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Sample records for accessory gland secretions

  1. Cyst of accessory lacrimal gland.

    PubMed Central

    Durán, J. A.; Cuevas, J.

    1983-01-01

    We present a case of an epithelial cyst of the conjunctiva caused by the dilatation of an accessory lacrimal gland. The case is peculiar in regard to the size of the cyst and the absence of traumatic or inflammatory factors to explain the retention of fluid. Images PMID:6860616

  2. Proteome analysis of male accessory gland secretions in oriental fruit flies reveals juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting impact on female reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Dong; Li, Hui-Min; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Smagghe, Guy; Jia, Fu-Xian; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-01-01

    In insects, the accessory gland proteins (Acps) secreted by male accessory glands (MAGs) account for the majority of seminal fluids proteins. Mixed with sperm, they are transferred to the female at mating and so impact reproduction. In this project, we identified 2,927 proteins in the MAG secretions of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis, an important agricultural pest worldwide, using LC-MS analysis, and all sequences containing open reading frames were analyzed using signalP. In total, 90?Acps were identified. About one third (26) of these 90 Acps had a specific functional description, while the other two thirds (64) had no functional description including dozens of new classes of proteins. Hence, several of these novel Acps were abundant in the MAG secretions, and we confirmed their MAG-specific expression by qPCR. Finally and interestingly, one of these novel proteins was functionally predicted as juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting the impact of Acps with reproductive events in the female. Our results will aid in the development of an experimental method to identify Acps in insects, and in turn this information with new Acps in B. dorsalis will pave the way of further exploration their function in reproduction and potential development as new insecticide targets. PMID:26582577

  3. Proteome analysis of male accessory gland secretions in oriental fruit flies reveals juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting impact on female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Li, Hui-Min; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Smagghe, Guy; Jia, Fu-Xian; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-01-01

    In insects, the accessory gland proteins (Acps) secreted by male accessory glands (MAGs) account for the majority of seminal fluids proteins. Mixed with sperm, they are transferred to the female at mating and so impact reproduction. In this project, we identified 2,927 proteins in the MAG secretions of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis, an important agricultural pest worldwide, using LC-MS analysis, and all sequences containing open reading frames were analyzed using signalP. In total, 90?Acps were identified. About one third (26) of these 90 Acps had a specific functional description, while the other two thirds (64) had no functional description including dozens of new classes of proteins. Hence, several of these novel Acps were abundant in the MAG secretions, and we confirmed their MAG-specific expression by qPCR. Finally and interestingly, one of these novel proteins was functionally predicted as juvenile hormone-binding protein, suggesting the impact of Acps with reproductive events in the female. Our results will aid in the development of an experimental method to identify Acps in insects, and in turn this information with new Acps in B. dorsalis will pave the way of further exploration their function in reproduction and potential development as new insecticide targets. PMID:26582577

  4. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  5. Isolation of serotonin from the accessory salivary glands of the marine snail Nucella lapillus.

    PubMed

    West, D J; Andrews, E B; McVean, A R; Osborne, D J; Thorndyke, M C

    1994-10-01

    We report here the presence of a bioactive compound in the secretion of the accessory salivary glands (ASGs) of Nucella lapillus. We have purified the compound using HPLC and identified it as serotonin by mass spectrometry, UV spectroscopy, HPLC and capillary electrophoresis. Serotonin was not found in the secretions of the acinous salivary glands or the hypobranchial gland. The amount of serotonin in the secretion of the ASGs does not show seasonal or regional variation. PMID:7846696

  6. Ultrastructure of male reproductive accessory glands and ejaculatory duct in the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Preethi; Marchini, Daniela; Taylor, Phillip W

    2009-05-01

    Ultrastructure of male reproductive accessory glands and ejaculatory duct in the Queensland fruit fly (Q-fly), Bactrocera tryoni, were investigated and compared with those of other tephritid flies. Male accessory glands were found to comprise one pair of mesodermic glands and three pairs of ectodermic glands. The mesodermic accessory glands consist of muscle-lined, binucleate epithelial cells, which are highly microvillated and extrude electron-dense secretions by means of macroapocrine transport into a central lumen. The ectodermic accessory glands consist of muscle-lined epithelial cells which have wide subcuticular cavities, lined with microvilli. The electron-transparent secretions from these glands are first extruded into the cavities and then forced out through small pores of the cuticle into the gland lumen. Secretions from the two types of accessory glands then flow into the ejaculatory duct, which is highly muscular, with epithelial cells rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum and lined with a thick, deeply invaginated cuticle. While there are some notable differences, reproductive accessory glands of male Q-flies generally resemble those of the olive fruitfly, Bactrocera oleae, and to a lesser extent the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. PMID:19026762

  7. Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner’s body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection. PMID:24708537

  8. Adrenal gland hormone secretion (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cortisol, and cortisone, and chemicals such as adrenalin (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and dopamine. When the glands produce more or less hormones than required by the body, disease conditions may occur.

  9. Eccrine sweat gland development and sweat secretion.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chang-Yi; Schlessinger, David

    2015-09-01

    Eccrine sweat glands help to maintain homoeostasis, primarily by stabilizing body temperature. Derived from embryonic ectoderm, millions of eccrine glands are distributed across human skin and secrete litres of sweat per day. Their easy accessibility has facilitated the start of analyses of their development and function. Mouse genetic models find sweat gland development regulated sequentially by Wnt, Eda and Shh pathways, although precise subpathways and additional regulators require further elucidation. Mature glands have two secretory cell types, clear and dark cells, whose comparative development and functional interactions remain largely unknown. Clear cells have long been known as the major secretory cells, but recent studies suggest that dark cells are also indispensable for sweat secretion. Dark cell-specific Foxa1 expression was shown to regulate a Ca(2+) -dependent Best2 anion channel that is the candidate driver for the required ion currents. Overall, it was shown that cholinergic impulses trigger sweat secretion in mature glands through second messengers - for example InsP3 and Ca(2+) - and downstream ion channels/transporters in the framework of a Na(+) -K(+) -Cl(-) cotransporter model. Notably, the microenvironment surrounding secretory cells, including acid-base balance, was implicated to be important for proper sweat secretion, which requires further clarification. Furthermore, multiple ion channels have been shown to be expressed in clear and dark cells, but the degree to which various ion channels function redundantly or indispensably also remains to be determined. PMID:26014472

  10. EST analysis of male accessory glands from Heliconius butterflies with divergent mating systems

    E-print Network

    Walters, James R.; Harrison, Richard G.

    2008-12-08

    between sexual selection and the evolution of reproductive proteins. As a first step in pursuing this research, we report the generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the male accessory gland of H. erato and H. melpomene, species...

  11. Transrectal ultrasonographic characterization of the accessory sex glands, pelvic urethra, and ureters in normal geldings.

    PubMed

    Schnobrich, Maria Raymond; Turner, Regina Orstaglio; Belcher, Carolyn Niles; Slack, JoAnn

    2016-01-15

    Transrectal ultrasound of the internal urogenital tract may be used to aid in the diagnosis of reproductive tract and urinary tract pathology in both stallions and geldings. Abnormalities of the accessory sex glands of geldings are uncommon, although prostatic masses have recently been described in adult geldings presenting with dysuria, stranguria, and/or hematuria. The purpose of this study was to describe the normal ultrasonographic features and sizes of the accessory sex glands, caudal ureters, and pelvic urethra in clinically normal geldings. Eleven healthy geldings with no history of urogenital tract pathology were evaluated by a single observer experienced in ultrasound of the stallion accessory sex glands. The ultrasonographic appearance, relative anatomic relationships and sizes of the accessory sex glands, caudal ureters, and pelvic urethra were investigated using both rectal linear array and microconvex array transducers. Summary statistics including mean, standard error, confidence intervals, and range were calculated for each structure. There were no statistically significant differences in measurements between the left and right sides of paired structures or between measurements obtained with different transducers. Fluid was present in the seminal vesicles of 7 of 9 subjects. Midline cysts of the urethra as well as bulbourethral gland and prostatic cysts were identified. The normal reference ranges defined in this study will be useful in the clinical evaluation of geldings with suspected internal urogenital tract pathology. PMID:26483314

  12. Transcriptional Profiles of Mating-Responsive Genes from Testes and Male Accessory Glands of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Siciliano, Paolo; Meraldi, Alice; Falchetto, Marco; Bonomi, Angelica; Manni, Mosč; Gabrieli, Paolo; Malovini, Alberto; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Aksoy, Serap; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Insect seminal fluid is a complex mixture of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, produced in the male reproductive tract. This seminal fluid is transferred together with the spermatozoa during mating and induces post-mating changes in the female. Molecular characterization of seminal fluid proteins in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is limited, although studies suggest that some of these proteins are biologically active. Methodology/Principal Findings We report on the functional annotation of 5914 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the testes and male accessory glands, to identify transcripts encoding putative secreted peptides that might elicit post-mating responses in females. The ESTs were assembled into 3344 contigs, of which over 33% produced no hits against the nr database, and thus may represent novel or rapidly evolving sequences. Extraction of the coding sequences resulted in a total of 3371 putative peptides. The annotated dataset is available as a hyperlinked spreadsheet. Four hundred peptides were identified with putative secretory activity, including odorant binding proteins, protease inhibitor domain-containing peptides, antigen 5 proteins, mucins, and immunity-related sequences. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of a subset of putative secretory protein-encoding transcripts from accessory glands indicated changes in their abundance after one or more copulations when compared to virgin males of the same age. These changes in abundance, particularly evident after the third mating, may be related to the requirement to replenish proteins to be transferred to the female. Conclusions/Significance We have developed the first large-scale dataset for novel studies on functions and processes associated with the reproductive biology of Ceratitis capitata. The identified genes may help study genome evolution, in light of the high adaptive potential of the medfly. In addition, studies of male recovery dynamics in terms of accessory gland gene expression profiles and correlated remating inhibition mechanisms may permit the improvement of pest management approaches. PMID:23071645

  13. Comparative genomics of Roseobacter clade bacteria isolated from the accessory nidamental gland of Euprymna scolopes.

    PubMed

    Collins, Andrew J; Fullmer, Matthew S; Gogarten, Johann P; Nyholm, Spencer V

    2015-01-01

    The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) of the female Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, houses a consortium of bacteria including members of the Flavobacteriales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia but is dominated by members of the Roseobacter clade (Rhodobacterales) within the Alphaproteobacteria. These bacteria are deposited into the jelly coat of the squid's eggs, however, the function of the ANG and its bacterial symbionts has yet to be elucidated. In order to gain insight into this consortium and its potential role in host reproduction, we cultured 12 Rhodobacterales isolates from ANGs of sexually mature female squid and sequenced their genomes with Illumina sequencing technology. For taxonomic analyses, the ribosomal proteins of 79 genomes representing both roseobacters and non-roseobacters along with a separate MLSA analysis of 33 housekeeping genes from Roseobacter organisms placed all 12 isolates from the ANG within two groups of a single Roseobacter clade. Average nucelotide identity analysis suggests the ANG isolates represent three genera (Leisingera, Ruegeria, and Tateyamaria) comprised of seven putative species groups. All but one of the isolates contains a predicted Type VI secretion system, which has been shown to be important in secreting signaling and/or effector molecules in host-microbe associations and in bacteria-bacteria interactions. All sequenced genomes also show potential for secondary metabolite production, and are predicted to be involved with the production of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) and/or siderophores. An AHL bioassay confirmed AHL production in three tested isolates and from whole ANG homogenates. The dominant symbiont, Leisingera sp. ANG1, showed greater viability in iron-limiting conditions compared to other roseobacters, possibly due to higher levels of siderophore production. Future comparisons will try to elucidate novel metabolic pathways of the ANG symbionts to understand their putative role in host development. PMID:25755651

  14. Comparative genomics of Roseobacter clade bacteria isolated from the accessory nidamental gland of Euprymna scolopes

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Andrew J.; Fullmer, Matthew S.; Gogarten, Johann P.; Nyholm, Spencer V.

    2015-01-01

    The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) of the female Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, houses a consortium of bacteria including members of the Flavobacteriales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia but is dominated by members of the Roseobacter clade (Rhodobacterales) within the Alphaproteobacteria. These bacteria are deposited into the jelly coat of the squid’s eggs, however, the function of the ANG and its bacterial symbionts has yet to be elucidated. In order to gain insight into this consortium and its potential role in host reproduction, we cultured 12 Rhodobacterales isolates from ANGs of sexually mature female squid and sequenced their genomes with Illumina sequencing technology. For taxonomic analyses, the ribosomal proteins of 79 genomes representing both roseobacters and non-roseobacters along with a separate MLSA analysis of 33 housekeeping genes from Roseobacter organisms placed all 12 isolates from the ANG within two groups of a single Roseobacter clade. Average nucelotide identity analysis suggests the ANG isolates represent three genera (Leisingera, Ruegeria, and Tateyamaria) comprised of seven putative species groups. All but one of the isolates contains a predicted Type VI secretion system, which has been shown to be important in secreting signaling and/or effector molecules in host–microbe associations and in bacteria–bacteria interactions. All sequenced genomes also show potential for secondary metabolite production, and are predicted to be involved with the production of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) and/or siderophores. An AHL bioassay confirmed AHL production in three tested isolates and from whole ANG homogenates. The dominant symbiont, Leisingera sp. ANG1, showed greater viability in iron-limiting conditions compared to other roseobacters, possibly due to higher levels of siderophore production. Future comparisons will try to elucidate novel metabolic pathways of the ANG symbionts to understand their putative role in host development. PMID:25755651

  15. 9 CFR 94.3 - Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine. 94.3 Section 94.3...glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine. The importation of fresh...extracts, or secretions derived from ruminants or swine, originating in any...

  16. 9 CFR 94.3 - Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine. 94.3 Section 94.3...glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine. The importation of fresh...extracts, or secretions derived from ruminants or swine, originating in any...

  17. 9 CFR 94.3 - Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine. 94.3 Section 94.3...glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine. The importation of fresh...extracts, or secretions derived from ruminants or swine, originating in any...

  18. 9 CFR 94.3 - Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine. 94.3 Section 94.3...glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine. The importation of fresh...extracts, or secretions derived from ruminants or swine, originating in any...

  19. 9 CFR 94.3 - Organs, glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine. 94.3 Section 94.3...glands, extracts, or secretions of ruminants or swine. The importation of fresh...extracts, or secretions derived from ruminants or swine, originating in any...

  20. Comparative Study of the Labial Gland Secretion in Termites (Isoptera)

    E-print Network

    Danchin, Etienne

    Comparative Study of the Labial Gland Secretion in Termites (Isoptera) David Sillam-Dusse`s1 in all castes and developmental stages of all termite species. In workers, their secretion contains in 15 termite species belonging to 6 families using an integrative approach based on proteomic and small

  1. Effects of access to preen gland secretions on mallard plumage.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Mathieu; Duval, Camille; Guillon, Noel; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Gutierrez, Claude; Heeb, Philipp

    2010-06-01

    Preen glands exist in almost every bird species and several non-exclusive functions have been proposed for this gland and the oils that it produces. One function generally admitted is that the oily secretions of the preen gland would provide a waterproofing layer when spread over feathers. Alternatively, several authors have proposed that plumage waterproofness is mostly due to the spatial micro-structure of feathers. The purpose of this study was to examine, by manipulating the access to the preen gland, the effect of the preen oil on the plumage waterproofness and condition. To explore this question, we carried out two independent experiments where we temporarily blocked access to the preen gland secretions with a removable mechanism in one group of captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), whilst a second group of birds had access to gland secretions. In a long-term experiment (3 months of treatment) and a short-term experiment (10 days), we measured plumage water retention and condition. After 3 months without access to preen glands, we found a significant decrease of plumage condition and an associated increase in plumage water retention. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between plumage condition and water retention ability. In contrast, after 10 days of treatment, no significant effect was found on plumage condition and water retention. Our study shows that preen oil acts to maintain plumage condition and suggests that feather microstructure is essential to maintain plumage waterproofness. PMID:20437221

  2. Effects of access to preen gland secretions on mallard plumage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraudeau, Mathieu; Duval, Camille; Guillon, Noel; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Gutierrez, Claude; Heeb, Philipp

    2010-06-01

    Preen glands exist in almost every bird species and several non-exclusive functions have been proposed for this gland and the oils that it produces. One function generally admitted is that the oily secretions of the preen gland would provide a waterproofing layer when spread over feathers. Alternatively, several authors have proposed that plumage waterproofness is mostly due to the spatial micro-structure of feathers. The purpose of this study was to examine, by manipulating the access to the preen gland, the effect of the preen oil on the plumage waterproofness and condition. To explore this question, we carried out two independent experiments where we temporarily blocked access to the preen gland secretions with a removable mechanism in one group of captive mallards ( Anas platyrhynchos), whilst a second group of birds had access to gland secretions. In a long-term experiment (3 months of treatment) and a short-term experiment (10 days), we measured plumage water retention and condition. After 3 months without access to preen glands, we found a significant decrease of plumage condition and an associated increase in plumage water retention. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between plumage condition and water retention ability. In contrast, after 10 days of treatment, no significant effect was found on plumage condition and water retention. Our study shows that preen oil acts to maintain plumage condition and suggests that feather microstructure is essential to maintain plumage waterproofness.

  3. Induction of excessive endoplasmic reticulum stress in the Drosophila male accessory gland results in infertility.

    PubMed

    Chow, Clement Y; Avila, Frank W; Clark, Andrew G; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs when misfolded proteins accumulate in the lumen of the ER. A cell responds to ER stress with the unfolded protein response (UPR), a complex program of transcriptional and translational changes aimed at clearing misfolded proteins. Secretory tissues and cells are particularly well adapted to respond to ER stress because their function requires high protein production and secretory load. The insect male accessory gland (AG) is a secretory tissue involved in male fertility. The AG secretes many seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) essential for male reproduction. Among adult Drosophila tissues, we find that genes upregulated by ER stress are most highly expressed in the AG, suggesting that the AG is already undergoing high levels of ER stress due to its normal secretory functions. We hypothesized that induction of excessive ER stress in the AG above basal levels, would perturb normal function and provide a genetic tool for studying AG and SFP biology. To test this, we genetically induced excessive ER stress in the AG by conditional 1) expression of a misfolded protein or 2) knockdown of the UPR regulatory protein, BiP. Both genetic manipulations induced excessive ER stress in the AG, as indicated by the increase in Xbp1 splicing, a marker of ER stress. Both models resulted in a large decrease in or loss of SFP production and male infertility. Sperm production, motility, and transfer appeared unaffected. The induction of strong ER stress in the insect male AG may provide a simple way for studying or manipulating male fertility, as it eliminates AG function while preserving sperm production. PMID:25742606

  4. Induction of Excessive Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Drosophila Male Accessory Gland Results in Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Clement Y.; Avila, Frank W.; Clark, Andrew G.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs when misfolded proteins accumulate in the lumen of the ER. A cell responds to ER stress with the unfolded protein response (UPR), a complex program of transcriptional and translational changes aimed at clearing misfolded proteins. Secretory tissues and cells are particularly well adapted to respond to ER stress because their function requires high protein production and secretory load. The insect male accessory gland (AG) is a secretory tissue involved in male fertility. The AG secretes many seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) essential for male reproduction. Among adult Drosophila tissues, we find that genes upregulated by ER stress are most highly expressed in the AG, suggesting that the AG is already undergoing high levels of ER stress due to its normal secretory functions. We hypothesized that induction of excessive ER stress in the AG above basal levels, would perturb normal function and provide a genetic tool for studying AG and SFP biology. To test this, we genetically induced excessive ER stress in the AG by conditional 1) expression of a misfolded protein or 2) knockdown of the UPR regulatory protein, BiP. Both genetic manipulations induced excessive ER stress in the AG, as indicated by the increase in Xbp1 splicing, a marker of ER stress. Both models resulted in a large decrease in or loss of SFP production and male infertility. Sperm production, motility, and transfer appeared unaffected. The induction of strong ER stress in the insect male AG may provide a simple way for studying or manipulating male fertility, as it eliminates AG function while preserving sperm production. PMID:25742606

  5. Protein and Peptide Composition of Male Accessory Glands of Apis mellifera Drones Investigated by Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Blenau, Wolfgang; Koeniger, Gudrun; Römpp, Andreas; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, reproductive females usually mate early in their life with more than 10 males in free flight, often within 10 minutes, and then store male gametes for up to five years. Because of the extreme polyandry and mating in free flight special adaptations in males are most likely. We present here the results of an investigation of the protein content of four types of male reproductive glands from the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone, namely seminal vesicles (secretion in ejaculate), as well as bulbus, cornua and mucus glands (secretions for the mating plug). Using high resolution and accuracy mass spectrometry and a combination of database searching and de novo sequencing techniques it was possible to identify 50 different proteins in total, inside all mentioned glands, except in the mucus gland. Most of the proteins are unique for a specific gland type, only one of them (H9KEY1/ATP synthase subunit O) was found in three glands, and 7 proteins were found in two types of glands. The identified proteins represent a wide variety of biological functions and can be assigned to several physiological classes, such as protection, energy generation, maintaining optimal conditions, associated mainly with vesicula seminalis; signaling, cuticle proteins, icarpin and apolipoproteins located mainly in the bulbus and cornua glands; and some other classes. Most of the discovered proteins were not found earlier during investigation of semen, seminal fluid and tissue of reproductive glands of the bee drone. Moreover, we provide here the origin of each protein. Thus, the presented data might shed light on the role of each reproductive gland. PMID:25955586

  6. Protein and Peptide Composition of Male Accessory Glands of Apis mellifera Drones Investigated by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Blenau, Wolfgang; Koeniger, Gudrun; Römpp, Andreas; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, reproductive females usually mate early in their life with more than 10 males in free flight, often within 10 minutes, and then store male gametes for up to five years. Because of the extreme polyandry and mating in free flight special adaptations in males are most likely. We present here the results of an investigation of the protein content of four types of male reproductive glands from the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone, namely seminal vesicles (secretion in ejaculate), as well as bulbus, cornua and mucus glands (secretions for the mating plug). Using high resolution and accuracy mass spectrometry and a combination of database searching and de novo sequencing techniques it was possible to identify 50 different proteins in total, inside all mentioned glands, except in the mucus gland. Most of the proteins are unique for a specific gland type, only one of them (H9KEY1/ATP synthase subunit O) was found in three glands, and 7 proteins were found in two types of glands. The identified proteins represent a wide variety of biological functions and can be assigned to several physiological classes, such as protection, energy generation, maintaining optimal conditions, associated mainly with vesicula seminalis; signaling, cuticle proteins, icarpin and apolipoproteins located mainly in the bulbus and cornua glands; and some other classes. Most of the discovered proteins were not found earlier during investigation of semen, seminal fluid and tissue of reproductive glands of the bee drone. Moreover, we provide here the origin of each protein. Thus, the presented data might shed light on the role of each reproductive gland. PMID:25955586

  7. Do marmots display a `dear enemy phenomenon' in response to anal gland secretions?

    E-print Network

    Blumstein, Daniel T.

    Do marmots display a `dear enemy phenomenon' in response to anal gland secretions? H. B. Cross1 , D, Crested Butte, CO, USA Keywords anal gland secretion; dear enemy phenomenon; kinship; Marmota flaviventris. We hypothesized that dominant females discriminated between the anal gland secretion (AGS) from

  8. The Toll/NF-?B pathway in cuttlefish symbiotic accessory nidamental gland.

    PubMed

    Cornet, Valérie; Henry, Joël; Corre, Erwan; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline

    2015-11-01

    The female genital apparatus of decapod cephalopods contains a symbiotic accessory nidamental gland (ANG) that harbors bacterial symbionts. Although the ANG bacterial consortium is now well described, the impact of symbiosis on Sepia officinalis innate immunity pathways remains unknown. In silico analysis of the de novo transcriptome of ANG highlighted for the first time the existence of the NF-?B pathway in S. officinalis. Several signaling components were identified, i.e. five Toll-like receptors, eight signaling cascade features, and the immune response target gene iNOS, previously described as being involved in the initiation of bacterial symbiosis in a cephalopod gland. This work provides a first key for studying bacterial symbiosis and its impact on innate immunity in S. officinalis ANG. PMID:26143243

  9. Intraspecific Variation of the Cephalic Labial Gland Secretions in Bombus terrestris (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    E-print Network

    Rasmont, Pierre

    Intraspecific Variation of the Cephalic Labial Gland Secretions in Bombus terrestris (L of secretions of the cephalic part of the labial glands from four different subspecies of Bombus terrestris, B in the cephalic part of the labial glands (CLG) of conspecific males [2­7]. These pheromones have, for a long time

  10. Regucalcin Expression in Bovine Tissues and Its Regulation by Sex Steroid Hormones in Accessory Sex Glands

    PubMed Central

    Starvaggi Cucuzza, Laura; Divari, Sara; Mulasso, Chiara; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Cannizzo, Francesca T.

    2014-01-01

    Regucalcin (RGN) is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle. PMID:25415588

  11. Localization and characterization of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in boar accessory sex glands, seminal plasma, and spermatozoa and activity of GPx in boar semen.

    PubMed

    Jelezarsky, L; Vaisberg, Ch; Chaushev, T; Sapundjiev, E

    2008-01-15

    Boar ejaculate owes its characteristic large volume mainly to accessory sex gland (ASG) secretions. These are main contributors to the protective functions of seminal plasma, especially against oxidative damage. Numerous antioxidants have been detected in ASG secretions, and, respectively, in seminal plasma. However, as regards one key antioxidant protector -- the Se-dependent enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) -- there is no agreement yet among researchers as to its presence in boar seminal plasma. Nevertheless, the beneficial effect of dietary Se supplementation on male fertility has been widely recognized. The aim of the present study was to investigate the localization and characterization of GPx in boar ASGs, seminal plasma, and spermatozoa, as well as to evaluate GPx activity in boar semen. Immunohistochemical assays demonstrated GPx presence in the epithelial cells, vacuole membranes, and vascular endothelium of boar seminal vesicle, prostate and bulbourethral glands. Western blot analysis demonstrated the presence of a monomer form of GPx with MW 20 kDa in lysates from seminal vesicle, prostate, bulbourethral glands, and spermatozoa, but not in seminal plasma. Surprisingly, peroxidase activity detected in seminal plasma from normal ejaculates was nearly three times as high as in spermatozoa. Our findings confirmed the presence of immunoreactive GPx in the boar reproductive tract, while further investigation is still warranted to uncover the exact protein forms involved and their function. PMID:17964641

  12. Antigenic homogeneity of male Müllerian gland (MG) secretory proteins of a caecilian amphibian with secretory proteins of the mammalian prostate gland and seminal vesicles: evidence for role of the caecilian MG as a male accessory reproductive gland.

    PubMed

    Radha, Arumugam; Sree, Sreesha; Faisal, Kunnathodi; Kumar, G Pradeep; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2014-10-01

    Whereas in all other vertebrates the Müllerian ducts of genetic males are aborted during development, under the influence of Müllerian-inhibiting substance, in the caecilian amphibians they are retained as a pair of functional glands. It has long been speculated that the Müllerian gland might be the male accessory reproductive gland but there has been no direct evidence to this effect. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the caecilian Müllerian gland secretory proteins would bear antigenic similarity to secretory proteins of the prostate gland and/or the seminal vesicles of a mammal. The secretory proteins of the Müllerian gland of Ichthyophis tricolor were evaluated for cross-reactivity with antisera raised against rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle secretory proteins, adopting SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot techniques. Indeed there was a cross-reaction of five Müllerian gland secretory protein fractions with prostatic protein antiserum and of three with seminal vesicle protein antiserum. A potential homology exists because in mammals the middle group of the prostate primordia is derived from a diverticulum of the Müllerian duct. Thus this study, by providing evidence for expression of prostatic and seminal vesicle proteins in the Müllerian gland, substantiates the point that in caecilians the Müllerian glands are the male accessory reproductive glands. PMID:25160003

  13. Comparison of Age-dependent Quantitative Changes in the Male Labial Gland Secretion of Bombus Terrestris

    E-print Network

    Rasmont, Pierre

    Comparison of Age-dependent Quantitative Changes in the Male Labial Gland Secretion of Bombus Abstract Age-related changes of antennal-active compo- nents of male labial gland extracts were studied glands changed significantly over the lifetime of the respective males of the two species. In both

  14. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference, Quantity of Accessory Gland Proteins, and Sperm Traits and Female Fitness in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Abolhasan; Krishna, Mysore Siddaiah; Santhosh, Hassan T

    2015-01-01

    For species in which mating is resource-independent and offspring do not receive parental care, theoretical models of age-based female mate preference predict that females should prefer to mate with older males as they have demonstrated ability to survive. Thus, females should obtain a fitness benefit from mating with older males. However, male aging is often associated with reductions in quantity of sperm. The adaptive significance of age-based mate choice is therefore unclear. Various hypotheses have made conflicting predictions concerning this issue, because published studies have not investigated the effect of age on accessory gland proteins and sperm traits. D. melanogaster exhibits resource-independent mating, and offspring do not receive parental care, making this an appropriate model for studying age-based mate choice. In the present study, we found that D. melanogaster females of all ages preferred to mate with the younger of two competing males. Young males performed significantly greater courtship attempts and females showed least rejection for the same than middle-aged and old males. Young males had small accessory glands that contained very few main cells that were larger than average. Nevertheless, compared with middle-aged or old males, the young males transferred greater quantities of accessory gland proteins and sperm to mated females. As a result, females that mated with young male produced more eggs and progeny than those that mated with older males. Furthermore, mating with young male reduced female's lifespan. These studies indicate that quantity of accessory gland proteins and sperm traits decreased with male age and females obtain direct fitness benefit from mating with preferred young males. PMID:25660692

  15. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of the Accessory Sex Gland and Testis from the Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    He, Lin; Jiang, Hui; Cao, Dandan; Liu, Lihua; Hu, Songnian; Wang, Qun

    2013-01-01

    The accessory sex gland (ASG) is an important component of the male reproductive system, which functions to enhance the fertility of spermatozoa during male reproduction. Certain proteins secreted by the ASG are known to bind to the spermatozoa membrane and affect its function. The ASG gene expression profile in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has not been extensively studied, and limited genetic research has been conducted on this species. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables the generation of genomic resources within a short period of time and at minimal cost. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for the ASG of E. sinensis using Illumina sequencing technology. This analysis yielded a total of 33,221,284 sequencing reads, including 2.6 Gb of total nucleotides. Reads were assembled into 85,913 contigs (average 218 bp), or 58,567 scaffold sequences (average 292 bp), that identified 37,955 unigenes (average 385 bp). We assembled all unigenes and compared them with the published testis transcriptome from E. sinensis. In order to identify which genes may be involved in ASG function, as it pertains to modification of spermatozoa, we compared the ASG and testis transcriptome of E. sinensis. Our analysis identified specific genes with both higher and lower tissue expression levels in the two tissues, and the functions of these genes were analyzed to elucidate their potential roles during maturation of spermatozoa. Availability of detailed transcriptome data from ASG and testis in E. sinensis can assist our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved with spermatozoa conservation, transport, maturation and capacitation and potentially acrosome activation. PMID:23342039

  16. Male accessory gland inflammation prevalence in type 2 diabetic patients with symptoms possibly reflecting autonomic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E; La Vignera, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Male accessory gland inflammation or infection (MAGI) is a potentially underdiagnosed complication of type 2 diabetes (DM2); specifically, we reported in a recent study that the frequency of MAGI was 43% among DM2 patients. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is associated with a peculiar ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles (SVs) in DM2 patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of MAGI in two different categories of DM2 patients (i.e. patients with and without symptoms that possibly reflect DAN) and the respective ultrasound characterizations. Sixty DM2 patients with a mean (± s.e.m.) age of 42.0 ± 6.0 years (range: 34–47 years) were classified according to the presence or the absence of symptoms that could possibly reflect DAN (group A: DM2 with symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 28 patients and group B: DM2 without symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 32 patients). The patients in Group A exhibited a significantly higher frequency of MAGI compared with those in group B patients (P < 0.05); moreover, the Group A patients exhibited a significantly higher frequency of ultrasound signs suggestive of vesiculitis (P < 0.05). Finally, the concentrations of lymphocytes but not the concentrations of the leukocytes in the semen were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in group A compared with group B. PMID:24799635

  17. Nutrition regulation of male accessory gland growth and maturation in Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    xu, Jingjing; Anciro, Ashlee L; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway is known to control growth, development and reproduction. Insulin-like peptide mediated body size plasticity in Drosophila melanogaster has been reported. Here, our studies showed that IIS pathway and nutrition regulate growth and maturation of the male accessory gland (MAG) in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. The size of MAG increased from day 1 to day 5 post-adult emergence (PAE). This increase in the size of MAG is contributed by an increase in cell size, but not cell number. The growth of MAG was impaired after double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated knockdown in the expression of genes coding for ILP3, InR, Chico, PI3k, AKT, and GATA1 involved in IIS pathway. Interestingly, starvation showed similar effects on the growth and maturation of MAG. The phenotypes observed in animals where IIS signaling pathway genes were knocked down are similar to the phenotypes observed after starving beetles for 5 days PAE. These data suggest that nutrition signals working through IIS pathway regulate maturation of MAG by promoting the growth of MAG cells. PMID:26035685

  18. Nutrition regulation of male accessory gland growth and maturation in Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingjing; Anciro, Ashlee L; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway is known to control growth, development and reproduction. Insulin-like peptide mediated body size plasticity in Drosophila melanogaster has been reported. Here, our studies showed that IIS pathway and nutrition regulate growth and maturation of the male accessory gland (MAG) in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. The size of MAG increased from day 1 to day 5 post-adult emergence (PAE). This increase in the size of MAG is contributed by an increase in cell size, but not cell number. The growth of MAG was impaired after double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated knockdown in the expression of genes coding for ILP3, InR, Chico, PI3k, AKT, and GATA1 involved in IIS pathway. Interestingly, starvation showed similar effects on the growth and maturation of MAG. The phenotypes observed in animals where IIS signaling pathway genes were knocked down are similar to the phenotypes observed after starving beetles for 5 days PAE. These data suggest that nutrition signals working through IIS pathway regulate maturation of MAG by promoting the growth of MAG cells. PMID:26035685

  19. Variation in sperm displacement and its association with accessory gland protein loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.G.; Prout, T.; Harshman, L.G.

    1995-01-01

    Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophila melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female`s reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm. This lack of correlation, and the association of Acp alleles with resisting subsequent sperm only, suggests that different mechanisms mediate the two components of sperm displacement. 36 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Diversity and Partitioning of Bacterial Populations within the Accessory Nidamental Gland of the Squid Euprymna scolopes

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Andrew J.; LaBarre, Brenna A.; Wong Won, Brian S.; Shah, Monica V.; Heng, Steven; Choudhury, Momena H.; Haydar, Shahela A.; Santiago, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Microbial consortia confer important benefits to animal and plant hosts, and model associations are necessary to examine these types of host/microbe interactions. The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) is a female reproductive organ found among cephalopod mollusks that contains a consortium of bacteria, the exact function of which is unknown. To begin to understand the role of this organ, the bacterial consortium was characterized in the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, a well-studied model organism for symbiosis research. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the ANG revealed dense bacterial assemblages of rod- and coccus-shaped cells segregated by morphology into separate, epithelium-lined tubules. The host epithelium was morphologically heterogeneous, containing ciliated and nonciliated cells with various brush border thicknesses. Hemocytes of the host's innate immune system were also found in close proximity to the bacteria within the tubules. A census of 16S rRNA genes suggested that Rhodobacterales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia bacteria were prevalent, with members of the genus Phaeobacter dominating the consortium. Analysis of 454-shotgun sequencing data confirmed the presence of members of these taxa and revealed members of a fourth, Flavobacteria of the Bacteroidetes phylum. 16S rRNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that many ANG tubules were dominated by members of specific taxa, namely, Rhodobacterales, Verrucomicrobia, or Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroidetes, suggesting symbiont partitioning to specific host tubules. In addition, FISH revealed that bacteria, including Phaeobacter species from the ANG, are likely deposited into the jelly coat of freshly laid eggs. This report establishes the ANG of the invertebrate E. scolopes as a model to examine interactions between a bacterial consortium and its host. PMID:22504817

  1. Chemical composition of metapleural gland secretions of fungus-growing and non-fungus-growing ants.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexsandro S; Morgan, E David; Drijfhout, Falko P; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I

    2012-10-01

    The metapleural gland is exclusive to ants, and unusual among exocrine glands in having no mechanism for closure and retention of secretion. As yet, no clear conclusion has been reached as to the function of metapleural gland secretion. Metapleural gland secretions were investigated for fungus-growing ants representing the derived attines Trachymyrmex fuscus, Atta laevigata, and Acromyrmex coronatus, the basal attines Apterostigma pilosum and Mycetarotes parallelus, and non-fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini (Ectatomma brunneum) and Myrmicini (Pogonomyrmex naegeli). Our results showed that the secretions of leaf-cutting ants (A. laevigata and A. coronatus) and the derived attine, T. fuscus, contain a greater variety and larger quantities of volatile compounds than those of myrmicine and ectatommine ants. The most abundant compounds found in the metapleural glands of A. laevigata and A. coronatus were hydroxyacids, and phenylacetic acid (only in A. laevigata). Indole was present in all groups examined, while skatole was found in large quantities only in attines. Ketones and aldehydes are present in the secretion of some attines. Esters are present in the metapleural gland secretion of all species examined, although mainly in A. laevigata, A. coronatus, and T. fuscus. Compared with basal attines and non-fungus-growing ants, the metapleural glands of leaf-cutting ants produce more acidic compounds that may have an antibiotic or antifungal function. PMID:22983660

  2. Male Cephalic Labial Gland Secretions of Two Bumblebee Species of the Subgenus Cullumanobombus (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus Latreille) and

    E-print Network

    Rasmont, Pierre

    Male Cephalic Labial Gland Secretions of Two Bumblebee Species of the Subgenus Cullumanobombus of Zoology, Avenue du Champs de Mars 6, B-7000 Mons The cephalic labial gland secretion of Bombus all-trans-geranylgeranyl acetate (48%). The same compound was shown to form 87% of the labial gland

  3. Atrial natriuretic peptide stimulates salt secretion by shark rectal gland by releasing VIP

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, P.; Stoff, J.S.; Solomon, R.J.; Lear, S.; Kniaz, D.; Greger, R.; Epstein, F.H.

    1987-01-01

    Salt secretion by the isolated perfused rectal gland of the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, is stimulated by synthetic rat atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP II) as well as extracts of shark heart, but not by 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate. Cardiac peptides have no effect on isolated rectal gland cells or perfused tubules, suggesting that stimulation requires an intact gland. The stimulation of secretion by ANP II is eliminated by maneuvers that block neurotransmitter release. Cardiac peptides stimulate the release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), known to be present in rectal glands nerves, into the venous effluent of perfused glands in parallel with their stimulation of salt secretion, but the release of VIP induced by ANP II is prevented by perfusion with procaine. VIP was measured by radioimmunoassay. Cardiac peptides thus appear to regulate rectal gland secretion by releasing VIP from neural stores within the gland. It is possible that other physiological effects of these hormones might be explained by an action to enhanced local release of neurotransmitters.

  4. Ion Secretion by Salt Glands of Desert Iguanas (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) Lisa C. Hazard*

    E-print Network

    Hazard, Lisa C.

    22 Ion Secretion by Salt Glands of Desert Iguanas (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) Lisa C. Hazard* Department iguana, Dipsosaurus dorsalis. Lizards were given combinations of ions for several days, and secreted salt that included potassium and/or chloride; sodium ions and other osmotic loads (e.g., sucrose) did not increase

  5. Wing morph-related differences in developmental pattern of accessory gland proteins in adult males of Pyrrhocoris apterus (L.) and their endocrine control.

    PubMed

    Socha, Radomír; Sula, Jan; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2004-10-01

    The study showed that the amounts of the total proteins and 53 kDa protein in male accessory glands (AGs) of the firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus (L.) increased with age of the adult life. The 53 kDa protein, the most abundant polypeptide detected in the secretion of the AGs, and some other smaller peptides were identified as glycoproteins. Changes in the amounts of the total proteins and 53 kDa protein in AGs were found to be wing morph-dependent and their levels were significantly higher in 1-10 days old brachypterous males than in macropterous males of the same age. Macropterous males were characterized by delayed growth of the AGs. Treatment of adult macropterous males with methoprene significantly increased the amounts of total proteins and 53 kDa protein in their AGs when compared to acetone-treated macropterous controls of the same age. Allatectomy of brachypterous males decreased the levels of the total proteins and 53 kDa protein in their AGs, while application of methoprene enhanced the quantity of allatectomy-suppressed proteins in these tissues. This is the first report of juvenile hormone-dependent wing morph-related differences in the synthesis of AG proteins and their endocrine control in wing-polymorphic insects. PMID:15518657

  6. Morpho-physiological approach to the paracellular route for salivary secretion by isolated perfused submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masataka; Hashimoto, Sadamitsu; Wei, Muxin; Hill, Adrian E

    2009-01-01

    A part of the salivary components are shifted from the blood via a trans- and/or paracellular route. The isolated, arterially perfused, salivary glands (submandibular and parotid glands) were used to assess paracellular transport functionally and morphologically. In the present study, the hydrostatic pressure of the perfusion was changed and the fluid secretion and paracellular transport of fluorescent dye in the isolated perfused submandibular gland were examined. The present findings lead to the conclusion that part of the paracellular transport could be driven by hydrostatic pressure, and that fluid movement drags the solutes. PMID:20224215

  7. Honey bee males and queens use glandular secretions to enhance sperm viability before and after storage.

    PubMed

    den Boer, Susanne P A; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Baer, Boris

    2009-06-01

    Internal fertilization requires live sperm to be transferred from male to female before egg fertilization. Both males and females assist the insemination process by providing sperm with glandular secretions, which have been inferred to contain subsets of proteins that maintain sperm viability. Here we show that in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) secretions of the male accessory glands, the major contributors towards seminal fluid, enhance sperm survival. We further demonstrate that the protein fraction of the male accessory gland secretion is indeed important for achieving the maximal effect on sperm survival. After sperm storage, the queens also provide sperm with secretions from spermathecal glands and we show that these secretions have a comparable positive effect on sperm viability. SDS gels show that the proteomic profiles of accessory gland secretion and spermathecal fluid secretion hardly overlap, which suggests that males and females use different proteins to enhance sperm viability during, respectively, ejaculation and final sperm storage. PMID:19232404

  8. Task-related chemical analysis of labial gland volatile secretion in worker honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica).

    PubMed

    Katzav-Gozansky, T; Soroker, V; Ionescu, A; Robinson, G E; Hefetz, A

    2001-05-01

    Chemical analyses revealed that the labial gland complex of worker honeybees possesses a series of hydrocarbons dominated by odd-numbered carbon chain alkanes along with minor amounts of alkenes and branched alkanes. Foragers contained significantly more secretion than nurse bees. Experiments with bees from colonies induced to have a division of labor independent of age revealed that the differences in the amount of secretion were task, but not age dependent. PMID:11471944

  9. The timing of acid-induced increase in saliva secretion in transplanted submandibular glands.

    PubMed

    Liu, X J; Li, M; Su, J Z; Xie, Z; Yu, G Y

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the timing of acid-induced increase in saliva secretion and to investigate the possibility of parasympathetic reinnervation of transplanted submandibular glands (SMGs). Citric acid stimulation-induced changes in secretion of transplanted SMGs were evaluated in 27 patients who underwent SMG transplantation for keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS); (99m)Tc scintigraphy and Schirmer tests were done at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months after transplantation. Acetylcholinesterase staining was conducted to confirm the presence of parasympathetic reinnervation in three SMGs at 6 and 9 months after transplantation. Schirmer tests showed significantly increased secretion of the transplanted SMGs after acid stimulation at 6 and 9 months, but not at 1 and 3 months. On (99m)Tc scintigraphy, no decline was detected on the dynamic time-activity curve after acid stimulation at 1 and 3 months, but a decline was detected in nine glands at 6 months and in 19 glands at 9 months. No decline was observed in the remaining eight glands at 9 months after transplantation. The histology findings were consistent with scintigraphy results. In conclusion, acid-induced increase in saliva secretion occurs at ?6 months after SMG transplantation, and parasympathetic reinnervation of the transplanted SMG might occur. PMID:25697065

  10. The comparative morphology of epidermal glands in Pentatomoidea (Heteroptera).

    PubMed

    Kheyri, Homayoun; Cribb, Bronwen W; Merritt, David J

    2014-05-01

    The Heteroptera show a diversity of glands associated with the epidermis. They have multiple roles including the production of noxious scents. Here, we examine the cellular arrangement and cytoskeletal components of the scent glands of pentatomoid Heteroptera in three families, Pentatomidae (stink bugs), Tessaratomidae, and Scutelleridae (shield-backed bugs or jewel bugs). The glands are; (1) the dorsal abdominal glands, (2) the tubular glands of the composite metathoracic gland, and (3) the accessory gland component of the composite metathoracic gland. The dorsal abdominal glands are at their largest in nymphs and decrease in size in adults. The metathoracic gland is an adult-specific gland unit with a reservoir and multiple types of gland cells. The accessory gland is composed of many unicellular glands concentrated in a sinuous line across the reservoir wall. The lateral tubular gland is composed of two-cell units. The dorsal abdominal glands of nymphs are composed of three-cell units with a prominent cuticular component derived from the saccule cell sitting between the duct and receiving canal. The cuticular components that channel secretion from the microvilli of the secretory cell to the exterior differ in the three gland types. The significance of the numbers of cells comprising gland units is related to the role of cells in regenerating the cuticular components of the glands at moulting in nymphs. PMID:24747726

  11. Nature and location of the receptors for salt-gland secretion in the goose

    PubMed Central

    Hanwell, Ann; Linzell, J. L.; Peaker, M.

    1972-01-01

    1. The nature and location of the receptors which stimulate salt-gland secretion in the goose have been investigated. 2. The rapid injection of homologous blood (sufficient to raise the blood volume by 16 and 9%) into the right atrium failed to induce secretion. In contrast, hypertonic sucrose, Na2SO4 and LiCl initiated secretion. 3. These results support the theory that osmoreceptors initiate secretion by detecting an increase in plasma tonicity. 4. The minimal amount of hypertonic NaCl required to initiate secretion when infusions were made into a carotid artery or into various arteries and veins in the splanchnic region was not less than that required by an I.V. route. 5. Cross-circulation and perfusion studies also showed that a raised [NaCl] in the blood perfusing the head was ineffective in evoking secretion and thus that plasma tonicity must be raised elsewhere in the body. 6. Secretion in response to salt-loading was abolished or prevented by cutting the vagus nerves or blocking them with local anaesthetic. Stimulation of the cephalic end of the cut vagi in an isolated, perfused decerebrate head induced secretion, indicating that the afferent fibres from the receptors to the C.N.S. lie in the vagus nerves. Cutting the vagi below the heart, however, had no effect on the secretory response. 7. Blocking nerves in the crop with local anaesthetic had no effect on secretion induced by salt-loading but when local anaesthetic was injected into the pericardial sac, secretion decreased immediately, stopped, and recovered with a time course similar to that seen after blocking the vagus nerves. 8. Section of the vagi in the neck abolished the tachycardia observed in response to the injection of hypertonic NaCl into the right atrium. 9. As in other species, stimulation of the `secretory nerve' induced secretion in anaesthetized or decerebrate geese. 10. Hexamethonium given I.V. or applied topically to the `secretory nerve ganglion' blocked secretion in response to salt-loading or to secretory nerve stimulation. 11. It appears that the receptors for salt-gland secretion are located in or near the heart and that afferent fibres from these receptors travel in the vagus nerves to the C.N.S. 12. A possible scheme of the secretory reflex which initiates and maintains salt-gland activity is proposed. PMID:5085337

  12. The “Vampirome”: Transcriptome and proteome analysis of the principal and accessory submaxillary glands of the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, a vector of human rabies

    PubMed Central

    Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Assumpçăo, Teresa C. F.; Ma, Dongying; Li, Yuan; Vicente, Eliane C.; Uieda, Wilson; Ribeiro, José M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Vampire bats are notorious for being the sole mammals that strictly feed on fresh blood for their survival. While their saliva has been historically associated with anticoagulants, only one antihemostatic (plasminogen activator) has been molecularly and functionally characterized. Here, RNAs from both principal submandibular and accessory glands of Desmodus rotundus were extracted, and ~ 200 million reads were sequenced by Illumina. The principal gland was enriched with plasminogen activators with fibrinolytic properties, members of lipocalin and secretoglobin families, which bind prohemostatic prostaglandins, and endonucleases, which cleave neutrophil-derived procoagulant NETs. Anticoagulant (tissue factor pathway inhibitor, TFPI), vasodilators (PACAP and C-natriuretic peptide), and metalloproteases (ADAMTS-1) were also abundantly expressed. Members of the TSG-6 (anti-inflammatory), antigen 5/CRISP, and CCL28-like (antimicrobial) protein families were also sequenced. Apyrases (which remove platelet agonist ADP), phosphatases (which degrade procoagulant polyphosphates), and sphingomyelinase were found at lower transcriptional levels. Accessory glands were enriched with antimicrobials (lysozyme, defensin, lactotransferrin) and protease inhibitors (TIL-domain, cystatin, Kazal). Mucins, heme-oxygenase, and IgG chains were present in both glands. Proteome analysis by nano LC-MS/MS confirmed that several transcripts are expressed in the glands. The database presented herein is accessible online at http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/D_rotundus/Supplemental-web.xlsx. These results reveal that bat saliva emerges as a novel source of modulators of vascular biology. PMID:23411029

  13. Theroa zethus Caterpillars Use Acid Secretion of Anti-Predator Gland to Deactivate Plant Defense

    PubMed Central

    Dussourd, David E.

    2015-01-01

    In North America, notodontid caterpillars feed almost exclusively on hardwood trees. One notable exception, Theroa zethus feeds instead on herbaceous plants in the Euphorbiaceae protected by laticifers. These elongate canals follow leaf veins and contain latex under pressure; rupture causes the immediate release of sticky poisonous exudate. T. zethus larvae deactivate the latex defense of poinsettia and other euphorbs by applying acid from their ventral eversible gland, thereby creating furrows in the veins. The acid secretion softens the veins allowing larvae to compress even large veins with their mandibles and to disrupt laticifers internally often without contacting latex. Acid secretion collected from caterpillars and applied to the vein surface sufficed to create a furrow and to reduce latex exudation distal to the furrow where T. zethus larvae invariably feed. Larvae with their ventral eversible gland blocked were unable to create furrows and suffered reduced growth on poinsettia. The ventral eversible gland in T. zethus and other notodontids ordinarily serves to deter predators; when threatened, larvae spray acid from the gland orifice located between the mouthparts and first pair of legs. To my knowledge, T. zethus is the first caterpillar found to use an antipredator gland for disabling plant defenses. The novel combination of acid application and vein constriction allows T. zethus to exploit its unusual latex-bearing hosts. PMID:26517872

  14. Development of rhythmic melatonin secretion from the pineal gland of embryonic mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus).

    PubMed

    Roberts, Debra; Okimoto, Darren K; Parsons, Cara; Straume, Martin; Stetson, Milton H

    2003-03-01

    The pineal gland of vertebrates produces and secretes the hormone melatonin in response to changes in the light-dark cycle, with high production at night and low production during the day. Melatonin is thought to play an important role in synchronizing daily and/or seasonal physiological, behavioral, and developmental rhythms in vertebrates. In this study, the functional development of the pineal melatonin-generating system was examined in the mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, an euryhaline teleost. In this species, the pineal gland contains an endogenous oscillator, ultimately responsible for timing the melatonin rhythm. Oocytes from gravid females were collected and fertilized in vitro from sperm collected from mature males. Skull caps containing attached pineal glands were obtained from F. heteroclitus embryos at different embryonic stages and placed in static or perfusion culture under various photoperiodic regimes. Rhythmic melatonin secretion from pineal glands of embryonic F. heteroclitus embryos exposed to a 12L:12D cycle in static culture was observed at five days post-fertilization. The ontogeny of circadian-controlled melatonin production from F. heteroclitus pineal glands exposed to constant darkness for five days was also seen at day five post-fertilization. These data show that early development of the pineal melatonin-generating system in this teleost occurs prior to hatching. Pre-hatching development of the melatonin-generating system may confer some selective advantage in this species in its interactions with the environment. PMID:12589691

  15. A Syringe-Like Love Dart Injects Male Accessory Gland Products in a Tropical Hermaphrodite

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Joris M.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2013-01-01

    Sexual conflict shapes the evolution of many behaviours and processes involved in reproduction. Nearly all evidence supporting this comes from species where the sexes are separated. However, a substantial proportion of animals and most plants are hermaphroditic, and theoretical work predicts that sexual conflict plays an important role even when the sexes are joined within one individual. This seems to have resulted in bizarre mating systems, sophisticated sperm packaging and complex reproductive morphologies. By far the best-known example of such a strategy in hermaphrodites is the shooting of so-called love-darts in land snails. All known love darts carry a gland product on their outside and enter this into the partner’s hemolymph by stabbing. Here, we show that species of the snail genus Everettia possess a syringe-like dart that serves as a real injection needle. Their dart is round in cross-section, contains numerous channels, and has perforations along its side. Histology and electron microscopy show that these holes connect to the channels inside the dart and run all the way up to the elaborate mucus glands that are attached to the dart sac. This is the first report on a love dart that is used as a syringe to directly inject the gland product into the partner’s hemolymph. Although the exact use and function of this dart remains to be demonstrated, this clearly adds to the complexity of the evolution of reproductive strategies in hermaphrodites in general. Moreover, the perforations on the outside of the love dart resemble features of other injection devices, thus uncovering common design and repeated evolution of such features in animals. PMID:23894565

  16. Optical properties of the uropygial gland secretion: no evidence for UV cosmetics in birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delhey, Kaspar; Peters, Anne; Biedermann, Peter H. W.; Kempenaers, Bart

    2008-10-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) reflectance of the plumage is common in birds and plays an important role in sexual signalling. Recently, it has been proposed that birds are able to modify plumage UV reflectance by the application of uropygial gland secretion. Based on a survey of the optical properties of this secretion from 51 species belonging to 12 avian orders, we show that two main types of uropygial secretions exist, one predominantly found in passerines and one in non-passerines, both reducing relative UV reflectance of a white background (Teflon™ tape). We quantified how each type of secretion (exemplified by blue tit and mallard) affected feather UV reflectance. Both secretions reduced overall brightness and relative UV reflectance of white mallard feathers but hardly affected the reflectance of UV/blue blue tit crown feathers. According to models of avian colour vision, changes in reflectance due to application of the secretion were at or below the discrimination threshold of most birds. We conclude that the uropygial secretion is unlikely to play a major role in modifying plumage UV reflectance. However, the optical properties of the uropygial secretion may have been selected to interfere as little as possible with visual signaling through plumage reflectance.

  17. Autophagy facilitates secretion and protects against degeneration of the Harderian gland.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Ulrich; Fobker, Manfred; Lengauer, Barbara; Brandstetter, Marlene; Resch, Guenter P; Gröger, Marion; Plenz, Gabriele; Pammer, Johannes; Barresi, Caterina; Hartmann, Christine; Rossiter, Heidemarie

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial derived Harderian gland consists of 2 types of secretory cells. The more numerous type A cells are responsible for the secretion of lipid droplets, while type B cells produce dark granules of multilamellar bodies. The process of autophagy is constitutively active in the Harderian gland, as confirmed by our analysis of LC3 processing in GFP-LC3 transgenic mice. This process is compromised by epithelial deletion of Atg7. Morphologically, the Atg7 mutant glands are hypotrophic and degenerated, with highly vacuolated cells and pyknotic nuclei. The mutant glands accumulate lipid droplets coated with PLIN2 (perilipin 2) and contain deposits of cholesterol, ubiquitinated proteins, SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) positive aggregates and other metabolic products such as porphyrin. Immunofluorescence stainings show that distinct cells strongly aggregate both proteins and lipids. Electron microscopy of the Harderian glands reveals that its organized structure is compromised, and the presence of large intracellular lipid droplets and heterologous aggregates. We attribute the occurrence of large vacuoles to a malfunction in the formation of multilamellar bodies found in the less abundant type B Harderian gland cells. This defect causes the formation of large tertiary lysosomes of heterologous content and is accompanied by the generation of tight lamellar stacks of endoplasmic reticulum in a pseudo-crystalline form. To test the hypothesis that lipid and protein accumulation is the cause for the degeneration in autophagy-deficient Harderian glands, epithelial cells were treated with a combination of the proteasome inhibitor and free fatty acids, to induce aggregation of misfolded proteins and lipid accumulation, respectively. The results show that lipid accumulation indeed enhanced the toxicity of misfolded proteins and that this was even more pronounced in autophagy-deficient cells. Thus, we conclude autophagy controls protein and lipid catabolism and anabolism to facilitate bulk production of secretory vesicles of the Harderian gland. PMID:25484081

  18. Male accessory gland protein reduces egg laying in a simultaneous hermaphrodite.

    PubMed

    Koene, Joris M; Sloot, Wiebe; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Cummins, Scott F; Degnan, Bernard M; Smith, John S; Nagle, Gregg T; ter Maat, Andries

    2010-01-01

    Seminal fluid is an important part of the ejaculate of internally fertilizing animals. This fluid contains substances that nourish and activate sperm for successful fertilization. Additionally, it contains components that influence female physiology to further enhance fertilization success of the sperm donor, possibly beyond the recipient's optimum. Although evidence for such substances abounds, few studies have unraveled their identities, and focus has been exclusively on separate-sex species. We present the first detailed study into the seminal fluid composition of a hermaphrodite (Lymnaea stagnalis). Eight novel peptides and proteins were identified from the seminal-fluid-producing prostate gland and tested for effects on oviposition, hatching and consumption. The gene for the protein found to suppress egg mass production, Ovipostatin, was sequenced, thereby providing the first fully-characterized seminal fluid substance in a simultaneous hermaphrodite. Thus, seminal fluid peptides and proteins have evolved and can play a crucial role in sexual selection even when the sexes are combined. PMID:20404934

  19. Apocrine Secretion in Drosophila Salivary Glands: Subcellular Origin, Dynamics, and Identification of Secretory Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Farkaš, Robert; ?atková, Zuzana; Mentelová, Lucia; Löw, Péter; Be?ová-Liszeková, Denisa; Be?o, Milan; Sass, Miklós; ?ehulka, Pavel; ?ehulková, Helena; Raška, Otakar; Ková?ik, Lubomír; Šmigová, Jana; Raška, Ivan; Mechler, Bernard M.

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the well defined mechanism of merocrine exocytosis, the mechanism of apocrine secretion, which was first described over 180 years ago, remains relatively uncharacterized. We identified apocrine secretory activity in the late prepupal salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster just prior to the execution of programmed cell death (PCD). The excellent genetic tools available in Drosophila provide an opportunity to dissect for the first time the molecular and mechanistic aspects of this process. A prerequisite for such an analysis is to have pivotal immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, biochemical and proteomic data that fully characterize the process. Here we present data showing that the Drosophila salivary glands release all kinds of cellular proteins by an apocrine mechanism including cytoskeletal, cytosolic, mitochondrial, nuclear and nucleolar components. Surprisingly, the apocrine release of these proteins displays a temporal pattern with the sequential release of some proteins (e.g. transcription factor BR-C, tumor suppressor p127, cytoskeletal ?-tubulin, non-muscle myosin) earlier than others (e.g. filamentous actin, nuclear lamin, mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase). Although the apocrine release of proteins takes place just prior to the execution of an apoptotic program, the nuclear DNA is never released. Western blotting indicates that the secreted proteins remain undegraded in the lumen. Following apocrine secretion, the salivary gland cells remain quite vital, as they retain highly active transcriptional and protein synthetic activity. PMID:24732043

  20. TRPV1 in Salivary Gland Epithelial Cells Is Not Involved in Salivary Secretion via Transcellular Pathway.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seulki; Shin, Yong-Hwan; Namkoong, Eun; Hwang, Sung-Min; Cong, Xin; Yu, Guangyan; Park, Kyungpyo

    2014-12-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) was originally found in sensory neurons. Recently, it has been reported that TRPV1 is expressed in salivary gland epithelial cells (SGEC). However, the physiological role of TRPV1 in salivary secretion remains to be elucidated. We found that TRPV1 is expressed in mouse and human submandibular glands (SMG) and HSG cells, originated from human submandibular gland ducts at both mRNA and protein levels. However, capsaicin (CAP), TRPV1 agonist, had little effect on intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in these cells, although carbachol consistently increased [Ca(2+)]i. Exposure of cells to high temperature (>43?) or acidic bath solution (pH5.4) did not increase [Ca(2+)]i, either. We further examined the role of TRPV1 in salivary secretion using TRPV1 knock-out mice. There was no significant difference in the pilocarpine (PILO)-induced salivary flow rate between wild-type and TRPV1 knock-out mice. Saliva flow rate also showed insignificant change in the mice treated with PILO plus CAP compared with that in mice treated with PILO alone. Taken together, our results suggest that although TRPV1 is expressed in SGEC, it appears not to play any direct roles in saliva secretion via transcellular pathway. PMID:25598668

  1. Gastric secretion--from Pavlov's nervism to Popielski's histamine as direct secretagogue of oxyntic glands.

    PubMed

    Konturek, S J

    2003-12-01

    Gastric acid and pepsin secretions result from the interplay of neurohormonal factors with stimulatory and inhibitory actions on oxyntic glands. At the turn of XIX century, the notion of nervism or entire neural control of digestive functions, developed by Pavlov prevailed. However, in the second part of XX century, hormonal control has been thought to play a major role in the mechanism of gastric secretion, especially gastrin, which was isolated and synthesized in 1964 by Gregory. Polish traces in gastroenterological history started with the discovery of histamine, a non-nervous and non-gastrin compound in oxyntic mucosa by L. Popielski in 1916, who found that this amine is the most potent and direct stimulant of gastric acid secretion. This histamine concept was supported by leading American gastroenterologists such as A.C. Ivy, championed later by C.F. Code, and clinically applied for testing gastric secretion by K. Kowalewski. Recently, it received a strong support from pharmacological research when J. Black designed H(2)-receptors antagonists, which were first discovered by M.I. Grossman and S.J. Konturek to inhibit not only histamine-, but also meal- and vagally-induced gastric acid secretion, thus reinforcing the notion of the crucial significance of histamine in the control of gastric secretion as the final common chemostimulator. In conclusion, Polish traces appear to be substantial in gastric history due: 1) to discovery by Popielski that histamine is a major, direct stimulus of gastric secretion; 2) to clinical application of this agent by Kowalewski in testing maximal gastric secretory activity; and 3) to clinical use of histamine H(2)-antagonists in control of gastric acid secretion and treatment of peptic ulcers. PMID:15075464

  2. A method for measuring secretions from the palatal minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Shern, R J; Guckes, A D; Li, S H

    1993-06-01

    This study investigated the secretory pattern of unstimulated minor salivary glands in 10 contiguous specified areas of the hard palate in 12 healthy unmedicated adult men and women. Each participant was assessed twice at each of two visits in the same specific palatal areas from the distal portion of the second molar to 30 mm anterior. The 10 areas were isolated, dried, and sampled with a paper strip for 60 seconds. The strips were read with a Periotron device. The rates of flow were significantly influenced by position; higher values were noted posteriorly and medially during testing and retesting at both visits. The rates of flow from the palatal glands were greatest in the area between the maxillary second molars. This method proved to be simple, accurate, and reliable for measuring the secretions of the palatal glands. This method may prove useful for investigating how the relationship between the pattern and the secretory rate of minor salivary glands influences retention of the complete maxillary denture. PMID:8320651

  3. Synthesis and secretion of phosphorylated growth hormone by rat pituitary glands in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Liberti, J.P.; Joshi, G.S.

    1986-06-13

    Rat anterior pituitary glands were incubated in buffered medium, pH 7.4, containing /sup 32/Pi. After incubation the tissue and medium were separated and a post-mitochondrial supernate (PMS) of the tissue homogenate was prepared. Gel filtration of the PMS and medium resulted in a radioactive peak which coincided with the elution volume of authentic rat growth hormone (rGH). Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the radioactive peak under denaturing condition resulted in a protein-staining band having the same mobility as authentic rGH. Autoradiography of the gels revealed radioactivity precisely at the position of growth hormone as well as elsewhere. The specific radioactivity of the PMS (/sup 32/P)GH was estimated to be 5 to 10 times greater than that of tissue (/sup 32/P)GH. These results indicate that phosphorylated GH is synthesized and secreted by pituitary glands in vitro.

  4. Mechanism involved in Danshen-induced fluid secretion in salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fei; Wei, Mu-Xin; Murakami, Masataka

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Danshen’s capability to induce salivary fluid secretion and its mechanisms were studied to determine if it could improve xerostomia. METHODS: Submandibular glands were isolated from male Wistar rats under systemic anesthesia with pentobarbital sodium. The artery was cannulated and vascularly perfused at a constant rate. The excretory duct was also cannulated and the secreted saliva was weighed in a cup on an electronic balance. The weight of the accumulated saliva was measured every 3 s and the salivary flow rate was calculated. In addition, the arterio-venous difference in the partial oxygen pressure was measured as an indicator of oxygen consumption. In order to assess the mechanism involved in Danshen-induced fluid secretion, either ouabain (an inhibitor of Na+/K+ ATPase) or bumetanide (an inhibitor of NKCC1) was additionally applied during the Danshen stimulation. In order to examine the involvement of the main membrane receptors, atropine was added to block the M3 muscarinic receptors, or phentolamine was added to block the ?1 adrenergic receptors. In order to examine the requirement for extracellular Ca2+, Danshen was applied during the perfusion with nominal Ca2+ free solution. RESULTS: Although Danshen induced salivary fluid secretion, 88.7 ± 12.8 ?L/g-min, n = 9, (the highest value around 20 min from start of DS perfusion was significantly high vs 32.5 ± 5.3 ?L/g-min by carbamylcholine, P = 0.00093 by t-test) in the submandibular glands, the time course of that secretion differed from that induced by carbamylcholine. There was a latency associated with the fluid secretion induced by Danshen, followed by a gradual increase in the secretion to its highest value, which was in turn followed by a slow decline to a near zero level. The application of either ouabain or bumetanide inhibited the fluid secretion by 85% or 93%, and suppressed the oxygen consumption by 49% or 66%, respectively. These results indicated that Danshen activates Na+/K+ ATPase and NKCC1 to maintain Cl- release and K+ release for fluid secretion. Neither atropine or phentolamine inhibited the fluid secretion induced by Danshen (263% ± 63% vs 309% ± 45%, 227% ± 63% vs 309% ± 45%, P = 0.899, 0.626 > 0.05 respectively, by ANOVA). Accordingly, Danshen does not bind with M3 or ?1 receptors. These characteristics suggested that the mechanism involved in DS-induced salivary fluid secretion could be different from that induced by carbamylcholine. Carbamylcholine activates the M3 receptor to release inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and quickly releases Ca2+ from the calcium stores. The elevation of [Ca2+]i induces chloride release and quick osmosis, resulting in an onset of fluid secretion. An increase in [Ca2+]i is essential for the activation of the luminal Cl- and basolateral K+ channels. The nominal removal of extracellular Ca2+ totally abolished the fluid secretion induced by Danshen (1.8 ± 0.8 ?L/g-min vs 101.9 ± 17.2 ?L/g-min, P = 0.00023 < 0.01, by t-test), suggesting the involvement of Ca2+ in the activation of these channels. Therefore, IP3-store Ca2+ release signalling may not be involved in the secretion induced by Danshen, but rather, there may be a distinct signalling process. CONCLUSION: The present findings suggest that Danshen can be used in the treatment of xerostomia, to avoid the systemic side effects associated with muscarinic drugs. PMID:25663764

  5. Why Mouse Airway Submucosal Gland Serous Cells Do Not Secrete Fluid in Response to cAMP Stimulation*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Robert J.; Foskett, J. Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Airway submucosal glands are important sites of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride (Cl?) channel expression and fluid secretion in the airway. Whereas both mouse and human submucosal glands and their serous acinar cells express CFTR, human glands and serous cells secrete much more robustly than mouse cells/glands in response to cAMP-generating agonists such as forskolin and vasoactive intestinal peptide. In this study, we examined mouse and human serous acinar cells to explain this difference and reveal further insights into the mechanisms of serous cell secretion. We found that mouse serous cells possess a robust cAMP-activated CFTR-dependent Cl? permeability, but they lack cAMP-activated calcium (Ca2+) signaling observed in human cells. Similar to human cells, basal K+ conductance is extremely small in mouse acinar cells. Lack of cAMP-activated Ca2+ signaling in mouse cells results in the absence of K+ conductances required for secretion. However, cAMP activates CFTR-dependent fluid secretion during low-level cholinergic stimulation that fails to activate secretion on its own. Robust CFTR-dependent fluid secretion was also observed when cAMP stimulation was combined with direct pharmacological activation of epithelial K+ channels with 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone (EBIO). Our data suggest that mouse serous cells lack cAMP-mediated Ca2+ signaling to activate basolateral membrane K+ conductance, resulting in weak cAMP-driven serous cell fluid secretion, providing the likely explanation for reduced cAMP-driven secretion observed in mouse compared with human glands. PMID:22989883

  6. Ion transport mechanisms linked to bicarbonate secretion in the esophageal submucosal glands.

    PubMed

    Abdulnour-Nakhoul, Solange; Nakhoul, Hani N; Kalliny, Medhat I; Gyftopoulos, Alex; Rabon, Edd; Doetjes, Rienk; Brown, Karen; Nakhoul, Nazih L

    2011-07-01

    The esophageal submucosal glands (SMG) secrete HCO(3)(-) and mucus into the esophageal lumen, where they contribute to acid clearance and epithelial protection. This study characterized the ion transport mechanisms linked to HCO(3)(-) secretion in SMG. We localized ion transporters using immunofluorescence, and we examined their expression by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. We measured HCO(3)(-) secretion by using pH stat and the isolated perfused esophagus. Using double labeling with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase as a marker, we localized Na(+)-coupled bicarbonate transporter (NBCe1) and Cl(-)-HCO(3)(-) exchanger (SLC4A2/AE2) to the basolateral membrane of duct cells. Expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator channel (CFTR) was confirmed by immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, and in situ hybridization. We identified anion exchanger SLC26A6 at the ducts' luminal membrane and Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) (NKCC1) at the basolateral membrane of mucous and duct cells. pH stat experiments showed that elevations in cAMP induced by forskolin or IBMX increased HCO(3)(-) secretion. Genistein, an activator of CFTR, which does not increase intracellular cAMP, also stimulated HCO(3)(-) secretion, whereas glibenclamide, a Cl(-) channel blocker, and bumetanide, a Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) blocker, decreased it. CFTR(inh)-172, a specific CFTR channel blocker, inhibited basal HCO(3)(-) secretion as well as stimulation of HCO(3)(-) secretion by IBMX. This is the first report on the presence of CFTR channels in the esophagus. The role of CFTR in manifestations of esophageal disease in cystic fibrosis patients remains to be determined. PMID:21474426

  7. Lipids and proteins in the Rathke's gland secretions of the North American mud turtle (Kinosternon subrubrum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seifert, W.E., Jr.; Gotte, S.W.; Leto, T.L.; Weldon, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Lipids and proteins in the Rathke's gland secretions of the North American mud turtle (Kinosternon subrubrum, Kinosternidae) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), respectively. Analysis by GC-MS indicates 2,3-dihydroxypropanal and C3?C24 free or esterified fatty acids. Analysis by SDS-PAGE indicates a major protein component with an approximate molecular mass of 60 kDa and minor components ranging from ca. 23 to 34 kDa. The major component of K. subrubrum glandular secretions exhibits a mobility that matches that of the Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempi, Cheloniidae), suggesting that these proteins are evolutionarily conserved.

  8. Mandibular and postpharyngeal gland secretions of Acromyrmex landolti (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as chemical cues for nestmate recognition.

    PubMed

    Sainz-Borgo, Cristina; Leal, Bernardo; Cabrera, Aivlé; Hernández, José V

    2013-09-01

    Nestmate recognition is fundamental for the cohesiveness of the colony in social insects. Acromyrmex landolti is a higher Attini, a leaf-cutter ant with largest nest and morphological castes. We studied the location of the recognition signal of A. landolti on the whole ant body, the isolation effect on the capacity of nestmate recognition, and the role of the mandibular (MG) and post-pharyngeal glands (PPG) as putative sources for chemical recognition signals in this species. We performed behavioral bioassays and chemical analyses of MG and PPG glands; MG volatiles in different castes were also characterized. In order to determine the occurrence of nestmate recognition signals, behavioral tests were performed for which the whole body, body parts or gland extracts from a nestmate and an alien worker ant, were placed on the central axis of an active field trail. Besides, the isolation effect of the nestmate chemical signal persistence was evaluated by repeating the experiments with whole ant bodies after 12 h, 24 h and 48 h of isolation. The agonistic behavior of the ants on the trail was classified as inspection, threatening and biting. Gland volatiles were obtained by headspace solid phase microextraction, and PPG by solid sample analyses; and chemical analyses were performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Workers performed agonistic behaviors more frequently towards non-nestmate whole bodies, body parts and gland extracts, primarily those from the post-pharyngeal glands. Nestmate thoraces odorized with alien extracts were also recognized from aliens. Nestmate recognition ability persists for 12 h and 24 h after isolation, but decreases after 48 h, suggesting that the chemical signal changes over time. Inter-colonial chemical analyses showed no differences in the PPG hydrocarbon profiles, while the relative proportions of MG compounds showed significant differences between colonies. These results showed that nestmate recognition was achieved by MG volatiles. Possibly, the PPG secretion works as a matrix that absorbs MG volatiles. We report, for the first time, some mandibular gland compounds for the genus Acromyrmex and for the tribe Attini group. PMID:24027922

  9. A Kazal-Type Serine Protease Inhibitor from the Defense Gland Secretion of the Subterranean Termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki

    PubMed Central

    Negulescu, Horia; Guo, Youzhong; Garner, Thomas P.; Goodwin, Octavia Y.; Henderson, Gregg; Laine, Roger A.; Macnaughtan, Megan A.

    2015-01-01

    Coptotermes formosanus is an imported, subterranean termite species with the largest economic impact in the United States. The frontal glands of the soldier caste termites comprising one third of the body mass, contain a secretion expelled through a foramen in defense. The small molecule composition of the frontal gland secretion is well-characterized, but the proteins remain to be identified. Herein is reported the structure and function of one of several proteins found in the termite defense gland secretion. TFP4 is a 6.9 kDa, non-classical group 1 Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor with activity towards chymotrypsin and elastase, but not trypsin. The 3-dimensional solution structure of TFP4 was solved with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and represents the first structure from the taxonomic family, Rhinotermitidae. Based on the structure of TFP4, the protease inhibitor active loop (Cys8 to Cys16) was identified. PMID:25978745

  10. Reinnervated nerves contribute to the secretion function and regeneration of denervated submandibular glands in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si-en; Su, Yu-xiong; Zheng, Guang-sen; Liang, Yu-jie; Liao, Gui-qing

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the contribution of redistributed nerves in the secretory function and regeneration of a denervated submandibular gland (SMG). The postganglionic parasympathetic and sympathetic denervated SMGs of rabbits were wrapped in polyester or acellular dermal matrices to block nerve regeneration either partially or completely. Submandibular glands were removed 4, 8, 16, and 24 wk after the operation and examined histologically. Furthermore, the aquaporin-5 (AQP5), muscarinic-3 (M3), and ?1-adrenergic receptors were evaluated by immunofluorescence and western blot analysis. After denervation, salivary flow was decreased and acinar cells were atrophic, and the expression levels of the M3, ?1-adrenergic, and AQP5 receptors were decreased. However, both impaired secretion function and atrophic parenchyma were gradually ameliorated with the growing redistribution of parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves. Apoptosis was markedly inhibited and expression of the M3, ?1-adrenergic, and AQP5 receptors was increased after reinnervation. In contrast, SMGs without reinnervated nerves maintained hyposecretion and atrophic parenchyma. In conclusion, reinnervated nerves in a rabbit's denervated SMG played an important role in the secretion function and regeneration of SMGs via up-regulation of the expression of neurotransmitter receptors and AQP5. PMID:25363784

  11. Microarray analysis of the rat lacrimal gland following the loss of parasympathetic control of secretion

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Doan H.; Toshida, Hiroshi; Schurr, Jill; Beuerman, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies showed that loss of muscarinic parasympathetic input to the lacrimal gland (LG) leads to a dramatic reduction in tear secretion and profound changes to LG structure. In this study, we used DNA microarrays to examine the regulation of the gene expression of the genes for secretory function and organization of the LG. Long-Evans rats anesthetized with a mixture of ketamine/xylazine (80:10 mg/kg) underwent unilateral sectioning of the greater superficial petrosal nerve, the input to the pterygopalatine ganglion. After 7 days, tear secretion was measured, the animals were killed, and structural changes in the LG were examined by light microscopy. Total RNA from control and experimental LGs (n = 5) was used for DNA microarray analysis employing the U34A GeneChip. Three statistical algorithms (detection, change call, and signal log ratio) were used to determine differential gene expression using the Microarray Suite (5.0) and Data Mining Tools (3.0). Tear secretion was significantly reduced and corneal ulcers developed in all experimental eyes. Light microscopy showed breakdown of the acinar structure of the LG. DNA microarray analysis showed downregulation of genes associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi, including genes involved in protein folding and processing. Conversely, transcripts for cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix components, inflammation, and apoptosis were upregulated. The number of significantly upregulated genes (116) was substantially greater than the number of downregulated genes (49). Removal of the main secretory input to the rat LG resulted in clinical symptoms associated with severe dry eye. Components of the secretory pathway were negatively affected, and the increase in cell proliferation and inflammation may lead to loss of organization in the parasympathectomized lacrimal gland. PMID:15084711

  12. A fluid secretion pathway unmasked by acinar-specific Tmem16A gene ablation in the adult mouse salivary gland

    PubMed Central

    Catalán, Marcelo A.; Kondo, Yusuke; Peńa-Munzenmayer, Gaspar; Jaramillo, Yasna; Liu, Frances; Choi, Sooji; Crandall, Edward; Borok, Zea; Flodby, Per; Shull, Gary E.; Melvin, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of an apical Ca2+-activated Cl? channel (CaCC) triggers the secretion of saliva. It was previously demonstrated that CaCC-mediated Cl? current and Cl? efflux are absent in the acinar cells of systemic Tmem16A (Tmem16A Cl? channel) null mice, but salivation was not assessed in fully developed glands because Tmem16A null mice die within a few days after birth. To test the role of Tmem16A in adult salivary glands, we generated conditional knockout mice lacking Tmem16A in acinar cells (Tmem16A?/?). Ca2+-dependent salivation was abolished in Tmem16A?/? mice, demonstrating that Tmem16A is obligatory for Ca2+-mediated fluid secretion. However, the amount of saliva secreted by Tmem16A?/? mice in response to the ?-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (IPR) was comparable to that seen in controls, indicating that Tmem16A does not significantly contribute to cAMP-induced secretion. Furthermore, IPR-stimulated secretion was unaffected in mice lacking Cftr (Cftr?F508/?F508) or ClC-2 (Clcn2?/?) Cl? channels. The time course for activation of IPR-stimulated fluid secretion closely correlated with that of the IPR-induced cell volume increase, suggesting that acinar swelling may activate a volume-sensitive Cl? channel. Indeed, Cl? channel blockers abolished fluid secretion, indicating that Cl? channel activity is critical for IPR-stimulated secretion. These data suggest that ?-adrenergic–induced, cAMP-dependent fluid secretion involves a volume-regulated anion channel. In summary, our results using acinar-specific Tmem16A?/? mice identify Tmem16A as the Cl? channel essential for muscarinic, Ca2+-dependent fluid secretion in adult mouse salivary glands. PMID:25646474

  13. The dufour gland and the secretion placed on eggs of two species of social wasps,Liostenogaster flavolineata andParischnogaster jacobsoni (vespidae: Stenogastrinae).

    PubMed

    Keegans, S J; Morgan, E D; Turillazzi, S; Jackson, B D; Billen, J

    1993-02-01

    The secretion placed on eggs and fed to larvae and the "ant guard" placed on the nest stalk ofParischnogaster jacobsoni contain the same hydrocarbons and in approximately the same proportions as is found in the Dufour gland. The secretion on eggs is a mixture of the contents of the Dufour gland and nectar. The emulsifying agent is a palmitic acid salt. Similarly, inLiostenogaster flavolineata, the egg secretion is an emulsion of nectar and Dufour gland secretion, which contains alkoxyethanol emulsifiers, found in nature for the first time. PMID:24248874

  14. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in milk gland secretion of cows in perinatal period

    SciTech Connect

    Sitarska, E.; Klucinski, W.; Winnicka, A. ); Ludwicki, J. )

    1991-12-01

    Persistent organochlorine (OC) compounds such as DDT and its derivatives, isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may pose toxicological and ecological impact due to their persistence in some biological compartments. Despite the fact that agriculture has discontinued the use of the majority of these pesticides in many countries, the considerable differences in their concentrations in samples of human and animal origin are evidence that biological magnification via the food chain still exists in the case of OC compounds. This phenomenon may by illustrated by the close relationship between OC compound concentration in the fat of human and cow milk. The purpose of the present study was to determine the rate of excretion of the OC pesticide complex including their metabolites in the perinatal and postnatal period during various gland secretion phases.

  15. Interleukin-1? Modulates Melatonin Secretion in Ovine Pineal Gland: Ex Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Herman, A. P.; Bochenek, J.; Skipor, J.; Król, K.; Krawczy?ska, A.; Antushevich, H.; Pawlina, B.; Marciniak, E.; Tomaszewska-Zaremba, D.

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the effect of proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin- (IL-) 1?, on melatonin release and expression enzymes essential for this hormone synthesis: arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) in ovine pineal gland, taking into account the immune status of animals before sacrificing. Ewes were injected by lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 400?ng/kg) or saline, two hours after sunset during short day period (December). Animals were euthanized three hours after the injection. Next, the pineal glands were collected and divided into four explants. The explants were incubated with (1) medium 199 (control explants), (2) norepinephrine (NE; 10?µM), (3) IL-1? (75?pg/mL), or (4) NE + IL-1?. It was found that IL-1? abolished (P < 0.05) NE-induced increase in melatonin release. Treatment with IL-1? also reduced (P < 0.05) expression of AA-NAT enzyme compared to NE-treated explants. There was no effect of NE or IL-1? treatment on gene expression of HIOMT; however, the pineal fragments isolated from LPS-treated animals were characterized by elevated (P < 0.05) expression of HIOMT mRNA and protein compared to the explants from saline-treated ewes. Our study proves that IL-1? suppresses melatonin secretion and its action seems to be targeted on the reduction of pineal AA-NAT protein expression. PMID:26339621

  16. Do Eurasian beavers smear their pelage with castoreum and anal gland secretion?

    PubMed

    Rosell, Frank

    2002-08-01

    The scent-matching hypothesis postulates that scent marks provide an olfactory link between a resident owner and his territory, and that this enables intruding animals to recognize the chance of escalated conflicts. However, it is unclear if Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) mark their own pelage with castoreum from their castor sacs (i.e., the same material used in territorial marking); and/or if beavers mark their pelage with anal gland secretion (AGS) from the anal glands to waterproof the pelage and to act as a "living-scent mark." Chemical analysis (gas chromatography and mass spectrometry) of hair samples from 22 live-trapped beavers revealed that castoreum compounds were not present in any samples, AGS compounds were found from 3 animals (13.6%) around the cloaca, and the compound squalene was found in all the samples. Beavers may release castoreum directly into the water when it meets an intruder. Thereby, the "scent mark" in the water can provide an olfactory link between a resident owner and his territory. Squalene, in contrast to AGS, may be essential for keeping beaver pelts water-repellant. PMID:12371821

  17. Paracrine control of steroid hormone secretion by chromaffin cells in the adrenal gland of lower vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Mazzocchi, G; Gottardo, G; Nussdorfer, G G

    1998-01-01

    The adrenal glands of lower vertebrates display a notable intermingling between steroidogenic and chromaffin tissues, which increases from Pisces to Aves. As in mammals, adrenal chromaffin cells contain and release, in addition to catecholamines, serotonin and several peptides, which may affect the secretory activity of steroidogenic cells in a paracrine manner. Stimulatory molecules include serotonin, arginine-vasotocin, tachykinins, vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide and calcitonin gene-related peptide; inhibitory molecules are dopamine, somatotropic hormone-release inhibiting hormone and galanin. Epinephrine and norepinephrine appear to stimulate steroid secretion in Aves and to inhibit it in Pisces, while their action in Amphibia is controversial. Likewise, atrial natriuretic peptide exerts an anti-secretagogue action in Amphibia and a marked secretagogue effect in Pisces and Aves. The effects of opioids (enkephalins and endorphins) have scarcely been investigated and the findings obtained are highly questionable. Compared with the amazing mass of investigations carried out in mammals, studies in lower vertebrates are few, and in large part performed in Amphibia and Aves. It appears that much further work has to be done by comparative endocrinologists to fully clarify the physiological relevance of the functional interactions between chromaffin and steroidogenic cells in the adrenal glands of lower vertebrates. PMID:9476650

  18. Secretion of Catecholamines from Adrenal Gland by a Single Electrical Shock: Electrotonic Depolarization of Medullary Cell Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakade, Arun R.; Wakade, Taruna D.

    1982-05-01

    Transmural stimulation of the isolated adrenal gland of the rat and guinea pig results in secretion of catecholamines. The secretion is due to activation of cholinergic receptors of the adrenal medulla by acetylcholine released from splanchnic nerve terminals after transmural stimulation. Our aim was to see whether the same experimental technique could be used to directly excite the adrenal medullary cell membrane by electrical stimulation and whether such stimulation would result in secretion of catecholamines. We demonstrate here that a single electrical shock to the perfused adrenal gland of the rat results in massive secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine. The secretion is directly related to the strength and duration of the applied stimulus over a wide range. Catecholamine secretion is unaffected by tetrodotoxin or hexamethonium/atropine but is abolished by Ca2+ lack or 3 mM Mn2+. We suggest that the adrenal medullary membrane undergoes nonpropagated electrotonic depolarization on electrical stimulation and thereby voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels are opened to initiate secretion.

  19. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... composed of glands that produce chemical messengers called hormones. Glands of the endocrine system include the pituitary ... system since they contain endocrine tissue that secretes hormones. These include the pancreas, ovaries and testes. The ...

  20. Pleomorphic adenoma of the accessory parotid gland: case report and reappraisal of intraoral extracapsular dissection for management.

    PubMed

    Tsegga, Tibebu M; Britt, Jennifer D; Ellwanger, Aragon R

    2015-03-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common tumor of the major and minor salivary glands. Rarely is it found evolving from an ectopic location of major salivary glandular tissue in the mid cheek. A healthy 56-year-old woman presented to our institution with a 20-year duration of a slowly growing right cheek soft tissue mass that was causing facial asymmetry. No significant functional or neurosensory dysfunction was appreciated. Radiologic examination showed a heterogeneous, hyperintense, well-delineated mass within the region of the right buccal fat pad. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy showed benign salivary gland elements consistent with pleomorphic adenoma. The decision was made to perform intraoral extracapsular dissection for removal. Discussion of the clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation with an emphasis on intraoral extracapsular dissection for definitive surgical therapy of longstanding benign salivary gland tumors is emphasized. PMID:25530278

  1. Radioprotection by WR-2721 of gamma-irradiated rat parotid gland: effect on gland weight and secretion at 8-10 days post irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Menard, T.W.; Izutsu, K.T.; Ensign, W.Y.; Keller, P.J.; Morton, T.H.; Truelove, E.L.

    1984-09-01

    Changes in rat parotid salivary gland weight and functional parameters were evaluated at 8 to 10 days post irradiation in WR-2721 protected and non-protected animals following exposure to a single 15.3 Gy dose of Cs-137 radiation to the head. Glandular fluid secretory capacity was assessed by maximum flow rate, total volume of saliva and duration of secretion following pilocarpine stimulation. Protection against radiomucositis was also evaluated indirectly by daily monitoring of food and water intake, body weight and paraoral symptomatology. WR-2721 provided a significant degree of protection for all glandular functional parameters as well as gland weight. Relative protective factors (RPF) were computed for irradiated protected and non-protected animals compared to their sham-irradiated, pair-fed controls. Protection against radiomucositis and preservation of residual parotid gland secretory capacity as determined by functional parameters suggests that WR-2721 may be of significant benefit in alleviating oral symptoms and maintaining salivary gland function for patients receiving radiotherapy for head and neck tumors.

  2. Salivary Glands

    MedlinePLUS

    ... parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. They all secrete saliva into your mouth, the parotid through tubes that drain saliva, called salivary ducts, near your upper teeth, submandibular ...

  3. In Vivo Readout of CFTR Function: Ratiometric Measurement of CFTR-Dependent Secretion by Individual, Identifiable Human Sweat Glands

    PubMed Central

    Wine, Jeffrey J.; Char, Jessica E.; Chen, Jonathan; Cho, Hyung-ju; Dunn, Colleen; Frisbee, Eric; Joo, Nam Soo; Milla, Carlos; Modlin, Sara E.; Park, Il-Ho; Thomas, Ewart A. C.; Tran, Kim V.; Verma, Rohan; Wolfe, Marlene H.

    2013-01-01

    To assess CFTR function in vivo, we developed a bioassay that monitors and compares CFTR-dependent and CFTR-independent sweat secretion in parallel for multiple (?50) individual, identified glands in each subject. Sweating was stimulated by intradermally injected agonists and quantified by optically measuring spherical sweat bubbles in an oil-layer that contained dispersed, water soluble dye particles that partitioned into the sweat bubbles, making them highly visible. CFTR-independent secretion (M-sweat) was stimulated with methacholine, which binds to muscarinic receptors and elevates cytosolic calcium. CFTR-dependent secretion (C-sweat) was stimulated with a ?-adrenergic cocktail that elevates cytosolic cAMP while blocking muscarinic receptors. A C-sweat/M-sweat ratio was determined on a gland-by-gland basis to compensate for differences unrelated to CFTR function, such as gland size. The average ratio provides an approximately linear readout of CFTR function: the heterozygote ratio is ?0.5 the control ratio and for CF subjects the ratio is zero. During assay development, we measured C/M ratios in 6 healthy controls, 4 CF heterozygotes, 18 CF subjects and 4 subjects with ‘CFTR-related’ conditions. The assay discriminated all groups clearly. It also revealed consistent differences in the C/M ratio among subjects within groups. We hypothesize that these differences reflect, at least in part, levels of CFTR expression, which are known to vary widely. When C-sweat rates become very low the C/M ratio also tended to decrease; we hypothesize that this nonlinearity reflects ductal fluid absorption. We also discovered that M-sweating potentiates the subsequent C-sweat response. We then used potentiation as a surrogate for drugs that can increase CFTR-dependent secretion. This bioassay provides an additional method for assessing CFTR function in vivo, and is well suited for within-subject tests of systemic, CFTR-directed therapeutics. PMID:24204751

  4. Hypothalamus, anterior pituitary and adrenal gland involvement in the activation of adrenocorticotropin and corticosterone secretion by gastrin-releasing peptide.

    PubMed

    Garrido, M M; Manzanares, J; Fuentes, J A

    1999-05-15

    This study was designed to investigate the contribution of the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary and adrenal gland in the increase of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone secretion induced by gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) on in vitro isolated hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal gland. Furthermore, we have examined in dispersed anterior pituitary cells whether the ACTH release induced by GRP is a Ca2+-dependent process. Moderate concentrations of GRP (1 and 10 nM) were able to increase the release of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-like material in the medium of isolated hypothalami, whereas higher concentrations (100 and 1000 nM) were needed to elevate ACTH and corticosterone secretion in pituitary and adrenal quarters, respectively. The competitive and specific GRP receptor antagonist (Leu13-psi-CH2NH-Leu14) bombesin (10, 100 and 1000 nM) was without effect on basal secretion of CRF-like material, ACTH and corticosterone in isolated hypothalami, pituitary and adrenal quarters respectively. However, this antagonist (100 nM) completely blocked the stimulatory effects of GRP (100 nM) on bioactive CRF, ACTH and corticosterone release. In addition, in dispersed anterior pituitary cells which medium contained Ca2+ (1.5 mM), GRP stimulated the secretion of ACTH, but was without effect when the concentration of Ca2+ in the medium was lower (200 nM). These results suggest that: (1) the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary and adrenal gland seem to contribute to the elevation of ACTH and corticosterone secretion induced by GRP by a mechanism mediated through GRP receptors and (2) the stimulation of ACTH by GRP in the anterior pituitary appears to be dependent upon the presence of physiological concentrations of extracellular Ca2+. PMID:10320721

  5. Effect of semen collection by transrectal massage of accessory sexual glands or artificial vagina on the outcome of breeding soundness examinations of Italian yearling beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Sylla, Lakamy; Palombi, Claudio; Stradaioli, Giuseppe; Vagniluca, Antonio; Monaci, Maurizio

    2015-03-15

    Although semen quality is one of the major traits that influence breeding soundness examination outcomes in bulls, field conditions occasionally do not allow for the collection of semen samples by means of an artificial vagina. The aims of the present study were to report the results of a large number of semen collections that were performed via the transrectal massage (TRM) of the accessory sexual glands of Italian yearling beef bulls and compare this semen collection method to the artificial vagina (AV) method in term of breeding soundness examination outcomes; furthermore, we determined whether the breed affected the semen characteristics. In the TRM group (n = 475), the semen samples were collected via TRM of the accessory sexual glands, and in the AV group (n = 502), the AV method was used. In the TRM group, semen samples were obtained from 81.3% of the bulls and penile protrusion was observed in 87.6% of the animals during semen collection. The sperm concentrations (920.5 ± 439.0 vs. 281.0 ± 259.8 × 10(6)/mL) and the percentages of total abnormal spermatozoa (22.8 ± 15.0 vs. 18.8 ± 12.9) were significantly higher in the AV group than those in the TRM group. The percentage of bulls that did not meet the minimum requirement for normal cells (?70%) was 6.2% higher in the AV group than that in the TRM group (P < 0.05). Moreover, the samples collected from Chianina bulls by TRM exhibited a lower percentage of motile sperm and a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa when compared with the other two breeds. The major drawbacks of the TRM technique were the inability to conduct complete evaluation of the libido and mating ability of the yearling bulls, a significant reduction of the number of spermatozoa collected, and an increase in the variability of the semen characteristics due to breed. In conclusion, despite the drawbacks, TRM guarantees that semen evaluation can be conducted in cases in which the semen samples cannot be collected with the AV method. PMID:25488791

  6. Effects of sperm DNA damage on the levels of RAD51 and p53 proteins in zygotes and 2-cell embryos sired by golden hamsters without the major accessory sex glands.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Liao, Su-Bin; Cheung, May P L; Chow, Pak Ham; Cheung, Annie L M; O, Wai Sum

    2012-08-15

    We previously reported that the male accessory sex gland (ASG) secretion is the main source of antioxidants to safeguard sperm genomic integrity and functional competence. Removal of all ASGs in the golden hamster can reduce male fertility by increasing embryo wastage. This study aims to investigate whether the oxidative DNA-damaged sperm from hamsters without all ASGs (TX) could successfully fertilize oocytes and to qualify the status of DNA repair by the expression of RAD51 and p53 proteins. Here we demonstrated a significantly higher DNA-base adduct formation (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine) in sperm from TX males than those from sham-operated males. Comet assays demonstrated that all female pronuclei in both zygotes were intact, but single- and double-strand DNA damage was found in decondensed sperm in TX males only. DNA damage could also be detected in both nuclei of the TX 2-cell embryos. RAD51, a DNA repair enzyme, was found to be evenly distributed in the cytoplasm and nuclei in oocytes/zygotes, while at the 2-cell stage, a strong expression of p53 protein and a larger clear perinuclear area without RAD51 expression were found in TX embryos. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time DNA damage in decondensed sperm of zygotes and blastomeres of 2-cell stage embryos sired by TX males, resulting in the activation of DNA repair. Sperm DNA damage could induce the increase in p53 expression and the reduction of RAD51 expression in the TX 2-cell stage embryos. PMID:22705368

  7. Overexpression of des(1-3)hIGF-I in the mammary gland during prolonged lactation enhances milk yield and elevates prolactin secretion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During prolonged lactation, the mammary gland loses the capacity to synthesize and secrete the large amounts of milk that are produced during early lactation. This loss occurs despite the continued presence of a suckling stimulus and complete removal of mammary secretions. The decline in milk synthe...

  8. Identification of a lipocalin in mucosal glands of the human tracheobronchial tree and its enhanced secretion in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Redl, B; Wojnar, P; Ellemunter, H; Feichtinger, H

    1998-09-01

    Members of the lipocalin protein family are characterized by their ability to bind small hydrophobic molecules. Some of them are known to be produced by various glands and secretory cells. Under certain conditions, these proteins would be ideally suited for clearance of lipophilic, potentially harmful substances and might also act as protection factors in airway secretions. We therefore used RT-PCR analysis with a set of oligonucleotide primers deduced from conserved regions of lipocalin members to identify specific RNA isolated from human trachea. With two of these oligonucleotide primers, a positive result was obtained. Sequencing of the RT-PCR products revealed that the DNA fragments were identical to the lipocalin 1 (LCN1) encoding cDNA. LCN1 is an unusual lipocalin member that binds a variety of lipophilic compounds and exhibits cysteine proteinase inhibitor and antimicrobial activities. The local production and topographic distribution of LCN1 in the human tracheobronchial tree was then investigated by immunoperoxidase staining on thin-layer sections using a specific antiserum. LCN1 was detectable in the acini of serous mucosal glands and sometimes within the glandular lumen, suggesting excretion of the protein. The latter finding was tested and verified by Western blot analysis of bronchial secretions of healthy individuals. Furthermore, the results of SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis of bronchial secretions from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), which are usually characterized by an increase of airway lipids, suggested that LCN1 secretion was enhanced. Northern blot analysis of RNA from normal trachea and RNA isolated from tracheal biopsies of patients with CF indicated that induced secretion was due to an up-regulated expression of the LCN1 gene. Thus, our investigations present the first clear evidence that LCN1 is induced in infection or inflammation and support the idea that this lipocalin functions as a physiologic protection factor of epithelia in vivo. PMID:9759656

  9. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Modules Resources Archived Modules Updates Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones The endocrine system is made up of the endocrine glands that secrete hormones. Although there are eight major endocrine glands scattered ...

  10. First Chemical Analysis and Characterization of the Male Species-Specific Cephalic Labial-Gland Secretions of South American Bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Brasero, Nicolas; Martinet, Baptiste; Urbanová, Klára; Valterová, Irena; Torres, Alexandra; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Rasmont, Pierre; Lecocq, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The evolution of signals and reproductive traits involved in the pre-mating recognition has been in focus of abundant research in several model species, such as bumblebees (genus Bombus). However, the most-studied bumblebee reproductive trait, the male cephalic labial gland secretions (CLGS), remains unknown among bumblebee species from South America. In this study, the CLGS of five South American bumblebees of the subgenera Thoracobombus (Bombus excellens and B. atratus) and Cullumanobombus (B. rubicundus, B. hortulanus, and B. melaleucus) were investigated, by comparing the chemical compositions of their secretions to those of closely related European species. The results showed an obvious interspecific differentiation in both subgenera. The interspecific differentiation among the species of the Thoracobombus subgenus involved different compounds present at high contents (main compounds), while those of the Cullumanobombus subgenus shared the same main components. This suggests that among the species of the Cullumanobombus subgenus, the differentiation in minor components could lead to species discrimination. PMID:26460558

  11. Evaluation of atorvastatin efficacy and toxicity on spermatozoa, accessory glands and gonadal hormones of healthy men: a pilot prospective clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention advocate lowering both cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol systemic levels, notably by statin intake. However, statins are the subject of questions concerning their impact on male fertility. This study aimed to evaluate, by a prospective pilot assay, the efficacy and the toxicity of a decrease of cholesterol blood levels, induced by atorvastatin on semen quality and sexual hormone levels of healthy, normocholesterolaemic and normozoospermic men. Methods Atorvastatin (10 mg daily) was administrated orally during 5 months to 17 men with normal plasma lipid and standard semen parameters. Spermatozoa parameters, accessory gland markers, semen lipid levels and blood levels of gonadal hormones were assayed before statin intake, during the treatment, and 3 months after its withdrawal. Results Atorvastatin treatment significantly decreased circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol concentrations by 42% and 24% (p?

  12. Intraspecies Competition in Serratia marcescens Is Mediated by Type VI-Secreted Rhs Effectors and a Conserved Effector-Associated Accessory Protein

    PubMed Central

    Alcoforado Diniz, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria and can deliver toxic effector proteins into eukaryotic cells or competitor bacteria. Antibacterial T6SSs are increasingly recognized as key mediators of interbacterial competition and may contribute to the outcome of many polymicrobial infections. Multiple antibacterial effectors can be delivered by these systems, with diverse activities against target cells and distinct modes of secretion. Polymorphic toxins containing Rhs repeat domains represent a recently identified and as-yet poorly characterized class of T6SS-dependent effectors. Previous work had revealed that the potent antibacterial T6SS of the opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens promotes intraspecies as well as interspecies competition (S. L. Murdoch, K. Trunk, G. English, M. J. Fritsch, E. Pourkarimi, and S. J. Coulthurst, J Bacteriol 193:6057–6069, 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.05671-11). In this study, two new Rhs family antibacterial effectors delivered by this T6SS have been identified. One of these was shown to act as a DNase toxin, while the other contains a novel, cytoplasmic-acting toxin domain. Importantly, using S. marcescens, it has been demonstrated for the first time that Rhs proteins, rather than other T6SS-secreted effectors, can be the primary determinant of intraspecies competition. Furthermore, a new family of accessory proteins associated with T6SS effectors has been identified, exemplified by S. marcescens EagR1, which is specifically required for deployment of its associated Rhs effector. Together, these findings provide new insight into how bacteria can use the T6SS to deploy Rhs-family effectors and mediate different types of interbacterial interactions. IMPORTANCE Infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens represent a continuing threat to health and economic prosperity. To counter this threat, we must understand how such organisms survive and prosper. The type VI secretion system is a weapon that many pathogens deploy to compete against rival bacterial cells by injecting multiple antibacterial toxins into them. The ability to compete is vital considering that bacteria generally live in mixed communities. We aimed to identify new toxins and understand their deployment and role in interbacterial competition. We describe two new type VI secretion system-delivered toxins of the Rhs class, demonstrate that this class can play a primary role in competition between closely related bacteria, and identify a new accessory factor needed for their delivery. PMID:25939831

  13. Effects of methotrexate on rat parotid and submandibular glands and their secretions

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with methotrexate for 3 days. Parotid and submandibular main ducts were cannulated and saliva flow was evoked by either intravenous infusion of acetylcholine or an intravenous injection of benthanechol. Methotrexate was found to reduce significantly mean food consumption, body weight, and parotid gland wet weights. Experimental animal salivary total gland DNA levels were not different, but total parotid gland RNA, protein, amylase and water content, and submandibular gland RNA were significantly lower compared to control. Acetylcholine, but not bethanechol, evoked parotid protein and amylase outputs and submandibular protein output from experimental animals were significantly higher than the control groups'. The increased outputs were apparently linked to ..beta..-adrenergic receptor activation, since hexamethonium or propranolol eliminated the significant increases while phenoxybenzamine did not. Plasma catecholamine levels were significantly higher in the methotrexate treated animals and probably played a role in the salivary gland ..beta..-adrenergic activation. Methotrexate treatment significantly increased the submandibular gland ..beta..-adrenergic receptor concentration as determined by (/sup 3/H)-dihydroalprenolol receptor binding assays. Muscarinic receptor concentrations determined with (/sup 3/H)-quinuclidninyl benzilate were not changed.

  14. Secretory and basal cells of the epithelium of the tubular glands in the male Mullerian gland of the caecilian Uraeotyphlus narayani (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    George, Jancy M; Smita, Matthew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2004-12-01

    Caecilians are exceptional among the vertebrates in that males retain the Mullerian duct as a functional glandular structure. The Mullerian gland on each side is formed from a large number of tubular glands connecting to a central duct, which either connects to the urogenital duct or opens directly into the cloaca. The Mullerian gland is believed to secrete a substance to be added to the sperm during ejaculation. Thus, the Mullerian gland could function as a male accessory reproductive gland. Recently, we described the male Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and histochemistry. The present TEM study reports that the secretory cells of both the tubular and basal portions of the tubular glands of the male Mullerian gland of this caecilian produce secretion granules in the same manner as do other glandular epithelial cells. The secretion granules are released in the form of structured granules into the lumen of the tubular glands, and such granules are traceable to the lumen of the central duct of the Mullerian gland. This is comparable to the situation prevailing in the epididymal epithelium of several reptiles. In the secretory cells of the basal portion of the tubular glands, mitochondria are intimately associated with fabrication of the secretion granules. The structural and functional organization of the epithelium of the basal portion of the tubular glands is complicated by the presence of basal cells. This study suggests the origin of the basal cells from peritubular tissue leukocytes. The study also indicates a role for the basal cells in acquiring secretion granules from the neighboring secretory cells and processing them into lipofuscin material in the context of regression of the Mullerian gland during the period of reproductive quiescence. In these respects the basal cells match those in the epithelial lining of the epididymis of amniotes. PMID:15487004

  15. ANTIBODY-SECRETING CELL SPECIFICITY IN LABIAL SALIVARY GLANDS REFLECTS CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND SEROLOGY IN SJÖGREN’S SYNDROME PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Maier-Moore, Jacen S.; Koelsch, Kristi A.; Smith, Kenneth; Lessard, Christopher J.; Radfar, Lida; Lewis, David; Kurien, Biji T.; Wolska, Nina; Deshmukh, Umesh; Rasmussen, Astrid; Sivils, Kathy L.; James, Judith A.; Farris, A. Darise; Scofield, R. Hal

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The serologic hallmark of primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) is IgG antibodies specific for Ro (SSA) and La (SSB). Molecular characteristics of glandular-derived B cells at the site of pSS inflammation have been described; however, parallels between glandular antibody-secreting cells (ASC) and serologic antibody specificities have not been evaluated. We utilized recombinant monoclonal antibody (hmAb) technology to study salivary gland-(SG) derived ASC specificities, evaluating their molecular characteristics and identified IgG antibody specificity. Methods hmAbs were generated from glandular IgG ASC. Heavy and light chain usage and immunoglobulin subclass were analyzed by sequencing. ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence, enzyme immunoassay and 35S immunoprecipitation analysis were used to determine antibody specificity. Results Evaluation of single ASCs from SG biopsies of patients with primary SS or with SS and overlapping SLE revealed significant concordance between serum autoantibody and glandular ASC specificities. Glandular-derived ASC heavy and light chains were extensively somatically hypermutated, indicative of antigen-driven responses. Specifically, we produced the first fully human monoclonal autoantibodies derived from salivary glands in this study. Conclusions Salivary glands in SS patients are a site for antibody production, which extend beyond the canonical Ro and/or La SS specificities. Furthermore, we demonstrate that glandular antibody production strongly reflects the serological humoral response in the two patients studied herein. PMID:25199908

  16. Dissection and weighing of accessory sex glands after formalin fixation, and a 5-day assay using young mature rats are reliable and feasible in the Hershberger assay.

    PubMed

    Yamada, T; Sunami, O; Kunimatsu, T; Kamita, Y; Okuno, Y; Seki, T; Nakatsuka, I; Matsuo, M

    2001-05-11

    The rodent Hershberger assay has been used predominantly by the pharmaceutical industry to evaluate androgenic and antiandrogenic chemicals for potential therapeutic use. However, this assay has not yet been formally validated and standardized for use in toxicology testing. There are many variations in the protocol used for this assay. The weight of androgen-dependent tissues is a definitive endpoint in the Hershberger assay. To find out the reliable assay protocol with feasibility, although many possible factors may affect assay reliability, the present study consist of a series of three separate experiments focused on method of dissection and weighing of accessory sex glands (ASGs: ventral and dorso-lateral prostate, seminal vesicles together with coagulating glands, and Cowper's glands), animal age and number of doses. Furthermore, male pubertal assay, an alternative to the Hershberger assay, was also examined its reliability. Experiment 1 explored whether reliably accurate ASG weights can be obtained after formalin fixation. The ASGs were collected from castrated male rats (11 weeks of age) treated daily with corn oil, or testosterone propionate (TP, 0.25 mg/kg/day, s.c.) and p,p'-DDE (0 or 100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 5 days. One day after the final treatment, the ASGs were removed carefully and weighed separately, and then fixed overnight in a 10% neutral-buffered formalin and weighed again. After that, the tissues were dried overnight in an oven and weighed again. A high correlation between fresh and fixed tissue weights, and a high correlation between fixed and dried tissue weights were noted. The changes in the tissue weight due to fixation were marginal and were proportional to the fresh weights of the individual tissue. Standard deviation of the fixed tissue weight in each group and the magnitude of responses to TP or p,p'-DDE in fixed tissues were equivalent to those in fresh or dried tissues. These findings indicate that formalin fixation does not interfere with interpretation of assay results, and this procedure was used in the subsequent experiments. Experiments 2 and 3 explored whether animal age or treatment duration altered assay sensitivity. In Experiment 2, antiandrogenic effect of p,p'-DDE (100 mg/kg/day) was detected after 5-and 10-day treatment irrespective of animal age (7 vs 11 weeks). In Experiment 3, antiandrogenic effects of flutamide (1 and 10 mg/kg/day) and p,p'-DDE (10 and 100 mg/kg/day) were compared between two different protocols, the 10-day assay using peripubertal rats and the 5-day assay using young mature rats. Results demonstrated that both protocols could significantly detect antiandrogenic effects of flutamide and p,p'-DDE. These findings demonstrate that (1) dissection and weighing of ASGs after formalin fixation is reliable in the Hershberger assay, (2) when this procedure is used, the 5-day Hershberger assay using young mature rats, expected to be more feasible assay than the 10-day assay using peripubertal rats, is also reliable as well as the 10-day assay using peripubertal rats. Furthermore, we confirmed that male pubertal assay with use of dissection and weighing of fixed tissues also reliable. PMID:11337110

  17. Microtubules and protein secretion in rat lacrimal glands: localization of short-term effects of colchicine on the secretory process

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    The pathway and kinetics of the secretory protein transport in rat lacrimal exorbital gland have been established by an in vitro time- course radioautographic study of pulse-labeled protein secretion. The colchicine-sensitive steps have been localized by using the drug at various times with respect to the pulse labeling of proteins. Colchicine (10 microM) does not block any step of the secretory protein transport, but when introduced before the pulse it decreases the transfer of labeled proteins from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi area, suppressing their temporary accumulation in the Golgi area before any alteration of this organelle is detectable. Moreover, colchicine inhibits protein release only from the secretory granules formed in its presence because the peroxidase discharge is diminished 1 h after colchicine addition, and the secretion of newly synthesized proteins is strongly inhibited only when colchicine is introduced before secretory granule formation. Morphometric studies show that there is a great increase of secondary lysosomes, related to crinophagy, as early as 40-50 min after colchicine is added. However, changes in lysosomal enzymatic activities remained biochemically undetectable. We conclude that: (a) the labile microtubular system does not seem indispensable for protein transport in the rough endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi area but may facilitate this step, perhaps by maintaining the spatial organization of this area; and (b) in the lacrimal gland, colchicine inhibits protein release not by acting on the steps of secretion following the secretory granule formation, but by acting chiefly on the steps preceding secretory granule formation, perhaps by making the secretory granules formed in its presence incapable of discharging their content. PMID:7142282

  18. Effects of age and Reproductive Status on Tergal Gland Secretions in Queenless Honey bee Workers, Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis.

    PubMed

    Okosun, Olabimpe O; Yusuf, Abdullahi A; Crewe, Robin M; Pirk, Christian W W

    2015-10-01

    Secretions from tergal glands are part of a queen's pheromonal control of worker reproduction in honey bees. However, in queenless honey bee colonies, workers compete to gain pheromonal, and hence reproductive dominance, over nestmates with ontogenetic changes in their glandular secretions that affect the behavioral or physiological responses of other individuals. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we investigated for the first time the age-dependent changes in tergal gland secretions of queenless workers of the clonal lineage of Apis mellifera capensis and workers of A. m. scutellata. The reproductive status of honey bee workers was determined by recording the presence of spermathecae and the level of ovarian activation. The tergal gland chemicals identified in both A. m. scutellata workers and A. m. capensis clone workers were oleic acid, n-tricosene, n-pentacosene, and n-heptacosene, with three additional compounds, palmitic acid, n-heneicosene, and n-nonacosene, in A. m. capensis clones. We report ethyl esters as new compounds from honey bee worker tergal gland profiles; these compounds increased in amount with age. All A. m. capensis clone workers dissected had spermathecae and showed ovarian activation from day 4, while ovarian activation only started on day 7 for A. m. scutellata workers that had no spermathecae. Tergal gland secretions were present in higher quantities in bees with activated, rather than inactive ovaries. This suggests that tergal gland secretions from reproductive workers could act as releaser and primer pheromones in synergy with other glandular compounds to achieve pheromonal and reproductive dominance. PMID:26384295

  19. Seasonal Variation in Volatile Compound Profiles of Preen Gland Secretions of the Dark-eyed Junco

    E-print Network

    Ketterson, Ellen D.

    by hydrolyzing the waxes (mostly nonvolatile com- pounds) under basic conditions into acids, acid esters in hydrolyzed wax collected from the preen gland of the mute swan (Cygnus olor) (Odham, 1965) and also from alcohols were also recovered from hydrolyzed preen wax in a shorebird, the red knot (Calidris canutus

  20. Activation of immune cells in bovine mammary gland secretions by zymosan treated bovine serum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mastitis, caused by bacterial infection of the mammary gland, is a major disease of dairy cattle. The greatest risks of intramammary infection occur at the end of lactation and at the initiation of the next lactation when the cow calves. Treating serum with zymosan (yeast cell wall preparation) ca...

  1. Oral administration of royal jelly restores tear secretion capacity in rat blink-suppressed dry eye model by modulating lacrimal gland function.

    PubMed

    Imada, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Shigeru; Kitamura, Naoki; Shibuya, Izumi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Tears are secreted from the lacrimal gland (LG), a dysfunction in which induces dry eye, resulting in ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Honey bee products are used as a nutritional source in daily life and medicine; however, little is known about their effects on dry eye. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of honey bee products on tear secretion capacity in dry eye. We selected raw honey, propolis, royal jelly (RJ), pollen, or larva from commercially available honey bee products. Tear secretion capacity was evaluated following the oral administration of each honey bee product in a rat blink-suppressed dry eye model. Changes in tear secretion, LG ATP content, and LG mitochondrial levels were measured. RJ restored the tear secretion capacity and decrease in LG ATP content and mitochondrial levels to the largest extent. Royal jelly can be used as a preventative intervention for dry eye by managing tear secretion capacity in the LG. PMID:25243778

  2. Functional role of phenylacetic acid from metapleural gland secretions in controlling fungal pathogens in evolutionarily derived leaf-cutting ants.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Nash, David R; Higginbotham, Sarah; Estrada, Catalina; van Zweden, Jelle S; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Wcislo, William T; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2015-05-22

    Fungus-farming ant colonies vary four to five orders of magnitude in size. They employ compounds from actinomycete bacteria and exocrine glands as antimicrobial agents. Atta colonies have millions of ants and are particularly relevant for understanding hygienic strategies as they have abandoned their ancestors' prime dependence on antibiotic-based biological control in favour of using metapleural gland (MG) chemical secretions. Atta MGs are unique in synthesizing large quantities of phenylacetic acid (PAA), a known but little investigated antimicrobial agent. We show that particularly the smallest workers greatly reduce germination rates of Escovopsis and Metarhizium spores after actively applying PAA to experimental infection targets in garden fragments and transferring the spores to the ants' infrabuccal cavities. In vitro assays further indicated that Escovopsis strains isolated from evolutionarily derived leaf-cutting ants are less sensitive to PAA than strains from phylogenetically more basal fungus-farming ants, consistent with the dynamics of an evolutionary arms race between virulence and control for Escovopsis, but not Metarhizium. Atta ants form larger colonies with more extreme caste differentiation relative to other attines, in societies characterized by an almost complete absence of reproductive conflicts. We hypothesize that these changes are associated with unique evolutionary innovations in chemical pest management that appear robust against selection pressure for resistance by specialized mycopathogens. PMID:25925100

  3. Contribution of the secretory material of caecilian (amphibia: Gymnophiona) male Mullerian gland to motility of sperm: a study in Uraeotyphlus narayani.

    PubMed

    George, Jancy M; Smita, Mathew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2005-02-01

    Caecilians are a unique group of limbless burrowing amphibians with discontinuous distribution. Several caecilian species are viviparous, and all practice internal fertilization. In amniotic vertebrates the sperm undergo post-testicular physiological maturation when they are initiated into motility under the influence of an epididymal secretion. Further, during ejaculation mammalian sperm are suspended in a fluid secreted by the male accessory sex glands, viz., prostate gland and seminal vesicles. Caecilians lack comparable glands, but still practice internal fertilization. Uniquely, male caecilians retain the Mullerian ducts in the adults as a pair of functional glands. It has long been hypothesized, based on indirect evidence, that the Mullerian gland would be a male accessory sex gland, secreting a fluid in which sperm are suspended during ejaculation and which would also provide nutritional support to the ejaculated sperm. In the present study, the secretory material of the Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani was mixed with sperm obtained from the testis, and the changes in motility were recorded. Uraeotyphlus narayani sperm possess a perforatorium of the acrosome proceeding deep into the endonuclear canal of the nucleus. The midpiece is characterized by closely applied centrioles, the anterior ends of the axoneme and axial fiber, and a mitochondrial sheath. The long tail has an undulating membrane on one side, supported by the axoneme and an axial fiber. The live sperm possess a mitochondrial vesicle, also known as the cytoplasmic droplet, anywhere along the head and the midpiece, as in anuran sperm, which is shed from sperm that have ceased motility. Uraeotyphlus narayani sperm are motile the moment they are released directly from the testis, indicating that the sperm do not require post-testicular physiological maturation. On being mixed with the secretory material of the Mullerian gland, the spermatozoa are enhanced in speed as well as duration of motility. Therefore, the caecilian male Mullerian gland is considered to be the male accessory sex gland. PMID:15605393

  4. Physiological responses and characteristics of sperm collected after electroejaculation or transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands in anesthetized mouflons (Ovis musimon) and Iberian ibexes (Capra pyrenaica).

    PubMed

    Ungerfeld, Rodolfo; López-Sebastián, Antonio; Esteso, Milagros; Pradiee, Jorgea; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Castańo, Cristina; Labrador, Beatriz; Santiago-Moreno, Julián

    2015-10-15

    The objective was to characterize the stress response and the seminal parameters obtained with electroejaculation (EE) or transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands (TUMASG) in two captive but nondomestic ruminants, the mouflons and the Iberian ibex under general anesthesia. In mouflons, the physiological responses (heart and respiratory rate, rectal temperature, cortisol, creatine kinase, potassium and glucose concentrations) changed similarly with both procedures. The TUMASG procedure was faster than EE in mouflons (21.7 ± 1.4 vs. 12.4 ± 1.2 minutes, P < 0.01). In ibexes, respiratory rate, cortisol and creatine kinase concentration changes were greater with EE than with TUMASG (final respiratory rate: 62.7 ± 5.5 vs. 38.1 ± 5.6 breaths/min [P < 0.05]; final cortisol: 51.4 ± 5.1 vs. 25.3 ± 5.6 ng/mL [P < 0.001]; and final creatine kinase: 300.9 ± 99.9 vs. 87.1 ± 16.9 U/L [P < 0.001]). Electroejaculation provided better results in some sperm parameters (mouflons: sperm score: 3.4 ± 0.3 vs. 2.6 ± 0.2 [P < 0.01]; total number of sperm ejaculated: 982.4 ± 299 vs. 710.0 ± 542.2 [P < 0.05]; ibexes: sperm with progressive motility: 47.7 ± 6.2 vs. 20.5 ± 8.3 [P < 0.05]). The transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands appears to be an alternative technique to collect sperm from wild ruminants, reducing the need for electrical stimuli and thus decreasing the undesired responses of EE in the more sensitive species. On the other hand, better fresh sperm may be collected with EE. However, TUMASG provides practical advantages in animal welfare, firstly in these wild species more sensible to stress management and capture myopathy. PMID:26174035

  5. The Proteomes of Human Parotid and Submandibular/Sublingual Gland Salivas Collected as the Ductal Secretions

    PubMed Central

    Denny, Paul; Hagen, Fred K.; Hardt, Markus; Liao, Lujian; Yan, Weihong; Arellanno, Martha; Bassilian, Sara; Bedi, Gurrinder S.; Boontheung, Pinmannee; Cociorva, Daniel; Delahunty, Claire M.; Denny, Trish; Dunsmore, Jason; Faull, Kym F.; Gilligan, Joyce; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Halgand, Frédéric; Hall, Steven C.; Han, Xuemei; Henson, Bradley; Hewel, Johannes; Hu, Shen; Jeffrey, Sherry; Jiang, Jiang; Loo, Joseph A.; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Malamud, Daniel; Melvin, James E.; Miroshnychenko, Olga; Navazesh, Mahvash; Niles, Richard; Park, Sung Kyu; Prakobphol, Akraporn; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Richert, Megan; Robinson, Sarah; Sondej, Melissa; Souda, Puneet; Sullivan, Mark A.; Takashima, Jona; Than, Shawn; Wang, Jianghua; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Wolinsky, Lawrence; Xie, Yongming; Xu, Tao; Yu, Weixia; Ytterberg, Jimmy; Wong, David T.; Yates, John R.; Fisher, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Saliva is a body fluid with important functions in oral and general health. A consortium of three research groups catalogued the proteins in human saliva collected as the ductal secretions: 1166 identifications—914 in parotid and 917 in submandibular/sublingual saliva—were made. The results showed that a high proportion of proteins that are found in plasma and/or tears are also present in saliva along with unique components. The proteins identified are involved in numerous molecular processes ranging from structural functions to enzymatic/catalytic activities. As expected, the majority mapped to the extracellular and secretory compartments. An immunoblot approach was used to validate the presence in saliva of a subset of the proteins identified by mass spectrometric approaches. These experiments focused on novel constituents and proteins for which the peptide evidence was relatively weak. Ultimately, information derived from the work reported here and related published studies can be used to translate blood-based clinical laboratory tests into a format that utilizes saliva. Additionally, a catalogue of the salivary proteome of healthy individuals allows future analyses of salivary samples from individuals with oral and systemic diseases, with the goal of identifying biomarkers with diagnostic and/or prognostic value for these conditions; another possibility is the discovery of therapeutic targets. PMID:18361515

  6. CT and MR imaging of the adrenal glands in cortisol-secreting tumors.

    PubMed

    Lumachi, Franco; Marchesi, Paolo; Miotto, Diego; Motta, Raffaella

    2011-09-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS), first described by the neurosurgeon Harvey Cushing in the 1930s, is the result of chronic glucocorticoid excess. In patients with adreno-corticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent CS, bilateral hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex occurs, while in those with ACTH-independent primary CS, either adrenocortical tumors or primary adrenal hyperplasia can be observed. Cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors are more frequently adenomas, while adrenal carcinoma accounts for only 5% of cases. Unfortunately, no reliable endocrinological tests are available and no specific tumor markers exist to differentiate between benign and malignant adrenal tumors, so both computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies are currently required to localize and define adrenal lesions. Additional information to conventional imaging can be obtained using ą?F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, while percutaneous image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in some cases has shown a high accuracy in detecting malignancy and in confirming adrenal metastases. New PET tracers with selective affinity for the adrenal tissue are still under evaluation. Multidetector CT scan, with the combination of unenhanced and dynamic scans, represents the single most accurate modality for the detection and the characterization of adrenal adenomas. In these lesions, chemical-shift MR imaging produces a typical loss of signal intensity on out-of-phase breath-hold gradient-echo images in lipid-rich adenomas. For these lesions there is no difference between CT and MR imaging, while MR chemical shift imaging is very helpful in identifying the additional small group of adenomas where intracellular lipid content is minimal. PMID:21868539

  7. Absence of a direct role of phospholipid methylation in stimulus-secretion coupling and control of adenylate cyclase in guinea-pig and rat parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Padel, U; Unger, C; Söling, H D

    1982-10-15

    The present study was undertaken to investigate a possible involvement of phospholipid methyltransferases in the coupling of receptor-mediated stimulation to secretion. Phospholipid methyltransferases were assayed in isolated parotid acini in the presence of carbamoylcholine or isoprenaline. Carbamoylcholine reduced the incorporation of methyl groups into phospholipids, whereas isoprenaline showed no effect. Amylase secretion stimulated either by carbamoylcholine or by isoprenaline could not be affected by inhibitors of methyltransferases (3-deaza-adenosine alone or plus homocysteine thiolactone) under conditions where phospholipid methylation was strongly inhibited. The activity of adenylate cyclase in isolated parotid microsomal membranes was not inhibited or stimulated by S-adenosyl-homocysteine or -methionine respectively. These results indicate that phospholipid methylation does not play an essential role in stimulus-secretion coupling in the parotid gland. PMID:6186246

  8. Proteins and peptides of the salivary gland secretion of medicinal leeches Hirudo verbana, H. medicinalis, and H. orientalis.

    PubMed

    Baskova, I P; Kostrjukova, E S; Vlasova, M A; Kharitonova, O V; Levitskiy, S A; Zavalova, L L; Moshkovskii, S A; Lazarev, V N

    2008-03-01

    The protein and peptide composition of medicinal leech salivary gland secretion (SGS) was analyzed in preparations obtained in July from three species--Hirudo verbana, H. medicinalis, and H. orientalis. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (molecular mass 10-150 kD and pI 3-10) revealed no distinctions in the distribution of over 100 silver-stained proteins. Differences were noted only in intensity of 10 protein spots at 30-90 kD and pI 4.7-7.5. Mass spectrometric profiling of SGS of the three leech species using the Zip-Tip/golden chip scheme and cation-exchanging chips CM-10 revealed over 50 components in SGS of each of the three leech species. It was noted that 30-40% of the individual masses of the SGS of each leech species fall within the masses present in SGS of at least one of the two other species. This rather small part of the total mass may be indicative of a high polymorphism of amino acid sequences or a high frequency of posttranslational modifications of the SGS proteins and peptides. Calculation of Jacquard's coefficient showed that H. medicinalis and H. orientalis are closest to each other in SGS composition, which is consistent with data in the literature on the phylogenetic relationship between these two species of medicinal leech. Comparison of detected molecular masses with those of six known biologically active compounds produced by medicinal leeches revealed their uneven distribution in SGS of each of the three medicinal leech species. This opens prospects for using certain species of medicinal leech for targeted therapy of various pathologies. PMID:18393768

  9. Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Literature from the past 168 years has been filtered to provide a unified summary of the regional distribution of cutaneous water and electrolyte losses. The former occurs via transepidermal water vapour diffusion and secretion from the eccrine sweat glands. Daily insensible water losses for a standardised individual (surface area 1.8 m2) will be 0.6–2.3 L, with the hands (80–160 g.h?1) and feet (50–150 g.h?1) losing the most, the head and neck losing intermediate amounts (40–75 g.h?1) and all remaining sites losing 15–60 g.h?1. Whilst sweat gland densities vary widely across the skin surface, this same individual would possess some 2.03 million functional glands, with the highest density on the volar surfaces of the fingers (530 glands.cm?2) and the lowest on the upper lip (16 glands.cm?2). During passive heating that results in a resting whole-body sweat rate of approximately 0.4 L.min?1, the forehead (0.99 mg.cm?2.min?1), dorsal fingers (0.62 mg.cm?2.min?1) and upper back (0.59 mg.cm?2.min?1) would display the highest sweat flows, whilst the medial thighs and anterior legs will secrete the least (both 0.12 mg.cm?2.min?1). Since sweat glands selectively reabsorb electrolytes, the sodium and chloride composition of discharged sweat varies with secretion rate. Across whole-body sweat rates from 0.72 to 3.65 mg.cm?2.min?1, sodium losses of 26.5–49.7 mmol.L?1 could be expected, with the corresponding chloride loss being 26.8–36.7 mmol.L?1. Nevertheless, there can be threefold differences in electrolyte losses across skin regions. When exercising in the heat, local sweat rates increase dramatically, with regional glandular flows becoming more homogeneous. However, intra-regional evaporative potential remains proportional to each local surface area. Thus, there is little evidence that regional sudomotor variations reflect an hierarchical distribution of sweating either at rest or during exercise. PMID:23849497

  10. The Effect of Isoprenaline and Pilocarpine on (a) Bronchial Mucus-secreting Tissue and (b) Pancreas, Salivary Glands, Heart, Thymus, Liver and Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Sturgess, J.; Reid, L.

    1973-01-01

    The effect was followed in the rat of 6 or 12 injections of isoprenaline (IPN), at a dose of 10 or 25 mg, and pilocarpine (PCP) at a dose of 10 mg. In some respects the effects are similar, in others strikingly dissimilar. IPN and PCP each increase bronchial submucosal gland size and the number of goblet cells previously thought not to be under nervous control. Isoprenaline increases goblet cells containing acid glycoprotein, the PCP all types: IPN increases small acini in the gland, PCP large ones. The IPN effect was apparent even under germ-free conditions. After 12 injections of PCP the secretory cells appeared “exhausted” and relatively empty of secretion. A similar picture was seen in the pancreas and the salivary glands—hypertrophy after IPN or 6 injections of PCP, exhaustion after 12 of PCP. In the heart, IPN caused an increase in ventricular weight (the right more affected than the left), increase in fibre size and a minor degree of myocardial damage; PCP caused only dilatation. After 6 injections, both IPN and PCP reduced thymic weight; this had recovered after 12 injections. The effect of PCP seems to be at least in part directly on discharge; IPN seems to affect synthesis. This is the first demonstration of goblet cell increase by drug effect. These changes are considered in relation to control of mucus secretion and to their relevance to cystic fibrosis. PMID:4726092

  11. Thin-layer chromatography assessing feeding stimulation by labial gland secretion compared to synthetic chemicals in the subterranean termite Reticulitermes santonensis.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, J; Kaib, M

    2001-01-01

    The labial gland of the French subterranean termite Reticulitermes santonensis De Feytaud contains a polar, heat-resistent, and persistent chemical signal that is released onto the food during food exploitation and stimulates feeding in nestmates. Separation of the labial gland secretion by thin-layer chromatography on cellulose plates revealed that the secretion contains components with reducing and amino groups. In feeding bioassays conducted on the cellulose plate after TLC, termites preferred the area between Rf 0.46 and 0.88 (biologically active zone) for feeding, indicating the location of the feeding-stimulating signal. Thirty-five synthetic chemicals with similar chemical properties as the feeding-stimulating signal were analyzed with TLC. None of them covered the biologically active zone. Therefore, all chemical classes tested, such as sugars, amino acids, and salts, are unlikely as possible sources for the signal structure. In feeding choice tests with synthetic chemicals, termites showed clear feeding preference only for sugarlike components with physiologically excessive concentrations of 10 mmol and 100 mmol. Amino acids induced only light feeding preference. The intensity of feeding stimulation by the natural signal from the labial gland as compared to synthetic phagostimulants is discussed. PMID:11382062

  12. Lipopolysaccharides, cytokines, and nitric oxide affect secretion of prostaglandins and leukotrienes by bovine mammary gland during experimentally induced mastitis in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska-Tomala, K K; Bah, M M; Jankowska, K; Lukasik, K; Warmowski, P; Galvao, A M; Skarzynski, D J

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), interleukin-1-alpha (IL-1?), and nitric oxide donor (NONOate) on both in vivo and in vitro secretion of prostaglandin (PG)E2, PGF2?, leukotriene (LT)B4, and LTC4 by the bovine mammary gland. In the first experiment, tissues isolated from the teat cavity and lactiferous sinus were treated in vitro with LPS (10 ng/mL), TNF (10 ng/mL), IL-1? (10 ng/mL), NONOate (10(-4) M), and the combination of TNF + IL-1? + NONOate for 4 or 8 h. PGE2 or PGF2? secretion was stimulated by all treatments (P < 0.05) excepting NONOate alone, which did not stimulate PGF2? secretion. Moreover, all factors increased LTB4 and LTC4 secretion (P < 0.05). In the second experiment, mastitis was experimentally mimicked in vivo by repeated (12 h apart) intramammary infusions (5 mL) of (1) sterile saline; (2) 250-?g LPS; (3) 1-?g/mL TNF; (4) 1-?g/mL IL-1?; (5) 12.8-?g/mL NONOate; and (6) TNF + IL-1? + NONOate into 2 udder quarters. All infused factors changed PGE2, 13,14-dihydro,15-keto-PGF2?, and LT concentrations in blood plasma collected from the caudal vena cava, the caudal superficial epigastric (milk) vein, the jugular vein, and the abdominal aorta (P < 0.05). In summary, LPS and other inflammatory mastitis mediators modulate PG and LT secretion by bovine mammary gland in both in vivo and in vitro studies. PMID:25935895

  13. The elasmobranch rectal gland secretes a plasma-hypertonic solution that is generally considered to play a major role in

    E-print Network

    Evans, David H.

    scyliorhinin II (Anderson et al., 1995). At least in S. acanthias, natriuretic peptides (NPs) enhance gland constriction. Subsequent addition of porcine C-type natriuretic peptide dilated the rings, but two prostanoids peptide (VIP) was a potent secretagogue for the isolated, perfused rectal gland of S. acanthias (Stoff et

  14. Sexual behavior attenuates the effects of chronic stress in body weight, testes, sexual accessory glands, and plasma testosterone in male rats.

    PubMed

    Retana-Márquez, S; Vigueras-Villaseńor, R M; Juárez-Rojas, L; Aragón-Martínez, A; Torres, G Reyes

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether continuous sexual behavior could attenuate the effects of chronic stress on spermatogenesis, sexual glands, plasma testosterone and corticosterone in sexually experienced male rats. Rats were exposed to stress by immersion in cold water (ICW) daily for 20 or 50 consecutive days. Plasma testosterone and corticosterone, masculine sexual behavior, as well as the number of offspring, the epithelial area of seminiferous, prostatic and seminal glands were assessed. In stressed males, body and testicular weights decreased, male sexual behavior was disrupted, and adrenal weights increased. In males stressed for 50 days, prostate and seminal glands had lower weights compared with controls. Prostate and seminal epithelial areas also decreased in these males. Seminiferous tubules in testes from rats stressed for 20 or 50 days showed several degenerative signs, such as vacuoles in the basal epithelium, with picnotic indicia; moderate to severe exfoliation of degenerative germinal cells in the tubule lumen was also observed. In males stressed for 50 days a significant decrease in seminiferous epithelial area was observed from stages I-VIII, regardless of copulation. The litters from females that copulated with males stressed for 50 days decreased significantly. Chronic stress caused increase in plasma levels of corticosterone, which were higher in males stressed for 20 days than in males stressed for 50 days. Testosterone decreased in stressed males and it was lower in males stressed for 50 days. In stressed males allowed to copulate, body and testicular weights were similar to controls. Adrenal, seminal glands, and prostate weights, as well as epithelial areas of males stressed for 50 days allowed to copulate were also similar to controls. Corticosterone was lower than in males stressed for 50 days, but still higher than in controls. Testosterone in males stressed for 50 days and allowed to copulate was higher than in stressed males not allowed to copulate and control males without copulation, but still lower than in control copulating males. These results show that chronic stress causes germ cell loss in testes and a decrease in prostate and seminal epithelium, possibly as a result of testosterone decrease, affecting fertility. Continuous copulation can attenuate the effects of stress on testosterone levels and on the epithelial area in male sexual glands, but not on the seminiferous epithelium after 50 days of stress. PMID:25236886

  15. ZnT4 (SLC30A4)-null ("lethal milk") mice have defects in mammary gland secretion and hallmarks of precocious involution during lactation.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Nicholas H; Lee, Sooyeon; Hennigar, Stephen R; Kelleher, Shannon L

    2016-01-01

    During lactation, highly specialized secretory mammary epithelial cells (MECs) produce and secrete huge quantities of nutrients and nonnutritive factors into breast milk. The zinc (Zn) transporter ZnT4 (SLC30A4) transports Zn into the trans-Golgi apparatus for lactose synthesis, and across the apical cell membrane for efflux from MECs into milk. This is consistent with observations in "lethal milk" (lm/lm) mice, which have a truncation mutation in SLC30A4, and present with not only low milk Zn concentration, but also smaller mammary glands, decreased milk volume, and lactation failure by lactation day 2. However, the molecular underpinnings of these defects are not understood. Here, we used lactating C57BL/6J(lm/lm) (ZnT4-null) mice to explore the consequences of a ZnT4-null phenotype on mammary gland function during early lactation. Lactating C57BL/6J(lm/lm) mice had significantly fewer, smaller, and collapsed alveoli comprising swollen, lipid-filled MECs during early lactation. These defects were associated with decreased Akt expression and STAT5 activation, indicative of defects in MEC secretion. In addition, increased expression of ZnT2, TNF-?, and cleaved e-cadherin concomitant with increased activation of STAT3 implicated the loss of ZnT4 in precocious activation of involution. Collectively, our study indicates that the loss of ZnT4 has profound consequences on MEC secretion and may promote tissue remodeling in the mammary gland during early lactation. PMID:26538236

  16. First Transcriptome of the Testis-Vas Deferens-Male Accessory Gland and Proteome of the Spermatophore from Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Bissinger, Brooke W.; Egekwu, Noble; Donohue, Kevin V.; Khalil, Sayed M.; Roe, R. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Ticks are important vectors of numerous human diseases and animal diseases. Feeding stimulates spermatogenesis, mating and insemination of male factors that trigger female reproduction. The physiology of male reproduction and its regulation of female development are essentially a black box. Several transcriptomes have catalogued expression of tick genes in the salivary glands, synganglion and midgut but no comprehensive investigation has addressed male reproduction and mating. Consequently, a new global approach using transcriptomics, proteomics, and quantitative gene expression is needed to understand male reproduction and stimulation of female reproduction. This first transcriptome to the reproductive biology of fed male ticks, Dermacentor variabilis, was obtained by 454 pyrosequencing (563,093 reads, 12,804 contigs). Gene Ontology (Biological Processes level III) recognized 3,866 transcripts in 73 different categories; spermiogenesis; spermatogenesis; peptidases, lipases and hydrolases; oxidative and environmental stress; immune defense; and protein binding. Reproduction-associated genes included serine/threonine kinase, metalloendoproteinases, ferritins, serine proteases, trypsin, cysteine proteases, serpins, a cystatin, GPCR and others. qRT-PCR showed significant upregulation from unfed versus fed adult male reproductive organs of zinc metalloprotease, astacin metalloprotease and serine protease, enzymes important in spermiogenesis and mating activity in insects, as well as a GPCR with the greatest similarity to a SIFamide receptor known to be important in regulating courtship behavior in Drosophila. Proteomics on these organs and the spermatophore by tryptic digestion/Liquid chromatography/Mass spectrometry/Mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) demonstrated expression of many of the same messages found by 454 sequencing, supporting their identification, and revealed differences in protein distribution in the reproductive system versus the spermatophore. We found Ef? but no EF ? in the transcriptome and neither of these proteins in the spermatophore. Thus, the previously described model for male regulation of female reproduction may not apply to other ticks. A new paradigm is needed to explain male stimulation of female tick reproduction. PMID:21949745

  17. Identification of (Z)-4- and 1-tridecene in the metathoracic gland secretions of stink bugs employing the GC/FT-IR technique.

    PubMed

    Fávaro, Carla F; Zarbin, Paulo H G

    2013-09-01

    The composition of stink bug allomones is similar for most species and includes hydrocarbons, as well as saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and esters. Analysis of extracts of the metathoracic glands of seven pentatomid species from different genera by gas chromatography/Fourier transform-infrared (GC/FT-IR) showed that the compound previously thought to be 1-tridecene actually showed characteristic bands of an internal as well as terminal double bond, the former compound having (Z)-configuration. The mass spectrum of an epoxy-derivative of the natural material demonstrated that the internal double bound was located at C4. GC/FT-IR and co-injections with synthetic standards on different capillary columns proved that all these stink bugs had 1-tridecene and (Z)-4-tridecene in their defensive secretions. PMID:23943279

  18. Matching accessories.

    PubMed

    Foord, Steven M

    2003-07-01

    Heterodimerization enhances the complexity of ligand recognition and diversity of signaling responses of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Many accessory proteins (for ion channels or GPCRs) appear to associate with their partners relatively early in the process whereby proteins are transported to the cell surface; their roles in modulating function may have evolved out of simple proximity to a protein that once upon a time they either facilitated or accompanied through the maturation process. The receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) are a family of single-transmembrane accessory proteins that heterodimerize with GPCRs and, thereby, allow individual GPCRs to recognize multiple ligands and to activate various signaling pathways in response to ligand binding. The M10 family of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class 1b proteins has recently been shown to associate with murine vomeronasal V2R receptors, as well as to escort them to the cell surface. The exact role of M10 in modulating V2R function (or vice versa) remains to be determined. PMID:12855771

  19. Lacrimal gland (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The lacrimal gland lies within the orbit on the outer portion of the upper eye. The gland continually secretes tears which moisten, lubricate, and protect the surface of the eye. Excess tears drain into small ducts which empty into the nasal cavity.

  20. Mammary Glands: Developmental Changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mammary gland progresses from the accumulation of a few cells in the embryonic ectoderm to a highly arborescent tubulo-alveolar gland capable of secreting a highly nutritious product for consumption. Throughout this progression, various changes occur during each developmental stage: prenatal, pr...

  1. Secretions from the ventral eversible gland of Spodoptera exigua caterpillars activate defense-related genes and induce emission of volatile organic compounds in tomato, Solanum lycopersicum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant induced defense against herbivory are generally associated with metabolic costs that result in the allocation of photosynthates from growth and reproduction to the synthesis of defense compounds. Therefore, it is essential that plants are capable of sensing and differentiating mechanical injury from herbivore injury. Studies have shown that oral secretions (OS) from caterpillars contain elicitors of induced plant responses. However, studies that shows whether these elicitors originated from salivary glands or from other organs associated with feeding, such as the ventral eversible gland (VEG) are limited. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the secretions from the VEG gland of Spodoptera exigua caterpillars contain elicitors that induce plant defenses by regulating the expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other defense-related genes. To test this hypothesis, we quantified and compared the activity of defense-related enzymes, transcript levels of defense-related genes and VOC emission in tomato plants damaged by S. exigua caterpillars with the VEG intact (VEGI) versus plants damaged by caterpillars with the VEG ablated (VEGA). Results The quantified defense-related enzymes (i.e. peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and lipoxigenase) were expressed in significantly higher amounts in plants damaged by VEGI caterpillars than in plants damaged by VEGA caterpillars. Similarly, the genes that encode for the key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid and terpene synthase genes that regulate production of terpene VOCs, were up-regulated in plants damaged by VEGI caterpillars. Moreover, the OS of VEGA caterpillars were less active in inducing the expression of defense genes in tomato plants. Increased emissions of VOCs were detected in the headspace of plants damaged by VEGI caterpillars compared to plants damaged by VEGA caterpillars. Conclusion These results suggest that the VEG of S. exigua caterpillars contains elicitors of late plant defense signaling in tomato which trigger defense-related enzymatic activity, regulate expression of defense-related genes, and induce emission of plant VOCs. These signaling cascades may have important ramifications for plant-insect and tritrophic interactions. PMID:24885633

  2. The effect of water quality on the immunoreactivity of stress-response cells and gonadotropin-secreting cells in the pituitary gland of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Mostafa A; Ibrahim, Amal A E; Hashem, Amal M; Khalil, Noha A

    2015-03-01

    The present experiments investigated the effect of water quality characteristics on the condition factor, the ovarian activity, cortisol level, and the immunoreactivity of stress-response cells (adrenocorticotropic hormone; ACTH- and melanin stimulating hormone; MSH- and somatolactin; SL- secreting cells) and gonadotropin (GTH)-secreting cells in the pituitary gland of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. After 3 months of exposure to mixtures of water from different sources (Tap and Lake Manzalah waters), with high levels of minerals and heavy metals, water quality affected the number, size, and immunostaining of stress-response-immunoreactive (ir) cells and GTH-ir cells, which showed a dramatic decrease in their size. The integrated optical density (IOD) of immunoreactivity of MSH- and GTH- cells was significantly increased; however, it was significantly decreased for ACTH- and SL- cells. Also, high levels of cortisol were observed in females exposed to waters with high concentrations of minerals and heavy metals. In parallel, low values of gonadosomatic index (GSI%) and the ovarian histology revealed a decrease of maturing follicles concomitant with an increase of atretic follicles in females exposed to Lake Manzalah polluted water. Taken together, the increased activity of stress-response-ir pituitary cells, serum cortisol level and ovarian atretic follicles in response to elevated concentrations of minerals and heavy metals, supports the possible role of ACTH, MSH, and SL in the adaptive stress response of fish. Therefore, minerals and heavy metals must be considered when discussing tilapia aquaculture status. PMID:25675939

  3. Experimental Evidence That Ovary and Oviducal Gland Extracts Influence Male Agonistic Behavior

    E-print Network

    Boal, Jean

    Experimental Evidence That Ovary and Oviducal Gland Extracts Influence Male Agonistic Behavior factor originates in the ovary and perhaps the oviducal gland of the female reproductive tract of four female reproductive organs or glands: ovary, oviducal gland, nidamental gland, or accessory nida

  4. Milk secretion and ejection are impaired in the mammary gland of mice harboring a Cx43 mutant while expression and localization of tight and adherens junction proteins remain unchanged.

    PubMed

    Plante, Isabelle; Wallis, Andrea; Shao, Qing; Laird, Dale W

    2010-05-01

    During pregnancy, the integrity of the mammary gland epithelium must be maintained by the junctional nexus formed by gap, adherens, and tight junctions for proper alveologenesis. We have previously shown that mammary glands from Gja1(Jrt/+) mice, harboring a mutation in the Gja1 gene encoding connexin (Cx) 43, have reduced Cx43 gap junction function and are unable to release milk to the pups. We hypothesized that low levels of Cx43 in the mammary gland may also affect other mammary gland connexins, tight and adherens junction proteins, and alveolar architecture, thus contributing to the lactation defect. Surprisingly, the levels and/or localization of Cx26 (Gjb2), Cx30 (Gjb6), Cx32 (Gjb1), E-cadherin, P-cadherin, beta-catenin, claudin-1, and occludin were all unaffected by the decreased levels of Cx43 at parturition, suggesting no cross-talk to other connexins or junctional proteins in mutant mice mammary glands. Consistently, in mammary gland myoepithelial primary cultures or in Normal Rat Kidney (NRK) cells, tight and adherens junction protein levels and localization were unaffected by the expression of Cx43 mutants. However, whereas the architecture of the alveolar and ductal structures appeared to be normal in mutant mice, the presence of milk and cytoplasmic lipid droplets were frequently observed within the epithelium itself, suggesting a defect in the secretory process. Overall, these results suggest that proteins associated with tight and adherens junctions are unaffected by greatly reduced Cx43 gap junctions in the mammary gland epithelium, and they further suggest that the mammary gland defect in Cx43 mutant mice may extend to impaired milk secretion. PMID:20089884

  5. Seasonal variation in volatile compound profiles of preen gland secretions of the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis).

    PubMed

    Soini, Helena A; Schrock, Sara E; Bruce, Kevin E; Wiesler, Donald; Ketterson, Ellen D; Novotny, Milos V

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative stir bar sorptive extraction methodology, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and element-specific atomic emission detection (AED) were utilized to analyze seasonal changes in volatile components of preen oil secretions in Junco hyemalis. Juncos were held in long days to simulate breeding conditions, or short days to simulate nonbreeding conditions. Linear alcohols (C(10)-C(18)) were the major volatile compounds found in preen oil, and in both sexes their levels were higher when birds were housed on long as opposed to short days. Methylketones were found at lower levels, but were enhanced in both sexes during long days. Levels of 2-tridecanone, 2-tetradecanone, and 2-pentadecanone were also greater on long days, but only in males. Among carboxylic acids (C(12), C(14), and C(16)), linear but not branched acids showed some differences between the breeding and nonbreeding conditions, although the individual variation for acidic compounds was large. Qualitatively, more sulfur-containing compounds were found in males than females during the breeding season. Functionally, the large increase in linear alcohols in male and female preen oil during the breeding season may be an indication of altered lipid biosynthesis, which might signal reproductive readiness. Linear alcohols might also facilitate junco odor blending with plant volatiles in the habitat to distract mammalian predators. Some of the volatile compounds from preen oil, including linear alcohols, were also found on the wing feather surface, along with additional compounds that could have been of either metabolic or environmental origin. PMID:17146717

  6. Insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in the bovine mammary gland: Receptors, endogenous secretion, and appearance in milk

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    This is the first study to characterize both insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) in bovine milk, to characterize the IGF-I receptor in the dry and lactating mammary gland, and to report de novo synthesis and secretion of IGF-I and IGFBP from normal mammary tissue. Immunoreactive IGF-I was principally associated with 45 kDa IGFBP in milk. Multiparous cows had a higher IGF-I concentration of 307 ng/ml than primiparous cows at 147 ng/ml. IGF-I concentration on day 56 of lactation was 34 ng/ml for combined parity groups. At parturition, IGF-I mass in blood and milk pools was 1.4 and 1.2 mg, respectively. Binding of {sup 125}I-IGF-I was specific for IGF-I with anIC{sub 50} of 2.2 ng which was a 10- and 1273-fold greater affinity than IGF-II and insulin, respectively. Association constants, as determined by Scatchard analysis, were similar for both pregnant and lactating cows at 3.5 and 4.0 L/nM, respectively. In addition, estimated mean receptor concentration was 0.25 and 0.23 pM/mg protein for pregnant and lactating cows, respectively. In a survey of mammary microscomes prepared from 48 cows, {sup 125}I-IGF-I binding declined with progressing lactation and a similar trend was observed during pregnancy.

  7. Urea concentration in minor mucous gland secretions and the effect of salivary film velocity on urea metabolism by Streptococcus vestibularis in an artificial plaque.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, L M; Dawes, C

    1991-09-01

    Our purpose was to determine the urea concentration in minor mucous gland (MMG) secretions and the pH at proximal and distal aspects of the lower surface of artificial plaque in vitro during infusion of urea solutions over the surface, at different film velocities. Saliva is present in the mouth as a slowly moving film (ca. 0.1 mm thick) with an estimated velocity in the range of 0.8-8.0 mm/min. At low velocities, due to the accumulation of bacterial products, a progressive increase in their concentration may occur in both the plaque and the overlying salivary film at the distal edge (where the film leaves the plaque). S. vestibularis, an oral micro-organism possessing ureolytic activity, was combined with 1% agarose, to give a urease Vmax similar to that of natural plaque. The artificial plaque was in the chamber (6.0 x 6.0 square and 0.5 or 1.5 mm deep) of a diffusion apparatus, and a urea-containing artificial saliva (3.3 or 13.2 mmol/l) was infused over the surface, as a film 0.1 mm deep, at velocities of 0.8, 8.2 and 86.2 mm/min. At the lower (physiologically normal) urea concentration and the two lower film velocities, most urea appeared to be metabolized at the proximal end of the plaque, which developed a higher pH. At the higher urea concentration, and a film velocity of 8 mm/min, a higher pH was found at the distal end. This was probably due to the combination of greater urea availability and a reduced rate of ammonia loss distally. At a film velocity of 86.2 mm/min, proximal/distal pH gradients did not develop.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1832451

  8. The Laser Accessory Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Ashvin

    1988-09-01

    Wandering through the exhibit hall yesterday, I noticed that if you look at the laser companies and if you look at the accessory companies, there are pretty much the same number of accessory booths as well as the laser companies. There was one difference. Laser company booths are all sexy looking, very flashy, big booths. Whereas if you look at the accessories booths, they were small, not so prominent.

  9. Characterization and expression analysis of a gene encoding a secreted lipase-like protein expressed in the salivary glands of larval Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Hessian fly is a destructive pest of wheat particularly in the soft-winter-wheat region of the United States. In a salivary gland transcriptomics study we identified a full-length cDNA encoding a lipase-like protein expressed in the salivary glands of the larval Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructo...

  10. Dopamine in the ink defence system of Sepia officinalis: biosynthesis, vesicular compartmentation in mature ink gland cells, nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP-induced depletion and fate in secreted ink.

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Gabriella; Poli, Annarita; Di Cosmo, Anna; d'Ischia, Marco; Palumbo, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The biosynthesis, localization and fate of catecholamines in the ink gland of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis were investigated by combined biochemical and immunohistocytochemical methodologies. HPLC analysis of crude ink gland extracts indicated the presence of dopa (2.18+/-0.82 nmol/mg of protein) and DA (dopamine, 0.06+/-0.02 nmol/mg of protein), but no detectable noradrenaline or adrenaline. DA was shown to derive from L-tyrosine, according to experiments performed by incubating intact ink glands with [L-14C]tyrosine. The biosynthetic process involves a tyrosine hydroxylase and a dopa decarboxylase pathway and is independent of tyrosinase. The tyrosine hydroxylase activity was detected under conditions of tyrosinase suppression in the cytosolic fraction, but not in the melanosomal fraction, of ink gland extracts, and the presence of the enzyme was confirmed by Western-blot analysis. Dopa and DA were found to be released from the ink glands by processes controlled through the NMDA-nitric oxide-cGMP (where NMDA stands for N -methyl-D-aspartate) signalling pathway, as apparent from incubation experiments performed with [L-14C]tyrosine in the presence of NMDA, diethylamine NONOate (diethylamine diazeniumdiolate), a nitric oxide donor, 8-bromo-cGMP or a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor. Immunohistochemical results coupled with electron microscopy indicated that DA was concentrated in vesicles specifically localized in the mature melanin-producing cells of the ink gland proximal to the lumen and separated from the melanin-containing melanosomes. NMDA receptor stimulation or exposure to an NO donor caused a marked loss of DA immunoreactivity in mature cells, consistent with a release process. In the lumen of the ink gland, where mature exhausted cells pour their contents, DA immunoreactivity was found to be associated with the melanin granules, due apparently to physical adsorption. Overall, these results point to DA as a marker of cell maturation in Sepia ink gland subject to release by the NO/cGMP signalling pathway, and disclose apparently overlooked DA-melanin interactions in secreted ink of possible relevance to the defence mechanism. PMID:14670074

  11. Photoacoustic imaging of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Rich, Laurie J; Seshadri, Mukund

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we utilized photoacoustic imaging (PAI) with co-registered ultrasound (US) to non-invasively assess salivary gland function in vivo. A significant increase in salivary gland oxygen saturation was observed on PAI within minutes after gustatory stimulation of healthy mice reflective of the hyperemic response associated with secretion of saliva. Good correlation was seen between PAI and Doppler sonography. Salivary adenoid cystic carcinomas showed higher oxygen saturation compared to surrounding salivary gland tissue. Our results demonstrate the potential clinical utility of PAI for visualization of salivary gland physiology and pathology. PMID:26417488

  12. Photoacoustic imaging of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Laurie J.; Seshadri, Mukund

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we utilized photoacoustic imaging (PAI) with co-registered ultrasound (US) to non-invasively assess salivary gland function in vivo. A significant increase in salivary gland oxygen saturation was observed on PAI within minutes after gustatory stimulation of healthy mice reflective of the hyperemic response associated with secretion of saliva. Good correlation was seen between PAI and Doppler sonography. Salivary adenoid cystic carcinomas showed higher oxygen saturation compared to surrounding salivary gland tissue. Our results demonstrate the potential clinical utility of PAI for visualization of salivary gland physiology and pathology. PMID:26417488

  13. Neural control of shark rectal gland.

    PubMed

    Stoff, J S; Silva, P; Lechan, R; Solomon, R; Epstein, F H

    1988-08-01

    Veratrum alkaloids stimulated salt secretion by the isolated perfused rectal gland of Squalus acanthias. Stimulation by veratrine was prevented by the nerve channel blockers tetrodotoxin and procaine and was not evident in a preparation of dispersed rectal gland cells. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-like immunoreactivity was detected by histological techniques in neuronal tissue within the rectal gland. Veratrine stimulation caused the release of immunoreactive VIP into the venous effluent of perfused glands. The stimulatory action of veratrine was inhibited by somatostatin, another neuropeptide known to be present in nerves of Squalus rectal gland. These findings suggest the likelihood of neural modulation of rectal gland function. PMID:2900607

  14. Sarcoidosis with salivary gland involvement: biochemical studies on parotid saliva.

    PubMed

    Beeley, J A; Chisholm, D M

    1976-08-01

    Parotid saliva from a patient suffering from sarcoidosis with salivary gland involvement has been shown to have a decreased level of alpha-amylase but increased levels of albumin and lysozyme. These observations suggest that in addition to impaired gland function, gland damage as a result of inflammation had occurred which permitted increased passage of constituents from serum into the gland secretion. PMID:956685

  15. REGULAR ARTICLE Calcitonin is expressed in the chicken pituitary gland

    E-print Network

    Ramachandran, Ramesh

    REGULAR ARTICLE Calcitonin is expressed in the chicken pituitary gland: influence of gonadal in mammals or by the ultimobranchial gland in chickens. CT is also expressed by the pituitary gland in rats) secretion. Gonadal steroids influence CT expression in the rat pituitary gland. However, the expression

  16. BMP-regulated exosomes from Drosophila male reproductive glands reprogram female behavior

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Laura; Redhai, Siamak; Leiblich, Aaron; Fan, Shih-Jung; Perera, Sumeth M.W.; Patel, Rachel; Gandy, Carina; Wainwright, S. Mark; Morris, John F.; Hamdy, Freddie; Goberdhan, Deborah C.I.

    2014-01-01

    Male reproductive glands secrete signals into seminal fluid to facilitate reproductive success. In Drosophila melanogaster, these signals are generated by a variety of seminal peptides, many produced by the accessory glands (AGs). One epithelial cell type in the adult male AGs, the secondary cell (SC), grows selectively in response to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. This signaling is involved in blocking the rapid remating of mated females, which contributes to the reproductive advantage of the first male to mate. In this paper, we show that SCs secrete exosomes, membrane-bound vesicles generated inside late endosomal multivesicular bodies (MVBs). After mating, exosomes fuse with sperm (as also seen in vitro for human prostate-derived exosomes and sperm) and interact with female reproductive tract epithelia. Exosome release was required to inhibit female remating behavior, suggesting that exosomes are downstream effectors of BMP signaling. Indeed, when BMP signaling was reduced in SCs, vesicles were still formed in MVBs but not secreted as exosomes. These results demonstrate a new function for the MVB–exosome pathway in the reproductive tract that appears to be conserved across evolution. PMID:25154396

  17. Pituitary gland

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... gland is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus decides which hormones the pituitary should release by sending it either ... the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland releases the following hormones: GH (growth hormone) – increases size of muscle and ...

  18. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, J.J.

    1989-09-05

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

  19. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, Joseph J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention.

  20. Abstract The lactating mammary gland of the African el-ephant (Loxodonta africana) has been studied with a panel

    E-print Network

    Pretoria, University of

    Abstract The lactating mammary gland of the African el- ephant (Loxodonta africana) has been Mammary gland · Lactation · Secretion · Proliferation · Apoptosis · Milk · African elephant, Loxodonta · Stuart Patton Histo- and cytophysiology of the lactating mammary gland of the African elephant (Loxodonta

  1. A thermoactive secreted phospholipase A? purified from the venom glands of Scorpio maurus: relation between the kinetic properties and the hemolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Louati, Hanen; Krayem, Najeh; Fendri, Ahmed; Aissa, Imen; Sellami, Mohamed; Bezzine, Sofiane; Gargouri, Youssef

    2013-09-01

    A lipolytic activity was located in the scorpion venom glands (telsons), from which a phospholipase A? (Sm-PLVG) was purified. Like known phospholipases A? from scorpion venom, which are 14-18 kDa proteins, the purified Scorpio maurus-Phospholipase from Venom Glands (Sm-PLVG) has a molecular mass of 17 kDa containing long and short chains linked by disulfide bridge. It has a specific activity of 5500 U/mg measured at 47 °C and pH 8.5 using phosphatidylcholine as a substrate in presence of 8 mM NaTDC and 12 mM CaCl?. The NH?-terminal amino acid sequences of the purified Sm-PLVG showed similarities with those of long and short chains of some previously purified phospholipases from venom scorpions. Moreover, the Sm-PLVG exhibits hemolytic activity toward human, rabbit or rat erythrocytes. This hemolytic activity was related to its ability to interact with phospholipids' monolayer at high surface pressure. These properties are similar to those of phospholipases isolated from snake venoms. PMID:23831286

  2. Lacrimal glands in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Alghadyan, Abdulrahman; Aljindan, Mohana; Alhumeidan, Adra; Kazi, Gholam; Mcmhon, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a systemic disease involving defective mucus secretion in different parts of the body resulting in a wide range of systemic complications. We are presenting the histology of the lacrimal gland from a 25 year old male with cystic fibrosis using light microscopy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report. PMID:24227971

  3. Biological Roles of Uterine Glands in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, uterine receptivity, and stromal cell decidualization in humans and animal models. The infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss observed in the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model unequivocally supports a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid in survival and development of the conceptus. Further, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation as well as stromal cell decidualization. Similarly in humans, uterine glands and their secretory products are likely critical regulators of blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus growth and development during the first trimester. Circumstantial evidence suggests that deficient glandular activity may be a causative factor in pregnancy failure and complications in humans. Thus, an increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of fertility and pregnancy problems in mammals. PMID:24959816

  4. Microscopy of the echidna sublingual glands.

    PubMed

    Krause, William J

    2011-10-01

    The secretory units and duct system of the echidna sublingual glands exhibit subtle architectural modifications to accommodate the viscous secretion produced by these glands. The glands are compound tubular glands, the secretory units of which are elongate with open lumina and consist only of mucous cells. Closely packed spindle-shaped myoepithelial cells invest the secretory units, but are absent around the ducts. The branched secretory tubules open into an abbreviated duct system characterized by wide lumina. Striated ducts normally associated with the second portion of the intralobular duct system are absent. The duct system shows the most obvious modification of general salivary gland architecture presumably to accommodate the viscous secretion propelled from the secretory units by surrounding myoepithelial cells. PMID:21671992

  5. Salivary Gland Development: A Template for Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vaishali N.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian salivary gland develops as a highly branched structure designed to produce and secrete saliva. This review will focus on research on mouse submandibular gland development and the translation of this basic research towards therapy for patients suffering from salivary hypofunction. Here we review the most recent literature that has enabled a better understanding of the mechanisms of salivary gland development. Additionally, we discuss approaches proposed to restore salivary function using gene and cell-based therapy. Increasing our understanding of the developmental mechanisms involved during development is critical to design effective therapies for regeneration and repair of damaged glands. PMID:24333774

  6. Adrenal glands

    MedlinePLUS

    ... produces epinephrine and norepinephrine, which are also called adrenaline and noradrenaline. When the glands produce more or less hormones than your body needs, you can become sick. Sometimes this happens ...

  7. Effects of Instrumental Insemination and Insemination Quantity on Dufour's Gland Chemical Profiles

    E-print Network

    Tarpy, David R.

    Effects of Instrumental Insemination and Insemination Quantity on Dufour's Gland Chemical Profiles- mental insemination and insemination quantity on the pheromone profiles of the Dufour's gland the chemical profiles of the Dufour's gland secretion. Moreover, workers were more attracted to Dufour's gland

  8. The physiology of salivary secretion.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Gordon B

    2016-02-01

    Saliva in the mouth is a biofluid produced mainly by three pairs of major salivary glands - the submandibular, parotid and sublingual glands - along with secretions from many minor submucosal salivary glands. Salivary gland secretion is a nerve-mediated reflex and the volume of saliva secreted is dependent on the intensity and type of taste and on chemosensory, masticatory or tactile stimulation. Long periods of low (resting or unstimulated) flow are broken by short periods of high flow, which is stimulated by taste and mastication. The nerve-mediated salivary reflex is modulated by nerve signals from other centers in the central nervous system, which is most obvious as hyposalivation at times of anxiety. An example of other neurohormonal influences on the salivary reflex is the circadian rhythm, which affects salivary flow and ionic composition. Cholinergic parasympathetic and adrenergic sympathetic autonomic nerves evoke salivary secretion, signaling through muscarinic M3 and adrenoceptors on salivary acinar cells and leading to secretion of fluid and salivary proteins. Saliva gland acinar cells are chloride and sodium secreting, and the isotonic fluid produced is rendered hypotonic by salivary gland duct cells as it flows to the mouth. The major proteins present in saliva are secreted by salivary glands, creating viscoelasticity and enabling the coating of oral surfaces with saliva. Salivary films are essential for maintaining oral health and regulating the oral microbiome. Saliva in the mouth contains a range of validated and potential disease biomarkers derived from epithelial cells, neutrophils, the microbiome, gingival crevicular fluid and serum. For example, cortisol levels are used in the assessment of stress, matrix metalloproteinases-8 and -9 appear to be promising markers of caries and periodontal disease, and a panel of mRNA and proteins has been proposed as a marker of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Understanding the mechanisms by which components enter saliva is an important aspect of validating their use as biomarkers of health and disease. PMID:26662479

  9. Salivary secretion and denture retention.

    PubMed

    Niedermeier, W H; Krämer, R

    1992-02-01

    Correlations between the retention of complete dentures and flow rates of the palatal and parotid glands were studied in 86 patients. The determination of secretion rates and forces of the forward leverage leading to a dislocation of the dentures showed a narrow correlation between the secretion of palatal glands and the retention of maxillary dentures. The retention of mandibular complete dentures is adversely influenced by the secretion rate of minor salivary glands. However, there is no correlation between the flow rate of parotid saliva and the retention of either denture. In addition, the medicinal stimulation of salivation showed that an increase of mucus secretion induced an improved retention of maxillary complete dentures. PMID:1538328

  10. 14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.25 Accessory attachments. The engine must operate properly with the accessory...

  11. 14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.25 Accessory attachments. The engine must operate properly with the accessory...

  12. Accessory Pancreatic Duct Patterns and Their Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Prasanna, Lokadolalu Chandracharya; Rajagopal, KV; Thomas, Huban R

    2015-01-01

    Context and Objective: Accessory pancreatic duct (APD) designed to reduce the pressure of major pancreatic duct by forming a secondary drainage channel. Few studies have mentioned the variant types of accessory ducts and their mode of formation, some of these have a clear clinical significance. Present study is aimed to evaluate the possible variations in the APD and its terminations. Materials and Methods: Forty formalin fixed adult human pancreas with duodenum in situ specimens were studied by injecting 1% aqueous eosin, followed by piece meal dissection of the head of the pancreas from posterior surface. Formation, tributaries, relations, and the termination of the accessory pancreatic duct were noted and photographed. Results: Accessory ducts revealed 50% belonged to long type, 22.5% were of short and ansa pancreatica type each, and embryonic type of duct pattern was seen in 5% specimens. 75% of long type ducts showed positive patency with eosin dye, followed by ansa type (44.4%), and least patency was found in short type (22.2%). With regard to the patency of the accessory pancreatic ducts towards their termination, we found 52.5% of the accessory ducts and 5% of the embryonic type pancreatic ducts were patent and in 42.5% of the specimen the ducts were obliterated. In 85% of specimens the minor duodenal papillae was anterosuperior to the major papilla and superior to the major papillae in 10% of the cases, and in 5% minor papillae was absent. The average distance between the two papillae was 2.35 cm. Conclusion: The knowledge of the complex anatomical relations of the gland with its duct, duodenum and bile ducts are essential for the surgeons and sinologists to plan and perform both the diagnostic as well as therapeutic procedures effectively. PMID:25954609

  13. [Neutral alpha-glucosidase, a specific marker for epididymal secretion in seminal pathology].

    PubMed

    Loko, F; Alihonou, E; Goufodji, B; Fagla, B; Hounton, M

    1997-12-01

    Semen samples were obtained from 153 patients attending the Centre de recherche en Reproduction Humaine et en Démographie (CRRHD, Bénin) and seminal neutral alpha glucosidase activity was evaluated. Semen contains testicular and accessory gland secretions. Oligozoospernia asthenozoospernia and leucospermia are involved in reducing the fertilizing ability of the spermatozoa. The present work was undertaken to evaluate the variations of seminal alpha glucosidase activity as a specific epididymal enzyme marker in these diseases. A significant positive correlation was demonstrated (P < 0.01) between alpha glucosidase activity and (1) number of spermatozoa in oligozoospermic and normozoospermic men (2) motility of spermatozoa in asthenozoospermic men. No correlation occurred between alpha glucosidase activity and leucospermia. The results of the present study suggest that alpha glucosidase specific activity of the semen was involved in the maturation and acquisition of motility by the germ cells. Otherwise, in our sample, epididymis is scarcely involved in various inflammatory diseases of the reproductive tract. PMID:9497607

  14. Developmental biology of uterine glands.

    PubMed

    Gray, C A; Bartol, F F; Tarleton, B J; Wiley, A A; Johnson, G A; Bazer, F W; Spencer, T E

    2001-11-01

    All mammalian uteri contain endometrial glands that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). In rodents, uterine secretory products of the endometrial glands are unequivocally required for establishment of uterine receptivity and conceptus implantation. Analyses of the ovine uterine gland knockout model support a primary role for endometrial glands and, by default, their secretions in peri-implantation conceptus survival and development. Uterine adenogenesis is the process whereby endometrial glands develop. In humans, this process begins in the fetus, continues postnatally, and is completed during puberty. In contrast, endometrial adenogenesis is primarily a postnatal event in sheep, pigs, and rodents. Typically, endometrial adenogenesis involves differentiation and budding of glandular epithelium from luminal epithelium, followed by invagination and extensive tubular coiling and branching morphogenesis throughout the uterine stroma to the myometrium. This process requires site-specific alterations in cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling as well as paracrine cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions that support the actions of specific hormones and growth factors. Studies of uterine development in neonatal ungulates implicate prolactin, estradiol-17 beta, and their receptors in mechanisms regulating endometrial adenogenesis. These same hormones appear to regulate endometrial gland morphogenesis in menstruating primates and humans during reconstruction of the functionalis from the basalis endometrium after menses. In sheep and pigs, extensive endometrial gland hyperplasia and hypertrophy occur during gestation, presumably to provide increasing histotrophic support for conceptus growth and development. In the rabbit, sheep, and pig, a servomechanism is proposed to regulate endometrial gland development and differentiated function during pregnancy that involves sequential actions of ovarian steroid hormones, pregnancy recognition signals, and lactogenic hormones from the pituitary or placenta. That disruption of uterine development during critical organizational periods can alter the functional capacity and embryotrophic potential of the adult uterus reinforces the importance of understanding the developmental biology of uterine glands. Unexplained high rates of peri-implantation embryonic loss in humans and livestock may reflect defects in endometrial gland morphogenesis due to genetic errors, epigenetic influences of endocrine disruptors, and pathological lesions. PMID:11673245

  15. New exocrine glands in ants: the hypostomal gland and basitarsal gland in the genus Melissotarsus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölldobler, Bert; Obermayer, Malu; Plowes, Nicola J. R.; Fisher, Brian L.

    2014-07-01

    Fisher and Robertson (Insect Soc 46: 78-83, 1999) discovered the production of silk-like secretions emerging from slit-shaped openings along the anterior margin of the ventral hypostoma of Melissotarsus ant workers. The current histological study describes a hitherto unknown hypostomal gland from which this silk-like substance originates. In addition, this study describes a new basitarsal gland in the three pairs of legs of Melissotarsus workers.

  16. The nasus gland: A new gland in soldiers of Angularitermes (Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae).

    PubMed

    Šobotník, Jan; Bourguignon, Thomas; Carrijo, Tiago F; Bordereau, Christian; Robert, Alain; K?ížková, Barbora; Constantini, Joice P; Cancello, Eliana M

    2015-09-01

    Termites have developed many exocrine glands, generally dedicated to defence or communication. Although a few of these glands occur in all termite species, or represent synapomorphies of larger clades, others are morphological innovations of a single species, or a few related species. Here, we describe the nasus gland, a new gland occurring at the base of the nasus of Angularitermes soldiers. The nasus gland is composed of class 1, 2, and 3 secretory cells, a rare combination that is only shared by the sternal and tergal glands of some termites and cockroaches. The ultrastructural observations suggest that the secretion is produced by class 2 and 3 secretory cells, and released mostly by class 3 cells. The base of the nasus has a rough appearance due to numerous pits bearing openings of canals conducting the secretion from class 3 secretory cells to the exterior. We tentatively assign a defensive function to the nasus gland, although further research is needed to confirm this function. Although the gland is described only from species of Angularitermes, other genera of Nasutitermitinae also present a rough nasus base, suggesting the presence of a similar, possibly homologous, gland. PMID:26342422

  17. Accessory drive for a turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Brogdon, J.W.; Allen, K.D.; Barton, J.S.; Hicks, R.J.

    1987-02-03

    This patent describes, in combination: a radial flow turbine engine having a main shaft and a casing with air inlets open radially at one end, and an accessory drive comprising: an accessory housing positioned axially adjacent the one end of the turbine engine casing, a gear ring rotatably mounted within the accessory housing, means for mechanically drivingly connecting the gear ring to the turbine main shaft, the connecting means comprising a planetary gear arrangement contained in the accessory housing, the accessory housing having apertures open to the gear ring and circumferentially spaced from each other, at least one accessory having a driven gear, and means for mounting the at least one accessory to the accessory housing so that the accessory registers with one of the plurality of apertures and so that the gear ring meshes with the driven gear, wherein each aperture is adapted for connection with a separate accessory.

  18. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. . E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Coppes, Rob P.; Vissink, Arjan

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells, but is also caused by damage to the extracellular environment, preventing proper cell functioning.

  19. Characterization of the accessory Sec system of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Siboo, Ian R; Chaffin, Donald O; Rubens, Craig E; Sullam, Paul M

    2008-09-01

    The SraP adhesin of Staphylococcus aureus is a member of a highly conserved family of serine-rich surface glycoproteins of gram-positive bacteria. For streptococci, export of the SraP homologs requires a specialized transport pathway (the accessory Sec system). Compared to streptococci, however, SraP is predicted to differ in its signal peptide and glycosylation, which may affect its dependence on a specialized system for transport. In addition, two genes (asp4 and asp5) essential for export in Streptococcus gordonii are missing in S. aureus. Thus, the selectivity of the accessory Sec system in S. aureus may also differ compared to streptococci. To address these issues, the five genes encoding the putative accessory Sec system (secY2, secA2, and asp1-3) were disrupted individually in S. aureus ISP479C, and the resultant mutants were examined for SraP export. Disruption of secA2 resulted in the near complete loss of SraP surface expression. Similar results were seen with disruption of secY2 and asp1, asp2, or asp3. To assess whether the accessory Sec system transported other substrates, we compared secreted proteomes of ISP479C and a secA2 isogenic mutant, by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis. Although two consistent differences in proteome content were noted between the strains, neither protein appeared to be a likely substrate for accessory Sec export. Thus, the accessory Sec system of S. aureus is required for the export of SraP, and it appears to be dedicated to the transport of this substrate exclusively. PMID:18621893

  20. Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 27, No. 5, 2001 TASK-RELATED CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF LABIAL GLAND

    E-print Network

    Robinson, Gene E.

    Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 27, No. 5, 2001 TASK-RELATED CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF LABIAL GLAND--Chemical analyses revealed that the labial gland complex of worker honeybees possesses a series of hydrocarbons, but not age dependent. Key Words--Honeybees, labial glands, exocrine glands, secretion, hydrocar- bons

  1. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980...DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980...DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are...

  3. Molecular aspects of viviparous reproductive biology of the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans morsitans): Regulation of yolk and milk gland protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Guz, Nurper; Strickler-Dinglasan, Patricia; Aksoy, Serap

    2006-01-01

    Tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) viviparous reproductive physiology remains to be explored at the molecular level. Adult females carry their young in utero for the duration of embryonic and larval development, all the while supplying their offspring with nutrients in the form of a “milk” substance secreted from a modified accessory gland. Flies give birth to fully developed third instar larvae that pupariate shortly after birth. Here, we describe the spatial and temporal expression dynamics of two reproduction-associated genes and their products synthesized during the first and second gonotrophic cycles. The proteins studied include a putative yolk protein, Glossina morsitans morsitans yolk protein 1 (GmmYP1) and the major protein found in tsetse “milk” secretions (Glossina morsitans morsitans milk gland protein, GmmMGP). Developmental stage and tissue-specific expression of GmmYP1 show its presence exclusively in the reproductive tract of the fly during oogenesis, suggesting that GmmYP1 acts as a vitellogenic protein. Transcripts for GmmMGP are present only in the milk gland tissue and increase in coordination with the process of larvigenesis. Similarly, GmmMGP can be detected at the onset of larvigenesis in the milk gland, and is present during the full duration of pregnancy. Expression of GmmMGP is restricted to the adult stage and is not detected in the immature developmental stages. These phenomena indicate that the protein is transferred from mother to larvae as nourishment during its development. These results demonstrate that both GmmYP1 and GmmMGP are involved in tsetse reproductive biology, the former associated with the process of oogenesis and the latter with larvigenesis. PMID:17046784

  4. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Thymus Gland Anatomy Adult View/Download: Small: 720x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Thymus Gland Anatomy Adult Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; illustration ...

  5. Salivary gland infections

    MedlinePLUS

    Salivary gland infections affect the glands that produce saliva (spit). The infection may be due to bacteria ... the mouth. All of the salivary glands empty saliva into the mouth. The saliva enters the mouth ...

  6. Salivary Gland Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Your salivary glands make saliva - sometimes called spit - and empty it into your mouth through openings called ducts. Saliva makes your ... antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause the glands to become irritated and ...

  7. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  8. Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins in adrenal disease and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, David S.; Ramachandrappa, Shwetha; Clark, Adrian J.; Chan, Li F.

    2015-01-01

    Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAPs) are regulators of the melanocortin receptor family. MRAP is an essential accessory factor for the functional expression of the MC2R/ACTH receptor. The importance of MRAP in adrenal gland physiology is demonstrated by the clinical condition familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 2. The role of its paralog melanocortin-2-receptor accessory protein 2 (MRAP2), which is predominantly expressed in the hypothalamus including the paraventricular nucleus, has recently been linked to mammalian obesity. Whole body deletion and targeted brain specific deletion of the Mrap2 gene result in severe obesity in mice. Interestingly, Mrap2 complete knockout (KO) mice have increased body weight without detectable changes to food intake or energy expenditure. Rare heterozygous variants of MRAP2 have been found in humans with severe, early-onset obesity. In vitro data have shown that Mrap2 interaction with the melanocortin-4-receptor (Mc4r) affects receptor signaling. However, the mechanism by which Mrap2 regulates body weight in vivo is not fully understood and differences between the phenotypes of Mrap2 and Mc4r KO mice may point toward Mc4r independent mechanisms. PMID:26113808

  9. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A wheelchair accessory is a device...

  10. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A wheelchair accessory is a device...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Powerplant accessories. 25.1163 Section 25.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25.1163 Powerplant accessories. (a) Each...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Powerplant accessories. 29.1163 Section 29.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 29.1163 Powerplant accessories. (a) Each...

  13. Parathyroid hormone - Secretion and metabolism in vivo.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habener, J. F.; Powell, D.; Murray, T. M.; Mayer, G. P.; Potts, J. T., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Gel filtration and radioimmunoassay were used to determine the molecular size and immunochemical reactivity of parathyroid hormone present in gland extracts, in the general peripheral circulation, and in parathyroid effluent blood from patients with hyperparathyroidism, as well as from calves and from cattle. It was found that parathyroid hormone secreted from the parathyroids in man and cattle is at least as large as the molecule extracted from normal bovine glands. However, once secreted into the circulation the hormone is cleaved, and one or more fragments, immunologically, dissimilar to the originally secreted hormone, constitute the dominant form of circulating immunoreactive hormone.

  14. Teaching Techniques for Accessory Percussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micallef, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Everyone is familiar with the main percussion instruments of the contemporary orchestra: bass drum, snare drum, suspended cymbal, vibraphone, and timpani. But as source material broadens, so do the demands placed on the percussion section. Accessory, or auxiliary percussion, can make the difference between a typical rendition of a well-known piece…

  15. Bioengineered Lacrimal Gland Organ Regeneration in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Masatoshi; Tsubota, Kazuo; Tsuji, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The lacrimal gland plays an important role in maintaining a homeostatic environment for healthy ocular surfaces via tear secretion. Dry eye disease, which is caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction, is one of the most prevalent eye disorders and causes ocular discomfort, significant visual disturbances, and a reduced quality of life. Current therapies for dry eye disease, including artificial tear eye drops, are transient and palliative. The lacrimal gland, which consists of acini, ducts, and myoepithelial cells, develops from its organ germ via reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during embryogenesis. Lacrimal tissue stem cells have been identified for use in regenerative therapeutic approaches aimed at restoring lacrimal gland functions. Fully functional organ replacement, such as for tooth and hair follicles, has also been developed via a novel three-dimensional stem cell manipulation, designated the Organ Germ Method, as a next-generation regenerative medicine. Recently, we successfully developed fully functional bioengineered lacrimal gland replacements after transplanting a bioengineered organ germ using this method. This study represented a significant advance in potential lacrimal gland organ replacement as a novel regenerative therapy for dry eye disease. In this review, we will summarize recent progress in lacrimal regeneration research and the development of bioengineered lacrimal gland organ replacement therapy. PMID:26264034

  16. Insulin signaling pathways in lepidopteran ecdysone secretion

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Wendy A.; Lamattina, Anthony; Collins, McKensie

    2014-01-01

    Molting and metamorphosis are stimulated by the secretion of ecdysteroid hormones from the prothoracic glands. Insulin-like hormones have been found to enhance prothoracic gland activity, providing a mechanism to link molting to nutritional state. In silk moths (Bombyx mori), the prothoracic glands are directly stimulated by insulin and the insulin-like hormone bombyxin. Further, in Bombyx, the neuropeptide prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) appears to act at least in part through the insulin-signaling pathway. In the prothoracic glands of Manduca sexta, while insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and Akt, neither insulin nor bombyxin II stimulate ecdysone secretion. Involvement of the insulin-signaling pathway in Manduca prothoracic glands was explored using two inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), LY294002 and wortmannin. PI3K inhibitors block the phosphorylation of Akt and 4EBP but have no effect on ecdysone secretion, or on the phosphorylation of the MAPkinase, ERK. Inhibitors that block phosphorylation of ERK, including the MEK inhibitor U0126, and high doses of the RSK inhibitor SL0101, effectively inhibit ecdysone secretion. The results highlight differences between the two lepidopteran insects most commonly used to directly study ecdysteroid secretion. In Bombyx, the PTTH and insulin-signaling pathways intersect; both insulin and PTTH enhance the phosphorylation of Akt and stimulate ecdysteroid secretion, and inhibition of PI3K reduces ecdysteroid secretion. By contrast, in Manduca, the action of PTTH is distinct from insulin. The results highlight species differences in the roles of translational regulators such as 4EBP, and members of the MAPkinase pathway such as ERK and RSK, in the regulation of insect ecdysone secretion, and in the impact of nutritionally-sensitive hormones such as insulin in the control of ecdysone secretion and molting. PMID:24550835

  17. [Physiology and pathophysiology of the minor salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Niedermeier, W

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of the secretory rates of the palatine and the parotid glands, assessing the electrolyte content of all salivary fractions and combined clinical biotic studies underline the clinical importance of the minor salivary glands. The minor salivary glands are shown to be organs whose function is decisively involved in symptoms such as xerostomia, stomatodynia, and what is known as "denture intolerance". Moreover, proper secretion of the palatine glands is of crucial importance for the physical retention of maxillary full dentures. There are no connections between secretory rates of major and minor salivary glands. The effect of certain drugs on salivary production and thus on the symptoms of hyposalivation seems to be considerable. Treatment methods for inadequate salivary secretion are outlined. The adaptive tendency of properly functioning palatine glands appears to be high. The fact that atrophic and dystrophic processes can be functionally compensated to a relatively high degree speaks for the dynamic capability of the glandular parenchyma. In view of the clinical relevance of the minor salivary glands it is mandatory that the functional principles and control mechanisms underlying their secretion be investigated in future studies. PMID:1814668

  18. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    MedlinePLUS

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones ... Women's Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones ...

  19. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not enough ... syndrome, there's too much cortisol, while with Addison's disease, there is too little. Some people are born ...

  20. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  1. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... glands are located around the mouth. They produce saliva, which moistens food to help with chewing and ... the rest of the mouth. Salivary glands empty saliva into the mouth through ducts that open at ...

  2. Engine starter and accessory drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Stockton, T.R.

    1986-10-07

    An engine starter and accessory drive system is described which consists of: an accessory drive means; a planetary gearset having a sun gear driveably connected to the accessory drive means, a ring gear, a carrier and planet pinions rotatably mounted on the carrier, fixed to the engine crankshaft, meshing with the sun gear and with the ring gear; means for holding the ring gear against rotation; and a starter motor and first clutch means for providing a one-way driving connection between the motor and the accessory drive means.

  3. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  4. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  5. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  6. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  7. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  8. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  9. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  10. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section...Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an...

  11. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

  12. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980 Section 872...Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered...

  14. Neurologic complications of disorders of the adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Bertorini, Tulio E; Perez, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of the adrenal glands frequently have secondary neurological manifestations, while some diseases that involve the central nervous system are accompanied by adrenal gland dysfunction. Excessive corticosteroid secretions in primary or secondary Cushing's syndrome causes muscle weakness and behavioral disturbances, such as emotional lability and sometimes depression, while adrenal insufficiency may cause fatigue, weakness, and depression. Adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenoneuromyelopathy are X-linked recessive disorders of the metabolism of very long chain fatty acids that manifest with white matter abnormalities of the brain, myelopathy and/or neuropathy, as well as adrenal insufficiency. Other disorders of the adrenal glands include hyperaldosteroidism, which may cause weakness from hypokalemia. Dysfunction of the adrenal medulla causes excessive or deficient secretion of catecholamines, primarily causing cardiovascular symptoms. This chapter reviews the clinical manifestations and diagnostic aspects and treatment of the various disorders of the adrenal glands. Some of the congenital adrenal diseases are also discussed. PMID:24365350

  15. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Salivary Glands of an Invasive Whitefly

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yun-Lin; Li, Jun-Min; Li, Meng; Luan, Jun-Bo; Ye, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Some species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex cause tremendous losses to crops worldwide through feeding directly and virus transmission indirectly. The primary salivary glands of whiteflies are critical for their feeding and virus transmission. However, partly due to their tiny size, research on whitefly salivary glands is limited and our knowledge on these glands is scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of the Mediterranean species of B. tabaci complex using an effective cDNA amplification method in combination with short read sequencing (Illumina). In a single run, we obtained 13,615 unigenes. The quantity of the unigenes obtained from the salivary glands of the whitefly is at least four folds of the salivary gland genes from other plant-sucking insects. To reveal the functions of the primary glands, sequence similarity search and comparisons with the whole transcriptome of the whitefly were performed. The results demonstrated that the genes related to metabolism and transport were significantly enriched in the primary salivary glands. Furthermore, we found that a number of highly expressed genes in the salivary glands might be involved in secretory protein processing, secretion and virus transmission. To identify potential proteins of whitefly saliva, the translated unigenes were put into secretory protein prediction. Finally, 295 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins and some of them might play important roles in whitefly feeding. Conclusions/Significance: The combined method of cDNA amplification, Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly is suitable for transcriptomic analysis of tiny organs in insects. Through analysis of the transcriptome, genomic features of the primary salivary glands were dissected and biologically important proteins, especially secreted proteins, were predicted. Our findings provide substantial sequence information for the primary salivary glands of whiteflies and will be the basis for future studies on whitefly-plant interactions and virus transmission. PMID:22745728

  16. Physiology of Epithelial Chloride and Fluid Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Frizzell, Raymond A.; Hanrahan, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial salt and water secretion serves a variety of functions in different organ systems, such as the airways, intestines, pancreas, and salivary glands. In cystic fibrosis (CF), the volume and/or composition of secreted luminal fluids are compromised owing to mutations in the gene encoding CFTR, the apical membrane anion channel that is responsible for salt secretion in response to cAMP/PKA stimulation. This article examines CFTR and related cellular transport processes that underlie epithelial anion and fluid secretion, their regulation, and how these processes are altered in CF disease to account for organ-specific secretory phenotypes. PMID:22675668

  17. [Effect of prednisolone on the basal gastric secretion in laboratory rats depending on functional state of the stomach adrenoreceptors].

    PubMed

    Trefilov, A B

    2002-04-01

    Activation of the stomach adrenoreceptors with adrenaline resulting in inhibition of fundal glands promotes stimulating effect of prednisolone glucocorticosteroid action on basal gastric secretion. PMID:12058541

  18. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1989-05-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. The clinical signs are usually the result of an overproduction of hormones that are normally biosynthesized by the neoplastic endocrine gland (orthoendocrine syndromes), as opposed to those that are the result of hormones that are not normally biosynthesized and secreted by those cells that have undergone neoplastic transformation (paraendocrine syndromes, also known as endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes or ectopic hormone syndromes). The biological effects produced by a neoplasm may be out of proportion to the actual size of the tumor. This report focuses on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal glands and pancreas. Discussion will focus on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis. 2 tabs.

  19. Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Marlino, L.D.

    2010-06-15

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power. Two studies were conducted at ORNL. One was to put an additional winding in the motor slots to magnetically link with the high frequency of the controllable zero-sequence stator currents that do not produce any zero-sequence harmonic torques. The second approach was to utilize the corners of the square stator punching for the high-frequency transformers of the dc/dc inverter. Both approaches were successful. This CRADA validated the feasibility of GM’s desire to use the motor’s magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply. Three joint U.S. patents with GM were issued to ORNL and GM by the U.S. Patent Office for the research results produced by this CRADA.

  20. Mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, M.J.; Herndon, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems available, and an argument for force reflecting manipulation. The theme presented is that the accomplishment of humanlike endeavors in hostile environments will be most successful when man model capabilities are utilized. The application of recent electronic technology to manipulator development has made new tools available to be applied to emergency response activities. The development activities described are products of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Studies on the accessory requirement for T lymphocyte activation by concanavalin A.

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, R B; Whelan, A; Feighery, C

    1986-01-01

    In this study we have examined the interactions between accessory cells (AC) and T cells in response to Con A. Highly purified peripheral blood T cells and AC exposed to a variety of treatments were used. We found that untreated AC provided optimal help for T cell proliferation and this was not mediated by soluble factors since whole cells could not be replaced with supernatants from activated AC. Furthermore, cycloheximide-treated AC were able to supply the accessory signal although unable to elaborate soluble activation factors. To find out more about the accessory signal, we examined the ability of monocytes mildly fixed with glutaraldehyde to supply help. These cells were completely unable to perform as AC, although they were viable and had unaltered surface antigen expression. They could not secrete activation factors, but this alone could not explain their inability to supply help because this function was not restored with the addition of soluble activation factors. This indicated that AC-T cell contact was of prime importance to accessory function. To investigate the possibility that AC work by cross-linking structures on the lymphocyte surface, we attempted to substitute for the soluble Con A plus AC with Con A bound to the surface of erythrocytes. Comparable stimulation was observed, suggesting that the cross-linking of Con A-bound structures on the lymphocyte surface generates the accessory signal. PMID:3100115

  2. Characterization of a Lolium multiflorum Accessory Chromosome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accessory chromosomes, also called B-chromosomes, have been reported in more than 1300 species of plants. Accessory chromosomes show numerical polymorphism and when present in high number, are known to negatively affect the growth and vigor of the plants, while in low numbers they may be beneficial...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Powerplant accessories. 29.1163 Section 29.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories §...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Powerplant accessories. 25.1163 Section 25.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories §...

  5. Three Accessories for a Rotating Platform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, James A.; Fryer, Oscar G.

    1980-01-01

    Describes three accessories developed to be used in conjunction with the rotating platform or turntable. Three demonstrations using these accessories are included. These demonstrations are: (a) conservation of angular momentum; (b) gravity-defying goblets; and (c) direct measurement of centripetal force. (HM)

  6. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  7. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  8. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  9. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  10. 21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Traction accessory. 890.5925 Section 890.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory....

  11. Clinical Pathology of Bartholin's Glands: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Y.; Dalpiaz, Amanda; Schwamb, Richard; Miao, Yimei; Waltzer, Wayne; Khan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The Bartholin's glands are located symmetrically at the posterior region of the vaginal opening and play an important role in the female reproductive system. These two pea-sized glands are involved in mucus secretion and vaginal lubrication. Cyst formation in the glands is common and results from mucus build-up in gland ducts. It is important to monitor such cysts because they may occur in the form of carcinomas. Larger cysts and abscesses are found in the lower vestibular region and typically present with erythema and edema. Biopsy is an effective method for distinguishing between Bartholin's gland cysts and differential diagnosis. While smaller cysts may be asymptomatic and may be left untreated, larger cysts require medical attention. Several treatment options are available, including marsupialization and CO2 laser. Healing and recovery depend on the severity of infection and course of treatment. PMID:26195958

  12. Larval salivary glands are a source of primer and releaser pheromone in honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Yves Le; Bécard, Jean-Marc; Costagliola, Guy; de Vaublanc, Gérard; Maâtaoui, Mohamed El; Crauser, Didier; Plettner, Erika; Slessor, Keith N.

    2006-05-01

    A brood pheromone identified in honeybee larvae has primer and releaser pheromone effects on adult bees. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate fatty acid esters—the pheromonal compounds—in different parts of the larvae, we have localized the source of the esters as the larval salivary glands. A histochemical study describes the glands and confirms the presence of lipids in the glands. Epithelial cells of the gland likely secrete the fatty acids into the lumen of the gland. These results demonstrate the salivary glands to be a reservoir of esters, components of brood pheromone, in honeybee larvae.

  13. Isolation of Mouse Salivary Gland Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pringle, Sarah; Nanduri, Lalitha S. Y.; Marianne, van der Zwaag; Ronald, van Os; Coppes, Rob P.

    2011-01-01

    Mature salivary glands of both human and mouse origin comprise a minimum of five cell types, each of which facilitates the production and excretion of saliva into the oral cavity. Serous and mucous acinar cells are the protein and mucous producing factories of the gland respectively, and represent the origin of saliva production. Once synthesised, the various enzymatic and other proteinaceous components of saliva are secreted through a series of ductal cells bearing epithelial-type morphology, until the eventual expulsion of the saliva through one major duct into the cavity of the mouth. The composition of saliva is also modified by the ductal cells during this process. In the manifestation of diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome, and in some clinical situations such as radiotherapy treatment for head and neck cancers, saliva production by the glands is dramatically reduced 1,2. The resulting xerostomia, a subjective feeling of dry mouth, affects not only the ability of the patient to swallow and speak, but also encourages the development of dental caries and can be socially debilitating for the sufferer. The restoration of saliva production in the above-mentioned clinical conditions therefore represents an unmet clinical need, and as such several studies have demonstrated the regenerative capacity of the salivary glands 3-5. Further to the isolation of stem cell-like populations of cells from various tissues within the mouse and human bodies 6-8, we have shown using the described method that stem cells isolated from mouse salivary glands can be used to rescue saliva production in irradiated salivary glands 9,10. This discovery paves the way for the development of stem cell-based therapies for the treatment of xerostomic conditions in humans, and also for the exploration of the salivary gland as a microenvironment containing cells with multipotent self-renewing capabilities. PMID:21339725

  14. Carcinoma in accessory axillary breast.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Seema; Mishra, Shashi Prakash; Kumar, Satendra; Khanna, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of carcinoma developing in an accessory breast. The patient presented with a progressive lump in her right axilla for 1 year. On examination, there was a well-developed nipple areola complex in the right axilla overlying a hard, fixed 5 × 3 cm lump. On investigation, core biopsy revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma of the breast. Mammography also revealed features of a malignant lesion with skin and muscle infiltration. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was administered followed by modified radical mastectomy after three cycles. Immunohistochemistry study showed positive status of oestrogen and progesterone receptors, and negative HER-2 neu. Three more cycles of chemotherapy along with 50 Gy radiotherapy were given in an adjuvant setting followed by hormone therapy. PMID:26260957

  15. Uterine glands: biological roles in conceptus implantation, uterine receptivity, and decidualization

    PubMed Central

    Filant, Justyna; Spencer, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in uterine receptivity, blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, and stromal cell decidualization. Studies with the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model support a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid histrotroph for conceptus survival and development. In rodents, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are unequivocally required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation and also may influence blastocyst trophectoderm activation and stromal cell decidualization in the uterus. Similarly in humans, histotroph from uterine glands appears critical for blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus nutrition during the first trimester and uterine glands likely have a role in stromal cell decidualization. An increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of fertility problems, particularly infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, in domestic animals and humans. PMID:25023676

  16. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section... Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts or tools that form part of the good's standard accessories, spare parts or tools and are delivered with...

  17. Accessory liver lobes: anatomical description and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Glenisson, M; Salloum, C; Lim, C; Lacaze, L; Malek, A; Enriquez, A; Compagnon, P; Laurent, A; Azoulay, D

    2014-12-01

    Accessory liver lobes are a rare condition and appear to be due to excessive development of the liver. The presence of an accessory hepatic lobe is often diagnosed incidentally and sometimes revealed if it develops torsion, especially in pedunculated forms. In most cases, the accessory lobe is located below the liver, i.e., infrahepatic. Riedel's lobe is the best-known example of an accessory lobe, corresponding to hypertrophy of segments V and VI. While accessories lobes can simulate tumors, there have also been reports of hepatocellular tumor(s) that developed in these accessory lobes. Based on a review of the literature, this update focuses on accessory hepatic lobes. PMID:25448768

  18. Proteomic Characterisation of the Salt Gland-Enriched Tissues of the Mangrove Tree Species Avicennia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wee-Kee; Lim, Teck-Kwang; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Kumar, Prakash; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    Plant salt glands are nature’s desalination devices that harbour potentially useful information pertaining to salt and water transport during secretion. As part of the program toward deciphering secretion mechanisms in salt glands, we used shotgun proteomics to compare the protein profiles of salt gland-enriched (isolated epidermal peels) and salt gland-deprived (mesophyll) tissues of the mangrove species Avicennia officinalis. The purpose of the work is to identify proteins that are present in the salt gland-enriched tissues. An average of 2189 and 977 proteins were identified from the epidermal peel and mesophyll tissues, respectively. Among these, 2188 proteins were identified in salt gland-enriched tissues and a total of 1032 selected proteins were categorized by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. This paper reports for the first time the proteomic analysis of salt gland-enriched tissues of a mangrove tree species. Candidate proteins that may play a role in the desalination process of the mangrove salt glands and their potential localization were identified. Information obtained from this study paves the way for future proteomic research aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying secretion in plant salt glands. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000771. PMID:26193361

  19. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... manual is provided only in a form other than paper, such as on a computer disk or over the Internet, the... requiring special accessories is installed by or under the supervision of the party marketing the device,...

  20. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... manual is provided only in a form other than paper, such as on a computer disk or over the Internet, the... requiring special accessories is installed by or under the supervision of the party marketing the device,...

  1. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... manual is provided only in a form other than paper, such as on a computer disk or over the Internet, the... requiring special accessories is installed by or under the supervision of the party marketing the device,...

  2. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... manual is provided only in a form other than paper, such as on a computer disk or over the Internet, the... requiring special accessories is installed by or under the supervision of the party marketing the device,...

  3. 47 CFR 15.27 - Special accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... manual is provided only in a form other than paper, such as on a computer disk or over the Internet, the... requiring special accessories is installed by or under the supervision of the party marketing the device,...

  4. Adaptable infrared surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy accessory.

    PubMed

    Menegazzo, Nicola; Kegel, Laurel L; Kim, Yoon-Chang; Allen, Derrick L; Booksh, Karl S

    2012-09-01

    A second generation prototype enabling surface plasmon resonance spectroscopic measurements in the infrared (IR) range is described. The new design (v2) uses the optical train (optics and detector) within conventional FT-IR spectrometers by confining dimensions of the accessory to space available within the sample compartment of the spectrometer. The v2 accessory builds upon knowledge gained from a previous version that was based on a modified commercial variable angle spectroscopic accessory and addresses observed limitations of the original design-improved temporal stability and measurement acquisition speed, crucial to biomolecular binding studies, as well as optical flexibility, a requirement for investigations of novel plasmon-supporting materials. Different aspects of the accessory, including temporal stability, mechanical resilience, and sensitivity to changes in refractive index of a sample were evaluated and presented in this contribution. PMID:23020425

  5. Adaptable infrared surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy accessory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menegazzo, Nicola; Kegel, Laurel L.; Kim, Yoon-Chang; Allen, Derrick L.; Booksh, Karl S.

    2012-09-01

    A second generation prototype enabling surface plasmon resonance spectroscopic measurements in the infrared (IR) range is described. The new design (v2) uses the optical train (optics and detector) within conventional FT-IR spectrometers by confining dimensions of the accessory to space available within the sample compartment of the spectrometer. The v2 accessory builds upon knowledge gained from a previous version that was based on a modified commercial variable angle spectroscopic accessory and addresses observed limitations of the original design—improved temporal stability and measurement acquisition speed, crucial to biomolecular binding studies, as well as optical flexibility, a requirement for investigations of novel plasmon-supporting materials. Different aspects of the accessory, including temporal stability, mechanical resilience, and sensitivity to changes in refractive index of a sample were evaluated and presented in this contribution.

  6. Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen Mimicking Neuroendocrine Tumor on 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Bhure, Ujwal; Metzger, Jürg; Keller, Franziska Aebersold; Zander, Andrea; Lago, Marisol Pérez; Herring, Kerstin; Strobel, Klaus

    2015-09-01

    Besides well-known physiologic uptake of Ga-DOTATATE in spleen, pituitary gland, pancreatic head, adrenals, kidney, and urinary bladder, sometimes unusual areas of uptake are found. We report a case of a 53-year-old woman who had vague pain in abdomen for which abdominal CT was done showing a contrast-enhancing lesion in the pancreatic tail. It was suspected to be of neuroendocrine origin and Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT showed a corresponding focal uptake. Spleen-preserving pancreatic tail resection was performed. Pathology revealed the diagnosis of an accessory intrapancreatic spleen (AIPS). PMID:26053721

  7. Neuropeptides degranulate serous cells of ferret tracheal glands

    SciTech Connect

    Gashi, A.A.; Borson, D.B.; Finkbeiner, W.E.; Nadel, J.A.; Basbaum, C.B.

    1986-08-01

    To determine whether serous or mucous cells in tracheal submucosal glands respond to the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The authors studied the peptide-induced changes in gland cell morphology accompanying release of TVSO4-labeled macromolecules from tracheal explants of ferrets. Explants were labeled for 1 h in medium containing TVSO4 and washed for 3.5 additional hours. Base-line secretion in the absence of drugs declined between 1.5 and 3.5 h after the pulse. Between 2.5 and 3.5 h, the average percent change in counts per minute recovered per sample period was not significantly different from zero. Substance P and VIP added 4 h after labeling each increased greatly the release of TVSO4-labeled macromolecules above base line. Bethanechol, a muscarinic-cholinergic agonist, increased secretion by an average of 142% above base line. Light and electron microscopy of the control tissues showed glands with narrow lumens and numerous secretory granules. Glands treated with SP or VIP had enlarged lumens and the serous cells were markedly degranulated. These phenomena were documented by morphometry and suggest that SP and VIP cause secretion from glands at least partially by stimulating exocytosis from serous cells.

  8. [Research progress on musk secretion mechanism of forest musk deer].

    PubMed

    Jie, Hang; Feng, Xiao-Lan; Zhao, Gui-Jun; Zeng, De-Jun; Zhang, Cheng-Lu; Chen, Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii), a rare wild medicinal animal, is listed under the category of the state key protected wildlife list of China. Musk, secreted by the musk glands, is with high economic and medicinal value and used as precious traditional medicine in China. In order to meet the needs of musk in Chinese traditional medicine, forest musk deer farming was conducted in 1950s, but the research progress on musk secretion mechanism was slow. Therefore, by reviewing the histological and anatomical structure of forest musk deer musk gland, the relationship between sex hormones and the musk secretion process, and the molecular mechanism of the musk secretion, the existing problems in investigating the musk secretion mechanism were analyzed and the development trends in this field were also discussed, in order to provide a reference for further studies on the musk secretion mechanism and improve musk production of forest musk deer. PMID:25911794

  9. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  10. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating ... sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ...

  11. Prothoracic gland semiochemicals of green lacewings (neuroptera: chrysopidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult chrysopids have paired prothoracic glands (PG) that are thought to produce defensive secretions (allomones). We analyzed PG extracts of the following green lacewings from North and South America, Australia, and China: Ceraeochrysa cubana (Brazil); Chrysopa (= Co.) oculata, Co. nigricornis, Co....

  12. Feather mites and birds: an interaction mediated by uropygial gland size?

    PubMed

    Galván, I; Barba, E; Piculo, R; Cantó, J L; Cortés, V; Monrós, J S; Atiénzar, F; Proctor, H

    2008-01-01

    Feather mites (Arachnida: Acari: Astigmata) feed mainly on secretions of the uropygial gland of birds. Here, we use analyses corrected for phylogeny and body size to show that there is a positive correlation between the size of this gland and mite abundance in passerine birds at an interspecific level during the breeding season, suggesting that the gland mediates interactions between mites and birds. As predicted on the basis of hypothesized waterproofing and antibiotic functions of uropygial gland secretions, riparian/marsh bird species had larger glands and higher mite loads than birds living in less mesic terrestrial environments. An unexpected pattern was a steeper relationship between mite load and gland size in migratory birds than in residents. If moderate mite loads are beneficial to a host but high loads detrimental, this could create complex selection regimes in which gland size influences mite load and vice versa. Mites may exert selective pressures on gland size of their hosts that has resulted in smaller glands among migratory bird species, suggesting that smaller glands may have evolved in these birds to attenuate a possible detrimental effect of feather mites when present in large numbers. PMID:18028353

  13. A fine structural study of the turkey harderian gland.

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, M H; Rothwell, B; Burns, R B

    1986-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the turkey Harderian gland is described and the findings support previous histological descriptions of the gland. The gland is a compound tubulo-acinar structure composed of characteristic bipolar epithelial cells providing a predominantly merocrine secretion to the lumina. In the basal aspect of the cell, aggregations of non-secretory lipid-like droplets were evident and apically, the secretion was mucoid. The cells had abundant mitochondria, granular endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and a complex network of Golgi elements. In the subepithelial regions, myoepithelial cells and large numbers of plasma cells were seen. Within the granular endoplasmic reticulum cisternae of the epithelial cells, fibrillary or crystalline rods in some instances measuring up to 10 micron in length, with a 7.0 nm repeat pattern, were frequently seen. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:3693084

  14. Hoopoes color their eggs with antimicrobial uropygial secretions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, Juan J.; Martín-Vivaldi, M.; Peralta-Sánchez, J. M.; Arco, L.; Juárez-García-Pelayo, N.

    2014-09-01

    Uropygial gland secretions are used as cosmetics by some species of birds to color and enhance properties of feathers and teguments, which may signal individual quality. Uropygial secretions also reach eggshells during incubation and, therefore, may influence the coloration of birds' eggs, a trait that has attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists for more than one century. The color of hoopoe eggs typically changes along incubation, from bluish-gray to greenish-brown. Here, we test experimentally the hypothesis that dark uropygial secretion of females is responsible for such drastic color change. Moreover, since uropygial secretion of hoopoes has antimicrobial properties, we also explore the association between color and antimicrobial activity of the uropygial secretion of females. We found that eggs stayed bluish-gray in nests where female access to the uropygial secretion was experimentally blocked. Furthermore, experimental eggs that were maintained in incubators and manually smeared with uropygial secretion experienced similar color changes that naturally incubated eggs did, while control eggs that were not in contact with the secretions did not experience such color changes. All these results strongly support the hypothesis that female hoopoes use their uropygial gland secretion to color the eggs. Moreover, saturation of the uropygial secretion was associated with antimicrobial activity against Bacillus licheniformis. Given the known antimicrobial potential of uropygial secretions of birds, this finding opens the possibility that in scenarios of sexual selection, hoopoes in particular and birds in general signal antimicrobial properties of their uropygial secretion by mean of changes in egg coloration along incubation.

  15. Morphological and histochemical studies on the parotid gland of Praomys (Mastomys) natalensis.

    PubMed

    Sirigu, P; Gross, S A; Di Dio, L J; Allen, D J; Perra, M T

    1984-01-01

    The parotid gland of Praomys (Mastomys) natalensis follows the same anatomical pattern of Rodentia since no peculiar morphological and histochemical features were found in the present study that differentiate it from homologous glands in other rodents. It consists of serous secreting components and intralobular ducts that demonstrate no sexual dimorphism. Histochemical studies reveal that the glandular cells of the Praomys' parotid gland contain no acid mucosubstance, but that material of a neutral glycoprotein nature can be found in the secreting cells of acini, epithelium of the ducts, and the ductal lumina. PMID:6083776

  16. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  17. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  19. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  1. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  3. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Protein expression in salivary glands of rats with streptozotocin

    E-print Network

    Terasaki, Mark

    , Farmington, CT, USA Saliva, produced and secreted by the acinar cells of salivary glands and modified to develop tests using saliva for diabetic status or progression in humans. Keywords biochemistry, diabetes and secretion of the constituents of saliva are under neural and hormonal regulation. Water and electro- lyte

  7. Soybean and Tobacco Floral nectary Glands: their Structural and Functional Similarities and Differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect attraction and pollination of flowers are controlled by characters such as: color (visual cue); shape (accommodation); opening and pollen dehiscence (timing); volatiles production (smell); and nectar secretion from nectary glands (reward). The floral nectary and its secretion products are tw...

  8. Gland With Cantilever Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Patrick B.

    1989-01-01

    Single-piece gland forms tight seal on probe or tube containing liquid or gas at high pressure. Gland and probe align as assembled by simple torquing procedure. Disconnected easily and reused at same site. Made from any of wide variety of materials so compatible with application. Cantilever ring at top of gland bites into wall of tube or probe, sealing it. Wall of tube or probe must be thick enough to accommodate deformation without rupturing. Maximum deformation designed in coordination with seating and deformation of boss or conical seal.

  9. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... surgery to remove part or all of your thyroid gland. This operation is called thyroidectomy . You probably ... in just a few weeks. If you had thyroid cancer, you may need to have radioactive iodine ...

  10. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is encased within the prostate gland. As a man ages, the prostate typically enlarges in size in ... urinate, and incontinence. Less than half of all men with BPH have symptoms of the disease, or ...

  11. Adrenal Gland Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer.Net Editorial Board , which is composed of medical, surgical, radiation, gynecologic, and pediatric oncologists, oncology nurses, physician assistants, social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Adrenal Gland ...

  12. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer.Net Editorial Board , which is composed of medical, surgical, radiation, gynecologic, and pediatric oncologists, oncology nurses, physician assistants, social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Salivary Gland ...

  13. Pineal and Pituitary Glands

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CNS Tumors » Anatomy » Pineal and Pituitary Glands Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Site-specific Modules Brain & Other Nervous ... malignant Brain Tumors History of CNS Tumor Surveillance & Registration BTWG Recommendations Public Law 107-260 Reportable Cases ...

  14. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal (Adrenalectomy) Patient Information from SAGES Download PDF Version Find a SAGES Surgeon What ... 2015 CME Credits Healthy Sooner: Patient Information Contact SAGES Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons 11300 ...

  15. Adrenal glands (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. They produce hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, steroids, cortisol, and cortisone, and chemicals such as adrenalin (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and dopamine.

  16. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions. PMID:26614702

  17. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  18. Controlled Speed Accessory Drive demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehn, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    A Controlled Speed Accessory Drive System was examined in an effort to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars. Concept feasibility and the performance of a typical system during actual road driving conditions were demonstrated. The CSAD system is described as a mechanical device which limits engine accessory speeds, thereby reducing parasitic horsepower losses and improving overall vehicle fuel economy. Fuel consumption data were compiled for fleets of GSA vehicles. Various motor pool locations were selected, each representing different climatic conditions. On the basis of a total accumulated fleet usage of nearly three million miles, an overall fuel economy improvement of 6 percent to 7 percent was demonstrated. Coincident chassis dynamometer tests were accomplished on selected vehicles to establish the effect of different accessory drive systems on exhaust emissions, and to evaluate the magnitude of the mileage benefits which could be derived.

  19. A Catalog of Proteins Expressed in the AG Secreted Fluid during the Mature Phase of the Chinese Mitten Crabs (Eriocheir sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    He, Lin; Li, Qing; Liu, Lihua; Wang, Yuanli; Xie, Jing; Yang, Hongdan; Wang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The accessory gland (AG) is an important component of the male reproductive system of arthropods, its secretions enhance fertility, some AG proteins bind to the spermatozoa and affect its function and properties. Here we report the first comprehensive catalog of the AG secreted fluid during the mature phase of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis). AG proteins were separated by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and analyzed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Altogether, the mass spectra of 1173 peptides were detected (1067 without decoy and contaminants) which allowed for the identification of 486 different proteins annotated upon the NCBI database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) and our transcritptome dataset. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited at the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000700. An extensive description of the AG proteome will help provide the basis for a better understanding of a number of reproductive mechanisms, including potentially spermatophore breakdown, dynamic functional and morphological changes in sperm cells and sperm acrosin enzyme vitality. Thus, the comprehensive catalog of proteins presented here can serve as a valuable reference for future studies of sperm maturation and regulatory mechanisms involved in crustacean reproduction. PMID:26305468

  20. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section...PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various abrasives, such as diamond chips, that are glued to shellac-based paper. The device is intended to remove excessive restorative materials,...

  2. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884...Monitoring Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to...

  3. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. 884...Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to...

  4. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884...Monitoring Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to...

  5. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884...Monitoring Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to...

  6. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884...Monitoring Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to...

  7. 21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884...Monitoring Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to...

  8. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. 884...Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to...

  9. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various abrasives, such as diamond chips, that are glued to shellac-based paper. The device is intended to remove excessive restorative materials,...

  10. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various abrasives, such as diamond chips, that are glued to shellac-based paper. The device is intended to remove excessive restorative materials,...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. ...suprapubic urological catheter and accessories is...abdominal wall into the urinary bladder with the aid...fluids to and from the urinary tract. This generic...includes the suprapubic catheter and tube, Malecot...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. ...suprapubic urological catheter and accessories is...abdominal wall into the urinary bladder with the aid...fluids to and from the urinary tract. This generic...includes the suprapubic catheter and tube, Malecot...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. ...suprapubic urological catheter and accessories is...abdominal wall into the urinary bladder with the aid...fluids to and from the urinary tract. This generic...includes the suprapubic catheter and tube, Malecot...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. ...suprapubic urological catheter and accessories is...abdominal wall into the urinary bladder with the aid...fluids to and from the urinary tract. This generic...includes the suprapubic catheter and tube, Malecot...

  15. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. ...suprapubic urological catheter and accessories is...abdominal wall into the urinary bladder with the aid...fluids to and from the urinary tract. This generic...includes the suprapubic catheter and tube, Malecot...

  16. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories....

  17. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories....

  18. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories....

  19. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories....

  20. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories....

  1. The mammary gland and its origin during synapsid evolution.

    PubMed

    Oftedal, Olav T

    2002-07-01

    Lactation appears to be an ancient reproductive trait that predates the origin of mammals. The synapsid branch of the amniote tree that separated from other taxa in the Pennsylvanian (>310 million years ago) evolved a glandular rather than scaled integument. Repeated radiations of synapsids produced a gradual accrual of mammalian features. The mammary gland apparently derives from an ancestral apocrine-like gland that was associated with hair follicles. This association is retained by monotreme mammary glands and is evident as vestigial mammary hair during early ontogenetic development of marsupials. The dense cluster of mammo-pilo-sebaceous units that open onto a nipple-less mammary patch in monotremes may reflect a structure that evolved to provide moisture and other constituents to permeable eggs. Mammary patch secretions were coopted to provide nutrients to hatchlings, but some constituents including lactose may have been secreted by ancestral apocrine-like glands in early synapsids. Advanced Triassic therapsids, such as cynodonts, almost certainly secreted complex, nutrient-rich milk, allowing a progressive decline in egg size and an increasingly altricial state of the young at hatching. This is indicated by the very small body size, presence of epipubic bones, and limited tooth replacement in advanced cynodonts and early mammaliaforms. Nipples that arose from the mammary patch rendered mammary hairs obsolete, while placental structures have allowed lactation to be truncated in living eutherians. PMID:12751889

  2. A new type of exocrine gland and its function in mass recruitment in the ant Cylindromyrmex whymperi (Formicidae, Cerapachyinae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Bruno; Rüppell, Olav; Hartmann, Annegret; Jungnickel, Harald; Morgan, David; Billen, Johan

    2001-08-01

    Workers of the ant Cylindromyrmex whymperi display mass trail recruitment. Bioassays show that the trail pheromone originates from a unique gland between abdominal sternites 6 and 7. The gland has a hitherto unknown structural organization. Upon leaving the secretory cell, the duct cell widens to form a sclerotized pear-shaped reservoir chamber, lined with multiple duct cells. Each duct thus forms a miniature reservoir for the secretions of each single secretory cell, a novel structural arrangement in exocrine glands of social Hymenoptera.

  3. The mammary gland produces and delivers milk from mother to newborn. The only organ after which an entire

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Celeste M.

    The mammary gland produces and delivers milk from mother to newborn. The only organ after which, primarily owing to milk's nutritional and antimicrobial content1 . Lactation, the synthesis and secretion of milk, is made possible by the architecture of the gland. Like other organs used for fluid transport

  4. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  5. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  6. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  7. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  8. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  9. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  10. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  11. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urine collector and accessories. 876.5250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5250 Urine collector and accessories. (a) Identification. A urine collector and accessories is a device intended to...

  13. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  14. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  15. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  16. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  17. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  18. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  19. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  3. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  4. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  5. 19 CFR 10.600 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.600 Section... tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's standard accessories, spare parts, or tools will be treated as originating goods if...

  6. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.537 Section... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.537 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that form part of the good's standard...

  7. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  8. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876.5540... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a device intended...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urological catheter and accessories. 876.5130... catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A urological catheter and accessories is a flexible tubular device that is inserted through the urethra and used to pass fluids to or from the urinary tract....

  10. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories... Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A suprapubic urological catheter and accessories is a flexible tubular device that is inserted through the abdominal wall into the urinary...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories... Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A suprapubic urological catheter and accessories is a flexible tubular device that is inserted through the abdominal wall into the urinary...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urological catheter and accessories. 876.5130... catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A urological catheter and accessories is a flexible tubular device that is inserted through the urethra and used to pass fluids to or from the urinary tract....

  13. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories... Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A suprapubic urological catheter and accessories is a flexible tubular device that is inserted through the abdominal wall into the urinary...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urological catheter and accessories. 876.5130... catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A urological catheter and accessories is a flexible tubular device that is inserted through the urethra and used to pass fluids to or from the urinary tract....

  15. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories... Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A suprapubic urological catheter and accessories is a flexible tubular device that is inserted through the abdominal wall into the urinary...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urological catheter and accessories. 876.5130... catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A urological catheter and accessories is a flexible tubular device that is inserted through the urethra and used to pass fluids to or from the urinary tract....

  17. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories... Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A suprapubic urological catheter and accessories is a flexible tubular device that is inserted through the abdominal wall into the urinary...

  18. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  19. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  2. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 25.1192....1192 Engine accessory section diaphragm. For reciprocating engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial... accessory compartment by a diaphragm that meets the firewall requirements of § 23.1191....

  4. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pressure tubing and accessories. 868.5860 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification. Pressure tubing and accessories are flexible or rigid devices intended...

  7. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various abrasives... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010...

  8. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various abrasives... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010...

  9. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872.5410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and accessories. (a) Identification. An orthodontic appliance and accessories is a device intended for use...

  10. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872.5410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and accessories. (a) Identification. An orthodontic appliance and accessories is a device intended for use...

  11. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872.5410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and accessories. (a) Identification. An orthodontic appliance and accessories is a device intended for use...

  12. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872.5410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and accessories. (a) Identification. An orthodontic appliance and accessories is a device intended for use...

  13. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872.5410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and accessories. (a) Identification. An orthodontic appliance and accessories is a device intended for use...

  14. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  15. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  17. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  18. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that...

  19. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and accessories is an AC-powered, water-powered, air-powered, or...

  20. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  1. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for...

  2. Anatomy, Physiology, and Laboratory Evaluation of the Pituitary Gland.

    PubMed

    Hong, Gregory K; Payne, Spencer C; Jane, John A

    2016-02-01

    The pituitary gland functions prominently in the control of most endocrine systems in the body. Diverse processes such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, and water balance are tightly regulated by the pituitary in conjunction with the hypothalamus and various downstream endocrine organs. Benign tumors of the pituitary gland are the primary cause of pituitary pathology and can result in inappropriate secretion of pituitary hormones or loss of pituitary function. First-line management of clinically significant tumors often involves surgical resection. Understanding of normal pituitary physiology and basic testing strategies to assess for pituitary dysfunction should be familiar to any skull base surgeon. PMID:26614827

  3. Isolation of Viable Multicellular Glands from Tissue of the Carnivorous Plant, Nepenthes

    PubMed Central

    Rottloff, Sandy; Mithöfer, Axel; Müller, Ute; Kilper, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Many plants possess specialized structures that are involved in the production and secretion of specific low molecular weight compounds and proteins. These structures are almost always localized on plant surfaces. Among them are nectaries or glandular trichomes. The secreted compounds are often employed in interactions with the biotic environment, for example as attractants for pollinators or deterrents against herbivores. Glands that are unique in several aspects can be found in carnivorous plants. In so-called pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes, bifunctional glands inside the pitfall-trap on the one hand secrete the digestive fluid, including all enzymes necessary for prey digestion, and on the other hand take-up the released nutrients. Thus, these glands represent an ideal, specialized tissue predestinated to study the underlying molecular, biochemical, and physiological mechanisms of protein secretion and nutrient uptake in plants. Moreover, generally the biosynthesis of secondary compounds produced by many plants equipped with glandular structures could be investigated directly in glands. In order to work on such specialized structures, they need to be isolated efficiently, fast, metabolically active, and without contamination with other tissues. Therefore, a mechanical micropreparation technique was developed and applied for studies on Nepenthes digestion fluid. Here, a protocol is presented that was used to successfully prepare single bifunctional glands from Nepenthes traps, based on a mechanized microsampling platform. The glands could be isolated and directly used further for gene expression analysis by PCR techniques after preparation of RNA. PMID:24378909

  4. The evolution of sweat glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folk, G. Edgar; Semken, A.

    1991-09-01

    Mammals have two kinds of sweat glands, apocrine and eccrine, which provide for thermal cooling. In this paper we describe the distribution and characteristics of these glands in selected mammals, especially primates, and reject the suggested development of the eccrine gland from the apocrine gland during the Tertiary geological period. The evidence strongly suggests that the two glands, depending on the presence or absence of fur, have equal and similar functions among mammals; apocrine glands are not primitive. However, there is a unique and remarkable thermal eccrine system in humans; we suggest that this system evolved in concert with bipedalism and a smooth hairless skin.

  5. Functional differences in the acinar cells of the murine major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Y; Nakamoto, T; Jaramillo, Y; Choi, S; Catalan, M A; Melvin, J E

    2015-05-01

    In humans, approximately 90% of saliva is secreted by the 3 major salivary glands: the parotid (PG), the submandibular (SMG), and the sublingual glands (SLG). Even though it is known that all 3 major salivary glands secrete saliva by a Cl(-)-dependent mechanism, salivary secretion rates differ greatly among these glands. The goal of this study was to gain insight into the properties of the ion-transporting pathways in acinar cells that might account for the differences among the major salivary glands. Pilocarpine-induced saliva was simultaneously collected in vivo from the 3 major salivary glands of mice. When normalized by gland weight, the amount of saliva secreted by the PG was more than 2-fold larger than that obtained from the SMG and SLG. At the cellular level, carbachol induced an increase in the intracellular [Ca(2+)] that was more than 2-fold larger in PG and SMG than in SLG acinar cells. Carbachol-stimulated Cl(-) efflux and the protein levels of the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel TMEM16A, the major apical Cl(-) efflux pathway in salivary acinar cells, were significantly greater in PG compared with SMG and SLG. In addition, we evaluated the transporter activity of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters (NKCC1) and anion exchangers (AE), the 2 primary basolateral Cl(-) uptake mechanisms in acinar cells. The SMG NKCC1 activity was about twice that of the PG and more than 12-fold greater than that of the SLG. AE activity was similar in PG and SLG, and both PG and SLG AE activity was about 2-fold larger than that of SMG. In summary, the salivation kinetics of the 3 major glands are distinct, and these differences can be explained by the unique functional properties of each gland related to Cl(-) movement, including the transporter activities of the Cl(-) uptake and efflux pathways, and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. PMID:25680367

  6. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  7. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  8. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  9. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  10. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  11. Electronic Position Sensor for Power Operated Accessory

    DOEpatents

    Haag, Ronald H.; Chia, Michael I.

    2005-05-31

    An electronic position sensor for use with a power operated vehicle accessory, such as a power liftgate. The position sensor includes an elongated resistive circuit that is mounted such that it is stationary and extends along the path of a track portion of the power operated accessory. The position sensor further includes a contact nub mounted to a link member that moves within the track portion such that the contact nub is slidingly biased against the elongated circuit. As the link member moves under the force of a motor-driven output gear, the contact nub slides along the surface of the resistive circuit, thereby affecting the overall resistance of the circuit. The position sensor uses the overall resistance to provide an electronic position signal to an ECU, wherein the signal is indicative of the absolute position of the power operated accessory. Accordingly, the electronic position sensor is capable of providing an electronic signal that enables the ECU to track the absolute position of the power operated accessory.

  12. Unilateral Congenital Lacrimal Gland Agenesis With Contralateral Lacrimal Gland Hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Talsania, Sonali D; Robson, Caroline D; Mantagos, Iason S

    2015-01-01

    Congenital alacrima is a form of primary lacrimal deficiency characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the lacrimal gland. The puncta and salivary glands may also be aplastic. The case of a 5-year-old girl with congenital alacrima secondary to lacrimal gland agenesis and hypoplasia without punctal or salivary gland involvement and without other systemic comorbidities is reported. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2015;52:e52-e54.]. PMID:26473584

  13. Atrioventricular accessory pathway with anterograde decremental conduction property

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Satoshi; Fujii, Eitaro; Sugiura, Shinya; Ito, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of atrioventricular (AV) accessory pathway with anterograde decremental conduction property. The ? wave polarity suggested the presence of a right posteroseptal accessory AV pathway. During atrial pacing, Wenckebach-type AV block over the accessory pathway was observed with prolongation of the local AV conduction time without the change in QRS morphology. No retrograde ventriculoatrial conduction was observed. During mapping of the right midseptal area, mechanical conduction block at the level of the proximal input to the accessory pathway was induced repeatedly by catheter manipulation. Radiofrequency energy delivery eliminated the accessory pathway. In this case only the bump phenomenon was the best marker of successful ablation. PMID:23780770

  14. Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Treatment (Posterior Blepharitis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Treatment What are Meibomian (Oil) Glands? Meibomian glands are glands that are arranged ... lashes. The force of an eyelid blink causes oil to be excreted onto the posterior lid margin. ...

  15. Salivary gland transplantation: a canine model.

    PubMed

    Eid, A; Nitzan, D W; Shiloni, E; Neuman, A; Marmary, Y

    1997-09-15

    Impaired salivary function with resultant severe dryness of the mouth, or xerostomia, may occur in association with a variety of systemic disorders or therapies. No adequate treatment exists for this debilitating condition, which impedes normal oral function, in particular alimentation and phonation. This study explores the feasibility of salivary gland autotransplantation, using a canine model. A salivary gland with its duct and surrounding blood vessels still attached was excised and reimplanted in the dog's thigh by anastomosing the graft's blood vessels to the femoral artery and vein. The duct was sutured to an artificial orifice cut in the thigh's skin, from which the saliva was collected. Salivary secretion was induced by a single intravenous bolus of pilocarpine (5 mg). Preoperative (normal) salivation was measured by collecting saliva from the gland in situ. Periodic functional studies showed normal saliva production during the first month after grafting, after which the salivary flow was reduced by 35% over the next 2 months. This reduction was interpreted as a sign of disuse atrophy resulting from the lack of autonomic innervation. To overcome this impediment, oral pilocarpine (5 mg/day) was administered to the recipient dog, after which normal levels of saliva were excreted through the graft during the 3-month follow-up period. The quality of the graft saliva was assessed by its protein and electrolyte levels, which showed close to normal values. PMID:9311702

  16. Development and Structure of Internal Glands and External Glandular Trichomes in Pogostemon cablin

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jiansheng; Yuan, Yongming; Liu, Zhixue; Zhu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Pogostemon cablin possesses two morphologically and ontogenetically different types of glandular trichomes, one type of bristle hair on the surfaces of leaves and stems and one type of internal gland inside the leaves and stems. The internal gland originates from elementary meristem and is associated with the biosynthesis of oils present inside the leaves and stems. However, there is little information on mechanism for the oil biosynthesis and secretion inside the leaves and stems. In this study, we identified three kinds of glandular trichome types and two kinds of internal gland in the Pogostemon cablin. The oil secretions from internal glands of stems and leaves contained lipids, flavones and terpenes. Our results indicated that endoplasmic reticulum and plastids and vacuoles are likely involved in the biosynthesis of oils in the internal glands and the synthesized oils are transported from endoplasmic reticulum to the cell wall via connecting endoplasmic reticulum membranes to the plasma membrane. And the comparative analysis of the development, distribution, histochemistry and ultrastructures of the internal and external glands in Pogostemon cablin leads us to propose that the internal gland may be a novel secretory structure which is different from external glands. PMID:24205002

  17. What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on lymphomas, see our document Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma . Sarcomas: The salivary glands contain blood vessels, muscle cells, ... start in these types of cells are called sarcomas . These rarely occur in the salivary gland. For ...

  18. Mobile Proactive secret sharing

    E-print Network

    Schultz, David Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes mobile proactive secret sharing (MPSS), an extension of proactive secret sharing. Mobile proactive secret sharing is much more flexible than proactive secret sharing in terms of group membership: ...

  19. Biomacromolecule conjugated nanofiber scaffold for salivary gland tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayarathanam, Kavitha

    Xerostomia or dry mouth, resulting from loss of salivary gland secretion can be alleviated by tissue engineering approaches to restore glandular cell function. Engineering an artificial salivary gland structure requires closely mimicking the natural environment, both physically and functionally, to promote epithelial cell proliferation, monolayer formation and apico-basal polarization. While the physical structure of the salivary gland extracellular matrix (ECM) can be reconstructed using biocompatible nanofiber scaffolds, the chemical signals from ECM macromolecules are equally involved in the gland morphogenesis. In these glands, Hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomacromolecule that is a major component of the ECM, plays a crucial role in recruiting growth factors to improve cell viability and growth in these glands. Another molecule of interest that improved salivary epithelial cell viability and apico-basal differentiation is laminin, a major protein found in the basement membrane. We hypothesize that these biomacromolecules, when conjugated nanofiber scaffolds, will provide the essential chemical signals that promote cell viability, proliferation, polarity in the salivary cell line of interest. These morphological changes will in turn promote the secretory function (salivary production). The nanofiber scaffold consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid is conjugated with HA using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamine crosslinker. This conjugation was confirmed using fluorescence spectrometry, water contact angle test and immunocytochemistry analysis using confocal microscopy. The effect of HA in promoting cell survival in-vitro was established with MTT assay using SIMS (mouse submandibular immortalized ductal SIMS cells) cells. The effect of HA in improving the apico - basal polarity of SIMS cells will be assessed. Chemical modification of synthetic nanopolymeric scaffolds with ECM molecules e.g., HA, laminin are the next step towards developing "smart scaffolds", that can be used to specifically induce proper salivary gland function. These scaffolds can potentially be used to provide a viable approach for creating future artificial tissue engineered glands.

  20. Pediatric Salivary Gland Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ord, Robert A; Carlson, Eric R

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric malignant salivary gland tumors are extremely rare. The percentage of malignant tumors is higher than that seen in adults, although the outcomes in terms of survival are better in pediatric patients. The mainstay of treatment is surgical excision with negative margins. This article reviews current concepts in demographics, etiology, management, and outcomes of malignant salivary tumors in children. PMID:26614703

  1. Bartholin's Gland Cyst

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU ... vagina were the face of a clock, these glands would be found at about 4 and 8 o'clock. Normally they are invisible. They make a small amount of fluid that lubricates the vaginal lips. If a flap of skin grows over ...

  2. Radioisotope study of salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    De Rossi, G.

    1987-01-01

    The book discusses the use of radioisotope methods in the diagnosis of salivary gland diseases. Anatomical and physiological features of the salivary gland are summarized and radiotracer deposition processes are described. Clinical applications of scintigraphy are detailed. The degree of functional impairment due to various inflammatory diseases is contrasted by means of semiquantitative computerized methods with follow-up therapeutic results. Post-irradiatory involvement and possible functional recovery of salivary glands are also considered. The contents discussed are: Salivary Gland Physiology and Radioisotope Uptake. Radioisotope Study of Salivary Glands. Radioisotope Studies Under Normal Conditions. Survey of Radiographic Methods. Dosimetric Assessment. Conclusions and Index.

  3. The buffer capacity of airway epithelial secretions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dusik; Liao, Jie; Hanrahan, John W.

    2014-01-01

    The pH of airway epithelial secretions influences bacterial killing and mucus properties and is reduced by acidic pollutants, gastric reflux, and respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). The effect of acute acid loads depends on buffer capacity, however the buffering of airway secretions has not been well characterized. In this work we develop a method for titrating micro-scale (30 ?l) volumes and use it to study fluid secreted by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3, a widely used model for submucosal gland serous cells. Microtitration curves revealed that HCO?3 is the major buffer. Peak buffer capacity (?) increased from 17 to 28 mM/pH during forskolin stimulation, and was reduced by >50% in fluid secreted by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient Calu-3 monolayers, confirming an important role of CFTR in HCO?3 secretion. Back-titration with NaOH revealed non-volatile buffer capacity due to proteins synthesized and released by the epithelial cells. Lysozyme and mucin concentrations were too low to buffer Calu-3 fluid significantly, however model titrations of porcine gastric mucins at concentrations near the sol-gel transition suggest that mucins may contribute to the buffer capacity of ASL in vivo. We conclude that CFTR-dependent HCO?3 secretion and epithelially-derived proteins are the predominant buffers in Calu-3 secretions. PMID:24917822

  4. Secretory profile of metapleural gland cells of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex coronatus (Formicidae: Attini).

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexsandro Santana; Bueno, Odair Correa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2011-01-01

    Ants present a pair of metapleural glands located at the posterolateral end of the thorax. Because of its importance in the social organization of ants, the present study was aimed at describing the morphophysiology of this gland in three worker castes of Acromyrmex coronatus, focused on secretory activity using histological and histochemical techniques. Our findings revealed that the secretory and the storage portions of this gland are connected by extracytoplasmic portion of canaliculi that drain the secretion from each secretory cell to the collecting chamber. This secretion contains glycoproteins. In minor workers, the secretion contains higher levels of polysaccharides when compared to that of major workers, supporting the role of the metapleural gland in the maintenance of the fungus garden. The nucleus as well as cytoplasm of secretory cells were strongly positive for RNA indicating that these cells are active in the synthesis of proteins and lipids, compounds found in the final secretion. The variant of the CEC revealed that the secretory activity of the entire gland is synchronous, as all cells exhibit the result. PMID:21181713

  5. A direct influence of moonlight intensity on changes in melatonin production by cultured pineal glands of the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Akihiro; Ueda, Satomi; Hiyakawa, Nanae; Nikaido, Yoshiaki

    2006-04-01

    Rabbitfish are a restricted lunar-synchronized spawner that spawns around a species-specific lunar phase. It is not known how the fish perceive changes in cues from the moon. One possible explanation is that rabbitfish utilize changes in moonlight intensity to establish synchrony. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether or not the pineal gland of the golden rabbitfish can directly perceive changes in moonlight intensity. Isolated pineal glands were statically cultured under natural or artificial light conditions and melatonin secreted into the culture medium was measured using a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Under an artificial light/dark cycle, melatonin secretion significantly increased during the dark phase. Under continuous light conditions, melatonin secretion was suppressed, while culture under continuous dark conditions seemed to duplicate melatonin secretion corresponding to the light/dark cycle in which the fish were acclimated. When cultured pineal glands were kept under natural light conditions on the dates of the full and the new moon, small amounts of melatonin were secreted at night. Moreover, exposure of cultured pineal glands to artificial and natural light conditions resulted in a significant decrease of melatonin secretion within 2 hr. These results suggest that the isolated pineal gland of golden rabbitfish responds to environmental light cycles and that 'brightness' of the night moon has an influence on melatonin secretion from the isolated pineal gland. PMID:16499560

  6. Morphology and Proteome Characterization of the Salivary Glands of the Western Chinch Bug (Hemiptera: Blissidae).

    PubMed

    Ramm, Crystal; Wayadande, Astri; Baird, Lisa; Nandakumar, Renu; Madayiputhiya, Nandakumar; Amundsen, Keenan; Donze-Reiner, Teresa; Baxendale, Frederick; Sarath, Gautam; Heng-Moss, Tiffany

    2015-08-01

    The western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus Barber, is a serious pest of buffalograss, Buchloe dactyloides (Nuttall) due to physical and chemical damage caused during the feeding process. Although previous work has investigated the feeding behaviors of chinch bugs in the Blissus complex, no study to date has explored salivary gland morphology and the associated salivary complex of this insect. Whole and sectioned B. occiduus salivary glands were visualized using light and scanning electron microscopy to determine overall structure and cell types of the salivary glands and their individual lobes. Microscopy revealed a pair of trilobed principal glands and a pair of tubular accessory glands of differing cellular types. To link structure with function, the salivary gland proteome was characterized using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The salivary proteome analysis resulted in B. occiduus sequences matching 228 nonhomologous protein sequences of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), with many specific to the proteins present in the salivary proteome of A. pisum. A number of sequences were assigned the molecular function of hydrolase and oxido-reductase activity, with one specific protein sequence revealing a peroxidase-like function. This is the first study to characterize the salivary proteome of B. occiduus and the first of any species in the family Blissidae. PMID:26470353

  7. Accessories to the Crime: Recent Advances in HIV Accessory Protein Biology

    PubMed Central

    Gramberg, Thomas; Sunseri, Nicole; Landau, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding the roles of the lentiviral accessory proteins have provided fascinating insight into the molecular biology of the virus and uncovered previously unappreciated innate immune mechanisms by which the host defends itself. HIV-1 and other lentiviruses have developed accessory proteins that counterattack the antiviral defenses in a sort of evolutionary battle. The virus is remarkably adept at co-opting cellular degradative pathways to destroy the protective proteins. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding three of the accessory proteins—virion infectivity factor (Vif), viral protein R (Vpr), and viral protein U (Vpu)—that target different restriction factors to ensure virus replication. These proteins may provide promising targets for the development of novel classes of antiretroviral drugs. PMID:19149995

  8. Long-term dexamethasone treatment alters the histomorphology of acinar cells in rat parotid and submandibular glands

    PubMed Central

    Bighetti, Bruna B; Assis, Gerson F d; Vieira, Danilo C; Violato, Natalia M; Cestari, Tania M; Taga, Rumio; Bosqueiro, José R; Rafacho, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) induce insulin resistance (IR), a condition known to alter oral homeostasis. This study investigated the effects of long-term dexamethasone administration on morphofunctional aspects of salivary glands. Male Wistar rats received daily injections of dexamethasone [0.1 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), intraperitoneally] for 10 days (DEX), whereas control rats received saline. Subsequently, glycaemia, insulinaemia, insulin secretion and salivary flow were analysed. The parotid and submandibular glands were collected for histomorphometric evaluation and Western blot experiments. The DEX rats were found to be normoglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic, insulin resistant and glucose intolerant (P < 0.05). DEX rat islets secreted more insulin in response to glucose (P < 0.05). DEX rats had significant reductions in the masses of the parotid (29%) and submandibular (16%) glands (P < 0.05) that was associated with reduced salivary flux rate. The hypotrophy in both glands observed in the DEX group was associated with marked reduction in the volume of the acinar cells in these glands of 50% and 26% respectively (P < 0.05). The total number of acinar cells was increased in the submandibular glands of the DEX rats (P < 0.05) but not in the parotid glands. The levels of proteins related to insulin and survival signalling in both glands did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, the long-term administration of dexamethasone caused IR, which was associated with significant reductions in both mass and flux rate of the salivary glands. The parotid and submandibular glands exhibited reduced acinar cell volume; however, the submandibular glands displayed acinar hyperplasia, indicating a gland-specific response to GCs. Our data emphasize that GC-based therapies and insulin-resistant states have a negative impact on salivary gland homeostasis. PMID:25186305

  9. Preen gland removal increases plumage bacterial load but not that of feather-degrading bacteria.

    PubMed

    Czirják, Gábor Arpád; Pap, Péter László; Vágási, Csongor István; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Mure?an, Cosmin; Mirleau, Pascal; Heeb, Philipp

    2013-02-01

    The preen gland is a holocrine sebaceous gland of the avian integument which produces an oily secretion that is spread on the plumage during preening. It has been suggested that birds may defend themselves against feather-degrading bacteria (FDB) and other potential pathogens using preen gland secretions. However, besides some in vitro studies, the in vivo bacterial inhibitory effects of the preen oil on the abundance of feather-associated bacterial species has not yet been studied in passerines. Here we tested the effect of gland removal on the abundance of FDB and other-cultivable bacterial loads (OCB) of male house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Our results did not support earlier results on in vitro antibacterial activity of preen oil against FDB since the absence of the preen gland did not significantly affect their loads related to the control birds. In contrast, we found that preen gland removal led to higher loads of OCB. This result suggests that the antimicrobial spectrum of the preen oil is broader than previously thought and that, by reducing the overall feather bacterial loads, the preen gland could help birds to protect themselves against a variety of potentially harmful bacteria. PMID:23288399

  10. Preen gland removal increases plumage bacterial load but not that of feather-degrading bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czirják, Gábor Árpád; Pap, Péter László; Vágási, Csongor István; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Mure?an, Cosmin; Mirleau, Pascal; Heeb, Philipp

    2013-02-01

    The preen gland is a holocrine sebaceous gland of the avian integument which produces an oily secretion that is spread on the plumage during preening. It has been suggested that birds may defend themselves against feather-degrading bacteria (FDB) and other potential pathogens using preen gland secretions. However, besides some in vitro studies, the in vivo bacterial inhibitory effects of the preen oil on the abundance of feather-associated bacterial species has not yet been studied in passerines. Here we tested the effect of gland removal on the abundance of FDB and other-cultivable bacterial loads (OCB) of male house sparrows ( Passer domesticus). Our results did not support earlier results on in vitro antibacterial activity of preen oil against FDB since the absence of the preen gland did not significantly affect their loads related to the control birds. In contrast, we found that preen gland removal led to higher loads of OCB. This result suggests that the antimicrobial spectrum of the preen oil is broader than previously thought and that, by reducing the overall feather bacterial loads, the preen gland could help birds to protect themselves against a variety of potentially harmful bacteria.

  11. Hoopoes color their eggs with antimicrobial uropygial secretions.

    PubMed

    Soler, Juan J; Martín-Vivaldi, M; Peralta-Sánchez, J M; Arco, L; Juárez-García-Pelayo, N

    2014-09-01

    Uropygial gland secretions are used as cosmetics by some species of birds to color and enhance properties of feathers and teguments, which may signal individual quality. Uropygial secretions also reach eggshells during incubation and, therefore, may influence the coloration of birds' eggs, a trait that has attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists for more than one century. The color of hoopoe eggs typically changes along incubation, from bluish-gray to greenish-brown. Here, we test experimentally the hypothesis that dark uropygial secretion of females is responsible for such drastic color change. Moreover, since uropygial secretion of hoopoes has antimicrobial properties, we also explore the association between color and antimicrobial activity of the uropygial secretion of females. We found that eggs stayed bluish-gray in nests where female access to the uropygial secretion was experimentally blocked. Furthermore, experimental eggs that were maintained in incubators and manually smeared with uropygial secretion experienced similar color changes that naturally incubated eggs did, while control eggs that were not in contact with the secretions did not experience such color changes. All these results strongly support the hypothesis that female hoopoes use their uropygial gland secretion to color the eggs. Moreover, saturation of the uropygial secretion was associated with antimicrobial activity against Bacillus licheniformis. Given the known antimicrobial potential of uropygial secretions of birds, this finding opens the possibility that in scenarios of sexual selection, hoopoes in particular and birds in general signal antimicrobial properties of their uropygial secretion by mean of changes in egg coloration along incubation. PMID:25011415

  12. Isolated rectal gland cells: oxygen consumption and hormonal stimulation.

    PubMed

    Silva, P; Lear, S; Segal, F; Rosen, S; Spokes, K; Stevens, A; Lichtstein, D; Epstein, F H

    1986-01-01

    Cells isolated from rectal glands of Squalus acanthias, using collagenase and hyaluronidase digestion, retained normal morphological characteristics as judged by light microscopy of 1-micron plastic sections. Their oxygen consumption per unit weight was comparable to that of intact rectal gland studied either in situ, or by isolated perfusion, as well as that of rectal gland slices. Cellular respiration was stimulated by dibutyryl cyclic AMP and theophylline or by vasoactive intestinal peptide which stimulate secretion of chloride by the intact gland. Stimulated oxygen consumption was inhibited by ouabain and bumetanide and was proportional to the concentration of sodium or chloride in the incubation solution. The oxygen consumption of these cells parallels the secretory and metabolic behavior of the intact rectal gland, suggesting that it reflects energy demands for ion transport. The relative ease with which a homogeneous preparation of viable and active cells can be obtained and the apparent preservation of many of their key functional characteristics make this preparation a useful tool for the study of hormone-stimulated ion transport. PMID:3027517

  13. Accessory Cavitated Uterine Mass: A Rare Cause of Severe Dysmenorrhea in Young Women.

    PubMed

    Paul, P G; Chopade, Gaurav; Das, Tanuka; Dhivya, N; Patil, Saurabh; Thomas, Manju

    2015-01-01

    We present 3 case reports of a rare Müllerian anomaly called accessory and cavitated uterine mass (ACUM), which is found in young women >30 years of age. They presented with severe dysmenorrhea refractory to medical treatment. The patients were 17, 19, and 25 years old. The patients had the classic Müllerian anomalies. The hysteroscopic examination was normal in all 3 cases, and laparoscopic examination showed a 3- to 4-cm ill-defined mass on the right half of the uterus, without any communication to the uterine cavity. The chocolate-colored material was drained in all of the cases, during excision of the mass. The myometrial defect was sutured laparoscopically. On histological examination, the mass was found to be a cystic cavity, lined by endometrial glands and stroma, which confirmed the diagnosis of ACUM. PMID:26093186

  14. The Rapalogue, CCI-779, improves salivary gland function following radiation.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Bathke, Maria; Harris, Zoey I; Arnett, Deborah G; Klein, Rob R; Burd, Randy; Ann, David K; Limesand, Kirsten H

    2014-01-01

    The standard of care for head and neck cancer typically includes surgical resection of the tumor followed by targeted head and neck radiation. However depending on tumor location and stage, some cases may not require surgical resection while others may be treated with chemoradiation. Unfortunately, these radiation treatments cause chronic negative side effects for patients. These side effects are associated with damage to surrounding normal salivary gland tissue and include xerostomia, changes in taste and malnutrition. The underlying mechanisms of chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction are unknown, however, in rodent models persistently elevated proliferation is correlated with reduced stimulated salivary flow. The rapalogue, CCI-779, has been used in other cell systems to induce autophagy and reduce proliferation, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if CCI-779 could be utilized to ameliorate chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Four to six week old Atg5f/f; Aqp5-Cre, Atg5+/+; Aqp5-Cre and FVB mice were treated with targeted head and neck radiation. FVB mice were treated with CCI-779, chloroquine, or DMSO post-radiation. Stimulated salivary flow rates were determined and parotid and submandibular salivary gland tissues were collected for analyses. Mice with a defect in autophagy, via a conditional knockout of Atg5 in the salivary glands, display increased compensatory proliferation in the acinar cell compartment and hypertrophy at 24-72 hours following radiation. FVB mice treated with post-therapy CCI-779 have significant improvements in salivary gland physiology as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates, proliferation indices and amylase production and secretion. Consequently, post-radiation use of CCI-779 allows for improvement of salivary gland function and reestablishment of glandular homeostasis. As CCI-779 is already FDA approved for other uses, it could have a secondary use to alleviate the chronic side effects in head and neck cancer patients who have completed anti-tumor therapy. PMID:25437438

  15. The Rapalogue, CCI-779, Improves Salivary Gland Function following Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Bathke, Maria; Harris, Zoey I.; Arnett, Deborah G.; Klein, Rob R.; Burd, Randy; Ann, David K.; Limesand, Kirsten H.

    2014-01-01

    The standard of care for head and neck cancer typically includes surgical resection of the tumor followed by targeted head and neck radiation. However depending on tumor location and stage, some cases may not require surgical resection while others may be treated with chemoradiation. Unfortunately, these radiation treatments cause chronic negative side effects for patients. These side effects are associated with damage to surrounding normal salivary gland tissue and include xerostomia, changes in taste and malnutrition. The underlying mechanisms of chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction are unknown, however, in rodent models persistently elevated proliferation is correlated with reduced stimulated salivary flow. The rapalogue, CCI-779, has been used in other cell systems to induce autophagy and reduce proliferation, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if CCI-779 could be utilized to ameliorate chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Four to six week old Atg5f/f; Aqp5-Cre, Atg5+/+; Aqp5-Cre and FVB mice were treated with targeted head and neck radiation. FVB mice were treated with CCI-779, chloroquine, or DMSO post-radiation. Stimulated salivary flow rates were determined and parotid and submandibular salivary gland tissues were collected for analyses. Mice with a defect in autophagy, via a conditional knockout of Atg5 in the salivary glands, display increased compensatory proliferation in the acinar cell compartment and hypertrophy at 24-72 hours following radiation. FVB mice treated with post-therapy CCI-779 have significant improvements in salivary gland physiology as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates, proliferation indices and amylase production and secretion. Consequently, post-radiation use of CCI-779 allows for improvement of salivary gland function and reestablishment of glandular homeostasis. As CCI-779 is already FDA approved for other uses, it could have a secondary use to alleviate the chronic side effects in head and neck cancer patients who have completed anti-tumor therapy. PMID:25437438

  16. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...accessories for endoscopes, nonpowered anoscopes...attachments for endoscopes, pocket battery boxes, flexible or rigid choledochoscopes...esophagogastroduodenoscopes, rigid esophagoscopes...illuminators for endoscopes,...

  20. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...accessories for endoscopes, nonpowered anoscopes...attachments for endoscopes, pocket battery boxes, flexible or rigid choledochoscopes...esophagogastroduodenoscopes, rigid esophagoscopes...illuminators for endoscopes,...

  1. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...accessories for endoscopes, nonpowered anoscopes...attachments for endoscopes, pocket battery boxes, flexible or rigid choledochoscopes...esophagogastroduodenoscopes, rigid esophagoscopes...illuminators for endoscopes,...

  2. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...accessories for endoscopes, nonpowered anoscopes...attachments for endoscopes, pocket battery boxes, flexible or rigid choledochoscopes...esophagogastroduodenoscopes, rigid esophagoscopes...illuminators for endoscopes,...

  3. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...accessories for endoscopes, nonpowered anoscopes...attachments for endoscopes, pocket battery boxes, flexible or rigid choledochoscopes...esophagogastroduodenoscopes, rigid esophagoscopes...illuminators for endoscopes,...

  4. Multiscale Modelling of Saliva Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Sneyd, James; Crampin, Edmund; Yule, David

    2014-01-01

    We review a multiscale model of saliva secretion, describing in brief how the model is constructed and what we have so far learned from it. The model begins at the level of inositol trisphosphate receptors (IPR), and proceeds through the cellular level (with a model of acinar cell calcium dynamics) to the multicellular level (with a model of the acinus), finally to a model of a saliva production unit that includes an acinus and associated duct. The model at the level of the entire salivary gland is not yet completed. Particular results from the model so far include (i) the importance of modal behaviour of IPR, (ii) the relative unimportance of Ca2+ oscillation frequency as a controller of saliva secretion, (iii) the need for the periodic Ca2+ waves to be as fast as possible in order to maximise water transport, (iv) the presence of functional K+ channels in the apical membrane increases saliva secretion, (v) the relative unimportance of acinar spatial structure for isotonic water transport, (vi) the prediction that duct cells are highly depolarised, (vii) the prediction that the secondary saliva takes at least 1 mm (from the acinus) to reach ionic equilibrium. We end with a brief discussion of future directions for the model, both in construction and in the study of scientific questions. PMID:25014770

  5. Disruption of the salivary gland muscle in tsetse, Glossina pallidipes Austen, as a result of salivary gland hypertrophy virus infection.

    PubMed

    Guerra, L; Stoffolano, J G; Belardinelli, M C; Gambellini, G; Taddei, A R; Laghezza Masci, V; Fausto, A M

    2015-12-01

    The secretory region of the salivary glands in Glossina pallidipes Austen (Diptera: Glossinidae) is characterized by an external muscle layer. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy investigations provide a detailed description of the longitudinal muscle fibres and a comparison of their structure when affected by salivary gland hypertrophy virus. The virus is responsible for hypertrophy of the salivary glands in symptomatic flies, specifically of the muscle fibres, the cytoarchitecture of which is completely altered. Although observations did not reveal viral particles in the muscle cells of either asymptomatic or symptomatic flies, muscle fibres were enlarged and detached from one another and their associated basement membrane only in symptomatic flies. A decrease in type IV collagen labelling in the basement membrane of the muscles in symptomatic flies is reported and is considered a potential cause of the salivary gland muscle alteration and, possibly, myopathy. The maintenance of an organized muscular layer is essential for the normal secretion of saliva and hence its pathology in symptomatic tsetse flies could affect the normal transmission of the trypanosome that develops inside the salivary gland epithelium. Therefore, a better understanding of the possible role of the virus is essential in order to elucidate its impact on salivary deployment in symptomatic flies. PMID:26177673

  6. Proteomic analysis of Drosophila mojavensis male accessory glands suggests novel classes of seminal fluid proteins

    E-print Network

    Markow, Therese

    variation in fertilization traits such as copulatory plug formation, sperm storage organ use, and nutritional ejaculatory donation. Despite extensive research on the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster fertilizing organisms, sexual reproduction is mediated by a complex series of biochemical interactions between

  7. Dietary monosodium glutamate enhances gastric secretion.

    PubMed

    Khropycheva, Raisa; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Torii, Kunio; Zolotarev, Vasiliy

    2009-01-01

    Dietary L-glutamate (Glu), an amino acid abundant in many foodstuffs in a free form, is able to modulate physiological functions in the stomach, including secretion and motility. Recently, specific receptors for Glu were identified in the apical membrane of chief cells in the lower region of fundic glands and in the somatostatin-secreting D-cell fraction of the gastric mucosa. This Glu-sensing system in the stomach is linked to activation of the vagal afferents. Among 20 kinds of amino acid, luminal Glu alone activated the vagal afferents in the stomach through a paracrine cascade led by nitric oxide and followed by serotonin (5-HT). In dogs with Pavlov pouches, found that supplementation of an amino acid-rich diet lacking Glu with monosodium Glu (MSG) enhanced the secretion of acid, pepsinogen, and fluid. However, MSG did not affect these secretions induced by a carbohydrate-rich diet and it had no effect on basal secretion when MSG was applied alone without the diet. Enhancement of gastric secretion by MSG was abolished by blockage of the gastric afferents using intra-gastric applied lidocaine. This effect of MSG was due in part to stimulation of 5-HT(3) receptors in the gastric mucosa. PMID:20224184

  8. Salivary Gland Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Cristina P; Parvathaneni, Upendra; Méndez, Eduardo; Martins, Renato G

    2015-12-01

    Salivary gland malignant tumors represent a diverse group of neoplasms. Their low incidence makes research studies challenging, with most therapeutic recommendations based on case reviews, single-arm trials, or small randomized trials. The standard of care for localized disease is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is the preferred local therapy when surgery is not possible or if there is significant morbidity. When symptomatic metastatic disease develops, systemic therapy is considered. Recent trial accrual success with a cooperative group, treatments based on defined molecular targets, and the development of immunotherapies all hold promise in improving the care of patients with these tumors. PMID:26568553

  9. Effect of HAART on Salivary Gland Function in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS)

    PubMed Central

    Navazesh, M; Mulligan, R; Karim, R; Mack, WJ; Ram, S; Seirawan, H; Greenspan, J; Greenspan, D; Phelan, J; Alves, M

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on salivary gland function in HIV positive women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Design Longitudinal cohort study. Subjects and Methods A total of 668 HIV positive women from the WIHS cohort with an initial and at least 1 follow-up oral sub-study visit contributed 5358 visits. Salivary gland function was assessed based on a dry mouth questionnaire, whole unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates, salivary gland enlargement or tenderness and lack of saliva on palpation of the major salivary glands. Main Outcome Measures Changes in unstimulated and stimulated flow rates at any given visit from that of the immediate prior visit (continuous variables). The development of self-reported dry mouth (present/absent), enlargement or tenderness of salivary glands (present/absent), and absence of secretion on palpation of the salivary glands were binary outcomes (yes/no). Results Protease Inhibitor (PI) based HAART was a significant risk factor for developing decreased unstimulated (p=0.01) and stimulated (p=0.0004) salivary flow rates as well as salivary gland enlargement (p=0.006) as compared with non-PI based HAART. Conclusions PI-based HAART therapy is a significant risk factor for developing reduced salivary flow rates and salivary gland enlargement in HIV positive patients. PMID:19017280

  10. Gastric inhibitory peptide, serotonin, and glucagon are unexpected chloride secretagogues in the rectal gland of the skate (Leucoraja erinacea)

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Catherine A.; Decker, Sarah E.; Silva, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of the rectal gland of the dogfish shark 50 years ago, experiments with this tissue have greatly aided our understanding of secondary active chloride secretion and the secretagogues responsible for this function. In contrast, very little is known about the rectal gland of skates. In the present experiments, we performed the first studies in the perfused rectal gland of the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), an organ weighing less than one-tenth of the shark rectal gland. Our results indicate that the skate gland can be studied by modified perfusion techniques and in primary culture monolayers, and that secretion is blocked by the inhibitors of membrane proteins required for secondary active chloride secretion. Our major finding is that three G protein-coupled receptor agonists, the incretin gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), also known as glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, as well as glucagon and serotonin, are unexpected potent chloride secretagogues in the skate but not the shark. Glucagon stimulated chloride secretion to a mean value of 1,661 ± 587 ?eq·h?1·g?1 and serotonin stimulated to 2,893 ± 699 ?eq·h?1·g?1. GIP stimulated chloride secretion to 3,733 ± 679 ?eq·h?1·g?1 and significantly increased tissue cAMP content compared with basal conditions. This is the first report of GIP functioning as a chloride secretagogue in any species or tissue. PMID:24553297

  11. Gastric inhibitory peptide, serotonin, and glucagon are unexpected chloride secretagogues in the rectal gland of the skate (Leucoraja erinacea).

    PubMed

    Kelley, Catherine A; Decker, Sarah E; Silva, Patricio; Forrest, John N

    2014-05-01

    Since the discovery of the rectal gland of the dogfish shark 50 years ago, experiments with this tissue have greatly aided our understanding of secondary active chloride secretion and the secretagogues responsible for this function. In contrast, very little is known about the rectal gland of skates. In the present experiments, we performed the first studies in the perfused rectal gland of the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), an organ weighing less than one-tenth of the shark rectal gland. Our results indicate that the skate gland can be studied by modified perfusion techniques and in primary culture monolayers, and that secretion is blocked by the inhibitors of membrane proteins required for secondary active chloride secretion. Our major finding is that three G protein-coupled receptor agonists, the incretin gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), also known as glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, as well as glucagon and serotonin, are unexpected potent chloride secretagogues in the skate but not the shark. Glucagon stimulated chloride secretion to a mean value of 1,661 ± 587 ?eq·h(-1)·g(-1) and serotonin stimulated to 2,893 ± 699 ?eq·h(-1)·g(-1). GIP stimulated chloride secretion to 3,733 ± 679 ?eq·h(-1)·g(-1) and significantly increased tissue cAMP content compared with basal conditions. This is the first report of GIP functioning as a chloride secretagogue in any species or tissue. PMID:24553297

  12. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Airworthiness Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by...

  13. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  14. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  15. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (1) The extracorporeal blood system and accessories consists of tubing, pumps, pressure monitors, air... conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a dialysate delivery system, and accessories. Blood from a patient flows through the tubing of the extracorporeal blood...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (1) The extracorporeal blood system and accessories consists of tubing, pumps, pressure monitors, air... conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a dialysate delivery system, and accessories. Blood from a patient flows through the tubing of the extracorporeal blood...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (1) The extracorporeal blood system and accessories consists of tubing, pumps, pressure monitors, air... conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a dialysate delivery system, and accessories. Blood from a patient flows through the tubing of the extracorporeal blood...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (1) The extracorporeal blood system and accessories consists of tubing, pumps, pressure monitors, air... conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a dialysate delivery system, and accessories. Blood from a patient flows through the tubing of the extracorporeal blood...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (1) The extracorporeal blood system and accessories consists of tubing, pumps, pressure monitors, air... conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a dialysate delivery system, and accessories. Blood from a patient flows through the tubing of the extracorporeal blood...

  1. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  2. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  8. Unusual drainage of the main kidney on accessory kidney

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Gülnur; U?ra?, Murat; Demiröz, Sevgi

    2014-01-01

    Patients with an accessory kidney are characterized by an excessive number of kidneys. The ureter of the accessory kidney either drains separately into the bladder or merges with the ureter of the main kidney. In our case, interestingly, the ureter of the left main kidney drained directly into the accessory kidney and the ureter of the latter was the common drainage route for both. The drainage of a normal kidney via the ureter of an accessory kidney has not been reported in the literature, so far. The aim of this report is to present the case with radiological findings and to emphasize the effects of this situation on planned surgical procedures. A 62-year-old female patient had an interesting abnormality on the left collecting system, which was revealed on excretory urography (EU), retrograde urography (RU) and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). A kinky left ureter, which formed a U shape, was revealed on EU. On MDCT, an accessory kidney was revealed at the anterior aspect of the middle zone of left main kidney. The ureter of the main left kidney drained directly into the accessory kidney. The course of this drainage was confirmed by retrograde urography. An accessory kidney is a rare entity associated with horseshoe kidney, ectopic ureter draining into the vagina, bifid collecting system and coarctation of the aorta. In our case, an unusual association between the ureters of the main and accessory kidneys was revealed, which may have an impact on planned surgery in the groin and retroperitoneal areas. PMID:26328163

  9. Simon Effect with and without Awareness of the Accessory Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treccani, Barbara; Umilta, Carlo; Tagliabue, Mariaelena

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated whether a Simon effect could be observed in an accessory-stimulus Simon task when participants were unaware of the task-irrelevant accessory cue. In Experiment 1A a central visual target was accompanied by a suprathreshold visual lateral cue. A regular Simon effect (i.e., faster cue-response corresponding reaction times…

  10. 21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884.5350 Section 884.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Devices § 884.5350 Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. (a) Identification. A contraceptive...

  11. 14 CFR 125.149 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 125.149... Requirements § 125.149 Engine accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm that complies with § 125.145 must be provided on air-cooled engines to isolate...

  12. 14 CFR 121.251 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory section diaphragm. 121.251 Section 121.251 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... accessory section diaphragm. Unless equivalent protection can be shown by other means, a diaphragm...

  13. 21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. 884... Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic...

  14. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010 Section 872.6010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device...

  15. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bone cutting instrument and accessories. 872.4120 Section 872.4120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4120 Bone cutting instrument and accessories. (a) Identification. A bone...

  16. 49 CFR 393.3 - Additional equipment and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional equipment and accessories. 393.3 Section 393.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE...

  17. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  18. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  19. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  20. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  1. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-40 Valves, fittings, and accessories. (a) All valves, flanges, fittings and accessory equipment shall be of a type suitable for use with anhydrous ammonia and shall be made... Engineering) of this chapter. Valves shall be fitted with noncorrosive material suitable for ammonia...

  2. Ascl3 knockout and cell ablation models reveal complexity of salivary gland maintenance and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Arany, Szilvia; Catalán, Marcelo A.; Roztocil, Elisa; Ovitt, Catherine E.

    2011-01-01

    Expression of the transcription factor, Ascl3, marks a population of adult progenitor cells, which can give rise to both acinar and duct cell types in the murine salivary glands. Using a previously reported Ascl3EGFP-Cre/+ knock-in strain, we demonstrate that Ascl3-expressing cells represent a molecularly distinct, and proliferating population of progenitor cells located in salivary gland ducts. To investigate both the role of the Ascl3 transcription factor, and the role of the cells in which it is expressed, we generated knockout and cell-specific ablation models. Ascl3 knockout mice develop smaller salivary glands than wild type littermates, but secrete saliva normally. They display a lower level of cell proliferation, consistent with their smaller size. In the absence of Ascl3, the cells maintain their progenitor function and continue to generate both acinar and duct cells. To directly test the role of the progenitor cells, themselves, in salivary gland development and regeneration, we used Cre-activated expression of diphtheria toxin (DTA) in the Ascl3-expressing (Ascl3+) cell population, resulting in specific cell ablation of Ascl3+ cells. In the absence of the Ascl3+ progenitor cells, the mice developed morphologically normal, albeit smaller, salivary glands able to secrete saliva. Furthermore, in a ductal ligation model of salivary gland injury, the glands of these mice were able to regenerate acinar cells. Our results indicate that Ascl3+ cells are active proliferating progenitors, but they are not the only precursors for salivary gland development or regeneration. We conclude that maintenance of tissue homeostasis in the salivary gland must involve more than one progenitor cell population. PMID:21377457

  3. Salivary Gland Hypofunction in tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase-2 Knockout Mice Is Due to Primary Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Westmuckett, Andrew D.; Siefert, Joseph C.; Tesiram, Yasvir A.; Pinson, David M.; Moore, Kevin L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein-tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification of an unknown number of secreted and membrane proteins mediated by two known Golgi tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST-1 and TPST-2). We reported that Tpst2-/- mice have mild-moderate primary hypothyroidism, whereas Tpst1-/- mice are euthyroid. While using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to look at the thyroid gland we noticed that the salivary glands in Tpst2-/- mice appeared smaller than in wild type mice. This prompted a detailed analysis to compare salivary gland structure and function in wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2 -/- mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative MRI imaging documented that salivary glands in Tpst2-/- females were ? 30% smaller than wild type or Tpst1-/- mice and that the granular convoluted tubules in Tpst2-/- submandibular glands were less prominent and were almost completely devoid of exocrine secretory granules compared to glands from wild type or Tpst1-/- mice. In addition, pilocarpine–induced salivary flow and salivary ?-amylase activity in Tpst2-/- mice of both sexes was substantially lower than in wild type and Tpst1-/- mice. Anti-sulfotyrosine Western blots of salivary gland extracts and saliva showed no differences between wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2-/- mice, suggesting that the salivary gland hypofunction is due to factor(s) extrinsic to the salivary glands. Finally, we found that all indicators of hypothyroidism (serum T4, body weight) and salivary gland hypofunction (salivary flow, salivary ?-amylase activity, histological changes) were restored to normal or near normal by thyroid hormone supplementation. Conclusions/Significance Our findings conclusively demonstrate that low body weight and salivary gland hypofunction in Tpst2-/- mice is due solely to primary hypothyroidism. PMID:23951251

  4. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  5. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  6. GENES EXPRESSED EXCLUSIVELY IN THE SALIVARY GLANDS OF THE FIRST INSTAR LARVAE OF HESSIAN FLY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several families of genes that are exclusively expressed in the salivary glands of the first instar larvae have been identified and characterized by sequencing clones from a Hessian fly [Mayetiola destructor (Say)] salivary cDNA library. All of these genes encode putative proteins with secretion sig...

  7. Salivary histatins in human deep posterior lingual glands (of von Ebner)

    E-print Network

    Terasaki, Mark

    ; Secretory granules; Antimicrobial proteins; Electron microscopy Summary Objective: Human saliva contains, confirming that all human major salivary glands are involved in the secretion of histatins into saliva histidine-rich proteins whose major mem- bers histatin 1 and 3 have been isolated from human saliva

  8. X-ray microanalysis of exocrine glands in animal models for cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, R.M.R.; Roomans, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Elemental distribution and ultrastructure of the submandibular gland, the parotid gland and the pancreas were investigated in three suggested animal models of the disease cystic fibrosis: the chronically reserpinized rat, the chronically isoproterenol-treated rat, and the chronically pilocarpine-treated rat. To elucidate the cellular mechanism underlying the effects of these treatments, chronic effects of specific alpha - and beta -adrenergic agonists, as well as acute effects of reserpine and various agonists were also investigated. Reserpine, isoproterenol, and pilocarpine cause an increase in the calcium concentration in submandibular gland acinar cells, due to an increased calcium content of the intracellular mucus. In the parotid gland, reserpine and isoproterenol cause a decrease of the calcium concentration in acinar cells, due to a lower calcium content of the zymogen granules. In the submandibular gland, a decreased cellular Na concentration was noted after chronic treatment with isoproterenol or pilocarpine, and after a single dose of reserpine or isoproterenol. Ultrastructural changes in the exocrine glands investigated included excessive accumulation of intracellular secretory material and formation of abnormal uncondensed secretion granules. A common pattern in the animal models appears to be (1) inhibition of secretion resulting in intracellular accumulation of secretory material, (2) synthesis of secretory macromolecules with altered cation-binding properties.

  9. Innervated ectopic salivary gland associated with Rathke's cleft cyst clinically mimicking pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Stefanits, Harald; Matula, Christian; Frischer, Josa M; Furtner, Julia; Hainfellner, Johannes A; Woehrer, Adelheid

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we report an exceptional case of a young female patient with progressive enlargement of a sellar mass, clinically suggestive of pituitary adenoma. Histopathology, however, demonstrated Rathke's cleft cyst associated with salivary gland remnants. In contrast to the majority of prior reports, the ectopic salivary glands were found in close proximity to the anterior pituitary lobe and showed active production of mucous secret, which caused progressive growth and symptoms in this patient. We further demonstrate nerve fibers surrounding the ectopic salivary glands, thereby suggesting parasympathetic innervation as a plausible mechanism triggering seromucous secretion. Neurosurgeons and neuropathologists need to be aware of this rare clinical condition expanding the spectrum of differential diagnoses of sellar masses. PMID:23254138

  10. Autocrine-paracrine regulation of the mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Weaver, S R; Hernandez, L L

    2016-01-01

    The mammary gland has a remarkable capacity for regulation at a local level, particularly with respect to its main function: milk secretion. Regulation of milk synthesis has significant effects on animal and human health, at the level of both the mother and the neonate. Control by the mammary gland of its essential function, milk synthesis, is an evolutionary necessity and is therefore tightly regulated at a local level. For at least the last 60 yr, researchers have been interested in elucidating the mechanisms underpinning the mammary gland's ability to self-regulate, largely without the influence from systemic hormones or signals. By the 1960s, scientists realized the importance of milk removal in the capacity of the gland to produce milk and that the dynamics of this removal, including emptying of the alveolar spaces and frequency of milking, were controlled locally as opposed to traditional systemic hormonal regulation. Using both in vitro systems and various mammalian species, including goats, marsupials, humans, and dairy cows, it has been demonstrated that the mammary gland is largely self-regulating in its capacity to support the young, which is the evolutionary basis for milk production. Local control occurs at the level of the mammary epithelial cell through pressure and stretching negative-feedback mechanisms, and also in an autocrine fashion through bioactive factors within the milk which act as inhibitors, regulating milk secretion within the alveoli themselves. It is only within the last 20 to 30 yr that potential candidates for these bioactive factors have been examined at a molecular level. Several, including parathyroid hormone-related protein, growth factors (transforming growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, epidermal growth factor), and serotonin, are synthesized within and act upon the gland and possess dynamic receptor activity resulting in diverse effects on growth, calcium homeostasis, and milk composition. This review will focus on the autocrine-paracrine regulation of the mammary gland, with an examination of both foundational work and the progress made within the last 10 to 20 yr of research. PMID:26299162

  11. Histology of the pouch epithelium and the mammary glands during chemically induced oestrus in the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula)

    PubMed Central

    Old, Julie M; Irving, M; Deane, Elizabeth M

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the epithelium of the maternal pouch and the mammary gland of brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) were examined after animals were treated to induce ovulation with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), pregnant mares’ serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and oestradiol. The mammary glands were similar in appearance to those described in eutherian mammals and in previous studies on other marsupials. Exposure of possums to these compounds, particularly PSMG, appeared to result in changes in the mammary glands that could be associated with milk/secretion production. In contrast, the pouch epithelium had a similar histological appearance to that of epithelium from other parts of the body regardless of whether the animal was exposed to stimulants. These preliminary observations are discussed in the context of the purported role of the pouch epithelium and the mammary gland in production of secretions at oestrus and provision of immunological protection to the neonatal marsupial. PMID:16011549

  12. [Revisiting meibomian gland dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Baudouin, C

    2014-12-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunctions (MGD) are frequent affections, sometimes asymptomatic, more often responsible for disabling, potentially severe, manifestations. MGD is indeed the most frequent cause of dry eye, through the induction of tear film instability. However, eyelid inflammation, microbial proliferation that modifies melting temperature of meibum, frequent association with skin diseases, as well as potentially severe corneal complications make them complex multifactorial disorders. Complementary mechanisms combine to actually result in a vicious circle, or more accurately a double vicious cycle. The first one is self-stimulated by the microbiological changes, which create their own conditions for MGD development. The second one is related to tear film instability that results from MGD and is also self-stimulated through hyperosmolarity and inflammatory phenomena, which are both consequence and cause of dry eye. We herein propose a new pathophysiological schema on MGD, in order to better identify mechanisms and more efficiently target therapeutics. PMID:25455142

  13. Immunolocalization and distribution of functional temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Sobhan, Ubaidus; Sato, Masaki; Shinomiya, Takashi; Okubo, Migiwa; Tsumura, Maki; Muramatsu, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Mitsuru; Tazaki, Masakazu; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki

    2013-11-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels are unique cellular sensors involved in multiple cellular functions. Their role in salivary secretion remains to be elucidated. The expression and localization of temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary (submandibular, sublingual and parotid) glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The effects of various TRP channel agonists on carbachol (CCh)-induced salivary secretion in the submandibular gland and on the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in a submandibular epithelial cell line were also investigated. Immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of TRP-melastatin subfamily member 8 (TRPM8) and TRP-ankyrin subfamily member 1 (TRPA1) in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in the sublingual, submandibular and parotid glands. In addition, TRP-vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), TRPV3 and TRPV4 were also expressed in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in all three types of gland. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR results demonstrated the mRNA expression of TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPM8 and TRPA1 in acinar and ductal cells in these salivary glands. Perfusion of the entire submandibular gland with the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (1 ?M) via the submandibular artery significantly increased CCh-induced salivation, whereas perfusion with TRPM8 and TRPA1 agonists (0.5 ?M WS12 and 100 ?M allyl isothiocyanate) decreased it. Application of agonists for each of the thermosensitive TRP channels increased [Ca(2+)]i in a submandibular epithelial cell line. These results indicate that temperature-sensitive TRP channels are localized and distributed in acinar, ductal and myoepithelial cells in salivary glands and that they play a functional role in the regulation and/or modulation of salivary secretion. PMID:23942896

  14. Hunting for eruption ages in accessory minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    A primary goal in geochronology is to provide precise and accurate ages for tephras that serve as chronostratigraphic markers for constraining the timing and rates of volcanism, sedimentation, climate change, and catastrophic events in Earth history. Zircon remains the most versatile accessory mineral for dating silicic tephras due to its common preservation in distal pyroclastic deposits, as well as the robustness of its U-Pb and U-series systems even after host materials have been hydrothermally altered or weathered. Countless studies document that zircon may be complexly zoned in age due to inheritance, contamination, recycling of antecrysts, protracted crystallization in long-lived magma reservoirs, or any combination of these. Other accessory minerals such as allanite or chevkinite can retain similar records of protracted crystallization. If the goal is to date the durations of magmatic crystallization, differentiation, and/or magma residence, then these protracted chronologies within and between accessory minerals are a blessing. However, if the goal is to date the timing of eruption with high precision, i.e., absolute ages with millennial-scale uncertainties, then this age zoning is a curse. Observations from ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of Pleistocene zircon and allanite provide insight into the record of near-eruption crystallization in accessory minerals and serve as a guide for high-precision whole-crystal dating. Although imprecise relative to conventional techniques, ion probe analysis allows high-spatial resolution 238U-230Th dating that can document multi-millennial age distributions at the crystal scale. Analysis of unpolished rims and continuous depth profiling of zircon from small and large volume eruptions (e.g., Coso, Mono Craters, Yellowstone) reveals that the final several micrometers of crystallization often yield ages that are indistinguishable from associated eruption ages from the 40Ar/39Ar or (U-Th)/He methods. Using this approach, we have derived relatively precise (± ~ 5%, 2?) U-Th isochron ages from the unpolished rims of pumice-derived allanite and zircon from late Pleistocene Wilson Creek Formation tephras in eastern California, whose ages are controversial and have been difficult to resolve via 40Ar/39Ar and radiocarbon dating. Allanite and zircon rims from Ashes 7-19 in the lower portion of Wilson Creek sediments yield stratigraphically consistent ages of ca. 27 ka to ca. 62 ka, with a minority of crystals identifiable as xenocrysts from early Mono Craters rhyolites. Model ages for the interiors of allanite crystals are mostly < 10 k.y. older than their rims. Tephra deposited during the geomagnetic excursion debated to be either the Mono Lake or Laschamp event yields a rim isochron age of ca. 41 ka. This age is indistinguishable from an independent age of 41 ka derived at the latter excursion's type locality in France (Singer et al., 2009) as well as from age-models for deep-sea sediments. The results are in excellent agreement with a previously determined chronology derived from magnetostratigraphy (Zimmerman et al., 2006). Refs: Singer et al., 2009, EPSL 286: 80-88; Zimmerman et al., 2006, EPSL 252: 94-106

  15. Parotid gland is the main source of human salivary epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Thesleff, I.; Viinikka, L.; Saxen, L.; Lehtonen, E.; Perheentupa, J.

    1988-01-01

    To clarify the production of human epidermal growth factor (EGF) by different salivary glands, the authors measured its concentration by radioimmunoassay separately in whole saliva, in parotid gland (PG) saliva and in mixed submandibular (SMG) and sublingual gland (SLG) saliva. Also, they studied the presence of EGF in PG and SMG by immunohistochemistry. The mean concentrations of EDG in PG saliva was higher than in whole saliva, which in turn was higher than in mixed SMG + SLG saliva. No sex difference existed in any salivary gland EGF. Immunohistochemistry revealed EGF in the acinar cells of both PG and SMG, buy only in PG there were prominent EDG deposits in luminal spaces. Their data suggest that EDG is produced by both PG and SMG, but that more of it is secreted from the PG. This result is new and challenges the general view that human salivary EDG is mainly from SMG.

  16. Immunoregulatory peptides from salivary glands of the horsefly, Tabanus pleskei.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ruili; Yu, Xiaodong; Yu, Haining; Han, Wenyu; Zhai, Lei; Han, Junyou; Liu, Jingze

    2009-09-01

    Horseflies are economically important blood-feeding arthropods and vectors for several pathogenic microorganisms. Horseflies rely heavily on pharmacological propriety of their saliva to get blood meal and suppress immune reactions of hosts. Few reports cover immune suppressants from horsefly salivary glands. Three immunoregulatory peptides named immunoregulin TP1-3 have been identified and characterized from salivary glands of the horsefly Tabanus pleskei (Diptera, Tabanidae). Immunoregulin TP1 could inhibit the secretion of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) and increase the secretion of interleukin-10 (IL-10) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mouse splenocytes. IL-10 is a suppressor cytokine of T-cell proliferation and cytokine responses. IL-10 can inhibit the elaboration of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In the current studies, Immunoregulin TP1 inhibited the IFN-gamma and MCP-1 secretion possibly by upregulating the IL-10 production, and finally might facilitate the blood-feeding of this horsefly. The current works will help understand the molecular mechanisms of the ectoparasite-host relationship. PMID:19332144

  17. Venom and Dufour's glands of the emerald cockroach wasp Ampulex compressa (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Sphecidae): Structural and biochemical aspects.

    PubMed

    Gnatzy, Werner; Michels, Jan; Volknandt, Walter; Goller, Stephan; Schulz, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    The digger wasp species Ampulex compressa produces its venom in two branched gland tubules. They terminate in a short common duct, which is bifurcated at its proximal end. One leg is linked with the venom reservoir, the other one extends to the ductus venatus. Each venom gland tubule possesses, over its entire length, a cuticle-lined central duct. Around this duct densely packed class 3 gland units each composed of a secretory cell and a canal cell are arranged. The position of their nuclei was demonstrated by DAPI staining. The brush border of the secretory cells surrounds the coiled end-apparatus. Venom is stored in a bladder like reservoir, which is surrounded by a thin reticulated layer of muscle fibres. The reservoir as a whole is lined with class 3 gland units. The tubiform Dufour's gland has a length of about 350 ?m (? 125 ?m) only and is surrounded by a network of pronounced striated muscle fibres. The glandular epithelium is mono-layered belonging to the class 1 type of insect epidermal glands. The gland cells are characterized by conspicuous lipid vesicles. Secretion of material via the gland cuticle into the gland lumen is apparent. Analysis of the polypeptide composition demonstrated that the free gland tubules and the venom reservoir contain numerous proteins ranging from 3.4 to 200 kDa. The polypeptide composition of the Dufour's gland is completely different and contains no lectin-binding glycoproteins, whereas a dominant component of the venom droplets is a glycoprotein of about 80 kDa. Comparison of the venom reservoir contents with the polypeptide pattern of venom droplets revealed that all of the major proteinaceous constituents are secreted. The secreted venom contains exclusively proteins present in the soluble contents of the venom gland. The most abundant compound class in the Dufour's gland consisted of n-alkanes followed by monomethyl-branched alkanes and alkadienes. Heptacosane was the most abundant n-alkane. Furthermore, a single volatile compound, 2-methylpentan-3-one, was identified in various concentrations in the lipid extract of the Dufour's gland. PMID:26352105

  18. Human CLC-K Channels Require Palmitoylation of Their Accessory Subunit Barttin to Be Functional.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Kim Vanessa; Gorinski, Nataliya; Wojciechowski, Daniel; Todorov, Vladimir; Guseva, Daria; Ponimaskin, Evgeni; Fahlke, Christoph; Fischer, Martin

    2015-07-10

    CLC-K/barttin chloride channels are essential for NaCl re-absorption in Henle's loop and for potassium secretion by the stria vascularis in the inner ear. Here, we studied the posttranslational modification of such channels by palmitoylation of their accessory subunit barttin. We found that barttin is palmitoylated in vivo and in vitro and identified two conserved cysteine residues at positions 54 and 56 as palmitoylation sites. Point mutations at these two residues reduce the macroscopic current amplitudes in cells expressing CLC-K/barttin channels proportionally to the relative reduction in palmitoylated barttin. CLC-K/barttin expression, plasma membrane insertion, and single channel properties remain unaffected, indicating that these mutations decrease the number of active channels. R8W and G47R, two naturally occurring barttin mutations identified in patients with Bartter syndrome type IV, reduce barttin palmitoylation and CLC-K/barttin channel activity. Palmitoylation of the accessory subunit barttin might thus play a role in chloride channel dysfunction in certain variants of Bartter syndrome. We did not observe pronounced alteration of barttin palmitoylation upon increased salt and water intake or water deprivation, indicating that this posttranslational modification does not contribute to long term adaptation to variable water intake. Our results identify barttin palmitoylation as a novel posttranslational modification of CLC-K/barttin chloride channels. PMID:26013830

  19. Evaluation of diagnostic parameters from parotid and submandibular dynamic salivary glands scintigraphy and unstimulated sialometry in Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dugonji?, Sanja; Stefanovi?, Dušan; Ethurovi?, Branka; Spasi?-Joki?, Vesna; Ajdinovi?, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to validate eight scintigraphic salivary gland (SG) parameters, as diagnostic parameters in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). We used the standardized stimulated dynamic salivary gland scintigraphy (DSGS) protocol and correlated this with the unstimulated whole sialometry (UWS) functions. The DSGS and UWS tests meeting the European and the USA diagnostic classification criteria for SS were applied in twenty patients and in ten normal controls. The DSGS tests were performed 60min after the intravenous (i.v.) injection of 370MBq of technetium-99m-pertechnetate ((99m)TcO(-)4) and after per os stimulation with a 0.5g tablet of ascorbic acid administered 40min after the injection. Using time-activity curves, eight different parameters were calculated for each parotid gland (PG) and each submandibular salivary gland (SMG): a) time at maximum counts (Tmax), b) time at minimum counts (Tmin), c) maximum accumulation (MA), d) accumulation velocity (AV), e) maximum secretion (MS), f) maximum stimulated secretion (MSS), g) stimulated secretion velocity (SSV), and h) uptake ratio (UR). Values of UWS below 2.5mL/15min, were considered abnormal. All these parameters, as for the PG, showed significant abnormality in SS patients (P<0.001), especially of the secretion function. All SMG parameters also showed a significant abnormality (P<0.001), but especially of the accumulation function. There was a greater impairment of the above parameters in SMG than in PG in the SS patients. Sensitivity of the standardized DSGS was 100%, specificity 80%, negative prognostic value 100%, and positive prognostic value 91%. Sensitivity of UWS was 75%. In conclusion, this paper suggested that the best diagnostic parameters for the SS patients were those of: a) the maximum secretion, b) the maximum stimulated secretion for both the parotid and the submandibular glands, c) maximum accumulation and d) accumulation velocity of submandibular glands. The times at maximum and at minimum counts were non diagnostic. PMID:25097897

  20. Seasonal expression of androgen receptor in scented gland of muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus).

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Liu, Shuqiang; Li, Qinglin; Huang, Shiyang; Bao, Lihong; Sheng, Xia; Han, Yingying; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Weng, Qiang

    2014-08-01

    Muskrat is a seasonal breeder, males of which secret musk from paired perineal scented glands found beneath the skin at the ventral base of the tail for attracting female during the breeding season. The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal changes of expression of androgen receptor (AR) in the scented gland of muskrat during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. Histologically, glandular cells, interstitial cells and excretory tubules were identified in scented glands in both seasons, whereas epithelial cells were sparse in the nonbreeding season. AR was observed in glandular cells of scented glands during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons with stronger immunostaining during the breeding season compared to the nonbreeding season. Consistent with the immunohistochemical results, AR protein level was higher in the scented glands of the breeding season, and then decreased to a relatively low level in the nonbreeding season. The mean mRNA level of Ar was significantly higher in the breeding season than in the nonbreeding season. In addition, plasma gonadotropins and testosterone concentrations were remarkably higher in the breeding season than those in the nonbreeding season. These results suggested that muskrat scented gland was the direct target organ of androgen, and stronger expression of AR in scented glands during the breeding season suggested that androgens may directly influence scented glandular function of the muskrats and also courtship behavior as we inferred. PMID:24818970

  1. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Request Permissions Print to PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/ ... menu on the side of your screen. A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of ...

  2. Adrenal Gland Disorders: Condition Information

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of salt and water Controlling the "fight or flight" response to stress Maintaining pregnancy Initiating and controlling ... overview of the adrenal glands: Beyond fight or flight . Retrieved June 29, 2012 from http://www.endocrineweb. ...

  3. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...for hemodialysis. The device includes implanted blood access devices, nonimplanted...devices, and accessories for both the implanted and nonimplanted blood access devices. (1) The implanted blood access device consists of...

  4. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...accessories (through a change in the light source) used for medical purposes...altering the phase relationship of light that passes around the object and...fluorochromes that fluoresce under ultraviolet light. (3) Inverted stage...

  5. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...accessories (through a change in the light source) used for medical purposes...altering the phase relationship of light that passes around the object and...fluorochromes that fluoresce under ultraviolet light. (3) Inverted stage...

  6. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...accessories (through a change in the light source) used for medical purposes...altering the phase relationship of light that passes around the object and...fluorochromes that fluoresce under ultraviolet light. (3) Inverted stage...

  7. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...accessories (through a change in the light source) used for medical purposes...altering the phase relationship of light that passes around the object and...fluorochromes that fluoresce under ultraviolet light. (3) Inverted stage...

  8. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...accessories (through a change in the light source) used for medical purposes...altering the phase relationship of light that passes around the object and...fluorochromes that fluoresce under ultraviolet light. (3) Inverted stage...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...than 30 days. This generic type of device includes fistula needles, the single needle dialysis set (coaxial flow needle), and the single needle dialysis set (alternating flow needle). (3) Accessories common to either type include...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...dialysate delivery system of the peritoneal dialysis system and accessories (§ 876.5630...hemodialysis system include the unpowered dialysis chair without a scale, the powered dialysis chair without a scale, the dialyzer...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...dialysate delivery system of the peritoneal dialysis system and accessories (§ 876.5630...hemodialysis system include the unpowered dialysis chair without a scale, the powered dialysis chair without a scale, the dialyzer...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...dialysate delivery system of the peritoneal dialysis system and accessories (§ 876.5630...hemodialysis system include the unpowered dialysis chair without a scale, the powered dialysis chair without a scale, the dialyzer...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...than 30 days. This generic type of device includes fistula needles, the single needle dialysis set (coaxial flow needle), and the single needle dialysis set (alternating flow needle). (3) Accessories common to either type include...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...than 30 days. This generic type of device includes fistula needles, the single needle dialysis set (coaxial flow needle), and the single needle dialysis set (alternating flow needle). (3) Accessories common to either type include...

  15. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...an ultrasonic generator. This generic type of device may include the following accessories: coupling gel, preamplifiers, amplifiers, signal conditioners with their power supply, connecting cables, and component parts. This generic type of device...

  16. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...an ultrasonic generator. This generic type of device may include the following accessories: coupling gel, preamplifiers, amplifiers, signal conditioners with their power supply, connecting cables, and component parts. This generic type of device...

  17. 21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...an ultrasonic generator. This generic type of device may include the following accessories: coupling gel, preamplifiers, amplifiers, signal conditioners with their power supply, connecting cables, and component parts. This generic type of device...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

  1. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

  2. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

  3. Complete Spinal Accessory Nerve Palsy From Carrying Climbing Gear.

    PubMed

    Coulter, Jess M; Warme, Winston J

    2015-09-01

    We report an unusual case of spinal accessory nerve palsy sustained while transporting climbing gear. Spinal accessory nerve injury is commonly a result of iatrogenic surgical trauma during lymph node excision. This particular nerve is less frequently injured by blunt trauma. The case reported here results from compression of the spinal accessory nerve for a sustained period-that is, carrying a load over the shoulder using a single nylon rope for 2.5 hours. This highlights the importance of using proper load-carrying equipment to distribute weight over a greater surface area to avoid nerve compression in the posterior triangle of the neck. The signs and symptoms of spinal accessory nerve palsy and its etiology are discussed. This report is particularly relevant to individuals involved in mountaineering and rock climbing but can be extended to anyone carrying a load with a strap over one shoulder and across the body. PMID:25937552

  4. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...gastro-urological irrigation tray (for gastrological use). (b) Classification. (1) Class II (special controls). The barium enema retention catheter and tip with or without a bag that is a gastrointestinal tube and accessory is exempt from the...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...hemodialysis system and accessories is a device that is used as an artificial kidney system for the treatment of patients with renal failure or toxemic conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...hemodialysis system and accessories is a device that is used as an artificial kidney system for the treatment of patients with renal failure or toxemic conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a...

  7. 21 CFR 884.1690 - Hysteroscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...instrument or device delivery system; do not have adapters, connectors, channels, or do not have portals for electrosurgical, laser, or other power sources. Such hysteroscope accessory instruments include: lens cleaning brush, cannula (without...

  8. 21 CFR 884.1720 - Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...instrument or device delivery system, do not have adapters, connector channels, or do not have portals for electrosurgical, lasers, or other power sources. Such gynecologic laparosope accessory instruments include: the lens cleaning brush,...

  9. 21 CFR 886.1930 - Tonometer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...flat disk to the cornea). Accessories for the device may include a tonometer calibrator or a tonograph recording system. The device is intended for use in the diagnosis of glaucoma. (b) Classification. Class...

  10. 21 CFR 886.1930 - Tonometer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...flat disk to the cornea). Accessories for the device may include a tonometer calibrator or a tonograph recording system. The device is intended for use in the diagnosis of glaucoma. (b) Classification. Class...

  11. 21 CFR 886.1930 - Tonometer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...flat disk to the cornea). Accessories for the device may include a tonometer calibrator or a tonograph recording system. The device is intended for use in the diagnosis of glaucoma. (b) Classification. Class...

  12. 21 CFR 886.1930 - Tonometer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...flat disk to the cornea). Accessories for the device may include a tonometer calibrator or a tonograph recording system. The device is intended for use in the diagnosis of glaucoma. (b) Classification. Class...

  13. 21 CFR 886.1930 - Tonometer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...flat disk to the cornea). Accessories for the device may include a tonometer calibrator or a tonograph recording system. The device is intended for use in the diagnosis of glaucoma. (b) Classification. Class...

  14. Accessory proteins for heterotrimeric G-proteins in the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Park, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins play a fundamentally important role in regulating signal transduction pathways in the kidney. Accessory proteins are being identified as direct binding partners for heterotrimeric G-protein ? or ?? subunits to promote more diverse mechanisms by which G-protein signaling is controlled. In some instances, accessory proteins can modulate the signaling magnitude, localization, and duration following the activation of cell membrane-associated receptors. Alternatively, accessory proteins complexed with their G-protein ? or ?? subunits can promote non-canonical models of signaling activity within the cell. In this review, we will highlight the expression profile, localization and functional importance of these newly identified accessory proteins to control the function of select G-protein subunits under normal and various disease conditions observed in the kidney. PMID:26300785

  15. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope and accessories. (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope and accessories. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope and accessories. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope and accessories. (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 874.4720 - Mediastinoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...4720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4720 Mediastinoscope and accessories. (a)...

  20. Secret War, Secret Science Brad Osgood

    E-print Network

    Osgood, Brad

    Secret War, Secret Science Brad Osgood Stanford University #12;Tehran meeting November 28th -- December 1st 1943 "In war-time, truth is so precious that she should always be attended by a bodyguard. David Kahn, The Codebreakers #12;The early events · Britain's first offensive action of the war

  1. Comparative anatomy of slime glands in onychophora (velvet worms).

    PubMed

    Baer, Alexander; Mayer, Georg

    2012-10-01

    Onychophorans use a unique hunting and defense strategy, which involves the ejection of an adhesive slime secretion produced by a pair of specialized glands. So far, a comparative study on the anatomy of these glands has not been carried out among different species. In this article, we compare anatomical features of slime glands in representatives of two major onychophoran subgroups, the Peripatopsidae and the Peripatidae, from different parts of the world. Our data show that the musculature of the reservoir is conserved whereas the composition of the secretory duct displays taxon-specific variation. Major differences concern the arrangement of glandular endpieces, which are distributed along the duct in Peripatopsidae but condensed in numerous repeated rosettes in Peripatidae. In addition, there are differences in the attachment pattern of slime glands to the inner surface of the body wall and to the outer surface of the gut between the two major onychophoran subgroups. A tube-like structure with a putative valve-like function is found at the transition of the secretory duct and the reservoir in the five Peripatopsidae species studied whereas it is absent in the two representatives of Peripatidae. Our findings suggest that the arrangement of musculature in the reservoir of the slime gland has remained unchanged since the divergence of Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae, while the composition of the secretory duct has been altered in one of these groups. However, the direction of evolutionary changes in duct composition cannot be determined unambiguously due to current uncertainty regarding the phylogenetic relationships of Onychophora. PMID:22707384

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Pure Human Airway Gland Mucus Reveals a Large Component of Protective Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Nam Soo; Evans, Idil Apak T.; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Park, Il-Ho; Engelhardt, John F.; Wine, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Airway submucosal glands contribute to innate immunity and protect the lungs by secreting mucus, which is required for mucociliary clearance and which also contains antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-proteolytic and anti-oxidant proteins. We stimulated glands in tracheal trimmings from three lung donors and collected droplets of uncontaminated mucus as they formed at the gland orifices under an oil layer. We analyzed the mucus using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Analysis identified 5486 peptides and 441 proteins from across the 3 samples (269–319 proteins per subject). We focused on 269 proteins common to at least 2 0f 3 subjects, of which 102 (38%) had protective or innate immunity functions. While many of these have long been known to play such roles, for many others their cellular protective functions have only recently been appreciated in addition to their well-studied biologic functions (e.g. annexins, apolipoproteins, gelsolin, hemoglobin, histones, keratins, and lumican). A minority of the identified proteins are known to be secreted via conventional exocytosis, suggesting that glandular secretion occurs via multiple mechanisms. Two of the observed protective proteins, major vault protein and prohibitin, have not been observed in fluid from human epithelial cultures or in fluid from nasal or bronchoalveolar lavage. Further proteomic analysis of pure gland mucus may help clarify how healthy airways maintain a sterile environment. PMID:25706550

  3. Characterization of the endogenous intestinal peptide that stimulates the rectal gland of Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    Anderson, W G; Conlon, J M; Hazon, N

    1995-06-01

    It has been postulated that gut peptides play a major role in the regulation of rectal gland secretion in elasmobranchs. An isolated perfused rectal gland secretion in elasmobranchs. An isolated perfused rectal gland preparation was developed for Scyliorhinus canicula that responded to dibutyryl 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate plus 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, increasing chloride clearance rates threefold over basal levels. Activity was stimulated by an endogenous peptide, isolated in pur form by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography from the intestine of S. canicula. The primary structure was established as Ser-Pro-Ser-Asn-Ser-Lys-Cys-Pro-Asp-Gly-Pro-Asp-Cys-Phe-Val-Gly-Leu-Met- NH2. This is a sequence identical to that of the tachykinin scyliorhinin II. Perfusion of synthetic scyliorhinin II increased secretion rate in the rectal gland of S. canicula in a dose-dependent manner with a maximal response at 10(-6) M, whereas vasoactive intestinal peptide, a stimulator in the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, had no effect. We propose that scyliorhinin II is the uncharacterized peptide rectin, previously identified from the intestine of S. canicula. PMID:7541963

  4. Proteomic analysis of pure human airway gland mucus reveals a large component of protective proteins.

    PubMed

    Joo, Nam Soo; Evans, Idil Apak T; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Park, Il-Ho; Engelhardt, John F; Wine, Jeffrey J

    2015-01-01

    Airway submucosal glands contribute to innate immunity and protect the lungs by secreting mucus, which is required for mucociliary clearance and which also contains antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-proteolytic and anti-oxidant proteins. We stimulated glands in tracheal trimmings from three lung donors and collected droplets of uncontaminated mucus as they formed at the gland orifices under an oil layer. We analyzed the mucus using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Analysis identified 5486 peptides and 441 proteins from across the 3 samples (269-319 proteins per subject). We focused on 269 proteins common to at least 2 0f 3 subjects, of which 102 (38%) had protective or innate immunity functions. While many of these have long been known to play such roles, for many others their cellular protective functions have only recently been appreciated in addition to their well-studied biologic functions (e.g. annexins, apolipoproteins, gelsolin, hemoglobin, histones, keratins, and lumican). A minority of the identified proteins are known to be secreted via conventional exocytosis, suggesting that glandular secretion occurs via multiple mechanisms. Two of the observed protective proteins, major vault protein and prohibitin, have not been observed in fluid from human epithelial cultures or in fluid from nasal or bronchoalveolar lavage. Further proteomic analysis of pure gland mucus may help clarify how healthy airways maintain a sterile environment. PMID:25706550

  5. Phorbol ester stimulates secretory activity while inhibiting receptor-activated aminopyrine uptake by gastric glands

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.R.; Chew, C.S.

    1986-03-05

    Both cyclic AMP-dependent and -independent secretagogues stimulate pepsinogen release, respiration and H/sup +/ secretory activity (AP uptake) in rabbit gastric glands. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (T), a diacyglycerol analog, activates protein kinase C (PKC) and stimulates secretion in many systems. T stimulated respiration and pepsinogen release by glands and increased AP uptake by both glands and purified parietal cells. However, T reduced AP uptake by glands stimulated with carbachol (C) or histamine (H) with an apparent IC/sub 50/ of 1 nM. Preincubation with T for 30 min produced maximum inhibition which was not reversed by removal of T. T accelerated the decline of the transient C peak while the late steady state response to H was most inhibited. H-stimulated AP uptake was also inhibited by 50 ..mu..g/ml 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-glycerol, a reported PKC activator, but not by the inactive phorbol, 4..cap alpha..-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate. In contrast, T potentiated AP uptake by glands stimulated with submaximal doses of dibutyryl cyclic AMP. These results suggest inhibition by T is a specific effect of PKC activators. The differing effects of T on secretion indicators may result from a dual action of T on receptor and post-receptor intracellular events.

  6. Neurotoxin localization to ectodermal gland cells uncovers an alternative mechanism of venom delivery in sea anemones.

    PubMed

    Moran, Yehu; Genikhovich, Grigory; Gordon, Dalia; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Zenkert, Claudia; Ozbek, Suat; Technau, Ulrich; Gurevitz, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Jellyfish, hydras, corals and sea anemones (phylum Cnidaria) are known for their venomous stinging cells, nematocytes, used for prey and defence. Here we show, however, that the potent Type I neurotoxin of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, Nv1, is confined to ectodermal gland cells rather than nematocytes. We demonstrate massive Nv1 secretion upon encounter with a crustacean prey. Concomitant discharge of nematocysts probably pierces the prey, expediting toxin penetration. Toxin efficiency in sea water is further demonstrated by the rapid paralysis of fish or crustacean larvae upon application of recombinant Nv1 into their medium. Analysis of other anemone species reveals that in Anthopleura elegantissima, Type I neurotoxins also appear in gland cells, whereas in the common species Anemonia viridis, Type I toxins are localized to both nematocytes and ectodermal gland cells. The nematocyte-based and gland cell-based envenomation mechanisms may reflect substantial differences in the ecology and feeding habits of sea anemone species. Overall, the immunolocalization of neurotoxins to gland cells changes the common view in the literature that sea anemone neurotoxins are produced and delivered only by stinging nematocytes, and raises the possibility that this toxin-secretion mechanism is an ancestral evolutionary state of the venom delivery machinery in sea anemones. PMID:22048953

  7. Neurotoxin localization to ectodermal gland cells uncovers an alternative mechanism of venom delivery in sea anemones

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Yehu; Genikhovich, Grigory; Gordon, Dalia; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Zenkert, Claudia; Özbek, Suat; Technau, Ulrich; Gurevitz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Jellyfish, hydras, corals and sea anemones (phylum Cnidaria) are known for their venomous stinging cells, nematocytes, used for prey and defence. Here we show, however, that the potent Type I neurotoxin of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, Nv1, is confined to ectodermal gland cells rather than nematocytes. We demonstrate massive Nv1 secretion upon encounter with a crustacean prey. Concomitant discharge of nematocysts probably pierces the prey, expediting toxin penetration. Toxin efficiency in sea water is further demonstrated by the rapid paralysis of fish or crustacean larvae upon application of recombinant Nv1 into their medium. Analysis of other anemone species reveals that in Anthopleura elegantissima, Type I neurotoxins also appear in gland cells, whereas in the common species Anemonia viridis, Type I toxins are localized to both nematocytes and ectodermal gland cells. The nematocyte-based and gland cell-based envenomation mechanisms may reflect substantial differences in the ecology and feeding habits of sea anemone species. Overall, the immunolocalization of neurotoxins to gland cells changes the common view in the literature that sea anemone neurotoxins are produced and delivered only by stinging nematocytes, and raises the possibility that this toxin-secretion mechanism is an ancestral evolutionary state of the venom delivery machinery in sea anemones. PMID:22048953

  8. Histological and histochemical study of the uropygial gland of chimango caracara (Milvago chimango vieillot, 1816).

    PubMed

    Chiale, M C; Montalti, D; Flamini, M A; Fernández, P; Gimeno, E; Barbeito, C G

    2016-01-01

    The uropygial glands of birds are sebaceous organs that contribute to the water-repellent properties of the feather coat. We studied the histological and histochemical characteristics of the uropygial gland of chimango caracara using hematoxylin and eosin (H & E), Gomori´s trichrome, orcein, Gomori´s reticulin, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), Alcian blue (AB) and a variety of lectins. The gland is composed of two lobes and a papilla with 20 downy feathers. It is surrounded by a capsule of dense connective tissue that contains elastic, reticular and smooth muscle fibers. The papilla is delicate and has two excretory ducts. The gland mass relative to body mass was 0.143%. Both adenomer cells and their secretions were stained with Sudan IV, PAS and AB, and were positive for numerous lectins that indicated the presence of lipids and carbohydrates. Immunohistochemical techniques to detect PCNA confirmed cell proliferation in the basal stratum of the adenomer cells. The lipids and glycoconjugates secreted by the uropygial gland serve numerous functions including protection against microorganisms. PMID:26472245

  9. Chloride secretagogues stimulate inositol phosphate formation in shark rectal gland tubules cultured in suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Ecay, T.W.; Valentich, J.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Neuroendocrine activation of transepithelial chloride secretion by shark rectal gland cells is associated with increases in cellular cAMP, cGMP, and free calcium concentrations. We report here on the effects of several chloride secretagogues on inositol phosphate formation in cultured rectal gland tubules. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), atriopeptin (AP), and ionomycin increase the total inositol phosphate levels of cultured tubules, as measured by ion exchange chromatography. Forskolin, a potent chloride secretagogue, has no effect on inositol phosphate formation. The uptake of {sup 3}H-myo-inositol into phospholipids is very slow, preventing the detection of increased levels of inositol trisphosphate. However, significant increases in inositol monophosphate (IP1) and inositol biphosphate (IP2) were measured. The time course of VIP- and AP-stimulated IP1 and IP2 formation is similar to the effects of these agents on the short-circuit current responses of rectal gland monolayer cultures. In addition, aluminum fluoride, an artificial activator of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, stimulates IP1 and IP2 formation. We conclude that rectal gland cells contain VIP and AP receptors coupled to the activation of phospholipase C. Coupling may be mediated by G-proteins. Receptor-stimulated increases in inositol phospholipid metabolism is one mechanism leading to increased intracellular free calcium concentrations, an important regulatory event in the activation of transepithelial chloride secretion by shark rectal gland epithelial cells.

  10. Uropygial gland size and composition varies according to experimentally modified microbiome in Great tits

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Parasites exert important selective pressures on host life history traits. In birds, feathers are inhabited by numerous microorganisms, some of them being able to degrade feathers or lead to infections. Preening feathers with secretions of the uropygial gland has been found to act as an antimicrobial defence mechanism, expected to regulate feather microbial communities and thus limit feather abrasion and infections. Here, we used an experimental approach to test whether Great tits (Parus major) modify their investment in the uropygial gland in response to differences in environmental microorganisms. Results We found that males, but not females, modified the size of their gland when exposed to higher bacterial densities on feathers. We also identified 16 wax esters in the uropygial gland secretions. The relative abundance of some of these esters changed in males and females, while the relative abundance of others changed only in females when exposed to greater bacterial loads on feathers. Conclusion Birds live in a bacterial world composed of commensal and pathogenic microorganisms. This study provides the first experimental evidence for modifications of investment in the defensive trait that is the uropygial gland in response to environmental microorganisms in a wild bird. PMID:24938652

  11. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-02

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Anaplastic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

  12. Intervention of D-glucose ameliorates the toxicity of streptozotocin in accessory sex organs of rat

    SciTech Connect

    Vikram, A.; Tripathi, D.N.; Ramarao, P.; Jena, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ) is a naturally occurring compound isolated from Streptomyces achromogens. It is used extensively for inducing diabetes in experimental animals. Diabetes mellitus is known to have proven adverse effects on male sexual organs and their reproductive functions. The atrophy of prostate gland and other organs of the genitourinary tract were observed in experimental diabetic animals. STZ exhibits a structural resemblance to D-glucose due to the presence of sugar moiety in its structure. Pancreatic {beta}-cells mainly contain GLUT1 and GLUT2 glucose transporters. Possibly due to structural resemblance, STZ and D-glucose, share a common recognition site for entry into the {beta}-cells. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of D-glucose on STZ-induced toxicity in accessory sex organs of male rats. Animals were kept on overnight fasting. One group received vehicle and served as negative control, while all other groups were given STZ (45 mg/kg). Animals that received only STZ served as positive control. The effect of D-glucose was studied on STZ treated animals with different dosage of D-glucose (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg). Restoration of body weight, plasma glucose and plasma insulin was evident only at 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of D-glucose. The protective effect of D-glucose is evident only when it is administered simultaneously with STZ. In the present investigation, we report that simultaneous administration of D-glucose along with STZ ameliorates STZ-induced toxicity. This is evident from the restoration of accessory sex organ's weight, cellular morphology as well as insulin level.

  13. Vesicle-Mediated Steroid Hormone Secretion in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Naoki; Marqués, Guillermo; O'Connor, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    Steroid hormones are a large family of cholesterol derivatives regulating development and physiology in both the animal and plant kingdoms, but little is known concerning mechanisms of their secretion from steroidogenic tissues. Here, we present evidence that in Drosophila, endocrine release of the steroid hormone ecdysone is mediated through a regulated vesicular trafficking mechanism. Inhibition of calcium signaling in the steroidogenic prothoracic gland results in the accumulation of unreleased ecdysone, and the knockdown of calcium-mediated vesicle exocytosis components in the gland caused developmental defects due to deficiency of ecdysone. Accumulation of synaptotagmin-labeled vesicles in the gland is observed when calcium signaling is disrupted, and these vesicles contain an ABC transporter that functions as an ecdysone pump to fill vesicles. We propose that trafficking of steroid hormones out of endocrine cells is not always through a simple diffusion mechanism as presently thought, but instead can involve a regulated vesicle-mediated release process. PMID:26544939

  14. The buccal gland of Lampetra japonica is a source of diverse bioactive proteins.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rong; Pang, Yue; Li, Qing Wei

    2012-05-01

    The parasitic phase lampreys (Lampetra japonica) are bloodsuckers in the marine, and their buccal gland secretion (lamphredin) contains various regulators such as anticoagulants, ion channel blockers, and immune suppressors like those from leeches, insects, ticks, vampire bats, and snakes. This review focuses on the functions and characteristics of the active proteins from the buccal gland of L. japonica for the first time, and provides new insights into the parasitic mechanisms of lampreys and the possibilities of developing drugs such as novel anticoagulants, thrombolytic agents, local anesthetics, and immunosuppressants. PMID:22586701

  15. Selective Cryolysis of Sebaceous Glands.

    PubMed

    Jalian, H Ray; Tam, Joshua; Vuong, Linh N; Fisher, Jeremy; Garibyan, Lilit; Mihm, Martin C; Zurakowski, David; Evans, Conor L; Anderson, R Rox

    2015-09-01

    Acne vulgaris is a nearly universal cutaneous inflammatory disease. Excess sebum production is an integral part of disease pathogenesis. Medical therapies that reduce sebum excretion result in clinical improvement of acne. Given the preferential susceptibility of lipid-containing cells to cold, we investigated the hypothesis that controlled local skin cooling causes preferential injury to sebaceous glands, in murine and swine models using a range of temperatures as low as -10?°C, and then on the backs of human subjects. In mouse ears, peak histologic damage occurred 72 hours after treatment; eosinophilic necrotic plugs formed within sebaceous glands, and the number of glands was significantly reduced up to 1 week post treatment. Cooling disrupted sebocyte cell membranes, alkaline phosphatase activity, and significantly reduced sebocyte lipid content. In human volunteers, cooling damaged sebaceous glands and reduced sebum output for 2 weeks, with minimal injury to surrounding tissues. Selective cryolysis of sebaceous glands is achievable through brief, non-invasive skin cooling, suggesting that controlled cooling could be developed as an effective treatment for acne vulgaris. PMID:25860384

  16. Arachidonic acid increases cholinergic secretory responsiveness of ferret tracheal glands.

    PubMed

    McBride, R K; Stone, K K; Marin, M G

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if arachidonic acid could alter ferret tracheal gland secretory responsiveness to a cholinergic agonist. We prepared glandular explants and incubated the explants in medium containing [3H]glucosamine. Secretory responsiveness was expressed as the percent change in basal secretion of acid-precipitable [3H]glucosamine-labeled glycoconjugates induced by the addition of agonist with and without arachidonic acid [mean +/- SE (n)]. Addition of 10(-3) M arachidonic acid caused a significant increase in secretion [28 +/- 6% (n = 6)] compared with untreated control tissues [-10 +/- 4% (n = 7), P less than or equal to 0.05]. Carbachol (10(-7) M) increased secretion 39 +/- 9% (n = 7). The combination of 10(-3) M arachidonic acid and 10(-7) M carbachol elicited a significantly greater change in secretion compared with either agent alone [173 +/- 50% (n = 5)]. The addition of nordihydroguaiaretic acid (10(-6) M) or indomethacin (10(-6) M) partially attenuated the arachidonic acid-enhanced secretory responsiveness to carbachol. Treatment with both blockers completely inhibited the arachidonic acid-enhanced secretory responsiveness to carbachol. The effect of arachidonic acid on cholinergic stimulation was also abolished by treating the explant cultures with tetrodotoxin (10(-7) M). This hypersecretory state is most likely mediated by eicosanoid-induced release of neurotransmitters from nerve terminals. PMID:1616053

  17. Ectopic ADH secretion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pituitary gland. This hormone controls the amount of water your body loses through the urine. Ectopic means "out of ... release of ADH makes it harder for the body to excrete water in the urine. Too much water is kept ...

  18. Characterization of muscarinic receptors on isolated swine tracheal submucosal gland cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.M.; Dwyer, T.M.; Farley, J.M.

    1986-03-05

    Muscarinic receptors play an important role in the regulation of tracheobronchial secretion. Tracheal epithelium was cut into small pieces (approx.10 mm/sup 2/) and dissociated using collagenase in HEPES-Ringer solution at 37/sup 0/C. After dissociation the glands cells were isolated by discontinuous Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Submucosal gland cells concentrated above the layers with densities of 1.084 and 1.057 g/ml after centrifugation at x 500 g for 10 min at 15/sup 0/C. Cell viability was > 95% as determined by exclusion of trypan blue. Over 98% of the isolated cells were identified by periodic acid Schiff staining method to be gland cells. Muscarinic receptors on intact gland cells were characterized using the binding of specific muscarinic antagonist (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate ((/sup 3/H)QNB) binding. Scatchard plot analysis of saturation isotherms, showed that the maximal receptor density (B/sub max/) and dissociation constant (K/sub D/) were 7400 +/- 200 sites/cell and 100 +/- 20 pM, respectively (n = 3). These two parameters were less than those from cat tracheal gland cells, B/sub max/ = 42,000 sites/cell and K/sub D/ = 200 pM. In conclusion, this study provided a useful method to isolate tracheal gland cells and characterized the presence of muscarinic receptors on isolated intact cells.

  19. The role of secretory granules in radiation-induced dysfunction of rat salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Peter, B.; Van Waarde, M.A.W.H.; Konings, A.W.T.; Vissink, A. |; `s-Gravenmade, E.J.

    1995-02-01

    To investigate the possible role of secretory granules in radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction, rats were pretreated with isoproterenol (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to degranulate salivary gland acini. At maximal depletion, salivary glands were locally irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy of X rays. Parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva samples were collected before and 1-10 days after irradiation. The lag phase, flow rate, concentrations of potassium and sodium, and amylase secretion were determined. Sham-treated, isoproterenol-treated and irradiated animals provided reference data. In the parotid gland, but not in the submandibular gland, protection against radiation-induced changes in flow rate and composition of saliva occurred after pretreatment with isoproterenol. Combining morphological data from a previous study with data from the current study, it is suggested that improvement of parotid gland function is attributed predominantly to a proliferative stimulus on acinar cells by isoproterenol and not to its degranulation effect. After pretreatment with isoproterenol, an earlier expression of radiation-induced acinar cell damage leading to death was observed, followed by a faster tissue recovery. Thus the proliferative stimulus on acinar cells may accelerate the unmasking of latent lethal damage, resulting in the earlier replacement of dead cells by new, functionally intact cells. 33 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Androgenic Gland Implantation Induces Partial Masculinization in Marmorkrebs Procambarus fallax f. virginalis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Miku; Hiruta, Chizue; Tochinai, Shin

    2015-10-01

    The androgenic gland in malacostracan crustacean species produces and secretes androgenic gland hormone, which is responsible for male sexual differentiation, such as the induction and development of male sexual traits, and in turn the suppression of female sexual traits. Marmorkrebs, Procambarus fallax forma virginalis, which was identified as the first parthenogenetic species in decapod crustaceans, produces only female offspring. In this study, in order to reveal whether the Marmorkrebs crayfish is sensitive to androgenic gland hormone, we transplanted an androgenic gland from a related congener, P. clarkii, to P. fallax f. virginalis. In androgenic gland-implanted specimens, partial masculinization was confirmed: the masculinization of several external sexual characteristics (i.e., thickening of the first and second pleopods; formation of reverse spines on the third and fourth pereopods) was detected, whereas that of internal sexual characteristics (e.g., the formation of ovotestes and male gonoducts) was not. Our results imply that P. fallaxf. virginalis still has sensitivity to the androgenic gland hormone and, at least partly, the hormone should be able to induce male characteristics, even in parthenogenetic Marmorkrebs. PMID:26428724