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1

Male accessory gland infection.  

PubMed

Male accessory gland infection (MAGI) is a consequence of canalicular spreading of agents via urethra, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, deferent duct, epididymis and testis. Haematogenous infections are rare. The main infectious agents are Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, and also enterobacteriae at a lesser frequency. Characteristic symptoms of MAGI are leukocytospermia, enhanced concentration of cytokines and reactive oxygen species. As complications, obstruction of the ductus epididymidis and/or another duct section, impairment of spermatogenesis in orchitis, impairment of sperm function, and dysfunctions of the male accessory glands may occur. Reduction of male fertility is a rare consequence. The treatment has to consider specific antibiotics. PMID:18336461

Krause, W

2008-04-01

2

Cutaneous application of an accessory-gland secretion after sperm exchange in a terrestrial slug (Mollusca: Pulmonata).  

PubMed

Competition for fertilisation in hermaphroditic animals seems to have led to many odd behaviours and complex morphologies involved in the transfer of accessory-gland products to the partner. Terrestrial slugs of the genus Deroceras show remarkably elaborate and interspecifically diverse penis morphologies and mating behaviours. Most species have an appending penial gland, which in Deroceras panormitanum consists of a few long fingers that are everted after sperm exchange and laid onto the partner's back. To investigate whether this gland transfers a secretion onto the partner's skin, we killed slugs at different mating stages and studied their penial glands and skin histologically. Two types of secretion granules appeared at a very early stage of courtship, and the penial gland was already filled 15min into the courtship. At copulation, the gland everted this secretion onto the partner's body, where it remained for at least 50min. No lysis of skin tissue or other effects on the skin were observed. The slugs tried to lick the received secretion off their own body, and some droplets were observed to be shed with the body mucus. Our results indicate the external application of a glandular substance that could function as either a pheromone or allohormone. The behaviours of the recipients suggest sexual conflict, although mutual interest cannot be ruled out. PMID:20202803

Benke, Mandy; Reise, Heike; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Koene, Joris M

2010-03-01

3

Cutaneous application of an accessory-gland secretion after sperm exchange in a terrestrial slug (Mollusca: Pulmonata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competition for fertilisation in hermaphroditic animals seems to have led to many odd behaviours and complex morphologies involved in the transfer of accessory-gland products to the partner. Terrestrial slugs of the genus Deroceras show remarkably elaborate and interspecifically diverse penis morphologies and mating behaviours. Most species have an appending penial gland, which in Deroceras panormitanum consists of a few long

Mandy Benke; Heike Reise; Kora Montagne-Wajer; Joris M. Koene

2010-01-01

4

Gene Expression in Human Accessory Lacrimal Glands of Wolfring  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The accessory lacrimal glands are assumed to contribute to the production of tear fluid, but little is known about their function. The goal of this study was to conduct an analysis of gene expression by glands of Wolfring that would provide a more complete picture of the function of these glands. Methods. Glands of Wolfring were isolated from frozen sections of human eyelids by laser microdissection. RNA was extracted from the cells and hybridized to gene expression arrays. The expression of several of the major genes was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Results. Of the 24 most highly expressed genes, 9 were of direct relevance to lacrimal function. These included lysozyme, lactoferrin, tear lipocalin, and lacritin. The glands of Wolfring are enriched in genes related to protein synthesis, targeting, and secretion, and a large number of genes for proteins with antimicrobial activity were detected. Ion channels and transporters, carbonic anhydrase, and aquaporins were abundantly expressed. Genes for control of lacrimal function, including cholinergic, adrenergic, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, purinergic, androgen, and prolactin receptors were also expressed in gland of Wolfring. Conclusions. The data suggest that the function of glands of Wolfring is similar to that of main lacrimal glands and are consistent with secretion electrolytes, fluid, and protein under nervous and hormonal control. Since these glands secrete directly onto the ocular surface, their location may allow rapid response to exogenous stimuli and makes them readily accessible to topical drugs. PMID:22956620

Ubels, John L.; Gipson, Ilene K.; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra J.; Tisdale, Ann S.; Van Dyken, Rachel E.; Hatton, Mark P.

2012-01-01

5

A rare case of chronic sialadenitis of accessory parotid gland.  

PubMed

The accessory parotid gland is salivary tissue adjacent to stenson's duct that is separated from the main parotid gland and lying on masseter muscle. It has secondary duct empting into the stenson's duct. The differential diagnosis of mid-cheek masses include pathology arising from normal anatomic structures or from variations of normal accessory parotid gland tissue. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for the accessory parotid gland tumor. We report a case of accessory parotid gland with chronic sialadenitis in a 26 years old male with the diagnosis and treatment. Accessory parotid gland pathologies should be included in the differential diagnosis of a patient presently with a mid-cheek mass. PMID:24533418

Sathe, Nilam Uttam; Thakare, Samir; Wadkar, Gaurav; Gaikwad, Ninad

2014-01-01

6

New Genes for Male Accessory Gland Proteins in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accessory gland of male insects produces components of the seminal fluid that alter the behavior, physiology and life span of the mated female, and contribute to her efficient storage and utilization of sperm. As a step towards understanding how this occurs, we have isolated genes encoding 12 previously unreported accessory gland-specific mRNAs from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We

Mariana F. Wolfner; Heidi A. Harada; Michael J. Bertram; Thomas J. Stelick; Kevin W. Kraus; John M. Kalb; Y. Oliver Lung; Deborah M. Neubaum; Morgan Park; Uyen Tram

1997-01-01

7

Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products  

PubMed Central

To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner’s body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection. PMID:24708537

2014-01-01

8

Sorbitol in the accessory glands of the diabetic male rat.  

PubMed

Diabetes was induced in rats by i.v. injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight). Diabetes was accompanied by infertility and atrophy of the male accessory glands. Blood glucose rose above 500 mg% (post-prandial) and blood testosterone decreased to 14% of the level found in normoglycemic rats. Diabetes was followed by increased levels of sorbitol in the male accessory glands, prostate, seminal vesicle and coagulating gland, and in the eyes and sciatic nerves. Insulin treatment of the diabetic rats prevented sorbitol accumulation in the above tissues. AY-22, 284, and inhibitor of aldose reductase given in the food (1 g/kg body weight/day) for 3 weeks, did not prevent sorbitol accumulation in the organs mentioned. The changes in sorbitol metabolism in the diabetic rat and their possible involvement in male fertility are discussed. PMID:7223308

Paz, G F; Drasnin, N; Homonnai, Z T

1980-01-01

9

Reflex secretion of the human parotid gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the conditions which influence the secretion of the parotid gland directly or indirectly. A series of experiments were conducted, in which the secretion was recorded by counting the drops as they fell from the drainage tube. Eight Ss between 8 to 38 yrs of age were involved. Concludes that direct reflexes of the parotid gland were excited by the

K. S. Lashley

1916-01-01

10

Morphology and Ultrastructure of the Accessory Glands in the Female Genital Tract of the House Cricket, Acheta domesticus  

PubMed Central

The accessory glands in the genital tract of female Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) were investigated in detail. The glands are situated within the 7th and 8th abdominal segment and lead to the genital chamber lateral to the terminal papilla of the ductus receptaculi. The shape of the gland is characterized by a complex system of tubules, including numerous ramifications. The gland's size ranges from 2 to 4 mm. The epithelium is constructed according to a simple scheme and consists of a cuticular intima at the luminal side, one layer of gland cells, and a basallamina at the outermost side. The observed morphology of the accessory glands widely corresponds with that in other cricket species (e.g., Teleogryllus commodus). This is also true for the structure of a single gland cell, which can be subdivided into a basal part with nucleus and intracellular cisternae, as well as an apical part with all those compartments responsible for the production of the secretion. The secretion itself may be classified as lipophilic and is produced for the first time 4 to 6 days after the imaginai moult. Several endogenic functions of the secretion are discussed (lubricant for oviposition, support for introducing the tube of the spermatophore into the ductus receptaculi, etc.). PMID:23425229

Sturm, Robert

2012-01-01

11

Congenital tri-cavernous hemangiomas of the right buccal region, right accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle region.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of congenital tri-cavernous hemangiomas of the right buccal region, right accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle region in an adult. The patient, a 25-year-old woman, complained of 3 masses in her right midcheek. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings showed an irregular-shaped mass (multiple calcifications) with a well-defined margin in the masseter muscle region, an ellipse-shaped mass (multiple calcifications) with a well-defined margin in the right buccal region, and a comma-shaped mass (no calcifications) with a well-defined margin separate from the parotid gland in the right accessory parotid gland region. These iconographic findings suggested that the masses were all hemangiomas separately originating from the parotid gland, accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle. The masses were completely removed through a standard parotid incision without postoperative facial palsy, skin deformity, and difficulty in secreting saliva. Findings from histologic examination of the tumor revealed multiple, thin-walled, and dilated blood vessels, confirming the diagnosis of cavernous hemangiomas. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings were extremely useful in diagnosing the mass/masses as hemangioma before surgery, clarifying relationships between the mass and adjacent structures, and determining the surgical approach to the mass/masses. PMID:24621721

Yang, Tao; Gu, Yongchun; Zhang, Li; Hua, Zequan

2014-03-01

12

Male Accessory Gland Infection: Relevance of Serum Total Testosterone Levels  

PubMed Central

Aim of the present study was to evaluate the different ultrasound characterization of fertile symptomatic patients with MAGI (male accessory gland infection) according to different serum concentrations of total T (TT). We analyzed the ultrasound and hormonal data of 200 patients aged between 24.0 and 67.0 years. Patients were divided into six groups according to the sextile distribution of TT. Patients with serum concentrations of TT < 3.6?ng?mL?1 had a higher mean duration of symptoms compared to the other examined groups. Patients with serum concentrations of TT > 6.6?ng?mL?1 showed a frequency of ultrasound criteria suggestive for bilateral form of prostatitis and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis and significantly lower compared to the other examined groups. At multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and BMI, TT was an independent predictive factor of prostatovesiculitis (OR = 0.818 [95% CI: 0.675–0.992]; P < 0.01) and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis (OR = 0.714 [95% CI: 0.578–0.880]; P < 0.01), which represent the main forms of complicated MAGI. The results of this study suggest that male hypogonadism could be associated with a different ultrasound characterization of these patients. PMID:25276133

Condorelli, R. A.; Calogero, A. E.; Vicari, E.; Favilla, V.; Cimino, S.; Russo, G. I.; Morgia, G.; La Vignera, S.

2014-01-01

13

Male Breast Cancer Originating in an Accessory Mammary Gland in the Axilla: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Carcinoma of an accessory mammary gland is an extremely rare tumor. A 61-year-old male patient presented with a hard mass measuring 85?mm × 51?mm in the left axilla. Incisional biopsy histopathologically showed an adenocarcinoma compatible with breast carcinoma originating in an accessory mammary gland. Systemic examinations revealed no evidence of malignant or occult primary lesion in the bilateral mammary glands or in other organs. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was performed for the locally advanced axillary tumor and reduced the tumor to 55?mm in size, and, then, he could undergo complete resection with a negative surgical margin in combination with reconstructive surgery to fill the resulting skin defect with a local flap of the latissimus dorsi muscle. The patient has presented with no metastatic lesion in four years since the operation. This unusual case shows that neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an effective and tolerated therapy for advanced accessory breast cancer in the axilla. PMID:23251170

Yamamura, Jun; Masuda, Norikazu; Kodama, Yoshinori; Yasojima, Hiroyuki; Mizutani, Makiko; Kuriyama, Keiko; Mano, Masayuki; Nakamori, Shoji; Sekimoto, Mitsugu

2012-01-01

14

Transcriptional Profiles of Mating-Responsive Genes from Testes and Male Accessory Glands of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata  

PubMed Central

Background Insect seminal fluid is a complex mixture of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, produced in the male reproductive tract. This seminal fluid is transferred together with the spermatozoa during mating and induces post-mating changes in the female. Molecular characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is limited, although studies suggest that some of these proteins are biologically active. Methodology/Principal Findings We report on the functional annotation of 5914 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the testes and male accessory glands, to identify transcripts encoding putative secreted peptides that might elicit post-mating responses in females. The ESTs were assembled into 3344 contigs, of which over 33% produced no hits against the nr database, and thus may represent novel or rapidly evolving sequences. Extraction of the coding sequences resulted in a total of 3371 putative peptides. The annotated dataset is available as a hyperlinked spreadsheet. Four hundred peptides were identified with putative secretory activity, including odorant binding proteins, protease inhibitor domain-containing peptides, antigen 5 proteins, mucins, and immunity-related sequences. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of a subset of putative secretory protein-encoding transcripts from accessory glands indicated changes in their abundance after one or more copulations when compared to virgin males of the same age. These changes in abundance, particularly evident after the third mating, may be related to the requirement to replenish proteins to be transferred to the female. Conclusions/Significance We have developed the first large-scale dataset for novel studies on functions and processes associated with the reproductive biology of Ceratitis capitata. The identified genes may help study genome evolution, in light of the high adaptive potential of the medfly. In addition, studies of male recovery dynamics in terms of accessory gland gene expression profiles and correlated remating inhibition mechanisms may permit the improvement of pest management approaches. PMID:23071645

Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Siciliano, Paolo; Meraldi, Alice; Falchetto, Marco; Bonomi, Angelica; Manni, Mosè; Gabrieli, Paolo; Malovini, Alberto; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Aksoy, Serap; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R.

2012-01-01

15

Accessory Gland as a Site for Prothoracicotropic Hormone Controlled Ecdysone Synthesis in Adult Male Insects  

PubMed Central

Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis of ecdysone (E), the precursor of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), are expressed in the tubular accessory glands (TAGs) of adult males. In contrast, expression of the gene encoding the enzyme mediating 20E synthesis was detected in the ovaries of females. Further, Spookiest (Spot), an enzyme presumably required for endowing tissues with competence to produce ecdysteroids, is male specific and predominantly expressed in the TAGs. We also show that prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), a regulator of E synthesis during larval development, regulates ecdysteroid levels in the adult stage in Drosophila melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises the possibility that E and 20E have sex-specific roles analogous to the vertebrate sex steroids, where males produce primarily testosterone, the precursor of estradiol. Furthermore this study provides the first evidence that PTTH regulates ecdysteroid synthesis in the adult stage and could explain the original finding that some adult insects are a rich source of PTTH. PMID:23383307

Hentze, Julie L.; Moeller, Morten E.; J?rgensen, Anne F.; Bengtsson, Meghan S.; Bordoy, Anna M.; Warren, James T.; Gilbert, Lawrence I.; Andersen, Ole; Rewitz, Kim F.

2013-01-01

16

Botulinum toxin A inhibits salivary secretion of rabbit submandibular gland  

PubMed Central

Botulinum toxin A (BTXA) has been used in several clinical trials to treat excessive glandular secretion; however, the precise mechanism of its action on the secretory function of salivary gland has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of BTXA on secretion of submandibular gland in rabbits and to identify its mechanism of action on the secretory function of salivary gland. At 12 weeks after injection with 5 units of BTXA, we found a significant decrease in the saliva flow from submandibular glands, while the salivary amylase concentration increased. Morphological analysis revealed reduction in the size of acinar cells with intracellular accumulation of secretory granules that coalesced to form a large ovoid structure. Expression of M3-muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3 receptor) and aquaporin-5 (AQP5) mRNA decreased after BTXA treatment, and distribution of AQP5 in the apical membrane was reduced at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after BTXA injection. Furthermore, BTXA injection was found to induce apoptosis of acini. These results indicate that BTXA decreases the fluid secretion of submandibular glands and increases the concentration of amylase in saliva. Decreased expression of M3 receptor and AQP5, inhibition of AQP5 translocation, and cell apoptosis might involve in BTXA-reduced fluid secretion of submandibular glands. PMID:24158141

Shan, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Hui; Cai, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Li-Ling; Yu, Guang-Yan

2013-01-01

17

Salt-gland secretion and blood flow in the goose  

PubMed Central

1. Salt-gland blood flow in the domestic goose has been measured using a combination of Sapirstein's indicator fractionation technique for organ blood flow and Fegler's thermodilution method for cardiac output. 2. Nasal salt secretion was induced by giving 0·5 M-NaCl or 0·154 M-NaCl I.V. or by giving artificial sea water by stomach tube into the proventriculus. 3. During secretion, salt-gland blood flow increased from 82·7 ± 21·9 ml./100 g tissue. min to as high as 2179 ml./100 g. min (mean 1209 ± 140). 4. The rate of secretion in response to salt loading was very variable and was not correlated with the rate of blood flow. 5. From the data obtained, it could be calculated that the median values for the percentage extraction of ions from the arterial plasma were Na 15%, K 35%, Cl 21% and water 5·8%. 6. Atropine abolished secretion but not the increase in blood flow produced by salt loading. 7. Unilateral complete denervation abolished secretion from and the increase in blood flow through the operated but not the control gland. 8. Anaesthesia, induced by pentobarbitone sodium, almost completely blocked secretion and the increase in blood flow in the salt-gland in response to salt loading. 9. In geese given 0·5 or 0·154 M-NaCl I.V. a positive, significant correlation was found between the total amount of nasal secretion collected over 30 min and the concentrations of Na and Cl in the nasal fluid. However, when the time course of secretion was followed in any one bird, the rate of secretion was inversely related to the concentrations of Na and Cl. 10. Harderian gland blood flow was not affected by salt loading. PMID:5574839

Hanwell, Ann; Linzell, J. L.; Peaker, M.

1971-01-01

18

Structure, histochemistry and ultrastructure of the male reproductive accessory glands in the neotropical flat-faced fruit-eating bat Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).  

PubMed

Chiroptera, the second largest mammalian order, presents different reproductive strategies and unique reproductive features. However, there are few reports regarding male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) in Chiroptera. Thus, the aim of the present study was to characterise the RAGs of the exclusively neotropical bat Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) macroscopically, microscopically and ultrastructurally. The RAGs were composed of a prostatic complex with two regions (ventral and dorsal) and paraurethral and bulbourethral glands, but no seminal vesicles. The ventral region had an undefined epithelium, with secretory and basal cells, and its secretions were periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive. The dorsal region received both deferens ducts, had a columnar pseudostratified epithelium with secretory and basal cells. There were two types of secretions from the dorsal region: one that was basophilic and another that was mixed PAS positive and PAS negative. The paraurethral glands were dispersed in the connective tissue of the urethra, whereas the bulbourethral glands were located in the penile root. Histological and ultrastructural data confirmed the prostatic nature of the ventral and dorsal regions and the holocrine nature of the ventral region, with the latter finding never having been described previously for the prostate gland. Our findings demonstrate the wide discrepancy of RAGs between A. planirostris and other mammals in terms of their composition, structure and morphology. PMID:22985988

Puga, Cíntia C I; Beguelini, Mateus R; Negrin, Ana C; Christante, Caroline M; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

2013-01-01

19

Effects of access to preen gland secretions on mallard plumage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preen glands exist in almost every bird species and several non-exclusive functions have been proposed for this gland and the oils that it produces. One function generally admitted is that the oily secretions of the preen gland would provide a waterproofing layer when spread over feathers. Alternatively, several authors have proposed that plumage waterproofness is mostly due to the spatial micro-structure of feathers. The purpose of this study was to examine, by manipulating the access to the preen gland, the effect of the preen oil on the plumage waterproofness and condition. To explore this question, we carried out two independent experiments where we temporarily blocked access to the preen gland secretions with a removable mechanism in one group of captive mallards ( Anas platyrhynchos), whilst a second group of birds had access to gland secretions. In a long-term experiment (3 months of treatment) and a short-term experiment (10 days), we measured plumage water retention and condition. After 3 months without access to preen glands, we found a significant decrease of plumage condition and an associated increase in plumage water retention. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between plumage condition and water retention ability. In contrast, after 10 days of treatment, no significant effect was found on plumage condition and water retention. Our study shows that preen oil acts to maintain plumage condition and suggests that feather microstructure is essential to maintain plumage waterproofness.

Giraudeau, Mathieu; Duval, Camille; Guillon, Noel; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Gutierrez, Claude; Heeb, Philipp

2010-06-01

20

Ion Secretion by Salt Glands of Desert Iguanas (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) Lisa C. Hazard*  

E-print Network

22 Ion Secretion by Salt Glands of Desert Iguanas (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) Lisa C. Hazard* DepartmentCl-secreting salt glands of many birds and reptiles, the nasal salt glands of lizards can secrete potassium as well iguana, Dipsosaurus dorsalis. Lizards were given combinations of ions for several days, and secreted salt

Hazard, Lisa C.

21

Calcium and parotid gland secretion: a cytochemical study.  

PubMed Central

Acinar cells of parotid glands from untreated, pilocarpine-treated, and atropine treated rats were studied, using a potassium pyroantimonate technique and X-ray microanalysis of calcium localization at the ultrastructural level. This was done in order to identify intracellular compartmentalisation of calcium and to elucidate any calcium translocation that might occur during the secretory process. Calcium pyroantimonate complexes were shown to be most prevalent on the plasma membrane of the non-secreting cells. These membranes gave up their calcium complexes during secretion. Conversely, the mitochondrial precipitates increased during secretion indicating an increase in intracellular calcium. The function of calcium in parotid gland secretion and the association of calcium with other cell structures are discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6885619

Sampson, H W; Bowers, D E; Piscopo, I

1983-01-01

22

A Novel Function for the Hox Gene Abd-B in the Male Accessory Gland Regulates the Long-Term Female Post-Mating Response in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

In insects, products of the male reproductive tract are essential for initiating and maintaining the female post-mating response (PMR). The PMR includes changes in egg laying, receptivity to courting males, and sperm storage. In Drosophila, previous studies have determined that the main cells of the male accessory gland produce some of the products required for these processes. However, nothing was known about the contribution of the gland's other secretory cell type, the secondary cells. In the course of investigating the late functions of the homeotic gene, Abdominal-B (Abd-B), we discovered that Abd-B is specifically expressed in the secondary cells of the Drosophila male accessory gland. Using an Abd-B BAC reporter coupled with a collection of genetic deletions, we discovered an enhancer from the iab-6 regulatory domain that is responsible for Abd-B expression in these cells and that apparently works independently from the segmentally regulated chromatin domains of the bithorax complex. Removal of this enhancer results in visible morphological defects in the secondary cells. We determined that mates of iab-6 mutant males show defects in long-term egg laying and suppression of receptivity, and that products of the secondary cells are influential during sperm competition. Many of these phenotypes seem to be caused by a defect in the storage and gradual release of sex peptide in female mates of iab-6 mutant males. We also found that Abd-B expression in the secondary cells contributes to glycosylation of at least three accessory gland proteins: ovulin (Acp26Aa), CG1656, and CG1652. Our results demonstrate that long-term post-mating changes observed in mated females are not solely induced by main cell secretions, as previously believed, but that secondary cells also play an important role in male fertility by extending the female PMR. Overall, these discoveries provide new insights into how these two cell types cooperate to produce and maintain a robust female PMR. PMID:23555301

Maeda, Robert K.; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Karch, Francois

2013-01-01

23

Regucalcin Expression in Bovine Tissues and Its Regulation by Sex Steroid Hormones in Accessory Sex Glands  

PubMed Central

Regucalcin (RGN) is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle. PMID:25415588

Starvaggi Cucuzza, Laura; Divari, Sara; Mulasso, Chiara; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Cannizzo, Francesca T.

2014-01-01

24

Effect of blood removal and infusion on gull salt gland secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The effect of blood removal and addition on salt gland secretion was studied in freshwater and seawater acclimated gulls,Larus glaucescens.2.In contrast to published reports that blood removal decreased and blood infusion increased salt gland secretion in ducks, neither blood removal nor addition had an effect on concentration or volume of salt gland secretion in gulls.

Maryanne R. Hughes

1987-01-01

25

The relation between reactive oxygen species and cytokines in andrological patients with or without male accessory gland infection.  

PubMed

The presence of various cytokines, namely hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 RA), and interleukins (IL-1 alpha, IL-6, and IL-8), as well as the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was investigated in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile patients in order to evaluate the possible value of measuring these substances for the diagnosis of male accessory gland infection, and to assess the possible relationship between oxidative stress and cytokines during leucocytospermia and male accessory gland infection (MAGI). Our findings indicate that all of the measured cytokines seem to be produced locally as well as by white blood cells (WBC) and that, due to the presence of higher numbers of WBC, accessory gland infection may exert a deleterious effect on sperm quality through the production of ROS and/or of particular cytokines such as IL-1 alpha, IL-1 RA, and IL-8. The most specific marker for a sensitivity of 95% in discriminating between cases with or without MAGI is the measurement of IL-6 in seminal plasma. In the absence of WBC several cytokines are constitutively produced and correlate with sperm concentration (HGF, IL-8), alpha-glucosidase (IL-6), and gamma-glutamyltransferase activity (HGF). The measurement of these cytokines in semen may provide clinically useful information for the diagnosis of male accessory gland infection, as well as in the absence of WBC where it can provide information about certain mechanisms of male reproductive function and dysfunction. PMID:9016401

Depuydt, C E; Bosmans, E; Zalata, A; Schoonjans, F; Comhaire, F H

1996-01-01

26

Draft Genome of Phaeobacter gallaeciensis ANG1, a Dominant Member of the Accessory Nidamental Gland of Euprymna scolopes?  

PubMed Central

Phaeobacter gallaeciensis strain ANG1 represents the dominant member of the bacterial consortium within the reproductive accessory nidamental gland (ANG) of the squid Euprymna scolopes. We present a 4.59-Mb assembly of its genome, which may provide clues as to how it benefits its host. PMID:21551313

Collins, Andrew J.; Nyholm, Spencer V.

2011-01-01

27

Parasympathetic and sympathetic regulation of secretion from submucosal glands in airways.  

PubMed

We developed methods to study secretions from airway submucosal glands in vivo: micropipettes with tips specially designed to seal around individual gland duct openings allowed us to collect all of the fluid secreted from individual glands. We visualized the secretions from large numbers of glands simultaneously by coating the airway surface with powdered tantalum; secreted mucus formed "hillocks" over each gland duct opening. Measurement of hillock size provided an estimate of secretion rate. We modified the "hillocks" method to study tracheal glands in vitro. To study regulation of mucin secretion in vitro, we measured the radioactivity from 35S bound to mucins secreted from the luminal surface of pieces of trachea mounted in Using-type chambers. Using these techniques, we demonstrated both cholinergic and alpha-adrenergic regulation of the glands. PMID:7428952

Nadel, J A; Davis, B

1980-11-01

28

Antigenic homogeneity of male Müllerian gland (MG) secretory proteins of a caecilian amphibian with secretory proteins of the mammalian prostate gland and seminal vesicles: evidence for role of the caecilian MG as a male accessory reproductive gland.  

PubMed

Whereas in all other vertebrates the Müllerian ducts of genetic males are aborted during development, under the influence of Müllerian-inhibiting substance, in the caecilian amphibians they are retained as a pair of functional glands. It has long been speculated that the Müllerian gland might be the male accessory reproductive gland but there has been no direct evidence to this effect. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the caecilian Müllerian gland secretory proteins would bear antigenic similarity to secretory proteins of the prostate gland and/or the seminal vesicles of a mammal. The secretory proteins of the Müllerian gland of Ichthyophis tricolor were evaluated for cross-reactivity with antisera raised against rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle secretory proteins, adopting SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot techniques. Indeed there was a cross-reaction of five Müllerian gland secretory protein fractions with prostatic protein antiserum and of three with seminal vesicle protein antiserum. A potential homology exists because in mammals the middle group of the prostate primordia is derived from a diverticulum of the Müllerian duct. Thus this study, by providing evidence for expression of prostatic and seminal vesicle proteins in the Müllerian gland, substantiates the point that in caecilians the Müllerian glands are the male accessory reproductive glands. PMID:25160003

Radha, Arumugam; Sree, Sreesha; Faisal, Kunnathodi; Kumar, G Pradeep; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

2014-10-01

29

Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of the Accessory Sex Gland and Testis from the Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis)  

PubMed Central

The accessory sex gland (ASG) is an important component of the male reproductive system, which functions to enhance the fertility of spermatozoa during male reproduction. Certain proteins secreted by the ASG are known to bind to the spermatozoa membrane and affect its function. The ASG gene expression profile in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has not been extensively studied, and limited genetic research has been conducted on this species. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables the generation of genomic resources within a short period of time and at minimal cost. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for the ASG of E. sinensis using Illumina sequencing technology. This analysis yielded a total of 33,221,284 sequencing reads, including 2.6 Gb of total nucleotides. Reads were assembled into 85,913 contigs (average 218 bp), or 58,567 scaffold sequences (average 292 bp), that identified 37,955 unigenes (average 385 bp). We assembled all unigenes and compared them with the published testis transcriptome from E. sinensis. In order to identify which genes may be involved in ASG function, as it pertains to modification of spermatozoa, we compared the ASG and testis transcriptome of E. sinensis. Our analysis identified specific genes with both higher and lower tissue expression levels in the two tissues, and the functions of these genes were analyzed to elucidate their potential roles during maturation of spermatozoa. Availability of detailed transcriptome data from ASG and testis in E. sinensis can assist our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved with spermatozoa conservation, transport, maturation and capacitation and potentially acrosome activation. PMID:23342039

He, Lin; Jiang, Hui; Cao, Dandan; Liu, Lihua; Hu, Songnian; Wang, Qun

2013-01-01

30

Male accessory gland inflammation prevalence in type 2 diabetic patients with symptoms possibly reflecting autonomic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Male accessory gland inflammation or infection (MAGI) is a potentially underdiagnosed complication of type 2 diabetes (DM2); specifically, we reported in a recent study that the frequency of MAGI was 43% among DM2 patients. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is associated with a peculiar ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles (SVs) in DM2 patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of MAGI in two different categories of DM2 patients (i.e. patients with and without symptoms that possibly reflect DAN) and the respective ultrasound characterizations. Sixty DM2 patients with a mean (± s.e.m.) age of 42.0 ± 6.0 years (range: 34–47 years) were classified according to the presence or the absence of symptoms that could possibly reflect DAN (group A: DM2 with symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 28 patients and group B: DM2 without symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 32 patients). The patients in Group A exhibited a significantly higher frequency of MAGI compared with those in group B patients (P < 0.05); moreover, the Group A patients exhibited a significantly higher frequency of ultrasound signs suggestive of vesiculitis (P < 0.05). Finally, the concentrations of lymphocytes but not the concentrations of the leukocytes in the semen were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in group A compared with group B. PMID:24799635

Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E; La Vignera, Sandro

2014-01-01

31

Male accessory gland substances from Aedes albopictus affect the locomotor activity of Aedes aegypti females  

PubMed Central

Dengue is one of the world’s most important mosquito-borne diseases and is usually transmitted by one of two vector species: Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus . These two diurnal mosquitoes are frequently found coexisting in similar habitats, enabling interactions between adults, such as cross-mating. The objective of this study was to assess cross-mating between Ae. aegypti females and Ae. albopictus males under artificial conditions and evaluate the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti virgin females injected with male accessory gland (MAG) homogenates to infer the physiological and behavioural responses to interspecific mating. After seven days of exposure, 3.3-16% of Ae. aegypti females mated with Ae. albopictus males. Virgin Ae. aegypti females injected with conspecific and heterospecific MAGs showed a general decrease in locomotor activity compared to controls and were refractory to mating with conspecific males. The reduction in diurnal locomotor activity induced by injections of conspecific or heterospecific MAGs is consistent with regulation of female reproductive activities by male substances, which are capable of sterilising female Ae. aegypti through satyrisation by Ae. albopictus . PMID:24473799

Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Codeco, Claudia Torres; Honorio, Nildimar Alves; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Lounibos, Leon Philip

2013-01-01

32

Epithelioid Myoepithelioma of the Accessory Parotid Gland: Pathological and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings  

PubMed Central

Tumors of the accessory parotid gland (APG) are rare, and pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign APG tumor subtype. Myoepithelioma of the APG is much rarer than PA, and to date, only 5 cases have been sporadically reported in the English literature. We describe the clinicopathological and MRI findings of an epithelioid myoepithelioma of the APG that was treated in our hospital. The patient's only clinical symptom was a slow-growing and painless mid-cheek mass. The tumor was suspected to be PA before surgery based on the following MRI findings: (1) a well-circumscribed and lobulated contour, (2) isointensity and hyperintensity relative to the muscle on T1- and T2-weighted images (WIs), respectively, (3) good enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-WIs, (4) peripheral hypointensity on T2-WIs, and (5) a gradual time-signal intensity curve enhancement pattern on gadolinium-enhanced dynamic MRI. The tumor was completely resected via a standard parotidectomy approach, and the postoperative pathological examination of the tumor, including immunohistochemistry, confirmed the diagnosis of epithelioid myoepithelioma. As it is hardly possible to distinguish myoepithelioma from PA and low-grade malignant tumors preoperatively, a pathological examination using frozen sections is helpful for surgical strategy-related decisions. PMID:24932173

Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Yamada, Kei; Yamane, Hideo; Hashimoto, Shigeo

2014-01-01

33

Epithelioid myoepithelioma of the accessory parotid gland: pathological and magnetic resonance imaging findings.  

PubMed

Tumors of the accessory parotid gland (APG) are rare, and pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign APG tumor subtype. Myoepithelioma of the APG is much rarer than PA, and to date, only 5 cases have been sporadically reported in the English literature. We describe the clinicopathological and MRI findings of an epithelioid myoepithelioma of the APG that was treated in our hospital. The patient's only clinical symptom was a slow-growing and painless mid-cheek mass. The tumor was suspected to be PA before surgery based on the following MRI findings: (1) a well-circumscribed and lobulated contour, (2) isointensity and hyperintensity relative to the muscle on T1- and T2-weighted images (WIs), respectively, (3) good enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-WIs, (4) peripheral hypointensity on T2-WIs, and (5) a gradual time-signal intensity curve enhancement pattern on gadolinium-enhanced dynamic MRI. The tumor was completely resected via a standard parotidectomy approach, and the postoperative pathological examination of the tumor, including immunohistochemistry, confirmed the diagnosis of epithelioid myoepithelioma. As it is hardly possible to distinguish myoepithelioma from PA and low-grade malignant tumors preoperatively, a pathological examination using frozen sections is helpful for surgical strategy-related decisions. PMID:24932173

Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Yamada, Kei; Yamane, Hideo; Hashimoto, Shigeo

2014-05-01

34

Male accessory gland inflammation prevalence in type 2 diabetic patients with symptoms possibly reflecting autonomic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Male accessory gland inflammation or infection (MAGI) is a potentially underdiagnosed complication of type 2 diabetes (DM2); specifically, we reported in a recent study that the frequency of MAGI was 43% among DM2 patients. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is associated with a peculiar ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles (SVs) in DM2 patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of MAGI in two different categories of DM2 patients (i.e. patients with and without symptoms that possibly reflect DAN) and the respective ultrasound characterizations. Sixty DM2 patients with a mean (± s.e.m.) age of 42.0 ± 6.0 years (range: 34-47 years) were classified according to the presence or the absence of symptoms that could possibly reflect DAN (group A: DM2 with symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 28 patients and group B: DM2 without symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 32 patients). The patients in Group A exhibited a significantly higher frequency of MAGI compared with those in group B patients (P < 0.05); moreover, the Group A patients exhibited a significantly higher frequency of ultrasound signs suggestive of vesiculitis (P < 0.05). Finally, the concentrations of lymphocytes but not the concentrations of the leukocytes in the semen were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in group A compared with group B. PMID:24799635

Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E; La Vignera, Sandro

2014-01-01

35

Correlation between mandibular gland secretion and cuticular hydrocarbons in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata.  

PubMed

We investigated whether Melipona quadrifasciata worker mandibular gland secretions contribute directly to their cuticular hydrocarbon profile. The mandibular gland secretion composition and cuticular surface compounds of newly emerged worker bees, nurse bees, and foragers were determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry and compared. Both the mandibular gland secretions and the cuticular surface compounds of all worker stages were found to be composed almost exclusively of hydrocarbons. Although the relative proportion of hydrocarbons from the cuticular surface and gland secretion was statistically different, there was a high similarity in the qualitative composition between these structures in all groups of bees. PMID:22576923

Cruz-Landim, C; Ferreira-Caliman, M J; Gracioli-Vitti, L F; Zucchi, R

2012-01-01

36

Variation in sperm displacement and its association with accessory gland protein loci in Drosophila melanogaster  

SciTech Connect

Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophila melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female`s reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm. This lack of correlation, and the association of Acp alleles with resisting subsequent sperm only, suggests that different mechanisms mediate the two components of sperm displacement. 36 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Clark, A.G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Prout, T.; Harshman, L.G. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)] [and others

1995-01-01

37

Diversity and partitioning of bacterial populations within the accessory nidamental gland of the squid Euprymna scolopes.  

PubMed

Microbial consortia confer important benefits to animal and plant hosts, and model associations are necessary to examine these types of host/microbe interactions. The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) is a female reproductive organ found among cephalopod mollusks that contains a consortium of bacteria, the exact function of which is unknown. To begin to understand the role of this organ, the bacterial consortium was characterized in the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, a well-studied model organism for symbiosis research. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the ANG revealed dense bacterial assemblages of rod- and coccus-shaped cells segregated by morphology into separate, epithelium-lined tubules. The host epithelium was morphologically heterogeneous, containing ciliated and nonciliated cells with various brush border thicknesses. Hemocytes of the host's innate immune system were also found in close proximity to the bacteria within the tubules. A census of 16S rRNA genes suggested that Rhodobacterales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia bacteria were prevalent, with members of the genus Phaeobacter dominating the consortium. Analysis of 454-shotgun sequencing data confirmed the presence of members of these taxa and revealed members of a fourth, Flavobacteria of the Bacteroidetes phylum. 16S rRNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that many ANG tubules were dominated by members of specific taxa, namely, Rhodobacterales, Verrucomicrobia, or Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroidetes, suggesting symbiont partitioning to specific host tubules. In addition, FISH revealed that bacteria, including Phaeobacter species from the ANG, are likely deposited into the jelly coat of freshly laid eggs. This report establishes the ANG of the invertebrate E. scolopes as a model to examine interactions between a bacterial consortium and its host. PMID:22504817

Collins, Andrew J; LaBarre, Brenna A; Won, Brian S Wong; Shah, Monica V; Heng, Steven; Choudhury, Momena H; Haydar, Shahela A; Santiago, Jose; Nyholm, Spencer V

2012-06-01

38

Diversity and Partitioning of Bacterial Populations within the Accessory Nidamental Gland of the Squid Euprymna scolopes  

PubMed Central

Microbial consortia confer important benefits to animal and plant hosts, and model associations are necessary to examine these types of host/microbe interactions. The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) is a female reproductive organ found among cephalopod mollusks that contains a consortium of bacteria, the exact function of which is unknown. To begin to understand the role of this organ, the bacterial consortium was characterized in the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, a well-studied model organism for symbiosis research. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the ANG revealed dense bacterial assemblages of rod- and coccus-shaped cells segregated by morphology into separate, epithelium-lined tubules. The host epithelium was morphologically heterogeneous, containing ciliated and nonciliated cells with various brush border thicknesses. Hemocytes of the host's innate immune system were also found in close proximity to the bacteria within the tubules. A census of 16S rRNA genes suggested that Rhodobacterales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia bacteria were prevalent, with members of the genus Phaeobacter dominating the consortium. Analysis of 454-shotgun sequencing data confirmed the presence of members of these taxa and revealed members of a fourth, Flavobacteria of the Bacteroidetes phylum. 16S rRNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that many ANG tubules were dominated by members of specific taxa, namely, Rhodobacterales, Verrucomicrobia, or Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroidetes, suggesting symbiont partitioning to specific host tubules. In addition, FISH revealed that bacteria, including Phaeobacter species from the ANG, are likely deposited into the jelly coat of freshly laid eggs. This report establishes the ANG of the invertebrate E. scolopes as a model to examine interactions between a bacterial consortium and its host. PMID:22504817

Collins, Andrew J.; LaBarre, Brenna A.; Wong Won, Brian S.; Shah, Monica V.; Heng, Steven; Choudhury, Momena H.; Haydar, Shahela A.; Santiago, Jose

2012-01-01

39

LOCALIZATION AND SECRETION OF SALT BY THE SALT GLANDS OF Tamarix aphylla.  

PubMed

Analysis of salt secreted by the salt glands of Tamarix aphylla shows that the composition of the secreted salt is dependent on the salt composition of the root environment. Rubidium ion, if added to culture solutions in which the plants were growing, is also taken up by the plants and subsequently secreted by the glands. Electron micrographs of glands from the ribidium-secreting plants show accumulations of electron-dense material in the microvacuoles of the secretory cells. It is concluded that rubidium is accumulated in the microvacuoles and subsequently secreted by their fusion with the plasmalemma. PMID:16591764

Thomson, W W; Berry, W L; Liu, L L

1969-06-01

40

LOCALIZATION AND SECRETION OF SALT BY THE SALT GLANDS OF Tamarix aphylla*  

PubMed Central

Analysis of salt secreted by the salt glands of Tamarix aphylla shows that the composition of the secreted salt is dependent on the salt composition of the root environment. Rubidium ion, if added to culture solutions in which the plants were growing, is also taken up by the plants and subsequently secreted by the glands. Electron micrographs of glands from the ribidium-secreting plants show accumulations of electron-dense material in the microvacuoles of the secretory cells. It is concluded that rubidium is accumulated in the microvacuoles and subsequently secreted by their fusion with the plasmalemma. Images PMID:16591764

Thomson, W. W.; Berry, W. L.; Liu, L. L.

1969-01-01

41

Molecular Mechanism of Pancreatic and Salivary Glands Fluid and HCO3? Secretion  

PubMed Central

Fluid and HCO3? secretion is a vital function of all epithelia and is required for the survival of the tissue. Aberrant fluid and HCO3? secretion is associated with many epithelial diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, Sjögren’s syndrome and other epithelial inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Significant progress has been made over the last 20 years in our understanding of epithelial fluid and HCO3? secretion, in particular by secretory glands. Fluid and HCO3? secretion by secretory glands is a two step process. Acinar cells secrete isotonic fluid in which the major salt is NaCl. Subsequently, the duct modifies the volume and electrolyte composition of the fluid to absorb the Cl? and secrete HCO3?. The relative volume secreted by acinar and duct cells and modification of electrolyte composition of the secreted fluids varies among secretory glands to meet their physiological functions. In the pancreas, acinar cells secrete small amount of NaCl-rich fluid, while the duct absorbs the Cl? and secretes HCO3? and the bulk of the fluid in the pancreatic juice. Fluid secretion appears to be driven by active HCO3? secretion. In the salivary glands, acinar cells secrete the bulk of the fluid in the saliva that contains high concentrations of Na+ and Cl? and fluid secretion is mediated by active Cl? secretion. The salivary glands duct absorbs both the Na+ and Cl? and secretes K+ and HCO3?. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanism of fluid and HCO3? secretion by the pancreas and salivary glands, to highlight the similarities of the fundamental mechanisms of acinar and duct cell functions, and point the differences to meet glands specific secretions. PMID:22298651

Lee, Min Goo; Ohana, Ehud; Park, Hyun Woo; Yang, Dongki; Muallem, Shmuel

2013-01-01

42

Characterization of neurokinin A-evoked salivary secretion in the perfused rat submandibular gland.  

PubMed

Neurokinin A (NKA) evokes salivary secretion. Despite such reports, the direct effect of NKA on salivary secretion in submandibular gland has not been clarified. Here we studied characterization of salivary fluid secretion induced by NKA in the perfused submandibular grand (SMG) of the rat. NKA (3-100 nM) stimulated salivary fluid secretion in a dose-dependent manner. The profile of secretion induced by NKA consisted of two phases, transient and sustained phases. When the gland was perfused with Lucifer yellow (LY)-containing perfusate buffer and stimulated by NKA, concentration of LY in saliva was increased. In the absence of Ca(2+) in the perfusate, NKA induced only a transient salivary fluid and a transient LY secretion. When the gland was treated with BAPTA, NKA failed to induce both salivary fluid secretion and LY secretion. These results suggest that NKA induces salivary secretion via both transcellular and paracellular pathways, which depends on intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. PMID:20224202

Narita, Takanori; Qi, Bing; Fukano, Mika; Matsuki-Fukushima, Miwako; Murakami, Masataka; Sugiya, Hiroshi

2009-01-01

43

Suppression subtractive hybridization analysis reveals expression of conserved and novel genes in male accessory glands of the ant Leptothorax gredleri  

PubMed Central

Background During mating, insect males eject accessory gland proteins (Acps) into the female genital tract. These substances are known to affect female post-mating behavior and physiology. In addition, they may harm the female, e.g., in reducing its lifespan. This is interpreted as a consequence of sexual antagonistic co-evolution. Whereas sexual conflict abounds in non-social species, the peculiar life history of social insects (ants, bees, wasps) with lifelong pair-bonding and no re-mating aligns the reproductive interests of the sexes. Harming the female during mating would negatively affect male fitness and sexual antagonism is therefore not expected. Indeed, mating appears to increase female longevity in at least one ant species. Acps are presumed to play a role in this phenomenon, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we investigated genes, which are preferentially expressed in male accessory glands of the ant Leptothorax gredleri, to determine which proteins might be transferred in the seminal fluid. Results By a suppression subtractive hybridization protocol we obtained 20 unique sequences (USs). Twelve had mutual best matches with genes predicted for Apis mellifera and Nasonia vitripennis. Functional information (Gene Ontology) was available only for seven of these, including intracellular signaling, energy-dependent transport and metabolic enzyme activities. The remaining eight USs did not match sequences from other species. Six genes were further analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR in three life cycle stages of male ants. A gene with carboxy-lyase activity and one of unpredicted function were significantly overexpressed in accessory glands of sexually mature males. Conclusions Our study is the first one to investigate differential gene expression in ants in a context related to mating. Our findings indicate that male accessory glands of L. gredleri express a series of genes that are unique to this species, possibly representing novel genes, in addition to conserved ones for which functions can be predicted. Identifying differentially expressed genes might help to better understand molecular mechanisms involved in reproductive processes in eusocial Hymenoptera. While the novel genes could account for rapidly evolving ones driven by intra-sexual conflict between males, conserved genes imply that rather beneficial traits might get fixed by a process described as inter-sexual cooperation between males and females. PMID:20825642

2010-01-01

44

Variation in Sperm Displacement and Its Association with Accessory Gland Protein Loci in Drosophila Melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophilia melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female's reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes, Glucose dehydrogenase (Gld), and Esterase-6 (Est-6). Acp genes encode proteins that are in some cases known to be transmitted to the female in the seminal fluid and are likely candidates for genes that might mediate the phenomenon of sperm displacement. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm. This lack of correlation, and the association of Acp alleles with resisting subsequent sperm only, suggests that different mechanisms mediate the two components of sperm displacement. PMID:7705622

Clark, A. G.; Aguade, M.; Prout, T.; Harshman, L. G.; Langley, C. H.

1995-01-01

45

Mimicry of queen Dufour's gland secretions by workers of Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the Dufour's gland of workers of the two honey bee races Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis was measured. The Dufour's glands of A. m. capensis workers were longer and increased in length more rapidly than the glands of workers of A. m. scutellata at comparable ages. Analysis of the Dufour's gland secretions of workers and queens of both races revealed that there were caste and racial differences. Secretions of queenright A. m. scutellata workers were dominated by a series of long-chain hydrocarbons. In contrast the secretions of the A. m. capensis workers both under queenright and queenless conditions were a mixture of hydrocarbons and wax-type esters, as were those of queens. Multivariate analysis of the secretion profiles indicated that laying workers of both races mimic queens. The secretions of the A. m. capensis laying workers mimicked queen secretions most closely, enabling them to act as successful social parasites.

Sole, Catherine; Kryger, Per; Hefetz, Abraham; Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Crewe, Robin

2002-10-01

46

Glue Secretion in the Drosophila Salivary Gland: A Model for Steroid-Regulated Exocytosis  

E-print Network

Glue Secretion in the Drosophila Salivary Gland: A Model for Steroid-Regulated Exocytosis Assel exposure to the steroid 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) leads to a robust regulated secretion of glue granules. Here, we describe a convenient bioassay for glue secretion and use it to analyze mutants in components

Andres, Andrew

47

Ability of multicellular salt glands in Tamarix species to secrete Na+ and K+ selectively.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to determine the mechanism of cation-selective secretion by multicellular salt glands. Using a hydroponic culture system, the secretion and accumulation of Na(+) and K(+) in Tamarix ramosissima and T. laxa under different salt stresses (NaCl, KCl and NaCl+KCl) were studied. Additionally, the effects of salt gland inhibitors (orthovanadate, Ba(2+), ouabain, tetraethylammonium (TEA) and verapamil) on Na(+) and K(+) secretion and accumulation were examined. Treatment with NaCl (at 0-200 mmol L(-1) levels) significantly increased Na(+) secretion, whereas KCl treatment (at 0-200 mmol L(-1) levels) significantly increased K(+) secretion. The ratio of secretion to accumulation of Na(+) was higher than that of K(+). The changes in Na(+) and K(+) secretion differed after adding different ions into the single-salt solutions. Addition of NaCl to the KCl solution (at 100 mmol L(-1) level, respectively) led to a significant decrease in K(+) secretion rate, whereas addition of KCl to the NaCl solution (at 100 mmol L(-1) level, respectively) had little impact on the Na(+) secretion rate. These results indicated that Na+ secretion in Tamarix was highly selective. In addition, Na(+) secretion was significantly inhibited by orthovanadate, ouabain, TEA and verapamil, and K(+) secretion was significantly inhibited by ouabain, TEA and verapamil. The different impacts of orthovanadate on Na(+) and K(+) secretion might be the primary cause for the different Na(+) and K(+) secretion abilities of multicellular salt glands in Tamarix. PMID:21416329

Ma, Haiyan; Tian, Changyan; Feng, Gu; Yuan, Junfeng

2011-03-01

48

Characteristics of neurokinin A-induced salivary fluid secretion in perfused rat submandibular gland.  

PubMed

Tachykinins such as neurokinin A (NKA) and substance P have been demonstrated to induce salivary fluid secretion in vivo. However, characteristics of salivary fluid secretion induced by tachykinins in salivary glands have not been well elucidated. In this study, the effects of the tachykinin NKA on salivary fluid secretion were investigated in isolated, perfused rat submandibular gland. NKA provoked salivary fluid secretion, which consisted of transient and sustained phases, in a dose-dependent manner. In fura-2-loaded dispersed cells of the rat submandibular gland, the doses of NKA in which induced salivary fluid secretion caused an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. When Ca(2+) was removed from the perfusate to examine the effect of Ca(2+) mobilization on NKA-induced fluid secretion, only the transient salivary fluid secretion occurred. When the gland was perfused with the Ca(2+)-free perfusate containing the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM, NKA failed to induce salivary fluid secretion. NKA also induced an increase in oxygen consumption, but which was reduced by the removal of Ca(2+) from perfusate. Salivary fluid is secreted via transcellular and paracellular pathways in acinar cells of salivary glands. To examine the contribution of paracellular pathway to NKA-induced salivary fluid secretion, the glands were perfused with a perfusate containing Lucifer yellow (LY), a cellular impermeable substance, and then were stimulated with NKA, which provoked secretion of LY in the saliva. These results suggest that the NKA-induced salivary fluid secretion is Ca(2+)-dependent and that the paracellular pathway contributes to the secretion. PMID:20663489

Qi, Bing; Narita, Takanori; Satoh, Keitaro; Guo, Ming-Yu; Katsumata-Kato, Osamu; Murakami, Masataka; Fujita-Yoshigaki, Junko; Sugiya, Hiroshi

2010-10-01

49

Do marmots display a `dear enemy phenomenon' in response to anal gland secretions?  

E-print Network

, Crested Butte, CO, USA Keywords anal gland secretion; dear enemy phenomenon; kinship; Marmota flaviventris. We tested philopatric female yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) for the presence of DEP

Blumstein, Daniel T.

50

Human Parathyroid Hormone Is Secreted Primarily into the Bloodstream After Rat Parotid Gland Gene Transfer  

PubMed Central

Abstract Hypoparathyroidism is a hormone deficiency syndrome that leads to low blood calcium levels and for which current replacement therapy is inadequate. Gene transfer to salivary glands leads to safe and abundant secretion of therapeutic protein into either saliva or the bloodstream. We previously reported the successful transduction of rat submandibular glands with an adenoviral vector encoding human parathyroid hormone (Ad.hPTH), but unfortunately most of the hPTH was secreted into saliva. Because submandibular and parotid glands are morphologically and functionally different, we hypothesized that hPTH sorting might be different in parotid glands. After 2 days, the pattern of hPTH secretion from transduced parotid glands of intact rats was reversed from that of transduced submandibular glands, that is, most transgenic hPTH was detected in serum (5?×?1010 viral particles per gland; the saliva-to-serum ratio of total hPTH secreted was 0.04). Vector copies were localized to the targeted parotid glands, with none detected in liver or spleen. Ad.hPTH next was administered to parotid glands of parathyroidectomized rats. Two days after delivery no hPTH was detectable in saliva, but high levels were found in serum, leading to normalization of serum calcium and a significant increase in the urinary phosphorus-to-creatinine ratio. This study demonstrates for the first time differential sorting of transgenic hPTH between submandibular and parotid glands, suggesting that hPTH may be a valuable model protein for understanding the molecular basis of transgenic secretory protein sorting in these exocrine glands. We also show the clinical potential of salivary gland hPTH gene therapy for patients with hypoparathyroidism. PMID:20977345

Adriaansen, J.; Perez, P.; Zheng, C.; Collins, M.T.

2011-01-01

51

Atrial natriuretic peptide stimulates salt secretion by shark rectal gland by releasing VIP  

SciTech Connect

Salt secretion by the isolated perfused rectal gland of the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, is stimulated by synthetic rat atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP II) as well as extracts of shark heart, but not by 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate. Cardiac peptides have no effect on isolated rectal gland cells or perfused tubules, suggesting that stimulation requires an intact gland. The stimulation of secretion by ANP II is eliminated by maneuvers that block neurotransmitter release. Cardiac peptides stimulate the release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), known to be present in rectal glands nerves, into the venous effluent of perfused glands in parallel with their stimulation of salt secretion, but the release of VIP induced by ANP II is prevented by perfusion with procaine. VIP was measured by radioimmunoassay. Cardiac peptides thus appear to regulate rectal gland secretion by releasing VIP from neural stores within the gland. It is possible that other physiological effects of these hormones might be explained by an action to enhanced local release of neurotransmitters.

Silva, P.; Stoff, J.S.; Solomon, R.J.; Lear, S.; Kniaz, D.; Greger, R.; Epstein, F.H.

1987-01-01

52

Volatile components in scent gland secretions of garter snakes (Thamnophis spp.).  

PubMed

Previous analyses of the scent gland secretions of snakes have focused on the nonvolatile components. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of secretions from North American garter snakes (Thamnophis butleri, T. couchi, T. elegans, T. melanogaster, andT. sirtalis) indicated the following seven major volatile components: acetic, propanoic, 2-methylpropanoic, butanoic, and 3-methylbutanoic acids, trimethylamine, and 2-piperidone. Five or more of these compounds were observed in secretions of select boid, colubrid, pythonid, and viperid snakes, suggesting that they are widespread scent gland products. 3-Methylbutanal also was detected in some snake species. PMID:24234020

Wood, W F; Parker, J M; Weldon, P J

1995-02-01

53

Pilocarpine-induced salivary fluid secretion in the perfused submandibular gland of the rat.  

PubMed

Xerostomia is the symptom of dry mouth often seen in patients who receive head and neck radiation therapy or in patients who have Sjögren's syndrome. The primary treatment to relieve xerostomia symptom is oral administration of pilocarpine, a parasympathomimetic agent with muscarinic action. Increase in salivary secretion induced by systemic administration of pilocarpine is considered to be mediated by actions on muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the central nervous system and salivary glands. In this study, we investigated the direct effect of pilocarpine on salivary fluid secretion in the isolated, perfused rat submandibular gland. Pilocarpine provoked salivary fluid secretion in a dose-dependent manner. The Na(+)-channel blocker tetrodotoxin had almost no effect on the pilocarpine-induced salivary fluid secretion, indicating that pilocarpine directly stimulates submandibular gland. Pilocarpine induced an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in dispersed submandibular gland cells at 37 degrees C, but not 25 degrees C. The salivary fluid secretion induced by pilocarpine was consisted of a rapid and transient phase and a subsequent sustained phase, which profile was different from that evoked by carbachol, another typical muscarinic agonist. Pilocarpine also induced Lucifer yellow secretion via paracellular route. PMID:20224203

Qi, Bing; Narita, Takanori; Sugiya, Hiroshi; Murakami, Masataka

2009-01-01

54

A syringe-like love dart injects male accessory gland products in a tropical hermaphrodite.  

PubMed

Sexual conflict shapes the evolution of many behaviours and processes involved in reproduction. Nearly all evidence supporting this comes from species where the sexes are separated. However, a substantial proportion of animals and most plants are hermaphroditic, and theoretical work predicts that sexual conflict plays an important role even when the sexes are joined within one individual. This seems to have resulted in bizarre mating systems, sophisticated sperm packaging and complex reproductive morphologies. By far the best-known example of such a strategy in hermaphrodites is the shooting of so-called love-darts in land snails. All known love darts carry a gland product on their outside and enter this into the partner's hemolymph by stabbing. Here, we show that species of the snail genus Everettia possess a syringe-like dart that serves as a real injection needle. Their dart is round in cross-section, contains numerous channels, and has perforations along its side. Histology and electron microscopy show that these holes connect to the channels inside the dart and run all the way up to the elaborate mucus glands that are attached to the dart sac. This is the first report on a love dart that is used as a syringe to directly inject the gland product into the partner's hemolymph. Although the exact use and function of this dart remains to be demonstrated, this clearly adds to the complexity of the evolution of reproductive strategies in hermaphrodites in general. Moreover, the perforations on the outside of the love dart resemble features of other injection devices, thus uncovering common design and repeated evolution of such features in animals. PMID:23894565

Koene, Joris M; Liew, Thor-Seng; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Schilthuizen, Menno

2013-01-01

55

A Syringe-Like Love Dart Injects Male Accessory Gland Products in a Tropical Hermaphrodite  

PubMed Central

Sexual conflict shapes the evolution of many behaviours and processes involved in reproduction. Nearly all evidence supporting this comes from species where the sexes are separated. However, a substantial proportion of animals and most plants are hermaphroditic, and theoretical work predicts that sexual conflict plays an important role even when the sexes are joined within one individual. This seems to have resulted in bizarre mating systems, sophisticated sperm packaging and complex reproductive morphologies. By far the best-known example of such a strategy in hermaphrodites is the shooting of so-called love-darts in land snails. All known love darts carry a gland product on their outside and enter this into the partner’s hemolymph by stabbing. Here, we show that species of the snail genus Everettia possess a syringe-like dart that serves as a real injection needle. Their dart is round in cross-section, contains numerous channels, and has perforations along its side. Histology and electron microscopy show that these holes connect to the channels inside the dart and run all the way up to the elaborate mucus glands that are attached to the dart sac. This is the first report on a love dart that is used as a syringe to directly inject the gland product into the partner’s hemolymph. Although the exact use and function of this dart remains to be demonstrated, this clearly adds to the complexity of the evolution of reproductive strategies in hermaphrodites in general. Moreover, the perforations on the outside of the love dart resemble features of other injection devices, thus uncovering common design and repeated evolution of such features in animals. PMID:23894565

Koene, Joris M.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Schilthuizen, Menno

2013-01-01

56

Minimal Salt Load required to induce Secretion from the Nasal Salt Glands of Sea Gulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

MOST investigators1-3 examining the function of the avian nasal salt gland have used a salt load consisting of 1 g NaCl\\/kg body-wt. administered either intravenously or orally. This form of osmotic stimulation will promptly induce secretion of a hypertonic solution of NaCl, ranging in concentration from 400 to 1,200 m.equiv. NaCl\\/1., from the salt gland. Nechay, Larimer and Maren4 were

Larry Z. McFarland

1964-01-01

57

Leg tendon glands in male bumblebees (Bombus terrestris): structure, secretion chemistry, and possible functions.  

PubMed

Among the large number of exocrine glands described in bees, the tarsal glands were thought to be the source of footprint scent marks. However, recent studies showed that the compounds used for marking by stingless bees are secreted by leg tendon instead of tarsal glands. Here, we report on the structure of leg tendon glands in males of Bombus terrestris, together with a description of the chemical composition of their secretions and respective changes of both during the males' lives. The ultrastructure of leg tendon glands shows that the secretory cells are located in three independent regions, separated from each other by unmodified epidermal cells: in the femur, tibia, and basitarsus. Due to the common site of secretion release, the organ is considered a single secretory gland. The secretion of the leg tendon glands of B. terrestris males differs in its composition from those of workers and queens, in particular by (1) having larger proportions of compounds with longer chain lengths, which we identified as wax esters; and (2) by the lack of certain hydrocarbons (especially long chain dienes). Other differences consist in the distribution of double bond positions in the unsaturated hydrocarbons that are predominantly located at position 9 in males but distributed at seven to nine different positions in the female castes. Double bond positions may change chemical and physical properties of a molecule, which can be recognized by the insects and, thus, may serve to convey specific information. The function of male-specific compounds identified from their tendon glands remains elusive, but several possibilities are discussed. PMID:23111660

Jarau, Stefan; Zá?ek, Petr; Sobotník, Jan; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Hadravová, Romana; Coppée, Audrey; Vaší?ková, So?a; Jiroš, Pavel; Valterová, Irena

2012-12-01

58

Leg tendon glands in male bumblebees ( Bombus terrestris): structure, secretion chemistry, and possible functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the large number of exocrine glands described in bees, the tarsal glands were thought to be the source of footprint scent marks. However, recent studies showed that the compounds used for marking by stingless bees are secreted by leg tendon instead of tarsal glands. Here, we report on the structure of leg tendon glands in males of Bombus terrestris, together with a description of the chemical composition of their secretions and respective changes of both during the males' lives. The ultrastructure of leg tendon glands shows that the secretory cells are located in three independent regions, separated from each other by unmodified epidermal cells: in the femur, tibia, and basitarsus. Due to the common site of secretion release, the organ is considered a single secretory gland. The secretion of the leg tendon glands of B. terrestris males differs in its composition from those of workers and queens, in particular by (1) having larger proportions of compounds with longer chain lengths, which we identified as wax esters; and (2) by the lack of certain hydrocarbons (especially long chain dienes). Other differences consist in the distribution of double bond positions in the unsaturated hydrocarbons that are predominantly located at position 9 in males but distributed at seven to nine different positions in the female castes. Double bond positions may change chemical and physical properties of a molecule, which can be recognized by the insects and, thus, may serve to convey specific information. The function of male-specific compounds identified from their tendon glands remains elusive, but several possibilities are discussed.

Jarau, Stefan; Žá?ek, Petr; Šobotník, Jan; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Hadravová, Romana; Coppée, Audrey; Vaší?ková, So?a; Jiroš, Pavel; Valterová, Irena

2012-12-01

59

The "Vampirome": Transcriptome and proteome analysis of the principal and accessory submaxillary glands of the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, a vector of human rabies  

PubMed Central

Vampire bats are notorious for being the sole mammals that strictly feed on fresh blood for their survival. While their saliva has been historically associated with anticoagulants, only one antihemostatic (plasminogen activator) has been molecularly and functionally characterized. Here, RNAs from both principal submandibular and accessory glands of Desmodus rotundus were extracted, and ~ 200 million reads were sequenced by Illumina. The principal gland was enriched with plasminogen activators with fibrinolytic properties, members of lipocalin and secretoglobin families, which bind prohemostatic prostaglandins, and endonucleases, which cleave neutrophil-derived procoagulant NETs. Anticoagulant (tissue factor pathway inhibitor, TFPI), vasodilators (PACAP and C-natriuretic peptide), and metalloproteases (ADAMTS-1) were also abundantly expressed. Members of the TSG-6 (anti-inflammatory), antigen 5/CRISP, and CCL28-like (antimicrobial) protein families were also sequenced. Apyrases (which remove platelet agonist ADP), phosphatases (which degrade procoagulant polyphosphates), and sphingomyelinase were found at lower transcriptional levels. Accessory glands were enriched with antimicrobials (lysozyme, defensin, lactotransferrin) and protease inhibitors (TIL-domain, cystatin, Kazal). Mucins, heme-oxygenase, and IgG chains were present in both glands. Proteome analysis by nano LC-MS/MS confirmed that several transcripts are expressed in the glands. The database presented herein is accessible online at http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/D_rotundus/Supplemental-web.xlsx. These results reveal that bat saliva emerges as a novel source of modulators of vascular biology. PMID:23411029

Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Assumpcao, Teresa C. F.; Ma, Dongying; Li, Yuan; Vicente, Eliane C.; Uieda, Wilson; Ribeiro, Jose M.C.

2013-01-01

60

Trehalase in the spermatophore from the bean-shaped accessory gland of the male mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor : purification, kinetic properties and localization of the enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trehalase from the bean-shaped accessory glands of the male mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, was purified by acid treatment, with subsequent chromatography on columns of DEAE-cellulofine and Sephacryl S-300. The molecular masses of the native and the denatured forms were estimated to be 43 and 62 kDa by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE, respectively, an indication that the trehalase may be composed

T. Yaginuma; T. Mizuno; C. Mizuno; M. Ikeda; T. Wada; K. Hattori; O. Yamashita; G. M. Happ

1996-01-01

61

Male accessory gland protein reduces egg laying in a simultaneous hermaphrodite.  

PubMed

Seminal fluid is an important part of the ejaculate of internally fertilizing animals. This fluid contains substances that nourish and activate sperm for successful fertilization. Additionally, it contains components that influence female physiology to further enhance fertilization success of the sperm donor, possibly beyond the recipient's optimum. Although evidence for such substances abounds, few studies have unraveled their identities, and focus has been exclusively on separate-sex species. We present the first detailed study into the seminal fluid composition of a hermaphrodite (Lymnaea stagnalis). Eight novel peptides and proteins were identified from the seminal-fluid-producing prostate gland and tested for effects on oviposition, hatching and consumption. The gene for the protein found to suppress egg mass production, Ovipostatin, was sequenced, thereby providing the first fully-characterized seminal fluid substance in a simultaneous hermaphrodite. Thus, seminal fluid peptides and proteins have evolved and can play a crucial role in sexual selection even when the sexes are combined. PMID:20404934

Koene, Joris M; Sloot, Wiebe; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Cummins, Scott F; Degnan, Bernard M; Smith, John S; Nagle, Gregg T; ter Maat, Andries

2010-01-01

62

Volatile components in scent gland secretions of garter snakes ( Thamnophis spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous analyses of the scent gland secretions of snakes have focused on the nonvolatile components. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of secretions from North American garter snakes (Thamnophis butleri, T. couchi, T. elegans, T. melanogaster, andT. sirtalis) indicated the following seven major volatile components: acetic, propanoic, 2-methylpropanoic, butanoic, and 3-methylbutanoic acids, trimethylamine, and 2-piperidone. Five or more of these compounds were observed

William F. Wood; Joshua M. Parker; Paul J. Weldon

1995-01-01

63

Effect of male accessory gland products on egg laying in gastropod molluscs.  

PubMed

In internally fertilizing animals, seminal fluid is usually added to the spermatozoa, together forming the semen or ejaculate. Besides nourishing and activating sperm, the components in the seminal fluid can also influence female physiology to augment fertilization success of the sperm donor. While many studies have reported such effects in species with separate sexes, few studies have addressed this in simultaneously hermaphroditic animals. This video protocol presents a method to study effects of seminal fluid in gastropods, using a simultaneously hermaphroditic freshwater snail, the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, as model organism. While the procedure is shown using complete prostate gland extracts, individual components (i.e., proteins, peptides, and other compounds) of the seminal fluid can be tested in the same way. Effects of the receipt of ejaculate components on egg laying can be quantified in terms of frequency of egg laying and more subtle estimates of female reproductive performance such as egg numbers within each egg masses. Results show that seminal fluid proteins affect female reproductive output in this simultaneous hermaphrodite, highlighting their importance for sexual selection. PMID:24998794

van Iersel, Sander; Swart, Elferra M; Nakadera, Yumi; van Straalen, Nico M; Koene, Joris M

2014-01-01

64

Effect of Male Accessory Gland Products on Egg Laying in Gastropod Molluscs  

PubMed Central

In internally fertilizing animals, seminal fluid is usually added to the spermatozoa, together forming the semen or ejaculate. Besides nourishing and activating sperm, the components in the seminal fluid can also influence female physiology to augment fertilization success of the sperm donor. While many studies have reported such effects in species with separate sexes, few studies have addressed this in simultaneously hermaphroditic animals. This video protocol presents a method to study effects of seminal fluid in gastropods, using a simultaneously hermaphroditic freshwater snail, the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, as model organism. While the procedure is shown using complete prostate gland extracts, individual components (i.e., proteins, peptides, and other compounds) of the seminal fluid can be tested in the same way. Effects of the receipt of ejaculate components on egg laying can be quantified in terms of frequency of egg laying and more subtle estimates of female reproductive performance such as egg numbers within each egg masses. Results show that seminal fluid proteins affect female reproductive output in this simultaneous hermaphrodite, highlighting their importance for sexual selection. PMID:24998794

van Iersel, Sander; Swart, Elferra M.; Nakadera, Yumi; van Straalen, Nico M.; Koene, Joris M.

2014-01-01

65

Mucociliary clearance and submucosal gland secretion in the ex vivo ferret trachea.  

PubMed

In many species submucosal glands are an important source of tracheal mucus, but the extent to which mucociliary clearance (MCC) depends on gland secretion is unknown. To explore this relationship, we measured basal and agonist-stimulated MCC velocities in ex vivo tracheas from adult ferrets and compared the velocities with previously measured rates of ferret glandular mucus secretion (Cho HJ, Joo NS, Wine JJ. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 299: L124-L136, 2010). Stimulated MCC velocities (mm/min, means ± SE for 10- to 35-min period poststimulation) were as follows: 1 ?M carbachol: 19.1 ± 3.3 > 10 ?M phenylephrine: 15.3 ± 2.4 ? 10 ?M isoproterenol: 15.0 ± 1.9 ? 10 ?M forskolin: 14.6 ± 3.1 > 1 ?M vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP): 10.2 ± 2.2 > basal (t15): 1.8 ± 0.3; n = 5-10 for each condition. Synergistic stimulation of MCC was observed between low concentrations of carbachol (100 nM) and isoproterenol (300 nM). Bumetanide inhibited carbachol-stimulated MCC by ~70% and abolished the increase in MCC stimulated by forskolin + VIP, whereas HCO3 (-)-free solutions did not significantly inhibit MCC to either intracellular Ca(2+) concentration or intracellular cAMP concentration ([cAMP]i)-elevating agonists. Stimulation and inhibition of MCC and gland secretion differed in several respects: most importantly, elevating [cAMP]i increased MCC much more effectively than expected from its effects on gland secretion, and bumetanide almost completely inhibited [cAMP]i-stimulated MCC while it had a smaller effect on gland secretion. We conclude that changes in glandular fluid secretion are complexly related to MCC and discuss possible reasons for this. PMID:24793168

Jeong, Jin Hyeok; Joo, Nam Soo; Hwang, Peter H; Wine, Jeffrey J

2014-07-01

66

Expression Cloning of a Human alpha 1,4-N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase That Forms GlcNAcalpha 1--> 4Galbeta --> R, a Glycan Specifically Expressed in the Gastric Gland Mucous Cell-Type Mucin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among mucus-secreting cells, the gastric gland mucous cells, Brunner's glands, accessory glands of pancreaticobiliary tract, and pancreatic ducts exhibiting gastric metaplasia are unique in that they express class III mucin identified by paradoxical Con A staining composed of periodate oxidation, sodium borohydride reduction, Con A, and horseradish peroxidase reaction. Recently it was shown that these mucous cells secrete glycoproteins having

Jun Nakayama; Jiunn-Chern Yeh; Anup K. Misra; Susumu Ito; Tsutomu Katsuyama; Minoru Fukuda

1999-01-01

67

Leaf-cutting ant faecal fluid and mandibular gland secretion: effects on microfungi spore germination.  

PubMed

The mandibular gland secretion (MGS) and the faecal fluid (FF) of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel affected the spore germination of selected microfungi isolated from nests of this insect. MGS was more effective than the FF, completely inhibiting the spore germination of four out of six microfungi species. PMID:24031181

Rodrigues, André; Carletti, Carla D; Bueno, Odair C; Pagnocca, Fernando C

2008-01-01

68

Use of anal gland secretion to distinguish the two beaver species Castor canadensis and C. fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosell, F. & Sun, L. 1999: Use of anal gland secretion to distinguish the two beaver species Castor canadensis and C. fiber. - Wildl. Biol. 5: 119-123. Introduced North American beavers Castor canadensis pose a potential threat to the continuing recovery of Eurasian beaver C. fiber populations in several European countries. For management purposes, it is necessary to be able

Frank Rosell; Lixing Sun

69

Do anogenital gland secretions of giant panda code for their sexual ability?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis of whether anogenital gland secretions (AGS) of giant panda code for their sexual ability, we collected\\u000a AGS samples of 11 male (5 adult and 6 subadult) and 14 female (7 adult and 7 subadult) captive giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) from China Research and Conservation Center for the Giant Panda at Wolong, Sichuan, China from 1994 to

Dingzhen Liu; Hong Yuan; Hong Tian; Rongping Wei; Guiquan Zhang; Lixing Sun; Liwen Wang; Ruyong Sun

2006-01-01

70

Chemosensory responses in two species of elephants to constituents of temporal gland secretion and musth urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses three areas of investigation: (1) The chemical components in the temporal gland secretion (TGS) of Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants were characterized by radioimmunoassay (RIA) for testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels and by on-column capillary column gas chromatographic analysis of volatiles. An inverse relationship between TGS testosterone levels and (E)-farnesol levels was observed.

L. E. Little Rasmussen

1988-01-01

71

Synergistic airway gland mucus secretion in response to vasoactive intestinal peptide and carbachol is lost in cystic fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by dysfunction of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion channel whose dysfunction leads to chronic bacterial and fungal airway infections via a pathophysiological cascade that is incompletely understood. Airway glands, which produce most airway mucus, do so in response to both acetylcholine (ACh) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). CF glands fail to secrete mucus in response to VIP, but do so in response to ACh. Because vagal cholinergic pathways still elicit strong gland mucus secretion in CF subjects, it is unclear whether VIP-stimulated, CFTR-dependent gland secretion participates in innate defense. It was recently hypothesized that airway intrinsic neurons, which express abundant VIP and ACh, are normally active and stimulate low-level gland mucus secretion that is a component of innate mucosal defenses. Here we show that low levels of VIP and ACh produced significant mucus secretion in human glands via strong synergistic interactions; synergy was lost in glands of CF patients. VIP/ACh synergy also existed in pig glands, where it was CFTR dependent, mediated by both Cl– and HCO3–, and clotrimazole sensitive. Loss of “housekeeping” gland mucus secretion in CF, in combination with demonstrated defects in surface epithelia, may play a role in the vulnerability of CF airways to bacterial infections. PMID:17853942

Choi, Jae Young; Joo, Nam Soo; Krouse, Mauri E.; Wu, Jin V.; Robbins, Robert C.; Ianowski, Juan P.; Hanrahan, John W.; Wine, Jeffrey J.

2007-01-01

72

Patterns of transcriptome divergence in the male accessory gland of two closely related species of field crickets.  

PubMed

One of the central questions in evolutionary genetics is how much of the genome is involved in the early stages of divergence between populations, causing them to be reproductively isolated. In this article, we investigate genomic differentiation in a pair of closely related field crickets (Gryllus firmus and G. pennsylvanicus). These two species are the result of allopatric divergence and now interact along an extensive hybrid zone in eastern North America. Genes encoding seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) are often divergent between species, and it has been hypothesized that these proteins may play a key role in the origin and maintenance of reproductive isolation between diverging lineages. Hence, we chose to scan the accessory gland transcriptome to enable direct comparisons of differentiation for genes known to encode SFPs with differentiation in a much larger set of genes expressed in the same tissue. We have characterized differences in allele frequency between two populations for >6000 SNPs and >26,000 contigs. About 10% of all SNPs showed nearly fixed differences between the two species. Genes encoding SFPs did not have significantly elevated numbers of fixed SNPs per contig, nor did they seem to show larger differences than expected in their average allele frequencies. The distribution of allele frequency differences across the transcriptome is distinctly bimodal, but the relatively high proportion of fixed SNPs does not necessarily imply "ancient" divergence between these two lineages. Further studies of linkage disequilibrium and introgression across the hybrid zone are needed to direct our attention to those genome regions that are important for reproductive isolation. PMID:23172857

Andrés, Jose A; Larson, Erica L; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Harrison, Richard G

2013-02-01

73

Patterns of Transcriptome Divergence in the Male Accessory Gland of Two Closely Related Species of Field Crickets  

PubMed Central

One of the central questions in evolutionary genetics is how much of the genome is involved in the early stages of divergence between populations, causing them to be reproductively isolated. In this article, we investigate genomic differentiation in a pair of closely related field crickets (Gryllus firmus and G. pennsylvanicus). These two species are the result of allopatric divergence and now interact along an extensive hybrid zone in eastern North America. Genes encoding seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) are often divergent between species, and it has been hypothesized that these proteins may play a key role in the origin and maintenance of reproductive isolation between diverging lineages. Hence, we chose to scan the accessory gland transcriptome to enable direct comparisons of differentiation for genes known to encode SFPs with differentiation in a much larger set of genes expressed in the same tissue. We have characterized differences in allele frequency between two populations for >6000 SNPs and >26,000 contigs. About 10% of all SNPs showed nearly fixed differences between the two species. Genes encoding SFPs did not have significantly elevated numbers of fixed SNPs per contig, nor did they seem to show larger differences than expected in their average allele frequencies. The distribution of allele frequency differences across the transcriptome is distinctly bimodal, but the relatively high proportion of fixed SNPs does not necessarily imply “ancient” divergence between these two lineages. Further studies of linkage disequilibrium and introgression across the hybrid zone are needed to direct our attention to those genome regions that are important for reproductive isolation. PMID:23172857

Andres, Jose A.; Larson, Erica L.; Bogdanowicz, Steven M.; Harrison, Richard G.

2013-01-01

74

Chemical constituents of the femoral gland secretions of male tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae) (Family teiidae).  

PubMed

In spite of the importance of chemical signals (pheromones) in the reproductive behaviour of lizards, the chemical compounds secreted by their femoral glands, which may be used as sexual signals, are only known for a few lizard species. Based on mass spectra, obtained by GC-MS, we found 49 lipophilic compounds in femoral gland secretions of male tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae) (fam. Teiidae), including a very high proportion of carboxylic acids and their esters ranging between n-C8 and n-C20 (mainly octadecanoic and 9,12-octadecadienoic acids), with much less proportions of steroids, tocopherol, aldehydes, and squalene. We discuss the potential function of these compounds in secretions, and compare the compounds found here with those documented for other lizard species. PMID:21950170

Martín, José; Chamut, Silvia; Manes, Mario E; López, Pilar

2011-01-01

75

The comparative morphology of epidermal glands in Pentatomoidea (Heteroptera).  

PubMed

The Heteroptera show a diversity of glands associated with the epidermis. They have multiple roles including the production of noxious scents. Here, we examine the cellular arrangement and cytoskeletal components of the scent glands of pentatomoid Heteroptera in three families, Pentatomidae (stink bugs), Tessaratomidae, and Scutelleridae (shield-backed bugs or jewel bugs). The glands are; (1) the dorsal abdominal glands, (2) the tubular glands of the composite metathoracic gland, and (3) the accessory gland component of the composite metathoracic gland. The dorsal abdominal glands are at their largest in nymphs and decrease in size in adults. The metathoracic gland is an adult-specific gland unit with a reservoir and multiple types of gland cells. The accessory gland is composed of many unicellular glands concentrated in a sinuous line across the reservoir wall. The lateral tubular gland is composed of two-cell units. The dorsal abdominal glands of nymphs are composed of three-cell units with a prominent cuticular component derived from the saccule cell sitting between the duct and receiving canal. The cuticular components that channel secretion from the microvilli of the secretory cell to the exterior differ in the three gland types. The significance of the numbers of cells comprising gland units is related to the role of cells in regenerating the cuticular components of the glands at moulting in nymphs. PMID:24747726

Kheyri, Homayoun; Cribb, Bronwen W; Merritt, David J

2014-05-01

76

Atypical Secretions of the Male Cephalic Labial Glands in Bumblebees: The Case of Bombus (Rhodobombus) mesomelas Gerstaecker  

E-print Network

Atypical Secretions of the Male Cephalic Labial Glands in Bumblebees: The Case of Bombus420220183298; fax: þ420220183 582; e-mail: irena@uochb.cas.cz) In bumblebees, the male secretion the most volatile compounds that are present in the secretions of all the other studied bumblebee species

Rasmont, Pierre

77

Adiponectin Increases Secretion of Rat Submandibular Gland via Adiponectin Receptors-Mediated AMPK Signaling  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin and adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1/2) are expressed in various tissues and are involved in the regulation of multiple functions such as energy metabolism and inflammatory responses. However, the effect of adiponectin and AdipoRs in submandibular glands has not been fully evaluated. In the present study, we found that mRNA and protein of both adiponectin and AdipoR1/2 were expressed in rat submandibular glands and in the SMG-C6 cell line, as evidenced by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Immunofluorescence staining showed that adiponectin was diffused in the cytoplasm, while AdipoR1/2 was concentrated in the membrane of acinar cells. Saliva flow was significantly increased by full length adiponectin (fAd) or globular adiponectin (gAd) perfusion in isolated rat submandibular glands. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR), an adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, also increased saliva secretion. fAd, gAd, and AICAR all increased the average width of apical tight junctions in perfused submandibular glands, and decreased transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in SMG-C6 cells, suggesting that adiponectin promoted secretion by modulating paracellular permeability. fAd and gAd increased p-AMPK levels, while AraA, an AMPK antagonist, abolished fAd- and gAd-induced changes in secretion, tight junction ultrastructure, and TER. Moreover, both AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were required for fAd- or gAd-induced p-AMPK and TER responses, suggesting from their inhibition following AdipoR1 or AdipoR2 knockdown, and co-knockdown of AdipoRs by RNA interference. Our results suggest that adiponectin functions as a promoter of salivary secretion in rat submandibular glands via activation of AdipoRs, AMPK, and paracellular permeability. PMID:23667684

Ding, Chong; Li, Li; Su, Yun-Chao; Xiang, Ruo-Lan; Cong, Xin; Yu, Hong-Kui; Li, Sheng-Lin; Wu, Li-Ling; Yu, Guang-Yan

2013-01-01

78

HCO3(-) secretion by murine nasal submucosal gland serous acinar cells during Ca2+-stimulated fluid secretion.  

PubMed

Airway submucosal glands contribute to airway surface liquid (ASL) composition and volume, both important for lung mucociliary clearance. Serous acini generate most of the fluid secreted by glands, but the molecular mechanisms remain poorly characterized. We previously described cholinergic-regulated fluid secretion driven by Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) secretion in primary murine serous acinar cells revealed by simultaneous differential interference contrast (DIC) and fluorescence microscopy. Here, we evaluated whether Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) secretion was accompanied by secretion of HCO(3)(-), possibly a critical ASL component, by simultaneous measurements of intracellular pH (pH(i)) and cell volume. Resting pH(i) was 7.17 +/- 0.01 in physiological medium (5% CO(2)-25 mM HCO(3)(-)). During carbachol (CCh) stimulation, pH(i) fell transiently by 0.08 +/- 0.01 U concomitantly with a fall in Cl(-) content revealed by cell shrinkage, reflecting Cl(-) secretion. A subsequent alkalinization elevated pH(i) to above resting levels until agonist removal, whereupon it returned to prestimulation values. In nominally CO(2)-HCO(3)(-)-free media, the CCh-induced acidification was reduced, whereas the alkalinization remained intact. Elimination of driving forces for conductive HCO(3)(-) efflux by ion substitution or exposure to the Cl(-) channel inhibitor niflumic acid (100 microM) strongly inhibited agonist-induced acidification by >80% and >70%, respectively. The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) inhibitor dimethylamiloride (DMA) increased the magnitude (greater than twofold) and duration of the CCh-induced acidification. Gene expression profiling suggested that serous cells express NHE isoforms 1-4 and 6-9, but pharmacological sensitivities demonstrated that alkalinization observed during both CCh stimulation and pH(i) recovery from agonist-induced acidification was primarily due to NHE1, localized to the basolateral membrane. These results suggest that serous acinar cells secrete HCO(3)(-) during Ca(2+)-evoked fluid secretion by a mechanism that involves the apical membrane secretory Cl(-) channel, with HCO(3)(-) secretion sustained by activation of NHE1 in the basolateral membrane. In addition, other Na(+)-dependent pH(i) regulatory mechanisms exist, as evidenced by stronger inhibition of alkalinization in Na(+)-free media. PMID:18591422

Lee, Robert J; Harlow, Janice M; Limberis, Maria P; Wilson, James M; Foskett, J Kevin

2008-07-01

79

A local pathway for increased testosterone supply from the testis to the epididymis, vas deferens and accessory genital glands of the rat.  

PubMed

Radiolabeled testosterone (3H-T) was infused into the testes or left and right mesofuniculus (106 dpm) or injected into a testes (2 x 10(6) dpm). The 3H-T concentration was estimated 15 or 10 min after 3H-T infusion or injection, respectively, in the tissue samples collected from the prostate, seminal vesicles, caput and cauda epididymides, vasa deferentia and the mesofuniculi. The abdominal aorta and posterior vena cava were cannulated, and the posterior part of the body perfused with blood (at blood pressure 70-140 or 260-300 mm Hg in abdominal aorta) was used to study 3H-T transfer from the testes to venous blood and other male genital organs. The concentration of 3H-T found in the accessory genital glands, epididymes and vasa deferentia was affected by blood pressure in the abdominal aorta. The reduced blood pressure and partial blocking of blood supply to the genital organs (after ligation of both testicular arteries or the terminal part of the abdominal aorta) increased the concentration of 3H-T in accessory genital glands, vasa deferentia and epididymes. The removal of the mesofuniculi and vasa deferentia with their mesoducti reduced 3H-T concentration in the prostate, seminal vesicles and cauda epididymides. Both arterial trunks, testicular arteries and common iliac arteries, were shown to be connected by anastomoses in target organs so effectively, that supplying the male genital organs with blood by only one of them assures the transfer of testosterone from the testes to the epididymes, vasa deferentia, mesofuniculi as well as prostate and seminal vesicles. It was concluded that lymphatic vessels of the mesofunicules and of the spermatic cords as well as venous and arterial vasculature of the mesofunicules create a recently unknown pathway for the increase of testosterone supply from the testes to the epididymes, vasa deferentia and accessory genital glands of rats. PMID:16180578

Krzymowski, T; Stefa?czyk-Krzymowska, S; Gilun, P; Radomski, M; Koziorowski, M

2005-01-01

80

Colony specificity of Dufour gland secretions in a functionally monogynous ant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   Queens in colonies of the small myrmicine ant, Leptothorax gredleri Mayr 1855 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) engage in dominance interactions and form social hierarchies, in which typically only\\u000a the top-ranking queen lays eggs. Occasionally, queen antagonism escalates to violent mandible fighting, during which the sting\\u000a is used to apply Dufour gland secretions onto the cuticle of the opponent. Contaminated queens often

Jürgen Heinze; Björn Oberstadt; Jutta Tentschert; Bert Hölldobler; Hans Jürgen Bestmann

1998-01-01

81

Cidea control of lipid storage and secretion in mouse and human sebaceous glands.  

PubMed

Sebaceous glands are skin appendages that secrete sebum onto hair follicles to lubricate the hair and maintain skin homeostasis. In this study, we demonstrated that Cidea is expressed at high levels in lipid-laden mature sebocytes and that Cidea deficiency led to dry hair and hair loss in aged mice. In addition, Cidea-deficient mice had markedly reduced levels of skin surface lipids, including triacylglycerides (TAGs) and wax diesters (WDEs), and these mice were defective in water repulsion and thermoregulation. Furthermore, we observed that Cidea-deficient sebocytes accumulated a large number of smaller-sized lipid droplets (LDs), whereas overexpression of Cidea in human SZ95 sebocytes resulted in increased lipid storage and the accumulation of large LDs. Importantly, Cidea was highly expressed in human sebaceous glands, and its expression levels were positively correlated with human sebum secretion. Our data revealed that Cidea is a crucial regulator of sebaceous gland lipid storage and sebum lipid secretion in mammals and humans. PMID:24636991

Zhang, Shasha; Shui, Guanghou; Wang, Guanqun; Wang, Chao; Sun, Shuhong; Zouboulis, Christos C; Xiao, Ran; Ye, Jing; Li, Wei; Li, Peng

2014-05-01

82

Cidea Control of Lipid Storage and Secretion in Mouse and Human Sebaceous Glands  

PubMed Central

Sebaceous glands are skin appendages that secrete sebum onto hair follicles to lubricate the hair and maintain skin homeostasis. In this study, we demonstrated that Cidea is expressed at high levels in lipid-laden mature sebocytes and that Cidea deficiency led to dry hair and hair loss in aged mice. In addition, Cidea-deficient mice had markedly reduced levels of skin surface lipids, including triacylglycerides (TAGs) and wax diesters (WDEs), and these mice were defective in water repulsion and thermoregulation. Furthermore, we observed that Cidea-deficient sebocytes accumulated a large number of smaller-sized lipid droplets (LDs), whereas overexpression of Cidea in human SZ95 sebocytes resulted in increased lipid storage and the accumulation of large LDs. Importantly, Cidea was highly expressed in human sebaceous glands, and its expression levels were positively correlated with human sebum secretion. Our data revealed that Cidea is a crucial regulator of sebaceous gland lipid storage and sebum lipid secretion in mammals and humans. PMID:24636991

Zhang, Shasha; Shui, Guanghou; Wang, Guanqun; Wang, Chao; Sun, Shuhong; Zouboulis, Christos C.; Xiao, Ran; Ye, Jing; Li, Wei

2014-01-01

83

The elasmobranch rectal gland secretes a plasma-hypertonic solution that is generally considered to play a major role in  

E-print Network

The elasmobranch rectal gland secretes a plasma-hypertonic solution that is generally considered- concentration totals nearly 1000mmoll-1, approximately double that in the plasma (Burger and Hess, 1960; Burger-B type (Gunning et al., 1993), and the shark homologue has been cloned from the rectal gland (Aller et al

Evans, David H.

84

Offsetting effects of Wolbachia infection and heat shock on sperm production in Drosophila simulans: analyses of fecundity, fertility and accessory gland proteins.  

PubMed Central

Infection in Drosophila simulans with the endocellular symbiont Wolbachia pipientis results in egg lethality caused by failure to properly initiate diploid development (cytoplasmic incompatibility, CI). The relationship between Wolbachia infection and reproductive factors influencing male fitness has not been well examined. Here we compare infected and uninfected strains of D. simulans for (1) sperm production, (2) male fertility, and (3) the transfer and processing of two accessory gland proteins, Acp26Aa or Acp36De. Infected males produced significantly fewer sperm cysts than uninfected males over the first 10 days of adult life, and infected males, under varied mating conditions, had lower fertility compared to uninfected males. This fertility effect was due to neither differences between infected and uninfected males in the transfer and subsequent processing of accessory gland proteins by females nor to the presence of Wolbachia in mature sperm. We found that heat shock, which is known to decrease CI expression, increases sperm production to a greater extent in infected compared to uninfected males, suggesting a possible link between sperm production and heat shock. Given these results, the roles Wolbachia and heat shock play in mediating male gamete production may be important parameters for understanding the dynamics of infection in natural populations. PMID:10790392

Snook, R R; Cleland, S Y; Wolfner, M F; Karr, T L

2000-01-01

85

Pharmacogenetics of human ABC transporter ABCC11: new insights into apocrine gland growth and metabolite secretion  

PubMed Central

Cell secretion is an important physiological process that ensures smooth metabolic activities and tissue repair as well as growth and immunological functions in the body. Apocrine secretion occurs when the secretory process is accomplished with a partial loss of cell cytoplasm. The secretory materials are contained within secretory vesicles and are released during secretion as cytoplasmic fragments into the glandular lumen or interstitial space. The recent finding that the non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) 538G > A (rs17822931; Gly180Arg) in the ABCC11 gene determines the type of earwax in humans has shed light on the novel function of this ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter in apocrine glands. The wild-type (Gly180) of ABCC11 is associated with wet-type earwax, axillary osmidrosis, and colostrum secretion from the mammary gland as well as the potential risk of mastopathy. Furthermore, the SNP (538G > A) in the ABCC11 gene is suggested to be a clinical biomarker for the prediction of chemotherapeutic efficacy. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview on the discovery and characterization of genetic polymorphisms in the human ABCC11 gene and to explain the impact of ABCC11 538G > A on the apocrine phenotype as well as the anthropological aspect of this SNP in the ABCC11 gene and patients’ response to nucleoside-based chemotherapy. PMID:23316210

Ishikawa, Toshihisa; Toyoda, Yu; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro; Niikawa, Norio

2013-01-01

86

Pharmacogenetics of human ABC transporter ABCC11: new insights into apocrine gland growth and metabolite secretion.  

PubMed

Cell secretion is an important physiological process that ensures smooth metabolic activities and tissue repair as well as growth and immunological functions in the body. Apocrine secretion occurs when the secretory process is accomplished with a partial loss of cell cytoplasm. The secretory materials are contained within secretory vesicles and are released during secretion as cytoplasmic fragments into the glandular lumen or interstitial space. The recent finding that the non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) 538G > A (rs17822931; Gly180Arg) in the ABCC11 gene determines the type of earwax in humans has shed light on the novel function of this ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter in apocrine glands. The wild-type (Gly180) of ABCC11 is associated with wet-type earwax, axillary osmidrosis, and colostrum secretion from the mammary gland as well as the potential risk of mastopathy. Furthermore, the SNP (538G > A) in the ABCC11 gene is suggested to be a clinical biomarker for the prediction of chemotherapeutic efficacy. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview on the discovery and characterization of genetic polymorphisms in the human ABCC11 gene and to explain the impact of ABCC11 538G > A on the apocrine phenotype as well as the anthropological aspect of this SNP in the ABCC11 gene and patients' response to nucleoside-based chemotherapy. PMID:23316210

Ishikawa, Toshihisa; Toyoda, Yu; Yoshiura, Koh-Ichiro; Niikawa, Norio

2012-01-01

87

Flagellin/TLR5 signaling potentiates airway serous secretion from swine tracheal submucosal glands.  

PubMed

Airway serous secretion is essential for the maintenance of mucociliary transport in airway mucosa, which is responsible for the upregulation of mucosal immunity. Although there are many articles concerning the importance of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in airway immune systems, the direct relationship between TLRs and airway serous secretion has not been well investigated. Here, we focused on whether TLR5 ligand flagellin, which is one of the components of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is involved in the upregulation of airway serous secretion. Freshly isolated swine tracheal submucosal gland cells were prepared, and the standard patch-clamp technique was applied for measurements of the whole cell ionic responses of these cells. Flagellin showed potentiating effects on these oscillatory currents induced by physiologically relevant low doses of acetylcholine (ACh) in a dose-dependent manner. These potentiating effects were TLR5 dependent but TLR4 independent. Both nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK) inhibitors abolished these flagellin-induced potentiating effects. Furthermore, TLR5 was abundantly expressed on tracheal submucosal glands. Flagellin/TLR5 signaling further accelerated the intracellular NO synthesis induced by ACh. These findings suggest that TLR5 takes part in the airway mucosal defense systems as a unique endogenous potentiator of airway serous secretions and that NO/cGMP/cGK signaling is involved in this rapid potentiation by TLR5 signaling. PMID:24097563

Muramatsu, Soshi; Tamada, Tsutomu; Nara, Masayuki; Murakami, Koji; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Kanehira, Masahiko; Maruyama, Yoshio; Ebina, Masahito; Nukiwa, Toshihiro; Ichinose, Masakazu

2013-12-01

88

The influence of progestin and androgen on the fine structure of the male reproductive tract of the rat. II. Epididymis and sex accessory glands.  

PubMed

Young adult male rats were administered medroxyprogesterone (Provera, Upjohn) alone and in combination with testosterone,as has been done to inhibit male fertility. The histology and the fine structure of several segments of the epididymis, the ventral prostate, and the seminal vesicle were studied at intervals after treatment for up to 16 weeks. The epididymides of treated animals weighed less than those of control rats. Microscopic alterations in the epididymis were similar in rats treated with Provera alone and in those animals that received Provera and testosterone, but the changes varied with the segment of the epididymis. In the middle segment in the caput epididymidis, the normally abundant luminal sperm were absent but the epithelium retained its normal ultrastructural features. In the terminal segment in the cauda epididymidis, different changes were observed in the proximal and distal portions. In the proximal cauda epididymidis, the lumen was small, irregular in outline, and virtually devoid of sperm. The light cells of the epididymal epithelium in the proximal cauda contained extremely large numbers of dense bodies resembling lysosomes, which occupied most of the supranuclear and basal cytoplasm. In contrast, in the distal part of the cauda epididymidis, the epithelium had a normal appearance but the lumen was filled with debris, sperm, and spherical masses of cytoplasm that were apparently derived from germ cells. It is suggested that the clearing of the lumen of the proximal cauda epididymidis may reflect the greater activity of light cells of the epididymal epithelium in that region. Although alterations in spermatogenesis may be most important in the antifertility effect of progestin and androgen, these alterations in epididymal sperm and epithelium may also play a role. The weights of the prostate and seminal vesicles of rats treated with Provera (1 mg/100 g/day) were greatly reduced compared to those of control rats. Although there was considerable variation, in many specimens treated with Provera alone the epithelium of the prostate showed a change from a columnar to a cuboidal or squamous shape, and there was a reduction in the size and abundance of organelles involved in the formation of secretions. The microscopic structure of the seminal vesicle of rats treated with Provera was less severely affected than the prostate. Although the seminal vesicle epithelium of Provera-treated rats was generally not as tall as in control animals, the cells possessed parallel cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum, secretory vacuoles, and an active-appearing Golgi apparatus, suggesting that they continued to be able to form secretions in the presence of Provera. The weights of the sex accessory glands were maintained at control levels by the administration of testosterone, 100 mug/100 g/day, along with the Provera. A normal fine structure was present in the epithelium of both the prostate and seminal vesicle of rats administered this amount of testosterone in addition to Provera... PMID:848779

Flickinger, C J

1977-04-01

89

Gross morphology and ultrastructure of salivary glands of the mute cicada Karenia caelatata Distant (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea).  

PubMed

Salivary glands of the cicada Karenia caelatata Distant were investigated using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The salivary glands are paired structures and consist of principal glands and accessory glands. The principal gland is subdivided into anterior lobe and posterior lobe; the former contains about 34-39 long digitate lobules, while the latter contains approximately 30-33 long digitate lobules and 13-22 short digitate lobules. These short digitate lobules, about one fifth or sixth as long as the long digitate lobules, locate at the base of the long digitate lobules of posterior lobe. All of these digitate lobules vary in size, disposition, length and shape. The anterior lobe and the posterior lobe are connected by an anterior-posterior duct. Two efferent salivary ducts, which connect with the posterior lobe, fuse to form a common duct. The accessory gland is composed of three parts: a greatly tortuous and folded accessory salivary tube, a circlet of gular gland constituting of several acini of the same size, and a non-collapsible accessory salivary duct. The digitate lobules and gular glands possess secretory cells containing abundant secretory granules vary in size, shape, and electron density, as might indicate different materials are synthesized in different secretory regions. The anterior-posterior duct lines with a player of cuticular lining, and cells beneath the cuticular lining lack of basal infoldings, as suggests the duct serves just to transport secretions. The accessory salivary duct is lined with cuticular lining; cells of the duct have well developed basal infoldings associated with abundant mitochondria, as probably suggests the duct is a reabsorptive region of ions. The cells of the accessory salivary tube possess deep basal infoldings and well developed apical dense microvilli, indicating the cells of the tube are secretory in function. Concentric lamellar structures and a peculiar structure with abundant membrane-bound vesicles and secretory granules are observed for the first time, but their derivation and function remain unclear. The morphology and ultrastructure differences observed in the principal glands and accessory gland of the salivary glands of K. caelatata indicate that the sheath saliva was secreted by the principal glands, and the watery saliva was secreted by the accessory salivary glands. Rod-shaped microorganisms are found in the salivary glands (i.e., accessory salivary duct, gular gland, and long digitate lobule of salivary glands) for the first time, and their identity, function, and relationship to microorganisms residing in the salivary glands and/or other parts of alimentary canal of other cicadas need to be investigated further. PMID:23245811

Zhong, Hai-ying; Wei, Cong; Zhang, Ya-lin

2013-02-01

90

Luteinizing hormone secretion by dispersed anterior pituitary gland cells from middle-aged rats.  

PubMed

Several studies have shown that a certain subpopulation of middle-aged rats have an attenuated preovulatory LH surge, and that this is an early indicator of a general decline in reproductive cyclicity. The pituitary glands of middle-aged animals with attenuated LH surges have been shown to be significantly less responsive to GnRH than those from young (Y) animals. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between the in vivo LH surge and the in vitro secretory capacity of dispersed anterior pituitary gland cells from the same animals. Individual LH-secreting cells were also studied with respect to their LH secretory capacity and proportionate numbers in the pituitary gland using reverse hemolytic plaque assay (RHPA). Two groups of animals, young (4-5 months old) and middle-aged (10-12 months old), were sampled on the afternoon of proestrus to determine the amplitudes of their preovulatory LH surges. The middle-aged animals were then classified as either normal (MAN) or attenuated (MAA) with regard to the peak levels of the surges. On the next proestrus, dispersed anterior pituitary gland cells were prepared for either perifusion or RHPA. Perifused anterior pituitary gland cells were exposed to three 2.5-min pulses of GnRH(30 nM) at 60-min intervals. In the RHPA, red blood cells were treated with protein-A to allow coating with rabbit antiovine LH-beta, and then co-incubated with anterior pituitary gland cells. The cells were then treated with one of several concentrations of GnRH (0.01, 1.0, 10, or 100 nM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7898637

Krieg, R J; Brito, A N; Sayles, T E; Matt, D W

1995-03-01

91

Behavioral and olfactory antennal responses of Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) workers to their dufour gland secretion.  

PubMed

Behavioral and electrophysiological tests were performed to evaluate the responses of workers of the ant Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) from different size categories to Dufour gland extracts. Morphometric measures based in head widths across eyes were used to determine worker sizes. Trail following response of different worker sizes to Dufour gland extract from workers of different sizes was assessed. For each worker size category olfactory responses to Dufour gland extracts were determined using electroantennography (EAG). Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to determine the chromatographic profile of Dufour gland secretion for each worker size. Morphometric measures permitted to classify the workers of S. geminata as large, medium and small workers. Medium S. geminata workers displayed a significantly higher behavioral response to Dufour gland extracts produced by medium size workers. Similarly, medium workers showed a significantly higher EAG response to Dufour gland extracts produced by medium sized workers. Chromatographic profile of Dufour gland secretions produced by workers showed that each size category exhibited a characteristic profile of the three main components considered as potential trail pheromone constituents. This work showed that medium workers of S. geminata exhibited a high trail-following behavior as well as a high antennal response to Dufour gland secretion. This and their relative abundance in field foraging areas, suggest that medium-sized workers are specialized in foraging activities. PMID:18506290

Brindis, Yolanda; Lachaud, Jean P; Gómez Y Gómez, Benigno; Rojas, Julio C; Malo, Edi A; Cruz-López, Leopoldo

2008-01-01

92

Freeze-fracture observations of the lactating rat mammary gland. Membrane events during milk fat secretion  

PubMed Central

Membrane events during milk fat secretion were analyzed by freeze- fracture of the rat mammary gland. Two modes of milk fat secretion were observed: extrusion of fat droplets surrounded by a portion of the apical plasma membrane of the alveolar epithelial cells and, less frequently, release into the alveolar lumen of fat droplets contained in intracytoplasmic vacuoles. The extrusion process consists of two asynchronous events: clearing of membrane particles (probably including integral membrane proteins) and bulging of the apical plasma membrane. Most fat droplets are extruded with a bilayer membrane envelope (milk fat globule membrane) partially devoid of particles. The segregation of membrane particles may represent the onset of a process of structural degradation of the milk fat globule membrane. PMID:632326

1978-01-01

93

Cystic fibrosis and the relationship between mucin and chloride secretion by cultures of human airway gland mucous cells  

PubMed Central

—We investigated how cystic fibrosis (CF) alters the relationship between Cl? and mucin secretion in cultures of non-CF and CF human tracheobronchial gland mucous (HTGM and CFTGM, respectively) cells. Biochemical studies showed that HTMG cells secreted typical airway mucins, and immunohistochemical studies showed that these cells expressed MUC1, MUC4, MUC5B, MUC8, MUC13, MUC16, and MUC20. Effects of cumulative doses of methacholine (MCh), phenylephrine (Phe), isoproterenol (Iso), and ATP on mucin and Cl? secretion were studied on HTGM and CFTGM cultures. Baseline mucin secretion was not significantly altered in CFTGM cells, and the increases in mucin secretion induced by mediators were unaltered (Iso, Phe) or slightly decreased (MCh, ATP). Across mediators, there was no correlation between the maximal increases in Cl? secretion and mucin secretion. In HTGM cells, the Cl? channel blocker, diphenylamine-2-carboxylic acid, greatly inhibited Cl? secretion but did not alter mucin release. In HTGM cells, mediators (10?5 M) increased mucin secretion in the rank order ATP > Phe = Iso > MCh. They increased Cl? secretion in the sequence ATP > MCh ? Iso > Phe. The responses in Cl? secretion to MCh, ATP, and Phe were unaltered by CF, but the response to Iso was greatly reduced. We conclude that mucin secretion by cultures of human tracheobronchial gland cells is independent of Cl? secretion, at baseline, and is unaltered in CF; that the ratio of Cl? secretion to mucus secretion varies markedly depending on mediator; and that secretions induced by stimulation of ?-adrenergic receptors will be abnormally concentrated in CF. PMID:21724859

Zlock, Lorna T.; Morikawa, Masatoshi; Lao, Anna Y.; Dasari, Vijay; Widdicombe, Jonathan H.

2011-01-01

94

Mandibular and postpharyngeal gland secretions of Acromyrmex landolti (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as chemical cues for nestmate recognition.  

PubMed

Nestmate recognition is fundamental for the cohesiveness of the colony in social insects. Acromyrmex landolti is a higher Attini, a leaf-cutter ant with largest nest and morphological castes. We studied the location of the recognition signal of A. landolti on the whole ant body, the isolation effect on the capacity of nestmate recognition, and the role of the mandibular (MG) and post-pharyngeal glands (PPG) as putative sources for chemical recognition signals in this species. We performed behavioral bioassays and chemical analyses of MG and PPG glands; MG volatiles in different castes were also characterized. In order to determine the occurrence of nestmate recognition signals, behavioral tests were performed for which the whole body, body parts or gland extracts from a nestmate and an alien worker ant, were placed on the central axis of an active field trail. Besides, the isolation effect of the nestmate chemical signal persistence was evaluated by repeating the experiments with whole ant bodies after 12 h, 24 h and 48 h of isolation. The agonistic behavior of the ants on the trail was classified as inspection, threatening and biting. Gland volatiles were obtained by headspace solid phase microextraction, and PPG by solid sample analyses; and chemical analyses were performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Workers performed agonistic behaviors more frequently towards non-nestmate whole bodies, body parts and gland extracts, primarily those from the post-pharyngeal glands. Nestmate thoraces odorized with alien extracts were also recognized from aliens. Nestmate recognition ability persists for 12 h and 24 h after isolation, but decreases after 48 h, suggesting that the chemical signal changes over time. Inter-colonial chemical analyses showed no differences in the PPG hydrocarbon profiles, while the relative proportions of MG compounds showed significant differences between colonies. These results showed that nestmate recognition was achieved by MG volatiles. Possibly, the PPG secretion works as a matrix that absorbs MG volatiles. We report, for the first time, some mandibular gland compounds for the genus Acromyrmex and for the tribe Attini group. PMID:24027922

Sainz-Borgo, Cristina; Leal, Bernardo; Cabrera, Aivlé; Hernández, José V

2013-09-01

95

Purinergic P2X7 Receptors Mediate ATP-induced Saliva Secretion by the Mouse Submandibular Gland*  

PubMed Central

Salivary glands express multiple isoforms of P2X and P2Y nucleotide receptors, but their in vivo physiological roles are unclear. P2 receptor agonists induced salivation in an ex vivo submandibular gland preparation. The nucleotide selectivity sequence of the secretion response was BzATP ? ATP > ADP ? UTP, and removal of external Ca2+ dramatically suppressed the initial ATP-induced fluid secretion (?85%). Together, these results suggested that P2X receptors are the major purinergic receptor subfamily involved in the fluid secretion process. Mice with targeted disruption of the P2X7 gene were used to evaluate the role of the P2X7 receptor in nucleotide-evoked fluid secretion. P2X7 receptor protein and BzATP-activated inward cation currents were absent, and importantly, purinergic receptor agonist-stimulated salivation was suppressed by more than 70% in submandibular glands from P2X7-null mice. Consistent with these observations, the ATP-induced increases in [Ca2+]i were nearly abolished in P2X7–/– submandibular acinar and duct cells. ATP appeared to also act through the P2X7 receptor to inhibit muscarinic-induced fluid secretion. These results demonstrate that the ATP-sensitive P2X7 receptor regulates fluid secretion in the mouse submandibular gland. PMID:19097994

Nakamoto, Tetsuji; Brown, David A.; Catalan, Marcelo A.; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Romanenko, Victor G.; Melvin, James E.

2009-01-01

96

Chemical composition of the frontal gland secretion ofSyntermes soldiers (Isoptera, Termitidae).  

PubMed

The defensive secretions from the frontal glands of soldier termites of the genusSyntermes contain similar mixtures of mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The major components inS. dirus, S. molestus, S. brevimalatus, S. peruanus, and a new species (Syntermes sp. n), iscis-?-ocimene. A substantial amount of aristolochene is found inSyntermes sp. n. and is present at lower levels in all the other species;S. brevimalatus contains onlycis-?-ocimene and aristolochene. The four other species also contain minor amounts of epi-?-selinene and germacrene A. The latter compound has been identified on the basis of its rearrangement product ?-elemene. The termiteS. grandis differed markedly from the otherSyntermes species in that no terpenoid components were found in the soldier extract. With the obvious exception ofS. grandis, the same soldier-specific mono- and sesquiterpenes occurred in all species. The total amount of secretion per unit weight of soldiers varies with the species and is inversely proportional to the development of the mandibular apparatus. InS. molestus smaller gland size is compensated for by a greater number of soldiers foraging trails. PMID:24420433

Baker, R; Coles, H R; Edwards, M; Evans, D A; Howse, P E; Walmsley, S

1981-01-01

97

Microarray analysis of the rat lacrimal gland following the loss of parasympathetic control of secretion.  

PubMed

Previous studies showed that loss of muscarinic parasympathetic input to the lacrimal gland (LG) leads to a dramatic reduction in tear secretion and profound changes to LG structure. In this study, we used DNA microarrays to examine the regulation of the gene expression of the genes for secretory function and organization of the LG. Long-Evans rats anesthetized with a mixture of ketamine/xylazine (80:10 mg/kg) underwent unilateral sectioning of the greater superficial petrosal nerve, the input to the pterygopalatine ganglion. After 7 days, tear secretion was measured, the animals were killed, and structural changes in the LG were examined by light microscopy. Total RNA from control and experimental LGs (n = 5) was used for DNA microarray analysis employing the U34A GeneChip. Three statistical algorithms (detection, change call, and signal log ratio) were used to determine differential gene expression using the Microarray Suite (5.0) and Data Mining Tools (3.0). Tear secretion was significantly reduced and corneal ulcers developed in all experimental eyes. Light microscopy showed breakdown of the acinar structure of the LG. DNA microarray analysis showed downregulation of genes associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi, including genes involved in protein folding and processing. Conversely, transcripts for cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix components, inflammation, and apoptosis were upregulated. The number of significantly upregulated genes (116) was substantially greater than the number of downregulated genes (49). Removal of the main secretory input to the rat LG resulted in clinical symptoms associated with severe dry eye. Components of the secretory pathway were negatively affected, and the increase in cell proliferation and inflammation may lead to loss of organization in the parasympathectomized lacrimal gland. PMID:15084711

Nguyen, Doan H; Toshida, Hiroshi; Schurr, Jill; Beuerman, Roger W

2004-06-17

98

Mucin glycosylation changes in cystic fibrosis lung disease are not manifest in submucosal gland secretions  

PubMed Central

SMG (submucosal gland) secretions are a major component of the airway surface liquid, are associated with innate immunity in the lung, and have been reported to be altered in lung disease. Changes in lung mucosal glycosylation have been reported in CF (cystic fibrosis), which may be responsible for differential bacterial binding to glycosylated components in the lung mucosa and hence increased pre-disposition to pulmonary infection. Glycoproteomic analysis was performed on SMG secretions collected from explanted bronchial tissue of subjects with severe lung disease, with and without CF, and controls without lung disease. Mucins MUC5B and MUC5AC were shown to be the dominant high-molecular-mass glycoprotein components, with a minor non-mucin glycoprotein component, gp-340, also present. Oligosaccharides containing blood-group determinants corresponding to subjects' blood type were abundant on MUC5B/MUC5AC, as were Lewis-type epitopes and their sialylated analogues, which are ligands for pathogens and leucocytes. No significant differences were found in the glycosylation of MUC5B/MUC5AC or gp-340 between CF and non-CF subjects with severe lung disease, implying that CF does not influence SMG secretion mucin glycosylation in end-stage lung disease. There were also no significant differences found in the glycosylation of these components in severe lung disease compared with non-diseased lungs. This suggests that previously reported changes in the glycosylation of respiratory glycoconjugates in CF, and other pulmonary conditions, are not due to the glycosylation of components in SMG secretions, but may involve other secretions, responses or extracellular factors. PMID:15563276

Schulz, Benjamin L.; Sloane, Andrew J.; Robinson, Leanne J.; Sebastian, Lucille T.; Glanville, Allan R.; Song, Yuanlin; Verkman, Alan S.; Harry, Jenny L.; Packer, Nicolle H.; Karlsson, Niclas G.

2004-01-01

99

An ecdysteroid (22-acetyl-20-hydroxyecdysone) from the defense gland secretion of an insect: Chrysolina carnifex (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. 22-Acetyl-20-hydroxyecdysone was identified as a major component in the secretion of elytral and pronotal glands of Chrysolina carnifex, at an estimated concentration of 1.5 x 10 -1 M. This unexpected high concentration of an ecdysteroid in an exocrine secretion of an insect is discussed in terms of its potential defensive function, and in the light of steroid production in

Pascal Laurent; Jean-Claude Braekman; Désiré Daloze; Jacques M. Pasteels

2003-01-01

100

Correlation Between Vasodilatation and Secretion in the Lacrimal Gland Elicited by Stimulation of the Cornea and Facial Nerve Root of the Cat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To determine whether reflex vasodilatation can be elicited in the cat lacrimal gland by electrical stimulation of the cornea, whether the vasodilatation elicited by electrical stimula- tion of the facial nerve root found to be the efferent arm of the cornea-lacrimal gland reflex pathway correlates with the evoked secretion in the lacrimal gland, and what kind of receptors and

Tomoki Yasui; Keishiro Karita; Hiroshi Izumi; Makoto Tamai

101

Lacrimal gland electrolyte and water secretion in the rabbit: localization and role of (Na+ + K+)-activated ATPase.  

PubMed Central

1. The rate of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced fluid secretion was measured from the main secretory duct of rabbit lacrimal glands perfused in vivo with Krebs Henseleit bicarbonate solutions. 2. Perfusion with ouabain (10(-5) M) decreased the rate of lacrimal gland fluid secretion to 23% of the control value. 3. Perfusion with furosemide (10(-4) and 10(-3) M), which has been shown to inhibit the coupled transport of Na+ and Cl-, reversibly decreased the rate of secretion to 43 and 33% of the control value respectively. 4. (Na+ + K+)-activated ATPase was localized in slices of rabbit lacrimal gland using autoradiography with [3H]ouabain. 5. A high density of [3H]ouabain binding sites was present on ductal cells, whereas a very low density was found on acinar cells. For both types of cells the [3H]ouabain binding sites were located on the basolateral plasma membranes. 6. It is concluded that ACh-induced secretion of electrolytes and water is dependent upon (Na+ + K+)-activated ATPase. In addition, coupled transport of Na+ and Cl- appears to be involved in secretion. 7. Basolateral location of the (Na+ + K+)-activated ATPase implies that it plays an indirect role in electrolyte and water secretion. A possible role may be to energize a secondary active transport of Cl- that is mediated by a NaCl cotransport system. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 PMID:6461755

Dartt, D A; Møller, M; Poulsen, J H

1981-01-01

102

Effect of the triakontatetraneuropeptide (TTN) on corticosteroid secretion by the frog adrenal gland.  

PubMed

Diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) was initially isolated from the rat brain as a result of its ability to compete with benzodiazepines for their receptors. Immunohistochemical studies have recently shown the presence of peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR)- and DBI-like immunoreactivity in the frog adrenal gland. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of two biologically active DBI-derived peptides, the triakontatetraneuropeptide [TTN; DBI(17-50)] and the octadecaneuropeptide [ODN; DBI(33-50)], on corticosteroid secretion by frog adrenocortical cells. Exposure of frog adrenal explants to graded concentrations of TTN (3.16 x 10(-8) to 3.16 x 10(-6) M) induced a dose-related increase in corticosterone and aldosterone secretion. In contrast, ODN did not modify corticosteroid output. When repeated pulses of TTN (10(-6) M) were administered at 2-h intervals, the response of the adrenal explants to the second dose of TTN was markedly reduced, suggesting the existence of a desensitization phenomenon. Exposure of dispersed adrenal cells to TTN also induced a marked stimulation of corticosteroid secretion, indicating that TTN acts directly on adrenocortical cells. The central-type benzodiazepine receptor (CBR) agonist, clonazepam, did not stimulate corticosteroid secretion and the CBR antagonist, flumazenil, did not block the stimulatory action of TTN. Similarly, the PBR agonist, Ro5-4864, did not mimic the stimulatory effect of TTN and the PBR antagonist, flunitrazepam, did not affect the stimulatory action of TTN. The present study provides the first evidence for a stimulatory effect of TTN on intact adrenocortical cells. The receptor mediating the corticotropic action of TTN is not related to central- or peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors. Our data suggest that TTN, released by chromaffin cells, may act as a paracrine factor regulating the activity of adrenocortical cells. PMID:9513081

Lesouhaitier, O; Feuilloley, M; Vaudry, H

1998-02-01

103

Residues of organochlorine pesticides in milk gland secretion of cows in perinatal period  

SciTech Connect

Persistent organochlorine (OC) compounds such as DDT and its derivatives, isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may pose toxicological and ecological impact due to their persistence in some biological compartments. Despite the fact that agriculture has discontinued the use of the majority of these pesticides in many countries, the considerable differences in their concentrations in samples of human and animal origin are evidence that biological magnification via the food chain still exists in the case of OC compounds. This phenomenon may by illustrated by the close relationship between OC compound concentration in the fat of human and cow milk. The purpose of the present study was to determine the rate of excretion of the OC pesticide complex including their metabolites in the perinatal and postnatal period during various gland secretion phases.

Sitarska, E.; Klucinski, W.; Winnicka, A. (Agricultural Univ., Warsaw (Poland)); Ludwicki, J. (National Inst. of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland))

1991-12-01

104

Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1998 Origin and Secretion of Milk Lipids  

E-print Network

Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1998 Origin and Secretion of Milk Lipids Ian H. Mather1,3 and Thomas W. Keenan2 The cream fraction of milk comprises droplets-bounded compartments of the secretory pathway. Milk lipids originate as small droplets of triacylglycerol, synthesized

Mather, Ian

105

Male Cephalic Labial Gland Secretions of Two Bumblebee Species of the Subgenus Cullumanobombus (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus Latreille) and  

E-print Network

Male Cephalic Labial Gland Secretions of Two Bumblebee Species of the Subgenus Cullumanobombus Cullumanobombus. 1. Introduction. ­ Bumblebees have been studied intensively for a long time, both as important of bumblebees led to many interesting results in last decades; however, even the basic descriptive research

Rasmont, Pierre

106

Paracrine control of steroid hormone secretion by chromaffin cells in the adrenal gland of lower vertebrates.  

PubMed

The adrenal glands of lower vertebrates display a notable intermingling between steroidogenic and chromaffin tissues, which increases from Pisces to Aves. As in mammals, adrenal chromaffin cells contain and release, in addition to catecholamines, serotonin and several peptides, which may affect the secretory activity of steroidogenic cells in a paracrine manner. Stimulatory molecules include serotonin, arginine-vasotocin, tachykinins, vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide and calcitonin gene-related peptide; inhibitory molecules are dopamine, somatotropic hormone-release inhibiting hormone and galanin. Epinephrine and norepinephrine appear to stimulate steroid secretion in Aves and to inhibit it in Pisces, while their action in Amphibia is controversial. Likewise, atrial natriuretic peptide exerts an anti-secretagogue action in Amphibia and a marked secretagogue effect in Pisces and Aves. The effects of opioids (enkephalins and endorphins) have scarcely been investigated and the findings obtained are highly questionable. Compared with the amazing mass of investigations carried out in mammals, studies in lower vertebrates are few, and in large part performed in Amphibia and Aves. It appears that much further work has to be done by comparative endocrinologists to fully clarify the physiological relevance of the functional interactions between chromaffin and steroidogenic cells in the adrenal glands of lower vertebrates. PMID:9476650

Mazzocchi, G; Gottardo, G; Nussdorfer, G G

1998-01-01

107

Variation and Genomic Localization of Genes Encoding DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER Male Accessory Gland Proteins Separated by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis  

PubMed Central

Accessory gland proteins from Drosophila melanogaster males have been separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis into nine major bands. When individual males from 175 strains were examined, considerable polymorphism for nearly one-half of the major protein bands was seen, including null alleles for three bands. Variation was observed not only among long-established laboratory strains but also among stocks recently derived from natural populations. There was little difference in the amount of variation between P and M strains, indicating that P element mutagenesis is not a factor producing the variation. Codominant expression of variants for each of five bands was found in heterozygotes, suggesting structural gene variation and not posttranslational modification variation. Stocks carrying electrophoretic variants of four of the major proteins were used to map the presumed structural genes for these proteins; the loci were found to be dispersed on the second chromosome. Since males homozygous for variant proteins were fertile, the polymorphism seems to have little immediate effect on successful sperm transfer. We propose that a high degree of polymorphism can be tolerated because these proteins play a nutritive rather than enzymatic role in Drosophila reproduction. PMID:3095182

Whalen, Michael; Wilson, Thomas G.

1986-01-01

108

Leaf-cutting antAtta laevigata (Formicidae: Attini) marks its territory with colony-specific dufour gland secretion.  

PubMed

The workers of the leaf-cutting antAtta laevigata were found to mark a territory around their nest and along trunk trails. Elsewhere, we reported that the territorial mark had orientation and agonistic functions. The presence of this mark induced an alarm behavior in intruder workers and stimulated the residents' aggressiveness. Of the parts of the body tested, only the extracts from gaster or Dufour gland were able to induce the same agonistic behavior. The compoundsn-heptadecane, (Z)-9-nonadecene, 8,11-nonadecadiene, and (Z)-9-tricosene, secreted by Dufour gland were identified on foraging trails in the field as components of the territorial odor. PMID:24254908

Salzemann, A; Nagnan, P; Tellier, F; Jaffe, K

1992-02-01

109

Interactions of Meibomian gland secretion with polar lipids in Langmuir monolayers.  

PubMed

The surface interactions of Meibomian gland secretion (MGS) with polar lipid (PL), Egg Sphingomyelin (SM) or Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), are studied in mixed pseudo-binary films formed at the air/water interface of Langmuir surface balance. The behavior of the mixed films during slow quasi-equilibrium compression and during fast dynamic compression-decompression is registered by measurements of surface pressure and surface potential, and by monitoring film morphology with Brewster Angle Microscopy (BAM). Quasi-equilibrium compression isotherms are used to calculate the excess Gibbs and Helmholtz energy of mixing between MGS and PLs and thus to evaluate the interactions between the lipid compounds at the interface. The effects of PLs on the mixed film's elastic moduli of area compressibility, morphology and capability to attain high surface pressures are also examined. PLs interact with MGS with different strength and in different manner: MGS-SM interaction is weak and might lead to interfacial disaggregation of the thick meibium domains when SM is in excess, while MGS-DPPC interaction is strong and results in the formation of thick lipid aggregates. Both PLs increase the mixed films reciprocal compressibility and capability to achieve higher surface pressures. The results demonstrate that in vitro studies of the surface interactions between MGS and PLs might be beneficial in the selection of PLs for artificial tear formulations and for examination on molecular scale of the possible role of PLs at the ocular surface. PMID:20399624

Georgiev, G As; Kutsarova, E; Jordanova, A; Krastev, R; Lalchev, Z

2010-07-01

110

Misidentification by wild rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus , of group members carrying the odor of foreign inguinal gland secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiments described in this paper are part of a series designed to clarify the behavioral function of the odor of the secretion from the inguinal glands of rabbits,Oryctolagus cuniculus. Results are presented of tests carried out on 48 mixed-sex groups consisting of 162 adult wild-type rabbits, 48 males and 114 females. The subordinate females of the groups were smeared

E. R. Hesterman; K. Malafant; R. Mykytowycz

1984-01-01

111

Profiling the proteome complement of the secretion from hypopharyngeal gland of Africanized nurse-honeybees ( Apis mellifera L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protein complement of the secretion from hypopharyngeal gland of nurse-bees (Apis mellifera L.) was partially identified by using a combination of 2D-PAGE, peptide sequencing by MALDI-PSD\\/MS and a protein engine identification tool applied to the honeybee genome. The proteins identified were compared to those proteins already identified in the proteome complement of the royal jelly of the honey bees.

Keity Souza Santos; Lucilene Delazari dos Santos; Maria Anita Mendes; Bibiana Monson de Souza; Osmar Malaspina; Mario Sergio Palma

2005-01-01

112

Effect of a synthetic pineal tetrapeptide (Ala-Glu-Asp-GLy) on melatonin secretion by the pineal gland of young and old rats.  

PubMed

The pineal gland contains many peptides known to be implicated in melatonin production. We examined the effects of a synthetic pineal tetrapeptide Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly on melatonin secretion by the pineal gland. The tetrapeptide effects on pineal gland melatonin secretion were studied in young (9 weeks) and old (27 months) male Wistar rats using a perifusion device. Pineal tetrapeptide at the concentrations used (10(-4) to 10(-6) M) had no significant effect upon melatonin secretion whatever the age of the animals, young or old. We also looked at the effect of the tetrapeptide on pineal melatonin stimulated by a beta-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol. We found that isoproterenol-induced melatonin increase was not modified by the tetrapeptide. Our results suggest that the pineal tetrapeptide Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly, does not seem to play a role, at least in vitro, in the control of melatonin secretion by the rat pineal gland. PMID:12809170

Djeridane, Y; Khavinson, V Kh; Anisimov, V N; Touitou, Y

2003-03-01

113

Physiology and ecologic relevance of salt secretion by the salt gland of Glaux maritima L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of salinity in the root medium, time, and relative humidity on the salt secretion of Glaux maritima were investigated. Both in the greenhouse and in the field increasing salinity stimulated sodium and chloride secretion, whereas the essential elements potassium, calcium, and magnesium remained at low secretion levels, which might be interpreted as efficient mineral economy. The low secretion

Jelte Rozema; Ingrid Riphagen

1977-01-01

114

A stingless bee uses labial gland secretions for scent trail communication ( Trigona recursa Smith 1863)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pheromones used by several species of stingless bees for scent trail communication are generally assumed to be produced by the mandibular glands. Here we present strong evidence that in Trigona recursa these pheromones originate from the labial glands, which are well developed in the heads of foragers. Analysis of the behavior involved in scent marking shows that a bee

S. Jarau; M. Hrncir; R. Zucchi; F. G. Barth

2004-01-01

115

Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter-mediated fluid secretion increases under hypotonic osmolarity in the mouse submandibular salivary gland.  

PubMed

Water-handling epithelia are sensitive to the osmotic environment. In this study, the effects of a hypo-osmotic challenge on carbachol (CCh)-induced fluid secretion was investigated using an ex vivo submandibular gland perfusion technique and intracellular pH and Ca(2+) measurements. The osmolality of the perfusion solution was altered to examine the response of the gland to a hypotonic challenge. The flow rate was increased by 34% with a 30% hypotonic solution (225 mosmol/kgH2O), although the Ca(2+) response was unchanged. The lowering of the external Cl(-) by 50% abolished this increase in the 30% hypotonic solution. Furthermore, bumetanide, an inhibitor of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1), completely inhibited the fluid secretion increase caused by the 30% hypotonic solution, and both the total amount of fluid and the flow rate were identical to those of the isotonic solution. This finding was confirmed by measuring the NKCC1 bumetanide-dependent NH4 (+) transport; Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) transport was upregulated >40% by a 30% hypotonic challenge. Therefore, the increase in CCh-induced fluid secretion in response to hypotonic conditions can be attributed, to a large extent, to the specific activation of the NKCC1. PMID:24623142

Kidokoro, Manami; Nakamoto, Tetsuji; Mukaibo, Taro; Kondo, Yusuke; Munemasa, Takashi; Imamura, Atsushi; Masaki, Chihiro; Hosokawa, Ryuji

2014-05-15

116

Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones  

MedlinePLUS

... Modules Resources Archived Modules Updates Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones The endocrine system is made up of the endocrine glands that secrete hormones. Although there are eight major endocrine glands scattered ...

117

Effects of methotrexate on rat parotid and submandibular glands and their secretions  

SciTech Connect

Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with methotrexate for 3 days. Parotid and submandibular main ducts were cannulated and saliva flow was evoked by either intravenous infusion of acetylcholine or an intravenous injection of benthanechol. Methotrexate was found to reduce significantly mean food consumption, body weight, and parotid gland wet weights. Experimental animal salivary total gland DNA levels were not different, but total parotid gland RNA, protein, amylase and water content, and submandibular gland RNA were significantly lower compared to control. Acetylcholine, but not bethanechol, evoked parotid protein and amylase outputs and submandibular protein output from experimental animals were significantly higher than the control groups'. The increased outputs were apparently linked to ..beta..-adrenergic receptor activation, since hexamethonium or propranolol eliminated the significant increases while phenoxybenzamine did not. Plasma catecholamine levels were significantly higher in the methotrexate treated animals and probably played a role in the salivary gland ..beta..-adrenergic activation. Methotrexate treatment significantly increased the submandibular gland ..beta..-adrenergic receptor concentration as determined by (/sup 3/H)-dihydroalprenolol receptor binding assays. Muscarinic receptor concentrations determined with (/sup 3/H)-quinuclidninyl benzilate were not changed.

McBride, R.K.

1986-01-01

118

Chemistry of the sternal gland secretion of the Mediterranean centipede Himantarium gabrielis (Linnaeus, 1767) (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Himantariidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geophilomorph centipede, Himantarium gabrielis, when disturbed, discharges a viscous and proteinaceous secretion from the sternal glands. This exudate was found by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry and NMR analyses to be composed of hydrogen cyanide, benzaldehyde, benzoyl nitrile, benzyl nitrile, mandelonitrile, mandelonitrile benzoate, 3,7,6 O-trimethylguanine (himantarine), farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate and farnesyl farnesoate. This is the first report on the presence of benzyl nitrile and mandelonitrile benzoate in secreted substances from centipedes. Farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate is a new compound, while himantarine and farnesyl farnesoate were not known as natural products. A post-secretion release of hydrogen cyanide by reaction of mandelonitrile and benzoyl nitrile was observed by NMR, and hydrogen cyanide signals were completely assigned. In addition, a protein component of the secretion was analysed by electrophoresis which revealed the presence of a major 55 kDa protein. Analyses of the defensive exudates of other geophilomorph families should produce further chemical surprises.

Vujisi?, Ljubodrag V.; Vu?kovi?, Ivan M.; Makarov, Slobodan E.; Ili?, Bojan S.; Anti?, Dragan Ž.; Jadranin, Milka B.; Todorovi?, Nina M.; Mrki?, Ivan V.; Vajs, Vlatka E.; Lu?i?, Luka R.; ?ur?i?, Božidar P. M.; Miti?, Bojan M.

2013-09-01

119

PPAR? Regulates Genes Involved in Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Secretion in Mammary Gland Epithelial Cells of Dairy Goats  

PubMed Central

To explore the function of PPAR? in the goat mammary gland, we cloned the whole cDNA of the PPAR? gene. Homology alignments revealed that the goat PPAR? gene is conserved among goat, bovine, mouse, and human. Luciferase assays revealed that rosiglitazone enhanced the activity of the PPAR? response element (PPRE) in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs). After rosiglitazone (ROSI) treatment of GMECs, there was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the expression of genes related to triacylglycerol synthesis and secretion: LPL, FASN, ACACA, PLIN3, FABP3, PLIN2, PNPLA2, NR1H3, SREBF1, and SCD. The decreases in expression observed after knockdown of PPAR? relative to the control group (Ad-NC) averaged 65%, 52%, 67%, 55%, 65%, 58%, 85%, 43%, 50%, and 24% for SCD, DGAT1, AGPAT6, SREBF1, ACACA, FASN, FABP3, SCAP, ATGL, and PLIN3, respectively. These results provide direct evidence that PPAR? plays a crucial role in regulating the triacylglycerol synthesis and secretion in goat mammary cells and underscore the functional importance of PPAR? in mammary gland tissue during lactation. PMID:23710163

Luo, Jun; Zhu, Jiangjiang; Li, Jun; Sun, Yuting; Lin, Xianzi; Zhang, Liping; Yao, Dawei; Shi, Huaiping

2013-01-01

120

Differential scanning calorimetric evaluation of human meibomian gland secretions and model lipid mixtures: transition temperatures and cooperativity of melting  

PubMed Central

Meibomian gland secretions (or meibum) are produced by holocrine meibomian glands and are secreted in melted form onto the ocular surface of humans and animals to form a protective tear film lipid layer (TFLL). Its protective effect strongly depends on the composition and, hence, thermotropic behavior of meibum. The goal of our study was to quantitatively evaluate the melting characteristics of human meibum and model lipid mixtures using differential scanning microcalorimetry. Standard calorimetric parameters, e.g. changes in calorimetric enthalpy, transition temperatures T(m), cooperativity of melting etc. were assessed. We found that thermotropic behavior of meibum resembled that of relatively simple mixtures of unsaturated wax esters, but showed a lower change in calorimetric enthalpy, which can be indicative of a looser packing of lipids in meibum compared with pure standards and their simple mixtures. The cooperativity of melting of meibomian lipids was comparable to that of an equimolar mixture of four oleic-acid based wax esters. We demonstrated that the phase transitions in meibum start at about 10 to 15 °C and end at 35-36 °C, with T(m) being about 30 °C. The highly asymmetrical shape of the thermotropic peak of meibum is important for the physiology and biophysics of TFLL. PMID:23578711

Lu, Hua; Wojtowicz, Jadwiga C.; Butovich, Igor A.

2013-01-01

121

beta -Endrophin and Adrenocorticotropin Are Secreted Concomitantly by the Pituitary Gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opiate-like peptide beta -endorphin and adrenocorticotropin are concomitantly secreted in increased amounts by the adenohypophysis in response to acute stress or long-term adrenalectomy as well as in vitro in response to purified corticotropin releasing factor and other secretagogues. Conversely, administration of the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone inhibits the secretion of both adrenocorticotropin and beta -endorphin. Thus, both hormones possess common

Roger Guillemin; Therese Vargo; Jean Rossier; Scott Minick; Nicholas Ling; Catherine Rivier; Wylie Vale; Floyd Bloom

1977-01-01

122

Growth hormone secretion and pituitary gland weight in suckling lambs from genetically lean and fat sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have found that weaned lambs from Coopworth sheep selected for low (lean) backfat depth have higher mean plasma growth hormone (GH) levels and heavier pituitary glands than those selected for high (fat) backfat depth. This study examined whether these differences between genotypes occurred in young suckling lambs. Six ewes from each genotype which were suckling a male\\/female set

S. M. Francis; B. A. Veenvliet; S. K. Stuart; R. P. Littlejohn; J. M. Suttie

1998-01-01

123

Comparison of Age-dependent Quantitative Changes in the Male Labial Gland Secretion of Bombus Terrestris  

E-print Network

in two closely related bumblebee species, Bombus terrestris and B. lucorum. In B. terrestris, compounds of the males. Keywords Bumblebee . Bombus terrestris . Bombus lucorum . Labial gland . Male marking pheromone . Sex pheromone . GC-EAD Introduction The most common European bumblebee species, Bombus terrestris

Rasmont, Pierre

124

Fungistatic activity of the sternal gland secretion of the dampwood termite Zootermopsis angusticollis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In vivo and in vitro studies indicate that cuticular chemicals from the ventral region of the abdomen where the sternal gland of the dampwood termite Zootermopsis angusticollis is located have fungistatic properties. Germination rates of conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae were significantly reduced from 91% (controls) to 38.5% after nymphs walked over conidia-seeded agar medium, but did

R. B. Rosengaus; J. F. A. Traniello; M. L. Lefebvre; A. B. Maxmen

2004-01-01

125

The evolution of size of the uropygial gland: mutualistic feather mites and uropygial secretion reduce bacterial loads of eggshells and hatching failures of European birds.  

PubMed

Potentially, pathogenic bacteria are one of the main infective agents against which a battery of chemical and physical barriers has evolved in animals. Among these are the secretions by the exocrine uropygial gland in birds. The antimicrobial properties of uropygial secretions may prevent colonization and growth of microorganisms on feathers, skin and eggshells. However, uropygial gland secretions also favour the proliferation of feather mites that feed on secretions and microorganisms living on feathers that would otherwise reach eggshells during incubation if not consumed by feather mites. Therefore, at the interspecific level, uropygial gland size (as an index of volume of uropygial secretion) should be positively related to eggshell bacterial load (i.e. the risk of egg infection), whereas eggshell bacterial loads may be negatively related to abundance of feather mites eating bacteria. Here, we explore these previously untested predictions in a comparative framework using information on eggshell bacterial loads, uropygial gland size, diversity and abundance of feather mites and hatching success of 22 species of birds. The size of the uropygial gland was positively related to eggshell bacterial loads (mesophilic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae), and bird species with higher diversity and abundance of feather mites harboured lower bacterial density on their eggshells (Enterococcus and Staphylococcus), in accordance with the hypothesis. Importantly, eggshell bacterial loads of mesophilic bacteria, Enterococcus and Enterobacteriaceae were negatively associated with hatching success, allowing us to interpret these interspecific relationships in a functional scenario, where both uropygial glands and mutualistic feather mites independently reduce the negative effects of pathogenic bacteria on avian fitness. PMID:22805098

Soler, J J; Peralta-Sánchez, J M; Martín-Platero, A M; Martín-Vivaldi, M; Martínez-Bueno, M; Møller, A P

2012-09-01

126

Oral Administration of Royal Jelly Restores Tear Secretion Capacity in Rat Blink-Suppressed Dry Eye Model by Modulating Lacrimal Gland Function  

PubMed Central

Tears are secreted from the lacrimal gland (LG), a dysfunction in which induces dry eye, resulting in ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Honey bee products are used as a nutritional source in daily life and medicine; however, little is known about their effects on dry eye. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of honey bee products on tear secretion capacity in dry eye. We selected raw honey, propolis, royal jelly (RJ), pollen, or larva from commercially available honey bee products. Tear secretion capacity was evaluated following the oral administration of each honey bee product in a rat blink-suppressed dry eye model. Changes in tear secretion, LG ATP content, and LG mitochondrial levels were measured. RJ restored the tear secretion capacity and decrease in LG ATP content and mitochondrial levels to the largest extent. Royal jelly can be used as a preventative intervention for dry eye by managing tear secretion capacity in the LG. PMID:25243778

Imada, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Shigeru; Kitamura, Naoki; Shibuya, Izumi; Tsubota, Kazuo

2014-01-01

127

Oral administration of royal jelly restores tear secretion capacity in rat blink-suppressed dry eye model by modulating lacrimal gland function.  

PubMed

Tears are secreted from the lacrimal gland (LG), a dysfunction in which induces dry eye, resulting in ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Honey bee products are used as a nutritional source in daily life and medicine; however, little is known about their effects on dry eye. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of honey bee products on tear secretion capacity in dry eye. We selected raw honey, propolis, royal jelly (RJ), pollen, or larva from commercially available honey bee products. Tear secretion capacity was evaluated following the oral administration of each honey bee product in a rat blink-suppressed dry eye model. Changes in tear secretion, LG ATP content, and LG mitochondrial levels were measured. RJ restored the tear secretion capacity and decrease in LG ATP content and mitochondrial levels to the largest extent. Royal jelly can be used as a preventative intervention for dry eye by managing tear secretion capacity in the LG. PMID:25243778

Imada, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Shigeru; Kitamura, Naoki; Shibuya, Izumi; Tsubota, Kazuo

2014-01-01

128

Substance P stimulates CFTR-dependent fluid secretion by mouse tracheal submucosal glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mucosa of the proximal airways defends itself and the lower airways from inhaled irritants such as capsaicinoids, allergens,\\u000a and infections by several mechanisms. Sensory nerves monitor the luminal microenvironment and release the tachykinin substance\\u000a P (SP) to stimulate mucus secretion. Here, we have studied the role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator\\u000a (CFTR) in SP stimulation by comparing

Juan P. Ianowski; Jae Young Choi; Jeffrey J. Wine; John W. Hanrahan

2008-01-01

129

The prophylaxis of rat and mouse mammary gland tumorigenesis by suppression of prolactin secretion: A reappraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of early and temporal CB-154 induced suppression of prolactin secretion on the genesis of mammary tumors in female Sprague-Dawley rats treated i.g. with 3 doses of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA); doses which yield a high (20 mg), moderate (5 mg) and low (1.25 mg) mammary carcinoma incidence. In addition, the effect

Clifford W. Welsch; Margaret Goodrich-Smith; Carolyn K. Brown; Leslie Roth

1981-01-01

130

A strong association between human earwax-type and apocrine colostrum secretion from the mammary gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we provided the first genetic evidence for an association between the degree of apocrine colostrum secretion and human\\u000a earwax type. Genotyping at the earwax-type locus, rs17822931 within the ABCC11 gene, revealed that 155 of 225 Japanese women were dry-type and 70 wet-type. Frequency of women without colostrum among dry-type\\u000a women was significantly higher than that among wet-type women (P P = 0.0341).

Kiyonori Miura; Koh-ichiro Yoshiura; Shoko Miura; Takako Shimada; Kentaro Yamasaki; Atsushi Yoshida; Daisuke Nakayama; Yoshisada Shibata; Norio Niikawa; Hideaki Masuzaki

2007-01-01

131

Complementary roles of the main and accessory olfactory systems in mammalian mate recognition.  

PubMed

We review studies conducted in mouse and ferret that have specified roles of both the main and the accessory olfactory nervous systems in the detection and processing of body odorants (e.g., urinary pheromones, extraorbital lacrimal gland secretions, major histocompatibility complex peptide ligands, and anal scent gland secretions) that play an essential role in sex discrimination and attraction between males and females leading to mate choice and successful reproduction. We also review literature that compares the forebrain processing of inputs from the two olfactory systems in the two sexes that underlies heterosexual partner preferences. Finally, we review experiments that raise the possibility that body odorants detected by the main olfactory system contribute to mate recognition in humans. PMID:18817511

Baum, Michael J; Kelliher, Kevin R

2009-01-01

132

Dufour's gland secretion, sterility and foraging behavior: correlated behavior traits in bumblebee workers.  

PubMed

Bombus terrestris colonies go through two major phases: the "pre-competition phase" in which the queen is the sole reproducer and aggression is rare, and the "competition phase" in which workers aggressively compete over reproduction. Conflicts over reproduction are partially regulated by a group of octyl esters that are produced in Dufour's gland of reproductively subordinate workers and protect them from being aggressed. However, workers possess octyl esters even before overt aggression occurs, raising the question of why produce the ester-signal before it is functionally necessary? In most insect societies, foragers show reduced aggression and low dominance rank. We hypothesize that ester production in B. terrestris is not only correlated with sterility but also with foraging, signaling cooperative behavior by subordinate workers. Such a signal helps to maintain social organization, reduce the cost of fights between reproductives and helpers, and increase colony productivity, enabling subordinates to gain greater inclusive fitness. We demonstrate that foragers produce larger amounts of esters compared to non-foragers, and that their amounts positively correlate with foraging efforts. We further suggest that task performance, potential fecundity, and aggression are interlinked, and that worker-worker interactions are involved in regulating foraging behavior. B. terrestris, being an intermediate phase between primitive and derived eusocial insects, provides an excellent model for understanding the evolution of early phases of eusociality. Our results, combined with those in primitively eusocial wasps, suggest that at early stages of social evolution, reproduction was regulated by a "primordial division of labor", that comprised foragers and reproducers, which further evolved to a more complex division of labor, a hallmark of eusociality. PMID:24100232

Amsalem, Etya; Shpigler, Hagai; Bloch, Guy; Hefetz, Abraham

2013-12-01

133

Matching Accessories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Heterodimerization enhances the complexity of ligand recognition and diversity of signaling responses of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Many accessory proteins (for ion channels or GPCRs) appear to associate with their partners relatively early in the process whereby proteins are transported to the cell surface; their roles in modulating function may have evolved out of simple proximity to a protein that once upon a time they either facilitated or accompanied through the maturation process. The receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) are a family of single-transmembrane accessory proteins that heterodimerize with GPCRs and, thereby, allow individual GPCRs to recognize multiple ligands and to activate various signaling pathways in response to ligand binding. The M10 family of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class 1b proteins has recently been shown to associate with murine vomeronasal V2R receptors, as well as to escort them to the cell surface. The exact role of M10 in modulating V2R function (or vice versa) remains to be determined.

Steven M. Foord (Stevenage;Target Bioinformatics, GlaxoSmithKline Medicine Research Centre REV)

2003-07-08

134

Chemical composition of scent-gland secretions in an old world monkey (Mandrillus sphinx): influence of sex, male status, and individual identity.  

PubMed

Primates are traditionally considered to be microsmatic, with decreased reliance on olfactory senses in comparison to other sensory modalities such as vision. This is particularly the case for Old World monkeys and apes (catarrhines). However, various lines of evidence suggest that chemical communication may be important in these species, including the presence of a sternal scent-gland in the mandrill. We investigated the volatile components of mandrill odor using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified a total of 97 volatile components in 88 swabs of the sternal gland secretion and 95 samples of sternal gland hair saturated with scent-gland secretion collected from 27 males and 18 females. We compared odor profiles with features of the signaler using principle components and discriminant function analyses and found that volatile profiles convey both variable (age, dominance rank in males) and fixed (sex, possibly individual identity) information about the signaler. The combination of an odor profile that signals sex, age, and rank with increased motivation to scent-mark and increased production of secretion in high-ranking males leads to a potent signal of the presence of a dominant, adult male with high testosterone levels. This may be particularly relevant in the dense Central African rain forest which mandrills inhabit. By contrast, we were unable to differentiate between either female cycle stage or female rank based on odor profiles, which accords with behavioral studies suggesting that odor signals are not as important in female mandrills as they are in males. The similarity of our findings to those for other mammals and in primates that are more distantly related to humans suggests a broader role for odor in primate communication than is currently recognized. PMID:20089603

Setchell, Joanna M; Vaglio, Stefano; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Boscaro, Francesca; Calamai, Luca; Knapp, Leslie A

2010-03-01

135

Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans  

PubMed Central

Literature from the past 168 years has been filtered to provide a unified summary of the regional distribution of cutaneous water and electrolyte losses. The former occurs via transepidermal water vapour diffusion and secretion from the eccrine sweat glands. Daily insensible water losses for a standardised individual (surface area 1.8 m2) will be 0.6–2.3 L, with the hands (80–160 g.h?1) and feet (50–150 g.h?1) losing the most, the head and neck losing intermediate amounts (40–75 g.h?1) and all remaining sites losing 15–60 g.h?1. Whilst sweat gland densities vary widely across the skin surface, this same individual would possess some 2.03 million functional glands, with the highest density on the volar surfaces of the fingers (530 glands.cm?2) and the lowest on the upper lip (16 glands.cm?2). During passive heating that results in a resting whole-body sweat rate of approximately 0.4 L.min?1, the forehead (0.99 mg.cm?2.min?1), dorsal fingers (0.62 mg.cm?2.min?1) and upper back (0.59 mg.cm?2.min?1) would display the highest sweat flows, whilst the medial thighs and anterior legs will secrete the least (both 0.12 mg.cm?2.min?1). Since sweat glands selectively reabsorb electrolytes, the sodium and chloride composition of discharged sweat varies with secretion rate. Across whole-body sweat rates from 0.72 to 3.65 mg.cm?2.min?1, sodium losses of 26.5–49.7 mmol.L?1 could be expected, with the corresponding chloride loss being 26.8–36.7 mmol.L?1. Nevertheless, there can be threefold differences in electrolyte losses across skin regions. When exercising in the heat, local sweat rates increase dramatically, with regional glandular flows becoming more homogeneous. However, intra-regional evaporative potential remains proportional to each local surface area. Thus, there is little evidence that regional sudomotor variations reflect an hierarchical distribution of sweating either at rest or during exercise. PMID:23849497

2013-01-01

136

Naltrexone attenuates stress-induced suppression of LH secretion in the pituitary gland in the Cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus: evidence for the opioidergic mediation of reproductive stress response.  

PubMed

Opioid peptide ?-endorphin (?-EP) plays a modulatory role in vertebrate reproduction. However, the role of opioid peptides in reproductive stress response is least understood in fishes. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different doses of ?-EP on luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in normal and the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (NALT) in stressed female tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus. Administration of 4 ?g ?-EP, but not 0.5 or 1.5 ?g ?-EP, daily for 22 days caused suppression of LH-secreting cells at the proximal pars distalis of the pituitary gland, concomitant with a significant reduction in the mean GSI and HSI in 4 ?g ?-EP-treated fish compared to controls. On the other hand, exposure of the fish to mild acute stressors for 22 days caused changes in the LH-secreting cells similar to that of high dose of ?-EP, whereas administration of NALT attenuated these effects. Taken together, the results indicate that increased concentration of ?-EP as may occur during stressful conditions can cause suppression of LH secretion, leading to the inhibition of spawning, and that treatment of NALT attenuates the stress-induced inhibition of LH secretion in fish. PMID:23053608

Ganesh, C B; Chabbi, Ambarisha

2013-06-01

137

Chemical and olfactory characterization of odorous compounds and their precursors in the parotoid gland secretion of the green tree frog, Litoria caerulea.  

PubMed

When stressed or challenged by a predator, the Australian green tree frog, Litoria caerulea, emits a characteristic nutty odor from its parotoid glands. This study identifies the source of the odor as the cyclic amide 2-pyrrolidone (2-PyrO). In addition, we demonstrate the presence of 2-PyrO's straight chain form, gamma-aminobutyric acid or GABA, in the frog's glandular secretion and propose an odorant-precursor relationship. What role both compounds play in the frog's defensive strategy remains unknown. Prolonged exposure to the odor is shown to result in adverse effects that may be attributed to a GABAergic mechanism. It is our hypothesis, however, that the odor acts as an aposematic signal, indicating the toxicity of the frog's nonvolatile secretion. PMID:14584677

Smith, Benjamin P C; Tyler, Michael J; Williams, Brian D; Hayasaka, Yoji

2003-09-01

138

Calorie restriction modulates Th-1 and Th-2 cytokine-induced immunoglobulin secretion in young and old C57BL/6 cultured submandibular glands.  

PubMed

Immunoglobulin production by the salivary gland plays an important role in oral and upper respiratory tract immunity. Age and/or disease may compromise salivary gland function. In order to gain insight into the role of calorie restriction (CR) on immunoglobulin (Ig) production, we determined the effect of ad libitum (AL) feeding and CR in young (3 months) and old (18-24 months) C57BL/6 mouse submandibular glands (SM). The SM tissues were fragmented and cultured in the absence (control) or presence of either Th-1 cytokines, such as interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), or Th-2 cytokines, e.g. IL-4 and IL-5, for seven days. Culture supernatants were then analyzed for immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgM, and IgG2a levels by ELISA. Aging increased basal (control) IgA and IgM production by 3.1-and 3.7-fold, respectively, in AL mice. CR prevented the age-dependent rise of both IgA and IgM, maintaining levels equal to those of young AL mice. Interestingly, age resulted in a decrease of Th-1 cytokine-induced IgA and IgM, and increased IgG2a secretion in AL mice, while Th-2 cytokines did not appear to have an age effect. In general, CR suppressed Ig production induced by both Th-1 and Th-2 cytokines in young mice. In contrast, CR in old mice resulted in enhanced IgA and IgM production to levels similar to those in their young counterparts, while IgG2a was predominantly suppressed by Th-1 and not Th-2 cytokines. The data presented herein show, for the first time, the ability of CR to offset age-induced changes in submandibular gland Ig production, which may play a role in maintaining mucosal immune function, including proper oral health. PMID:10738854

Jolly, C A; Fernandez, R; Muthukumar, A R; Fernandes, G

1999-12-01

139

Protein and amino acid composition of the tergal gland secretions of Blatta orientalis and Eurycotis floridana (Dictyoptera: Blattidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Nymphs and adult females ofBlatta orientalis and nymphs ofEurycotis floridana produce a proteinaceous sticky secretion which accumulates on the last abdominal tergites. The proteic patterns do not differ between individuals of the same species. HPLC analyses show that all the common amino acids are found in both species, aspartic and glutamic acids representing 24 to 37% of the total

Dehbia Abed; Jean-Pierre Farine; Jean François; Rémy Brossut

1994-01-01

140

The Laser Accessory Market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wandering through the exhibit hall yesterday, I noticed that if you look at the laser companies and if you look at the accessory companies, there are pretty much the same number of accessory booths as well as the laser companies. There was one difference. Laser company booths are all sexy looking, very flashy, big booths. Whereas if you look at the accessories booths, they were small, not so prominent.

Desai, Ashvin

1988-09-01

141

Structure and ultrastructure of the silk glands and spinneret of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).  

PubMed

This study provides comprehensive documentation of silk production in the pest moth Helicoverpa armigera from gland secretion to extrusion of silk thread. The structure of the silk glands, accessory structures and extrusion apparatus are reported. The general schema of the paired silk glands follows that found for Lepidoptera. Morphology of the duct, silk press, muscle attachments and spigot are presented as a three-dimensional reconstruction and the cuticular crescent-shaped profile of the silk press is demonstrated in both open and closed forms with attendant muscle blocks, allowing advances in our knowledge of how the silk press functions to regulate the extrusion of silk. Growth of the spigot across instars is documented showing a distinctive developmental pattern for this extrusion device. Its shape and structure are related to use and load-bearing activity. PMID:18089054

Sorensen, Gregory S; Cribb, Bronwen W; Merritt, David; Johnson, Marie-Louise; Zalucki, Myron P

2006-03-01

142

Seasonal Variation in Volatile Compound Profiles of Preen Gland Secretions of the Dark-eyed Junco ( Junco hyemalis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative stir bar sorptive extraction methodology, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and element-specific\\u000a atomic emission detection (AED) were utilized to analyze seasonal changes in volatile components of preen oil secretions in\\u000a Junco hyemalis. Juncos were held in long days to simulate breeding conditions, or short days to simulate nonbreeding conditions. Linear\\u000a alcohols (C10–C18) were the major volatile compounds found

Helena A. Soini; Sara E. Schrock; Kevin E. Bruce; Donald Wiesler; Ellen D. Ketterson; Milos V. Novotny

2007-01-01

143

Ligand-independent epidermal growth factor receptor hyperactivation increases sebaceous gland size and sebum secretion in mice.  

PubMed

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) system is an established regulator of the development and homeostasis of the hair follicle and interfollicular epidermis. Here, we evaluated EGFR actions on the sebaceous glands (SGs) by employing Dsk5 mice, a mutant line in which the EGFR is constitutively activated in a ligand-independent manner. Compared to control littermates, Dsk5 mice showed increased sebum levels and enlarged SGs, which contained a higher number of cells and showed stronger proliferation. c-myc transcript levels were increased in Dsk5 skin, suggesting that c-myc mediates the proliferative stimuli of the EGFR in the SG. Analysis of differentiation markers revealed deregulated expression of Scd1 and Scd3, indicating that sebaceous lipogenesis is affected in Dsk5 mice. In conclusion, our study indicates that the EGFR is an important regulator of presebocyte proliferation, contributing to the final cell number, to the size and to the lipid output of SGs. PMID:24079739

Dahlhoff, Maik; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Wolf, Eckhard; Schneider, Marlon R

2013-10-01

144

Coevolution of the ATPase ClpV, the Sheath Proteins TssB and TssC, and the Accessory Protein TagJ/HsiE1 Distinguishes Type VI Secretion Classes.  

PubMed

The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a bacterial nanomachine for the transport of effector molecules into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. It involves the assembly of a tubular structure composed of TssB and TssC that is similar to the tail sheath of bacteriophages. The sheath contracts to provide the energy needed for effector delivery. The AAA(+) ATPase ClpV disassembles the contracted sheath, which resets the systems for reassembly of an extended sheath that is ready to fire again. This mechanism is crucial for T6SS function. In Vibrio cholerae, ClpV binds the N terminus of TssC within a hydrophobic groove. In this study, we resolved the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ClpV1 and observed structural alterations in the hydrophobic groove. The modification in the ClpV1 groove is matched by a change in the N terminus of TssC, suggesting the existence of distinct T6SS classes. An accessory T6SS component, TagJ/HsiE, exists predominantly in one of the classes. Using bacterial two-hybrid approaches, we showed that the P. aeruginosa homolog HsiE1 interacts strongly with ClpV1. We then resolved the crystal structure of HsiE1 in complex with the N terminus of HsiB1, a TssB homolog and component of the contractile sheath. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these differences distinguish T6SS classes that resulted from a functional co-evolution between TssB, TssC, TagJ/HsiE, and ClpV. The interaction of TagJ/HsiE with the sheath as well as with ClpV suggests an alternative mode of disassembly in which HsiE recruits the ATPase to the sheath. PMID:25305017

Förster, Andreas; Planamente, Sara; Manoli, Eleni; Lossi, Nadine S; Freemont, Paul S; Filloux, Alain

2014-11-21

145

Coevolution of the ATPase ClpV, the Sheath Proteins TssB and TssC, and the Accessory Protein TagJ/HsiE1 Distinguishes Type VI Secretion Classes*  

PubMed Central

The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a bacterial nanomachine for the transport of effector molecules into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. It involves the assembly of a tubular structure composed of TssB and TssC that is similar to the tail sheath of bacteriophages. The sheath contracts to provide the energy needed for effector delivery. The AAA+ ATPase ClpV disassembles the contracted sheath, which resets the systems for reassembly of an extended sheath that is ready to fire again. This mechanism is crucial for T6SS function. In Vibrio cholerae, ClpV binds the N terminus of TssC within a hydrophobic groove. In this study, we resolved the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ClpV1 and observed structural alterations in the hydrophobic groove. The modification in the ClpV1 groove is matched by a change in the N terminus of TssC, suggesting the existence of distinct T6SS classes. An accessory T6SS component, TagJ/HsiE, exists predominantly in one of the classes. Using bacterial two-hybrid approaches, we showed that the P. aeruginosa homolog HsiE1 interacts strongly with ClpV1. We then resolved the crystal structure of HsiE1 in complex with the N terminus of HsiB1, a TssB homolog and component of the contractile sheath. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these differences distinguish T6SS classes that resulted from a functional co-evolution between TssB, TssC, TagJ/HsiE, and ClpV. The interaction of TagJ/HsiE with the sheath as well as with ClpV suggests an alternative mode of disassembly in which HsiE recruits the ATPase to the sheath. PMID:25305017

Förster, Andreas; Planamente, Sara; Manoli, Eleni; Lossi, Nadine S.; Freemont, Paul S.; Filloux, Alain

2014-01-01

146

Analysis of the scent gland secretions of Dumeril's ground boa (Acrantophis dumerili Jan) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

E-print Network

the retention times of C16 and Clg n-amide standards with the chromatogram of the neutral fraction of the acid-base fractionation of the pooled secretions from two females (Fig. 8). Identification of the C20 and C22 amides are based on extrapolation of the C... with ether with the exception of Fr. 1 which was eluted with CH3OH then with ether. Fraction 1 contained the amides. Fraction 2 contained cholesteroL Fraction 3 contained the fatty acids identified with the exception of the phenylacetic and 3...

Simpson, John Thomas

2012-06-07

147

Secretion granules of the rabbit parotid gland. Isolation, subfractionation, and characterization of the membrane and content subfractions  

PubMed Central

A fraction of secretion granules has been isolated from rabbit parotid by a procedure which was found to be especially effective in reducing contamination resulting from aggregation and/or cosedimentation of granules with other cell particulates. The fraction, representing 15 percent (on the average) of the total tissue amylase activity, was homogeneous as judged by electron microscopy and contaminated to exceedingly low levels by other cellular organelles as judged by marker enzymatic and chemical assays. Lysis of the granules was achieved by their gradual exposure to hypotonic NaHCO3, containing 0.5 mM EDTA. The content and the membranes separated by centrifugation of the granule lysate were characterized primarily by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis which indicated that the content was composed of a limited number of molecular weight classes of polypeptides of which three bands (having approximate mol wt 58,000, 33, 000, and 12,000) could be considered major components. The gel profile of the membrane subfraction was characterized by 20-30 Coomassie brilliant blue-staining bands of which a single species of mol wt 40,000 was the conspicuous major polypeptide. Two types of experiments employing gel electrophoretic analysis were carried out for identifying and assessing the extent of residual secretory protein adsorbed to purified granule membranes: (a) examination of staining and radioactivity profiles after mixing of radioactive secretion granule extract with nonradioactively labeled granule membranes and (b) comparison of gel profiles of secretion granule extract and granule membranes with those of unlysed secretion granules and secretory protein dischraged from lobules in vitro or collected by cannulation of parotid ducts, the last two samples being considered physiologic secretory standards. The results indicated that the membranes were contaminated to a substantial degree by residual, poorly extractable secretory protein even though assays of membrane fractions for a typical secretory enzyme activity (amylase) indicated quite through separation of membranes and content. Hence, detailed examination of membrane subfractions for residual content species by gel electrophoresis points to the general unity and sensitivity of this technique as a means for accurately detecting a defined set of polypeptides occurring as contaminants in cellular fractions or organelle subfractions. PMID:162790

1975-01-01

148

Photoperiodically-induced cycles in the secretion of prolactin in hypothalamo-pituitary disconnected rams: evidence for translation of the melatonin signal in the pituitary gland.  

PubMed

Long term changes in the secretion of prolactin were monitored in groups of hypothalamo-pituitary disconnected rams (HPD rams, n = 8) and control rams (HPD sham-operated and unoperated, n = 8) while exposed to an artificial lighting regimen of alternating 16-weekly periods of long days (16L:8D) and short days (8L:16D) for 72 weeks, and during a treatment with subcutaneous constant-release implants of melatonin under long days. The HPD rams showed all the clinical characteristics of complete pituitary disconnection (diabetes insipidus, gonadal regression and slight obesity), and were unresponsive to a range of provocation tests (exposure to a barking sheep dog, cannulation of the jugular vein, injection of serotonin and NMDA) which caused acute changes in the blood plasma concentrations of prolactin in the controls. Nevertheless, there was a clearly defined cycle in the blood concentrations of prolactin in the HPD rams related to the imposed lighting regimen with values 10-fold higher under long days compared to short days (HPD mean +/- SEM: 90.1 +/- 24.7 vs 9.4 +/- 2.0 micrograms/l, long vs short day respectively, P < 0.001). The temporal pattern was very similar to that observed in the controls, although the concentrations of prolactin were higher in the HPD rams and more variable (control mean +/- SEM: 55.6 +/- 3.6 vs 3.0 +/- 0.5 micrograms/l, long vs short day, P < 0.001). There was a corresponding cycle in the growth and moulting of the wool in the HPD rams consistent with a biological response to the photoperiodically-induced changes in the secretion of prolactin. The diurnal rhythm in the blood concentrations of prolactin was absent in the HPD rams, but there was a normal rhythm in the secretion of melatonin. The treatment of the animals with constant-release implants of melatonin under long days caused a marked decrease in the blood concentrations of prolactin in both the HPD and control rams. The overall conclusion is that the endogenously generated daily melatonin signal which encodes daylength acts directly in the pituitary gland to mediate the effects of photo-period on the secretion of prolactin. The photo-period transduction pathway thus by-passes the hypothalamus. PMID:7920591

Lincoln, G A; Clarke, I J

1994-06-01

149

Selectivity and neuroendocrine regulation of the precursor uptake by pheromone glands from hemolymph in geometrid female moths, which secrete epoxyalkenyl sex pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrolepidopteran female moths in families such as Geometridae produce epoxyalkenyl sex pheromones, which are biosynthesized via epoxidation of polyunsaturated hydrocarbons in their pheromone glands. The precursors, however, are expected to be produced outside of the pheromone glands, probably in oenocytes or in the fat body, and transported to the glands via hemolymph. Based on these facts, the selectivity of the

Wei Wei; Masanobu Yamamoto; Tetsuhiro Asato; Takeshi Fujii; Guan-Qin Pu; Tetsu Ando

2004-01-01

150

Seasonal variation in volatile compound profiles of preen gland secretions of the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis).  

PubMed

Quantitative stir bar sorptive extraction methodology, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and element-specific atomic emission detection (AED) were utilized to analyze seasonal changes in volatile components of preen oil secretions in Junco hyemalis. Juncos were held in long days to simulate breeding conditions, or short days to simulate nonbreeding conditions. Linear alcohols (C(10)-C(18)) were the major volatile compounds found in preen oil, and in both sexes their levels were higher when birds were housed on long as opposed to short days. Methylketones were found at lower levels, but were enhanced in both sexes during long days. Levels of 2-tridecanone, 2-tetradecanone, and 2-pentadecanone were also greater on long days, but only in males. Among carboxylic acids (C(12), C(14), and C(16)), linear but not branched acids showed some differences between the breeding and nonbreeding conditions, although the individual variation for acidic compounds was large. Qualitatively, more sulfur-containing compounds were found in males than females during the breeding season. Functionally, the large increase in linear alcohols in male and female preen oil during the breeding season may be an indication of altered lipid biosynthesis, which might signal reproductive readiness. Linear alcohols might also facilitate junco odor blending with plant volatiles in the habitat to distract mammalian predators. Some of the volatile compounds from preen oil, including linear alcohols, were also found on the wing feather surface, along with additional compounds that could have been of either metabolic or environmental origin. PMID:17146717

Soini, Helena A; Schrock, Sara E; Bruce, Kevin E; Wiesler, Donald; Ketterson, Ellen D; Novotny, Milos V

2007-01-01

151

Characterization of the disulfide bonds and the N-glycosylation sites in the glycoprotein from Rathke's gland secretions of Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempi).  

PubMed

The disulfide bonds and N-glycosylation sites in a glycoprotein from the Rathke's gland secretion of the Kemp's ridley turtle (Lepidochelys kempi) have been characterized with respect to peptide sequences and glycan structures. The glycoprotein constitutes about 70% of the total protein in the secretion, and based on partial sequence information, it shows more than 20% identity with both the catalytic (esterases) and the noncatalytic (thyroglobulin) members of the esterase/lipase family of proteins. For the determination of the disulfide locations, the glycoprotein was digested with chymotrypsin, and the three HPLC peptide peaks yielding fluorescent products after treatment with tributylphosphine (Bu3P) and 4-(aminosulfonyl)-7-fluoro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (ABD-F) were collected. The three fractions were treated with the same reagents in separate experiments, the resulting pairs of ABD-Cys-containing peptides were separated by HPLC, and the sequence of each individual peptide was determined. The peptide identity established that three disulfide bonds existed in the glycoprotein: Cys 65-Cys 91, Cys 254-Cys 265, and Cys 130-Cys 404; the first two of these are conserved in all the members of the esterase family. For the study of the glycosylation sites, the glycoprotein was reduced with Bu3P and the SH groups covalently blocked with ABD-F, and the resulting product was digested with chymotrypsin. The glycopeptides were isolated by affinity chromatography, separated by reverse-phase HPLC, and subjected to sequence analysis and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry before and after separation of the glycans and the peptides through the action of glycoamidase. Three separate glycosylation sites were identified, each containing multiple glycans. The sugar analyses of the hydrolysates of the glycoprotein indicated that only GlcNAc and Man were present as building blocks, and the mass spectrometric data showed that Man3GlcNAc2-, GlcNAc2-4Man3GlcNAc2-, and possibly GlcNAc2Man2GlcNAc2- were the major glycan structures, distributed differently at the three sites. The three glycosylation sites match three of the nine sites glycosylated in human serum choline esterase, and one of them, Asn 106, is also found as one of two glycosylation sites in the homologous segment of thyroglobulin. PMID:8789716

Chin, C C; Krishna, R G; Weldon, P J; Wold, F

1996-01-15

152

Androlog Summary Copious Pre-Ejaculation: Small Glands—Major Headaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Note: Postings to Androlog have been lightly edited before publication. Pre-ejaculate is a clear mucoid fluid produced by accessory sex glands and expressed on sexual stimula- tion into the urethra. The organs that produce this fluid are Cowper glands, the glands of Littre, and possibly the glands of Morgagni. Pre-ejaculate volume may range in normal men from a few drops

ALEKSANDER CHUDNOVSKY; CRAIG S. NIEDERBERGER

153

Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging.  

PubMed

Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands. PMID:23833425

Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

2012-10-01

154

Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging  

PubMed Central

Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands. PMID:23833425

Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

2012-01-01

155

Original article Cornual gland of the honeybee drone  

E-print Network

Original article Cornual gland of the honeybee drone (Apis mellifera L): structure and secretion G 1996) Summary — The cornual gland of the drone's endophallus is an epithelial gland, whose cells subtended by a layer of fatty tissue, and oenocytes can also be attached. The secretion in a 3-day-old drone

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

156

Anesthetic Considerations on Adrenal Gland Surgery  

PubMed Central

Adrenal gland surgery needs a multidisciplinary team including endocrinologist, radiologist, anesthesiologist, and surgeon. The indications for adrenal gland surgery include hormonal secreting and non-hormonal secreting tumors. Adrenal hormonal secreting tumors present to the anesthesiologist unique challenges requiring good preoperative evaluation, perioperative hemodynamic control, corrections of all electrolytes and metabolic abnormalities, a detailed and careful anesthetic strategy, overall knowledge about the specific diseases, control and maintaining of postoperative adrenal function, and finally a good collaboration with other involved colleagues. This review will focus on the endocrine issues, as well as on the above-mentioned aspects of anesthetic management during hormone secreting adrenal gland tumor resection. PMID:25368694

Domi, Rudin; Sula, Hektor; Kaci, Myzafer; Paparisto, Sokol; Bodeci, Artan; Xhemali, Astrit

2015-01-01

157

Anesthetic considerations on adrenal gland surgery.  

PubMed

Adrenal gland surgery needs a multidisciplinary team including endocrinologist, radiologist, anesthesiologist, and surgeon. The indications for adrenal gland surgery include hormonal secreting and non-hormonal secreting tumors. Adrenal hormonal secreting tumors present to the anesthesiologist unique challenges requiring good preoperative evaluation, perioperative hemodynamic control, corrections of all electrolytes and metabolic abnormalities, a detailed and careful anesthetic strategy, overall knowledge about the specific diseases, control and maintaining of postoperative adrenal function, and finally a good collaboration with other involved colleagues. This review will focus on the endocrine issues, as well as on the above-mentioned aspects of anesthetic management during hormone secreting adrenal gland tumor resection. PMID:25368694

Domi, Rudin; Sula, Hektor; Kaci, Myzafer; Paparisto, Sokol; Bodeci, Artan; Xhemali, Astrit

2015-01-01

158

Axillary accessory breast associated with galactorrhea in an adolescent girl  

PubMed Central

We present herein a case of right axillary accessory breast associated with galactorrhea in an adolescent girl. A 14-year-old Japanese girl presented with an 11-month history of a tender, subcutaneous lesion in the right axillary fossa. Seven months later, she experienced menarche. Subsequently, the patient noticed pressure-induced galactorrhea from both nipples. Physical examination revealed an elastic, firm and well-demarcated subcutaneous tumor 3 × 2 cm in size. A biopsy specimen showed proliferation of mammary gland tissue in the stroma located below the subcutaneous fat tissue. On the basis of these findings the patient was diagnosed with an accessory breast. Interestingly, the galactorrhea ceased after surgical removal of the accessory breast. PMID:21547148

Kyo, Akemi; Sasaki, Yoshihito; Fukunaga, Atsushi; Nagano, Tohru; Funasaka, Yoko; Nishigori, Chikako

2010-01-01

159

Accessories Around the Clock.  

E-print Network

Accessories Around the Clock RHEBA MERLE BOYLES GRAHAM HARD NENA ROBERSON FANNIE BROWN EATON Extension Clothing Specialists k. The Texas A. a M. College System 2? well-dressed woman of today believes a wardrobe of fewer q, well chosen... for a short time and are adapfed- by only a few. Some fads can be practical but often they grade you down on appearance. Good taste is realizing the importance of wearing the right clothes for the occasion and the individual. Acc on l m o HINTS...

Boyles, Rheba Merle; Hard, Graham; Roberson, Nena; Eaton, Fannie Brown

1958-01-01

160

Histological and histochemical studies on the albumen gland and capsular gland of Thais bufo (Lamarck) (Mollusca: Gastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histology and histochemistry of the albumen and capsular glands are described. Histochemical tests revealed the high proteinaceous\\u000a nature of these glands. The secretion of the albumen gland is rich in carbohydrates besides protein whereas that of the capsular\\u000a gland is a mucoprotein.

R C Rajalakshmi Bhanu; K Shyamasundari; K Hanumantha Rao

1982-01-01

161

Accessory scrotum in the perineum  

PubMed Central

A case of accessory scrotum in a 2-day-old male infant is reported because of its rarity. An overview of sequences during the normal development of male external genitalia has been provided and the deranged mechanism resulting in this anomaly has been reviewed with hypotheses regarding etiology of accessory scrotum. PMID:22121322

Kumar, Pananghat A.; Arunachalam, Pavai; Kumar, Prasanna N.

2011-01-01

162

The DNA puff BhB10-1 gene encodes a glycine-rich protein secreted by the late stage larval salivary glands of Bradysia hygida.  

PubMed

We present the molecular characterization of a gene of Bradysia hygida DNA puff B10 whose temporal expression in the salivary gland correlates with the puff expansion. The transcription unit of this gene, named BhB10-1, was mapped in a 2-kb EcoRI genomic fragment that is amplified in the salivary gland of late fourth instar larvae. Its 1.3-kb transcript undergoes poly-A tail shortening during development, indicating that post-transcriptional controls as well as transcription activation are involved in the temporal regulation of the BhB10-1 gene. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence from the cDNA indicates that the BhB10-1 protein is a glycine-rich secretory protein. A BhB10-1-fusion protein expressed in bacteria was used to raise polyclonal antibodies. Using an immunopurified antibody, we identified the product of the DNA puff BhB10-1 gene as a 23-kDa polypeptide that is produced mainly by the salivary gland regions S1 and S3 and is present in the saliva of late larvae. This is the first direct identification of a protein encoded by a DNA puff amplified gene. PMID:10231570

Fontes, A M; Conacci, M E; Monesi, N; de Almeida, J C; Paçó-Larson, M L

1999-04-29

163

A thermoactive secreted phospholipase A? purified from the venom glands of Scorpio maurus: relation between the kinetic properties and the hemolytic activity.  

PubMed

A lipolytic activity was located in the scorpion venom glands (telsons), from which a phospholipase A? (Sm-PLVG) was purified. Like known phospholipases A? from scorpion venom, which are 14-18 kDa proteins, the purified Scorpio maurus-Phospholipase from Venom Glands (Sm-PLVG) has a molecular mass of 17 kDa containing long and short chains linked by disulfide bridge. It has a specific activity of 5500 U/mg measured at 47 °C and pH 8.5 using phosphatidylcholine as a substrate in presence of 8 mM NaTDC and 12 mM CaCl?. The NH?-terminal amino acid sequences of the purified Sm-PLVG showed similarities with those of long and short chains of some previously purified phospholipases from venom scorpions. Moreover, the Sm-PLVG exhibits hemolytic activity toward human, rabbit or rat erythrocytes. This hemolytic activity was related to its ability to interact with phospholipids' monolayer at high surface pressure. These properties are similar to those of phospholipases isolated from snake venoms. PMID:23831286

Louati, Hanen; Krayem, Najeh; Fendri, Ahmed; Aissa, Imen; Sellami, Mohamed; Bezzine, Sofiane; Gargouri, Youssef

2013-09-01

164

Identification of the Raf-1 Signaling Pathway Used by cAMP to Inhibit p42/p44 MAPK in Rat Lacrimal Gland Acini: Role in Potentiation of Protein Secretion  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The lacrimal gland is primarily responsible for the aqueous portion of the tear film. Simultaneous addition of cholinergic agonists or growth factors with cAMP-dependent agonists potentiates secretion. Recent investigations revealed that cAMP decreases p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity stimulated by cholinergic agonists and growth factors that could account for this potentiation. In this study the authors identify the signal transduction pathway used by cAMP to inhibit MAPK activity. Methods. Rat lacrimal gland acini were incubated with H89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A, before the addition of dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP, 10?3 M) for 30 minutes. Basal MAPK and CREB activity and MAPK activity after stimulation with the cholinergic agonist carbachol (Cch) or epidermal growth factor (EGF) for 5 minutes was determined. The effect of dbcAMP on EGF receptor activity and basal and stimulated Ras, Raf-1, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), and MAPK activity was determined. The effect of a Rap-1 inhibitor, GGTI-298, on MAPK activity after the addition of dbcAMP was also determined. Results. H89 relieved the inhibition of cAMP on MAPK activity and inhibited CREB activity. Incubation with dbcAMP did not have any effect either on the EGF receptor or on Ras but significantly inhibited both basal and Raf-1 and MEK activity stimulated with Cch or EGF. GGTI-298 did not have any effect on cAMP-dependent decrease in MAPK activity. Conclusions. The authors conclude that cAMP mediates the inhibition of MAPK by PKA in a Raf-1–dependent manner. PMID:20671279

Funaki, Chika; Dartt, Darlene A.

2010-01-01

165

Honeybees Dufour's gland - idiosyncrasy of a new queen signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dufour's gland (DG) secretion of queens in Apis mellifera is normally caste specific. In queenright (QR) workers it is composed of odd n alkanes, while in queens it also possesses long chain esters. However, glandular expression is plastic since queenless (QL) workers produce a queen-like secretion. More- over, QR gland incubated in vitro produced these esters, indicating that glandular activity

Tamar K ATZAV-GOZANSKYa; George S. Wise

2002-01-01

166

Neuropeptide signaling mechanisms in crustacean and insect molting glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth in arthropods requires the periodic synthesis of a new exoskeleton and shedding, or molting, of the old exoskeleton. Both processes are initiated and coordinated by ecdysteroid molting hormones synthesized and secreted by a pair of molting glands: Y-organ (YO) in decapod crustaceans and the prothoracic gland (PG) in insects. The primary regulation of arthropod molting glands is mediated by

Joseph A. Covi; Ernest S. Chang; Donald L. Mykles

2011-01-01

167

Neuropeptide signaling mechanisms in crustacean and insect molting glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth in arthropods requires the periodic synthesis of a new exoskeleton and shedding, or molting, of the old exoskeleton. Both processes are initiated and coordinated by ecdysteroid molting hormones synthesized and secreted by a pair of molting glands: Y-organ (YO) in decapod crustaceans and the prothoracic gland (PG) in insects. The primary regulation of arthropod molting glands is mediated by

Joseph A. Covi; Ernest S. Chang; Donald L. Mykles

2012-01-01

168

Lacrimal glands in cystic fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Cystic fibrosis is a systemic disease involving defective mucus secretion in different parts of the body resulting in a wide range of systemic complications. We are presenting the histology of the lacrimal gland from a 25 year old male with cystic fibrosis using light microscopy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report. PMID:24227971

Alghadyan, Abdulrahman; Aljindan, Mohana; Alhumeidan, Adra; Kazi, Gholam; Mcmhon, Robert

2013-01-01

169

Biological Roles of Uterine Glands in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, uterine receptivity, and stromal cell decidualization in humans and animal models. The infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss observed in the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model unequivocally supports a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid in survival and development of the conceptus. Further, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation as well as stromal cell decidualization. Similarly in humans, uterine glands and their secretory products are likely critical regulators of blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus growth and development during the first trimester. Circumstantial evidence suggests that deficient glandular activity may be a causative factor in pregnancy failure and complications in humans. Thus, an increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of fertility and pregnancy problems in mammals. PMID:24959816

Spencer, Thomas E.

2014-01-01

170

Action of Aldosterone on the Lachrymal Gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE lachrymal gland in mammals has acinar tissue leading to ducts lined with columnar epithelium showing no regional differentiation. The Na\\/K ratio of an established secretion shows no alteration in relation to variation in secretory rates, nor is there other evidence of sodium absorption from the acinar secretion associated with exchange for other ions1. There are no records of experiments

Elspeth Bott; J. R. Blair-West; J. P. Coghlan; D. A. Denton; R. D. Wright

1966-01-01

171

news update Fashion Accessory Design  

E-print Network

. Her work was inspired by the patterns of floor tiles, and she incorporated domestic knittingnews update let's talk Fashion Accessory Design Fashion Design Fashion Knitwear Design and Knitted-year Fashion Knitwear Design and Knitted Textiles student Thea Sanders won the top knitwear prize at the event

Evans, Paul

172

Accessory gene regulator locus of Staphylococcus intermedius.  

PubMed

The accessory gene regulator (agr) locus, a candidate system for the regulation of the production of virulence factors in Staphylococcus intermedius, has been characterized. Using PCR-based genome walking, we have obtained the first complete sequence (3,436 bp) of the accessory gene regulator (agr) gene in this organism. Sequence analysis of the agr gene has identified five open reading frames (ORFs), agrB, agrD, agrC, agrA, and hld. The translated ORF contained amino acid motifs characteristic of the response regulator and histidine protein kinase signal transducer of the classic two-component regulatory system. Sequencing of the agrD PCR products amplified from DNA from 20 different isolates has facilitated detection of genetic variation in the putative autoinducing peptide (AIP) within the agr gene of S. intermedius, revealing the presence of at least three agr specificity groups within this species. Classification of the agr gene from S. intermedius was supported by phylogenetic analysis. Real-time PCR also revealed that the effector molecule of the agr system, RNAIII, was regulated in an autocrine manner in S. intermedius and demonstrated positive correlation with the temporal gene expression patterns of luk and entC. Transcription of RNAIII was also dependent on self secreted cues. Cyclic self and nonself peptides were synthesized on the basis of the novel AIPs produced by S. intermedius, which lack the cysteine necessary to form the thiolactone ring in analogous peptides from Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Experiments with these synthetic cyclic peptides indicated that self peptides led to up-regulation of RNAIII--findings in support of the assumption that activation of the agr gene is initiated by growth- and species-specific factors generated during bacterial growth. PMID:16622233

Sung, Julia M L; Chantler, Peter D; Lloyd, David H

2006-05-01

173

[Morphofunctional and molecular bases of pineal gland aging].  

PubMed

The review analyzed morphology, molecular and functional aspects of pineal gland aging and methods of it correction. The pineal gland is central organ, which regulates activity of neuroimmunoendocrine, antioxidant and other organisms systems. Functional activity of pineal gland is discreased at aging, which is the reason of melatonin level changing. The molecular and morphology research demonstrated, that pineal gland hadn't strongly pronounced atrophy at aging. Long-term experience showed, that peptides extract of pineal gland epithalamin and synthetic tetrapeptide on it base epithalon restored melatonin secretion in pineal gland and had strong regulatory activity at neuroimmunoendocrine and antioxidant organism systems. PMID:22567846

Khavinson, V Kh; Lin'kova, N S

2012-01-01

174

New exocrine glands in ants: the hypostomal gland and basitarsal gland in the genus Melissotarsus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fisher and Robertson (Insect Soc 46: 78-83, 1999) discovered the production of silk-like secretions emerging from slit-shaped openings along the anterior margin of the ventral hypostoma of Melissotarsus ant workers. The current histological study describes a hitherto unknown hypostomal gland from which this silk-like substance originates. In addition, this study describes a new basitarsal gland in the three pairs of legs of Melissotarsus workers.

Hölldobler, Bert; Obermayer, Malu; Plowes, Nicola J. R.; Fisher, Brian L.

2014-07-01

175

Thermally induced changes in neural and hormonal control of osmoregulation in a bird with salt glands ( Anas platyrhynchos )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conscious Pekin ducks adapted to hypertonic saline (1.9%) as drinking water, steady state secretion of the salt glands was established by continuous intravenous salt loading and the effects of hypothalamic thermal stimulation on salt gland activity and on the plasma concentrations of arginine vasotocin (AVT) and angiotensin II (AII) were observed. Hypothalamic cooling depressed salt gland secretion and the

Tetsuro Hori; Christa Simon-Oppermann; David A. Gray; Eckhart Simon

1986-01-01

176

Recent insights into HIV accessory proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV produces structural, regulatory, and accessory proteins during viral replication in host cells. The accessory proteins\\u000a include Nef, viral infectivity factor (Vif), viral protein R, and viral protein U or viral protein X. Although these accessory\\u000a proteins are generally dispensable for viral replication in vitro, they are essential for viral pathogenesis in vivo. Consequently,\\u000a there has been much interest in

Jenny L. Anderson; Thomas J. Hope

2003-01-01

177

On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells, but is also caused by damage to the extracellular environment, preventing proper cell functioning.

Konings, Antonius W.T. [Department of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Coppes, Rob P. [Department of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Vissink, Arjan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands)

2005-07-15

178

21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

179

21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.  

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

180

21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

181

Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies  

SciTech Connect

This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power. Two studies were conducted at ORNL. One was to put an additional winding in the motor slots to magnetically link with the high frequency of the controllable zero-sequence stator currents that do not produce any zero-sequence harmonic torques. The second approach was to utilize the corners of the square stator punching for the high-frequency transformers of the dc/dc inverter. Both approaches were successful. This CRADA validated the feasibility of GM’s desire to use the motor’s magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply. Three joint U.S. patents with GM were issued to ORNL and GM by the U.S. Patent Office for the research results produced by this CRADA.

Marlino, L.D.

2010-06-15

182

[Meibomian glands. Part I: anatomy, embryology and histology of the Meibomian glands].  

PubMed

The Meibomian glands are large sebaceous glands that are located as separate gland strands in parallel arrangement within the tarsal plates of the eyelids. Their oily product (meibum) is secreted by a holocrine mechanism during which the secretory cells (meibocytes) are completely transformed into the meibum after synthesis and accumulation of lipids. After production in the gland acini, meibum is transported through the ductal system via the connecting duct (ductule) and the central duct towards the orifice at the free lid margin close to the inner lid border. The embryological development of the Meibomian glands takes place during the differentiation of the eyelids in the sealing phase of the eyelids. They are not directly associated with hair follicles but share important similarities in embryology, structure and keratinization potency with the cilia. Similar to the sebaceous glands Meibomian glands are regulated via sex hormones and androgens have a supporting function whereas estrogens act antagonistically. However, in contrast to other sebaceous glands they also have a distinct innervation, apart from sympathetic and sensory primarily by parasympathetic fibers that share the innervation pattern of the lacrimal glands. The anatomy, embryology and histology of the Meibomian glands are explained here, mainly with respect to humans, in an extensive review. PMID:19856010

Knop, N; Knop, E

2009-10-01

183

49 CFR 393.3 - Additional equipment and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Additional equipment and accessories. 393.3 Section 393.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION General § 393.3 Additional equipment and accessories....

2010-10-01

184

21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device...

2010-04-01

185

An accessory limb with an imperforate anus  

PubMed Central

Congenital accessory limbs are very rare anomalies with many causative factors. We describe the case of a 1-day-old female neonate-born to a healthy, 27-year-old mother-who presented with an accessory limb (foot) attached to the buttock and an imperforate anus. We also provide a review of the relevant literature. PMID:25317418

Park, Kun-Bo; Kim, Yeon-Mee; Park, Ji-Yong; Chung, Mi-Lim; Jung, Yu-Jin

2014-01-01

186

Ultrastructure of the intramandibular gland of workers and queens of the stingless bee, Melipona quadrifasciata.  

PubMed

The intramandibular glands of workers and queens of Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae), at different ages and from different functional groups, were studied using light and transmission electron microscopy. The results demonstrated that these glands are composed of two types of secretory structures: 1.A hypertrophied epidermis on the dorsal side of the mandible that is an epithelial gland. 2. Free secretory cells filling the inner spaces of the appendices that constitute a unicellular gland. The epithelial gland is larger in the young (1-2-day-old workers), and the gland becomes involuted during the nurse worker stage. The unicellular glands of the workers posses some secretion during all of the studied phases, but secretory activity is more intensive in the foraging workers. Vesicles of secretion are absent in the unicellular glands of queens. These results demonstrate that these glands show functional adaptations in different castes corresponding to the functions of each caste. PMID:22220493

Da Cruz-Landim, Carminda; Gracioli-Vitti, Luciana F; Abdalla, Fábio C

2011-01-01

187

Cloning and seasonal secretion of the pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 present in goat seminal plasma.  

PubMed

The storage of frozen semen for artificial insemination is usually performed in the presence of egg yolk or skimmed milk as protective agents. In goats, the use of skimmed milk extenders requires, however, that most of the seminal plasma is removed before dilution of spermatozoa because it is deleterious for their survival. It has been previously demonstrated that a lipase (BUSgp60) secreted by the accessory bulbourethral gland was responsible for the cellular death of goat spermatozoa, through the lipolysis of residual milk lipids and the release of toxic free fatty acids. This lipase was purified from the whole seminal plasma of goat and was found to display both lipase and phospholipase A activities, this latter activity representing the main phospholipase activity detected in goat seminal plasma. Based on its N-terminal amino acid sequence, identical to that of BUSgP60 purified from bulbourethral gland secretion, and the design of degenerated oligonucleotides, the lipase was cloned from total mRNA isolated from bulbourethral gland. DNA sequencing confirmed it was the goat pancreatic-lipase-related protein 2 (GoPLRP2). The physiological role of GoPLRP2 is still unknown but this enzyme might be associated with the reproductive activity of goats. A significant increase in lipase secretion was observed every year in August and the level of lipase activity in the semen remained high till December, i.e., during the breeding season. A parallel increase in the plasmatic levels of testosterone suggested that GoPLRP2 expression might be regulated by sexual hormones. The lipase activity level measured in goat seminal plasma, which could reach 1000 U/ml during the breeding season, was one of the highest lipase activity measured in natural sources, including gastric and pancreatic juices. PMID:15629686

Sias, Barbara; Ferrato, Francine; Pellicer-Rubio, Maria-Teresa; Forgerit, Yvonick; Guillouet, Philippe; Leboeuf, Bernard; Carrière, Frédéric

2005-01-01

188

The accessory fallopian tube: A rare anomaly.  

PubMed

This paper presents a rare anatomical variation in the form of accessory fallopian tube on right side. The duplication of fallopian tube was observed in a 34-year-old female during routine undergraduate dissection in our department. Fallopian tube is the part of uterus that carries the ovum from the ovary to the uterus. Accessory fallopian tube is the congenital anomaly attached to the ampullary part of main tube. This accessory tube is common site of pyosalpinx, hydrosalpinx, cystic swelling and torsion. The ovum released by the ovary may also be captured by the blind accessory tube leading to infertility or ectopic pregnancy. Hence, all patients of infertility or pelvic inflammatory disease should be screened to rule out the presence of accessory fallopian tube and if encountered should be removed. PMID:23532389

Gandhi, Kusum R; Siddiqui, Abu U; Wabale, Rajendra N; Daimi, Syed R

2012-09-01

189

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

190

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

191

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

192

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

193

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

194

Lacrimal Gland Tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... Gland Tumor Lacrimal Gland Tumor This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Lacrimal Gland Tumor. Use the menu ... guide is reviewed by experts on the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , which is composed of medical, surgical, ...

195

Epifascial accessory palmaris longus muscle.  

PubMed

In hand reconstructive surgery the palmaris longus muscle is one of the most utilized donor site for tendon reconstruction procedures. However, its anatomic position is variable and anatomic variations may be responsible for median nerve compression. We report the case of a 40-year-old, right-handed woman, who presented with numbness and paresthesias in the palm and in the flexor aspect of the first, second, and third fingers of her right hand for the preceding 5 months, coinciding with increase of office work (typing). The clinical examination and radiological investigations (ultrasound and magnetic resonance) revealed a subcutaneous mass (15 mm x 2.3 mm x 6 cm), with a lenticular shape and definite edges at the level of the volar aspect of the distal third of the forearm. The fine-needle aspiration biopsy revealed the presence of striated muscle fibers. During surgery, a muscle belly was found in the epifascial plane. This muscle originated from subcutaneous septa in the middle forearm and inserted on to the superficial palmar aponeurosis with fine short tendon fibers. Exposure of the antebrachial fascia did not reveal any area of weakness or muscle herniation. The palmaris longus tendon, flexor digitorum superficialis tendons, and flexor carpi radialis tendon showed usual topography under the antebrachial fascia. The accessory muscle was excised and histology revealed unremarkable striated muscle fibers, limited by a thin connective sheath. The presence of an accessory palmaris longus (APL) located in the epifascial plane could be ascribed to an unusual migration of myoblasts during the morphogenesis. Although extremely rare, APL is worth bearing in mind as a possible cause of median nerve compression and etiology of a volar mass in the distal forearm. PMID:16917822

Tiengo, Cesare; Macchi, Veronica; Stecco, Carla; Bassetto, Franco; De Caro, Raffaele

2006-09-01

196

Sebaceous glands in uninvolved skin of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally known that many patients with atopic dermatitis have dry scaling of the skin. This may be partly due to a characteristic structure of the horny layer and a disorder of sweat gland secretion. A decrease in the sebaceous gland secretion may also have an important bearing on the typical dryness of the skin in atopic dermatitis. Since

H. Wirth; M. Gloor; D. Stoika

1981-01-01

197

Calcitonin is expressed in the chicken pituitary gland: influence of gonadal steroids and sexual maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcitonin (CT) is primarily produced by the thyroid C cells in mammals or by the ultimobranchial gland in chickens. CT is also expressed by the pituitary gland in rats in which it functions as a paracrine factor causing decreased lactotroph proliferation and prolactin (PRL) secretion. Gonadal steroids influence CT expression in the rat pituitary gland. However, the expression of the

Sreenivasa R. Maddineni; Susan M. Krzysik-Walker; Olga M. Ocón-Grove; Susan M. Motch; Gilbert L. Hendricks; Ramesh Ramachandran

2006-01-01

198

Studies on the accessory requirement for T lymphocyte activation by concanavalin A.  

PubMed Central

In this study we have examined the interactions between accessory cells (AC) and T cells in response to Con A. Highly purified peripheral blood T cells and AC exposed to a variety of treatments were used. We found that untreated AC provided optimal help for T cell proliferation and this was not mediated by soluble factors since whole cells could not be replaced with supernatants from activated AC. Furthermore, cycloheximide-treated AC were able to supply the accessory signal although unable to elaborate soluble activation factors. To find out more about the accessory signal, we examined the ability of monocytes mildly fixed with glutaraldehyde to supply help. These cells were completely unable to perform as AC, although they were viable and had unaltered surface antigen expression. They could not secrete activation factors, but this alone could not explain their inability to supply help because this function was not restored with the addition of soluble activation factors. This indicated that AC-T cell contact was of prime importance to accessory function. To investigate the possibility that AC work by cross-linking structures on the lymphocyte surface, we attempted to substitute for the soluble Con A plus AC with Con A bound to the surface of erythrocytes. Comparable stimulation was observed, suggesting that the cross-linking of Con A-bound structures on the lymphocyte surface generates the accessory signal. PMID:3100115

Gallagher, R B; Whelan, A; Feighery, C

1986-01-01

199

Volatile Compounds from Anal Glands of the Wolverine, Gulo gulo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dichloromethane extracts of wolverine (Gulo gulo, Mustelinae, Mustelidae) anal gland secretion were examined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The secretion composition was complex and variable for the six samples examined: 123 compounds were detected in total, with the number per animal ranging from 45 to 71 compounds. Only six compounds were common to all extracts: 3-methylbutanoic acid, 2-methylbutanoic acid, phenylacetic acid,

William F. Wood; Miranda N. Terwilliger; Jeffrey P. Copeland

2005-01-01

200

Adaptable infrared surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy accessory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A second generation prototype enabling surface plasmon resonance spectroscopic measurements in the infrared (IR) range is described. The new design (v2) uses the optical train (optics and detector) within conventional FT-IR spectrometers by confining dimensions of the accessory to space available within the sample compartment of the spectrometer. The v2 accessory builds upon knowledge gained from a previous version that was based on a modified commercial variable angle spectroscopic accessory and addresses observed limitations of the original design—improved temporal stability and measurement acquisition speed, crucial to biomolecular binding studies, as well as optical flexibility, a requirement for investigations of novel plasmon-supporting materials. Different aspects of the accessory, including temporal stability, mechanical resilience, and sensitivity to changes in refractive index of a sample were evaluated and presented in this contribution.

Menegazzo, Nicola; Kegel, Laurel L.; Kim, Yoon-Chang; Allen, Derrick L.; Booksh, Karl S.

2012-09-01

201

21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory...powered traction equipment to aid in exerting therapeutic pulling forces on the patient's...

2013-04-01

202

21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.  

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory...powered traction equipment to aid in exerting therapeutic pulling forces on the patient's...

2014-04-01

203

21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory...powered traction equipment to aid in exerting therapeutic pulling forces on the patient's...

2012-04-01

204

21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory...powered traction equipment to aid in exerting therapeutic pulling forces on the patient's...

2011-04-01

205

Immunohistochemical characterization of epithelial cells in human lacrimal glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression patterns of cytokeratins (CKs), actin, lactoferrin (Lf), lysozyme (Ly), vimentin, and S-100 protein were immunohistochemically\\u000a examined in paraffin sections from eight normal major and accessory lacrimal glands (LGs). Luminal duct cells and a number\\u000a of secretory cells stained with the antibodies (ABs) KL1 and Pkk1 (CK 7, 8, 17, 18), while basal duct and myoepithelial cells\\u000a reacted with the

Nadarajah Vigneswaran; Carl Michael Wilk; Angelika Heese; Otto Paul Hornstein; Gottfried O. H. Naumann

1990-01-01

206

Insulin signaling pathways in lepidopteran ecdysone secretion.  

PubMed

Molting and metamorphosis are stimulated by the secretion of ecdysteroid hormones from the prothoracic glands. Insulin-like hormones have been found to enhance prothoracic gland activity, providing a mechanism to link molting to nutritional state. In silk moths (Bombyx mori), the prothoracic glands are directly stimulated by insulin and the insulin-like hormone bombyxin. Further, in Bombyx, the neuropeptide prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) appears to act at least in part through the insulin-signaling pathway. In the prothoracic glands of Manduca sexta, while insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and Akt, neither insulin nor bombyxin II stimulate ecdysone secretion. Involvement of the insulin-signaling pathway in Manduca prothoracic glands was explored using two inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), LY294002 and wortmannin. PI3K inhibitors block the phosphorylation of Akt and 4EBP but have no effect on ecdysone secretion, or on the phosphorylation of the MAPkinase, ERK. Inhibitors that block phosphorylation of ERK, including the MEK inhibitor U0126, and high doses of the RSK inhibitor SL0101, effectively inhibit ecdysone secretion. The results highlight differences between the two lepidopteran insects most commonly used to directly study ecdysteroid secretion. In Bombyx, the PTTH and insulin-signaling pathways intersect; both insulin and PTTH enhance the phosphorylation of Akt and stimulate ecdysteroid secretion, and inhibition of PI3K reduces ecdysteroid secretion. By contrast, in Manduca, the action of PTTH is distinct from insulin. The results highlight species differences in the roles of translational regulators such as 4EBP, and members of the MAPkinase pathway such as ERK and RSK, in the regulation of insect ecdysone secretion, and in the impact of nutritionally-sensitive hormones such as insulin in the control of ecdysone secretion and molting. PMID:24550835

Smith, Wendy A; Lamattina, Anthony; Collins, McKensie

2014-01-01

207

Insulin signaling pathways in lepidopteran ecdysone secretion  

PubMed Central

Molting and metamorphosis are stimulated by the secretion of ecdysteroid hormones from the prothoracic glands. Insulin-like hormones have been found to enhance prothoracic gland activity, providing a mechanism to link molting to nutritional state. In silk moths (Bombyx mori), the prothoracic glands are directly stimulated by insulin and the insulin-like hormone bombyxin. Further, in Bombyx, the neuropeptide prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) appears to act at least in part through the insulin-signaling pathway. In the prothoracic glands of Manduca sexta, while insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and Akt, neither insulin nor bombyxin II stimulate ecdysone secretion. Involvement of the insulin-signaling pathway in Manduca prothoracic glands was explored using two inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), LY294002 and wortmannin. PI3K inhibitors block the phosphorylation of Akt and 4EBP but have no effect on ecdysone secretion, or on the phosphorylation of the MAPkinase, ERK. Inhibitors that block phosphorylation of ERK, including the MEK inhibitor U0126, and high doses of the RSK inhibitor SL0101, effectively inhibit ecdysone secretion. The results highlight differences between the two lepidopteran insects most commonly used to directly study ecdysteroid secretion. In Bombyx, the PTTH and insulin-signaling pathways intersect; both insulin and PTTH enhance the phosphorylation of Akt and stimulate ecdysteroid secretion, and inhibition of PI3K reduces ecdysteroid secretion. By contrast, in Manduca, the action of PTTH is distinct from insulin. The results highlight species differences in the roles of translational regulators such as 4EBP, and members of the MAPkinase pathway such as ERK and RSK, in the regulation of insect ecdysone secretion, and in the impact of nutritionally-sensitive hormones such as insulin in the control of ecdysone secretion and molting. PMID:24550835

Smith, Wendy A.; Lamattina, Anthony; Collins, McKensie

2014-01-01

208

Adaptive Evolution in Rodent Seminal Vesicle Secretion Proteins  

PubMed Central

Proteins involved in reproductive fitness have evolved unusually rapidly across diverse groups of organisms. These reproductive proteins show unusually high rates of amino acid substitutions, suggesting that the proteins have been subject to positive selection. We sought to identify seminal fluid proteins experiencing adaptive evolution because such proteins are often involved in sperm competition, host immunity to pathogens, and manipulation of female reproductive physiology and behavior. We performed an evolutionary screen of the mouse prostate transcriptome for genes with elevated evolutionary rates between mouse and rat. We observed that secreted rodent prostate proteins evolve approximately twice as fast as nonsecreted proteins, remarkably similar to findings in the primate prostate and in the Drosophila male accessory gland. Our screen led us to identify and characterize a group of seminal vesicle secretion (Svs) proteins and to show that the gene Svs7 is evolving very rapidly, with many amino acid sites under positive selection. Another gene in this group, Svs5, showed evidence of branch-specific selection in the rat. We also found that Svs7 is under selection in primates and, by using three-dimensional models, demonstrated that the same regions have been under selection in both groups. Svs7 has been identified as mouse caltrin, a protein involved in sperm capacitation, the process responsible for the timing of changes in sperm activity and behavior, following ejaculation. We propose that the most likely explanation of the adaptive evolution of Svs7 that we have observed in rodents and primates stems from an important function in sperm competition. PMID:18718917

Clark, Nathaniel L.; Nguyen, Eric D.; Swanson, Willie J.

2008-01-01

209

Computed tomographic imaging characteristics of the normal canine lacrimal glands  

PubMed Central

Background The canine lacrimal gland (LG) and accessory lacrimal gland of the third eyelid (TEG) are responsible for production of the aqueous portion of the precorneal tear film. Immune-mediated, toxic, neoplastic, or infectious processes can affect the glands directly or can involve adjacent tissues, with secondary gland involvement. Disease affecting these glands can cause keratoconjunctivitis sicca, corneal ulcers, and loss of vision. Due to their location in the orbit, these small structures are difficult to evaluate and measure, making cross-sectional imaging an important diagnostic tool. The detailed cross-sectional imaging appearance of the LG and TEG in dogs using computed tomography (CT) has not been reported to date. Results Forty-two dogs were imaged, and the length, width, and height were measured and the volume calculated for the LGs & TEGs. The glands were best visualized in contrast-enhanced CT images. The mean volume of the LG was 0.14 cm3 and the TEG was 0.1 cm3. The mean height, width, and length of the LG were, 9.36 mm, 4.29 mm, and 9.35 mm, respectively; the corresponding values for the TEG was 2.02 mm, 9.34 mm, and 7.90 mm. LG and TEG volume were positively correlated with body weight (p?glands. PMID:24886364

2014-01-01

210

Adrenal Gland Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

211

Accessory breast tissue mimicking pedunculated lipoma.  

PubMed

Accessory breast tissue is an uncommon condition which occurs in 0.4-6% of women. It is mostly located in the axilla where it can cause diagnostic difficulty, especially if it is unilateral and large. Usually it is bilateral and presents as an asymptomatic mass during pregnancy or lactation. The diagnosis of ectopic breast tissue is important as it can undergo the same pathological changes that occur in a normal breast, such as mastitis, fibrocystic disease and carcinoma. We present a case of a large right-sided accessory breast in a 32-year-old woman that was clinically diagnosed as pedunculated lipoma. However, subsequent histopathological examination proved it to be an accessory breast tissue with lactational changes. PMID:25006058

Husain, Musharraf; Khan, Sabina; Bhat, Ashraf; Hajini, Firdoos

2014-01-01

212

Controlled Speed Accessory Drive demonstration program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Controlled Speed Accessory Drive System was examined in an effort to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars. Concept feasibility and the performance of a typical system during actual road driving conditions were demonstrated. The CSAD system is described as a mechanical device which limits engine accessory speeds, thereby reducing parasitic horsepower losses and improving overall vehicle fuel economy. Fuel consumption data were compiled for fleets of GSA vehicles. Various motor pool locations were selected, each representing different climatic conditions. On the basis of a total accumulated fleet usage of nearly three million miles, an overall fuel economy improvement of 6 percent to 7 percent was demonstrated. Coincident chassis dynamometer tests were accomplished on selected vehicles to establish the effect of different accessory drive systems on exhaust emissions, and to evaluate the magnitude of the mileage benefits which could be derived.

Hoehn, F. W.

1981-01-01

213

Physiology of Epithelial Chloride and Fluid Secretion  

PubMed Central

Epithelial salt and water secretion serves a variety of functions in different organ systems, such as the airways, intestines, pancreas, and salivary glands. In cystic fibrosis (CF), the volume and/or composition of secreted luminal fluids are compromised owing to mutations in the gene encoding CFTR, the apical membrane anion channel that is responsible for salt secretion in response to cAMP/PKA stimulation. This article examines CFTR and related cellular transport processes that underlie epithelial anion and fluid secretion, their regulation, and how these processes are altered in CF disease to account for organ-specific secretory phenotypes. PMID:22675668

Frizzell, Raymond A.; Hanrahan, John W.

2012-01-01

214

The Aging Lacrimal Gland: Changes in Structure and Function  

PubMed Central

The afferent nerves of the cornea and conjunctiva, efferent nerves of the lacrimal gland, and the lacrimal gland are a functional unit that works cooperatively to produce the aqueous component of tears. A decrease in the lacrimal gland secretory function can lead to dry eye disease. Because aging is a risk factor for dry eye disease, study of the changes in the function of the lacrimal gland functional unit with age is important for developing treatments to prevent dry eye disease. No one mechanism is known to induce the changes that occur with aging, although multiple different mechanisms have been associated with aging. These fall into two theoretical categories: programmed theories of aging (immunological, genetic, apoptotic, and neuroendocrine) and error theories of aging (protein alteration, somatic mutation, etc). Lacrimal glands undergo structural and functional alteration with increasing age. In mouse models of aging, it has been shown that neural stimulation of protein secretion is an early target of aging, accompanied by an increase in mast cells and lipofuscin accumulation. Hyperglycemia and increased lymphocytic infiltration can contribute to this loss of function at older ages. These findings suggest that an increase in oxidative stress may play a role in the loss of lacrimal gland function with age. For the afferent and efferent neural components of the lacrimal gland functional unit, immune or inflammatory mediated decrease in nerve function could contribute to loss of lacrimal gland secretion with age. More research in this area is critically needed. PMID:18827949

Rocha, Eduardo M.; Alves, Monica; Rios, J. David; Dartt, Darlene A.

2014-01-01

215

Accessory Mental Nerve: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

The presence of an Accessory Mental Nerve (AMN) is rare. The mental foramen is an important landmark in the mandible for administration of local anaesthesia and mental nerve identification and its preservation is of paramount importance in various surgical procedures. This article presents a case of an incidental finding of accessory mental nerves during open reduction and fixation of a compound fracture of left body of mandible. Knowledge on anatomic variations is helpful in diagnosis, treatment planning and management during surgical procedures. PMID:24179949

N.S., Mamatha; N.S., Kedarnath; Singh, Madhumathi; Patel, Gourav

2013-01-01

216

Rectal Glands in Woodlice  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE structure and function of the rectal glands of insects have been investigated by several workers1. Later, Wigglesworth2 studied these glands more thoroughly in a number of species. No report, however, has yet appeared in the literature regarding the presence of rectal glands in woodlice (Crustacea : Isopoda), although Edney3 stated : ``the fæcal pellets are moist, and there appears

Minati Gupta

1961-01-01

217

Salivary secretion: mechanism and neural regulation.  

PubMed

Maintenance of a film of saliva on oral surfaces is dependent upon nerve-mediated, reflex salivary gland secretion. Afferent signalling arises from taste, olfaction and mastication and is modified by signalling from other centres in the central nervous system before efferent signals are delivered to salivary glands in autonomic nerves. Salivary fluid secretion is largely dependent upon cholinergic signalling from parasympathetic nerves whilst the protein content of saliva is additionally dependent upon signalling by neuropeptides and, in the major (parotid, submandibular and sublingual) salivary glands, by sympathetic nerves and the release of noradrenaline. There have been significant recent advances in our understanding of the membrane transport proteins involved in intracellular calcium signalling in salivary acinar cells in response to nerve stimulation and of the ion transport proteins responsible for acinar cell secretion of saliva. Salivary glands retain an ability to regenerate following extreme atrophy, and autonomic nerves have an important role in both gland development and maintenance of long-term normal function. Continued advances in the understanding of the nerve-mediated regulation of salivary glands should help in the development of strategies for preventing chronic oral dryness resulting from drugs or atrophic disease associated with inflammation and irradiation. PMID:24862591

Proctor, Gordon B; Carpenter, Guy H

2014-01-01

218

14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.  

... false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23.1437 Section 23.1437 ...UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine airplanes,...

2014-01-01

219

14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23.1437 Section 23.1437 ...UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine airplanes,...

2012-01-01

220

14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23.1437 Section 23.1437 ...UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine airplanes,...

2010-01-01

221

14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23.1437 Section 23.1437 ...UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine airplanes,...

2011-01-01

222

14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23.1437 Section 23.1437 ...UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine airplanes,...

2013-01-01

223

26 CFR 48.4161(a)-3 - Parts and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Parts and accessories. 48.4161(a)-3 Section 48.4161(a)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(a)-3 Parts and accessories. (a) In...

2013-04-01

224

26 CFR 48.4161(a)-3 - Parts and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Parts and accessories. 48.4161(a)-3 Section 48.4161(a)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(a)-3 Parts and accessories. (a) In...

2011-04-01

225

26 CFR 48.4161(a)-3 - Parts and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Parts and accessories. 48.4161(a)-3 Section 48.4161(a)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(a)-3 Parts and accessories. (a) In...

2012-04-01

226

Synthesis and regulation of accessory/proinflammatory cytokines by intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed Central

Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) have been shown to act as antigen-presenting cells (APC) in vitro and may have this capacity in vivo. In order to determine whether IEC, like other APC, are able to produce accessory cytokines which may play a role in T cell activation, we assessed the accessory cytokine profile of IEC constitutively or after stimulation. We measured expression, production and regulation of accessory cytokines (IL-1 beta, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) by the presence of mRNA as well as secreted protein. Freshly isolated IEC from surgical specimens were cultured in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), IL-1 beta or TNF-alpha. mRNA was assessed by a specific RNAse protection assay which controlled for contaminating cell populations while protein secretion was measured by ELISA (IL-1) or bioassay (TNF and IL-6). Neither IL-1 beta nor TNF-alpha were detectable in cultured IEC supernatants, supporting the lack of macrophage contamination. All IEC spontaneously secreted IL-6 at levels comparable to those of macrophages. IEC IL-6 mRNA also increased approximately 200-fold during the first 24 h of culture. LPS, IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha had no effect on spontaneous IL-6 production, and neither resulted in the secretion of IL-1 beta or TNF-alpha. However, IL-1 beta up-regulated IL-6 synthesis by 6-7-fold. IEC express a profile of cytokine mRNAs distinct from conventional APC (low level constitutive IL-6 expression but no detectable IL-1 beta, TGF-beta or TNF-alpha), adding to their uniqueness as APC. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7743669

Panja, A; Siden, E; Mayer, L

1995-01-01

227

Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasms  

SciTech Connect

Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. The clinical signs are usually the result of an overproduction of hormones that are normally biosynthesized by the neoplastic endocrine gland (orthoendocrine syndromes), as opposed to those that are the result of hormones that are not normally biosynthesized and secreted by those cells that have undergone neoplastic transformation (paraendocrine syndromes, also known as endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes or ectopic hormone syndromes). The biological effects produced by a neoplasm may be out of proportion to the actual size of the tumor. This report focuses on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal glands and pancreas. Discussion will focus on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis. 2 tabs.

Weller, R.E.

1989-05-01

228

Transcriptomic Analysis of the Salivary Glands of an Invasive Whitefly  

PubMed Central

Background Some species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex cause tremendous losses to crops worldwide through feeding directly and virus transmission indirectly. The primary salivary glands of whiteflies are critical for their feeding and virus transmission. However, partly due to their tiny size, research on whitefly salivary glands is limited and our knowledge on these glands is scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of the Mediterranean species of B. tabaci complex using an effective cDNA amplification method in combination with short read sequencing (Illumina). In a single run, we obtained 13,615 unigenes. The quantity of the unigenes obtained from the salivary glands of the whitefly is at least four folds of the salivary gland genes from other plant-sucking insects. To reveal the functions of the primary glands, sequence similarity search and comparisons with the whole transcriptome of the whitefly were performed. The results demonstrated that the genes related to metabolism and transport were significantly enriched in the primary salivary glands. Furthermore, we found that a number of highly expressed genes in the salivary glands might be involved in secretory protein processing, secretion and virus transmission. To identify potential proteins of whitefly saliva, the translated unigenes were put into secretory protein prediction. Finally, 295 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins and some of them might play important roles in whitefly feeding. Conclusions/Significance: The combined method of cDNA amplification, Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly is suitable for transcriptomic analysis of tiny organs in insects. Through analysis of the transcriptome, genomic features of the primary salivary glands were dissected and biologically important proteins, especially secreted proteins, were predicted. Our findings provide substantial sequence information for the primary salivary glands of whiteflies and will be the basis for future studies on whitefly-plant interactions and virus transmission. PMID:22745728

Su, Yun-Lin; Li, Jun-Min; Li, Meng; Luan, Jun-Bo; Ye, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

2012-01-01

229

Removal of Accessory Breasts: A Novel Tumescent Liposuction Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Accessory breasts, usually with a protuberant appearance, are composed of both the central accessory breast tissue and adjacent\\u000a fat tissue. They are a palpable convexity and cosmetically unsightly. Consequently, patients often desire cosmetic improvement.\\u000a The traditional general surgical treatment for accessory breasts is removal of the accessory breast tissue, fat tissue, and\\u000a covering skin as a whole unit. A rather

Jufeng Fan

2009-01-01

230

Electronic Position Sensor for Power Operated Accessory  

DOEpatents

An electronic position sensor for use with a power operated vehicle accessory, such as a power liftgate. The position sensor includes an elongated resistive circuit that is mounted such that it is stationary and extends along the path of a track portion of the power operated accessory. The position sensor further includes a contact nub mounted to a link member that moves within the track portion such that the contact nub is slidingly biased against the elongated circuit. As the link member moves under the force of a motor-driven output gear, the contact nub slides along the surface of the resistive circuit, thereby affecting the overall resistance of the circuit. The position sensor uses the overall resistance to provide an electronic position signal to an ECU, wherein the signal is indicative of the absolute position of the power operated accessory. Accordingly, the electronic position sensor is capable of providing an electronic signal that enables the ECU to track the absolute position of the power operated accessory.

Haag, Ronald H.; Chia, Michael I.

2005-05-31

231

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and...

2014-04-01

232

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair...

2012-04-01

233

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair...

2014-04-01

234

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and...

2013-04-01

235

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair...

2013-04-01

236

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and...

2011-04-01

237

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair...

2011-04-01

238

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and...

2012-04-01

239

Secret Codon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, "write" a secret message in genetic code as beads on a string. Learners use an amino acid codon table to determine the DNA sequences that correspond to the one-letter amino acid abbreviations that make up their secret word(s). Learners also use start and stop codons in their sequences and follow a color key for the bases. Learners can trade strands with a friend to see if they can decode their secret message.

Yu, Julie

2008-01-01

240

The lymph drainage pattern of the mammary glands in the cat: a lymphographic and computerized tomography lymphographic study.  

PubMed

Seventy-three clinically normal, lactating cats were used to investigate the lymph drainage of 73 mammary glands. In 50 cats of the first group, the number of lymphatic vessels emerging from the examined mammary gland, their course and the lymph nodes into which they are drained were studied by indirect lymphography (IL) after intramammary injection of an oily contrast medium. In 23 cats of the second group, the lymph drainage of the mammary glands was studied by computerized tomography indirect lymphography (CT-IL) after intramammary injection of a water soluble contrast medium. The following day, the lymph drainage of the mammary gland examined by CT-IL was studied by IL, as it was described in the first group, for comparison purposes. The main conclusions drawn after this study were as follows: lymph drains from the first and second mammary glands with one or rarely two or three lymphatic vessels to the accessory axillary lymph nodes. Lymph drains from the third mammary gland with one or two and rarely three lymphatic vessels usually to the accessory inguinal lymph nodes or to the accessory axillary lymph nodes. In some cases, it drains to both lymph nodes simultaneously or it may rarely drain only to the medial iliac lymph nodes. The fourth mammary gland with one or two and rarely three lymphatic vessels usually drains to the accessory inguinal lymph nodes. It may rarely drain only to the medial iliac lymph nodes. Mammary lymphatic vessels that cross the midline and lymphatic connection between the mammary glands were not demonstrated. No differences in the mammary lymph drainage pattern between IL and CT-IL were found. PMID:19614630

Papadopoulou, P L; Patsikas, M N; Charitanti, A; Kazakos, G M; Papazoglou, L G; Karayannopoulou, M; Chrisogonidis, I; Tziris, N; Dimitriadis, A

2009-08-01

241

A sexual dimorphism of the harderian gland of the toad, Bufo viridis.  

PubMed

The Harderian gland of the toad, Bufo viridis, is an acinar gland located at the medial corner of the orbit. The columnar glandular cells show considerable variation in height depending upon their functional state. During July they are taller than in November and May, and filled with secretory seromucous granules. The glandular cells of the female toad, only, contain at their base numerous lipid droplets dispersed in a smooth endoplasmic reticulum. This is the first observation of sexual dimorphism in the Harderian gland of a nonmammalian vertebrate. The secretion of the gland is mainly merocrine. Although the secretion of the Harderian gland is mainly concerned with lubrication of the eyeball, the presence of lipid secretion only in the female glandular cells suggests a pheromonale function, which may influence the sexual behaviour of the male. PMID:2629703

Minucci, S; Baccari, G C; Di Matteo, L; Chieffi, G

1989-01-01

242

Larval salivary glands are a source of primer and releaser pheromone in honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brood pheromone identified in honeybee larvae has primer and releaser pheromone effects on adult bees. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate fatty acid esters—the pheromonal compounds—in different parts of the larvae, we have localized the source of the esters as the larval salivary glands. A histochemical study describes the glands and confirms the presence of lipids in the glands. Epithelial cells of the gland likely secrete the fatty acids into the lumen of the gland. These results demonstrate the salivary glands to be a reservoir of esters, components of brood pheromone, in honeybee larvae.

Conte, Yves Le; Bécard, Jean-Marc; Costagliola, Guy; de Vaublanc, Gérard; Maâtaoui, Mohamed El; Crauser, Didier; Plettner, Erika; Slessor, Keith N.

2006-05-01

243

Comparing the secretory pathway in honeybee venom and hypopharyngeal glands.  

PubMed

We provide insights into the secretory pathway of arthropod gland systems by comparing the royal jelly-producing hypopharyngeal glands and the venom-producing glands of the honeybee, Apis mellifera. These glands have different functions and different product release characteristics, but both belong to the class 3 types of insect glands, each being composed of two cells, a secretory cell and a microduct-forming cell. The hypopharyngeal secretory cells possess an extremely elongate tubular invagination that is filled with a cuticular structure, the end-apparatus, anchored against the cell membrane by a conspicuous series of actin rings. In contrast, venom glands have no actin rings, but instead have an actin-rich brush border surrounding the comparatively short and narrow end-apparatus. We relate these cytoskeletal differences to the production system and utilisation of secretions; venom is stored in a reservoir whereas royal jelly and enzymes are produced on demand. Fluorescence-based characterisation of the actin cytoskeleton combined with scanning electron microscopy of the end-apparatus allows for detailed characterisation of the point of secretion release in insect class 3 glands. PMID:23142089

Kheyri, Homayoun; Cribb, Bronwen W; Merritt, David J

2013-03-01

244

Successful treatment of crocodile tears by injection of botulinum toxin into the lacrimal gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivePathologic lacrimation (crocodile tears) is a rare but stigmatizing symptom after facial nerve paralysis. The aim of this pilot study was to examine whether botulinum toxin injection into the lacrimal gland is effective in reducing pathologic tear secretion.

Randolf Riemann; Stefan Pfennigsdorf; Elke Riemann; Markus Naumann

1999-01-01

245

Fractionated irradiation and early changes in salivary glands. Different effects on potassium efflux, exocytotic amylase release and gland morphology  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation is a potent treatment modality of head and neck cancer. However, the irradiation is usually associated with an influence on salivary glands with ensuing dryness and discomfort for the patients. In the present study we used different in vitro secretory models and morphologic characterization of rat parotid gland. Radiation was given to one gland on a 5-day schedule with 6 MV photons (total dose 20, 30, 35, 40, 45 Gy). The contralateral gland served as control, and the analysis of glands were performed 10 days after the last irradiation treatment. The noradrenaline stimulated electrolyte secretion (86rubidium tracer for potassium) was decreased in relation to the irradiation dose and in comparison to contralateral control glands. Noradrenaline stimulated exocytotic amylase release was not affected by irradiation and, there were no signs of obvious quantitative morphologic alterations after irradiation compared with controls. The results suggest that there are differences in the sensitivity to radiation for the two different secretory processes in salivary glands, and, thus, the structures regulating electrolyte and fluid secretion seem to be more vulnerable to irradiation than the process of exocytosis. The results, however, do not allow discrimination between temporary cellular impairment and irreversible damage leading to cell death.

Franzen, L.; Funegard, U.S.; Sundstroem, S.G.; Gustafsson, H.; Danielsson, A.; Henriksson, R. (University Hospital, Umea (Sweden))

1991-02-01

246

Animal models for the study of milk secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk secretion is regulated by a complex interaction of galactopoietic hormones which is not yet fully understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that this systemic control is modulated within the mammary gland by local mechanisms responsive to the frequency and completeness of milk removal. New insights into the endocrine and local (paracrine and autocrine) regulation of milk secretion have come from

Colin J. Wilde; Walter L. Hurley

1996-01-01

247

HIV accessory proteins versus host restriction factors.  

PubMed

Primate immunodeficiency viruses, including HIV-1, are characterized by the presence of accessory genes such as vif, vpr, vpx, vpu, and nef. Current knowledge indicates that none of the primate lentiviral accessory proteins has enzymatic activity. Instead, these proteins interact with cellular ligands to either act as adapter molecules to redirect the normal function of host factors for virus-specific purposes or to inhibit a normal host function by mediating degradation or causing intracellular mislocalization/sequestration of the factors involved. This review aims at providing an update of our current understanding of how Vif, Vpu, and Vpx control the cellular restriction factors APOBEC3G, BST-2, and SAMHD1, respectively. PMID:24246762

Strebel, Klaus

2013-12-01

248

Effect of melatonin on salt gland and kidney function of gulls, Larus glaucescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined effects of exogenous melatonin on osmoregulatory hormones and water and sodium secretion by salt glands and excretion via the kidneys of Glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens). Six saline acclimated gulls were injected with inulin and paraminohippuric acid and then infused with 500mM NaCl to stimulate salt gland secretion. Each bird was given infusions of NaCl alone and NaCl

Maryanne R. Hughes; Nobu Kitamura; Darin C. Bennett; David A. Gray; Peter J. Sharp; Angela M. S. Poon

2007-01-01

249

Calcitonin is expressed in the chicken pituitary gland: influence of gonadal steroids and sexual maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcitonin (CT) is primarily produced by the thyroid C cells in mammals or by the ultimobranchial gland in chickens. CT is\\u000a also expressed by the pituitary gland in rats in which it functions as a paracrine factor causing decreased lactotroph proliferation\\u000a and prolactin (PRL) secretion. Gonadal steroids influence CT expression in the rat pituitary gland. However, the expression\\u000a of the

Sreenivasa R. Maddineni; Susan M. Krzysik-Walker; Olga M. Ocón-Grove; Susan M. Motch; Gilbert L. Hendricks; Ramesh Ramachandran

2007-01-01

250

Effect of Androgen Deficiency on the Human Meibomian Gland and Ocular Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the chronic use of antiandrogen medications leads to meibomian gland dysfunction, altered lipid profiles in meibomian gland secretions, decreased tear film stability, and evaporative dry eye. Subjects taking antiandrogen therapy for prostatic indications, as well as age-related controls, were asked to complete a questionnaire that assessed dry eye symptoms and then

KATHLEEN L. KRENZER; M. REZA DANA; M. DAVID ULLMAN; JENNIFER M. CERMAK; DOROTHY B. TOLLS; JAMES E. EVANS; DAVID A. SULLIVAN; Edith Norse; Eunice Kennedy

2000-01-01

251

Use of semiconducting laser in drug-induced chronic bilateral inflammation of parotid glands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A case of chronic bilateral inflammation of parotid glands in a patient as a results of complication induced by the drug Ospolot in the treatment of epilepsy was presented. Apart from conventional methods a semiconducting laser was used. The laser beam had beneficial effect on elimination of pain and increase in the parotid gland secretion activity.

Grzesiak-Janas, Grazyna

1997-10-01

252

Uterine glands: biological roles in conceptus implantation, uterine receptivity, and decidualization  

PubMed Central

All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in uterine receptivity, blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, and stromal cell decidualization. Studies with the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model support a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid histrotroph for conceptus survival and development. In rodents, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are unequivocally required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation and also may influence blastocyst trophectoderm activation and stromal cell decidualization in the uterus. Similarly in humans, histotroph from uterine glands appears critical for blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus nutrition during the first trimester and uterine glands likely have a role in stromal cell decidualization. An increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of fertility problems, particularly infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, in domestic animals and humans. PMID:25023676

Filant, Justyna; Spencer, Thomas E.

2014-01-01

253

Recovery of rat submandibular salivary gland function following removal of obstruction: a sialometrical and sialochemical study.  

PubMed

Functional recovery of the rat submandibular gland following ligation of the main excretory duct was examined. Rat submandibular glands were ligated for 1, 4 and 8 weeks using a micro-clip with a plastic tube. Micro-clips were removed and glands were allowed to recover for periods of 8, 16 and 24 weeks. Submandibular glands were stimulated with autonomimetic drugs (methacholine and isoprenaline) and salivas were collected from atrophic or de-ligated and contralateral control glands. Glands recovered almost full size (92% of control gland) following 24 weeks of de-ligation. Saliva volume secreted by ligated/de-ligated (RSM) and control (LSM) glands were similar with different doses of agonists. Protein output expressed per gram of tissue wet weight was similar from both ligated/de-ligated and control glands with all doses of agonist. Sodium and chloride levels were higher from de-ligated glands than contralateral control glands. Protein electrophoresis showed similar profiles of salivary proteins in all samples with some minor differences. Acinar cells in de-ligated glands showed a normal morphology, as indicated by light microscopy, whilst granular ductal cells were fewer and contained fewer secretory granules. Sodium potassium ATPase staining of striated ducts in de-ligated glands was similar to that of control glands. It can be concluded that rat submandibular glands can regenerate following severe atrophy and secrete normal amounts of saliva containing broadly a full profile of secretory proteins. In contrast to acinar cells, ductal cells appear not to recover full function. PMID:17222209

Osailan, Samira M; Proctor, Gordon B; Carpenter, Guy H; Paterson, Katherine L; McGurk, Mark

2006-12-01

254

Upregulation of aquaporin expression in the salivary glands of heat-acclimated rats  

PubMed Central

It is known that aquaporin (AQP) 5 expression in the apical membrane of acinar cells in salivary glands is important for the secretion of saliva in rodents and humans. Although heat acclimation enhances saliva secretion in rodents, the molecular mechanism of how heat induces saliva secretion has not been determined. Here, we found that heat acclimation enhanced the expression of AQP5 and AQP1 in rat submandibular glands concomitant with the promotion of the HIF-1? pathway, leading to VEGF induction and CD31-positive angiogenesis. The apical membrane distribution of AQP5 in serous acinar cells enhanced after heat acclimation, while AQP1 expression was restricted to the endothelial cells in the submandibular glands. A network of AQPs may be involved in heat-acclimated regulation in saliva secretion. Because AQPs probably plays a crucial role in saliva secretion in humans, these findings may lead to a novel strategy for treating saliva hyposecretion. PMID:23942196

Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Ishibashi, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Masao; Sawaki, Toshioki; Fujita, Yoshimasa; Kawanami, Takafumi; Masaki, Yasufumi; Okazaki, Toshiro; Sekine, Joji; Koizumi, Shoichi; Yachie, Akihiro; Umehara, Hisanori; Shido, Osamu

2013-01-01

255

Salivary Gland Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

256

Hoopoes color their eggs with antimicrobial uropygial secretions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uropygial gland secretions are used as cosmetics by some species of birds to color and enhance properties of feathers and teguments, which may signal individual quality. Uropygial secretions also reach eggshells during incubation and, therefore, may influence the coloration of birds' eggs, a trait that has attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists for more than one century. The color of hoopoe eggs typically changes along incubation, from bluish-gray to greenish-brown. Here, we test experimentally the hypothesis that dark uropygial secretion of females is responsible for such drastic color change. Moreover, since uropygial secretion of hoopoes has antimicrobial properties, we also explore the association between color and antimicrobial activity of the uropygial secretion of females. We found that eggs stayed bluish-gray in nests where female access to the uropygial secretion was experimentally blocked. Furthermore, experimental eggs that were maintained in incubators and manually smeared with uropygial secretion experienced similar color changes that naturally incubated eggs did, while control eggs that were not in contact with the secretions did not experience such color changes. All these results strongly support the hypothesis that female hoopoes use their uropygial gland secretion to color the eggs. Moreover, saturation of the uropygial secretion was associated with antimicrobial activity against Bacillus licheniformis. Given the known antimicrobial potential of uropygial secretions of birds, this finding opens the possibility that in scenarios of sexual selection, hoopoes in particular and birds in general signal antimicrobial properties of their uropygial secretion by mean of changes in egg coloration along incubation.

Soler, Juan J.; Martín-Vivaldi, M.; Peralta-Sánchez, J. M.; Arco, L.; Juárez-García-Pelayo, N.

2014-09-01

257

The role of salivary gland scintigraphy in detection of salivary gland dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the salivary gland dysfunction in a patient with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes using salivary gland scintigraphy. Materials and Methods: patients included in the study were 32 uncontrolled type 2 diabetic and 30 normal healthy individuals. Patients having any other systemic(or) nervous illness(or) taking medications that could affect the normal functioning of the salivary gland were excluded from the study. The salivary gland scintigraphy was performed, with radioactivity measured at 1st, 20th, and 40th minutes. Twenty minutes after the injection, vitamin C chewable tablet was given to stimulate the secretion and continued until the end of the study period (40min). The data were replayed and regions of interest were chosen over four salivary glands to obtain the uptake ratio (UR) and excretory ratio(ER) of the salivary glands. Result: The scintigraphic total URand ER in diabetic and control groups was compared. The values in these two categories showed decrease in both UR and ER in diabetic patients, when compared to control patients. Conclusion and Significance: The result of this study suggests that salivary gland scintigraphy plays a significant role in the evaluation of salivary gland dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:23599592

Kumar, Balasubramanian Senthil; Sathasivasubramanian, Sankara Pandian

2012-01-01

258

Pyrroline5Carboxylate Reductase in Lactating Bovine Mammary Glands1  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The occurrence,and,subcellular,distribution,of pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase have,been,studied in lactating bovine,mammary,glands. The enzyme appears,, pyrroline-5-carboxylate, into proline, an important amino acid for the mammary secretory process, espe- cially casein synthesis. ( Key words: milk secretion, enzymes, proline) Abbreviation key: CoA = coenzyme A, K, =

J. J. Basch; E. D. Wickham; H. M. Farrell Jr

1996-01-01

259

Cross-Talk with Myeloid Accessory Cells Regulates Human Natural Killer Cell Interferon-? Responses to Malaria  

PubMed Central

Data from a variety of experimental models suggest that natural killer (NK) cells require signals from accessory cells in order to respond optimally to pathogens, but the precise identity of the cells able to provide such signals depends upon the nature of the infectious organism. Here we show that the ability of human NK cells to produce interferon-? in response to stimulation by Plasmodium falciparum–infected red blood cells (iRBCs) is strictly dependent upon multiple, contact-dependent and cytokine-mediated signals derived from both monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs). Contrary to some previous reports, we find that both monocytes and mDCs express an activated phenotype following short-term incubation with iRBCs and secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines. The magnitude of the NK cell response (and of the KIR? CD56bright NK cell population in particular) is tightly correlated with resting levels of accessory cell maturation, indicating that heterogeneity of the NK response to malaria is a reflection of deep-rooted heterogeneity in the human innate immune system. Moreover, we show that NK cells are required to maintain the maturation status of resting mDCs and monocytes, providing additional evidence for reciprocal regulation of NK cells and accessory cells. However, NK cell–derived signals are not required for activation of accessory cells by either iRBCs or bacterial lipolysaccharide. Together, these data suggest that there may be differences in the sequence of events required for activation of NK cells by non-viral pathogens compared to the classical model of NK activation by virus-infected or major histocompatibility complex–deficient cells. These findings have far-reaching implications for the study of immunity to infection in human populations. PMID:17154717

Hafalla, Julius C; Riley, Eleanor M

2006-01-01

260

21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

261

21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2014-04-01

262

21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

263

21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

264

21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

265

21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

266

21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

267

21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

268

21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

269

21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

270

21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

271

21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

272

21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

273

21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

274

21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

275

21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

276

21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

277

21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

278

21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

279

21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

280

21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

281

21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2010-04-01

282

21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

283

21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

284

21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

285

21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

286

21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2011-04-01

287

21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

288

21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2013-04-01

289

21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2012-04-01

290

21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

291

21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

292

21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

293

21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

294

21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

295

Tumors of Parathyroid Gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The most common parathyroid gland pathology in primary hyperparathyroidism is parathyroid adenoma, followed by hyperplasia\\u000a and carcinoma. Adenoma, hyperplasia, and carcinoma have distinct molecular genetic profiles, however, their pathologic features\\u000a are often overlapping leading to significant diagnostic dilemma, even on permanent sections. Final diagnosis must be arrived\\u000a at after taking into consideration the abnormal gland, the status of the remaining

Manju L. Prasad; Ashraf Khan

296

Salivary gland neoplasms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Treatment and cure of salivary gland neoplasms requires surgical intervention in most cases. For parotid neoplasms, the most\\u000a common surgical procedure performed is the superficial parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation. Postoperative radiation\\u000a therapy is indicated in high-grade salivary gland malignancies and malignancies with increased risk of locoregional recurrence.\\u000a Primary radiation, including neutron beam techniques, may play a role in

Terry A. Day; John Deveikis; M. Boyd Gillespie; John K. Joe; Besim Ogretmen; J. David Osguthorpe; Susan G. Reed; Mary S. Richardson; Michael Rossi; Ranjiv Saini; Anand K. Sharma; Robert K. Stuart

2004-01-01

297

Radionuclide salivary gland imaging  

SciTech Connect

Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

Mishkin, F.S.

1981-10-01

298

Secret Destinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"All journeys have secret destinations of which the traveller is unaware" (Martin Buber). All learning results in learning outcomes of some form, planned or otherwise, but the term is now widely used to refer only to those learning outcomes that predetermine what those outcomes will be--the "intended" or "specified" learning outcomes of the…

Buss, David

2008-01-01

299

Morphological characteristics of the cranial root of the accessory nerve.  

PubMed

There has been the controversy surrounding the cranial root (CR) of the accessory nerve. This study was performed to clarify the morphological characteristics of the CR in the cranial cavity. Fifty sides of 25 adult cadaver heads were used. The accessory nerve was easily distinguished from the vagus nerve by the dura mater in the jugular foramen in 80% of 50 specimens. The trunk of the accessory nerve from the spinal cord penetrated the dura mater at various distances before entering the jugular foramen. In 20% of the specimens there was no dural boundary. In these cases, the uppermost cranial rootlet of the accessory nerve could be identified by removing the dura mater around the jugular foramen where it joined to the trunk of the accessory nerve at the superior vagal ganglion. The cranial rootlet was formed by union of two to four short filaments emerging from the medulla oblongata (66%) and emerged single, without filament (34%), and usually joined the trunk of the accessory nerve directly before the jugular foramen. The mean number of rootlets of the CR was 4.9 (range 2-9) above the cervicomedullary junction. The CR of the accessory nerve was composed of two to nine rootlets, which were formed by the union of two to four short filaments and joined the spinal root of the accessory nerve. The CR is morphologically distinct from the vagus nerve, confirming its existence. Clin. Anat. 27:1167-1173, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25131313

Liu, Hong-Fu; Won, Hyung-Sun; Chung, In-Hyuk; Kim, In-Beom; Han, Seung-Ho

2014-11-01

300

The HLH-6 Transcription Factor Regulates C. elegans Pharyngeal Gland Development and Function  

PubMed Central

The Caenorhabditis elegans pharynx (or foregut) functions as a pump that draws in food (bacteria) from the environment. While the “organ identity factor” PHA-4 is critical for formation of the C. elegans pharynx as a whole, little is known about the specification of distinct cell types within the pharynx. Here, we use a combination of bioinformatics, molecular biology, and genetics to identify a helix-loop-helix transcription factor (HLH-6) as a critical regulator of pharyngeal gland development. HLH-6 is required for expression of a number of gland-specific genes, acting through a discrete cis-regulatory element named PGM1 (Pharyngeal Gland Motif 1). hlh-6 mutants exhibit a frequent loss of a subset of glands, while the remaining glands have impaired activity, indicating a role for hlh-6 in both gland development and function. Interestingly, hlh-6 mutants are also feeding defective, ascribing a biological function for the glands. Pharyngeal pumping in hlh-6 mutants is normal, but hlh-6 mutants lack expression of a class of mucin-related proteins that are normally secreted by pharyngeal glands and line the pharyngeal cuticle. An interesting possibility is that one function of pharyngeal glands is to secrete a pharyngeal lining that ensures efficient transport of food along the pharyngeal lumen. PMID:18927627

Smit, Ryan B.; Schnabel, Ralf; Gaudet, Jeb

2008-01-01

301

Hunting for eruption ages in accessory minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary goal in geochronology is to provide precise and accurate ages for tephras that serve as chronostratigraphic markers for constraining the timing and rates of volcanism, sedimentation, climate change, and catastrophic events in Earth history. Zircon remains the most versatile accessory mineral for dating silicic tephras due to its common preservation in distal pyroclastic deposits, as well as the robustness of its U-Pb and U-series systems even after host materials have been hydrothermally altered or weathered. Countless studies document that zircon may be complexly zoned in age due to inheritance, contamination, recycling of antecrysts, protracted crystallization in long-lived magma reservoirs, or any combination of these. Other accessory minerals such as allanite or chevkinite can retain similar records of protracted crystallization. If the goal is to date the durations of magmatic crystallization, differentiation, and/or magma residence, then these protracted chronologies within and between accessory minerals are a blessing. However, if the goal is to date the timing of eruption with high precision, i.e., absolute ages with millennial-scale uncertainties, then this age zoning is a curse. Observations from ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of Pleistocene zircon and allanite provide insight into the record of near-eruption crystallization in accessory minerals and serve as a guide for high-precision whole-crystal dating. Although imprecise relative to conventional techniques, ion probe analysis allows high-spatial resolution 238U-230Th dating that can document multi-millennial age distributions at the crystal scale. Analysis of unpolished rims and continuous depth profiling of zircon from small and large volume eruptions (e.g., Coso, Mono Craters, Yellowstone) reveals that the final several micrometers of crystallization often yield ages that are indistinguishable from associated eruption ages from the 40Ar/39Ar or (U-Th)/He methods. Using this approach, we have derived relatively precise (± ~ 5%, 2?) U-Th isochron ages from the unpolished rims of pumice-derived allanite and zircon from late Pleistocene Wilson Creek Formation tephras in eastern California, whose ages are controversial and have been difficult to resolve via 40Ar/39Ar and radiocarbon dating. Allanite and zircon rims from Ashes 7-19 in the lower portion of Wilson Creek sediments yield stratigraphically consistent ages of ca. 27 ka to ca. 62 ka, with a minority of crystals identifiable as xenocrysts from early Mono Craters rhyolites. Model ages for the interiors of allanite crystals are mostly < 10 k.y. older than their rims. Tephra deposited during the geomagnetic excursion debated to be either the Mono Lake or Laschamp event yields a rim isochron age of ca. 41 ka. This age is indistinguishable from an independent age of 41 ka derived at the latter excursion's type locality in France (Singer et al., 2009) as well as from age-models for deep-sea sediments. The results are in excellent agreement with a previously determined chronology derived from magnetostratigraphy (Zimmerman et al., 2006). Refs: Singer et al., 2009, EPSL 286: 80-88; Zimmerman et al., 2006, EPSL 252: 94-106

Vazquez, J. A.

2012-12-01

302

Mobile Proactive secret sharing  

E-print Network

This thesis describes mobile proactive secret sharing (MPSS), an extension of proactive secret sharing. Mobile proactive secret sharing is much more flexible than proactive secret sharing in terms of group membership: ...

Schultz, David Andrew

2007-01-01

303

Regulation of ion channels by secreted Klotho.  

PubMed

Klotho is an anti-aging protein predominantly expressed in the kidney, parathyroid glands and choroid plexus of the brain. Klotho exists in two forms, a membrane form and a soluble secreted form. Recent studies show that the secreted Klotho possess sialidase activity and regulates several ion channels via the activity. Removal of terminal sialic acids from N-glycan chains of the epithelial Ca(2+) channel TRPV5 and the renal K(+) channel ROMK by secreted Klotho exposes the underlying disaccharide galactose-N-acetylglucosamine, a ligand for galectin-1. Binding to galectin-1 at the extracellular surface prevents internalization and leads to accumulation of the channels on the plasma membrane. Future studies will investigate whether secreted Klotho regulates cell-surface expression of other membrane glycoproteins via the same mechanism. PMID:22396165

Huang, Chou-Long

2012-01-01

304

Milk metabolites as indicators of mammary gland functions and milk quality.  

PubMed

The assumption, that metabolites derived from the activity of the mammary gland epithelial cells reflect changes in milk secretion and its coagulation properties, was tested in dairy cows. The experiment included cows with uninfected udders and cows with one of the glands infected by different bacteria specie. Analysis were carried at the cow level (including all four glands), or at the gland level. High and significant correlations among the concentrations of lactose, glucose, glucose-6-posphate, milk related respiratory index (the ratio between the concentrations of citrate/lactate+malate in milk) and milk-derived glycolytic index (the ratio between glucose-6-phosphate and glucose in milk) and milk clotting parameters were found. The physiological basis for these relations and their ability to predict the deterioration in milk quality in subclinically infected glands and in glands previously clinically infected with Escherichia coli are discussed. PMID:25052436

Silanikove, Nissim; Merin, Uzi; Shapiro, Fira; Leitner, Gabriel

2014-08-01

305

Odorant-Binding Protein and Its mRNA are Localized to Lateral Nasal Gland Implying a Carrier Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Odorant-binding protein selectively binds various odorants and is discretely concentrated in nasal mucosa and secretions. We have localized rat odorant-binding protein mRNA to the lateral nasal gland by in situ hybridization histochemistry and have also localized the protein to this gland by immunohistochemistry and by tritiated-odorant autoradiography. The lateral nasal gland extends a long duct toward the external nares. Odorant-binding protein, released from this duct, may transport odorants to olfactory receptor neurons.

Pevsner, Jonathan; Hwang, Paul M.; Sklar, Pamela B.; Venable, J. Clark; Snyder, Solomon H.

1988-04-01

306

Autoregulation in the parathyroid glands by PTH\\/PTHrP receptor ligands in normal and uremic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoregulation in the parathyroid glands by PTH\\/PTHrP receptor ligands in normal and uremic rats.BackgroundThe secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) from the parathyroid glands might be regulated by autocrine\\/paracrine factors. We have previously shown that N-terminal parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) enhanced the secretory PTH response to low calcium in vivo and in vitro in rat parathyroid glands. N-terminal PTHrP fragments are

Ewa Lewin; Bartolome Garfia; Yolanda Almaden; Mariano Rodriguez; Klaus Olgaard

2003-01-01

307

THE EFFECT OF PHENYLEPHRINE ON EXCRETION OF FLUID AND ELECTROLYTES BY THE PAROTID AND MANDIBULAR GLANDS OF THE RAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect has been investigated of the ?-adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine, on excretion of water and electrolytes (Na, K, and HCO3) by the parotid and mandibular glands of the rat. In the mandibular glands the agonist was as effective as acetylcholine (or parasympathetic nerve stimulation) in stimulating secretion, and the electrolyte excretory patterns seen in the two modes of stimulation were

JA Young; DI Cook; G Jones; J McGirr; C Thompson

1979-01-01

308

Characterization and immunohistochemical localization of nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) in pig adrenal glands (presence of a non-sedimentable isoform)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering that adrenal glands possess a variety of purinoceptors associated with various cell types and that some of these cells (chromaffin cells) secrete large amounts of adenine nucleotides, it was of interest to localize nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) in these glands and to define the biochemical characteristics of this ectonucleotidase. Immunolocalization produced a moderate reaction in capsula and medulla, with

O Benrezzak; G Grondin; J Proulx; E Rousseau; P D’Orléans-Juste; A. R Beaudoin

2000-01-01

309

Arginine Metabolism in the Salivary Glands of Protein-Deficient Rats and Its Potential Association with the Oral Microflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salivary glands and their secretions play key roles in the prevention of dental diseases. The antibacterial and physicochemical properties of saliva are compromised in chronic malnutrition. The present study has examined the possibility that some malnutrition-induced changes in salivary gland function are potentially capable of promoting growth and metabolic activities of pathogenic oral microorganisms. Compared to well-fed controls, rats fed

C. O. Enwonwu; F. Ilupeju; R. C. Warren

1994-01-01

310

The mammary gland produces and delivers milk from mother to newborn. The only organ after which an entire  

E-print Network

The mammary gland produces and delivers milk from mother to newborn. The only organ after which, primarily owing to milk's nutritional and antimicrobial content1 . Lactation, the synthesis and secretion of milk, is made possible by the architecture of the gland. Like other organs used for fluid transport

Nelson, Celeste M.

311

Comparison of renal and salt gland function in three species of wild ducks.  

PubMed

Three processes central to osmoregulation of marine birds were compared in three species of ducks that differ in habitat affinity, diet and saline tolerance. These processes are filtration of Na+ and water from the plasma by the kidneys, their reabsorption along the renal tubules, and secretion by the salt glands. Barrow's goldeneyes Bucephala islandica, the most marine species, have the highest rates for all three processes and only this species can secrete all the infused salt via the salt glands. Rates of all three processes are lower in mallards Anas platyrhynchos, the most freshwater species. Following saline acclimation, mallards could excrete all the infused Na+ by a combined Na+ excretion of the kidneys and salt glands. Canvasbacks Aythya valisineria, despite being more saline tolerant than mallards, are unable to excrete all the infused Na+. They produce a large volume of urine (like mallards) that has a low [Na+] (like goldeneyes). Salt gland secretion Na+ concentration did not differ among the three species, but only goldeneyes secrete at a rate sufficient to eliminate all infused Na+ via the salt glands. Differences in saline tolerance of these ducks species cannot be fully explained by differences in their filtration, reabsorption and secretion of Na+ and water, suggesting that the intestinal tract plays an important role. PMID:12909708

Bennett, Darin C; Hughes, Maryanne R

2003-09-01

312

Effect of melatonin on salt gland and kidney function of gulls, Larus glaucescens.  

PubMed

This study examined effects of exogenous melatonin on osmoregulatory hormones and water and sodium secretion by salt glands and excretion via the kidneys of Glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens). Six saline acclimated gulls were injected with inulin and paraminohippuric acid and then infused with 500 mM NaCl to stimulate salt gland secretion. Each bird was given infusions of NaCl alone and NaCl plus melatonin. Experiments were made one week apart in a randomized order. A large blood sample (to measure osmoregulatory hormones) was taken before infusion, at secretion, and at the end of infusion. A small blood sample was taken at the midpoint of each of six 10 min sequential collections of salt gland secretion and urine. Melatonin tended to increase plasma sodium concentration, did decrease plasma osmolality, but did not affect potassium concentration. Melatonin did not affect salt gland secretion rate or concentration nor renal plasma flow or glomerular filtration. Melatonin increased urine flow rate, tended to increase urine sodium concentration, and did decrease urine potassium concentration. Combined renal and extrarenal sodium excretion was greater during MT treatment. During NaCl infusion, angiotensin II increased, aldosterone decreased, and arginine vasotocin remained unchanged. Melatonin did not affect these responses. These data suggest an osmoregulatory role for melatonin in birds with salt glands. PMID:17350011

Hughes, Maryanne R; Kitamura, Nobu; Bennett, Darin C; Gray, David A; Sharp, Peter J; Poon, Angela M S

2007-05-01

313

Salivary gland pathology as a new finding in Treacher Collins syndrome.  

PubMed

In our clinical experience, individuals with Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) present with more complaints of oral dryness and higher caries activity than seen in the general population. A literature review identified no reports of salivary gland pathology and glandular dysfunction associated with TCS. Twenty-one Norwegian individuals with TCS underwent ultrasound examinations and salivary secretion tests of the submandibular and parotid glands. Intraglandular architecture patterns were analyzed and subsequently classified as either normal, dysplastic, or aplastic. The results were compared with salivary secretion rates and subjective reports of oral dryness. Ultrasound examination revealed pathological appearance of the salivary glands in approximately half (48%) of the individuals, with dysplasia identified in six (29%) participants and aplasia in four (19%). Almost all participants had co-existing low salivary secretion rates. A few individuals had low salivary secretion rates despite normal appearance of the salivary gland tissue on ultrasound examination. Subjective experience of oral dryness did not correlate significantly with low salivary secretion rates. We conclude that mild to severe salivary gland pathology and dysfunction can be associated with TCS. Further investigation is needed to clarify this association. PMID:22585367

Østerhus, Ingvild N; Skogedal, Nina; Akre, Harriet; Johnsen, Ulf L-H; Nordgarden, Hilde; Åsten, Pamela

2012-06-01

314

The paracellular component of water flow in the rat submandibular salivary gland  

PubMed Central

The pathway of water flow during salivary secretion by the isolated, perfused rat submandibular gland was examined using a family of homologous radiodextran molecules as probes of paracellular fluid transfer. The secretion/perfusate ratio (S/P) of the secreted probes versus molecular radius during fluid secretion evoked by ACh could be resolved into two components: one that fitted a free-diffusion (Stokes-Einstein) curve and indicated diffusion through large channels, and a convective component that was linearly related to radius. The convective component had a cut-off point at 0.5 nm (5 Å) radius and an S/P intercept of near 1.0 at the radius of water, which indicates that most of the volume flow was paracellular. The nature of such a paracellular flow is discussed together with the possible integration of this volume flow with the cellular transport of ions, resulting in an isotonic primary secretion from the gland. PMID:11744763

Murakami, Masataka; Shachar-Hill, Bruria; Steward, Martin C; Hill, A E

2001-01-01

315

The SNARE Machinery in Mast Cell Secretion  

PubMed Central

Mast cells are known as inflammatory cells which exert their functions in allergic and anaphylactic reactions by secretion of numerous inflammatory mediators. During an allergic response, the high-affinity IgE receptor, Fc?RI, becomes cross-linked by receptor-bound IgE and antigen resulting in immediate release of pre-synthesized mediators – stored in granules – as well as in de novo synthesis of various mediators like cytokines and chemokines. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (SNAP) receptors (SNARE) proteins were found to play a central role in regulating membrane fusion events during exocytosis. In addition, several accessory regulators like Munc13, Munc18, Rab GTPases, secretory carrier membrane proteins, complexins, or synaptotagmins were found to be involved in membrane fusion. In this review we summarize our current knowledge about the SNARE machinery and its mechanism of action in mast cell secretion. PMID:22679448

Lorentz, Axel; Baumann, Anja; Vitte, Joana; Blank, Ulrich

2012-01-01

316

Pygidial gland chemistry and potential alarm-recruitment function in column foraging, but not solitary, Nearctic Messor harvesting ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae).  

PubMed

We investigated the role of the pygidial gland on foraging behavior in two ecologically dominant column foraging Nearctic harvesting ants (Messor pergandei and Messor andrei). Using chemical analyses and behavioral tests, we show that n-tridecane is the major biologically active compound of pygidial gland secretions in both species, and that this chemical functions as a powerful alarm-recruitment pheromone. Another major compound of pygidial gland contents is benzaldehyde; this substance does not release behavioral reactions in M. pergandei workers but might function as a defensive secretion. Six solitary foraging Nearctic Messor and two column foraging Palearctic Messor species, did not have large pygidial gland reservoirs. PMID:23811189

Hölldobler, Bert; Plowes, Nicola J R; Johnson, Robert A; Nishshanka, Upul; Liu, Chongming; Attygalle, Athula B

2013-09-01

317

The buffer capacity of airway epithelial secretions.  

PubMed

The pH of airway epithelial secretions influences bacterial killing and mucus properties and is reduced by acidic pollutants, gastric reflux, and respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). The effect of acute acid loads depends on buffer capacity, however the buffering of airway secretions has not been well characterized. In this work we develop a method for titrating micro-scale (30 ?l) volumes and use it to study fluid secreted by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3, a widely used model for submucosal gland serous cells. Microtitration curves revealed that HCO(-) 3 is the major buffer. Peak buffer capacity (?) increased from 17 to 28 mM/pH during forskolin stimulation, and was reduced by >50% in fluid secreted by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient Calu-3 monolayers, confirming an important role of CFTR in HCO(-) 3 secretion. Back-titration with NaOH revealed non-volatile buffer capacity due to proteins synthesized and released by the epithelial cells. Lysozyme and mucin concentrations were too low to buffer Calu-3 fluid significantly, however model titrations of porcine gastric mucins at concentrations near the sol-gel transition suggest that mucins may contribute to the buffer capacity of ASL in vivo. We conclude that CFTR-dependent HCO(-) 3 secretion and epithelially-derived proteins are the predominant buffers in Calu-3 secretions. PMID:24917822

Kim, Dusik; Liao, Jie; Hanrahan, John W

2014-01-01

318

The buffer capacity of airway epithelial secretions  

PubMed Central

The pH of airway epithelial secretions influences bacterial killing and mucus properties and is reduced by acidic pollutants, gastric reflux, and respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). The effect of acute acid loads depends on buffer capacity, however the buffering of airway secretions has not been well characterized. In this work we develop a method for titrating micro-scale (30 ?l) volumes and use it to study fluid secreted by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3, a widely used model for submucosal gland serous cells. Microtitration curves revealed that HCO?3 is the major buffer. Peak buffer capacity (?) increased from 17 to 28 mM/pH during forskolin stimulation, and was reduced by >50% in fluid secreted by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient Calu-3 monolayers, confirming an important role of CFTR in HCO?3 secretion. Back-titration with NaOH revealed non-volatile buffer capacity due to proteins synthesized and released by the epithelial cells. Lysozyme and mucin concentrations were too low to buffer Calu-3 fluid significantly, however model titrations of porcine gastric mucins at concentrations near the sol-gel transition suggest that mucins may contribute to the buffer capacity of ASL in vivo. We conclude that CFTR-dependent HCO?3 secretion and epithelially-derived proteins are the predominant buffers in Calu-3 secretions. PMID:24917822

Kim, Dusik; Liao, Jie; Hanrahan, John W.

2014-01-01

319

Accessory spleens: Clinical significance with particular reference to the recurrence of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the important stages during splenectomy is the search for accessory spleens. The average frequency of accessory spleens is an estimated 11%. In our own material in 611 patients who had splenectomy in hematological disorders, accessory spleens were found in 110 patients (18%). The surgical anatomy, embryology, and clinical significance of the accessory spleens, with particular reference to the

Witold J. Rudowski

1985-01-01

320

Adenosine and Its Derivatives Control Human Monocyte Differentiation Into Highly Accessory Cells Versus Macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human peripheral blood monocytes have been found to undergo a transitory state of high accessory activity before they fully become macrophages. Time kinetics were done to follow this accessory potential. Studying the regulation of accessory activity, we have found that monocyte-derived accessory cells (m-AC) pass through two phases of devel- opment, which both are adversely controlled by cyclic nucleotides. Phase

Hossain Motieian Najar; Stephan Ruhi; Anne Christine Bru-Capdeville; Johann Hinrich Peters

321

21 CFR 884.1640 - Culdoscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...portals for electrosurgical, laser, or other power sources. Such culdoscope accessory instruments include: lens cleaning brush, biopsy brush, clip applier (without clips), applicator, cannula (without trocar or valves), ligature carrier/needle...

2010-04-01

322

21 CFR 884.1720 - Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...electrosurgical, lasers, or other power sources. Such gynecologic laparosope accessory instruments include: the lens cleaning brush, biopsy brush, clip applier (without clips), applicator, cannula (without trocar or valves), ligature carrier/needle...

2010-04-01

323

46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...copper, copper alloys and aluminum alloys, shall not be used in the construction of valves, fittings or accessory equipment. Brazed joints are prohibited. (b) Each tank shall be provided with the necessary fill and discharge liquid and vapor...

2010-10-01

324

21 CFR 886.1930 - Tonometer and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...flat disk to the cornea). Accessories for the device may include a tonometer calibrator or a tonograph recording system. The device is intended for use in the diagnosis of glaucoma. (b) Classification. Class...

2011-04-01

325

21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

326

21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

327

21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

328

21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

329

21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

330

21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

331

21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

332

21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

333

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2013-04-01

334

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2012-04-01

335

21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

336

21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

337

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2011-04-01

338

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2014-04-01

339

21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

340

21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

341

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

2010-04-01

342

21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

343

21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

344

21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

345

21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

346

21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

347

21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

348

21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

349

21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

350

Hormones, Sex Accessory Structures, and Secondary Sexual Characteristics  

E-print Network

Chapter 5 Hormones, Sex Accessory Structures, and Secondary Sexual Characteristics in Amphibians University, Spokane, WA, USA SUMMARY Gonadal steroid hormones, particularly testosterone (T) and related hormones, such as prolactin, have been found to be necessary in conjunction with gonadal steroids

Sever, David M.

351

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

352

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

353

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

354

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

355

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

356

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

357

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

358

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

359

Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and Accessory Pathways  

MedlinePLUS

Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and Accessory Pathways James Kulig , PA-C ; Bruce A. Koplan , MD, MPH From the Cardiovascular ... rate, which can be dangerous. What is Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome? Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) is ...

360

What next for accessory dwellings? : getting from bylaws to buildings  

E-print Network

Accessory dwellings-secondary, self-contained housing units on the same property as a primary residence, either attached to or detached from the main dwelling, and subordinate in size, location and appearance-are recognized ...

Stege, Elinor Hope

2009-01-01

361

Reducing Exposure: Hands-free Kits and Other Accessories  

MedlinePLUS

... Phones Current Research Results Radiofrequency Background Reducing Exposure: Hands-free Kits and Other Accessories Steps to reduce ... distance between your head and the cell phone. Hands-free kits Hand-free kits may include audio ...

362

Bone marrow accessory cells regulate human bone precursor cell development  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveMuch remains to be learned about the intimate relationship between bone marrow and its surrounding tissue: the bone. We hypothesized that bone marrow accessory cell populations might regulate the development of human bone precursor cells.

Peter G Eipers; Sujata Kale; Russell S Taichman; George G Pipia; Nancy A Swords; Kenneth G Mann; Michael W Long

2000-01-01

363

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

...surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to be used to reconstruct maxillofacial deficiencies. The kit contains surgical instruments and materials used to make maxillofacial impressions before molding an external prosthesis. (b)...

2014-04-01

364

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to be used to reconstruct maxillofacial deficiencies. The kit contains surgical instruments and materials used to make maxillofacial impressions before molding an external prosthesis. (b)...

2010-04-01

365

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to be used to reconstruct maxillofacial deficiencies. The kit contains surgical instruments and materials used to make maxillofacial impressions before molding an external prosthesis. (b)...

2013-04-01

366

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to be used to reconstruct maxillofacial deficiencies. The kit contains surgical instruments and materials used to make maxillofacial impressions before molding an external prosthesis. (b)...

2012-04-01

367

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...surgery kit and accessories is a device intended to be used to reconstruct maxillofacial deficiencies. The kit contains surgical instruments and materials used to make maxillofacial impressions before molding an external prosthesis. (b)...

2011-04-01

368

21 CFR 886.1930 - Tonometer and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...flat disk to the cornea). Accessories for the device may include a tonometer calibrator or a tonograph recording system. The device is intended for use in the diagnosis of glaucoma. (b) Classification. Class...

2010-04-01

369

Function of parotid gland following irradiation and its relation to biological parameters  

SciTech Connect

The function of the parotid gland in the mouse (synthesis and secretion of ..cap alpha..-amylase) following X irradiation was analyzed in relation to the parameters of surviving acinar cell fraction, DNA or protein content, and wet weight of the gland. Both synthesis and secretion of amylase in parotid were essentially unchanged when mice were irradiated with a dose of up to 3000 rad. When mice were irradiated and then given a proliferative stimulus of isoproterenol, latent lethal damage in the acinar cell population was expressed and resulted in cell degeneration in a dose-dependent manner. The mean value of amylase activity per gland in similarly treated parotids was, however, totally unaffected. The relationship between amylase activity per gland and the other biological parameters was analyzed by regression analysis. The results indicate that amylase activity per surviving acinar cell increased proportionately to compensate for the loss of acinar cells.

Sasaki, T. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai, Japan); Yamamoto, M.; Takeda, M.

1980-09-01

370

Circulating immunoglobulin A- and immunoglobulin G-secreting hybridoma cells in peripheral blood preferably migrate to female genital tracts. The role of sex hormones  

PubMed Central

Antigen-specific circulating immunoglobulin-secreting cells (ISC) migrate to various secondary and tertiary lymphoid tissues. To understand the migration of the cells into the genital tract and its regulation by sex hormones, spleen-derived SG2 hybridoma cells secreting immunoglobulin G2b (IgG2b) and Peyer's patch-derived PA4 hybridoma cells secreting polymer IgA were labelled with 3H-TdR, and intravenously injected into syngeneic mice of both sexes. Using flow cytometry, surface molecular markers of plasma cells, CD38 and CD138, and adhesion molecules, CD49d, CD162, and CD11a were found to be positive in SG2 and PA4 cells, but CD62L, ?4?7 and CD44 were not expressed on these cells. The relative distribution indexes (RDIs) of the cells in genital tract and other tissues were measured. The means of RDIs of SG2 and PA4 cells in female genital tissues were 6·5 and 4·5 times as many as the means in male genital tissues, respectively. The treatment of ovariectomized mice with ?-oestradiol significantly increased the RDIs of PA4 cells in cervix and vagina, but decreased the RDIs of SG2 cells in vagina, horn of uterus, uterus and rectum (P<0·05). Progesterone treatment increased the RDIs of PA4 cells in vagina and rectum (P<0·05). The treatment with testosterone significantly increased the RDIs of SG2 and PA4 cells in epididymis and accessory sex glands (P<0·05). These results demonstrate that the female genital tract is the preferable site for the migration of circulating hybridoma cells to the male genital tract, and sex hormones play an important role in regulation of the migration of circulating ISC to genital tracts. PMID:12100722

Wang, Xiaolei; Zhao, Xudong; Ben, Kunlong; Cao, Xiaomei; Wang, Yuqi; Zhou, Hongming

2002-01-01

371

Rigid swelling of sublingual caruncle area due to the salivary gland duct obstruction by a sialolith*  

PubMed Central

Sialolithiasis is the presence of calculus within the ductal system of a salivary gland. Among the diagnostic methods are inspection, palpation, checking the amount of saliva secreted and the identification of a sialolith. The authors present the case of a 37-year-old female patient with edema of the submandibular area and a bulging sublingual caruncle due to a calculus that obstructed the salivary gland ostium. PMID:25387506

Bernardes Filho, Fred; Martins, Gustavo; Alves, Andreia Oliveira; da Costa, Jose Ronaldo Vieira; Azulay, David Rubem; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

2014-01-01

372

Influence of mustelid scent-gland compounds on suppression of feeding by snowshoe hares ( Lepus americanus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the influence of mustelid anal-gland compounds in suppressing feeding by snowshoe hares on coniferous tree seedlings. Pen and field bioassays indicated that 3-propyl-1,2-dithiolane from the stoat (Mustela erminea), and secondarily, 2,2-dimethylthietane from the mink (M. vison) had a very negative effect on feeding behavior of hares. The major component of stoat anal gland secretions, 2-propylthietane, and the

Thomas P. Sullivan; Douglas R. Crump

1984-01-01

373

Expression of steroidogenic enzymes in human sebaceous glands.  

PubMed

Androgens are well known to influence sebum synthesis and secretion. Various factors related to androgen biosynthesis are expressed in human sebaceous glands. In this study, immunohistochemical analysis of human skin specimens from 43 subjects indicated that various androgen-producing and -metabolizing enzymes were functionally localized to sebocytes accumulating lipid droplets and that the exclusive expression of 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (17?-HSD2 (HSD17B2)) in sebaceous glands was negatively correlated with that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR? (PPARG)), which also significantly changed in an age-dependent manner. We also demonstrated that the changes of 17?-HSD2 expression in human immortalized sebocytes (SZ95) influenced the expressions of sebogenesis-related factors. In addition, the overexpression of 17?-HSD2 in SZ95 significantly increased the androstenedione production and markedly decreased the amounts of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone when DHEA was added externally. On the other hand, the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin, which is well known to induce sebum secretion and the onset and/or aggravation of acne, was increased by the addition of testosterone in the presence of IGF1 in hamster sebocytes. These results all indicated that local androgen biosynthesis and metabolism in human sebaceous glands could play a pivotal role in sebum synthesis and secretion. PMID:24938708

Inoue, Takayoshi; Miki, Yasuhiro; Kakuo, Shingo; Hachiya, Akira; Kitahara, Takashi; Aiba, Setsuya; Zouboulis, Christos C; Sasano, Hironobu

2014-09-01

374

Lacrimal gland removal impairs sexual behavior in mice  

PubMed Central

Exocrine gland-secreting peptides (ESPs) are a protein family involved in the pheromonal communication of rodents. ESP1 is a lacrimal peptide synthesized by the extraorbital glands of males of specific mouse strains that modulates the sexual behavior in females. Reportedly, BALB/c males, that produce high level of ESP1 in the tear fluid, were shown to enhance the lordosis behavior in C57BL/6 females during mating. In contrast, C57BL/6 and ICR males, both unable to express ESP1, failed to modulate this sexual behavior. Nonetheless, ICR males did become competent to enhance lordosis behavior in C57BL/6 females providing these were pre-exposed to ESP1. To exclude any strain differences, here, we investigated the pheromonal role of the extraorbital glands and indirectly of ESP1 in animals of the same strain. This was performed by applying the lordosis experimental paradigm in BALB/c mice before and after the surgical removal of these glands in males. The excision of the extraorbital glands reduced but did not abolish the production of ESP1 in the lacrimal fluid of BALB/c mice. An immunological analysis on soluble extracts of the glands that drain into the conjunctival sac revealed that the intraorbital glands (ILGs) are also responsible for the production of ESP1. The removal of both the extra and ILGs completely eliminated the tear secretion of ESP1. Extraorbital gland-deficient BALB/c mice were still able to induce lordosis behavior in sexually receptive females. In contrast, males with the removal of both the extra and ILGs failed to enhance lordosis behavior in females. Unexpectedly, C57BL/6 males did improve this sexual performance in BALB/c females. However, an analysis of the tear fluid of C57BL/6 males revealed low but detectable levels of ESP1. Overall, our study highlights the relevance of the orbital glands in modulating reproductive behavior and the sensitivity of the vomeronasal system to detect trace amount of ESP1. PMID:25309342

Cavaliere, Rosa Maria; Ghirardi, Filippo; Tirindelli, Roberto

2014-01-01

375

Secretory profile of metapleural gland cells of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex coronatus (Formicidae: Attini).  

PubMed

Ants present a pair of metapleural glands located at the posterolateral end of the thorax. Because of its importance in the social organization of ants, the present study was aimed at describing the morphophysiology of this gland in three worker castes of Acromyrmex coronatus, focused on secretory activity using histological and histochemical techniques. Our findings revealed that the secretory and the storage portions of this gland are connected by extracytoplasmic portion of canaliculi that drain the secretion from each secretory cell to the collecting chamber. This secretion contains glycoproteins. In minor workers, the secretion contains higher levels of polysaccharides when compared to that of major workers, supporting the role of the metapleural gland in the maintenance of the fungus garden. The nucleus as well as cytoplasm of secretory cells were strongly positive for RNA indicating that these cells are active in the synthesis of proteins and lipids, compounds found in the final secretion. The variant of the CEC revealed that the secretory activity of the entire gland is synchronous, as all cells exhibit the result. PMID:21181713

Vieira, Alexsandro Santana; Bueno, Odair Correa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

2011-01-01

376

A direct influence of moonlight intensity on changes in melatonin production by cultured pineal glands of the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus.  

PubMed

Rabbitfish are a restricted lunar-synchronized spawner that spawns around a species-specific lunar phase. It is not known how the fish perceive changes in cues from the moon. One possible explanation is that rabbitfish utilize changes in moonlight intensity to establish synchrony. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether or not the pineal gland of the golden rabbitfish can directly perceive changes in moonlight intensity. Isolated pineal glands were statically cultured under natural or artificial light conditions and melatonin secreted into the culture medium was measured using a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Under an artificial light/dark cycle, melatonin secretion significantly increased during the dark phase. Under continuous light conditions, melatonin secretion was suppressed, while culture under continuous dark conditions seemed to duplicate melatonin secretion corresponding to the light/dark cycle in which the fish were acclimated. When cultured pineal glands were kept under natural light conditions on the dates of the full and the new moon, small amounts of melatonin were secreted at night. Moreover, exposure of cultured pineal glands to artificial and natural light conditions resulted in a significant decrease of melatonin secretion within 2 hr. These results suggest that the isolated pineal gland of golden rabbitfish responds to environmental light cycles and that 'brightness' of the night moon has an influence on melatonin secretion from the isolated pineal gland. PMID:16499560

Takemura, Akihiro; Ueda, Satomi; Hiyakawa, Nanae; Nikaido, Yoshiaki

2006-04-01

377

Effects of hormones and gonadal status on the midventral gland of the grasshopper mouse Onychomys leucogaster.  

PubMed

A midventrally located fusiform sebaceous gland is found in the northern grasshopper mouse Onychomys leucogaster. Microscopically, the gland consists of numerous multilobular units. Copious secretory material collects in the central duct of each unit and is extruded to the outside. The gland is larger in the male than in the female. Castration causes an involution of the gland in both sexes. Testosterone propionate (1.0 mg/0.1 cc olive oil, subcutaneously every other day for 4 weeks) restores the gland to full activity in castrates of both sexes. Estradiol benzoate (0.1 mg/0.1 cc olive oil, subcutaneously every other day for 4 weeks) has no effect on the midventral gland of ovariectomized females. A long photoperiod (18 L/6 D) leads to the development of testes, ovaries, and uteri that are significantly heavier than those of animals from a short photoperiod (6 L/18 D) regime. Midventral glands in animals of both sexes from the long photoperiod are larger and more active than glands from animals from the short photoperiod. The secretions of the midventral gland of Onychomys are probably used for communications such as territorial marking, advertisement of gonadal status, or pup identification. PMID:3887990

Pinter, A J

1985-03-01

378

Original article Floral nectar secretion and ploidy in Brassica rapa  

E-print Network

Original article Floral nectar secretion and ploidy in Brassica rapa and B napus (Brassicaceae). I; Haploid (n = 10), diploid (2n = 20) and tetraploid (4n = 40) lines of Brassica rapa (syn campestris glands that were symmetrical and of uniform size within a flower. Brassica rapa / Brassica napus / floral

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

379

Thymosin Stimulates Secretion of Luteinizing Hormone--Releasing Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially purified thymosin fraction 5 and one of its synthetic peptide components, thymosin beta 4, but not thymosin alpha 1, stimulated secretion of luteinizing hormone--releasing factor from superfused medial basal hypothalami from random cycling female rats. In addition, luteinizing hormone was released from pituitary glands superfused in sequence with hypothalami. No release of luteinizing hormone in response to thymosin was

Robert W. Rebar; Akira Miyake; Teresa L. K. Low; Allan L. Goldstein

1981-01-01

380

Preen gland removal increases plumage bacterial load but not that of feather-degrading bacteria.  

PubMed

The preen gland is a holocrine sebaceous gland of the avian integument which produces an oily secretion that is spread on the plumage during preening. It has been suggested that birds may defend themselves against feather-degrading bacteria (FDB) and other potential pathogens using preen gland secretions. However, besides some in vitro studies, the in vivo bacterial inhibitory effects of the preen oil on the abundance of feather-associated bacterial species has not yet been studied in passerines. Here we tested the effect of gland removal on the abundance of FDB and other-cultivable bacterial loads (OCB) of male house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Our results did not support earlier results on in vitro antibacterial activity of preen oil against FDB since the absence of the preen gland did not significantly affect their loads related to the control birds. In contrast, we found that preen gland removal led to higher loads of OCB. This result suggests that the antimicrobial spectrum of the preen oil is broader than previously thought and that, by reducing the overall feather bacterial loads, the preen gland could help birds to protect themselves against a variety of potentially harmful bacteria. PMID:23288399

Czirják, Gábor Arpád; Pap, Péter László; Vágási, Csongor István; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Mure?an, Cosmin; Mirleau, Pascal; Heeb, Philipp

2013-02-01

381

Renaissance Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed as part of a partnership between the Open University and the BBC, the Renaissance Secrets (based in part on a television series) addresses four different historical questions dealing with various aspects of the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance, along with providing helpful material on the practice and art of writing about and understanding history. The four topics include a discussion of the many faces of Venice during the Renaissance, medical care and hospitals during the Renaissance, the conspiracy to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I, and Johannes Gutenberg. Within each of these four topic areas, visitors can read short thematic essays about related topics and find out more about the evidence and historical knowledge that informs each related topic. By doing so, visitors (particularly students) will be able to better understand how historians "do" history. Finally, from the site's home page, visitors can also read essays from practicing historians about their own work and how they begin to collect evidence and interpret the past.

2001-01-01

382

Loss of Igfbp7 Causes Precocious Involution in Lactating Mouse Mammary Gland  

PubMed Central

Background Insulin like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) are secreted peptides that play major roles in regulating the normal development and maturation of mammary gland. While Igfbp7 has been shown to decrease breast tumor growth, its role in regulating the normal mammary gland development has not been studied. To this end, we generated Igfbp7-null mice and examined the development and maturation of mammary glands in the virgin, pregnant and lactating animals. Results We report here that loss of Igfbp7 significantly retards mammary gland development in the virgin animals. More significantly, the pregnant Igfpb7-null glands contained fewer alveolar structures and that during lactation these glands exhibit the morphological changes that are associated with involution. The transcriptome profile of the Igfbp7-null glands on the lactation day 3 revealed a distinct involution-related gene signature compared to the lactating WT glands. Interestingly, we found that the lactating Igfbp7-null glands exhibit increased expression of Stat3 and enhanced activation of (phosphorylated) Stat3, combined with decreased expression of Stat5 suggesting that the absence of Igfbp7 accelerates the onset of involution. We also found that in absence of Igfpb7, the lactating glands contain increased Igfbp5 protein along with decreased expression of IGF-1 Receptor and Akt activation. Finally, we show that during the normal course of involution, Igfbp7 expression is significantly decreased in the mammary gland. Conclusion Our data suggest that loss of Igfbp7 induces precocious involution possibly through diminished cell survival signals. Our findings identify Igfbp7 as major regulator of involution in the mammary gland. PMID:24505323

Chatterjee, Sumanta; Bacopulos, Stephanie; Yang, Wenyi; Amemiya, Yutaka; Spyropoulos, Demetri

2014-01-01

383

Two Immunoregulatory Peptides with Antioxidant Activity from Tick Salivary Glands*  

PubMed Central

Ticks are blood-feeding arthropods that may secrete immunosuppressant molecules, which inhibit host inflammatory and immune responses and provide survival advantages to pathogens at tick bleeding sites in hosts. In the current work, two families of immunoregulatory peptides, hyalomin-A and -B, were first identified from salivary glands of hard tick Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum. Three copies of hyalomin-A are encoded by an identical gene and released from the same protein precursor. Both hyalomin-A and -B can exert significant anti-inflammatory functions, either by directly inhibiting host secretion of inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor-?, monocyte chemotectic protein-1, and interferon-? or by indirectly increasing the secretion of immunosuppressant cytokine of interleukin-10. Hyalomin-A and -B were both found to potently scavenge free radical in vitro in a rapid manner and inhibited adjuvant-induced inflammation in mouse models in vivo. The JNK/SAPK subgroup of the MAPK signaling pathway was involved in such immunoregulatory functions of hyalomin-A and -B. These results showed that immunoregulatory peptides of tick salivary glands suppress host inflammatory response by modulating cytokine secretion and detoxifying reactive oxygen species. PMID:20178988

Wu, Jing; Wang, Yipeng; Liu, Han; Yang, Hailong; Ma, Dongying; Li, Jianxu; Li, Dongsheng; Lai, Ren; Yu, Haining

2010-01-01

384

Taxonomy of Salivary Gland Neoplasm  

PubMed Central

Classification of neoplasms of any organ should be predicted on the patterns of differentiation that reflect the organization and cell types of the parental tissue. The ability to classify a neoplasm instills confidence in its predicted biologic behavior and the selection of treatment. There has not been a single universally used classification system for salivary gland tumor. Histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts and the developing information on various molecular parameters will have significant influence on the classification of salivary glands tumors. In this article we would highlight the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts in salivary gland neoplasms and elaborate on the taxonomic system of classification of salivary gland neoplasms. PMID:24783163

Sreeja, C.; Shahela, Tanveer; Aesha, Syeda; Satish, Muthu Kumar

2014-01-01

385

Effect of substratum on growth, cell morphology and lactoferrin synthesis and secretion in bovine mammary cell culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of extracellular matrix in morphology, growth and lactoferrin synthesis and secretion in bovine mammary cells from a developing gland is poorly defined. In this study, bovine mammary cells from a hormone-primed developing gland were isolated and cultured on plastic, collagen, embedded within collagen, or on EHS-matrix, with the hormones prolactin, insulin, and cortisol in the presence or absence

R. S. Talhouk; R. L. Neiswander; F. L. Schanbacher

1998-01-01

386

Accessory tragus: a possible sign of Goldenhar syndrome.  

PubMed

The accessory tragus is a relatively common benign congenital anomaly. The tragus is a cartilaginous projection that normally occurs anterior to the external auditory meatus. Although aberrancy of the tragus may occur in isolation and is exclusively derived from the first branchial arch, it may occasionally signal a defect in the first or second branchial arches. Thus it may be a sign of other syndromes, such as oculoauricularvertebral dysplasia (Goldenhar syndrome). In fact, accessory tragus is a constant feature of this syndrome and may be associated with other syndromes. Accessory tragi are polypoid and should be distinguished from acrochordon (skin tags), as the shave excision commonly employed for skin tags may expose cartilage and cause slow healing or chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis. PMID:21916271

Rankin, James S; Schwartz, Robert A

2011-08-01

387

Reinnervation of avulsed brachial plexus using the spinal accessory nerve.  

PubMed

The use of the accessory nerve as a donor is one of the possibilities for the reinnervation of the brachial plexus in cases of paralysis due to root avulsion. In this paper, an analysis of the reinnervation of the musculocutaneous or axillary nerve using the spinal accessory nerve is made on 13 cases, 8 of total and 5 of upper partial avulsion. In all cases, Allieu's technique was used, but in seven cases reinnervation was supplemented by upper intercostal nerves when there was total avulsion and/or by the medial pectoral nerve when there was partial avulsion. The methods are discussed and compared with the intercostobrachial anastomosis. PMID:2154041

Samardzic, M; Grujicic, D; Antunovic, V; Joksimovic, M

1990-01-01

388

Giant salivary calculi of the submandibular gland  

PubMed Central

Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. A case of an unusually large sialolith arising in the submandibular gland is presented, along with a review of the management of giant salivary gland calculi. PMID:24960792

Fowell, C; MacBean, A

2012-01-01

389

Gastric inhibitory peptide, serotonin, and glucagon are unexpected chloride secretagogues in the rectal gland of the skate (Leucoraja erinacea).  

PubMed

Since the discovery of the rectal gland of the dogfish shark 50 years ago, experiments with this tissue have greatly aided our understanding of secondary active chloride secretion and the secretagogues responsible for this function. In contrast, very little is known about the rectal gland of skates. In the present experiments, we performed the first studies in the perfused rectal gland of the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), an organ weighing less than one-tenth of the shark rectal gland. Our results indicate that the skate gland can be studied by modified perfusion techniques and in primary culture monolayers, and that secretion is blocked by the inhibitors of membrane proteins required for secondary active chloride secretion. Our major finding is that three G protein-coupled receptor agonists, the incretin gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), also known as glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, as well as glucagon and serotonin, are unexpected potent chloride secretagogues in the skate but not the shark. Glucagon stimulated chloride secretion to a mean value of 1,661 ± 587 ?eq·h(-1)·g(-1) and serotonin stimulated to 2,893 ± 699 ?eq·h(-1)·g(-1). GIP stimulated chloride secretion to 3,733 ± 679 ?eq·h(-1)·g(-1) and significantly increased tissue cAMP content compared with basal conditions. This is the first report of GIP functioning as a chloride secretagogue in any species or tissue. PMID:24553297

Kelley, Catherine A; Decker, Sarah E; Silva, Patricio; Forrest, John N

2014-05-01

390

[A case of swelling of salivary gland due to drug treatment for threatened premature labor].  

PubMed

Ritodrine hydrochloride (luteonin), a beta-agonist with predominant effects on beta adrenoreceptors such as those of the uterus, is effective in suppressing premature uterine contractions. This medicine was used in drug treatment in the case of threatened premature labor. A 26-year-old female who complained of acute swelling of the bilateral salivary glands was consulted to our otorhinolaryngological department. The soft swelling of the bilateral parotid and submandibular glands had developed after intravenous administration of ritodrine hydrochloride for treatment of her threatened premature labor. In addition, serum amylase levels were elevated. The swelling of the salivary glands and the elevation of the serum amylase subsided following discontinuation of the ritodrine hydrochloride. In salivary glands, too, the beta-adrenoreceptors exist. Following stimulation of those receptors in those glands increased secretion of amylase occurs. Our findings suggested that beta-stimulation by ritodrine hydrochloride led to the swelling of the salivary glands and the elevation of the serum amylase. To our knowledge, in Japan, our case is the first otorhinolaryngological report of swelling of the salivary glands due to ritodrine hydrochloride. Otolaryngologist should therefore have full knowledge regarding swelling of salivary glands due to ritodrine hydrochloride. PMID:25158563

Kimura, Hiroshi; Yuki, Hiroyoshi

2014-07-01

391

Serous gland dimorphism in the skin of Melanophryniscus stelzneri (Anura: Bufonidae).  

PubMed

Two serous gland types (I and II) in the skin of the Argentine toad Melanophryniscus stelzneri were discovered using light and electron microscopy. Glands of the two types differ in several traits: features of the products (both mature and immature), organelles involved in biosynthesis, and paths of serous maturation. No consistent differences, however, were detected between the myoepithelial sheaths encircling the secretory units. Type I glands manufacture vesicles containing a single dense body with a repeating substructure and conform to the fundamental secretory line of bufonid skin, a secretory line involved in biosynthesis of steroids. Type II glands synthesize granules of varying densities and seem to belong to a line of glands that secrete proteinaceous products. The occurrence of the two serous gland types in Melanophryniscus stelzneri is discussed in a comparison with current literature on the morphofunctional characteristics of anuran poison glands, which perform both regulative and defensive roles. It is suggested that di- or polymorphism in serous glands is an adaptive trait that allows differential release of active molecules on the body surface. PMID:9642789

Delfino, G; Brizzi, R; Kracke-Berndorff, R; Alvarez, B

1998-07-01

392

Actinomycosis of the parotid gland.  

PubMed

- Actinomycosis is a slowly progressive infection caused by anaerobic bacteria with relatively decreasing incidence now-a-days. The Parotid gland is a quite rere site to be involved in cervico-facial actinomycosis as compared to the other sites in the face & neck region. We report a successfully managed case of Actinomycosis involving the parotid gland. PMID:23120106

Dubey, Abhilash; Murthy, J G; Banerjee, P K

2004-10-01

393

Ascl3 knockout and cell ablation models reveal complexity of salivary gland maintenance and regeneration.  

PubMed

Expression of the transcription factor, Ascl3, marks a population of adult progenitor cells, which can give rise to both acinar and duct cell types in the murine salivary glands. Using a previously reported Ascl3(EGFP-Cre/+) knock-in strain, we demonstrate that Ascl3-expressing cells represent a molecularly distinct, and proliferating population of progenitor cells located in salivary gland ducts. To investigate both the role of the Ascl3 transcription factor, and the role of the cells in which it is expressed, we generated knockout and cell-specific ablation models. Ascl3 knockout mice develop smaller salivary glands than wild type littermates, but secrete saliva normally. They display a lower level of cell proliferation, consistent with their smaller size. In the absence of Ascl3, the cells maintain their progenitor function and continue to generate both acinar and duct cells. To directly test the role of the progenitor cells, themselves, in salivary gland development and regeneration, we used Cre-activated expression of diphtheria toxin (DTA) in the Ascl3-expressing (Ascl3+) cell population, resulting in specific cell ablation of Ascl3+ cells. In the absence of the Ascl3+ progenitor cells, the mice developed morphologically normal, albeit smaller, salivary glands able to secrete saliva. Furthermore, in a ductal ligation model of salivary gland injury, the glands of these mice were able to regenerate acinar cells. Our results indicate that Ascl3+ cells are active proliferating progenitors, but they are not the only precursors for salivary gland development or regeneration. We conclude that maintenance of tissue homeostasis in the salivary gland must involve more than one progenitor cell population. PMID:21377457

Arany, Szilvia; Catalán, Marcelo A; Roztocil, Elisa; Ovitt, Catherine E

2011-05-15

394

Regional differences within the external 'duct' of the rat exorbital lacrimal gland.  

PubMed

The lacrimal cord is the fibrous structure that extends between the rat exorbital lacrimal gland and the eyelid. Disagreement exists about the number of ducts it contains and with which lid the orifice is associated. Therefore, 18 lacrimal cords from adult rats were studied by light microscopy. Additionally, in five specimens the continuations of the major ducts were observed immediately intraglandularly. Adjacent to the exorbital lacrimal gland, the lacrimal cord may contain six or more ducts. Farther toward the eye, it has five, four, and then three ducts; the latter typically at about its midpoint. Close to the infraorbital gland two or one are present. Approaching the temporal aspect of either lid, the ducts of both the infraorbital and exorbital lacrimal glands course within the lacrimal cord and usually merge. In some adult rats, when the eyelids are retracted laterally, it is evident that a crescentic fold of the palpebral conjunctiva contains a vertical pair of whitish, convex structures, the 'temporal canthal domes'. When present, one can serve as a marker for the duct orifice located close to the conjunctival fornix. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium lines the ducts from the orifice to the region of the infraorbital lacrimal gland. From the latter toward the exorbital lacrimal gland the epithelium may become pseudostratified cuboidal. That type exists close to and immediately within the exorbital gland. The variation in duct number within the lacrimal cord would have physiological consequences. By analogy with the circulatory system, it is expected that flow would occur more slowly within the multiple ducts in and near the exorbital lacrimal gland than in the one or two near the canthus. Where flow is slower, contact time of the secretion with the duct epithelium would be greater. Thus, modification of the lacrimal secretion is likely not to occur uniformly in the duct system but would take place primarily in and near the exorbital lacrimal gland rather than toward the duct orifice. PMID:8500559

Lorber, M

1993-04-01

395

Salivary Gland Hypofunction in tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase-2 Knockout Mice Is Due to Primary Hypothyroidism  

PubMed Central

Background Protein-tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification of an unknown number of secreted and membrane proteins mediated by two known Golgi tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST-1 and TPST-2). We reported that Tpst2-/- mice have mild-moderate primary hypothyroidism, whereas Tpst1-/- mice are euthyroid. While using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to look at the thyroid gland we noticed that the salivary glands in Tpst2-/- mice appeared smaller than in wild type mice. This prompted a detailed analysis to compare salivary gland structure and function in wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2 -/- mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative MRI imaging documented that salivary glands in Tpst2-/- females were ? 30% smaller than wild type or Tpst1-/- mice and that the granular convoluted tubules in Tpst2-/- submandibular glands were less prominent and were almost completely devoid of exocrine secretory granules compared to glands from wild type or Tpst1-/- mice. In addition, pilocarpine–induced salivary flow and salivary ?-amylase activity in Tpst2-/- mice of both sexes was substantially lower than in wild type and Tpst1-/- mice. Anti-sulfotyrosine Western blots of salivary gland extracts and saliva showed no differences between wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2-/- mice, suggesting that the salivary gland hypofunction is due to factor(s) extrinsic to the salivary glands. Finally, we found that all indicators of hypothyroidism (serum T4, body weight) and salivary gland hypofunction (salivary flow, salivary ?-amylase activity, histological changes) were restored to normal or near normal by thyroid hormone supplementation. Conclusions/Significance Our findings conclusively demonstrate that low body weight and salivary gland hypofunction in Tpst2-/- mice is due solely to primary hypothyroidism. PMID:23951251

Westmuckett, Andrew D.; Siefert, Joseph C.; Tesiram, Yasvir A.; Pinson, David M.; Moore, Kevin L.

2013-01-01

396

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 Section 121...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...is not limited to circuits into which software has been programmed. (f)...

2011-04-01

397

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 Section 121...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...is not limited to circuits into which software has been programmed. (f)...

2012-04-01

398

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 Section 121...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...is not limited to circuits into which software has been programmed. (f)...

2013-04-01

399

29 CFR 1919.27 - Unit proof tests-winches, derricks and gear accessory thereto.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Unit proof tests-winches, derricks and gear accessory thereto...Persons § 1919.27 Unit proof tests—winches, derricks and gear accessory thereto. (a) Winches, with the whole of the gear...

2010-07-01

400

77 FR 15390 - Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request...luggage, accessories, and packaging thereof that infringe U...accessed on the Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at http...viewed on the Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at...

2012-03-15

401

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

... 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. 884.6190 Section... Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

402

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. 884.6190 Section... Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

403

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. 884.6190 Section... Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

404

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. 884.6190 Section... Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

405

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. 884.6190 Section... Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

406

Management of bile duct injuries combined with accessory hepatic duct during laparoscopic cholecystectomy  

PubMed Central

Bile duct injuries (BDIs) are difficult to avoid absolutely when the biliary tract has a malformation, such as accessory hepatic duct. Here, we investigated the management strategies for BDI combined with accessory hepatic duct during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:25232275

Ren, Pei-Tu; Lu, Bao-Chun; Yu, Jian-Hua; Zhu, Xin

2014-01-01

407

21 CFR 888.3030 - Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories.  

... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and...

2014-04-01

408

21 CFR 888.3030 - Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and...

2013-04-01

409

21 CFR 888.3030 - Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and...

2011-04-01

410

21 CFR 888.3030 - Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories... Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and...

2012-04-01

411

Epithelial differentiation of the lower urinary tract with recognition of the minor prostatic glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preservation of tissues in glutaraldehyde-based fixatives allows identification of prostatic glandular secretions without resorting to immunostaining. This has enabled detailed histological assessment of the entire male urethra and bladder and has confirmed prostatic epithelial cells outside the confines of the prostate gland. Male and female lower urinary tracts are also compared. Three intact bladders and penile urethras from radical surgical

Ronald J. Cohen; Kerryn Garrett; Jemma L. Golding; Robert B. Thomas; John E. McNeal

2002-01-01

412

Correlative light- and electron-microscopic study of parathyroid glands in dogs of different age groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parenchyma of parathyroid (FT) glands of neonatal, growing and adult dogs consisted of dark and light chief cells. In growing and adult dogs, dark chief cells had an electron-dense cytoplasm, prominent rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) and Golgi apparatus. Based on the secretion cycle proposed by Roth and Capen [1974], they were referred to as active cells. Light chief cells

P. Wild

1980-01-01

413

Morphology and structure of the tarsal glands of the stingless bee Melipona seminigra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Footprint secretions deposited at the nest entrance or on food sources are used for chemical communication by honey bees, bumble bees, and stingless bees. The question of the glandular origin of the substances involved, however, has not been unequivocally answered yet. We investigated the morphology and structure of tarsal glands within the fifth tarsomeres of the legs of workers of Melipona seminigra in order to clarify their possible role in the secretion of footprints. The tarsal gland is a sac-like fold forming a reservoir. Its glandular tissue is composed of a unicellular layer of specialized epidermal cells, which cover the thin cuticular intima forming the reservoir. We found that the tarsal glands lack any openings to the outside and therefore conclude that they are not involved in the secretion of footprint substances. The secretion produced accumulates within the gland's reservoir and reaches as far as into the arolium. Thus it is likely that it serves to fill and unfold the arolium during walking to increase adhesion on smooth surfaces, as is known for honey bees and weaver ants.

Jarau, Stefan; Hrncir, Michael; Zucchi, Ronaldo; Barth, Friedrich G.

2005-03-01

414

Symbiotic association between hoopoes and antibiotic-producing bacteria that live in their uropygial gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. It has been recently showed that one bacterial strain isolated from the uropygial gland of a nes- tling hoopoe Upupa epops produced antimicrobial peptides active against a broad spectrum of pathogenic bacteria. These bacteria might thus mediate antimicrobial properties of the uropygial secretions as a consequence of the symbiotic association with hoopoes. 2. We study antimicrobial properties of

J. J. Soler; M. Martín-Vivaldi; M. Ruiz-Rodríguez; E. Valdivia; A. M. Martín-Platero; M. Martínez-Bueno; J. M. Peralta-Sánchez; M. Méndez

2008-01-01

415

THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE WAX GLAND OF THE HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.)  

E-print Network

THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE WAX GLAND OF THE HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.) Malcolin T. SANFORD Alfred wax secreting worker honey bee. The investigation showed that the cuticle is penetrated by bundles is a common phenomenon in insects. The honey bee, in addition to this protec- tive layer, also produces wax

Boyer, Edmond

416

Virilizing lipoadenoma of the adrenal gland in a pre-pubertal girl: A rare case  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a 12-year-old girl who presented with the history of hirsutism. On evaluation, she was found to have testosterone secreting adrenal gland tumor. Histopathological examination of the adrenalectomy specimen revealed a lipoadenoma. PMID:24744524

Mylarappa, Prasad; Pathade, Amey; Javali, Tarun; Ramesh, D.

2014-01-01

417

Accessory lobes of the liver: A report of 3 cases and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Summary This article is about 3 cases of accessory lobes of the liver. Case One involved a pedunculated accessory lobe of the liver (ALL), Case Two involved a true ectopic liver, and Case Three involved a sessile accessory lobe of the liver. All 3 cases were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confirmed by surgical and histological examination. The pertinent literature on accessory lobes of the liver is also reviewed.

Wang, Chenglin; Cheng, Lin; Zhang, Ziqin; Xie, Tingting; Ding, Heyu; Deng, Qianhua; Yuan, Zhidong

2012-01-01

418

X-ray microanalysis of exocrine glands in animal models for cystic fibrosis  

SciTech Connect

Elemental distribution and ultrastructure of the submandibular gland, the parotid gland and the pancreas were investigated in three suggested animal models of the disease cystic fibrosis: the chronically reserpinized rat, the chronically isoproterenol-treated rat, and the chronically pilocarpine-treated rat. To elucidate the cellular mechanism underlying the effects of these treatments, chronic effects of specific alpha - and beta -adrenergic agonists, as well as acute effects of reserpine and various agonists were also investigated. Reserpine, isoproterenol, and pilocarpine cause an increase in the calcium concentration in submandibular gland acinar cells, due to an increased calcium content of the intracellular mucus. In the parotid gland, reserpine and isoproterenol cause a decrease of the calcium concentration in acinar cells, due to a lower calcium content of the zymogen granules. In the submandibular gland, a decreased cellular Na concentration was noted after chronic treatment with isoproterenol or pilocarpine, and after a single dose of reserpine or isoproterenol. Ultrastructural changes in the exocrine glands investigated included excessive accumulation of intracellular secretory material and formation of abnormal uncondensed secretion granules. A common pattern in the animal models appears to be (1) inhibition of secretion resulting in intracellular accumulation of secretory material, (2) synthesis of secretory macromolecules with altered cation-binding properties.

Mueller, R.M.R.; Roomans, G.M.

1985-01-01

419

A rare accessory coracobrachialis muscle: a review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

During previous dissections to investigate the incidence of the third head of the biceps brachii in neonate cadavers an accessory coracobrachialis muscle was unilaterally found in a neonate male cadaver. This muscle originated from the coracoid process and the capsule of the shoulder joint. It was inserted into the antebrachial fascia and the medial epicondyle of the humerus. The coracobrachialis

C. Kopuz; N. ?çten; M. Yildirim

2002-01-01

420

Reliability of accessory motion testing at the carpal joints.  

PubMed

The testing of accessory motion has become a very important part of manual therapy practice. Its value is in assessing whether joint mobility is ideal or impaired. Despite its use, there is little evidence in the literature to support the reliability of such testing. Most of the research carried out on accessory motion testing has focused on the spine. In view of this we decided to evaluate the intra- and interrater reliability of accessory motion testing of carpal joints. Two skilled therapists tested the available motion and the end-feel response of carpal joints in 30 students and 15 patients on two separate occasions. Pain scores were also obtained. In students a moderate to good percentage of agreement [67-97%] was obtained for motion testing. In patients the percentage of agreement ranged from 60% to 100% and weighted kappa values were between 0.33 and 1.0. Intrarater reliability was better than interrater reliability in both groups. Intra- and interrater agreement on end-feel was very good. Overall, the reliability of accessory motion testing of carpal joints was acceptable. The results suggest that this form of testing can be valuable in the training of manual therapists and in clinical practice. PMID:18555731

Staes, Filip Ferdinand; Banks, Kevin James; De Smet, Luc; Daniels, Kim Josefine; Carels, Pieter

2009-06-01

421

Clothing/Apparel and Accessories Merchandising. A Suggested Interdisciplinary Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide contains three sections: introduction, curriculum material, and an annotated bibliography. Introductory information provides an overview of the clothing/apparel and accessories merchandising area, aptitudes needed, and career opportunities; discusses potential career ladders, which are divided into entry level, middle…

Wray, Ralph D.; Hayden, Margaret B.

422

Evolutionary dynamics of the accessory genome of Listeria monocytogenes.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is comprised of four phylogenetic lineages that vary with regard to their serotypes and distribution among sources. In order to characterize lineage-specific genomic diversity within L. monocytogenes, we sequenced the genomes of eight strains from several lineages and serotypes, and characterized the accessory genome, which was hypothesized to contribute to phenotypic differences across lineages. The eight L. monocytogenes genomes sequenced range in size from 2.85-3.14 Mb, encode 2,822-3,187 genes, and include the first publicly available sequenced representatives of serotypes 1/2c, 3a and 4c. Mapping of the distribution of accessory genes revealed two distinct regions of the L. monocytogenes chromosome: an accessory-rich region in the first 65° adjacent to the origin of replication and a more stable region in the remaining 295°. This pattern of genome organization is distinct from that of related bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The accessory genome of all lineages is enriched for cell surface-related genes and phosphotransferase systems, and transcriptional regulators, highlighting the selective pressures faced by contemporary strains from their hosts, other microbes, and their environment. Phylogenetic analysis of O-antigen genes and gene clusters predicts that serotype 4 was ancestral in L. monocytogenes and serotype 1/2 associated gene clusters were putatively introduced through horizontal gene transfer in the ancestral population of L. monocytogenes lineage I and II. PMID:23825666

den Bakker, Henk C; Desjardins, Christopher A; Griggs, Allison D; Peters, Joseph E; Zeng, Qiandong; Young, Sarah K; Kodira, Chinnappa D; Yandava, Chandri; Hepburn, Theresa A; Haas, Brian J; Birren, Bruce W; Wiedmann, Martin

2013-01-01

423

Evolutionary Dynamics of the Accessory Genome of Listeria monocytogenes  

PubMed Central

Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is comprised of four phylogenetic lineages that vary with regard to their serotypes and distribution among sources. In order to characterize lineage-specific genomic diversity within L. monocytogenes, we sequenced the genomes of eight strains from several lineages and serotypes, and characterized the accessory genome, which was hypothesized to contribute to phenotypic differences across lineages. The eight L. monocytogenes genomes sequenced range in size from 2.85–3.14 Mb, encode 2,822–3,187 genes, and include the first publicly available sequenced representatives of serotypes 1/2c, 3a and 4c. Mapping of the distribution of accessory genes revealed two distinct regions of the L. monocytogenes chromosome: an accessory-rich region in the first 65° adjacent to the origin of replication and a more stable region in the remaining 295°. This pattern of genome organization is distinct from that of related bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The accessory genome of all lineages is enriched for cell surface-related genes and phosphotransferase systems, and transcriptional regulators, highlighting the selective pressures faced by contemporary strains from their hosts, other microbes, and their environment. Phylogenetic analysis of O-antigen genes and gene clusters predicts that serotype 4 was ancestral in L. monocytogenes and serotype 1/2 associated gene clusters were putatively introduced through horizontal gene transfer in the ancestral population of L. monocytogenes lineage I and II. PMID:23825666

den Bakker, Henk C.; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Griggs, Allison D.; Peters, Joseph E.; Zeng, Qiandong; Young, Sarah K.; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Yandava, Chandri; Hepburn, Theresa A.; Haas, Brian J.; Birren, Bruce W.; Wiedmann, Martin

2013-01-01

424

The inheritance of accessory buds in Rubus idaeus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the red raspberry cultivar Lloyd George, accessory (secondary) bud formation is controlled by two complementary genesBd\\u000a 1 andBd\\u000a 2, whose expression is markedly influenced by homozygosity, minor genes, and environment.

Elizabeth Keep

1968-01-01

425

49 CFR 192.147 - Flanges and flange accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...flange or flange accessory (other than cast iron) must meet the minimum requirements...c) Each flange on a flanged joint in cast iron pipe must conform in dimensions...gasket design to ASME/ANSI B16.1 and be cast integrally with the pipe, valve, or...

2011-10-01

426

Comparative genomics of the core and accessory genomes of 48 Sinorhizobium strains comprising five genospecies  

PubMed Central

Background The sinorhizobia are amongst the most well studied members of nitrogen-fixing root nodule bacteria and contribute substantial amounts of fixed nitrogen to the biosphere. While the alfalfa symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti RM 1021 was one of the first rhizobial strains to be completely sequenced, little information is available about the genomes of this large and diverse species group. Results Here we report the draft assembly and annotation of 48 strains of Sinorhizobium comprising five genospecies. While S. meliloti and S. medicae are taxonomically related, they displayed different nodulation patterns on diverse Medicago host plants, and have differences in gene content, including those involved in conjugation and organic sulfur utilization. Genes involved in Nod factor and polysaccharide biosynthesis, denitrification and type III, IV, and VI secretion systems also vary within and between species. Symbiotic phenotyping and mutational analyses indicated that some type IV secretion genes are symbiosis-related and involved in nitrogen fixation efficiency. Moreover, there is a correlation between the presence of type IV secretion systems, heme biosynthesis and microaerobic denitrification genes, and symbiotic efficiency. Conclusions Our results suggest that each Sinorhizobium strain uses a slightly different strategy to obtain maximum compatibility with a host plant. This large genome data set provides useful information to better understand the functional features of five Sinorhizobium species, especially compatibility in legume-Sinorhizobium interactions. The diversity of genes present in the accessory genomes of members of this genus indicates that each bacterium has adopted slightly different strategies to interact with diverse plant genera and soil environments. PMID:23425606

2013-01-01

427

Results of simple excision technique in the surgical treatment of symptomatic accessory navicular bones  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionAccessory navicular bones might cause not only cosmetic problems but also be a reason of discomfort and pain. In case of inefficient conservative treatment symptomatic accessory naviculars are treated surgically.Aim of paper: Presentation of results of simple excision of symptomatic accessory navicular.

Barbara Jasiewicz; Tomasz Potaczek; Wojciech K?cki; Maciej T?siorowski; Ewa Lipik

2008-01-01

428

WagTag: A Dog Collar Accessory for Monitoring Canine Activity Levels  

E-print Network

accessories with such apps are now emerging for the pet market. In this paper we describe WagTag, an accessory corporations are now actively working to bring new accessories to market, or to refine the ones already on the market. The corporations involved include computing giants such as Apple and Google, startups

Weiss, Gary

429

An accessory belly of the abductor digiti minimi muscle: a case report and embryologic aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accessory fasciculi of the hypothenar muscles have been involved in vascular and nerve compressions. During a routine dissection an accessory belly of the abductor digiti minimi muscle arising from the tendon of the palmaris longus muscle was found in the lower third of the forearm. The accessory fasciculus ran through Guyon’s canal enclosing the ulnar nerve and vessels. It was

F. Soldado-Carrera; N. Vilar-Coromina; A. Rodríguez-Baeza

2000-01-01

430

A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Consumers’ Conspicuous Consumption of Branded Fashion Accessories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study attempts to (1) demonstrate whether the purchase of branded fashion accessories is motivated by consumers’ desire to reflect their social status, convey their self-image, and boost their self-esteem; (2) find whether the purchase of luxury fashion accessories may fall under the umbrella of conspicuous consumption; and (3) examine whether conspicuous consumption of branded fashion accessories varies across cultures.

Nizar Souiden; Bouthaina M’Saad; Frank Pons

2011-01-01

431

A research on the market of Chinese brands of sportswear accessories and their designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In sportswear accessories market in China, the competition is in keen environment. The famous brands having stationed in foreign countries, occupy a large market share, and are in domination, although some Chinese sportswear accessories brands promote faster and have made significant improvement in this business conditions. But on the whole, China sportswear accessories enterprises are still vulnerable. This article, basis

Lizhen Yang

2010-01-01

432

Hormonal regulation of the immune microenvironment in the mammary gland.  

PubMed

It is well established that the development and homeostasis of the mammary gland are highly dependent upon the actions of ovarian hormones progesterone and estrogen, as well as the availability of prolactin for the pregnant and lactating gland. More recently it has become apparent that immune system cells and cytokines play essential roles in both mammary gland development as well as breast cancer. Here, we review hormonal effects on mammary gland biology during puberty, menstrual cycling, pregnancy, lactation and involution, and dissect how hormonal control of the immune system may contribute to mammary development at each stage via cytokine secretion and recruitment of macrophages, eosinophils, mast cells and lymphocytes. Collectively, these alterations may create an immunotolerant or inflammatory immune environment at specific developmental stages or phases of the menstrual cycle. Of particular interest for further research is investigation of the combinatorial actions of progesterone and estrogen during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and key developmental points where the immune system may play an active role both in mammary development as well as in the creation of an immunotolerant environment, thereby affecting breast cancer risk. PMID:24993978

Need, Eleanor F; Atashgaran, Vahid; Ingman, Wendy V; Dasari, Pallave

2014-07-01

433

Unusual labial glands in snakes of the genus Geophis Wagler, 1830 (Serpentes: Dipsadinae).  

PubMed

Geophis belongs to the goo-eating dipsadine assemblage of snakes that are known to feed exclusively on earthworms, snails, and slugs. Although the unusual feeding strategies of the goo-eating dipsadines are well known (but poorly documented), little attention has been paid to their internal anatomy. Here, we describe a new and noteworthy morphological and histochemical condition of the infralabial glands in three species of Geophis (G. brachycephalus, G. nasalis and G. semidoliatus), all earthworm feeders. Their infralabial glands are constituted of two distinct parts: an anterolateral portion composed of mucous and seromucous cells that stretches from the tip of the dentary to the corner of the mouth, and a tubular posteromedial portion that is exclusively seromucous. The anterolateral portion receives fibers of the levator anguli oris muscle that attaches on its posterodorsal extremity while the posteromedial portion extends posteriorly to the corner of the mouth where it receives fibers of the adductor mandibulae externus medialis muscle. Furthermore, the posteromedial portion of the infralabial gland is constituted by large acini filled with secretion that is periodic acid-Schiff positive. These acini release their secretion directly into a large lumen located in the middle of the glandular portion. In the three species examined, the supralabial glands show a traditional configuration, being constituted of mucous and seromucous cells and retaining an enlarged part in its caudal region that resembles a Duvernoy's gland. The presence in Geophis of an expanded lumen in part of the infralabial gland that is compressed by an adjacent muscle suggests a more specialized role for the secretion produced by these glands that may not be related to envenomation but rather to prey transport and mucus control. PMID:24127255

de Oliveira, Leonardo; da Costa Prudente, Ana Lúcia; Zaher, Hussam

2014-01-01

434

Interleukin-11 promotes accessory cell-dependent B-cell differentiation in humans.  

PubMed

Interleukin-11 (IL-11) is a recently described stromal-derived cytokine that supports the growth of an IL-6-dependent murine plasmacytoma line in the presence of antibody to IL-6 and appears to act in a manner similar to IL-6 on hematopoietic stem cells. Because IL-6 is known to promote differentiation of normal human B cells, the role of IL-11 on B-cell differentiation in vitro was characterized. IL-11 does not result in significantly increased DNA synthesis or Ig secretion by purified B cells alone or B cells cultured with Staphylococcus Cowan I, a T-cell-independent B-cell mitogen. In contrast, purified B cells cultured in the presence of pokeweed mitogen (PWM), irradiated T cells, and monocytes show increased DNA synthesis at day 3 and increased IgG and IgM secretion at day 7 of culture; addition of IL-11 further augments Ig secretion without change in DNA synthesis, an effect that can only be partially blocked by monoclonal antibody to IL-6. Similar experiments confirmed that increased IgG secretion was demonstrable when either IL-11 or IL-6 was added to B cells + CD4+/45RA- T cells + monocytes + PWM; in contrast, Ig secretion was low and equivalent when CD4+/45RA+ T cells were cultured with B cells+monocytes+PWM with or without IL-6 or IL-11. Neither IL-6 nor IL-11 could significantly increase phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced DNA synthesis by CD4+/45RA- or CD4+/45RA+ T cells. Although PWM or IL-11 induced IL-6 mRNA expression in both CD4+/45RA- T cells and monocytes, in neither cell did IL-11 increase IL-6 mRNA expression over that noted to PWM alone. These observations support the view that IL-11 promotes differentiation of human B lymphocytes only in the presence of accessory T cells and monocytes and that a minor component of this effect may be through stimulation of IL-6 production by CD4+/45RA- T cells and monocytes. PMID:1450406

Anderson, K C; Morimoto, C; Paul, S R; Chauhan, D; Williams, D; Cochran, M; Barut, B A

1992-12-01

435

Multichemical defense of plant bugHotea gambiae (westwood) (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae) : Sesquiterpenoids from abdominal gland in larvae.  

PubMed

Chemical defense in larvae of the plant bugHotea gambiae has been investigated. Results of analyses (GC, GC-MS) on the secretions from the three dorsally situated larval abdominal defense (scent) glands are reported. The secretion from the first abdominal gland consists of a mixture of C10 and C15 isoprenoids: (C10) ?-pinene, ?-pinene, limonene, ?-phellandrene; (C15) ?-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, ?-humulene, and (the major component) humulene epoxide II. The secretions from the second and third abdominal glands are similar mixtures consisting of (E)-2-decenal, (E)-4-oxohex-2-enal, andn-tridecane together with lesser amounts of (E)-2-hexenal,n-dodecane, and other materials. Isoprenoid defense is now known from four species of plant bugs (Heteroptera) associated with Malvaceae. PMID:24309966

Gough, A J; Hamilton, J G; Games, D E; Staddon, B W

1985-03-01

436

Short-chain carboxylic acids from gray catbird ( Dumetella carolinensis) uropygial secretions vary with testosterone levels and photoperiod  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uropygial gland of birds produces secretions that are important in maintaining the health and structural integrity of feathers. Non-volatile components of uropygial secretions are believed to serve a number of functions including waterproofing and conditioning the feathers. Volatile components have been characterized in fewer species, but are particularly interesting because of their potential importance in olfactory interactions within and

Rebecca J. Whelan; Tera C. Levin; Jennifer C. Owen; Mary C. Garvin

2010-01-01

437

Experimental evidence that oral secretions of northwestern ring-necked snakes ( Diadophis punctatus occidentalis) are toxic to their prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ring-necked snakes (Diadophis punctatus) are suspected of being venomous because their Duvernoy's gland secretions have high levels of phospholipase activity, which is characteristic of many viperid and elapid venoms, and because anecdotal reports of feeding behavior are consistent with the use of a venom. We tested the toxicity of northwestern ring-necked snake oral secretions to a natural prey species, northwestern

Ryan P. O’Donnell; Kevin Staniland; Robert T. Mason

2007-01-01

438

Functional morphology of femoral glands in the Tegu lizard, Tupinambis merianae.  

PubMed

Several lizards have femoral glands, which have an influence in various reproductive behaviors. In this paper we describe the morphological organization of the femoral glands in the Tegu, Tupinambis merianae, by means of light and electron microscopy. Even though these glands are present in both genders, secretions during the reproductive period can only be found in males. The glandular parenchyma, which is organized in numerous secretory units, consists of keratinocyte-like cells and granular cells. The holocrine secretion is constituted from both cells, which lose their integrity and become a semi-amorphous material, reinforced by keratin sheets. The discharges of each unit merge together into a solid cylinder of secretion, surrounded by epithelial cells, that is extruded to the exterior. The keratin sheets and epithelial layers that surround both the complete and partial secretions form a sort of structural support suitable for the type of territorial demarcation characteristic of the species. The granular cells, supposedly the producers of pheromones, are characterized by the presence of electron-dense granules and multilaminar membranous bodies that show ultrastructural changes of unknown function. The free granules in the secretion cylinder may act as pheromone deposits. PMID:19798923

Chamut, Silvia; Valdez, Valeria García; Manes, Mario E

2009-04-01

439

Microscopic anatomy of male tegumental glands and associated cuticular structures in Titanethes albus (Crustacea: Isopoda).  

PubMed

Male glandular organs characterized by porous surfaces with hair-like cuticular elaborations are known from several trichoniscid isopods. In the subterranean species Titanethes albus, males possess paired tubercles with numerous hairs and pores dorsally on the pleon. We analyzed the microscopic anatomy of these structures with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Diverse epicuticular formations and numerous sensilla, which are probably chemoreceptive, are present on the tubercles. We found several secretory surfaces on the pleon in addition to the dorsal tubercles. We also examined the distribution, architecture and ultrastructure of male-specific glands in T. albus with light and transmission electron microscopy. Three distinct types of male-specific rosette glands are present in different parts of the pleon and in the uropods. Glands secreting on the dorsal tubercles contain stellar central cells. The ultrastructure and histochemical staining properties of male-specific glands in T. albus suggest that they produce peptides which might function as contact pheromones. PMID:22075129

Vittori, Miloš; Znidarši?, Nada; Kostanjšek, Rok; Strus, Jasna

2012-03-01

440

Intracellular calcium localization in stimulated, non-stimulated and repressed eccrine sweat glands.  

PubMed Central

Acinar cells of eccrine sweat glands from control, pilocarpine-treated, and atropine-treated rats were studied using a potassium pyroantimonate technique for calcium localization at the ultrastructural level. This was done in order to identify intracellular compartmentalization of calcium and to elucidate any calcium translocation that might occur during the secretion process. Calcium-pyroantimonate complexes were identified in the mitochondria, plasma membrane and cytoplasmic vesicles of the untreated and the atropine-treated specimens. These complexes decreased drastically in the actively secreting cells. The function of calcium in sweat gland secretion and the action of the utilized pharmacological agents on membrane calcium are discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7153174

Sampson, H W; Bowers, D E

1982-01-01

441

Publicly Verifiable Secret Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

. A secret sharing scheme allows to share a secret among several participants such that only certain groups of them can recover it. Verifiable secret sharing has been proposed to achieve security against cheating participants. Its first realization had the special property that everybody, not only the participants, can verify that the shares are correctly distributed. We will call such

Markus Stadler

1996-01-01

442

Antimicrobial peptides and protease inhibitors in the skin secretions of the crawfish frog, Rana areolata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dorsal skin of the crawfish frog, Rana areolata, is associated with numerous prominent granular glands. Proteomic analysis of electrically stimulated skin secretions from these glands enabled the identification and characterization of eight peptides with antimicrobial and hemolytic activity belonging to the previously identified brevinin-1, temporin-1, palustrin-2, palustrin-3, esculentin-1 (two peptides), and ranatuerin-2 (two peptides) families. The primary structures of

Mohamed F Ali; Karen R Lips; Floyd C Knoop; Bernd Fritzsch; Caroline Miller; J. Michael Conlon

2002-01-01

443

Saliva-microbe interactions and salivary gland dysfunction.  

PubMed

Adequate salivary secretion is crucial to both oral and general health, since it provides a complex milieu for support of the microbial populations of the mouth, while at the same time containing antimicrobial products that help control these microbial populations. This paper summarizes several aspects of salivary component function, gland secretion mechanisms, and immunopathogenesis as related to oral health and disease. Salivary components mediate microbial attachment to oral surfaces, and also interact with planktonic microbial surfaces to facilitate agglutination and elimination of pathogens from the oral cavity. Adhesive interactions are often mediated by lectin-like bacterial proteins that bind to glycan motifs on salivary glycoproteins. An important salivary antimicrobial protein is histatin 5 (Hst 5), which shows potent and selective antifungal activity and also susceptibility to proteolytic degradation. Coupling of Hst 5 with the carrier molecule spermidine significantly enhanced killing of C. albicans and resistance to proteolytic degradation, compared with the parent peptide. Loss of salivary secretion may be caused by disorders such as Sjögren's syndrome (SS) or ectodermal dysplasia, or may be a side-effect of radiation therapy. Two new approaches to the treatment of salivary gland dysfunction include the use of resolvins and the creation of differentiated acinar structures to construct an artificial salivary gland. B-cells contribute to the pathogenesis of SS by releasing cytokines and autoantibodies and by influencing T-cell differentiation. CXCL13, a potent B-cell chemokine associated with autoimmune diseases, is elevated locally and systemically in SS and may represent a novel biomarker or therapeutic target in the management and treatment of SS. PMID:24736699

Baker, O J; Edgerton, M; Kramer, J M; Ruhl, S

2014-05-01

444

Seasonal expression of androgen receptor in scented gland of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus).  

PubMed

Muskrat is a seasonal breeder, males of which secret musk from paired perineal scented glands found beneath the skin at the ventral base of the tail for attracting female during the breeding season. The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal changes of expression of androgen receptor (AR) in the scented gland of muskrat during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. Histologically, glandular cells, interstitial cells and excretory tubules were identified in scented glands in both seasons, whereas epithelial cells were sparse in the nonbreeding season. AR was observed in glandular cells of scented glands during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons with stronger immunostaining during the breeding season compared to the nonbreeding season. Consistent with the immunohistochemical results, AR protein level was higher in the scented glands of the breeding season, and then decreased to a relatively low level in the nonbreeding season. The mean mRNA level of Ar was significantly higher in the breeding season than in the nonbreeding season. In addition, plasma gonadotropins and testosterone concentrations were remarkably higher in the breeding season than those in the nonbreeding season. These results suggested that muskrat scented gland was the direct target organ of androgen, and stronger expression of AR in scented glands during the breeding season suggested that androgens may directly influence scented glandular function of the muskrats and also courtship behavior as we inferred. PMID:24818970

Lu, Lu; Liu, Shuqiang; Li, Qinglin; Huang, Shiyang; Bao, Lihong; Sheng, Xia; Han, Yingying; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Weng, Qiang

2014-08-01

445

Ischemia preconditioning protects rat submandibular glands from ischemia/reperfusion injuries.  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of ischemia/reperfusion on rat submandibular glands without denervation and the possible protective effects of ischemia preconditioning on the glands that experienced ischemia/reperfusion, in-situ ischemia/reperfusion and ischemia preconditioning experimental models of submandibular glands of healthy male Wistar rats were conducted. For ischemia/reperfusion groups, the glands were subjected to 90 min of ischemia without denervation, followed by 1, 12, 24, or 72 h of reperfusion. Ischemia preconditioning was achieved by 3 min of ischemia following 3 min of reperfusion, performed three times before ischemia/reperfusion. Salivary secretion, histological changes, alterations of tight junctions, myeloperoxidase activity, cellular apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species levels were detected. In ischemia/reperfusion glands, rising acute-inflammation responses, reduced tight-junction width, and increased myeloperoxidase activity, reactive oxygen species levels, and apoptotic cell numbers were observed, along with secretory dysfunction, especially at 1 and 12 h post-reperfusion, which seemed to gradually return to normal by 72 h post-reperfusion. In contrast, ischemia preconditioning showed the potential to ameliorate the injury-stress responses caused by ischemia/reperfusion. Our study revealed that ischemia/reperfusion could cause a series of injury-stress responses and ultimately lead to hyposecretion, independently of the parasympathetic nerve supply, which might play an important role in the early-phase dysfunction of the transplanted glands. Ischemia preconditioning could protect the involved glands and improve ischemia/reperfusion-induced hyposecretion. PMID:25216112

Shi, Liang; Xiao, Meng; Dai, Mei-Lu; Liu, Shao-Hua; Liu, Yun-Sheng; Wei, Feng-Cai

2014-10-01

446

Dopaminergic neurons in the brain and dopaminergic innervation of the albumen gland in mated and virgin helisoma duryi (mollusca: pulmonata)  

PubMed Central

Background Dopamine was shown to stimulate the perivitelline fluid secretion by the albumen gland. Even though the albumen gland has been shown to contain catecholaminergic fibers and its innervation has been studied, the type of catecholamines, distribution of fibers and the precise source of this neural innervation has not yet been deduced. This study was designed to address these issues and examine the correlation between dopamine concentration and the sexual status of snails. Results Dopaminergic neurons were found in all ganglia except the pleural and right parietal, and their axons in all ganglia and major nerves of the brain. In the albumen gland dopaminergic axons formed a nerve tract in the central region, and a uniform net in other areas. Neuronal cell bodies were present in the vicinity of the axons. Dopamine was a major catecholamine in the brain and the albumen gland. No significant difference in dopamine quantity was found when the brain and the albumen gland of randomly mating, virgin and first time mated snails were compared. Conclusions Our results represent the first detailed studies regarding the catecholamine innervation and quantitation of neurotransmitters in the albumen gland. In this study we localized catecholaminergic neurons and axons in the albumen gland and the brain, identified these neurons and axons as dopaminergic, reported monoamines present in the albumen gland and the brain, and compared the dopamine content in the brain and the albumen gland of randomly mating, virgin and first time mated snails. PMID:11513757

Kiehn, Lana; Saleuddin, Saber; Lange, Angela

2001-01-01

447

Mice deficient in MCT8 reveal a mechanism regulating thyroid hormone secretion  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of thyroid hormone (TH) secretion from the thyroid gland into blood is unknown. Humans and mice deficient in monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) have low serum thyroxine (T4) levels that cannot be fully explained by increased deiodination. Here, we have shown that Mct8 is localized at the basolateral membrane of thyrocytes and that the serum TH concentration is reduced in Mct8-KO mice early after being taken off a treatment that almost completely depleted the thyroid gland of TH. Thyroid glands in Mct8-KO mice contained more non-thyroglobulin-associated T4 and triiodothyronine than did those in wild-type mice, independent of deiodination. In addition, depletion of thyroidal TH content was slower during iodine deficiency. After administration of 125I, the rate of both its secretion from the thyroid gland and its appearance in the serum as trichloroacetic acid–precipitable radioactivity was greatly reduced in Mct8-KO mice. Similarly, the secretion of T4 induced by injection of thyrotropin was reduced in Mct8-KO in which endogenous TSH and T4 were suppressed by administration of triiodothyronine. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that Mct8 is involved in the secretion of TH from the thyroid gland and contributes, in part, to the low serum T4 level observed in MCT8-deficient patients. PMID:20679730

Di Cosmo, Caterina; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Dumitrescu, Alexandra M.; Philp, Nancy J.; Weiss, Roy E.; Refetoff, Samuel

2010-01-01

448

CELLULAR AND SECRETORY PROTEINS OF THE SALIVARY GLANDS OF SCIARA COPROPHILA DURING THE LARVAL-PUPAL TRANSFORMATION  

PubMed Central

The cellular and secretory proteins of the salivary gland of Sciara coprophila during the stages of the larval-pupal transformation were examined by electrophoresis in 0.6 mm sheets of polyacrylamide gel with both SDS-continuous and discontinuous buffer systems. After SDS-electrophoresis, all electrophoretograms of both reduced and nonreduced proteins from single glands stained with Coomassie brilliant blue revealed a pattern containing the same 25 bands during the stages of the larval-pupal transformation. With the staining procedures used in this study, qualitative increases and decreases were detected in existing proteins and enzymes. There was no evidence, however, for the appearance of new protein species that could be correlated with the onset of either pupation or gland histolysis. Electrophoretograms of reduced samples of anterior versus posterior gland parts indicated that no protein in the basic pattern of 25 bands was unique to either the anterior or posterior gland part. Electrophoretograms of reduced samples of secretion collected from either actively feeding or "cocoon"-building animals showed an electrophoretic pattern containing up to six of the 25 protein fractions detected in salivary gland samples, with varied amounts of these same six proteins in electrophoretograms of secretion samples from a given stage. Zymograms of non-specific esterases in salivary gland samples revealed a progressive increase in the amount of esterase reaction produce in one major band and some decrease in the second major band during later stages of the larval-pupal transformation. PMID:4116523

Been, Anita C.; Rasch, Ellen M.

1972-01-01

449

Accessory molecule regulation of naive CD4 T cell activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naive CD4 T cell activation is a complex process involving many steps. T cell receptor (TCR) signals, provided by interaction\\u000a with peptide\\/MHC on antigen-presenting cells (APC), control many events associated with activation. The extent of TCR signaling\\u000a and the magnitude of the T cell response is in turn controlled by accessory molecules on APC, which stabilize T-APC interactions.\\u000a Full T

Caroline Dubey; Michael Croft

1996-01-01

450

Detailed anatomy of a left accessory aberrant colic artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an aged human female cadaver a left accessory aberrant colic artery (LAACA) was observed and studied. It originated from\\u000a the superior mesenteric artery at 3 cm proximal to the middle colic artery, at the inferior border of pancreas, passing over\\u000a Treitz’s muscle and continued covered by the superior duodenal fold where it crossed the inferior mesenteric vein. Further,\\u000a it continued

M. C. Rusu; M. Vlad; L. M. Voinea; G. C. Curc?; A. M. ?i?u

2008-01-01

451

Streaming submandibular gland  

SciTech Connect

Twenty female young adult rats were injected with tritiated thymidine (/sup 3/HTdR). The animals were then killed in groups of five, at the following times: 1 hour, and 4, 16, and 23 days. Autoradiograms of sections through the submandibular gland were prepared, and the location of labelled cells