope and accessories. (a)...

  4. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope and accessories. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope and accessories. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope and accessories. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope and accessories. (a)...

  8. 26 CFR 48.4161(a)-3 - Parts and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(a)-3 Parts and accessories. (a) In general. The tax attaches with respect to parts...

  9. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Gynecological Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories...a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic fluid...

  10. What next for accessory dwellings? : getting from bylaws to buildings

    E-print Network

    Stege, Elinor Hope

    2009-01-01

    Accessory dwellings-secondary, self-contained housing units on the same property as a primary residence, either attached to or detached from the main dwelling, and subordinate in size, location and appearance-are recognized ...

  11. 21 CFR 884.4100 - Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Sterility Review Guidance 2/12/90 (K-90),” and (iii) “Guidance (‘Guidelines’) for Evaluation of Laproscopic Bipolar and Thermal Coagulators (and Accessories),” (2) International Electrotechnical Commission's IEC 60601-1-AM2...

  12. 21 CFR 884.4100 - Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Sterility Review Guidance 2/12/90 (K-90),” and (iii) “Guidance (‘Guidelines’) for Evaluation of Laproscopic Bipolar and Thermal Coagulators (and Accessories),” (2) International Electrotechnical Commission's IEC 60601-1-AM2...

  13. 21 CFR 884.4100 - Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Sterility Review Guidance 2/12/90 (K-90),” and (iii) “Guidance (‘Guidelines’) for Evaluation of Laproscopic Bipolar and Thermal Coagulators (and Accessories),” (2) International Electrotechnical Commission's IEC 60601-1-AM2...

  14. 21 CFR 884.4100 - Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Sterility Review Guidance 2/12/90 (K-90),” and (iii) “Guidance (‘Guidelines’) for Evaluation of Laproscopic Bipolar and Thermal Coagulators (and Accessories),” (2) International Electrotechnical Commission's IEC 60601-1-AM2...

  15. 21 CFR 884.4100 - Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Sterility Review Guidance 2/12/90 (K-90),” and (iii) “Guidance (‘Guidelines’) for Evaluation of Laproscopic Bipolar and Thermal Coagulators (and Accessories),” (2) International Electrotechnical Commission's IEC 60601-1-AM2...

  16. 19 CFR 10.600 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.600 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  18. 21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...