These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

The B proteins secreted by the tubular accessory sex glands of the male mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, have sequence similarity to moth pheromone-binding proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

B proteins represent one of the four major protein groups secreted by the tubular accessory glands of adult, male mealworm beetles. They are acidic proteins with an apparent molecular mass of 18.8 kDa. In this paper we present the deduced amino-acid sequences of two, almost identical B proteins, termed B1 and B2. The mature proteins are 118 amino acids long.

Guido C. Paesen; George M. Happ

1995-01-01

2

Proteomic identification of Drosophila melanogaster male accessory gland proteins, including a pro-cathepsin and a soluble ?-glutamyl transpeptidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

: BACKGROUND: In Drosophila melanogaster, the male seminal fluid contains proteins that are important for reproductive success. Many of these proteins are synthesised by the male accessory glands and are secreted into the accessory gland lumen, where they are stored until required. Previous studies on the identification of Drosophila accessory gland products have largely focused on characterisation of male-specific accessory

Michael J Walker; Caroline M Rylett; Jeff N Keen; Neil Audsley; Mohammed Sajid; Alan D Shirras; R Elwyn Isaac

2006-01-01

3

Structure of a D-protein gene and amino-acid sequences of the highly repetitive D-proteins secreted by the accessory glands of the mealworm beetle.  

PubMed

The D-group proteins form the major component of the proteinaceous secretion of the tubular accessory glands of the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor. In a previous paper, we reported the sequence of two D-protein cDNAs and their inferred translation products. Both proteins contain three highly repetitive domains (A, A' and B). In this paper, we present the cDNA-inferred sequences of 8 more D-proteins, none of which contains an A' domain. We also present the structure of a D-protein gene. Southern analysis suggests that genes coding for an A' domain are relatively rare. Genes with a total of 7 or 8 (A + B domain) repeats seem most common. PMID:8620026

Paesen, G C; Feng, X; Happ, G M

1996-04-16

4

[Clinical features of accessory parotid gland tumors].  

PubMed

Accessory parotid gland tumors are relatively rare; hence, adequately detailed clinical analyses of these tumors are difficult to perform at a single institution. In this report, we describe the findings for 65 patients [29 men, 36 women; median age, 51 (9-81) years] with accessory parotid gland tumors, consisting of 4 cases documented by us and 61 cases previously reported by other Japanese authors. Approximately 50% of the patients were treated in an otolaryngology department, while the remaining patients were treated in plastic surgery, oral surgery, or dermatology departments. In 4 patients, the results of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology indicated that the tumor was benign; however, the postoperative histopathology results revealed malignant tumors. The frequencies of malignant and benign tumors were 44.6% (n = 29) and 55.4% (n = 36), respectively. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma and pleomorphic adenoma were the most frequent types of malignant and benign accessory parotid gland tumors, respectively. Among the various surgical methods that were used, such as direct cheek and intraoral incisions, a standard parotidectomy incision was the most preferred treatment approach for these tumors. Recently, an endoscopic approach has also been found to yield satisfactory results. An optimal approach should be selected after evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. No definite guidelines are available regarding the choice of elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy for malignant accessory parotid gland tumors. Although tumor resection (plus elective neck dissection) and postoperative radiation therapy have been frequently performed for various kinds of malignant accessory parotid gland tumors to date, additional studies are needed regarding the criteria for selecting elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy. Since the malignancy rate for accessory parotid gland tumors is higher than that for parotid gland tumors, the possibility of malignancy (especially mucoepidermoid carcinoma and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma) should be considered when resecting accessory parotid gland tumors, even if the results of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology indicate that the tumor is benign. PMID:24558945

Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Wada, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Hidefumi; Yamada, Kei; Matsushita, Naoki; Okamoto, Sachimi; Teranishi, Yuichi; Koda, Yuki; Kosugi, Yuki; Yamane, Hideo

2013-12-01

5

Effects of Pygidial Secretion (Zoopesticide) on Histopathological Changes in the Male Accessory Reproductive Glands of Adult Male Insect Odontopus varicornis in Relation to Reproduction  

PubMed Central

Indiscriminate use of pesticides for the eradication of pests causes tremendous changes to the environment and also to other nontarget organisms. To prevent such contamination of the environment and save nontarget species, zoopesticides are increasingly used as they are cost effective, eco-friendly, safe, and sustainable in the field of agriculture. The present study was undertaken to find out the effect of pygidial secretion (zoopesticide) on Odontopus varicornis. The insects were exposed to pygidial secretion for 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours and its sublethal concentration was found to be about 2.8% for 48 hours. When the insects were injected with sublethal concentration 2.8% for 48 hours, the study revealed certain remarkable changes in the histopathology of the male accessory reproductive glands (MARGs) such as disintegration of epithelial cell wall, swollen nucleus, vacuolization of cytoplasm, highly pycnotic and necrotic epithelium, enlargement of epithelial cells, and disorganized tissues. It is suggested that zoopesticide causes several histopathological damages in the MARGs of O. varicornis and affects the reproductive potentiality of O. varicornis. PMID:21042469

Lousia, M.; Selvisabhanayakam; Mathivanan, V.

2010-01-01

6

Trehalase from the bean-shaped accessory glands and the spermatophore of the male mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

InTenebrio molitor, male adults transfer sperm to the female via a spermatophore or sperm sac. The spermatophore is formed from secretions of the bean-shaped accessory glands (BAGs) and the tubular accessory glands (TAGs) of the male beetle. Trehalase is found in the adult BAGs. During the pupal stage, the activity in the BAGs was very low. After adult ecdysis, the

Toshinobu Yaginuma; George M. Happ

1988-01-01

7

Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products  

PubMed Central

To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner’s body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection. PMID:24708537

2014-01-01

8

Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products.  

PubMed

To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner's body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection. PMID:24708537

Zizzari, Z Valentina; Smolders, Irene; Koene, Joris M

2014-01-01

9

Liquid secretion properties of airway submucosal glands  

PubMed Central

The tracheobronchial submucosal glands secrete liquid that is important for hydrating airway surfaces, supporting mucociliary transport, and serving as a fluid matrix for numerous secreted macromolecules including the gel-forming mucins. This review details the essential structural elements of airway glands and summarizes what is currently known regarding the ion transport processes responsible for producing the liquid component of gland secretion. Liquid secretion most likely arises from serous cells and is principally under neural control with muscarinic agonists, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) functioning as effective secretogogues. Liquid secretion is driven by the active transepithelial secretion of both Cl? and HCO3? and at least a portion of this process is mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which is highly expressed in glands. The potential role of submucosal glands in cystic fibrosis lung disease is discussed. PMID:14660706

Ballard, Stephen T; Inglis, Sarah K

2004-01-01

10

Morphology and Ultrastructure of the Accessory Glands in the Female Genital Tract of the House Cricket, Acheta domesticus  

PubMed Central

The accessory glands in the genital tract of female Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) were investigated in detail. The glands are situated within the 7th and 8th abdominal segment and lead to the genital chamber lateral to the terminal papilla of the ductus receptaculi. The shape of the gland is characterized by a complex system of tubules, including numerous ramifications. The gland's size ranges from 2 to 4 mm. The epithelium is constructed according to a simple scheme and consists of a cuticular intima at the luminal side, one layer of gland cells, and a basallamina at the outermost side. The observed morphology of the accessory glands widely corresponds with that in other cricket species (e.g., Teleogryllus commodus). This is also true for the structure of a single gland cell, which can be subdivided into a basal part with nucleus and intracellular cisternae, as well as an apical part with all those compartments responsible for the production of the secretion. The secretion itself may be classified as lipophilic and is produced for the first time 4 to 6 days after the imaginai moult. Several endogenic functions of the secretion are discussed (lubricant for oviposition, support for introducing the tube of the spermatophore into the ductus receptaculi, etc.). PMID:23425229

Sturm, Robert

2012-01-01

11

Morphology and Histology of the Ductus Receptaculi and Accessory Glands in the Reproductive Tract of the Female Cricket, Teleogryllus commodus  

PubMed Central

The morphology and histology of the ductus receptaculi and accessory glands in females of the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus Walker (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) are described. Both are reproductive organs situated in the 7th and 8th abdominal segment that join the posterior part of the genital chamber. The ductus receptaculi is a long (up to 25 mm) homogeneous tube, and the accessory glands (total length: 4 to 12 mm) are a complex system of tubes and end lobes with various numbers of ramifications. Based on their external shapes the accessory glands may be subdivided into three distinct regions, a distal region mainly producing the gland's secretion, a middle conducting region, and a basal region serving for the storage and release of the secretory substances into the genital chamber of the female. In histological respects, both organs have an outer muscle coat followed by a basal lamina, one or two cell layers, the cuticular intima, and the inner lumen. The ductus receptaculi is subdivided into three histologically different regions. The region located adjacent to the receptaculum and the region neighbouring the terminal papilla consist of a single, epithelial cell layer that is not secretory. The epithelium of the middle region contains two cell layers, glandular cells and cuticula-forming cells, which are responsible for the production of the cuticular intima. The secretion of the gland cells is released into an extracellular cavity, through which it reaches the lumen via a complex network of canals running through the intima. The histology of the accessory glands is rather homogeneous among the different regions, as one layer of epithelial cells produces both the secretion and the cuticular intima. Histological variations in the distal, middle, and basal gland sections mainly concern the height of the epithelium, the thickness of the basal lamina and the cuticular intima as well as the variable presence of the outer muscle coat. In contrast to the ductus receptaculi, secretory substances produced by the accessory gland cells accumulate in the lumen by a diffusive permeation of the intima. PMID:20298118

Sturm, Robert

2008-01-01

12

EST analysis of male accessory glands from Heliconius butterflies with divergent mating systems  

PubMed Central

Background Heliconius butterflies possess a remarkable diversity of phenotypes, physiologies, and behaviors that has long distinguished this genus as a focal taxon in ecological and evolutionary research. Recently Heliconius has also emerged as a model system for using genomic methods to investigate the causes and consequences of biological diversity. One notable aspect of Heliconius diversity is a dichotomy in mating systems which provides an unusual opportunity to investigate the relationship between sexual selection and the evolution of reproductive proteins. As a first step in pursuing this research, we report the generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the male accessory gland of H. erato and H. melpomene, species representative of the two mating systems present in the genus Heliconius. Results We successfully sequenced 933 ESTs clustering into 371 unigenes from H. erato and 1033 ESTs clustering into 340 unigenes from H. melpomene. Results from the two species were very similar. Approximately a third of the unigenes showed no significant BLAST similarity (E-value <10-5) to sequences in GenBank's non-redundant databases, indicating that a large proportion of novel genes are expressed in Heliconius male accessory glands. In both species only a third of accessory gland unigenes were also found among genes expressed in wing tissue. About 25% of unigenes from both species encoded secreted proteins. This includes three groups of highly abundant unigenes encoding repetitive proteins considered to be candidate seminal fluid proteins; proteins encoded by one of these groups were detected in H. erato spermatophores. Conclusion This collection of ESTs will serve as the foundation for the future identification and evolutionary analysis of male reproductive proteins in Heliconius butterflies. These data also represent a significant advance in the rapidly growing collection of genomic resources available in Heliconius butterflies. As such, they substantially enhance this taxon as a model system for investigating questions of ecological, phenotypic, and genomic diversity. PMID:19063743

Walters, James R; Harrison, Richard G

2008-01-01

13

Morphology of the accessory reproductive glands of some male Indian chiropterans.  

PubMed

The accessory glands of seven species of male chiropterans are described. The unpaired prostate and paired Cowper's glands occur in all the species. The seminal vesicles are present only in Cynopterus and Taphozous. The ampullary glands occur in all the species except Cynopterus sphinx. The presence of solid rounded bodies is a characteristic feature of the seminal vesicles of Cynopterus sphinx. The urethral gland is present in all the species except Taphozous and Rhinopoma; utriculus prostaticus was not seen in any of the species investigated. The study reveals that the male accessory glands show great diversity and remarkable differences are seen even between closely related species. PMID:900515

Mokkapati, S; Dominic, C J

1977-01-01

14

Ecdysteroids in vitro promote differentiation in the accessory glands of male mealworm beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Physiological peak doses of 20-hydroxyecdysone were added to organ cultures of young pupal accessory glands of maleTenebrio molitor. During subsequent culture in vitro or in vivo, the glands accumulated adult-specific antigens. Control organ cultures showed no such antigen accumulation. In this system, ecdysteroid controls not only cell cycles but also differentiation.

K. A. Grimnes; G. M. Happ

1987-01-01

15

Morphology of accessory genital glands of spotted paca (Agouti paca Linnaeus, 1766).  

PubMed

The spotted paca is the second largest rodent in Brazil, where it is of great economic interest in impoverished regions in view of its prominence as a low-cost source of protein. Little is known about the morphology of the accessory genital glands of this species. Thus, we studied the position and morphology of the genitals in ten adult male spotted pacas. The animals were divided into two groups, five animals were used for fixing of samples in 10% aqueous formaldehyde for macroscopic studies and the other five animals were designated for microscopic analysis. These were arranged in pairs and had the vesicular, prostate, coagulating and bulbourethral glands identified, being structured as mucous glands, which lead into the pelvic urethra. It was concluded that the accessory genital glands found in the paca are the same as those found in most rodents, showing similar histological aspects. PMID:24461579

Borges, Edson Moreira; Branco, Érika; de Lima, Ana Rita; Leal, Leonardo Martins; Martins, Leandro Luiz; Reis, Ana Carolina Gonçalves; Cruz, Claudinei; Machado, Márcia Rita Fernandes; Miglino, Maria Angelica

2014-02-01

16

FLUID SECRETION BY SUBMUCOSAL GLANDS OF THE TRACHEOBRONCHIAL AIRWAYS  

PubMed Central

Submucosal glands of the tracheobronchial airways provide the important functions of secreting mucins, antimicrobial substances, and fluid. This review focuses on the ionic mechanism and regulation of gland fluid secretion and examines the possible role of gland dysfunction in the lethal disease cystic fibrosis (CF). The fluid component of gland secretion is driven by the active transepithelial secretion of both Cl? and HCO3? by serous cells. Gland fluid secretion is neurally regulated with acetylcholine, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) playing prominent roles. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is present in the apical membrane of gland serous cells and mediates the VIP-induced component of liquid secretion whereas the muscarinic component of liquid secretion appears to be at least partially CFTR-independent. Loss of CFTR function, which occurs in CF disease, reduces the capacity of glands to secrete fluid but not mucins. The possible links between the loss of fluid secretion capability and the complex airway pathology of CF are discussed. PMID:17707699

Ballard, Stephen T.; Spadafora, Domenico

2009-01-01

17

Mucus secretion from individual submucosal glands of the ferret trachea  

PubMed Central

Mucus secretion from individual tracheal glands in adult ferrets was studied with time-lapse optical imaging of mucus droplets under an oil layer. Density of functional glands (determined by responses to 1 ?M carbachol) was 1.5 ± 0.3 per mm2 (n = 6). Secretion rates (in pl·min?1·gland?1) were as follows: 4.1 ± 0.7 basal (unstimulated; n = 27, 669 glands), 338 ± 70 to 10 ?M forskolin (n = 8, 90 glands), 234 ± 13 to 1 ?M VIP (n = 6, 57 glands), 183 ± 92 to 10 ?M isoproterenol (n = 3, 33 glands), 978 ± 145 to 1 ?M carbachol (n = 11, 131 glands), and 1,348 ± 325 to 10 ?M phenylephrine (n = 7, 74 glands). The potency (EC50, in ?M) and efficacy (Vmax, in pl·min?1·gland?1) were 7.6 (EC50) and 338 ± 16 (Vmax) to forskolin, 1.0 (EC50) and 479 ± 19 (Vmax) to VIP, 0.6 (EC50) and 1,817 ± 268 (Vmax) to carbachol, and 3.7 (EC50) and 1,801 ± 95 (Vmax) to phenylephrine. Although carbachol and phenylephrine were equally effective secretagogues, only carbachol caused contractions of the trachealis muscle. Synergy was demonstrated between 300 nM isoproterenol and 100 nM carbachol, which, when combined, produced a secretion rate almost fourfold greater than predicted from their additive effect. The dependence of fluid secretion on Cl? and HCO3? varied depending on the mode of stimulation. Secretion stimulated by VIP or forskolin was reduced by ?60% by blocking either anion, while carbachol-stimulated secretion was blocked 68% by bumetanide and only 32% by HEPES replacement of HCO3?. These results provide parametric data for comparison with fluid secretion from glands in ferrets lacking CFTR. PMID:20435689

Cho, Hyung-Ju; Joo, Nam Soo

2010-01-01

18

Comparative Study of the Labial Gland Secretion in Termites (Isoptera)  

E-print Network

Comparative Study of the Labial Gland Secretion in Termites (Isoptera) David Sillam-Dusse`s1 in all castes and developmental stages of all termite species. In workers, their secretion contains in 15 termite species belonging to 6 families using an integrative approach based on proteomic and small

Danchin, Etienne

19

Comparative Study of the Labial Gland Secretion in Termites (Isoptera)  

PubMed Central

Labial glands are present in all castes and developmental stages of all termite species. In workers, their secretion contains a food-marking pheromone and digestive enzymes, while soldier secretion plays a defensive role. However, these functions were studied only in a limited set of species, and do not allow drawing general conclusions. Hence, we have investigated the chemical composition of the labial gland extracts from soldiers and workers in 15 termite species belonging to 6 families using an integrative approach based on proteomic and small-molecule profiling. We confirmed the presence of hydroquinone and cellulase in the labial glands of workers, and we identified new toxic compounds in soldiers and workers of several species. Our results highlight the dual role of labial gland secretion, i.e. the defensive role in soldiers and workers of several termite species, and the digestive function in workers. PMID:23071569

Sillam-Dussčs, David; Krasulová, Jana; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Pytelková, Jana; Cva?ka, Josef; Kutalová, Kate?ina; Bourguignon, Thomas; Miura, Toru; Šobotník, Jan

2012-01-01

20

Effects of access to preen gland secretions on mallard plumage.  

PubMed

Preen glands exist in almost every bird species and several non-exclusive functions have been proposed for this gland and the oils that it produces. One function generally admitted is that the oily secretions of the preen gland would provide a waterproofing layer when spread over feathers. Alternatively, several authors have proposed that plumage waterproofness is mostly due to the spatial micro-structure of feathers. The purpose of this study was to examine, by manipulating the access to the preen gland, the effect of the preen oil on the plumage waterproofness and condition. To explore this question, we carried out two independent experiments where we temporarily blocked access to the preen gland secretions with a removable mechanism in one group of captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), whilst a second group of birds had access to gland secretions. In a long-term experiment (3 months of treatment) and a short-term experiment (10 days), we measured plumage water retention and condition. After 3 months without access to preen glands, we found a significant decrease of plumage condition and an associated increase in plumage water retention. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between plumage condition and water retention ability. In contrast, after 10 days of treatment, no significant effect was found on plumage condition and water retention. Our study shows that preen oil acts to maintain plumage condition and suggests that feather microstructure is essential to maintain plumage waterproofness. PMID:20437221

Giraudeau, Mathieu; Duval, Camille; Guillon, Noel; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Gutierrez, Claude; Heeb, Philipp

2010-06-01

21

Chloride secretion by cultures of pig tracheal gland cells  

PubMed Central

Malfunction of airway submucosal glands contributes to the pathology of cystic fibrosis (CF), and cell cultures of CF human airway glands show defects in Cl? and water transport. Recently, a transgenic pig model of CF (the CF pig) has been developed. Accordingly, we have developed cell cultures of pig airway gland epithelium for use in investigating alterations in gland function in CF. Our cultures form tight junctions (as evidenced by high transepithelial electrical resistance) and show high levels of active anion secretion (measured as amiloride-insensitive short-circuit current). In agreement with recent results on human airway glands, neurohumoral agents that elevate intracellular Ca2+ potently stimulated anion secretion, while elevation of cAMP was comparatively ineffective. Our cultures express lactoferrin and lysozyme (serous gland cell markers) and MUC5B (the main mucin of airway glands). They are, therefore, potentially useful in determining if CF-related alterations in anion transport result in altered secretion of serous cell antimicrobial agents or mucus. PMID:22367783

Borthwell, Rachel M.; Hajighasemi-Ossareh, Mohammad; Lachowicz-Scroggins, Marrah E.; Finkbeiner, W. E.; Stevens, Jeremy E.; Modlin, Sara

2012-01-01

22

Ion Secretion by Salt Glands of Desert Iguanas (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) Lisa C. Hazard*  

E-print Network

22 Ion Secretion by Salt Glands of Desert Iguanas (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) Lisa C. Hazard* DepartmentCl-secreting salt glands of many birds and reptiles, the nasal salt glands of lizards can secrete potassium as well iguana, Dipsosaurus dorsalis. Lizards were given combinations of ions for several days, and secreted salt

Hazard, Lisa C.

23

Short adrenergic neurons and catecholamine-containing cells in vas deferens and accessory male genital glands of different mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The adrenergic innervation and catecholamine-containing cells in the internal accessory male genital organs of the guinea-pig, rat, rabbit, cat, dog and macaque has been studied with a fluorescence microscopic method for the cellular localization of catecholamines and 5-hydroxytryptamine.2.The vas deferens and most of the accessory genital glands have a very dense supply of adrenergic terminals, which is resistant to hypogastric

Christer Owman; Nils O. Sjöstrand

1965-01-01

24

Recently Evolved Genes Identified From Drosophila yakuba and D. erecta Accessory Gland Expressed Sequence Tags  

PubMed Central

The fraction of the genome associated with male reproduction in Drosophila may be unusually dynamic. For example, male reproduction-related genes show higher-than-average rates of protein divergence and gene expression evolution compared to most Drosophila genes. Drosophila male reproduction may also be enriched for novel genetic functions. Our earlier work, based on accessory gland protein genes (Acp's) in D. simulans and D. melanogaster, suggested that the melanogaster subgroup Acp's may be lost and/or gained on a relatively rapid timescale. Here we investigate this possibility more thoroughly through description of the accessory gland transcriptome in two melanogaster subgroup species, D. yakuba and D. erecta. A genomic analysis of previously unknown genes isolated from cDNA libraries of these species revealed several cases of genes present in one or both species, yet absent from ingroup and outgroup species. We found no evidence that these novel genes are attributable primarily to duplication and divergence, which suggests the possibility that Acp's or other genes coding for small proteins may originate from ancestrally noncoding DNA. PMID:16361246

Begun, David J.; Lindfors, Heather A.; Thompson, Melissa E.; Holloway, Alisha K.

2006-01-01

25

Dermcidin: a novel human antibiotic peptide secreted by sweat glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial peptides are an important component of the innate response in many species. Here we describe the isolation of the gene Dermcidin, which encodes an antimicrobial peptide that has a broad spectrum of activity and no homology to other known antimicrobial peptides. This protein was specifically and constitutively expressed in the sweat glands, secreted into the sweat and transported to

Rainer Hipfel; Birgit Sauer; Jürgen Bauer; Hubert Kalbacher; Stefan Stevanovic; Markus Schirle; Kristina Schroeder; Nikolaus Blin; Friedegund Meier; Gernot Rassner; Claus Garbe; Birgit Schittek

2001-01-01

26

Synchronous ipsilateral carcinoma of the accessory mammary gland and primary lymphoma of the breast with subsequent rectal carcinoma: report of a case.  

PubMed

A case of synchronous carcinoma of the accessory mammary gland and primary breast lymphoma with subsequent rectal carcinoma has not been reported previously. We present a very rare case of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the left breast diagnosed simultaneously with invasive lobular carcinoma of the left axillary accessory mammary gland and rectal adenocarcinoma. An 82-year-old Japanese woman presented with two palpable masses on the left chest wall. She was given a diagnosis of suspected breast malignant tumor and axillary accessory mammary gland. She underwent excision of the axillary accessory mammary gland and left mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection. Histopathological examination revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the breast and invasive lobular carcinoma of the axillary accessory mammary gland with lymph nodes metastasis. Three months after the surgery, primary rectal adenocarcinoma was also detected by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Hartmann's operation was performed, since which time the patient has been doing well. PMID:25217973

Nishikawa, Akihiro; Kasai, Hide; Koyama, Yoshinori; Koide, Naohiko; Iijima, Akihiro; Shimojo, Hisashi; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi

2014-01-01

27

Regucalcin expression in bovine tissues and its regulation by sex steroid hormones in accessory sex glands.  

PubMed

Regucalcin (RGN) is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle. PMID:25415588

Starvaggi Cucuzza, Laura; Divari, Sara; Mulasso, Chiara; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Cannizzo, Francesca T

2014-01-01

28

Regucalcin Expression in Bovine Tissues and Its Regulation by Sex Steroid Hormones in Accessory Sex Glands  

PubMed Central

Regucalcin (RGN) is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle. PMID:25415588

Starvaggi Cucuzza, Laura; Divari, Sara; Mulasso, Chiara; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Cannizzo, Francesca T.

2014-01-01

29

Glycosaminoglycans in the accessory sex glands, testes and seminal plasma of alpaca and ram.  

PubMed

The viscous nature of alpaca semen limits its use in cryopreservation and other assisted reproductive technologies. The cause and source of this viscosity is unknown although it has been postulated, but never proven, that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) secreted by the bulbourethral gland are responsible. The present study investigated the concentration and composition of GAGs in alpaca seminal plasma, testes, bulbourethral gland and prostate gland and compared them to those in the ram to determine the relationship between seminal plasma GAGs and viscosity and to identify the source of seminal plasma GAGs. Alpaca seminal plasma contained more GAGs than ram (P<0.001) and the predominant GAG, keratan sulfate, was correlated with viscosity (P=0.05, R(2)=0.2635). The alpaca bulbourethral gland contained most GAGs compared with prostate or testis (P<0.001). In the ram, the prostate contained most GAGs. These findings suggest that GAGs, particularly keratan sulfate, may be the cause of seminal plasma viscosity in alpacas, and that the seminal plasma GAGs originate from the bulbourethral gland. PMID:22281083

Kershaw-Young, Claire M; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

2012-01-01

30

Evidence of Adaptive Evolution of Accessory Gland Proteins in Closely Related Species of the Drosophila repleta Group  

E-print Network

Evidence of Adaptive Evolution of Accessory Gland Proteins in Closely Related Species significant evidence of adaptive evolution for 10 of the tested genes. Among these, the ones with a conserved met by evidence that many Acp genes have patterns of nucleotide variation compatible with evolution

DeSalle, Rob

31

Chronic prostatitis and male accessory gland infection - is there an impact on male infertility (diagnosis and therapy)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The aim of this article was to discuss by means of a review of the literature and own study material the multifactorial aetiology of male infer- tility, extrapolate this hypothesis to male accessory gland infection (MAGI) and relate it to chronic prostatitis and its treatment. Infertility is a multifac- torial disease and diagnosis and therapy must be oriented as

K. Everaert; A. Mahmoud; C. Depuydt; M. Maeyaert; F. Comhaire

2003-01-01

32

Accessory sex glands as a tool to measure the efficacy of immunocastration in male pigs.  

PubMed

The use of an anti-gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine for immunocastration of male pigs has been recently approved in the European Union. This technique is potentially useful for avoiding both castration-associated pain for the animal and boar taint in pork. However, some animals may escape immunocastration and be slaughtered as entire males, potentially exhibiting boar taint. Therefore, it is important to check the efficacy of immunocastration on the slaughter line. To achieve that, the currently proposed method, based on testis weight, is not fully reliable because there is some overlap in the distributions of testis weight between immunocastrates and entire males. On the basis of literature data on the effect of immunocastration on the development of accessory sex glands, this paper provides evidence that the weight of seminal vesicles might be a much better criterion for checking the efficacy of immunocastration, because their size decreases more rapidly, and to a greater extent, than that of the testis. PMID:22444264

Bonneau, M

2010-06-01

33

Parasympathetic and sympathetic regulation of secretion from submucosal glands in airways.  

PubMed

We developed methods to study secretions from airway submucosal glands in vivo: micropipettes with tips specially designed to seal around individual gland duct openings allowed us to collect all of the fluid secreted from individual glands. We visualized the secretions from large numbers of glands simultaneously by coating the airway surface with powdered tantalum; secreted mucus formed "hillocks" over each gland duct opening. Measurement of hillock size provided an estimate of secretion rate. We modified the "hillocks" method to study tracheal glands in vitro. To study regulation of mucin secretion in vitro, we measured the radioactivity from 35S bound to mucins secreted from the luminal surface of pieces of trachea mounted in Using-type chambers. Using these techniques, we demonstrated both cholinergic and alpha-adrenergic regulation of the glands. PMID:7428952

Nadel, J A; Davis, B

1980-11-01

34

Cytoplasmic fine structure of Sciara salivary glands. I. Secretion.  

PubMed

Cells from the anterior segment of the salivary glands of Sciara coprophila were found to synthesize and secrete into the gland lumen three morphologically distinct types of granule: 1) A large, electron-lucid granule, up to 1 micro in diameter, staining only faintly with pH 2 fast green and the PAS reaction; 2) an ellipsoid granule of moderate density, strongly fast green and PAS positive; and 3) a small spherical granule of high electron density. The cells contained numerous Golgi areas, up to an estimated 8,000 per cell. Evidence is presented for the transfer of material from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi areas via small vesicles. Three types of Golgi areas were distinguishable, each containing intercisternal material resembling one of the three types of secretion granule. Patterns of secretion granule synthesis varied with the developmental stage of the larva as determined by counts of eye spots in the eye anlage. Lucid granules were most abundant in the youngest larvae, and decreased in abundance as larvae grew older, becoming virtually absent in prepupae. The small, dense granules were present in all gland cells, but became more prevalent in older larvae and prepupae. Ellipsoid granules were only occasionally present, and were independent of larval stage. It is suggested that lucid granules are digestive in function, since their abundance correlates with feeding patterns. Other granules may produce the external slime coating of the larvae, and also the mucoprotein component of the pupal cocoon. PMID:5328056

Phillips, D M; Swift, H

1965-11-01

35

Antigenic homogeneity of male Müllerian gland (MG) secretory proteins of a caecilian amphibian with secretory proteins of the mammalian prostate gland and seminal vesicles: evidence for role of the caecilian MG as a male accessory reproductive gland.  

PubMed

Whereas in all other vertebrates the Müllerian ducts of genetic males are aborted during development, under the influence of Müllerian-inhibiting substance, in the caecilian amphibians they are retained as a pair of functional glands. It has long been speculated that the Müllerian gland might be the male accessory reproductive gland but there has been no direct evidence to this effect. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the caecilian Müllerian gland secretory proteins would bear antigenic similarity to secretory proteins of the prostate gland and/or the seminal vesicles of a mammal. The secretory proteins of the Müllerian gland of Ichthyophis tricolor were evaluated for cross-reactivity with antisera raised against rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle secretory proteins, adopting SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot techniques. Indeed there was a cross-reaction of five Müllerian gland secretory protein fractions with prostatic protein antiserum and of three with seminal vesicle protein antiserum. A potential homology exists because in mammals the middle group of the prostate primordia is derived from a diverticulum of the Müllerian duct. Thus this study, by providing evidence for expression of prostatic and seminal vesicle proteins in the Müllerian gland, substantiates the point that in caecilians the Müllerian glands are the male accessory reproductive glands. PMID:25160003

Radha, Arumugam; Sree, Sreesha; Faisal, Kunnathodi; Kumar, G Pradeep; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

2014-10-01

36

Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of the Accessory Sex Gland and Testis from the Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis)  

PubMed Central

The accessory sex gland (ASG) is an important component of the male reproductive system, which functions to enhance the fertility of spermatozoa during male reproduction. Certain proteins secreted by the ASG are known to bind to the spermatozoa membrane and affect its function. The ASG gene expression profile in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has not been extensively studied, and limited genetic research has been conducted on this species. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables the generation of genomic resources within a short period of time and at minimal cost. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for the ASG of E. sinensis using Illumina sequencing technology. This analysis yielded a total of 33,221,284 sequencing reads, including 2.6 Gb of total nucleotides. Reads were assembled into 85,913 contigs (average 218 bp), or 58,567 scaffold sequences (average 292 bp), that identified 37,955 unigenes (average 385 bp). We assembled all unigenes and compared them with the published testis transcriptome from E. sinensis. In order to identify which genes may be involved in ASG function, as it pertains to modification of spermatozoa, we compared the ASG and testis transcriptome of E. sinensis. Our analysis identified specific genes with both higher and lower tissue expression levels in the two tissues, and the functions of these genes were analyzed to elucidate their potential roles during maturation of spermatozoa. Availability of detailed transcriptome data from ASG and testis in E. sinensis can assist our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved with spermatozoa conservation, transport, maturation and capacitation and potentially acrosome activation. PMID:23342039

He, Lin; Jiang, Hui; Cao, Dandan; Liu, Lihua; Hu, Songnian; Wang, Qun

2013-01-01

37

Male accessory gland substances from Aedes albopictus affect the locomotor activity of Aedes aegypti females  

PubMed Central

Dengue is one of the world’s most important mosquito-borne diseases and is usually transmitted by one of two vector species: Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus . These two diurnal mosquitoes are frequently found coexisting in similar habitats, enabling interactions between adults, such as cross-mating. The objective of this study was to assess cross-mating between Ae. aegypti females and Ae. albopictus males under artificial conditions and evaluate the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti virgin females injected with male accessory gland (MAG) homogenates to infer the physiological and behavioural responses to interspecific mating. After seven days of exposure, 3.3-16% of Ae. aegypti females mated with Ae. albopictus males. Virgin Ae. aegypti females injected with conspecific and heterospecific MAGs showed a general decrease in locomotor activity compared to controls and were refractory to mating with conspecific males. The reduction in diurnal locomotor activity induced by injections of conspecific or heterospecific MAGs is consistent with regulation of female reproductive activities by male substances, which are capable of sterilising female Ae. aegypti through satyrisation by Ae. albopictus . PMID:24473799

Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Codeço, Claudia Torres; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Lounibos, Leon Philip

2013-01-01

38

Odorant-binding protein: localization to nasal glands and secretions.  

PubMed Central

An odorant-binding protein (OBP) was isolated from bovine olfactory and respiratory mucosa. We have produced polyclonal antisera to this protein and report its immunohistochemical localization to mucus-secreting glands of the olfactory and respiratory mucosa. Although OBP was originally isolated as a pyrazine binding protein, both rat and bovine OBP also bind the odorants [3H]methyldihydrojasmonate and 3,7-dimethyl-octan-1-ol as well as 2-isobutyl-3-[3H]methoxypyrazine. We detect substantial odorant-binding activity attributable to OBP in secreted rat nasal mucus and tears but not in saliva, suggesting a role for OBP in transporting or concentrating odorants. Images PMID:3523479

Pevsner, J; Sklar, P B; Snyder, S H

1986-01-01

39

Molecular Mechanism of Pancreatic and Salivary Glands Fluid and HCO3? Secretion  

PubMed Central

Fluid and HCO3? secretion is a vital function of all epithelia and is required for the survival of the tissue. Aberrant fluid and HCO3? secretion is associated with many epithelial diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, Sjögren’s syndrome and other epithelial inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Significant progress has been made over the last 20 years in our understanding of epithelial fluid and HCO3? secretion, in particular by secretory glands. Fluid and HCO3? secretion by secretory glands is a two step process. Acinar cells secrete isotonic fluid in which the major salt is NaCl. Subsequently, the duct modifies the volume and electrolyte composition of the fluid to absorb the Cl? and secrete HCO3?. The relative volume secreted by acinar and duct cells and modification of electrolyte composition of the secreted fluids varies among secretory glands to meet their physiological functions. In the pancreas, acinar cells secrete small amount of NaCl-rich fluid, while the duct absorbs the Cl? and secretes HCO3? and the bulk of the fluid in the pancreatic juice. Fluid secretion appears to be driven by active HCO3? secretion. In the salivary glands, acinar cells secrete the bulk of the fluid in the saliva that contains high concentrations of Na+ and Cl? and fluid secretion is mediated by active Cl? secretion. The salivary glands duct absorbs both the Na+ and Cl? and secretes K+ and HCO3?. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanism of fluid and HCO3? secretion by the pancreas and salivary glands, to highlight the similarities of the fundamental mechanisms of acinar and duct cell functions, and point the differences to meet glands specific secretions. PMID:22298651

Lee, Min Goo; Ohana, Ehud; Park, Hyun Woo; Yang, Dongki; Muallem, Shmuel

2013-01-01

40

Diversity and Partitioning of Bacterial Populations within the Accessory Nidamental Gland of the Squid Euprymna scolopes  

PubMed Central

Microbial consortia confer important benefits to animal and plant hosts, and model associations are necessary to examine these types of host/microbe interactions. The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) is a female reproductive organ found among cephalopod mollusks that contains a consortium of bacteria, the exact function of which is unknown. To begin to understand the role of this organ, the bacterial consortium was characterized in the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, a well-studied model organism for symbiosis research. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the ANG revealed dense bacterial assemblages of rod- and coccus-shaped cells segregated by morphology into separate, epithelium-lined tubules. The host epithelium was morphologically heterogeneous, containing ciliated and nonciliated cells with various brush border thicknesses. Hemocytes of the host's innate immune system were also found in close proximity to the bacteria within the tubules. A census of 16S rRNA genes suggested that Rhodobacterales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia bacteria were prevalent, with members of the genus Phaeobacter dominating the consortium. Analysis of 454-shotgun sequencing data confirmed the presence of members of these taxa and revealed members of a fourth, Flavobacteria of the Bacteroidetes phylum. 16S rRNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that many ANG tubules were dominated by members of specific taxa, namely, Rhodobacterales, Verrucomicrobia, or Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroidetes, suggesting symbiont partitioning to specific host tubules. In addition, FISH revealed that bacteria, including Phaeobacter species from the ANG, are likely deposited into the jelly coat of freshly laid eggs. This report establishes the ANG of the invertebrate E. scolopes as a model to examine interactions between a bacterial consortium and its host. PMID:22504817

Collins, Andrew J.; LaBarre, Brenna A.; Wong Won, Brian S.; Shah, Monica V.; Heng, Steven; Choudhury, Momena H.; Haydar, Shahela A.; Santiago, Jose

2012-01-01

41

Synthesis, depletion and cell-type expression of a protein from the male accessory glands of the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Aedes aegypti males transfer sperm and seminal fluid proteins (Sfps), primarily produced by male accessory glands (AGs), to females during mating. When collectively injected or transplanted into females, AG tissues and/or seminal fluid homogenates have profound effects on Aedes female physiology and behavior. To identify targets and design new strategies for vector control, it is important to understand the biology of the AGs. Thus, we examined characteristics of AG secretion and development in A. aegypti, using the AG-specific seminal fluid protein, AAEL010824, as a marker. We showed that AAEL010824 is first detectable by 12h post-eclosion, and increases in amount over the first 3 days of adult life. We then showed that the amount of AAEL0010824 in the AG decreases after mating, with each successive mating depleting it further; by 5 successive matings with no time for recovery, its levels are very low. AAEL010824 levels in a depleted male are replenished by 48 h post-mating. In addition to examining the level of AAEL010824 protein, we also characterized the expression of its gene. We did this by making a transgenic mosquito line that carries an Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein (EGFP) fused to the AAEL0010824 promoter that we defined here. We showed that AAEL010824 is expressed in the anterior cells of the accessory glands, and that its RNA levels also respond to mating. In addition to further characterizing AAEL010824 expression, our results with the EGFP fusion provide a promoter for driving AG expression. By providing this information on the biology of an important male reproductive tissue and the production of one of its seminal proteins, our results lay the foundation for future work aimed at identifying novel targets for mosquito population control. PMID:25107876

Alfonso-Parra, Catalina; Avila, Frank W; Deewatthanawong, Prasit; Sirot, Laura K; Wolfner, Mariana F; Harrington, Laura C

2014-11-01

42

SOURCES OF LARVAL SALIVARY GLAND SECRETION IN THE DIPTERAN CHIRONOMUS TENTANS  

PubMed Central

The soluble proteins in the hemolymph, the salivary gland, and the salivary secretion of fourth instar Chironomus tentans were examined by disc electrophoresis in acrylamide gels. Of the 11 protein fractions detected in buffered saline extracts of the gland, 10 are present also in the hemolymph. Amino acid isotope incorporation experiments indicate that the protein fractions shared by the salivary gland and the hemolymph are not synthesized in the gland but are synthesized in other larval tissues. Immunochemical studies show that most of these proteins eventually are secreted from the gland. The salivary gland in vivo and in vitro is active in de novo protein synthesis. The protein synthesized tends to form large molecular weight aggregates. As demonstrated by radioautography, at least 80% of this protein is secreted from the 30 large cells forming most of the gland. The proteins synthesized in the salivary gland cannot be detected in the hemolymph. The results of this investigation are consistent with a mechanism of secretion formation involving both de novo synthesis of some secretion proteins and the selective uptake, transport, and secretion of hemal proteins by the salivary gland. PMID:5782452

Doyle, D.; Laufer, H.

1969-01-01

43

Mimicry of queen Dufour's gland secretions by workers of Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the Dufour's gland of workers of the two honey bee races Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis was measured. The Dufour's glands of A. m. capensis workers were longer and increased in length more rapidly than the glands of workers of A. m. scutellata at comparable ages. Analysis of the Dufour's gland secretions of workers and queens of both races revealed that there were caste and racial differences. Secretions of queenright A. m. scutellata workers were dominated by a series of long-chain hydrocarbons. In contrast the secretions of the A. m. capensis workers both under queenright and queenless conditions were a mixture of hydrocarbons and wax-type esters, as were those of queens. Multivariate analysis of the secretion profiles indicated that laying workers of both races mimic queens. The secretions of the A. m. capensis laying workers mimicked queen secretions most closely, enabling them to act as successful social parasites.

Sole, Catherine; Kryger, Per; Hefetz, Abraham; Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Crewe, Robin

2002-10-01

44

Ability of multicellular salt glands in Tamarix species to secrete Na+ and K+ selectively.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to determine the mechanism of cation-selective secretion by multicellular salt glands. Using a hydroponic culture system, the secretion and accumulation of Na(+) and K(+) in Tamarix ramosissima and T. laxa under different salt stresses (NaCl, KCl and NaCl+KCl) were studied. Additionally, the effects of salt gland inhibitors (orthovanadate, Ba(2+), ouabain, tetraethylammonium (TEA) and verapamil) on Na(+) and K(+) secretion and accumulation were examined. Treatment with NaCl (at 0-200 mmol L(-1) levels) significantly increased Na(+) secretion, whereas KCl treatment (at 0-200 mmol L(-1) levels) significantly increased K(+) secretion. The ratio of secretion to accumulation of Na(+) was higher than that of K(+). The changes in Na(+) and K(+) secretion differed after adding different ions into the single-salt solutions. Addition of NaCl to the KCl solution (at 100 mmol L(-1) level, respectively) led to a significant decrease in K(+) secretion rate, whereas addition of KCl to the NaCl solution (at 100 mmol L(-1) level, respectively) had little impact on the Na(+) secretion rate. These results indicated that Na+ secretion in Tamarix was highly selective. In addition, Na(+) secretion was significantly inhibited by orthovanadate, ouabain, TEA and verapamil, and K(+) secretion was significantly inhibited by ouabain, TEA and verapamil. The different impacts of orthovanadate on Na(+) and K(+) secretion might be the primary cause for the different Na(+) and K(+) secretion abilities of multicellular salt glands in Tamarix. PMID:21416329

Ma, Haiyan; Tian, Changyan; Feng, Gu; Yuan, Junfeng

2011-03-01

45

Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 increases secretion of the hypofunctional, transplanted submandibular gland.  

PubMed

Hyposecretion occurs in most patients early after submandibular gland autotransplantation for severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Endogenous transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) has been recently demonstrated in rabbit submandibular glands, and activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin increases secretion in isolated glands, but the TRPV1-mediated secretory mechanism remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to verify whether activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin could improve the secretion of transplanted gland and its underlying mechanism. The salivary flow of the transplanted glands was significantly decreased, and the mRNA and protein levels of TRPV1 and aquaporin 5 (AQP5) were downregulated in the transplanted glands. Topical capsaicin cream increased secretion and upregulated levels of TRPV1 and AQP5 in transplanted glands. Moreover, in cultured submandibular gland cells, capsaicin increased the mRNA expression of AQP5 and led to redistribution of AQP5 from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane via TRPV1 activation. Capsaicin enhanced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Preincubation of cells with PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK kinase, suppressed the capsaicin-induced mRNA expression of AQP5. In summary, the capsaicin-induced secretory mechanism involved activation of TRPV1 and upregulation of AQP5 in an ERK-dependent manner and promoted the redistribution of AQP5 in submandibular gland cells. Activation of TRPV1 may provide a new therapeutic strategy to improve submandibular gland hypofunction. PMID:20360133

Zhang, Y; Cong, X; Shi, L; Xiang, B; Li, Y M; Ding, Q W; Ding, C; Wu, L L; Yu, G Y

2010-07-01

46

Do marmots display a `dear enemy phenomenon' in response to anal gland secretions?  

E-print Network

, Crested Butte, CO, USA Keywords anal gland secretion; dear enemy phenomenon; kinship; Marmota flaviventris. We tested philopatric female yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) for the presence of DEP

Blumstein, Daniel T.

47

Uropygial gland-secreted alkanols contribute to olfactory sex signals in budgerigars.  

PubMed

The possible role of uropygial gland-secreted compounds in olfactory discrimination of sex or sex attractants in the budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus, was investigated using behavioral 2-choice tests and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Our data showed that female budgerigars were capable of distinguishing males from females in a Y maze via body odor, indicating its sexual dimorphism. When we conducted a chemical assay of the uropygial preen gland secretions, we found 4 times more volatile octadecanol, nonadecanol, and eicosanol in ratios in males than in females, making them putative male pheromone candidates. Female birds also showed overt preferences for the odor of male preen gland secretions or the 3-alkanol blend equivalent preened onto the plumage of a male over that of female counterparts. Removal of any one alkanol was associated with a loss of attractiveness to the female. In another test device (a test cage) with visible male bird stimulus, females chose the male with the 3-alkanol blend of males over the other male with female preen gland secretion, whereas did not differentiate their responses between the males with either this blend or male preen gland secretions. The behavioral data robustly suggested that the 3 alkanols synergistically created a female attractant odor or male pheromone in the budgerigar and that bird uropygial glands have broader implications in sexual behavior than previously known. This is the first investigation with bioassay of components of the gland in a bird species. PMID:20212012

Zhang, Jian-Xu; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Yang, Wei-He

2010-06-01

48

Introduction The pituitary gland is a key regulator of hormone secretion in  

E-print Network

1579 Introduction The pituitary gland is a key regulator of hormone secretion in vertebrates pituitary Hedgehog signaling is required for formation and patterning of the anterior pituitary gland. The anterior lobe of the pituitary contains several cell types distinguished by their morphologies, locations

Westerfield, Monte

49

HCO3- transport in relation to mucus secretion from submucosal glands.  

PubMed

The role of HCO(3)(-) transport in relation to fluid secretion by submucosal glands is being studied in sheep, pigs, cats and humans. Optical methods have been developed to measure secretion rates of mucus volume from single glands with sufficient temporal resolution to detect differences in minute-by-minute secretion rates among glands. The ionic composition and viscoelastic properties of the uncontaminated gland mucus are measured with a combination of ratiometric fluorescent indicators, ion-selective microelectrodes, FRAP, and a miniaturized, magnetic force viscometer. Sheep glands secreted basally at low rates, showed small, transient responses to alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonists, and large responses to a cholinergic agonist, carbachol. Peak rates and temporal patterns of responses to carbachol differed markedly among glands. To assess the contribution of HCO(3)(-) transport to gland secretion, we either inhibited Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) with bumetanide or replaced HCO(3)(-) with HEPES and gassed with O(2). Bumetanide caused a small, non-significant inhibition of basal secretion, but removal of HCO(3)(-)/CO(2) significantly reduced basal secretion almost by half. Both bumetanide and removal of HCO(3)(-)/CO(2) reduced carbachol-stimulated secretion significantly, with HCO(3)(-) removal having the larger effect: a reduction to 33% of control (P<0.01). The remaining secretory response to carbachol was nearly eliminated by bumetanide. Sheep mucus pH measured with ion selective electrodes was about 0.4 log more acidic than the bath. In humans, we observed the same pattern of responses to agonists and antagonists as in sheep, and observed a mucus pH of 7.0 using 2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5,6-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). We hypothesize that HCO(3)(-) transport is important in the formation of mucus secretion, but that most HCO(3)(-) is scavenged before the final mucus appears at the duct opening. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator's (CFTR) best understood function is as an anion channel, but increasing attention has been given to its role in HCO(3)(-) transport. By analogy with organ-specific CFTR effects on Cl(-) transport, it seems likely that the relative importance of CFTR in HCO(3)(-) transport will also vary across organs. Because lung disease is by far the greatest cause of mortality among people with cystic fibrosis, it is important to determine how loss of CFTR function causes lung disease. We are testing the hypothesis that loss of CFTR alters serous cell secretion in the lungs, and the corollary that such loss contributes to cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. CFTR is highly expressed in serous cells of submucosal glands and the Calu-3 serous cell model secretes HCO(3)(-). Human gland serous cells grown in culture and tested for fluid secretion under open circuit conditions showed reduced fluid secretion to all mediators. However, submucosal glands are complex organs containing at least 4 distinct regions and at least that many cell types, making it difficult to predict the consequences on whole-organ function from experiments with individual cell types. Therefore, we have resurrected long-neglected methods for studying whole-gland function, and have attempted to improve them in a variety of ways. We are refining these methods and increasing our understanding of gland function by studying tracheal glands from sheep, pigs and cats. As human tissues become available, they are studied with the best methods presently available. The key questions now being asked are: Is mucus secretion from submucosal glands altered in cystic fibrosis? If so, how is it altered and how does it contribute to CF lung disease? Answering the last question will require an understanding of how glands interact with other regions of the lung. In the context of this meeting, we present preliminary data on the role of HCO(3)(-) in gland mucus secretion. PMID:11875272

Joo, N S; Krouse, M E; Wu, J V; Saenz, Y; Jayaraman, S; Verkman, A S; Wine, J J

2001-07-01

50

Ablation of paternal accessory sex glands imparts physical and behavioural abnormalities to the progeny: an in vivo study in the golden hamster.  

PubMed

The functional significance of male accessory sex glands (ASG) remains unclear. This study explored their importance in reproduction. In previous investigations, embryos sired by males with ASG either totally or partially removed had a shift in the cell cycle and delayed cleavage during preimplantation development, higher incidence of apoptosis, early oviductal-uterine transit, higher proportion of embryo degeneration, lower implantation rate, and ultimately reduced fertility and fecundity. Some pups were born alive; but would they be normal? We hypothesized that the first generation offspring (F1) could also bear undesirable traits. To test our hypothesis, we raised and studied these F1 pups from birth to 8 weeks. We monitored physical growth and assessed behaviour such as nest patch odor preference, acoustic startle response (ASR) and exploratory activity. We detected deviations from the norm in physical growth, a premature cessation of nest patch odor preferences, accelerated acoustic startle habituation and more frequent rearing when exposed to a novel environment. In terms of structure, we found one incidence of diphallus with duplicated urethra. We concluded that sperm lacking contact with ASG secretions gave rise to progeny with abnormal traits. PMID:17597198

Wong, C L; Lee, K H; Lo, K M; Chan, O C; Goggins, W; O, W S; Chow, P H

2007-09-01

51

Trehalase from male accessory gland of an insect, Tenebrio molitor. cDNA sequencing and developmental profile of the gene expression.  

PubMed

A cDNA of alpha alpha-trehalase (EC 3.2.1.28) from a cDNA library of male bean-shaped accessory gland of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, has been isolated by the homology screening approach. Sequence analysis of the cDNA (1830 bp) revealed that the cDNA encoded a protein of 555 amino acids with a calculated M(r) of 64457. The deduced amino acid sequence had significant similarities to rabbit small intestine and Escherichia coli trehalases. Northern blotting and semi-quantitative PCR analyses revealed that a trehalase transcript with about 2.0 kb was abundant in bean-shaped accessory glands. In the glands, the amount of trehalase transcript increased from 1 to 2 days after adult ecdysis. These tissue- and stage-specific gene expressions of trehalase corresponded to the tissue- and stage-specificity of trehalase activity. PMID:1445264

Takiguchi, M; Niimi, T; Su, Z H; Yaginuma, T

1992-11-15

52

Volatile components in scent gland secretions of garter snakes (Thamnophis spp.).  

PubMed

Previous analyses of the scent gland secretions of snakes have focused on the nonvolatile components. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of secretions from North American garter snakes (Thamnophis butleri, T. couchi, T. elegans, T. melanogaster, andT. sirtalis) indicated the following seven major volatile components: acetic, propanoic, 2-methylpropanoic, butanoic, and 3-methylbutanoic acids, trimethylamine, and 2-piperidone. Five or more of these compounds were observed in secretions of select boid, colubrid, pythonid, and viperid snakes, suggesting that they are widespread scent gland products. 3-Methylbutanal also was detected in some snake species. PMID:24234020

Wood, W F; Parker, J M; Weldon, P J

1995-02-01

53

Protease-Activated Receptor 2 Mediates Mucus Secretion in the Airway Submucosal Gland  

PubMed Central

Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in airway epithelia and smooth muscle, plays an important role in airway inflammation. In this study, we demonstrated that activation of PAR2 induces mucus secretion from the human airway gland and examined the underlying mechanism using the porcine and murine airway glands. The mucosa with underlying submucosal glands were dissected from the cartilage of tissues, pinned with the mucosal side up at the gas/bath solution interface of a physiological chamber, and covered with oil so that secretions from individual glands could be visualized as spherical bubbles in the oil. Secretion rates were determined by optical monitoring of the bubble diameter. The Ca2+-sensitive dye Fura2-AM was used to determine intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by means of spectrofluorometry. Stimulation of human tracheal mucosa with PAR2-activating peptide (PAR2-AP) elevated intracellular Ca2+ and induced glandular secretion equal to approximately 30% of the carbachol response in the human airway. Porcine gland tissue was more sensitive to PAR2-AP, and this response was dependent on Ca2+ and anion secretion. When the mouse trachea were exposed to PAR2-AP, large amounts of secretion were observed in both wild type and ?F508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutant mice but there is no secretion from PAR-2 knock out mice. In conclusion, PAR2-AP is an agonist for mucus secretion from the airway gland that is Ca2+-dependent and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-independent. PMID:22916223

Lee, Hyun Jae; Yang, Yu-Mi; Kim, Kyubo; Shin, Dong Min; Yoon, Joo-Heon; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Choi, Jae Young

2012-01-01

54

Neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G stimulate secretion from cultured bovine airway gland serous cells.  

PubMed Central

To investigate the hypothesis that neutrophil proteases stimulate airway gland secretion, we studied the effect of human cathepsin G and elastase on secretion of 35S-labeled macromolecules from cultured bovine airway gland serous cells. Both proteases stimulated secretion in a concentration-dependent fashion with a threshold of greater than or equal to 10(-10) M. Elastase was more potent than cathepsin G, causing a maximal secretory response of 1,810 +/- 60% over baseline at 10(-8) M. The maximal response to cathepsin G (1,810 +/- 70% over baseline at 10(-7) M) was similar to the maximal response to elastase. These responses were greater than 10-fold larger than the response to other agonists such as histamine. Protease-induced secretion was noncytotoxic and required catalytically active enzymes. The predominant sulfated macromolecule released by proteases was chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. Immunocytochemical staining demonstrated chondroitin sulfate in cytoplasmic granules and decreased granular staining after stimulation of cells with elastase. The neutrophil proteases also degraded the proteoglycan released from serous cells. Cathepsin G and elastase in supernatant obtained by degranulation of human peripheral neutrophils also caused a secretory response. Thus, neutrophil proteases stimulate airway gland serous cell secretion of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and degrade the secreted product. These findings suggest a potential role for neutrophil proteases in the pathogenesis of increased and abnormal submucosal gland secretions in diseases associated with inflammation and neutrophil infiltration of the airways. Images PMID:2107207

Sommerhoff, C P; Nadel, J A; Basbaum, C B; Caughey, G H

1990-01-01

55

Leg tendon glands in male bumblebees ( Bombus terrestris): structure, secretion chemistry, and possible functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the large number of exocrine glands described in bees, the tarsal glands were thought to be the source of footprint scent marks. However, recent studies showed that the compounds used for marking by stingless bees are secreted by leg tendon instead of tarsal glands. Here, we report on the structure of leg tendon glands in males of Bombus terrestris, together with a description of the chemical composition of their secretions and respective changes of both during the males' lives. The ultrastructure of leg tendon glands shows that the secretory cells are located in three independent regions, separated from each other by unmodified epidermal cells: in the femur, tibia, and basitarsus. Due to the common site of secretion release, the organ is considered a single secretory gland. The secretion of the leg tendon glands of B. terrestris males differs in its composition from those of workers and queens, in particular by (1) having larger proportions of compounds with longer chain lengths, which we identified as wax esters; and (2) by the lack of certain hydrocarbons (especially long chain dienes). Other differences consist in the distribution of double bond positions in the unsaturated hydrocarbons that are predominantly located at position 9 in males but distributed at seven to nine different positions in the female castes. Double bond positions may change chemical and physical properties of a molecule, which can be recognized by the insects and, thus, may serve to convey specific information. The function of male-specific compounds identified from their tendon glands remains elusive, but several possibilities are discussed.

Jarau, Stefan; Žá?ek, Petr; Šobotník, Jan; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Hadravová, Romana; Coppée, Audrey; Vaší?ková, So?a; Jiroš, Pavel; Valterová, Irena

2012-12-01

56

Minimal Salt Load required to induce Secretion from the Nasal Salt Glands of Sea Gulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

MOST investigators1-3 examining the function of the avian nasal salt gland have used a salt load consisting of 1 g NaCl\\/kg body-wt. administered either intravenously or orally. This form of osmotic stimulation will promptly induce secretion of a hypertonic solution of NaCl, ranging in concentration from 400 to 1,200 m.equiv. NaCl\\/1., from the salt gland. Nechay, Larimer and Maren4 were

Larry Z. McFarland

1964-01-01

57

A Syringe-Like Love Dart Injects Male Accessory Gland Products in a Tropical Hermaphrodite  

PubMed Central

Sexual conflict shapes the evolution of many behaviours and processes involved in reproduction. Nearly all evidence supporting this comes from species where the sexes are separated. However, a substantial proportion of animals and most plants are hermaphroditic, and theoretical work predicts that sexual conflict plays an important role even when the sexes are joined within one individual. This seems to have resulted in bizarre mating systems, sophisticated sperm packaging and complex reproductive morphologies. By far the best-known example of such a strategy in hermaphrodites is the shooting of so-called love-darts in land snails. All known love darts carry a gland product on their outside and enter this into the partner’s hemolymph by stabbing. Here, we show that species of the snail genus Everettia possess a syringe-like dart that serves as a real injection needle. Their dart is round in cross-section, contains numerous channels, and has perforations along its side. Histology and electron microscopy show that these holes connect to the channels inside the dart and run all the way up to the elaborate mucus glands that are attached to the dart sac. This is the first report on a love dart that is used as a syringe to directly inject the gland product into the partner’s hemolymph. Although the exact use and function of this dart remains to be demonstrated, this clearly adds to the complexity of the evolution of reproductive strategies in hermaphrodites in general. Moreover, the perforations on the outside of the love dart resemble features of other injection devices, thus uncovering common design and repeated evolution of such features in animals. PMID:23894565

Koene, Joris M.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Schilthuizen, Menno

2013-01-01

58

Volatile components in dorsal gland secretions of the Chacoan peccary, Catagonus wagneri.  

PubMed

The dorsal gland secretions of captive-reared male and female Chacoan peccaries (Catagonus wagneri) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. C8-C19 carboxylic acids, squalene, cholesterol, cholestanol, and cholest-7-en-3-ol were present in both males and females. Heptylbenzene, C14-C18 methyl esters, and an isomer of springene were observed in males. C15-C19 aldehydes were observed in females. The composition of the dorsal gland secretions of C. wagneri is compared to what has been reported for other peccaries (Tayassu spp.). PMID:19040119

Waterhouse, John S; Langley, Bridget; Weldon, Paul J

2008-01-01

59

Toxin ophthalmia caused by nuchal gland secretion of the Taiwan tiger keelback (Rhabdophis tigrinus formosanus).  

PubMed

Rhabdophis tigrinus is a common colubrid snake that can be found in an extensive geographical region in East Asia. It consists of two subspecies: R.t. tigrinus (yamakagashi) and R.t. formosanus (Taiwan tiger keelback). R. tigrinus possesses two different sets of poisonous glands: the Duvernoy's glands in the maxilla, and the nuchal glands in the dorsal skin of the neck. We report the first case in current English literature of toxin ophthalmia caused by the nuchal gland secretion of R.t. formosanus. The patient was a 40-year-old man whose right eye was sprayed by the nuchal gland fluid of R.t. formosanus. He presented with symptoms of foreign body sensation, progressive burning pain, and blurred vision. Ophthalmologic examination revealed diffuse superficial punctate keratitis, corneal stromal edema with Descemet folds, and conjunctival congestion. The patient responded well to topical treatment with a corticosteroid, antihistamine, and antibiotic, and had a favorable clinical course and outcome. PMID:25240304

Chen, Yen-Chia; Yen, David Hung-Tsang; Chen, Yen-Wen; Huang, Mu-Shung; Huang, Chun-I; Chen, Min-Hui

2014-10-01

60

Trehalase in the spermatophore from the bean-shaped accessory gland of the male mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor : purification, kinetic properties and localization of the enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trehalase from the bean-shaped accessory glands of the male mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, was purified by acid treatment, with subsequent chromatography on columns of DEAE-cellulofine and Sephacryl S-300. The molecular masses of the native and the denatured forms were estimated to be 43 and 62 kDa by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE, respectively, an indication that the trehalase may be composed

T. Yaginuma; T. Mizuno; C. Mizuno; M. Ikeda; T. Wada; K. Hattori; O. Yamashita; G. M. Happ

1996-01-01

61

Volatile components in scent gland secretions of garter snakes ( Thamnophis spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous analyses of the scent gland secretions of snakes have focused on the nonvolatile components. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of secretions from North American garter snakes (Thamnophis butleri, T. couchi, T. elegans, T. melanogaster, andT. sirtalis) indicated the following seven major volatile components: acetic, propanoic, 2-methylpropanoic, butanoic, and 3-methylbutanoic acids, trimethylamine, and 2-piperidone. Five or more of these compounds were observed

William F. Wood; Joshua M. Parker; Paul J. Weldon

1995-01-01

62

Volatile components in dorsal gland secretions of the white-lipped peccary, Tayassu pecari, from Bolivia.  

PubMed

Secretions from the dorsal gland of male and female free-ranging adult white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) from Bolivia were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fifty compounds were identified, some provisionally. Secretions of both sexes contain saturated and unsaturated C5-C18 carboxylic acids as well as isomers of the diterpene springene. The females' secretions uniquely possess farnesyl esters of C8 and C10 carboxylic acids, whereas the males' secretions uniquely showed two compounds provisionally identified as monounsaturated C16 lactones. Saturated high-molecular-weight esters of C10 carboxylic acids are more abundant in the females' secretions than in those of the males. The secretions of both sexes also contain monoalkanoate esters of methylhydroquinone as major components. PMID:11789952

Waterhous, J S; Hudson, M; Pickett, J A; Weldon, P J

2001-12-01

63

Use of anal gland secretion to distinguish the two beaver species Castor canadensis and C. fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosell, F. & Sun, L. 1999: Use of anal gland secretion to distinguish the two beaver species Castor canadensis and C. fiber. - Wildl. Biol. 5: 119-123. Introduced North American beavers Castor canadensis pose a potential threat to the continuing recovery of Eurasian beaver C. fiber populations in several European countries. For management purposes, it is necessary to be able

Frank Rosell; Lixing Sun

64

Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical investigation of ecdysteroid secretion by the prothoracic gland of the waxmoth Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation and secretion of ecdysteroid by the prothoracic gland cells of Galleria mellonella (Insecta, Lepidoptera) were investigated electron microscopically and immunocytochemically. The moulting hormone ecdysone becomes first evident in vesicles and tubules of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). The SER forms secretory granules in which ecdysone was shown immunocytochemically. The Golgi apparatus seems not to be directly involved in

Heiner Birkenbeil

1983-01-01

65

Comparative analysis of the male reproductive accessory glands of bat species from the five Brazilian Subfamilies of the family Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera).  

PubMed

This study aimed to morphologically characterize and compare the male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) of bats belonging to the five Brazilian subfamilies of the family Phyllostomidae (Carollia perspicillata-Carollinae; Desmodus rotundus-Desmodontinae; Glossophaga soricina-Glossophaginae; Phyllostomus discolor-Phyllostominae and Platyrrhinus lineatus-Stenodermatinae). The study demonstrated that the RAGs of phyllostomid bats were comprised of a pair of extra-abdominal bulbourethral glands and an intra-abdominal complex, composed of paraurethral glands and a prostate with two (Desmodontinae and Stenodermatinae) or three (Carollinae, Glossophaginae and Phyllostominae) different regions, with the absence of the seminal vesicles; this pattern possibly evolved from a process of compaction of the prostatic regions from an ancestor with three regions. J. Morphol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25471705

Martins, Fabiane F; Puga, Cintia C I; Beguelini, Mateus R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastiăo R

2014-12-01

66

Chemical compounds from the preanal gland secretions of the male tree agama (Acanthocercus atricollis) (fam. Agamidae).  

PubMed

Chemical signals have an important role in the reproductive behaviour of many lizards. However, the compounds secreted by their femoral or preanal glands, which may be used as sexual signals, are mainly known for lizard species within the Scleroglossa clade, whereas compounds in secretions of lizards within the Iguania clade are much less studied. Based on mass spectra, obtained by GC-MS, we found 60 lipophilic compounds in preanal gland secretions of the male tree agama (Acanthocercus atricollis) (fam. Agamidae), including steroids (mainly cholesterol, cholest-3-ene, and some of their derivatives), fatty acids ranging between n-C12 and n-C18 (mainly hexadecanoic and octadecenoic acids), ketones from n-C17 to n-C25, and other minor compounds, such as tocopherol, squalene, waxy esters, and furanones. We compare the compounds found with those present in other lizard species and discuss their potential function in social behaviour. PMID:23923623

Martín, José; Ortega, Jesús; López, Pilar

2013-01-01

67

Histophysiological evidence for the secretion of polypeptides by the pineal gland.  

PubMed

Histophysiological examinations of the bovine and monkey pineal gland indicate that this organ may be involved in the secretion of polypeptides. Using various histochemical procedures designed to identify peptide-secreting cells, granules and/or droplets of presumptive secretory product were identified within cellular processes, within the walls of blood vessels and associated with multilayered corpuscles (corpora arenacea). In bovine pineal tissue, the stained material was found most often in what appeared to be pinealocyte processes, as perivascular granules and associated with multilayered corpuscles. In the monkey pineal the stainable material was more distinct; this was probably due to the earlier fixation of the glands after death of the animals. In this species, the presumptive secretory material was found in nerve fibers, occasionally in glial cell and pinealocyte processes and within and around the walls of capillaries. In nerve fibers, the stained material sometimes resembled Herring bodies of the posterior pituitary gland. Similar material appeared to be located in capillary endothelial cells and within multilayered corpuscles. In pineal tissue of both species, calcium was detectable histochemically within multilayered corpuscles. Although tinctorially different, the presumptive neurosecretory material was similar to that found in the posterior pituitary gland. As a working hypothesis, we propose that polypeptides may be released from cells in conjunction with a carrier protein and that the mechanism of secretion of the polypeptide into the vascular system may involve its exchange for calcium. The calcium is then theoretically deposited in the multilayered corpuscles. PMID:810015

Lukaszyk, A; Reiter, R J

1975-08-01

68

The bitch uterine response to semen deposition and its modification by male accessory gland secretions.  

PubMed

Little is known about the response of the bitch's reproductive tract to semen deposition. In this study, an influx of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) into the uterus was detected after artificial insemination, but there was normal fertility. Doppler ultrasonography showed that insemination induced an increase in uterine artery blood velocity and a decrease in the resistance index of short duration, indicating vasodilation. Semen that was extended in fluid from the sperm rich fraction of the ejaculate (seminal plasma, SP), or third fraction of the ejaculate (prostatic fluid, PF), produced a similar magnitude of effect but of longer duration. It was hypothesised that vasodilation following insemination was largely induced by SP and PF which, together with PMN influx, was part of a normal uterine response. Physiological concentrations of PMNs in vitro reduced the ability of spermatozoa to attach to uterine epithelium, most likely as a result of spermatozoa becoming attached to PMNs. However, both SP and PF increased attachment of spermatozoa to the uterine epithelium by reducing sperm attachment to PMNs, and potentially by an additional mechanism that did not involve inhibition of sperm binding to PMNs. These are the first canine studies to document an apparent physiological response by the uterus to semen, associated with uterine artery vasodilation and PMN influx. Moreover, these investigations are the first to demonstrate that canine SF and PF are part of the mechanism for increasing uterine perfusion and that both fluids have a modulatory effect on PMN-induced inhibition of spermatozoal attachment to uterine epithelium, most likely mediated by reduced sperm attachment to PMNs. PMID:22652115

England, G C W; Russo, M; Freeman, S L

2013-02-01

69

Spermatogenesis, Overview 539 treatments with secretion of female accessory gland and  

E-print Network

Reproduction. Pergamon, New York. Gillett, C. 0 988). Arthropoda-Insecta. In Reproductive Biology.), pp. 33-55. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Hinsch, G. W. (1990). Arthropoda-Crustacca. In Reproduc tive. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Reger, J. F., and Fitzgerald, M. E. C. (1983). Arthropoda

Hess, Rex A.

70

Ca˛? signaling and regulation of fluid secretion in salivary gland acinar cells.  

PubMed

Neurotransmitter stimulation of plasma membrane receptors stimulates salivary gland fluid secretion via a complex process that is determined by coordinated temporal and spatial regulation of several Ca(2+) signaling processes as well as ion flux systems. Studies over the past four decades have demonstrated that Ca(2+) is a critical factor in the control of salivary gland function. Importantly, critical components of this process have now been identified, including plasma membrane receptors, calcium channels, and regulatory proteins. The key event in activation of fluid secretion is an increase in intracellular [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]i) triggered by IP3-induced release of Ca(2+) from ER via the IP3R. This increase regulates the ion fluxes required to drive vectorial fluid secretion. IP3Rs determine the site of initiation and the pattern of [Ca(2+)]i signal in the cell. However, Ca(2+) entry into the cell is required to sustain the elevation of [Ca(2+)]i and fluid secretion. This Ca(2+) influx pathway, store-operated calcium influx pathway (SOCE), has been studied in great detail and the regulatory mechanisms as well as key molecular components have now been identified. Orai1, TRPC1, and STIM1 are critical components of SOCE and among these, Ca(2+) entry via TRPC1 is a major determinant of fluid secretion. The receptor-evoked Ca(2+) signal in salivary gland acinar cells is unique in that it starts at the apical pole and then rapidly increases across the cell. The basis for the polarized Ca(2+) signal can be ascribed to the polarized arrangement of the Ca(2+) channels, transporters, and signaling proteins. Distinct localization of these proteins in the cell suggests compartmentalization of Ca(2+) signals during regulation of fluid secretion. This chapter will discuss new concepts and findings regarding the polarization and control of Ca(2+) signals in the regulation of fluid secretion. PMID:24646566

Ambudkar, Indu S

2014-06-01

71

Effects of Chinese herbs on salivary fluid secretion by isolated and perfused rat submandibular glands  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine whether Chinese herbs (CHs) relieve xerostomia (dry mouth) by increasing salivary secretion. METHODS: The submandibular glands of Wistar rats were surgically isolated and perfused arterially with buffered salt solution. After control perfusion, recording started 5 min prior to the start of stimulation. After fluid secretion was induced by 0.2 ?mol/L carbamylcholine (CCh) in the perfusate for 10 min, Chinese herb (CH) was added in the perfusion for 5 min. CCh was then overloaded at 0.2 ?mol/L in the perfusion for 20 min. The volume of salivary fluid secretion was recorded by a computer-controlled balance system. RESULTS: Saliva secretion formed an initial ephemeral peak at 30 s followed by a gradual increase to a sustained level. CH alone induced no or little saliva in all types of CH selected. During perfusion with CH, overloading of CCh promoted fluid secretion in 15 of 20 CHs. This promotion was classified into four patterns, which were eventually related to the categories of CH: Overall sustained phase was continuously raised (Yin-nourishing, fluid production-promoting and heat-clearing agents); The sustained secretion rose to reach a maximum then decreased (Qi-enhancing agent); Sustained secretion rose to reach the highest maximum and was then sustained with a slight decline (swelling-reducing, phlegm-resolving and pus-expelling agents); Stimulation of salivary secretion without any added stimulants. Addition of CCh raised the fluid secretion to reach the highest maximum then sharply decreased to a lower sustained level (blood activating agent). CONCLUSION: The present findings lead to the conclusion that various CHs have different promotional effects directly on the salivary gland. PMID:19701971

Murakami, Masataka; Wei, Mu-Xin; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Qian-De

2009-01-01

72

Optical properties of the uropygial gland secretion: no evidence for UV cosmetics in birds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultraviolet (UV) reflectance of the plumage is common in birds and plays an important role in sexual signalling. Recently, it has been proposed that birds are able to modify plumage UV reflectance by the application of uropygial gland secretion. Based on a survey of the optical properties of this secretion from 51 species belonging to 12 avian orders, we show that two main types of uropygial secretions exist, one predominantly found in passerines and one in non-passerines, both reducing relative UV reflectance of a white background (Teflon™ tape). We quantified how each type of secretion (exemplified by blue tit and mallard) affected feather UV reflectance. Both secretions reduced overall brightness and relative UV reflectance of white mallard feathers but hardly affected the reflectance of UV/blue blue tit crown feathers. According to models of avian colour vision, changes in reflectance due to application of the secretion were at or below the discrimination threshold of most birds. We conclude that the uropygial secretion is unlikely to play a major role in modifying plumage UV reflectance. However, the optical properties of the uropygial secretion may have been selected to interfere as little as possible with visual signaling through plumage reflectance.

Delhey, Kaspar; Peters, Anne; Biedermann, Peter H. W.; Kempenaers, Bart

2008-10-01

73

Volatile components in dorsal gland secretions of the collared peccary,Tayassu tajacu (Tayassuidae, mammalia).  

PubMed

Secretions of the dorsal gland of free-ranging adult male and female collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Both sexes contain (2E,6E,10E)-geranylgeraniol; squalene (allE isomer); and the following isomers of springene, a diterpene homolog of ?-farnesene: (3E,6E,10E)-?-springene, (3Z,6E,10E)-?-springene, and (6E,10E)-?-springene. A diterpene alcohol and an additional isomer each of squalene and springene also were observed. Straight- and branched-chain esters abound in the secretions of females, but they were not detected in males. PMID:24226086

Waterhouse, J S; Ke, J; Pickett, J A; Weldon, P J

1996-07-01

74

Murine nonvolatile pheromones: isolation of exocrine-gland secreting Peptide 1.  

PubMed

Our search for a substance recognized by the vomeronasal neurons revealed that the extra-orbital lacrimal gland (ELG) isolated from adult male mice produced the male-specific peptide pheromone exocrine gland-secreting peptide 1 (ESP1). The following protocol reveals how ESP1 may be extracted from the ELG, purified using anion-exchange and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and analyzed by mass spectrometry. This protocol has been specifically designed for the purification of ESP1, but may be modified to isolate a variety of peptides from the exocrine glands. Peptides purified in this manner may help further define the molecular mechanisms underlying pheromone communication in the vomeronasal system. PMID:24014353

Kimoto, Hiroko; Touhara, Kazushige

2013-01-01

75

TRPV1 in Salivary Gland Epithelial Cells Is Not Involved in Salivary Secretion via Transcellular Pathway.  

PubMed

Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) was originally found in sensory neurons. Recently, it has been reported that TRPV1 is expressed in salivary gland epithelial cells (SGEC). However, the physiological role of TRPV1 in salivary secretion remains to be elucidated. We found that TRPV1 is expressed in mouse and human submandibular glands (SMG) and HSG cells, originated from human submandibular gland ducts at both mRNA and protein levels. However, capsaicin (CAP), TRPV1 agonist, had little effect on intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in these cells, although carbachol consistently increased [Ca(2+)]i. Exposure of cells to high temperature (>43?) or acidic bath solution (pH5.4) did not increase [Ca(2+)]i, either. We further examined the role of TRPV1 in salivary secretion using TRPV1 knock-out mice. There was no significant difference in the pilocarpine (PILO)-induced salivary flow rate between wild-type and TRPV1 knock-out mice. Saliva flow rate also showed insignificant change in the mice treated with PILO plus CAP compared with that in mice treated with PILO alone. Taken together, our results suggest that although TRPV1 is expressed in SGEC, it appears not to play any direct roles in saliva secretion via transcellular pathway. PMID:25598668

Choi, Seulki; Shin, Yong-Hwan; Namkoong, Eun; Hwang, Sung-Min; Cong, Xin; Yu, Guangyan; Park, Kyungpyo

2014-12-01

76

TRPV1 in Salivary Gland Epithelial Cells Is Not Involved in Salivary Secretion via Transcellular Pathway  

PubMed Central

Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) was originally found in sensory neurons. Recently, it has been reported that TRPV1 is expressed in salivary gland epithelial cells (SGEC). However, the physiological role of TRPV1 in salivary secretion remains to be elucidated. We found that TRPV1 is expressed in mouse and human submandibular glands (SMG) and HSG cells, originated from human submandibular gland ducts at both mRNA and protein levels. However, capsaicin (CAP), TRPV1 agonist, had little effect on intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in these cells, although carbachol consistently increased [Ca2+]i. Exposure of cells to high temperature (>43?) or acidic bath solution (pH5.4) did not increase [Ca2+]i, either. We further examined the role of TRPV1 in salivary secretion using TRPV1 knock-out mice. There was no significant difference in the pilocarpine (PILO)-induced salivary flow rate between wild-type and TRPV1 knock-out mice. Saliva flow rate also showed insignificant change in the mice treated with PILO plus CAP compared with that in mice treated with PILO alone. Taken together, our results suggest that although TRPV1 is expressed in SGEC, it appears not to play any direct roles in saliva secretion via transcellular pathway. PMID:25598668

Choi, Seulki; Shin, Yong-Hwan; Namkoong, Eun; Hwang, Sung-Min; Cong, Xin; Yu, Guangyan

2014-01-01

77

Apocrine Secretion in Drosophila Salivary Glands: Subcellular Origin, Dynamics, and Identification of Secretory Proteins  

PubMed Central

In contrast to the well defined mechanism of merocrine exocytosis, the mechanism of apocrine secretion, which was first described over 180 years ago, remains relatively uncharacterized. We identified apocrine secretory activity in the late prepupal salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster just prior to the execution of programmed cell death (PCD). The excellent genetic tools available in Drosophila provide an opportunity to dissect for the first time the molecular and mechanistic aspects of this process. A prerequisite for such an analysis is to have pivotal immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, biochemical and proteomic data that fully characterize the process. Here we present data showing that the Drosophila salivary glands release all kinds of cellular proteins by an apocrine mechanism including cytoskeletal, cytosolic, mitochondrial, nuclear and nucleolar components. Surprisingly, the apocrine release of these proteins displays a temporal pattern with the sequential release of some proteins (e.g. transcription factor BR-C, tumor suppressor p127, cytoskeletal ?-tubulin, non-muscle myosin) earlier than others (e.g. filamentous actin, nuclear lamin, mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase). Although the apocrine release of proteins takes place just prior to the execution of an apoptotic program, the nuclear DNA is never released. Western blotting indicates that the secreted proteins remain undegraded in the lumen. Following apocrine secretion, the salivary gland cells remain quite vital, as they retain highly active transcriptional and protein synthetic activity. PMID:24732043

Farkaš, Robert; ?atková, Zuzana; Mentelová, Lucia; Löw, Péter; Be?ová-Liszeková, Denisa; Be?o, Milan; Sass, Miklós; ?ehulka, Pavel; ?ehulková, Helena; Raška, Otakar; Ková?ik, Lubomír; Šmigová, Jana; Raška, Ivan; Mechler, Bernard M.

2014-01-01

78

Pharmacogenetics of human ABC transporter ABCC11: new insights into apocrine gland growth and metabolite secretion  

PubMed Central

Cell secretion is an important physiological process that ensures smooth metabolic activities and tissue repair as well as growth and immunological functions in the body. Apocrine secretion occurs when the secretory process is accomplished with a partial loss of cell cytoplasm. The secretory materials are contained within secretory vesicles and are released during secretion as cytoplasmic fragments into the glandular lumen or interstitial space. The recent finding that the non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) 538G > A (rs17822931; Gly180Arg) in the ABCC11 gene determines the type of earwax in humans has shed light on the novel function of this ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter in apocrine glands. The wild-type (Gly180) of ABCC11 is associated with wet-type earwax, axillary osmidrosis, and colostrum secretion from the mammary gland as well as the potential risk of mastopathy. Furthermore, the SNP (538G > A) in the ABCC11 gene is suggested to be a clinical biomarker for the prediction of chemotherapeutic efficacy. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview on the discovery and characterization of genetic polymorphisms in the human ABCC11 gene and to explain the impact of ABCC11 538G > A on the apocrine phenotype as well as the anthropological aspect of this SNP in the ABCC11 gene and patients’ response to nucleoside-based chemotherapy. PMID:23316210

Ishikawa, Toshihisa; Toyoda, Yu; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro; Niikawa, Norio

2013-01-01

79

Analysis of the labial gland secretions of the male bumblebee Bombus griseocollis (Hymenoptera: Apidae).  

PubMed

The labial gland secretions from males of the bumblebee Bombus (Separatobombus) griseocollis De Geer, a bumblebee exhibiting perching behaviour, were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in the electron impact and positive ion chemical ionization mode. The major compound of the complex mixture of alkenols, acetates, hydrocarbons, wax type esters and steroids is tetradecyl acetate, considerable amounts of hexadecyl, geranyllinaloyl, geranylgeranyl, docosyl, tetracosenyl and hexacosenyl acetate were also found. 1,3-Tetradecanediol diacetate, detected as a minor component, has not yet been identified in male bumblebee labial gland secretions. Besides small amounts of primary alcohols (tetradecanol and hexadecanol) the tertiary alcohol geranyllinalool (3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-hexadeca-1,6,10,14-tetraene-3-ol) was also present. The primary alcohols were also present as esters of butanoic, dodecanoic, tetradecanoic, and hexadecanoic acid. Besides the usual mixture of un- and mono-unsaturated straight chain hydrocarbons, the labial gland contains the isoprenoid hydrocarbons beta-springene [(6E, 10E)-7,11,15-trimethyl-3-methylene-hexadeca-1,6,10,14-tetraene] and two isomers of a-springene [(3Z,6E,10E)- and (3E,6E,10E)-3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-hexadeca-1,3,6,10,14-pentaene]. The close relationship in chemical composition in male bumblebees with perching and flight pass behaviour is discussed. PMID:15540604

Bertsch, Andreas; Schweer, Horst; Titze, Andreas

2004-01-01

80

Secretion rate from minor salivary glands in patients with malignant haematological diseases receiving chemotherapy--a pilot study.  

PubMed

The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the secretion rate from minor salivary glands in 16 patients (mean age 62 years) with myeloma, lymphoma or other malignant haematological diseases receiving chemotherapy (study group). An age- and sex-matched control group (n = 16) was recruited. The secretion rate from the minor salivary glands on the inside of the lower lip, measured using the Periotron method, was in mean 2.8 microliters/cm2/min in the study group compared with 4.5 microliters/cm2/min in the control group (p < 0.01). No difference was found in the secretion rate of paraffin-stimulated whole saliva. There were more individuals who experienced dry mouth in the study group (n = 7) than in the control group (n = 2). The conclusion from this pilot study is that the secretion rate from the minor salivary glands might be reduced in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. PMID:12462875

Blomgren, Johan; Jansson, Sigbritt; Rödjer, Stig; Birkhed, Dowen

2002-01-01

81

Synthesis and secretion of phosphorylated growth hormone by rat pituitary glands in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Rat anterior pituitary glands were incubated in buffered medium, pH 7.4, containing /sup 32/Pi. After incubation the tissue and medium were separated and a post-mitochondrial supernate (PMS) of the tissue homogenate was prepared. Gel filtration of the PMS and medium resulted in a radioactive peak which coincided with the elution volume of authentic rat growth hormone (rGH). Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the radioactive peak under denaturing condition resulted in a protein-staining band having the same mobility as authentic rGH. Autoradiography of the gels revealed radioactivity precisely at the position of growth hormone as well as elsewhere. The specific radioactivity of the PMS (/sup 32/P)GH was estimated to be 5 to 10 times greater than that of tissue (/sup 32/P)GH. These results indicate that phosphorylated GH is synthesized and secreted by pituitary glands in vitro.

Liberti, J.P.; Joshi, G.S.

1986-06-13

82

Mechanism involved in Danshen-induced fluid secretion in salivary glands  

PubMed Central

AIM: Danshen’s capability to induce salivary fluid secretion and its mechanisms were studied to determine if it could improve xerostomia. METHODS: Submandibular glands were isolated from male Wistar rats under systemic anesthesia with pentobarbital sodium. The artery was cannulated and vascularly perfused at a constant rate. The excretory duct was also cannulated and the secreted saliva was weighed in a cup on an electronic balance. The weight of the accumulated saliva was measured every 3 s and the salivary flow rate was calculated. In addition, the arterio-venous difference in the partial oxygen pressure was measured as an indicator of oxygen consumption. In order to assess the mechanism involved in Danshen-induced fluid secretion, either ouabain (an inhibitor of Na+/K+ ATPase) or bumetanide (an inhibitor of NKCC1) was additionally applied during the Danshen stimulation. In order to examine the involvement of the main membrane receptors, atropine was added to block the M3 muscarinic receptors, or phentolamine was added to block the ?1 adrenergic receptors. In order to examine the requirement for extracellular Ca2+, Danshen was applied during the perfusion with nominal Ca2+ free solution. RESULTS: Although Danshen induced salivary fluid secretion, 88.7 ± 12.8 ?L/g-min, n = 9, (the highest value around 20 min from start of DS perfusion was significantly high vs 32.5 ± 5.3 ?L/g-min by carbamylcholine, P = 0.00093 by t-test) in the submandibular glands, the time course of that secretion differed from that induced by carbamylcholine. There was a latency associated with the fluid secretion induced by Danshen, followed by a gradual increase in the secretion to its highest value, which was in turn followed by a slow decline to a near zero level. The application of either ouabain or bumetanide inhibited the fluid secretion by 85% or 93%, and suppressed the oxygen consumption by 49% or 66%, respectively. These results indicated that Danshen activates Na+/K+ ATPase and NKCC1 to maintain Cl- release and K+ release for fluid secretion. Neither atropine or phentolamine inhibited the fluid secretion induced by Danshen (263% ± 63% vs 309% ± 45%, 227% ± 63% vs 309% ± 45%, P = 0.899, 0.626 > 0.05 respectively, by ANOVA). Accordingly, Danshen does not bind with M3 or ?1 receptors. These characteristics suggested that the mechanism involved in DS-induced salivary fluid secretion could be different from that induced by carbamylcholine. Carbamylcholine activates the M3 receptor to release inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and quickly releases Ca2+ from the calcium stores. The elevation of [Ca2+]i induces chloride release and quick osmosis, resulting in an onset of fluid secretion. An increase in [Ca2+]i is essential for the activation of the luminal Cl- and basolateral K+ channels. The nominal removal of extracellular Ca2+ totally abolished the fluid secretion induced by Danshen (1.8 ± 0.8 ?L/g-min vs 101.9 ± 17.2 ?L/g-min, P = 0.00023 < 0.01, by t-test), suggesting the involvement of Ca2+ in the activation of these channels. Therefore, IP3-store Ca2+ release signalling may not be involved in the secretion induced by Danshen, but rather, there may be a distinct signalling process. CONCLUSION: The present findings suggest that Danshen can be used in the treatment of xerostomia, to avoid the systemic side effects associated with muscarinic drugs.

Wei, Fei; Wei, Mu-Xin; Murakami, Masataka

2015-01-01

83

Ion transport mechanisms linked to bicarbonate secretion in the esophageal submucosal glands  

PubMed Central

The esophageal submucosal glands (SMG) secrete HCO3? and mucus into the esophageal lumen, where they contribute to acid clearance and epithelial protection. This study characterized the ion transport mechanisms linked to HCO3? secretion in SMG. We localized ion transporters using immunofluorescence, and we examined their expression by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. We measured HCO3? secretion by using pH stat and the isolated perfused esophagus. Using double labeling with Na+-K+-ATPase as a marker, we localized Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporter (NBCe1) and Cl?-HCO3? exchanger (SLC4A2/AE2) to the basolateral membrane of duct cells. Expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator channel (CFTR) was confirmed by immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, and in situ hybridization. We identified anion exchanger SLC26A6 at the ducts' luminal membrane and Na+-K+-2Cl? (NKCC1) at the basolateral membrane of mucous and duct cells. pH stat experiments showed that elevations in cAMP induced by forskolin or IBMX increased HCO3? secretion. Genistein, an activator of CFTR, which does not increase intracellular cAMP, also stimulated HCO3? secretion, whereas glibenclamide, a Cl? channel blocker, and bumetanide, a Na+-K+-2Cl? blocker, decreased it. CFTRinh-172, a specific CFTR channel blocker, inhibited basal HCO3? secretion as well as stimulation of HCO3? secretion by IBMX. This is the first report on the presence of CFTR channels in the esophagus. The role of CFTR in manifestations of esophageal disease in cystic fibrosis patients remains to be determined. PMID:21474426

Nakhoul, Hani N.; Kalliny, Medhat I.; Gyftopoulos, Alex; Rabon, Edd; Doetjes, Rienk; Brown, Karen; Nakhoul, Nazih L.

2011-01-01

84

Ion transport mechanisms linked to bicarbonate secretion in the esophageal submucosal glands.  

PubMed

The esophageal submucosal glands (SMG) secrete HCO(3)(-) and mucus into the esophageal lumen, where they contribute to acid clearance and epithelial protection. This study characterized the ion transport mechanisms linked to HCO(3)(-) secretion in SMG. We localized ion transporters using immunofluorescence, and we examined their expression by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. We measured HCO(3)(-) secretion by using pH stat and the isolated perfused esophagus. Using double labeling with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase as a marker, we localized Na(+)-coupled bicarbonate transporter (NBCe1) and Cl(-)-HCO(3)(-) exchanger (SLC4A2/AE2) to the basolateral membrane of duct cells. Expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator channel (CFTR) was confirmed by immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, and in situ hybridization. We identified anion exchanger SLC26A6 at the ducts' luminal membrane and Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) (NKCC1) at the basolateral membrane of mucous and duct cells. pH stat experiments showed that elevations in cAMP induced by forskolin or IBMX increased HCO(3)(-) secretion. Genistein, an activator of CFTR, which does not increase intracellular cAMP, also stimulated HCO(3)(-) secretion, whereas glibenclamide, a Cl(-) channel blocker, and bumetanide, a Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) blocker, decreased it. CFTR(inh)-172, a specific CFTR channel blocker, inhibited basal HCO(3)(-) secretion as well as stimulation of HCO(3)(-) secretion by IBMX. This is the first report on the presence of CFTR channels in the esophagus. The role of CFTR in manifestations of esophageal disease in cystic fibrosis patients remains to be determined. PMID:21474426

Abdulnour-Nakhoul, Solange; Nakhoul, Hani N; Kalliny, Medhat I; Gyftopoulos, Alex; Rabon, Edd; Doetjes, Rienk; Brown, Karen; Nakhoul, Nazih L

2011-07-01

85

Cystic fibrosis and the relationship between mucin and chloride secretion by cultures of human airway gland mucous cells  

PubMed Central

—We investigated how cystic fibrosis (CF) alters the relationship between Cl? and mucin secretion in cultures of non-CF and CF human tracheobronchial gland mucous (HTGM and CFTGM, respectively) cells. Biochemical studies showed that HTMG cells secreted typical airway mucins, and immunohistochemical studies showed that these cells expressed MUC1, MUC4, MUC5B, MUC8, MUC13, MUC16, and MUC20. Effects of cumulative doses of methacholine (MCh), phenylephrine (Phe), isoproterenol (Iso), and ATP on mucin and Cl? secretion were studied on HTGM and CFTGM cultures. Baseline mucin secretion was not significantly altered in CFTGM cells, and the increases in mucin secretion induced by mediators were unaltered (Iso, Phe) or slightly decreased (MCh, ATP). Across mediators, there was no correlation between the maximal increases in Cl? secretion and mucin secretion. In HTGM cells, the Cl? channel blocker, diphenylamine-2-carboxylic acid, greatly inhibited Cl? secretion but did not alter mucin release. In HTGM cells, mediators (10?5 M) increased mucin secretion in the rank order ATP > Phe = Iso > MCh. They increased Cl? secretion in the sequence ATP > MCh ? Iso > Phe. The responses in Cl? secretion to MCh, ATP, and Phe were unaltered by CF, but the response to Iso was greatly reduced. We conclude that mucin secretion by cultures of human tracheobronchial gland cells is independent of Cl? secretion, at baseline, and is unaltered in CF; that the ratio of Cl? secretion to mucus secretion varies markedly depending on mediator; and that secretions induced by stimulation of ?-adrenergic receptors will be abnormally concentrated in CF. PMID:21724859

Zlock, Lorna T.; Morikawa, Masatoshi; Lao, Anna Y.; Dasari, Vijay; Widdicombe, Jonathan H.

2011-01-01

86

Freeze-fracture observations of the lactating rat mammary gland. Membrane events during milk fat secretion  

PubMed Central

Membrane events during milk fat secretion were analyzed by freeze- fracture of the rat mammary gland. Two modes of milk fat secretion were observed: extrusion of fat droplets surrounded by a portion of the apical plasma membrane of the alveolar epithelial cells and, less frequently, release into the alveolar lumen of fat droplets contained in intracytoplasmic vacuoles. The extrusion process consists of two asynchronous events: clearing of membrane particles (probably including integral membrane proteins) and bulging of the apical plasma membrane. Most fat droplets are extruded with a bilayer membrane envelope (milk fat globule membrane) partially devoid of particles. The segregation of membrane particles may represent the onset of a process of structural degradation of the milk fat globule membrane. PMID:632326

1978-01-01

87

Lipids and proteins in the Rathke's gland secretions of the North American mud turtle (Kinosternon subrubrum).  

PubMed

Lipids and proteins in the Rathke's gland secretions of the North American mud turtle (Kinosternon subrubrum, Kinosternidae) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), respectively. Analysis by GC-MS indicates 2,3-dihydroxypropanal and C3-C24 free or esterified fatty acids. Analysis by SDS-PAGE indicates a major protein component with an approximate molecular mass of 60 kDa and minor components ranging from ca. 23 to 34 kDa. The major component of K. subrubrum glandular secretions exhibits a mobility that matches that of the Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempi, Cheloniidae), suggesting that these proteins are evolutionarily conserved. PMID:7553355

Seifert, W E; Gotte, S W; Leto, T L; Weldon, P J

1994-01-01

88

Lipids and proteins in the Rathke's gland secretions of the North American mud turtle (Kinosternon subrubrum)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lipids and proteins in the Rathke's gland secretions of the North American mud turtle (Kinosternon subrubrum, Kinosternidae) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), respectively. Analysis by GC-MS indicates 2,3-dihydroxypropanal and C3?C24 free or esterified fatty acids. Analysis by SDS-PAGE indicates a major protein component with an approximate molecular mass of 60 kDa and minor components ranging from ca. 23 to 34 kDa. The major component of K. subrubrum glandular secretions exhibits a mobility that matches that of the Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempi, Cheloniidae), suggesting that these proteins are evolutionarily conserved.

Seifert, W.E., Jr.; Gotte, S.W.; Leto, T.L.; Weldon, P.J.

1994-01-01

89

Apocrine secretion in lacrimal gland cysts (dacryops): a common but underrecognized phenomenon.  

PubMed

We present six cases (five females, one male; aged 26-81 years) of dacryops, also known as lacrimal gland cyst, all of which occurred at the outer canthal area below the upper eyelid. All presented clinically as a painless cystic lesion that was white to blue in color. Microscopically, in addition to typical features of dacryops, which is characterized by a partially cystic proliferation that includes a double layer of columnar to cuboidal epithelial cells associated with lobules of lacrimal gland tissue, we identified evidence of apocrine secretion (i.e. apical snouts projecting into the lumen), either in the cystic component of the proliferation or in contiguous lacrimal duct, in all cases. One example was unusual. It manifested, in addition to typical cyst formation, with areas of ductal and probably acinar hyperplasia. We conclude that apocrine secretion in dacryops is a common and underrecognized phenomenon. Dacryops should be distinguished from apocrine hidrocystoma, a lesion commonly encountered in the periorbital area in the practice of dermatopathology. PMID:21752047

Kacerovska, Denisa; Michal, Michal; Ricarova, Renata; Frdlikova, Dagmar; Sosna, Bohumil; Kazakov, Dmitry V

2011-09-01

90

Short-chain aliphatic acids in the interdigital gland secretion of reindeer ( Rangifer tarandus L.), and their discrimination by reindeer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interdigital gland secretion from reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and gas chromato-graphy. The short-chain acid fraction consisted of acetic, propionic, isobutyric,n-butyric, isovaleric, 2-methylbutyric,n-valeric, isocaproic, andn-caproic acids. The short-chain acids were produced by sterol esters when hydrolyzed in the gland-probably by microorganisms. Triglycerides present did not contain any short-chain acids. By testing isovaleric acid and isobutyric acid

Anders Brundin; Gustav Andersson; Kurt Andersson; Torgny Mossing; Lollo Källquist

1978-01-01

91

[The cultivation of fragments of the parotid venom-secreting gland in the common adder (Vipera berus)].  

PubMed

The primary culture of the Vipera berus poison-secretory parotid gland has been obtained. The morphology of the intact secretory epithelium and epithelial cells cultured in different conditions has been examined by light and electron microscopy. The secretory epithelium cells were able to survive in the cultural medium and to adapt to in vitro conditions maintaining their nearly normal ultrastructure corresponding to the stage of active poison secretion commonly observed in epithelial cells of the native gland. PMID:9490493

Golubkov, V S; Lavrovskaia, V P; Lezhnev, E I; Savel'eva, L N; Moshkov, D A

1997-01-01

92

Correlation Between Vasodilatation and Secretion in the Lacrimal Gland Elicited by Stimulation of the Cornea and Facial Nerve Root of the Cat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To determine whether reflex vasodilatation can be elicited in the cat lacrimal gland by electrical stimulation of the cornea, whether the vasodilatation elicited by electrical stimula- tion of the facial nerve root found to be the efferent arm of the cornea-lacrimal gland reflex pathway correlates with the evoked secretion in the lacrimal gland, and what kind of receptors and

Tomoki Yasui; Keishiro Karita; Hiroshi Izumi; Makoto Tamai

93

An ecdysteroid (22-acetyl-20-hydroxyecdysone) from the defense gland secretion of an insect: Chrysolina carnifex (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. 22-Acetyl-20-hydroxyecdysone was identified as a major component in the secretion of elytral and pronotal glands of Chrysolina carnifex, at an estimated concentration of 1.5 x 10 -1 M. This unexpected high concentration of an ecdysteroid in an exocrine secretion of an insect is discussed in terms of its potential defensive function, and in the light of steroid production in

Pascal Laurent; Jean-Claude Braekman; Désiré Daloze; Jacques M. Pasteels

2003-01-01

94

Characterization of BGTG-1, a tergal gland-secreted alpha-amylase, from the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.).  

PubMed

The protein fraction of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), tergal gland secretion was examined. SDS-PAGE separation of proteins present in B. germanica tergal gland secretion revealed a tergal gland-secreted protein, BGTG-1, at approximately 63 kDa. BGTG-1 first appeared in tergal gland secretion at 2 days postimaginal moult and the amount of protein observed increased through day 5. A 2051 bp cDNA sequence, bgtg-1, was obtained by RACE polymerase chain reaction and contains a 1494 bp ORF encoding a predicted protein of 498 amino acids. In a Northern hybridization experiment using total RNA from B. germanica tergal gland tissue, a (32)P-labelled bgtg-1 probe hybridized to an RNA approximately 2000 bp and confirmed the 2051 bp cDNA size obtained by RACE PCR. Using the BLASTx sequence similarity search tool, the top match to the bgtg-1 ORF was found to be an alpha-amylase from Drosophila kikkawai (e-value = 1 x 10(-178)). Alignment of the bgtg-1 deduced protein sequence with alpha-amylases from fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, honey bee, Apis mellifera (L.) and yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor (L.), revealed conserved residues throughout the ORF and sequence identities ranging from 58.4 to 58.2%. Using a gel-based assay, degradation of starch by native BGTG-1 was demonstrated in vitro and we propose that BGTG-1 may be involved in processing phagostimulatory sugars present in B. germanica tergal gland secretion. PMID:16907829

Saltzmann, K D; Saltzmann, K A; Neal, J J; Scharf, M E; Bennett, G W

2006-08-01

95

Cyclooxygenase cloning in dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, and its role in rectal gland Cl secretion.  

PubMed

The present studies were carried out with the aims to determine the cDNA sequence for cyclooxygenase (COX) in an elasmobranch species and to study its role in regulation of chloride secretion in the perfused shark rectal gland (SRG). With the use of long primers (43 bp) derived from regions of homology between zebrafish and rainbow trout COX-2 genes, a 600-bp product was amplified from SRG and was found to be almost equally homologous to mammalian COX-1 and COX-2 (65%). The full-length cDNA sequence was obtained by 5'-RACE and by analyzing an EST clone generated by the EST Project of the Mt. Desert Island Biological Laboratory Marine DNA Sequencing Center. The longest open reading frame encodes a 593-amino acid protein that has 68 and 64% homology to mammalian COX-1 and COX-2, respectively. The gene and its protein product is designated as shark COX (sCOX). The key residues in the active site (Try(385), His(388), and Ser(530)) are conserved between the shark and mammalian COX. sCOX contains Val(523) that has been shown to be a key residue determining the sensitivity to COX-2-specific inhibitors including NS-398. The mRNA of sCOX, detected by RT-PCR, was found in all tissues tested, including rectal gland, kidney, spleen, gill, liver, brain, and heart, but not in fin. In the perfused SRG, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) at 5 nM induced rapid and marked Cl(-) secretion (basal: <250 microeq x h(-1) x g(-1); peak response: 3,108 +/- 479 microeq x h(-1) x g(-1)). In the presence of 50 microM NS-398, both the peak response (2,131 +/- 307 microeq x h(-1) x g(-1)) and the sustained response to VIP were significantly reduced. When NS-398 was removed, there was a prompt recovery of chloride secretion to control values. In conclusion, we have cloned the first COX in an elasmobranch species (sCOX) and shown that sCOX inhibition suppresses VIP-stimulated chloride secretion in the perfused SRG. PMID:12184997

Yang, T; Forrest, S J; Stine, N; Endo, Y; Pasumarthy, A; Castrop, H; Aller, S; Forrest, J N; Schnermann, J; Briggs, J

2002-09-01

96

Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1998 Origin and Secretion of Milk Lipids  

E-print Network

Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1998 Origin and Secretion of Milk Lipids Ian H. Mather1,3 and Thomas W. Keenan2 The cream fraction of milk comprises droplets-bounded compartments of the secretory pathway. Milk lipids originate as small droplets of triacylglycerol, synthesized

Mather, Ian

97

Histochemical and ultrastructural evidence of lipid secretion by the silk gland of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

The silk gland in Lepidoptera larvae is responsible for the silk production used for shelter or cocoon construction. The secretion of fibroin and sericin by the different silk gland regions are well established. There are few attempts to detect lipid components in the insect silk secretion, although the presence of such element may contribute to the resistance of the shelter to wet environment. This study characterizes the glandular region and detects the presence of lipid components in the secretion of the silk gland of Diatraea saccharalis(Fabricius). The silk gland was submitted to histochemical procedure for lipid detection or conventionally prepared for ultrastructural analyses. Lipid droplets were histochemically detected in both the apical cytoplasm of cell of the anterior region and in the lumen among the microvilli. Ultrastructural analyses of the anterior region showed lipid material, visualized as myelin-like structures within the vesicular Golgi complex and in the apical secretory globules, mixed up with the sericin; similar material was observed into the lumen, adjacent to the microvilli. Lipids were not detected in the cells neither in the lumen of the posterior region. Our results suggest that the silk produced by D. saccharalis has a minor lipid content that is secreted by the anterior region together with the sericin. PMID:18060296

Victoriano, Eliane; Pinheiro, Daniela O; Gregório, Elisa A

2007-01-01

98

Decreased cortisol secretion by adrenal glands perfused with the P-glycoprotein inhibitor valspodar and mitotane or doxorubicin.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the adrenal gland. It has been presumed that P-gp, rather than being involved in physiological cortisol secretion, plays a role in protecting the adrenacortical cells from xenobiotics. To explore this a study was performed on perfused bovine adrenal glands. Individual experimental groups were perfused with either a selective P-gp blocker (valspodar) alone, with a xenobiotic (mitotane or doxorubicin) alone or with both valspodar and a xenobiotic. The cumulative amounts of cortisol secreted in each individual group were calculated and the two-sample t-test was used to compare the mean values of cumulative amounts. The mean value of cortisol secreted from the group of adrenals perfused with the P-gp blocker was not significantly different from that of the control group. Treatment with either mitotane or doxorubicin decreased the amount of cortisol secreted but not significantly when compared to the amount of cortisol secreted in basal conditions. However, treatment with the P-gp blocker valspodar in addition to either mitotane or doxorubicin significantly decreased cortisol secreted compared to the amount of cortisol secreted by the glands treated with either mitotane (p=0.009) or doxorubicin (p=0.017) alone. The regressive changes discovered in all experimental groups were most prominent when valspodar was used with either mitotane or doxorubicin. We found that P-gp blockade increases by xenobiotic (mitotane and doxorubicin)-induced damage of adrenocortical cells, which points to a role of P-gp in the protection of adrenal gland from xenobiotics. PMID:10898547

Cufer, T; Pfeifer, M; Vrhovec, I; Frangez, R; Kosec, M; Mrhar, A; Grabnar, I; Golouh, R; Vogric, S; Sikic, B I

2000-04-01

99

[Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 serves as a novel pathway to modulate secretion in submandibular gland].  

PubMed

Our work focused on the studies on the expression and function of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) in the submandibular gland. By using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and immunofluorescence, our data demonstrated the expression and distribution characteristics of TRPV1 in rabbit and human submandibular glands, as well as rat submandibular gland cell line SMG-C6. Furthermore, the possible intracellular signal molecules involved in the TRPV1-modulated saliva secretion were explored. Activation of TRPV1 increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, upregulated the expression of aquaporin 5 (AQP5), the main transporter that mediate water secretion through transcellular pathway, and led to AQP5 redistribution. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) was involved in the TRPV1-regulated AQP5 content. Besides, TRPV1 activation also modulated the expression, distribution, and function of tight junction protein, and increased paracellular permeability. ERK1/2 and myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) were responsible for the regulation of TRPV1on tight junction properties. Taken together, our work suggested that TRPV1 was a potential target to promote saliva secretion, and activation of TRPV1 might provide a new and safe therapeutic strategy to ameliorate submandibular gland hypofunction. PMID:25686321

Cong, X; Zhang, Y; Yu, G Y; Wu, L L

2015-02-18

100

Pineal and Pituitary Glands  

MedlinePLUS

... after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Pineal and Pituitary Glands The pineal gland is a small endocrine gland ... of the corpus callosum, and secretes melatonin . The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain ...

101

Variation and Genomic Localization of Genes Encoding DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER Male Accessory Gland Proteins Separated by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis  

PubMed Central

Accessory gland proteins from Drosophila melanogaster males have been separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis into nine major bands. When individual males from 175 strains were examined, considerable polymorphism for nearly one-half of the major protein bands was seen, including null alleles for three bands. Variation was observed not only among long-established laboratory strains but also among stocks recently derived from natural populations. There was little difference in the amount of variation between P and M strains, indicating that P element mutagenesis is not a factor producing the variation. Codominant expression of variants for each of five bands was found in heterozygotes, suggesting structural gene variation and not posttranslational modification variation. Stocks carrying electrophoretic variants of four of the major proteins were used to map the presumed structural genes for these proteins; the loci were found to be dispersed on the second chromosome. Since males homozygous for variant proteins were fertile, the polymorphism seems to have little immediate effect on successful sperm transfer. We propose that a high degree of polymorphism can be tolerated because these proteins play a nutritive rather than enzymatic role in Drosophila reproduction. PMID:3095182

Whalen, Michael; Wilson, Thomas G.

1986-01-01

102

Cinacalcet Effectively Reduces Parathyroid Hormone Secretion and Gland Volume Regardless of Pretreatment Gland Size in Patients with Secondary Hyperparathyroidism  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: Cinacalcet is effective in reducing serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. However, it has not been proven whether parathyroid gland size predicts response to therapy and whether cinacalcet is capable of inducing a reduction in parathyroid volume. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This 52-week, multicenter, open-label study enrolled hemodialysis patients with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (intact PTH >300 pg/ml). Doses of cinacalcet were adjusted between 25 and 100 mg to achieve intact PTH <180 pg/ml. Ultrasonography was performed to measure the parathyroid gland size at baseline, week 26, and week 52. Findings were also compared with those of historical controls. Results: Of the 81 subjects enrolled, 56 had parathyroid glands smaller than 500 mm3 (group S) and 25 had at least one enlarged gland larger than 500 mm3 (group L). Treatment with cinacalcet effectively decreased intact PTH by 55% from baseline in group S and by 58% in group L. A slightly greater proportion of patients in group S versus group L achieved an intact PTH <180 pg/ml (46 versus 32%) and a >30% reduction from baseline (88 versus 78%), but this was not statistically significant. Cinacalcet therapy also resulted in a significant reduction in parathyroid gland volume regardless of pretreatment size, which was in sharp contrast to historical controls (n = 87) where parathyroid gland volume progressively increased with traditional therapy alone. Conclusions: Cinacalcet effectively decreases serum PTH levels and concomitantly reduces parathyroid gland volume, even in patients with marked parathyroid hyperplasia. PMID:20798251

Komaba, Hirotaka; Nakanishi, Shohei; Fujimori, Akira; Tanaka, Motoko; Shin, Jeongsoo; Shibuya, Koji; Nishioka, Masato; Hasegawa, Hirohito; Kurosawa, Takeshi

2010-01-01

103

Nitric oxide as putative second messenger in nerve-induced cervical gland secretion in the guinea-pig.  

PubMed

Uterine cervical secretory cells receive a sympathetic cholinergic secretomotor innervation. It has been suggested that glandular nitric oxide (NO) production is a prerequisite for muscarinic-induced carbohydrate secretion in the endometrium and the seminal vesicle. A similar pattern for nerve-induced carbohydrate secretion in the cervix could be assumed. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was evaluated via formation of L-citrulline from L-arginine. The NADPH-diaphorase nitroblue technique was used for histochemical investigation. The cervix with the adjacent hypogastric nerve was placed in an isolated organ bath and the secretion was evaluated as an amount of carbohydrate. A calcium-dependent formation of citrulline was found in the cervix indicating NO formation. Strong NADPH-staining cells were found in the glandular ducts and in the glandular linings of the cervix. Stimulation of the hypogastric nerve induced carbohydrate secretion, which was inhibited by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). D-NAME did not affect the secretory response. Carbachol and the NO donor glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) induced carbohydrate secretion in the cervical glands. No synergistic effect was noted probably due to an all-or-none type of secretion. N-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) and L-NAME inhibited carbachol-induced secretion. The results suggest that glandular NO production is a prerequisite for the autonomic nervous modulation of cervical secretion in the guinea-pig. This could have implications regarding fertility and fecundity. PMID:15488116

Mörlin, Birgitta; Hammarström, Margareta; Ehrén, Ingrid; Sjöstrand, Nils-Olof

2004-11-01

104

In Vivo Readout of CFTR Function: Ratiometric Measurement of CFTR-Dependent Secretion by Individual, Identifiable Human Sweat Glands  

PubMed Central

To assess CFTR function in vivo, we developed a bioassay that monitors and compares CFTR-dependent and CFTR-independent sweat secretion in parallel for multiple (?50) individual, identified glands in each subject. Sweating was stimulated by intradermally injected agonists and quantified by optically measuring spherical sweat bubbles in an oil-layer that contained dispersed, water soluble dye particles that partitioned into the sweat bubbles, making them highly visible. CFTR-independent secretion (M-sweat) was stimulated with methacholine, which binds to muscarinic receptors and elevates cytosolic calcium. CFTR-dependent secretion (C-sweat) was stimulated with a ?-adrenergic cocktail that elevates cytosolic cAMP while blocking muscarinic receptors. A C-sweat/M-sweat ratio was determined on a gland-by-gland basis to compensate for differences unrelated to CFTR function, such as gland size. The average ratio provides an approximately linear readout of CFTR function: the heterozygote ratio is ?0.5 the control ratio and for CF subjects the ratio is zero. During assay development, we measured C/M ratios in 6 healthy controls, 4 CF heterozygotes, 18 CF subjects and 4 subjects with ‘CFTR-related’ conditions. The assay discriminated all groups clearly. It also revealed consistent differences in the C/M ratio among subjects within groups. We hypothesize that these differences reflect, at least in part, levels of CFTR expression, which are known to vary widely. When C-sweat rates become very low the C/M ratio also tended to decrease; we hypothesize that this nonlinearity reflects ductal fluid absorption. We also discovered that M-sweating potentiates the subsequent C-sweat response. We then used potentiation as a surrogate for drugs that can increase CFTR-dependent secretion. This bioassay provides an additional method for assessing CFTR function in vivo, and is well suited for within-subject tests of systemic, CFTR-directed therapeutics. PMID:24204751

Wine, Jeffrey J.; Char, Jessica E.; Chen, Jonathan; Cho, Hyung-ju; Dunn, Colleen; Frisbee, Eric; Joo, Nam Soo; Milla, Carlos; Modlin, Sara E.; Park, Il-Ho; Thomas, Ewart A. C.; Tran, Kim V.; Verma, Rohan; Wolfe, Marlene H.

2013-01-01

105

Is the rapid post-mating inhibition of pheromone response triggered by ecdysteroids or other factors from the sex accessory glands in the male moth Agrotis ipsilon?  

PubMed

In many animals, male copulation is dependent on the detection and processing of female-produced sex pheromones, which is generally followed by a sexual refractory post-ejaculatory interval (PEI). In the male moth, Agrotis ipsilon, this PEI is characterized by a transient post-mating inhibition of behavioral and central nervous responses to sex pheromone, which prevents males from re-mating until they have refilled their reproductive tracts for a potential new ejaculate. However, the timing and possible factors inducing this rapid olfactory switch-off are still unknown. Here, we determined the initial time delay and duration of the PEI. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that the brain, the testis and/or the sex accessory glands (SAGs) could produce a factor inducing the PEI. Lastly, we investigated the possible involvement of ecdysteroids, hormones essential for development and reproduction in insects, in this olfactory plasticity. Using brain and SAG cross-injections in virgin and newly-mated males, surgical treatments, wind tunnel behavioral experiments and EIA quantifications of ecdysteroids, we show that the PEI starts very shortly after the onset of copulation, and that SAGs contain a factor, which is produced/accumulated after copulation to induce the PEI. Moreover, SAGs were found to be the main source of ecdysteroids, whose concentration decreased after mating, whereas it increased in the haemolymph. 20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) was identified as the major ecdysteroid in SAGs of A. ipsilon males. Finally, 20E injections did not reduce the behavioral pheromone response of virgin males. Altogether our data indicate that 20E is probably not involved in the PEI. PMID:23562716

Vitecek, Simon; Maria, Annick; Blais, Catherine; Duportets, Line; Gaertner, Cyril; Dufour, Marie-Cécile; Siaussat, David; Debernard, Stéphane; Gadenne, Christophe

2013-05-01

106

A novel TMEM16A splice variant lacking the dimerization domain contributes to calcium-activated chloride secretion in human sweat gland epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Sweating is an important physiological process to regulate body temperature in humans, and various disorders are associated with dysregulated sweat formation. Primary sweat secretion in human eccrine sweat glands involves Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels (CaCC). Recently, members of the TMEM16 family were identified as CaCCs in various secretory epithelia; however, their molecular identity in sweat glands remained elusive. Here, we investigated the function of TMEM16A in sweat glands. Gene expression analysis revealed that TMEM16A is expressed in human NCL-SG3 sweat gland cells as well as in isolated human eccrine sweat gland biopsy samples. Sweat gland cells express several previously described TMEM16A splice variants, as well as one novel splice variant, TMEM16A(ac?e3) lacking the TMEM16A-dimerization domain. Chloride flux assays using halide-sensitive YFP revealed that TMEM16A is functionally involved in Ca(2+) -dependent Cl(-) secretion in NCL-SG3 cells. Recombinant expression in NCL-SG3 cells showed that TMEM16A(ac?e3) is forming a functional CaCC, with basal and Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) permeability distinct from canonical TMEM16A(ac). Our results suggest that various TMEM16A isoforms contribute to sweat gland-specific Cl(-) secretion providing opportunities to develop sweat gland-specific therapeutics for treatment of sweating disorders. PMID:25220078

Ertongur-Fauth, Torsten; Hochheimer, Andreas; Buescher, Joerg Martin; Rapprich, Stefan; Krohn, Michael

2014-11-01

107

Dopamine actions in vitro on enzyme and electrolyte secretion from normal and sympathectomized rat parotid glands.  

PubMed Central

1. Adult rats were denervated unilaterally by removal of the left superior cervical ganglion or chemically denervated with 6-hydroxydopamine or reserpine. Two weeks later the parotid glands were used for in vitro secretory studies and their catecholamines and major metabolites were measured. 2. Noradrenaline concentrations were reduced 2 weeks after surgical sympathectomy and reserpine pre-treatment 18 h previously, whereas 6-hydroxydopamine pre-treatment for 3 days reduced both noradrenaline and dopamine concentrations. 3. Dopamine caused a prominent amylase release from incubated control glands. However, a subsensitivity for dopamine-induced amylase release was recorded on the denervated side. 4. Dopamine caused a prominent potassium efflux measured as 86Rb+ efflux from control glands, but was without effect in denervated glands. This is in contrast to noradrenaline-induced 86Rb+ efflux which was equally effective in both denervated and control glands. 5. Dopamine caused [3H]noradrenaline efflux in control glands, but was without effect in surgically denervated glands and in glands pre-treated with reserpine or 6-hydroxydopamine. 6. It is concluded that dopamine-induced potassium release is caused by a presynaptic action on noradrenergic nerves, whereas dopamine-induced amylase release has a presynaptic and a postsynaptic component. The results suggest a specific action of dopamine in salivary glands, with different effects on enzyme release and ionic fluxes. PMID:2473198

Danielsson, A; Henriksson, R; Sundström, S; Wester, P

1988-01-01

108

Mandibular gland secretions of meliponine worker bees: further evidence for their role in interspecific and intraspecific defence and aggression and against their role in food source signalling.  

PubMed

Like ants and termites some species of stingless bees (Meliponini), which are very important pollinators in the tropics, use pheromone trails to communicate the location of a food source. We present data on the communicative role of mandibular gland secretions of Meliponini that resolve a recent controversy about their importance in the laying of such trails. Volatile constituents of the mandibular glands have been erroneously thought both to elicit aggressive/defensive behaviour and to signal food source location. We studied Trigona spinipes and Scaptotrigona aff. depilis ('postica'), two sympatric species to which this hypothesis was applied. Using extracts of carefully dissected glands instead of crude cephalic extracts we analysed the substances contained in the mandibular glands of worker bees. Major components of the extracts were 2-heptanol (both species), nonanal (T. spinipes), benzaldehyde and 2-tridecanone (S. aff. depilis). The effect of mandibular gland extracts and of individual components thereof on the behaviour of worker bees near their nest and at highly profitable food sources was consistent. Independent of the amount of mandibular gland extract applied, the bees overwhelmingly reacted with defensive behaviour and were never attracted to feeders scented with mandibular gland extract or any of the synthetic chemicals tested. Both bee species are capable of using mandibular gland secretions for intra- and interspecific communication of defence and aggression and share 2-heptanol as a major pheromone compound. While confirming the role of the mandibular glands in nest defence, our experiments provide strong evidence against their role in food source signalling. PMID:19329748

Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P; Hrncir, Michael; Mateus, Sidnei; Zucchi, Ronaldo; Schmidt, Veronika M; Barth, Friedrich G

2009-04-01

109

Lack of a direct effect of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on parathyroid hormone secretion by normal bovine parathyroid glands.  

PubMed

Because of differing reports of an effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, the present studies were performed in vitro using bovine parathyroid gland slices and isolated parathyroid cells. Both COOH-terminal and NH2-terminal RIAs for PTH were employed. No effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on PTH secretion was found during a 4-h incubation of parathyroid slices in variable external calcium concentrations. The results from dual RIA measurements also showed no effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on PTH secretion by isolated parathyroid cells during 90- to 150-min incubations with variable calcium concentrations. In addition, extensive analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed no effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on cAMP generation. Whereas calcium inhibited and isoproterenol stimulated the production of cAMP, 1,25(OH)2D3 had no effect. We conclude that 1,25(OH)2D3 does not affect parathyroid gland function acutely in vitro. PMID:6893023

Golden, P; Greenwalt, A; Martin, K; Bellorin-Font, E; Mazey, R; Klahr, S; Slatopolsky, E

1980-08-01

110

Effects of methotrexate on rat parotid and submandibular glands and their secretions  

SciTech Connect

Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with methotrexate for 3 days. Parotid and submandibular main ducts were cannulated and saliva flow was evoked by either intravenous infusion of acetylcholine or an intravenous injection of benthanechol. Methotrexate was found to reduce significantly mean food consumption, body weight, and parotid gland wet weights. Experimental animal salivary total gland DNA levels were not different, but total parotid gland RNA, protein, amylase and water content, and submandibular gland RNA were significantly lower compared to control. Acetylcholine, but not bethanechol, evoked parotid protein and amylase outputs and submandibular protein output from experimental animals were significantly higher than the control groups'. The increased outputs were apparently linked to ..beta..-adrenergic receptor activation, since hexamethonium or propranolol eliminated the significant increases while phenoxybenzamine did not. Plasma catecholamine levels were significantly higher in the methotrexate treated animals and probably played a role in the salivary gland ..beta..-adrenergic activation. Methotrexate treatment significantly increased the submandibular gland ..beta..-adrenergic receptor concentration as determined by (/sup 3/H)-dihydroalprenolol receptor binding assays. Muscarinic receptor concentrations determined with (/sup 3/H)-quinuclidninyl benzilate were not changed.

McBride, R.K.

1986-01-01

111

Chemistry of the sternal gland secretion of the Mediterranean centipede Himantarium gabrielis (Linnaeus, 1767) (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Himantariidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geophilomorph centipede, Himantarium gabrielis, when disturbed, discharges a viscous and proteinaceous secretion from the sternal glands. This exudate was found by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry and NMR analyses to be composed of hydrogen cyanide, benzaldehyde, benzoyl nitrile, benzyl nitrile, mandelonitrile, mandelonitrile benzoate, 3,7,6 O-trimethylguanine (himantarine), farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate and farnesyl farnesoate. This is the first report on the presence of benzyl nitrile and mandelonitrile benzoate in secreted substances from centipedes. Farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate is a new compound, while himantarine and farnesyl farnesoate were not known as natural products. A post-secretion release of hydrogen cyanide by reaction of mandelonitrile and benzoyl nitrile was observed by NMR, and hydrogen cyanide signals were completely assigned. In addition, a protein component of the secretion was analysed by electrophoresis which revealed the presence of a major 55 kDa protein. Analyses of the defensive exudates of other geophilomorph families should produce further chemical surprises.

Vujisi?, Ljubodrag V.; Vu?kovi?, Ivan M.; Makarov, Slobodan E.; Ili?, Bojan S.; Anti?, Dragan Ž.; Jadranin, Milka B.; Todorovi?, Nina M.; Mrki?, Ivan V.; Vajs, Vlatka E.; Lu?i?, Luka R.; ?ur?i?, Božidar P. M.; Miti?, Bojan M.

2013-09-01

112

PPAR? Regulates Genes Involved in Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Secretion in Mammary Gland Epithelial Cells of Dairy Goats  

PubMed Central

To explore the function of PPAR? in the goat mammary gland, we cloned the whole cDNA of the PPAR? gene. Homology alignments revealed that the goat PPAR? gene is conserved among goat, bovine, mouse, and human. Luciferase assays revealed that rosiglitazone enhanced the activity of the PPAR? response element (PPRE) in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs). After rosiglitazone (ROSI) treatment of GMECs, there was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the expression of genes related to triacylglycerol synthesis and secretion: LPL, FASN, ACACA, PLIN3, FABP3, PLIN2, PNPLA2, NR1H3, SREBF1, and SCD. The decreases in expression observed after knockdown of PPAR? relative to the control group (Ad-NC) averaged 65%, 52%, 67%, 55%, 65%, 58%, 85%, 43%, 50%, and 24% for SCD, DGAT1, AGPAT6, SREBF1, ACACA, FASN, FABP3, SCAP, ATGL, and PLIN3, respectively. These results provide direct evidence that PPAR? plays a crucial role in regulating the triacylglycerol synthesis and secretion in goat mammary cells and underscore the functional importance of PPAR? in mammary gland tissue during lactation. PMID:23710163

Luo, Jun; Zhu, Jiangjiang; Li, Jun; Sun, Yuting; Lin, Xianzi; Zhang, Liping; Yao, Dawei; Shi, Huaiping

2013-01-01

113

Secretory and basal cells of the epithelium of the tubular glands in the male Mullerian gland of the caecilian Uraeotyphlus narayani (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).  

PubMed

Caecilians are exceptional among the vertebrates in that males retain the Mullerian duct as a functional glandular structure. The Mullerian gland on each side is formed from a large number of tubular glands connecting to a central duct, which either connects to the urogenital duct or opens directly into the cloaca. The Mullerian gland is believed to secrete a substance to be added to the sperm during ejaculation. Thus, the Mullerian gland could function as a male accessory reproductive gland. Recently, we described the male Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and histochemistry. The present TEM study reports that the secretory cells of both the tubular and basal portions of the tubular glands of the male Mullerian gland of this caecilian produce secretion granules in the same manner as do other glandular epithelial cells. The secretion granules are released in the form of structured granules into the lumen of the tubular glands, and such granules are traceable to the lumen of the central duct of the Mullerian gland. This is comparable to the situation prevailing in the epididymal epithelium of several reptiles. In the secretory cells of the basal portion of the tubular glands, mitochondria are intimately associated with fabrication of the secretion granules. The structural and functional organization of the epithelium of the basal portion of the tubular glands is complicated by the presence of basal cells. This study suggests the origin of the basal cells from peritubular tissue leukocytes. The study also indicates a role for the basal cells in acquiring secretion granules from the neighboring secretory cells and processing them into lipofuscin material in the context of regression of the Mullerian gland during the period of reproductive quiescence. In these respects the basal cells match those in the epithelial lining of the epididymis of amniotes. PMID:15487004

George, Jancy M; Smita, Matthew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

2004-12-01

114

Fine structure of the salivary glands of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).  

PubMed

The fine structure of the salivary glands of adult Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) bugs has been analyzed. Stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that each insect presents a pair of salivary glands, each pair containing three distinct units (main, supplementary, and accessory) with different sizes and colors. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that all gland units consist of a monolayer of epithelial cells surrounding a large central lumen. The gland units are enveloped by a thick basal lamina containing bundles of muscle cells. Microvilli are present at the apical plasma membrane domain of the gland cells, thus enlarging the available membrane area for saliva secretion towards the large gland lumen, although occasionally budding vesicles could be observed among the microvilli. Cytochemical analysis showed that the salivary gland cells of T. infestans present abundant endoplasmic reticulum profiles and several lipid droplets. PMID:14517105

Reis, Marcos M; Meirelles, Rosane M S; Soares, Maurilio J

2003-10-01

115

beta -Endrophin and Adrenocorticotropin Are Secreted Concomitantly by the Pituitary Gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opiate-like peptide beta -endorphin and adrenocorticotropin are concomitantly secreted in increased amounts by the adenohypophysis in response to acute stress or long-term adrenalectomy as well as in vitro in response to purified corticotropin releasing factor and other secretagogues. Conversely, administration of the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone inhibits the secretion of both adrenocorticotropin and beta -endorphin. Thus, both hormones possess common

Roger Guillemin; Therese Vargo; Jean Rossier; Scott Minick; Nicholas Ling; Catherine Rivier; Wylie Vale; Floyd Bloom

1977-01-01

116

Fine structure of the secretion granules in the mandibular gland of the echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus (Monotremata).  

PubMed

The cells of the secretory tubules in the mandibular gland of the echidna are packed with fairly large birefringent granules, which show a lamellated structure consisting of alternating thin and thick layers or shells of protein. This presumably rigid substructure collapses during exocytosis and the shells unravel as sheets that form a tangled mass in the lumen of the secretory tubule. Relatively pure fractions were obtained of the relevant granules and protein sheets, which should allow a further study to be made on the secretory proteins in this gland. PMID:710670

van Lennep, E W; Kennerson, A R; Duck-Chong, C G; Pollak, J K

1978-10-01

117

Effects of Secretion Removal on Bovine Mammary Gland Function Following an Extended Milk Stasis1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine whether lactation function could be reinitiated after a period of extended milk stasis. Involution was in- duced by milk stasis in lactating Holstein cows for a period of 11 d. On d 11, one side of the mammary gland was milked twice daily for 3 d. The con- tralateral side remained unmilked

M. S. Noble; W. L. Hurley

1999-01-01

118

Proteinases of the mammary gland: developmental regulation in vivo and vectorial secretion in culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important regulator of mammary epithelial cell function both in vivo and in culture. Substantial remodeling of ECM accompanies the structural changes in the mammary gland during gestation, lactation and involution. How- ever, little is known about the nature of the enzymes and the processes involved. We have characterized and studied the regulation of

RABIH S. TALHOUK; JENNIE R. CHIN; ELAINE N. UNEMORI; ZENA WERB; MINA J. BISSELL

119

Oral Administration of Royal Jelly Restores Tear Secretion Capacity in Rat Blink-Suppressed Dry Eye Model by Modulating Lacrimal Gland Function  

PubMed Central

Tears are secreted from the lacrimal gland (LG), a dysfunction in which induces dry eye, resulting in ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Honey bee products are used as a nutritional source in daily life and medicine; however, little is known about their effects on dry eye. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of honey bee products on tear secretion capacity in dry eye. We selected raw honey, propolis, royal jelly (RJ), pollen, or larva from commercially available honey bee products. Tear secretion capacity was evaluated following the oral administration of each honey bee product in a rat blink-suppressed dry eye model. Changes in tear secretion, LG ATP content, and LG mitochondrial levels were measured. RJ restored the tear secretion capacity and decrease in LG ATP content and mitochondrial levels to the largest extent. Royal jelly can be used as a preventative intervention for dry eye by managing tear secretion capacity in the LG. PMID:25243778

Imada, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Shigeru; Kitamura, Naoki; Shibuya, Izumi; Tsubota, Kazuo

2014-01-01

120

SEBACEOUS GLAND SECRETION IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE DURING L-DOPA TREATMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sebum production was measured on the foreheads of 21 patients with Parkinson's disease before and during long-term L-dopa treatment. A statistically significant decrease in the amount of sebum was demonstrable during treatment although considerable variation in responsiveness was observed. No correlation between the dose of L-dopa and the degree of sebaceous gland inhibition could be established. The quantitative reduction of

Steven R. Kohn; Peter E. Pochi; John S. Strauss; Daniel S. Sax; Robert G. Feldman; William H. Timberlake

1973-01-01

121

Ultrastructural Evidence of Secretion by Exocytosis and of ``Synaptic Vesicle'' Formation in Posterior Pituitary Glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

EARLY electron microscopic studies of the posterior pituitary glands of rats and toads1,2 revealed that the neurosecretory terminals contained, in addition to the electron-dense neurosecretory granules (correctly assumed to contain posterior pituitary hormones), certain structures of the same size, but electron-lucent, which were interpreted as being empty neurosecretory granules. It was concluded that on stimulation, granules release their contents in

J. Nagasawa; W. W. Douglas; R. A. Schulz

1970-01-01

122

Vps15 is required for stress induced and developmentally triggered autophagy and salivary gland protein secretion in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Autophagy is a catabolic process used to deliver cellular material to the lysosome for degradation. The core Vps34/class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) complex, consisting of Atg6, Vps15, and Vps34, is highly conserved throughout evolution, critical for recruiting autophagy-related proteins to the preautophagosomal structure and for other vesicular trafficking processes, including vacuolar protein sorting. Atg6 and Vps34 have been well characterized, but the Vps15 kinase remains poorly characterized with most studies focusing on nutrient deprivation-induced autophagy. Here, we investigate the function of Vps15 in different cellular contexts and find that it is necessary for both stress-induced and developmentally programmed autophagy in various tissues in Drosophila melanogaster. Vps15 is required for autophagy that is induced by multiple forms of stress, including nutrient deprivation, hypoxia, and oxidative stress. Furthermore, autophagy that is triggered by physiological stimuli during development in the fat body, intestine, and salivary gland also require the function of Vps15. In addition, we show that Vps15 is necessary for efficient salivary gland protein secretion. These data illustrate the broad importance of Vps15 in multiple forms of autophagy in different animal cells, and also highlight the pleiotropic function of this kinase in multiple vesicle-trafficking pathways. PMID:25342466

Anding, A L; Baehrecke, E H

2015-03-01

123

[The demonstration of steady-state Ca2+ influx into the cells of the salivary glands in Chironomus plumosus L. larvae and its role in basal secretion].  

PubMed

Ca2+ content in Chironomus plumosus salivary gland tissue we determined using Ca(2+)-sensitive dye arsenazo III and protein concentration in medium--by Lowry method. It was showed correlation between increasing of Ca2+ content in gland and basal secretion. So, basal secretion is Ca(2+)-dependent process. Owing to adding to medium verapamil, diltiazem and nifedipine (10(-4) M) took place decreasing of Ca2+ content and secretion. Since decreasing of Ca2+ entry in cells owing to blocators action did't exceed 53% (in the case of nifedipine) we assumed that permanent Ca2+ entry formed by potential- and receptor-operated channels. It was established dependence of continuous Ca2+ entry in cells, basal secretion and effectiveness of blockade of Ca(2+)-channels by nifedipine on the [Ca2+]e. Therefore, through the exocrine secretory cells membrane of Chironomus plumosus larvae salivary gland carry out continuous diffuse Ca2+ entry for maintain of basal secretion by cells. This Ca2+ entry provide by population of open Ca(2+)-channels, sensitive to blocators of potential dependent of Ca(2+)-conduction plasmatic membrane. PMID:10474807

Fedirko, N V; Klevets', M Iu

1999-01-01

124

Origin, concentration and structural features of human mammary gland cells cultured from breast secretions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study traced the origin of cells observed in human breast secretion samples obtained during lactation and describes the appearance of these cells following prolonged maintenance in vitro. Human milk contains a large number of single vacuolated foam cells and a small proportion of non-vacuolated epithelial cells in clusters. Foam cells are identified by their large size, the polarity of

Edwin V. Gaffney; Frank P. Polanowski; Susan E. Blackburn; Jim P. Lambiase

1976-01-01

125

Lacrimal gland (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The lacrimal gland lies within the orbit on the outer portion of the upper eye. The gland continually secretes tears which moisten, lubricate, and protect the surface of the eye. Excess tears drain into small ducts which ...

126

Contribution of the secretory material of caecilian (amphibia: Gymnophiona) male Mullerian gland to motility of sperm: a study in Uraeotyphlus narayani.  

PubMed

Caecilians are a unique group of limbless burrowing amphibians with discontinuous distribution. Several caecilian species are viviparous, and all practice internal fertilization. In amniotic vertebrates the sperm undergo post-testicular physiological maturation when they are initiated into motility under the influence of an epididymal secretion. Further, during ejaculation mammalian sperm are suspended in a fluid secreted by the male accessory sex glands, viz., prostate gland and seminal vesicles. Caecilians lack comparable glands, but still practice internal fertilization. Uniquely, male caecilians retain the Mullerian ducts in the adults as a pair of functional glands. It has long been hypothesized, based on indirect evidence, that the Mullerian gland would be a male accessory sex gland, secreting a fluid in which sperm are suspended during ejaculation and which would also provide nutritional support to the ejaculated sperm. In the present study, the secretory material of the Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani was mixed with sperm obtained from the testis, and the changes in motility were recorded. Uraeotyphlus narayani sperm possess a perforatorium of the acrosome proceeding deep into the endonuclear canal of the nucleus. The midpiece is characterized by closely applied centrioles, the anterior ends of the axoneme and axial fiber, and a mitochondrial sheath. The long tail has an undulating membrane on one side, supported by the axoneme and an axial fiber. The live sperm possess a mitochondrial vesicle, also known as the cytoplasmic droplet, anywhere along the head and the midpiece, as in anuran sperm, which is shed from sperm that have ceased motility. Uraeotyphlus narayani sperm are motile the moment they are released directly from the testis, indicating that the sperm do not require post-testicular physiological maturation. On being mixed with the secretory material of the Mullerian gland, the spermatozoa are enhanced in speed as well as duration of motility. Therefore, the caecilian male Mullerian gland is considered to be the male accessory sex gland. PMID:15605393

George, Jancy M; Smita, Mathew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

2005-02-01

127

Sexual behavior attenuates the effects of chronic stress in body weight, testes, sexual accessory glands, and plasma testosterone in male rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether continuous sexual behavior could attenuate the effects of chronic stress on spermatogenesis, sexual glands, plasma testosterone and corticosterone in sexually experienced male rats. Rats were exposed to stress by immersion in cold water (ICW) daily for 20 or 50 consecutive days. Plasma testosterone and corticosterone, masculine sexual behavior, as well as the number of offspring, the epithelial area of seminiferous, prostatic and seminal glands were assessed. In stressed males, body and testicular weights decreased, male sexual behavior was disrupted, and adrenal weights increased. In males stressed for 50 days, prostate and seminal glands had lower weights compared with controls. Prostate and seminal epithelial areas also decreased in these males. Seminiferous tubules in testes from rats stressed for 20 or 50 days showed several degenerative signs, such as vacuoles in the basal epithelium, with picnotic indicia; moderate to severe exfoliation of degenerative germinal cells in the tubule lumen was also observed. In males stressed for 50 days a significant decrease in seminiferous epithelial area was observed from stages I-VIII, regardless of copulation. The litters from females that copulated with males stressed for 50 days decreased significantly. Chronic stress caused increase in plasma levels of corticosterone, which were higher in males stressed for 20 days than in males stressed for 50 days. Testosterone decreased in stressed males and it was lower in males stressed for 50 days. In stressed males allowed to copulate, body and testicular weights were similar to controls. Adrenal, seminal glands, and prostate weights, as well as epithelial areas of males stressed for 50 days allowed to copulate were also similar to controls. Corticosterone was lower than in males stressed for 50 days, but still higher than in controls. Testosterone in males stressed for 50 days and allowed to copulate was higher than in stressed males not allowed to copulate and control males without copulation, but still lower than in control copulating males. These results show that chronic stress causes germ cell loss in testes and a decrease in prostate and seminal epithelium, possibly as a result of testosterone decrease, affecting fertility. Continuous copulation can attenuate the effects of stress on testosterone levels and on the epithelial area in male sexual glands, but not on the seminiferous epithelium after 50 days of stress. PMID:25236886

Retana-Márquez, S; Vigueras-Villaseńor, R M; Juárez-Rojas, L; Aragón-Martínez, A; Torres, G Reyes

2014-11-01

128

Dufour's gland secretion, sterility and foraging behavior: correlated behavior traits in bumblebee workers.  

PubMed

Bombus terrestris colonies go through two major phases: the "pre-competition phase" in which the queen is the sole reproducer and aggression is rare, and the "competition phase" in which workers aggressively compete over reproduction. Conflicts over reproduction are partially regulated by a group of octyl esters that are produced in Dufour's gland of reproductively subordinate workers and protect them from being aggressed. However, workers possess octyl esters even before overt aggression occurs, raising the question of why produce the ester-signal before it is functionally necessary? In most insect societies, foragers show reduced aggression and low dominance rank. We hypothesize that ester production in B. terrestris is not only correlated with sterility but also with foraging, signaling cooperative behavior by subordinate workers. Such a signal helps to maintain social organization, reduce the cost of fights between reproductives and helpers, and increase colony productivity, enabling subordinates to gain greater inclusive fitness. We demonstrate that foragers produce larger amounts of esters compared to non-foragers, and that their amounts positively correlate with foraging efforts. We further suggest that task performance, potential fecundity, and aggression are interlinked, and that worker-worker interactions are involved in regulating foraging behavior. B. terrestris, being an intermediate phase between primitive and derived eusocial insects, provides an excellent model for understanding the evolution of early phases of eusociality. Our results, combined with those in primitively eusocial wasps, suggest that at early stages of social evolution, reproduction was regulated by a "primordial division of labor", that comprised foragers and reproducers, which further evolved to a more complex division of labor, a hallmark of eusociality. PMID:24100232

Amsalem, Etya; Shpigler, Hagai; Bloch, Guy; Hefetz, Abraham

2013-12-01

129

Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans  

PubMed Central

Literature from the past 168 years has been filtered to provide a unified summary of the regional distribution of cutaneous water and electrolyte losses. The former occurs via transepidermal water vapour diffusion and secretion from the eccrine sweat glands. Daily insensible water losses for a standardised individual (surface area 1.8 m2) will be 0.6–2.3 L, with the hands (80–160 g.h?1) and feet (50–150 g.h?1) losing the most, the head and neck losing intermediate amounts (40–75 g.h?1) and all remaining sites losing 15–60 g.h?1. Whilst sweat gland densities vary widely across the skin surface, this same individual would possess some 2.03 million functional glands, with the highest density on the volar surfaces of the fingers (530 glands.cm?2) and the lowest on the upper lip (16 glands.cm?2). During passive heating that results in a resting whole-body sweat rate of approximately 0.4 L.min?1, the forehead (0.99 mg.cm?2.min?1), dorsal fingers (0.62 mg.cm?2.min?1) and upper back (0.59 mg.cm?2.min?1) would display the highest sweat flows, whilst the medial thighs and anterior legs will secrete the least (both 0.12 mg.cm?2.min?1). Since sweat glands selectively reabsorb electrolytes, the sodium and chloride composition of discharged sweat varies with secretion rate. Across whole-body sweat rates from 0.72 to 3.65 mg.cm?2.min?1, sodium losses of 26.5–49.7 mmol.L?1 could be expected, with the corresponding chloride loss being 26.8–36.7 mmol.L?1. Nevertheless, there can be threefold differences in electrolyte losses across skin regions. When exercising in the heat, local sweat rates increase dramatically, with regional glandular flows becoming more homogeneous. However, intra-regional evaporative potential remains proportional to each local surface area. Thus, there is little evidence that regional sudomotor variations reflect an hierarchical distribution of sweating either at rest or during exercise. PMID:23849497

2013-01-01

130

[Sebaceous glands and acne].  

PubMed

New studys on the sebaceous glands in recent years have facilitated the further understanding and treatment of acne vulgaris. This article summarizes the advancements in the relationship between sebaceous glands and acne, with focus on androgen metabolism in skin, abnormal lipids secretion, and immunology of sebaceous gland cells. PMID:17536283

Ju, Qiang; Xia, Long-Qing

2007-04-01

131

Implication of tryptophan in the stimulatory effect of delta-sleep-inducing peptide on indole secretion from perifused rat pineal glands.  

PubMed

We have recently demonstrated that delta-sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) stimulates indolamine secretion from rat pineal glands. In the present study, we show that tryptophan (TRP), as well as DSIP, stimulate melatonin (MEL) and 5-methoxy-tryptophol (5-ML) secretion in a dose-dependent manner between 5 x 10(-6) and 10(-4) M. The kinetic characteristics of the MEL and 5-ML secretion and the response induced by the two substances were similar. The increase in MEL secretion in response to 10(-4) M DSIP was completely inhibited by pretreatment of the pineals with 10(-5) M phenanthroline (amino-peptidase inhibitor), suggesting that stimulatory effect of DSIP was due to TRP liberated by peptide degradation. This mechanism occurring in the pineal was confirmed using 10(-4) M para-chlorophenylalamine (TRP hydroxylase inhibitor), which reduced the pineal response to 10(-4) and 10(-5) M DSIP by 50 and 100%, respectively. PMID:1307916

Ouichou, A; Pévet, P

1992-01-01

132

Chemistry of the cephalic labial gland secretions of male Bombus morrisoni and B. rufocinctus, two North American bumblebee males with perching behavior.  

PubMed

The labial gland secretions from males of the North American bumblebees Bombus morrisoni Cresson and B. rufocinctus Cresson were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In both species, 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2,6,10,14-hexadecatetraenyl acetate was found as the major compound of a complex mixture of alkenols, acetates, hydrocarbons, and wax-type esters. In addition to a mixture of saturated and mono-unsaturated straight chain hydrocarbons, the labial gland of both species contained the isoprenoid hydrocarbons (6E, 10E)-3,7,15-trimethyl-3-methylene-hexadeca-1,6,10,14-tetraene [beta-springene], three isomers of 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-hexadeca-1,3,6,10,14-pentaene [alpha-springene], and two further unidentified cyclic diterpenes. In B. morrisoni, 3,7,11-trimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrien-1-ol and 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-6,10,14-hexadecatrien-1-ol were detected as characteristic alcohols, as well as small amounts of 9-hexadecenol and hexadecanol. Furthermore, a large peak of hexadecyl dodecanoate and minor amounts of 9-hexadecenyl, 9-octadecenyl, and eicosenyl 9-tetradecenoate were found as typical esters in this species. In B. rufocinctus, 9-hexadecenol, hexadecanol, and 9-octadecenol were present in considerable amounts, with their acetates and 9-tetradecenoic, tetradecanoic, hexadecanoic, and 11-octadecenoic acids. The chemical composition of cephalic labial glands in male bumblebees with perching behavior is discussed. PMID:18758863

Bertsch, Andreas; Schweer, Horst; Titze, Andreas

2008-10-01

133

Comparison of age-dependent quantitative changes in the male labial gland secretion of Bombus terrestris and Bombus lucorum.  

PubMed

Age-related changes of antennal-active components of male labial gland extracts were studied in two closely related bumblebee species, Bombus terrestris and B. lucorum. In B. terrestris, compounds eliciting electroantennogram (EAG) responses of virgin queens were ethyl dodecanoate, 2,3-dihydrofarnesal, 2,3-dihydrofarnesol, hexadecan-1-ol, octadeca-9,12,15-trien-1-ol, and geranylcitronellol. Compounds that elicited EAG responses from queens of B. lucorum were ethyl dodecanoate, ethyl tetradec-7-enoate, ethyl tetradec-9-enoate, ethyl hexadec-9-enoate, hexadecan-1-ol, hexadec-7-enal, octadeca-9,12-dien-1-ol, octadeca-9,12,15-trien-1-ol, and octadecan-1-ol. Quantities of these compounds in the labial glands changed significantly over the lifetime of the respective males of the two species. In both species, concentrations of the respective compounds reached their maximum within seven days after eclosion. Subsequently, a rapid decrease in the amount of EAG-active compounds occurred in B. terrestris, whereas in B. lucorum the amount of active compounds stayed approximately constant or decreased at a slow rate. Microscopy showed that in B. terrestris secretory cells of the labial glands undergo apoptosis from the fifth to the tenth day of life, whilst in B. lucorum labial gland cells remain unchanged throughout the life of the males. PMID:19543770

Zácek, Petr; Kalinová, Blanka; Sobotník, Jan; Hovorka, Oldrich; Ptácek, Vladimír; Coppée, Audrey; Verheggen, François; Valterová, Irena

2009-06-01

134

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), acting via CGRP type 1 receptors, inhibits potassium-stimulated aldosterone secretion and enhances basal catecholamine secretion from rat adrenal gland.  

PubMed

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a potent hypotensive peptide, that acts via two main subtypes of receptors, named CGRP1 and CGRP2. CGRP belongs to a regulatory-peptide family, that includes adrenomedullin (ADM) whose aldosterone antisecretagogue and catecholamine secretagogue actions are well demonstrated. Quantitative autoradiography showed the presence of [125I]CGRP binding sites in both rat adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG) and medulla. Binding was displaced by the CGRP1-receptor antagonist CGRP(8-37), but not by the CGRP2-receptor agonist [cys(Et)2,7]-alphaCGRP (CGRP2-A). CGRP concentration-dependently inhibited 10 mM-stimulated (but not basal) aldosterone secretion from dispersed rat ZG cells, and enhanced basal catecholamine secretion from rat adrenomedullary fragments. The responses to the maximal effective concentration of CGRP (10-8 M) were blocked by 10-7 M CGRP(8-37). CGRP2-A (10-7 M) neither altered aldosterone response to 10 mM K+ nor enhanced basal catecholamine secretion. The conclusion is drawn that CGRP, like ADM, inhibits agonist-stimulated aldosterone secretion and stimulates basal catecholamine release in the rat, exclusively acting via CGRP1 receptors. PMID:11494052

Tortorella, C; Macchi, C; Forneris, M; Nussdorfer, G G

2001-09-01

135

Effect of Purified Lipopolysaccharides from Strains of Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter felis on Acid Secretion in Mouse Gastric Glands In Vitro  

PubMed Central

As a bacterial product, Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can originate in close proximity to parietal cells, but the role of this uniquely structured endotoxin on acid secretion has not been fully investigated and remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the direct effect of purified LPS (tested range, 0.1 to 100 ?g/ml) from various strains of H. pylori and from one Helicobacter felis strain on histamine- and carbachol-stimulated acid secretion in vitro using mouse gastric glands and the accumulation of [14C]aminopyrine. In addition, we investigated whether H. pylori LPS can interfere with two native antisecretory substances, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and somatostatin, which may contribute to bacterial pathogenicity. Except for the LPS from H. pylori SS1 (Sydney strain), which gave a statistically significant increase in both histamine- and carbachol-stimulated acid output (38 and 24%, respectively; P < 0.05), no effect of the tested LPS was observed on acid secretion. H. pylori LPS purified from a patient isolate did not affect the potency or the efficacy of the inhibitory dose response curve to PGE2 or somatostatin. Bacterial interstrain variation in the direct stimulatory effect of Helicobacter-derived LPS on acid secretion was observed, which probably reflects the molecular structure of LPS and the potential to contribute to virulence. Importantly, the data showed that H. pylori LPS did not have any direct antisecretory properties. It can be speculated that the acid stimulatory properties of LPS from H. pylori SS1 may contribute to the gastric damage observed in the mouse model of H. pylori infection. PMID:11349056

Padol, Ireneusz T.; Moran, Anthony P.; Hunt, Richard H.

2001-01-01

136

Lacrimal gland anatomy (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The lacrimal gland is located within the orbit above the lateral end of the eye. It continually releases fluid which cleanses and protects the eye's surface as it lubricates and moistens it. These lacrimal secretions are commonly known ...

137

Mammary Glands: Developmental Changes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mammary gland progresses from the accumulation of a few cells in the embryonic ectoderm to a highly arborescent tubulo-alveolar gland capable of secreting a highly nutritious product for consumption. Throughout this progression, various changes occur during each developmental stage: prenatal, pr...

138

Distinct populations of high-M(r) mucins secreted by different human salivary glands discriminated by density-gradient electrophoresis.  

PubMed Central

High-M(r) mucins [mucin glycoprotein 1 (MG1)] isolated from human saliva from the individual salivary glands were chemically characterized. The carbohydrate content of MG1 derived from palatal (PAL), submandibular (SM) and sublingual (SL) saliva was typical of mucins but showed heterogeneity, especially in the amount of sialic acid and sulphated sugar residues. The physicochemical properties of native MG1s make conventional SDS/PAGE and ion-exchange chromatography unsuitable for investigating differences between individual samples. Recently a density-gradient electrophoresis (DGE) device has been developed, primarily for separation based on the charge of entire cells or cell organelles [Tulp, Verwoerd and Pieters (1993) Electrophoresis 14, 1295-1301]. We have used this apparatus to study the high-M(r) salivary mucins. Using DGE, the MG1s of individual glands were seen to have clearly distinct electrophoretic mobilities, as monitored by ELISA using MG1-specific monoclonal antibodies. Even within a particular MG1 preparation, subpopulations could be distinguished. DGE analysis of a chemically and enzymically modified MG1 series, followed by ELISA and dot-blot detection using specific monoclonal antibodies, lectins and high-iron diamine staining, suggests that the high electrophoretic mobility of PAL-MG1 is mainly the result of a high sulphate content, whereas the SL subpopulations differ mainly in binding type and amount of sialic acid. SM-MG1 most resembles the low-mobility subpopulation of SL-MG1, except that it has a lower sulphate content. In conclusion, DGE appears to be a powerful method for analysis of native mucin; it has been used to demonstrate that MG1s from the various salivary glands are biochemically much more diverse than was previously assumed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7639696

Bolscher, J; Veerman, E; Van Nieuw Amerongen, A; Tulp, A; Verwoerd, D

1995-01-01

139

Hormones, Sex Accessory Structures, and Secondary Sexual Characteristics  

E-print Network

gland secretions) and secondary sexual characteristics (e.g., genial glands and skin glands of newts pads of American newts (e.g., Notophthalmus viridescens), whereas oxytocin antagonizes the influence of prolactin. In the Japanese newt (Cynops pyrrhogaster), however, estrogens block the action of prolactin

Sever, David M.

140

Seasonal Variation in Volatile Compound Profiles of Preen Gland Secretions of the Dark-eyed Junco ( Junco hyemalis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative stir bar sorptive extraction methodology, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and element-specific\\u000a atomic emission detection (AED) were utilized to analyze seasonal changes in volatile components of preen oil secretions in\\u000a Junco hyemalis. Juncos were held in long days to simulate breeding conditions, or short days to simulate nonbreeding conditions. Linear\\u000a alcohols (C10–C18) were the major volatile compounds found

Helena A. Soini; Sara E. Schrock; Kevin E. Bruce; Donald Wiesler; Ellen D. Ketterson; Milos V. Novotny

2007-01-01

141

Ultrastructure of the epidermal maxilla II-gland of Scutigera coleoptrata (Chilopoda, Notostigmophora) and the ground pattern of epidermal gland organs in Myriapoda.  

PubMed

The epidermal maxilla II-gland of Scutigera coleoptrata was investigated using light and electron microscopy. The glandular epithelium surrounds a spacious integumental cavity at the base of the maxilla II. The gland is formed as a compound gland organ that is composed of thousands of epidermal gland units. Each of them consists of four different cell types: a secretory cell, an accessory or intermediary cell, and a proximal and distal canal cell. The intermediary and the two canal cells form a conducting canal. Only in the most distal part of the intermediary cell is the canal lined by a cuticle. In the area of the two canal cells, the conducting canal is completely covered by a cuticle. The canal passes through the cuticle and opens into the spacious integumental cavity, which serves as a secretion reservoir. The structural organization of the epidermal maxilla II-gland was compared to that of other compound epidermal gland organs in Chilopoda and Diplopoda. All these glandular organs in Myriapoda share the same ground pattern. PMID:15732052

Hilken, Gero; Rosenberg, Jörg; Brockmann, Claudia

2005-04-01

142

Secretion granules of the rabbit parotid gland. Isolation, subfractionation, and characterization of the membrane and content subfractions  

PubMed Central

A fraction of secretion granules has been isolated from rabbit parotid by a procedure which was found to be especially effective in reducing contamination resulting from aggregation and/or cosedimentation of granules with other cell particulates. The fraction, representing 15 percent (on the average) of the total tissue amylase activity, was homogeneous as judged by electron microscopy and contaminated to exceedingly low levels by other cellular organelles as judged by marker enzymatic and chemical assays. Lysis of the granules was achieved by their gradual exposure to hypotonic NaHCO3, containing 0.5 mM EDTA. The content and the membranes separated by centrifugation of the granule lysate were characterized primarily by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis which indicated that the content was composed of a limited number of molecular weight classes of polypeptides of which three bands (having approximate mol wt 58,000, 33, 000, and 12,000) could be considered major components. The gel profile of the membrane subfraction was characterized by 20-30 Coomassie brilliant blue-staining bands of which a single species of mol wt 40,000 was the conspicuous major polypeptide. Two types of experiments employing gel electrophoretic analysis were carried out for identifying and assessing the extent of residual secretory protein adsorbed to purified granule membranes: (a) examination of staining and radioactivity profiles after mixing of radioactive secretion granule extract with nonradioactively labeled granule membranes and (b) comparison of gel profiles of secretion granule extract and granule membranes with those of unlysed secretion granules and secretory protein dischraged from lobules in vitro or collected by cannulation of parotid ducts, the last two samples being considered physiologic secretory standards. The results indicated that the membranes were contaminated to a substantial degree by residual, poorly extractable secretory protein even though assays of membrane fractions for a typical secretory enzyme activity (amylase) indicated quite through separation of membranes and content. Hence, detailed examination of membrane subfractions for residual content species by gel electrophoresis points to the general unity and sensitivity of this technique as a means for accurately detecting a defined set of polypeptides occurring as contaminants in cellular fractions or organelle subfractions. PMID:162790

1975-01-01

143

Mandibular gland secretions of the male beewolvesPhilanthus crabroniformis, P. barbatus, andP. pulcher (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae).  

PubMed

The composition of the territorial marking pheromones from mandibular glands of males of the beewolvesPhilanthus crabroniformis, P. barbatus, andP. pulcher have been determined. The structures of the components were elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The major compound ofP. crabroniformis is isopropyl tetradecanoate, with somewhat lesser amounts of 2-tridecanone, 3-methyl-3-butenyl tetradecanoate, and 92?8 (Z)?(E)-11-eicosen-1-ol. The major compounds ofP. barbatus are ethyl tetradecanoate and hexadecanal, which are present in approximately a 60?40 ratio. These two compounds comprise over 95% of the neutral lipids. Also present in lesser amounts are ethyl dodecanoate, tetradecanal, hexadecan-1-ol, a ? (x) -octadecen-1-ol, and octadecan-1-ol. The major compounds ofP. pulcher are ethyl (Z)-7-hexadecenoate and geranylgeraniol acetate, which comprise nearly 90% of the neutral lipid fraction, with smaller amounts of tetradecanal, pentadecanal, and ethyl hexadecanoate; trace amounts of ? (x) hexadecenal, hexadecanal, and octadecanal are also present. PMID:24254630

McDaniel, C A; Schmidt, J O; Howard, R W

1992-01-01

144

Seasonal variation in volatile compound profiles of preen gland secretions of the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis).  

PubMed

Quantitative stir bar sorptive extraction methodology, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and element-specific atomic emission detection (AED) were utilized to analyze seasonal changes in volatile components of preen oil secretions in Junco hyemalis. Juncos were held in long days to simulate breeding conditions, or short days to simulate nonbreeding conditions. Linear alcohols (C(10)-C(18)) were the major volatile compounds found in preen oil, and in both sexes their levels were higher when birds were housed on long as opposed to short days. Methylketones were found at lower levels, but were enhanced in both sexes during long days. Levels of 2-tridecanone, 2-tetradecanone, and 2-pentadecanone were also greater on long days, but only in males. Among carboxylic acids (C(12), C(14), and C(16)), linear but not branched acids showed some differences between the breeding and nonbreeding conditions, although the individual variation for acidic compounds was large. Qualitatively, more sulfur-containing compounds were found in males than females during the breeding season. Functionally, the large increase in linear alcohols in male and female preen oil during the breeding season may be an indication of altered lipid biosynthesis, which might signal reproductive readiness. Linear alcohols might also facilitate junco odor blending with plant volatiles in the habitat to distract mammalian predators. Some of the volatile compounds from preen oil, including linear alcohols, were also found on the wing feather surface, along with additional compounds that could have been of either metabolic or environmental origin. PMID:17146717

Soini, Helena A; Schrock, Sara E; Bruce, Kevin E; Wiesler, Donald; Ketterson, Ellen D; Novotny, Milos V

2007-01-01

145

Insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in the bovine mammary gland: Receptors, endogenous secretion, and appearance in milk  

SciTech Connect

This is the first study to characterize both insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) in bovine milk, to characterize the IGF-I receptor in the dry and lactating mammary gland, and to report de novo synthesis and secretion of IGF-I and IGFBP from normal mammary tissue. Immunoreactive IGF-I was principally associated with 45 kDa IGFBP in milk. Multiparous cows had a higher IGF-I concentration of 307 ng/ml than primiparous cows at 147 ng/ml. IGF-I concentration on day 56 of lactation was 34 ng/ml for combined parity groups. At parturition, IGF-I mass in blood and milk pools was 1.4 and 1.2 mg, respectively. Binding of {sup 125}I-IGF-I was specific for IGF-I with anIC{sub 50} of 2.2 ng which was a 10- and 1273-fold greater affinity than IGF-II and insulin, respectively. Association constants, as determined by Scatchard analysis, were similar for both pregnant and lactating cows at 3.5 and 4.0 L/nM, respectively. In addition, estimated mean receptor concentration was 0.25 and 0.23 pM/mg protein for pregnant and lactating cows, respectively. In a survey of mammary microscomes prepared from 48 cows, {sup 125}I-IGF-I binding declined with progressing lactation and a similar trend was observed during pregnancy.

Campbell, P.G.

1988-01-01

146

The painful accessory navicular.  

PubMed

The accessory navicular is usually considered a normal anatomic and roentgenographic variant. The term may refer to two distinct patterns. First, a sesamoid bone may be present within the posterior tibial tendon (Type 1); this is anatomically separate from the navicular. Second, an accessory ossification center may be medial to the navicular (Type 2). During postnatal development this is within a cartilaginous mass that is continuous with the cartilage of the navicular. At skeletal maturity the accessory center usually fuses with the navicular to form a curvilinear bone. The Type 2 pattern may be associated with a painful foot, particularly in the athletic adolescent, and should not be arbitrarily dismissed as a roentgenologic variant in the symptomatic patient. The clinical, radiologic, pathologic, and surgical findings in ten cases are reviewed. Roentgenographically the ossicle is triangular or heart-shaped. 99mTc MDP imaging may be of value when the significance of the ossicle is uncertain. Even when the roentgenographic variant is bilateral, increased radionuclide activity occurs only on the symptomatic side. Histologic examination of surgically excised specimens reveals inflammatory chondro-osseous changes in the navicular-accessory navicular synchondrosis compatible with chronic trauma and stress fracture. Nonsurgical treatment with orthotics or cast immobilization produces variable results and resection of the accessory navicular may be the treatment of choice. PMID:6239377

Lawson, J P; Ogden, J A; Sella, E; Barwick, K W

1984-01-01

147

Calcium signaling in lacrimal glands.  

PubMed

Lacrimal glands provide the important function of lubricating and protecting the ocular surface. Failure of proper lacrimal gland function results in a number of debilitating dry eye diseases. Lacrimal glands secrete lipids, mucins, proteins, salts and water and these secretions are at least partially regulated by neurotransmitter-mediated cell signaling. The predominant signaling mechanism for lacrimal secretion involves activation of phospholipase C, generation of the Ca(2+)-mobilizing messenger, IP3, and release of Ca(2+) stored in the endoplasmic reticulum. The loss of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum then triggers a process known as store-operated Ca(2+) entry, involving a Ca(2+) sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum, STIM1, which activates plasma membrane store-operated channels comprised of Orai subunits. Recent studies with deletions of the channel subunit, Orai1, confirm the important role of SOCE in both fluid and protein secretion in lacrimal glands, both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:24507443

Putney, James W; Bird, Gary S

2014-06-01

148

MORPHOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF AN INSECT EPIDERMAL GLAND  

PubMed Central

The sternal gland of primitive termites of the genus Zootermopsis (Z. nevadensis or Z. angusticollus) (Hagen) seems more organized than that of higher termites, in being comprised of three cell layers. It is also studded with about 200 campaniform sensilla. Below the meshwork cuticle of the gland lies a layer of columnar epithelial cells whose apical surfaces form a brush border, and whose basal surfaces are sculptured into a basketwork into which the second layer fits. Below the brush border are small microtubule-associated pits and coated vesicles. No channels can be seen either within or, except for the sensilla, between the cells. The second cell layer probably secretes the trail-following pheromone. Numerous electron-lucent droplets and large channels containing lipid micelles are found in the cytoplasm here, but the channels cannot be traced out of the secretory layer. The third layer consists of large pyriform cells. The campaniform sensilla are composed of three cells: the sensory cell proper whose dendrite carries a modified 9 + 0 sensory process, an accessory supporting cell that secretes an electron-opaque sheath, and an enveloping cell. At the cell borders of the sensillum, regions of septate and tight junction appear. There are also septate junctions between columnar cells and possibly tight junctions between columnar and secretory cells that would open an intracellular and molecular pathway to the endocuticle. The campaniform sensilla may be part of a feedback control system that determines the amount of pheromone deposited during trail laying. PMID:5645546

Stuart, A. M.; Satir, P.

1968-01-01

149

The foetal pig pineal gland is richly innervated by nerve fibres containing catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and C-terminal flanking peptide of NPY, but it does not secrete melatonin.  

PubMed

Innervation of the mammalian pineal gland during prenatal development is poorly recognized. Therefore, immunofluorescence studies of the pineals of 70- and 90-day-old foetuses of the domestic pig were performed using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-?-hydroxylase (D?H), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and C-terminal flanking peptide of NPY (CPON). The investigated glands were supplied by numerous nerve fibres containing TH and D?H. The density of these fibres was higher in the distal and middle parts of the gland than in the proximal one. NPY and CPON were identified in the majority of D?H-positive fibres as well as in a small population of D?H-negative fibres localized mainly in the proximal part of the pineal. The immunoreactive fibres were more numerous in 90-day-old foetuses than in 70-day-old ones. The effect of norepinephrine on melatonin secretion by the foetal pineals in the short-term organ culture was studied to determine the role of D?H-positive fibres during prenatal life. For the same purpose melatonin was measured in the blood in the umbilical cords and in the jugular vein of the mother. The pineals of both groups of foetuses did not secrete melatonin in the organ culture, independently of the presence or absence of norepinephrine in the medium. Melatonin concentrations in the blood in the umbilical cords of foetuses from the same litter and in the jugular vein of their mother were similar. The presence of adrenergic nerve fibres in the pig pineal during gestation does not seem to be associated with the control of melatonin secretion. PMID:23408385

Bulc, Micha?; Lewczuk, Bogdan; Prusik, Magdalena; Ca?ka, Jaros?aw

2013-05-01

150

Anesthetic considerations on adrenal gland surgery.  

PubMed

Adrenal gland surgery needs a multidisciplinary team including endocrinologist, radiologist, anesthesiologist, and surgeon. The indications for adrenal gland surgery include hormonal secreting and non-hormonal secreting tumors. Adrenal hormonal secreting tumors present to the anesthesiologist unique challenges requiring good preoperative evaluation, perioperative hemodynamic control, corrections of all electrolytes and metabolic abnormalities, a detailed and careful anesthetic strategy, overall knowledge about the specific diseases, control and maintaining of postoperative adrenal function, and finally a good collaboration with other involved colleagues. This review will focus on the endocrine issues, as well as on the above-mentioned aspects of anesthetic management during hormone secreting adrenal gland tumor resection. PMID:25368694

Domi, Rudin; Sula, Hektor; Kaci, Myzafer; Paparisto, Sokol; Bodeci, Artan; Xhemali, Astrit

2015-01-01

151

Anesthetic Considerations on Adrenal Gland Surgery  

PubMed Central

Adrenal gland surgery needs a multidisciplinary team including endocrinologist, radiologist, anesthesiologist, and surgeon. The indications for adrenal gland surgery include hormonal secreting and non-hormonal secreting tumors. Adrenal hormonal secreting tumors present to the anesthesiologist unique challenges requiring good preoperative evaluation, perioperative hemodynamic control, corrections of all electrolytes and metabolic abnormalities, a detailed and careful anesthetic strategy, overall knowledge about the specific diseases, control and maintaining of postoperative adrenal function, and finally a good collaboration with other involved colleagues. This review will focus on the endocrine issues, as well as on the above-mentioned aspects of anesthetic management during hormone secreting adrenal gland tumor resection. PMID:25368694

Domi, Rudin; Sula, Hektor; Kaci, Myzafer; Paparisto, Sokol; Bodeci, Artan; Xhemali, Astrit

2015-01-01

152

Autonomously functioning nodule arising from accessory mediastinal thyroid tissue  

PubMed Central

Functional imaging using radionuclide Tc99m pertechnetate is routinely used in the evaluation of the problems related to the thyroid gland. Scintiscan has been useful in the visualization of thyroid tissue in ectopic sites due to congenital developmental anomalies. Similarly, the scan helps in establishing the diagnosis of autonomously functioning nodule when the nodule being evaluated appears “hot” with suppression of rest of the gland activity. Here, we present a very rare case of autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma in an ectopic focus of accessory thyroid tissue in the mediastinum. PMID:23326068

Kumaresan, Karuppiah; Rao, N Sudhakar; Mohan, A Ram; Rao, M Sudhakar

2011-01-01

153

REGULAR ARTICLE Calcitonin is expressed in the chicken pituitary gland  

E-print Network

REGULAR ARTICLE Calcitonin is expressed in the chicken pituitary gland: influence of gonadal in mammals or by the ultimobranchial gland in chickens. CT is also expressed by the pituitary gland in rats) secretion. Gonadal steroids influence CT expression in the rat pituitary gland. However, the expression

Ramachandran, Ramesh

154

Prolactin receptor expression in human testis and accessory tissues: localization and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental studies in animals have established prolactin (PRL) as a progonadal hormone that promotes the function of the testis and reproductive accessory glands. The present study investigated the localization of PRL receptor (PRL-R) expression in the human testis and accessory tissues. Expression of PRL-R was identified in human testis and vas deferens by RT-PCR, and further localized by immunohistochemistry to

W. M. Hair; O. Gubbay; H. N. Jabbour; G. A. Lincoln

2002-01-01

155

Fine structure of the salivary glands of Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salivary glands of Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis consist of two parts: the tubular and the ovoidal glands. The tubular glands have microvillate cells, which are rich in mitochondria, associated with sinuous plasma membrane and produce a watery secretion. The ovoid glands have cells that are rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes and produce viscous secretions of proteinaceous material. It is

Giovanna Del Bene; Vittoria Cavallo; Pietro Lupetti; Romano Dallai

1999-01-01

156

Fine structure of the salivary glands of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fine structure of the salivary glands of adult Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) bugs has been analyzed. Stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that each insect presents a pair of salivary glands, each pair containing three distinct units (main, supplementary, and accessory) with different sizes and colors. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that all gland units consist of a monolayer of

Marcos M Reis; Rosane M. S Meirelles; Maurilio J Soares

2003-01-01

157

EFFECT OF INFLAMMATION ON LACRIMAL GLAND FUNCTION  

PubMed Central

The lacrimal gland is the main contributor to the aqueous layer of the tear film. It secretes proteins, electrolytes and water, which helps to nourish and protect the ocular surface. Lacrimal gland secretion is primarily under neural control, which is achieved through a neural reflex arc. Stimuli to the ocular surface activate afferent sensory nerves in the cornea and conjunctiva. This in turn activates efferent parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves in the lacrimal gland to stimulate secretion. Sex steroid hormones are also important regulators of lacrimal gland functions. A decrease or lack of lacrimal gland secretion is the leading cause of aqueous tear deficient dry eye syndrome (DES). It has been suggested that DES is an inflammatory disorder that affects the ocular surface and the lacrimal gland. In several pathological instances, the lacrimal gland can become a target of the immune system and show signs of inflammation. This can result from autoimmune diseases (Sjögren's syndrome), organ transplantation (graft versus host disease), or simply as a result of aging. The hallmarks of lacrimal gland inflammation are the presence of focal lymphocytic infiltrates and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. The mechanisms leading to lacrimal gland dysfunction are still poorly understood. Apoptosis, production of autoantibodies, hormonal imbalance, alterations in signaling molecules, neural dysfunction, and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines have been proposed as possible mediators of lacrimal gland insufficiency in disease states. PMID:16309672

Zoukhri, Driss

2005-01-01

158

The Pineal Gland and Mammalian Photoperiodism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mammalian pineal gland appears to be a major endocrine component in the regulation of photoperiodic responses. The circadian pattern of secretion of the pineal hormone, melatonin, is regulated by the nervous system. Changes in photoperiod, acting via the nervous system, alter the temporal pattern of melatonin secretion. The changes in secretion pattern convey information about daylength from neural components

Bruce D. Goldman; Janet M. Darrow

1983-01-01

159

Split gland  

DOEpatents

A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

Petranto, J.J.

1989-09-05

160

Hormone-dependent dissociation of blood flow and secretion rate in the lingual salt glands of the estuarine crocodile, Crocodylus porosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt and water balance in the estuarine crocodile, Crocodylus porosus, involves the coordinated action of both renal and extra-renal tissues. The highly vascularised, lingual salt glands of C. porosus excrete a concentrated sodium chloride solution. In the present study, we examined the in vivo actions of vasoactive intestinal\\u000a peptide (VIP), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and angiotensin II (ANG II) on

Rebecca L. Cramp; Inga De Vries; W. Gary Anderson; Craig E. Franklin

2010-01-01

161

Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Rat Anterior Pituitary Gland and the Role of Nitric Oxide in Regulation of Luteinizing Hormone Secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we have demonstrated that the nitric oxide (NO)-synthesizing enzyme NO synthase is present in gonadotrophs and in folliculo-stellate cells of the anterior pituitary gland of male and female rats. A marked increase in levels of NO synthase protein and mRNA was observed after gonadectomy. In vitro studies on dispersed anterior pituitary cells suggest

Sandra Ceccatelli; Anna-Lena Hulting; Xu Zhang; Lars Gustafsson; Marcelo Villar; Tomas Hokfelt

1993-01-01

162

The DNA puff BhB10-1 gene encodes a glycine-rich protein secreted by the late stage larval salivary glands of Bradysia hygida.  

PubMed

We present the molecular characterization of a gene of Bradysia hygida DNA puff B10 whose temporal expression in the salivary gland correlates with the puff expansion. The transcription unit of this gene, named BhB10-1, was mapped in a 2-kb EcoRI genomic fragment that is amplified in the salivary gland of late fourth instar larvae. Its 1.3-kb transcript undergoes poly-A tail shortening during development, indicating that post-transcriptional controls as well as transcription activation are involved in the temporal regulation of the BhB10-1 gene. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence from the cDNA indicates that the BhB10-1 protein is a glycine-rich secretory protein. A BhB10-1-fusion protein expressed in bacteria was used to raise polyclonal antibodies. Using an immunopurified antibody, we identified the product of the DNA puff BhB10-1 gene as a 23-kDa polypeptide that is produced mainly by the salivary gland regions S1 and S3 and is present in the saliva of late larvae. This is the first direct identification of a protein encoded by a DNA puff amplified gene. PMID:10231570

Fontes, A M; Conacci, M E; Monesi, N; de Almeida, J C; Paçó-Larson, M L

1999-04-29

163

Original article Ultrastructure of the wax gland complex  

E-print Network

Original article Ultrastructure of the wax gland complex and secretion of beeswax in the worker; accepted 22 September 1994) Summary — The wax gland complex of the honey bee worker consists of 3 cell types, epithelial cells, oenocytes and adipocytes, which act synergistically to secrete wax

Boyer, Edmond

164

Salivary Gland Development: A Template for Regeneration  

PubMed Central

The mammalian salivary gland develops as a highly branched structure designed to produce and secrete saliva. This review will focus on research on mouse submandibular gland development and the translation of this basic research towards therapy for patients suffering from salivary hypofunction. Here we review the most recent literature that has enabled a better understanding of the mechanisms of salivary gland development. Additionally, we discuss approaches proposed to restore salivary function using gene and cell-based therapy. Increasing our understanding of the developmental mechanisms involved during development is critical to design effective therapies for regeneration and repair of damaged glands. PMID:24333774

Patel, Vaishali N.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

2014-01-01

165

14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...33.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive and mounting...

2013-01-01

166

14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...33.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive and mounting...

2014-01-01

167

14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...33.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive and mounting...

2010-01-01

168

14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...33.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive and mounting...

2012-01-01

169

14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...33.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...properly with the accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive and mounting...

2011-01-01

170

Pituitary gland  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... stimulates breast tissue in nursing mothers to produce milk ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) - causes the adrenal glands to ... less urine Oxytocin – initiates labor, uterine contractions and milk ejection in mothers

171

Endocrine glands  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... and nervous systems work very closely together. The brain continuously sends instructions to the endocrine system, and ... master switchboard because it’s the part of the brain that controls the endocrine system. The pituitary gland, ...

172

Teaching Techniques for Accessory Percussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everyone is familiar with the main percussion instruments of the contemporary orchestra: bass drum, snare drum, suspended cymbal, vibraphone, and timpani. But as source material broadens, so do the demands placed on the percussion section. Accessory, or auxiliary percussion, can make the difference between a typical rendition of a well-known piece…

Micallef, Ken

2007-01-01

173

New exocrine glands in ants: the hypostomal gland and basitarsal gland in the genus Melissotarsus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fisher and Robertson (Insect Soc 46: 78-83, 1999) discovered the production of silk-like secretions emerging from slit-shaped openings along the anterior margin of the ventral hypostoma of Melissotarsus ant workers. The current histological study describes a hitherto unknown hypostomal gland from which this silk-like substance originates. In addition, this study describes a new basitarsal gland in the three pairs of legs of Melissotarsus workers.

Hölldobler, Bert; Obermayer, Malu; Plowes, Nicola J. R.; Fisher, Brian L.

2014-07-01

174

Involvement of melatonin in the seasonal changes of the gonadal function and prolactin secretion  

E-print Network

, prolactin secretion is enhanced. Experiments were conducted to investigate the role of the pineal gland months, were bilaterally superior cervical ganglionectomized (SCGX) to denervate their pineal gland. One is converted by the pineal gland into the endocrine signal as a daily pattern of melatonin secretion, which

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

175

Pheromones and exocrine glands in Isoptera.  

PubMed

Termites are eusocial insects that have a peculiar and intriguing system of communication using pheromones. The termite pheromones are composed of a blend of chemical substances and they coordinate different social interactions or activities, including foraging, building, mating, defense, and nestmate recognition. Some of these sociochemicals are volatile, spreading in the air, and others are contact pheromones, which are transmitted by trophallaxis and grooming. Among the termite semiochemicals, the most known are alarm, trail, sex pheromones, and hydrocarbons responsible for the recognition of nestmates. The sources of the pheromones are exocrine glands located all over the termite body. The principal exocrine structures considered pheromone-producing glands in Isoptera are the frontal, mandibular, salivary or labial, sternal, and tergal glands. The frontal gland is the source of alarm pheromone and defensive chemicals, but the mandibular secretions have been little studied and their function is not well established in Isoptera. The secretion of salivary glands involves numerous chemical compounds, some of them without pheromonal function. The worker saliva contains a phagostimulating pheromone and probably a building pheromone, while the salivary reservoir of some soldiers contains defensive chemicals. The sternal gland is the only source of trail-following pheromone, whereas sex pheromones are secreted by two glandular sources, the sternal and tergal glands. To date, the termite semiochemicals have indicated that few molecules are involved in their chemical communication, that is, the same compound may be secreted by different glands, different castes and species, and for different functions, depending on the concentration. In addition to the pheromonal parsimony, recent studies also indicate the occurrence of a synergic effect among the compounds involved in the chemical communication of Isoptera. PMID:20831960

Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria; Haifig, Ives

2010-01-01

176

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

2013-04-01

177

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

2014-04-01

178

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

2011-04-01

179

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

2010-04-01

180

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories....

2012-04-01

181

21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

182

21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

183

21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

184

21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

185

Aquaporins in secretory glands and their role in Sjögren's syndrome.  

PubMed

Salivary, lacrimal and pancreatic secretions are known to account for multiple physiological functions. These exocrine secretions are watery fluids containing electrolytes, and a mixture of proteins, and can be stimulated by a number of agonists. Since water movement is involved in exocrine secretion, aquaporins (AQPs) have been hypothesised to contribute to fluid production in exocrine glands. This chapter will focus on the expression, localisation and function of AQPs in salivary and lacrimal glands and pancreas. The role of multiple water and ion transporters and channels in exocrine fluid secretion will also be reviewed. Finally, this chapter will address the potential role of AQPs in Sjögren's syndrome. PMID:19096778

Delporte, Christine

2009-01-01

186

Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies  

SciTech Connect

This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power. Two studies were conducted at ORNL. One was to put an additional winding in the motor slots to magnetically link with the high frequency of the controllable zero-sequence stator currents that do not produce any zero-sequence harmonic torques. The second approach was to utilize the corners of the square stator punching for the high-frequency transformers of the dc/dc inverter. Both approaches were successful. This CRADA validated the feasibility of GM’s desire to use the motor’s magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply. Three joint U.S. patents with GM were issued to ORNL and GM by the U.S. Patent Office for the research results produced by this CRADA.

Marlino, L.D.

2010-06-15

187

The clypeal gland: a new exocrine gland in termite imagoes (Isoptera: Serritermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae).  

PubMed

Social insects possess a rich set of exocrine organs producing diverse pheromones and defensive compounds. This is especially true for termite imagoes, which are equipped with several glands producing, among others, sex pheromones and defensive compounds protecting imagoes during the dispersal flight and colony foundation. Here, we describe the clypeal gland, a new termite exocrine organ occurring in the labro-clypeal region of imagoes of most Rhinotermitidae, Serritermitidae and Termitidae species. The clypeal gland of Coptotermes testaceus consists of class 1 (modified epidermal cell) and class 3 (bicellular gland unit) secretory cells. Ultrastructural features suggest that the gland secretes volatile compounds and proteins, probably after starting the reproduction. One peculiar feature of the gland is the presence of multiple secretory canals in a single canal cell, a feature never observed before in other insect glands. Although the function of the gland remains unknown, we hypothesize that it could produce secretion signalling the presence of functional reproductives or their need to be fed. PMID:25280798

K?ížková, Barbora; Bourguignon, Thomas; Vytisková, Blahoslava; Sobotník, Jan

2014-11-01

188

Rhythmic Secretion of Prolactin in Rats: Action of Oxytocin Coordinated by Vasoactive Intestinal  

E-print Network

lactotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland of rats in a unique pattern in response to uterine cervical is synthesized and secreted by lactotrophs in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (1). Its release is under

Bertram, Richard

189

THE FINE STRUCTURE OF VON EBNER'S GLAND OF THE RAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fine structure of von Ebner's gland was studied in untreated rats and rats stimulated to secrete by fasting-refeeding or injection of pilocarpine . Cytological features were similar to those reported for pancreas and parotid gland . Abundant granular endoplasmic reticulum filled the basal portion of the cell, a well-developed Golgi complex was located in the vicinity of the nucleus,

ARTHUR R. HAND

2009-01-01

190

21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood access device and accessories. 876... Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification. A blood access device and accessories is a...

2010-04-01

191

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2011-04-01

192

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2014-04-01

193

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2012-04-01

194

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2010-04-01

195

21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device...

2013-04-01

196

Pituitary Gland Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Excessive secretion of pituitary hormones, as well as their deficiency, may cause a constellation of clinical and pathological\\u000a manifestations involving major organ systems of the body, including the skin.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a There are no specific cutaneous signs or symptoms that are pathognomonic for the main manifestations of pituitary gland diseases\\u000a such as acromegaly, hyperprolactinemia, Cushing’s disease, or hypopituitarism.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In

Martina Montinari; Franco Rongioletti

197

Myoepithelioma of a minor salivary gland of the cheek: case report  

PubMed Central

Summary Myoepithelioma is a rare neoplasm of the salivary glands, generally occurring in the parotid gland and less often in the minor accessory salivary gland of the oral cavity. The histological appearance includes solid, myxoid and reticular growth patterns. Vimentin and S-100 protein are very sensitive but non-specific immunohistochemical markers of neoplastic myoepithelium. Conservative surgery is the treatment of choice. A case of myoepithelioma of the minor salivary gland of the cheek with low grade malignancy is described, focusing on clinical behaviour, histopathological and immunohistochemical features and differential diagnosis. PMID:18383757

Ferri, E; Pavon, I; Armato, E; Cavaleri, S; Capuzzo, P; Ianniello, F

2006-01-01

198

Thymus Gland Anatomy  

MedlinePLUS

... Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Thymus Gland Anatomy Adult View/Download: Small: 720x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Thymus Gland Anatomy Adult Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; illustration ...

199

A cytochemical study of the leaf-gland enzymes of insectivorous plants of the genus Pinguicula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochemical methods have been used to study the distribution of acid phosphatase, esterase, ribonuclease, amylase and protease activity in the stimulated and unstimulated leaf glands of Pinguicula grandiflora, P. vulgaris, P. lusitanica, and P. caudata. Two gland types are present, stalked and sessile. The stalked glands bear a muco-polysaccharide secretion droplet, and are concerned with capture of the prey; the

Yolande Heslop-Harrison; R. B. Knox

1971-01-01

200

Electron microscopic study of the mandibular glands of Kalotermes flavicollis Fabr. (Isoptera; Calotermitidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mandibular glands of Kalotermes were examined in different castes. They showed sexual dimorphism in the soldiers and primary reproductives. Moreover, in female soldiers and queens, mandibular gland cells contained numerous crystalline structures of mitochondrial origin. The role of these glands (secretion of saliva or pheromone) is discussed.

Pierre Cassier; M. A. Fain-Maurel; D. Lebrun

1977-01-01

201

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

202

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

203

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

204

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

205

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

206

Parathyroid hormone - Secretion and metabolism in vivo.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gel filtration and radioimmunoassay were used to determine the molecular size and immunochemical reactivity of parathyroid hormone present in gland extracts, in the general peripheral circulation, and in parathyroid effluent blood from patients with hyperparathyroidism, as well as from calves and from cattle. It was found that parathyroid hormone secreted from the parathyroids in man and cattle is at least as large as the molecule extracted from normal bovine glands. However, once secreted into the circulation the hormone is cleaved, and one or more fragments, immunologically, dissimilar to the originally secreted hormone, constitute the dominant form of circulating immunoreactive hormone.

Habener, J. F.; Powell, D.; Murray, T. M.; Mayer, G. P.; Potts, J. T., Jr.

1971-01-01

207

Rodent eccrine sweat glands: a case of multiple efferent innervation.  

PubMed

The sweat territories of peripheral nerves to the hind-paw of the mouse were defined by a silastic impression mold method that allowed identification of every secreting sweat gland. It was found that the tibial, sural, saphenous and peroneal nerves all contribute to the innervation of foot pad sweat glands, and there is extensive overlapping of the sweat territories of the different peripheral nerves. Most sweat glands could be activated by electrical stimulation of axons in two or three peripheral nerves or in separate fascicles of one nerve. This was interpreted to indicate that these sweat glands receive multiple innervation and that sweat glands in the overlap regions between autonomous zones of adjacent cutaneous nerves can receive axons from each nerve. Partial denervation of sweat glands by section of one source of innervation did not prevent the gland from sweating during stimulation of intact axons to the gland, or after pilocarpine treatment. Totally denervated glands did not exhibit denervation hypersensitivity; they became unresponsive to pilocarpine, acetylcholine and adrenaline. These characteristics allowed detection of the appearance and progression of reinnervation (and reactivation) of denervated sweat glands by collateral branching from sudomotor fibers. Not only do these results increase our basic understanding of the anatomical relations between peripheral nerves and the sweat glands they innervate, but they also demonstrate that the mouse sweat gland provides a useful model system for studying neuropathology of the sympathetic nervous system. PMID:6717807

Kennedy, W R; Sakuta, M; Quick, D C

1984-03-01

208

Presence of Antibacterial Peptides on the Laid Egg Chorion of the Medfly Ceratitis capitata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female reproductive accessory glands of the medflyCeratitis capitataproduce a secretion with antibacterial activity mainly ascribed to ceratotoxin peptides. To study whether the secretion from the accessory glands of the female protects the eggs and early larva from microbes, we examined whether ceratotoxins and other accessory gland components could be found on the egg surface. This was found to be the

Daniela Marchini; Laura Marri; Marco Rosetto; Andrea G. O. Manetti; Romano Dallai

1997-01-01

209

Manipulating the murine lacrimal gland.  

PubMed

The lacrimal gland (LG) secretes aqueous tears necessary for maintaining the structure and function of the cornea, a transparent tissue essential for vision. In the human a single LG resides in the orbit above the lateral end of each eye delivering tears to the ocular surface through 3 - 5 ducts. The mouse has three pairs of major ocular glands, the most studied of which is the exorbital lacrimal gland (LG) located anterior and ventral to the ear. Similar to other glandular organs, the LG develops through the process of epithelial branching morphogenesis in which a single epithelial bud within a condensed mesenchyme undergoes multiple rounds of bud and duct formation to form an intricate interconnected network of secretory acini and ducts. This elaborate process has been well documented in many other epithelial organs such as the pancreas and salivary gland. However, the LG has been much less explored and the mechanisms controlling morphogenesis are poorly understood. We suspect that this under-representation as a model system is a consequence of the difficulties associated with finding, dissecting and culturing the LG. Thus, here we describe dissection techniques for harvesting embryonic and post-natal LG and methods for ex vivo culture of the tissue. PMID:25490187

Finley, Jennifer K; Farmer, D'Juan; Emmerson, Elaine; Cruz Pacheco, Noel; Knox, Sarah M

2014-01-01

210

Volatile Compounds from Anal Glands of the Wolverine, Gulo gulo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dichloromethane extracts of wolverine (Gulo gulo, Mustelinae, Mustelidae) anal gland secretion were examined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The secretion composition was complex and variable for the six samples examined: 123 compounds were detected in total, with the number per animal ranging from 45 to 71 compounds. Only six compounds were common to all extracts: 3-methylbutanoic acid, 2-methylbutanoic acid, phenylacetic acid,

William F. Wood; Miranda N. Terwilliger; Jeffrey P. Copeland

2005-01-01

211

Characterization of ocular gland morphology and tear composition of pinnipeds  

PubMed Central

Objective The importance of tear film integrity to ocular health in terrestrial mammals is well established, however, in marine mammals, the role of the tear film in protection of the ocular surface is not known. In an effort to better understand the function of tears in maintaining health of the marine mammal eye surface, we examined ocular glands of the California sea lion, and began to characterize the biochemical nature of the tear film of pinnipeds. Procedures Glands dissected from California sea lion eyelids and adnexa were examined for gross morphology, sectioned for microscopic analysis, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The tear film was examined using interferometry. Tears were collected from humans and pinnipeds for analysis of protein and carbohydrate content. Results The sea lion has sebaceous glands in the lid, but these glands are different in size and orientation compared to typical meibomian glands of terrestrial mammals. Two other accessory ocular glands located dorsotemporally and medially appeared to be identical in morphology, with tubulo-acinar morphology. An outer lipid layer on the ocular surface of the sea lion was not detected using interferometry, consistent with the absence of typical meibomian glands. Similar to human tears, the tears of pinnipeds contain several proteins but the ratio of carbohydrate to protein was greater than that in human tears. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the ocular gland architecture and biochemical nature of the tear film of pinnipeds have evolved to adapt to the challenges of an aquatic environment. PMID:23067374

Davis, Robin Kelleher; Doane, Marshall G.; Knop, Erich; Knop, Nadja; Dubielzig, Richard R.; Colitz, Carmen M. H.; Argüeso, Pablo; Sullivan, David A.

2012-01-01

212

Histochemistry of gland cells of Eurytrema pancreaticum cercariae.  

PubMed

The cercariae of Eurytrema pancreaticum (Janson, 1889) possess four types of gland cells - proper cystogenic, penetration, ventral and dorsal gland cells. The secretion of ventral and dorsal gland cells is released into the tegument. The proper cystogenic gland cells are the largest and their contents serve for the formation of the cyst wall of metacercariae in the second intermediate host. The secretion of proper cystogenic gland cells contains besides neutral mucosubstances also acid mucosubstances with both carboxyl- and sulphogroups digestible with beta-glucuronidase. The secretion of penetration gland cells contains neutral mucosubstances and proteins with tyrosine, tryptophan and SS groups. The ventral gland cells contain mostly acid mucosubstances with sulphogroups, which are digested with beta-glucuronidase, and proteins with tyrosine, tryptophan and SH groups. The rudimentary dorsal gland cells contain a small amount of acid mucosubstances. The whole tegument of cercariae and the two main collecting canals of the excretory system exhibit a high alkaline phosphatase activity. The nerve ring and the main nerve truncs contain proteins with SH groups and hydrophilic lipids and exhibit a cholinesterase activity. The suckers contain a larger amount of glycogen. PMID:161544

Zdárská, Z

1979-01-01

213

Insulin signaling pathways in lepidopteran ecdysone secretion  

PubMed Central

Molting and metamorphosis are stimulated by the secretion of ecdysteroid hormones from the prothoracic glands. Insulin-like hormones have been found to enhance prothoracic gland activity, providing a mechanism to link molting to nutritional state. In silk moths (Bombyx mori), the prothoracic glands are directly stimulated by insulin and the insulin-like hormone bombyxin. Further, in Bombyx, the neuropeptide prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) appears to act at least in part through the insulin-signaling pathway. In the prothoracic glands of Manduca sexta, while insulin stimulates the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and Akt, neither insulin nor bombyxin II stimulate ecdysone secretion. Involvement of the insulin-signaling pathway in Manduca prothoracic glands was explored using two inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), LY294002 and wortmannin. PI3K inhibitors block the phosphorylation of Akt and 4EBP but have no effect on ecdysone secretion, or on the phosphorylation of the MAPkinase, ERK. Inhibitors that block phosphorylation of ERK, including the MEK inhibitor U0126, and high doses of the RSK inhibitor SL0101, effectively inhibit ecdysone secretion. The results highlight differences between the two lepidopteran insects most commonly used to directly study ecdysteroid secretion. In Bombyx, the PTTH and insulin-signaling pathways intersect; both insulin and PTTH enhance the phosphorylation of Akt and stimulate ecdysteroid secretion, and inhibition of PI3K reduces ecdysteroid secretion. By contrast, in Manduca, the action of PTTH is distinct from insulin. The results highlight species differences in the roles of translational regulators such as 4EBP, and members of the MAPkinase pathway such as ERK and RSK, in the regulation of insect ecdysone secretion, and in the impact of nutritionally-sensitive hormones such as insulin in the control of ecdysone secretion and molting. PMID:24550835

Smith, Wendy A.; Lamattina, Anthony; Collins, McKensie

2014-01-01

214

Effect of long-term testosterone propionate or human chorionic gonadotrophin administration on reproductive glands in adult male rabbits.  

PubMed

The study was aimed to investigate the effect of testosterone propionate (TP) or human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) treatment on reproductive glands in sexually mature male rabbits. A total 36 adult male rabbits were randomly distributed to six equal groups. The first control group (CON), the second treated with low-dose TP (TPL), the third treated with high-dose TP (TPH), the fourth treated with low-dose hCG (CGL), the fifth treated with medium-dose hCG (CGM) and sixth treated with high-dose hCG (CGH). At the 16th post-treatment week, the animals were sacrificed, and the testes and accessory sex glands dissected, weighted and stored at -20 °C until assay. Testosterone propionate treatment in both doses resulted in reduction (P < 0.01) in testicular weight and increase (P < 0.01) in weight of vesicular gland, paraprostate and proprostate glands. High-dose TP increased the weight of prostate and bulbouretheral gland (BUG). Testosterone propionate increased total androgen (P < 0.01) with Testosterone (T) predominating in serum, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) predominating in testes and most accessory sex glands. High dose of hCG increased the weight of proprostate and paraprostate glands. Androgen level in serum, testes and accessory sex glands increased (P < 0.01) after hCG treatment. PMID:24811403

Abdel-Raouf, M; Hussein, H A

2014-05-01

215

14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...29.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2010-01-01

216

14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...29.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2013-01-01

217

14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...27.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2011-01-01

218

14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...27.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2014-01-01

219

14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...29.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2011-01-01

220

14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...29.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2012-01-01

221

14 CFR 29.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...29.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2014-01-01

222

14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...27.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2010-01-01

223

14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...27.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2012-01-01

224

14 CFR 27.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...27.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...be provided for accessory drives located on any component of the transmission and rotor drive system to prevent...

2013-01-01

225

[MRI of the pineal gland.  

PubMed

The pineal gland (CP) is located centrally in the brain and produces melatonin. Cysts and concrements are frequent findings on MRI but their significance is still unclear. The visualization of CP is difficult due to its location and surrounding structures and so far, no standardized method exists. New studies suggest a correlation between CP-morphology and melatonin secretion as well as a connection between melatonin, disturbed circadian rhythm, and the development of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, underlining the need for a standardized approach to CP on MRI. PMID:25394927

Langevad, Line; Madsen, Camilla Gřbel; Siebner, Hartwig; Garde, Ellen

2014-11-10

226

Steroids of Invertebrates: Production of Oestrogens by an Accessory Reproductive Tissue of the Slug Arion ater rufus (Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PREVIOUS communication1 described the endogenous production of 11-keto-testosterone, testosterone and 17a-hydroxyprogesterone during the in vitro incubation of the eggs of Arion ater. The present study concerns the in vitro production of C18 steroids from endogenous precursors by an accessory reproductive organ of this animal, the bursa copulatrix or spermatheca gland. The function of the spermatheca is believed to be

H. Gottfried; R. I. Dorfman; P. E. Wall

1967-01-01

227

Regulation of salt gland, gut and kidney interactions.  

PubMed

Marine birds can drink seawater because their cephalic 'salt' glands secrete a sodium chloride (NaCl) solution more concentrated than seawater. Salt gland secretion generates osmotically free water that sustains their other physiological processes. Acclimation to saline induces interstitial water and Na move into cells. When the bird drinks seawater, Na enters the plasma from the gut and plasma osmolality (Osm(pl)) increases. This induces water to move out cells expanding the extracellular fluid volume (ECFV). Both increases in Osm(pl) and ECFV stimulate salt gland secretion. The augmented intracellular fluid content should allow more rapid expansion of ECFV in response to elevated Osm(pl) and facilitate activation of salt gland secretion. To fully utilize the potential of the salt glands, intestinally absorbed NaCl must be reabsorbed by the kidneys. Thus, Na uptake at gut and renal levels may constrain extrarenal NaCl secretion. High NaCl intake elevates plasma aldosterone concentration of Pekin ducks and aldosterone stimulates intestinal and renal water and sodium uptake. High NaCl intake induces lengthening of the small intestine of adult Mallards, especially males. High NaCl intake has little effect on glomerular filtration rate or tubular sodium Na uptake of birds with competent salt glands. Relative to body mass, kidney mass and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are greater in birds with salt glands than in birds that do not have them. Birds with salt glands do not change GFR, when they drink saline. Thus, their renal filtrate contains excess Na that is, in some species, almost completely renally reabsorbed and excreted in a more concentrated salt gland secretion. Na reabsorption by kidneys of other species, like mallards is less complete and their salt glands make less concentrated secretion. Such species may reflux urine into the hindgut, where additional Na may also be reabsorbed for extrarenal secretion. During exposure to saline, marine birds maintain elevated aldosterone levels despite high Na intake. Marine birds are excellent examples of physiological plasticity. PMID:14613781

Hughes, M R

2003-11-01

228

Computed tomographic imaging characteristics of the normal canine lacrimal glands  

PubMed Central

Background The canine lacrimal gland (LG) and accessory lacrimal gland of the third eyelid (TEG) are responsible for production of the aqueous portion of the precorneal tear film. Immune-mediated, toxic, neoplastic, or infectious processes can affect the glands directly or can involve adjacent tissues, with secondary gland involvement. Disease affecting these glands can cause keratoconjunctivitis sicca, corneal ulcers, and loss of vision. Due to their location in the orbit, these small structures are difficult to evaluate and measure, making cross-sectional imaging an important diagnostic tool. The detailed cross-sectional imaging appearance of the LG and TEG in dogs using computed tomography (CT) has not been reported to date. Results Forty-two dogs were imaged, and the length, width, and height were measured and the volume calculated for the LGs & TEGs. The glands were best visualized in contrast-enhanced CT images. The mean volume of the LG was 0.14 cm3 and the TEG was 0.1 cm3. The mean height, width, and length of the LG were, 9.36 mm, 4.29 mm, and 9.35 mm, respectively; the corresponding values for the TEG was 2.02 mm, 9.34 mm, and 7.90 mm. LG and TEG volume were positively correlated with body weight (p?glands. PMID:24886364

2014-01-01

229

Physiology of Epithelial Chloride and Fluid Secretion  

PubMed Central

Epithelial salt and water secretion serves a variety of functions in different organ systems, such as the airways, intestines, pancreas, and salivary glands. In cystic fibrosis (CF), the volume and/or composition of secreted luminal fluids are compromised owing to mutations in the gene encoding CFTR, the apical membrane anion channel that is responsible for salt secretion in response to cAMP/PKA stimulation. This article examines CFTR and related cellular transport processes that underlie epithelial anion and fluid secretion, their regulation, and how these processes are altered in CF disease to account for organ-specific secretory phenotypes. PMID:22675668

Frizzell, Raymond A.; Hanrahan, John W.

2012-01-01

230

Random Secretion of Growth Hormone in Humans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In normal humans, growth hormone (GH) is secreted from a gland located adjacent to the brain (pituitary) into the blood in distinct pulses, but in patients bearing a tumor within the pituitary (acromegaly) GH is excessively secreted in an irregular manner. It has been hypothesized that GH secretion in the diseased state becomes random. This hypothesis is supported by demonstrating that GH secretion in patients with acromegaly cannot be distinguished from a variety of linear stochastic processes based on the predictability of the fluctuations of GH concentration in the bloodstream.

Prank, Klaus; Kloppstech, Mirko; Nowlan, Steven J.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Brabant, Georg

1996-08-01

231

The Salivary Secretome of the Tsetse Fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) Infected by Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe competence of the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera; Glossinidae) to acquire salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV), to support virus replication and successfully transmit the virus depends on complex interactions between Glossina and SGHV macromolecules. Critical requisites to SGHV transmission are its replication and secretion of mature virions into the fly's salivary gland (SG) lumen. However, secretion of host proteins

Henry M. Kariithi; Ikbal A. Ince; Sjef Boeren; Adly M. M. Abd-Alla; Andrew G. Parker; Serap Aksoy; Just M. Vlak; Monique M. van Oers

2011-01-01

232

Abstract The lactating mammary gland of the African el-ephant (Loxodonta africana) has been studied with a panel  

E-print Network

Abstract The lactating mammary gland of the African el- ephant (Loxodonta africana) has been Mammary gland · Lactation · Secretion · Proliferation · Apoptosis · Milk · African elephant, Loxodonta · Stuart Patton Histo- and cytophysiology of the lactating mammary gland of the African elephant (Loxodonta

Pretoria, University of

233

Keratin-like components of gland thread cells modulate the properties of mucus from hagfish ( Eptatretus stouti )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hagfishes (cyclostomes) are known to secrete copious amounts of mucus mainly by the holocrine mode from the slime glands. Stressed animals release two types of cells (gland thread cells, GTCs; gland mucous cells, GMCs) which rupture on contact with water and rapidly form a mass of viscous mucus. Herein we report some key sequential events of this process and

Elizabeth A. Koch; Robert H. Spitzer; Ron B. Pithawalla; Stephen W. Downing

1991-01-01

234

[Effect of prednisolone on the basal gastric secretion in laboratory rats depending on functional state of the stomach adrenoreceptors].  

PubMed

Activation of the stomach adrenoreceptors with adrenaline resulting in inhibition of fundal glands promotes stimulating effect of prednisolone glucocorticosteroid action on basal gastric secretion. PMID:12058541

Trefilov, A B

2002-04-01

235

Salivary gland infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Physiology of the salivary glands. In: Cummings CW, Flint PW, Haughey BH, et al, eds. Otolaryngology: Head & ... disorders of the salivary glands. In: Cummings CW, Flint PW, Haughey BH, et al, eds. Otolaryngology: Head & ...

236

Adrenal Gland Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

237

Combined development of thyroid gland and reproductive system benign diseases.  

PubMed

The aim of the study is to establish the role of endocrine disturbances in development of malignant tumors in patients with thyroid gland and reproductive system pathology. We studied 207 patients with synchronic and metachronic development of thyroid gland and reproductive system benign tumors. The patients' average age was 35-58 years. According to study the following aspects were determined: clinical and hormonal aspect of thyroid gland and reproductive system benign tumor disease coincidence, analyses of thyroid gland and reproductive system pre-cancer disease pathogenesis, neuroendocrine relations-like increased thyrotrophic hormone secretion causes strengthening of prolactin secretion, which depresses luteinizing hormone release and increases production of follicular stimulating hormone. It has been proved that fibromyomas absolute hyperestrogenemia which develops during hypersecretion of follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) plays a role in etiology of uterine Gonadoliberin hypersecretion, especially follicular stimulating hormone FSH and corpus luteum deficiency is very important in development of ovarian pre-cancer and cancer diseases. PMID:22155802

Makaridze, T; Mardaleishvili, K

2011-10-01

238

Transcriptomic Analysis of the Salivary Glands of an Invasive Whitefly  

PubMed Central

Background Some species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex cause tremendous losses to crops worldwide through feeding directly and virus transmission indirectly. The primary salivary glands of whiteflies are critical for their feeding and virus transmission. However, partly due to their tiny size, research on whitefly salivary glands is limited and our knowledge on these glands is scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of the Mediterranean species of B. tabaci complex using an effective cDNA amplification method in combination with short read sequencing (Illumina). In a single run, we obtained 13,615 unigenes. The quantity of the unigenes obtained from the salivary glands of the whitefly is at least four folds of the salivary gland genes from other plant-sucking insects. To reveal the functions of the primary glands, sequence similarity search and comparisons with the whole transcriptome of the whitefly were performed. The results demonstrated that the genes related to metabolism and transport were significantly enriched in the primary salivary glands. Furthermore, we found that a number of highly expressed genes in the salivary glands might be involved in secretory protein processing, secretion and virus transmission. To identify potential proteins of whitefly saliva, the translated unigenes were put into secretory protein prediction. Finally, 295 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins and some of them might play important roles in whitefly feeding. Conclusions/Significance: The combined method of cDNA amplification, Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly is suitable for transcriptomic analysis of tiny organs in insects. Through analysis of the transcriptome, genomic features of the primary salivary glands were dissected and biologically important proteins, especially secreted proteins, were predicted. Our findings provide substantial sequence information for the primary salivary glands of whiteflies and will be the basis for future studies on whitefly-plant interactions and virus transmission. PMID:22745728

Su, Yun-Lin; Li, Jun-Min; Li, Meng; Luan, Jun-Bo; Ye, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

2012-01-01

239

14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23.1437 Section 23.1437 ...UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine airplanes,...

2010-01-01

240

19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

2010-04-01

241

19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

2013-04-01

242

19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

2014-04-01

243

19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

2011-04-01

244

19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

2012-04-01

245

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2012-04-01

246

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2011-04-01

247

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

248

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

249

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2014-04-01

250

21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various abrasives, such as diamond chips, that are glued to shellac-based paper. The device is intended to remove excessive restorative materials,...

2014-04-01

251

Specific expression of an A-kinase anchoring protein subtype, AKAP-150, and specific regulatory mechanism for Na +,K +ATPase via protein kinase A in the parotid gland among the three major salivary glands of the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined the expression of A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) in the three major salivary glands, i.e. the parotid gland (PG), submandibular gland (SMG), and sublingual gland (SLG), of the rat to elucidate the functional relevance between saliva secretion and Na+,K+-ATPase regulation by protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation, since an AKAP subtype, AKAP-150, is known to be involved in the

Kinji Kurihara; Nobuo Nakanishi; Osamu Amano; Miyuki Yamamoto; Shoichi Iseki

2003-01-01

252

The action of atropine on pancreatic secretion  

PubMed Central

The action of atropine, in preventing pancreatic secretion in response to a parasympathomimetic drug, is analysed. Atropine does not appear to affect the uptake of glycine by the pancreatic cell, or the incorporation of radioactive amino acids into the total pancreatic tissue proteins, or into the proteins of the zymogen granules. The rate of amylase resynthesis in stimulated glands is not affected by atropine. It is suggested that atropine blocks pancreatic secretion in rats by blocking the extrusion of zymogen granules. PMID:13523138

Junqueira, L. C. U.; Rothschild, Hanna A.; Vugman, I.

1958-01-01

253

Functional lacrimal gland regeneration by transplantation of a bioengineered organ germ  

PubMed Central

The lacrimal gland has a multifaceted role in maintaining a homeostatic microenvironment for a healthy ocular surface via tear secretion. Dry-eye disease, which is caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction, is one of the most prevalent eye diseases that cause corneal epithelial damage and results in significant loss of vision and a reduction in the quality of life. Here we demonstrate orthotopic transplantation of bioengineered lacrimal gland germs into adult mice with an extra-orbital lacrimal gland defect, a mouse model that mimics the corneal epithelial damage caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction. The bioengineered lacrimal gland germs and harderian gland germs both develop in vivo and achieve sufficient physiological functionality, including tear production in response to nervous stimulation and ocular surface protection. This study demonstrates the potential for bioengineered organ replacement to functionally restore the lacrimal gland. PMID:24084941

Hirayama, Masatoshi; Ogawa, Miho; Oshima, Masamitsu; Sekine, Yurie; Ishida, Kentaro; Yamashita, Kentaro; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Shimmura, Shigeto; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Tsubota, Kazuo; Tsuji, Takashi

2013-01-01

254

CYTOPLASMIC FINE STRUCTURE OF SCIARA SALIVARY GLANDS  

PubMed Central

Cells from the anterior segment of the salivary glands of Sciara coprophila were found to synthesize and secrete into the gland lumen three morphologically distinct types of granule: 1) A large, electron-lucid granule, up to 1 µ in diameter, staining only faintly with pH 2 fast green and the PAS reaction; 2) an ellipsoid granule of moderate density, strongly fast green and PAS positive; and 3) a small spherical granule of high electron density. The cells contained numerous Golgi areas, up to an estimated 8,000 per cell. Evidence is presented for the transfer of material from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi areas via small vesicles. Three types of Golgi areas were distinguishable, each containing intercisternal material resembling one of the three types of secretion granule. Patterns of secretion granule synthesis varied with the developmental stage of the larva as determined by counts of eye spots in the eye anlage. Lucid granules were most abundant in the youngest larvae, and decreased in abundance as larvae grew older, becoming virtually absent in prepupae. The small, dense granules were present in all gland cells, but became more prevalent in older larvae and prepupae. Ellipsoid granules were only occasionally present, and were independent of larval stage. It is suggested that lucid granules are digestive in function, since their abundance correlates with feeding patterns. Other granules may produce the external slime coating of the larvae, and also the mucoprotein component of the pupal cocoon. PMID:5328056

Phillips, David M.; Swift, Hewson

1965-01-01

255

Secret Codon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, "write" a secret message in genetic code as beads on a string. Learners use an amino acid codon table to determine the DNA sequences that correspond to the one-letter amino acid abbreviations that make up their secret word(s). Learners also use start and stop codons in their sequences and follow a color key for the bases. Learners can trade strands with a friend to see if they can decode their secret message.

Julie Yu

2008-01-01

256

14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...23.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established for those drives from being exceeded;...

2012-01-01

257

14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...23.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established for those drives from being exceeded;...

2011-01-01

258

14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...23.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established for those drives from being exceeded;...

2010-01-01

259

14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...23.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established for those drives from being exceeded;...

2013-01-01

260

14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...23.1163 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established for those drives from being exceeded;...

2014-01-01

261

Appendix D: Equipment ELECTROSTATIC PAPER AND ACCESSORIES  

E-print Network

D - 1 Appendix D: Equipment ELECTROSTATIC PAPER AND ACCESSORIES: To investigate electric fields with the electrostatic paper, you need to do the following: · Lay the electrostatic paper flat. . · Distribute the pieces. · You may wish to place a wooden block on top of the brass rods to increase contact pressure

Minnesota, University of

262

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

2013-04-01

263

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

2012-04-01

264

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

2011-04-01

265

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

2010-04-01

266

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and...

2014-04-01

267

Larval salivary glands are a source of primer and releaser pheromone in honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brood pheromone identified in honeybee larvae has primer and releaser pheromone effects on adult bees. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate fatty acid esters—the pheromonal compounds—in different parts of the larvae, we have localized the source of the esters as the larval salivary glands. A histochemical study describes the glands and confirms the presence of lipids in the glands. Epithelial cells of the gland likely secrete the fatty acids into the lumen of the gland. These results demonstrate the salivary glands to be a reservoir of esters, components of brood pheromone, in honeybee larvae.

Conte, Yves Le; Bécard, Jean-Marc; Costagliola, Guy; de Vaublanc, Gérard; Maâtaoui, Mohamed El; Crauser, Didier; Plettner, Erika; Slessor, Keith N.

2006-05-01

268

Discrimination of Oribotritia species by oil gland chemistry (Acari, Oribatida).  

PubMed

The chemical composition of secretions from opisthonotal (oil) glands in four species of the oribatid mite genus Oribotritia (Mixonomata, Euphthiracaroidea, Oribotritiidae) was compared by means of gas chromatography--mass spectrometry. The secretions of all, O. banksi (from North America) and three Austrian oribotritiids (O. berlesei, O. hermanni, O. storkani), are shown to be based on certain unusual compounds, the iridoid monoterpenes chrysomelidial and epi-chrysomelidial and the diterpene ?-springene. These components probably represent general chemical characteristics of oribotriid oil glands. Their relative abundance in the secretions along with further components (mainly saturated and unsaturated C(13)-, C(15)-, C(17)-hydrocarbons, and the tentatively identified octadecadienal) led to well-distinguishable, species-specific oil gland secretions profiles. In addition a reduced set of "Astigmata compounds" (sensu Sakata and Norton in Int J Acarol 27:281-291, 2001)--namely the two monoterpenes neral and geranial--could be detected in extracts of O. banksi nevertheless indicating the classification of euphthiracaroids within the (monophyletic) group of "Astigmata compounds-bearing"-Oribatida. These compounds are considered to be apomorphically reduced in all Austrian species. Our findings emphasize the potential of chemosystematics using oil gland secretion profiles in the discrimination of morphologically very similar, syntopically living or even cryptic oribatid species. PMID:21350972

Raspotnig, Günther; Leutgeb, Verena; Krisper, Günther; Leis, Hans-Jörg

2011-07-01

269

Norepinephrine depletion of antimicrobial peptides from the skin glands of Xenopus laevis.  

PubMed

The dermal granular glands of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, contain antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that are secreted following local nerve stimulation. These natural antibiotics are active against bacteria and fungi including Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a fungal pathogen that causes the skin disease chytridiomycosis. Granular gland secretion can be stimulated in the laboratory by norepinephrine injection. We found that two injections of 80nmol/g norepinephrine were necessary to fully deplete the AMP stores. One injection resulted in the secretion of most of the stored peptides. A second injection, 2 days later, released a small amount of additional AMPs that are not compositionally different from those released by the first injection. A third injection, 4 days after the first, did not result in further AMP release. Mass spectrometry and histology confirmed that glands are depleted after two injections. Periodic acid-Schiff staining indicated that mucus gland secretion was also induced by norepinephrine. PMID:22227319

Gammill, Whitney M; Fites, J Scott; Rollins-Smith, Louise A

2012-05-01

270

Successful treatment of crocodile tears by injection of botulinum toxin into the lacrimal gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivePathologic lacrimation (crocodile tears) is a rare but stigmatizing symptom after facial nerve paralysis. The aim of this pilot study was to examine whether botulinum toxin injection into the lacrimal gland is effective in reducing pathologic tear secretion.

Randolf Riemann; Stefan Pfennigsdorf; Elke Riemann; Markus Naumann

1999-01-01

271

Fractionated irradiation and early changes in salivary glands. Different effects on potassium efflux, exocytotic amylase release and gland morphology  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation is a potent treatment modality of head and neck cancer. However, the irradiation is usually associated with an influence on salivary glands with ensuing dryness and discomfort for the patients. In the present study we used different in vitro secretory models and morphologic characterization of rat parotid gland. Radiation was given to one gland on a 5-day schedule with 6 MV photons (total dose 20, 30, 35, 40, 45 Gy). The contralateral gland served as control, and the analysis of glands were performed 10 days after the last irradiation treatment. The noradrenaline stimulated electrolyte secretion (86rubidium tracer for potassium) was decreased in relation to the irradiation dose and in comparison to contralateral control glands. Noradrenaline stimulated exocytotic amylase release was not affected by irradiation and, there were no signs of obvious quantitative morphologic alterations after irradiation compared with controls. The results suggest that there are differences in the sensitivity to radiation for the two different secretory processes in salivary glands, and, thus, the structures regulating electrolyte and fluid secretion seem to be more vulnerable to irradiation than the process of exocytosis. The results, however, do not allow discrimination between temporary cellular impairment and irreversible damage leading to cell death.

Franzen, L.; Funegard, U.S.; Sundstroem, S.G.; Gustafsson, H.; Danielsson, A.; Henriksson, R. (University Hospital, Umea (Sweden))

1991-02-01

272

Cuticle and mucous glands in the oesophagus of an annelid (Nereis virens).  

PubMed

The oesophagus of Nereis virens is divided into anterior and posterior regions and possesses several peculiar features not previously described for cuticle or glands of Polychaetes either in body or foregut integument. The mucous cells which are permanent glands in both regions secrete a carboxylated acidic mucus and possess apical mechanisms permitting the opening and closing of the neck of the glands. The cuticle of the posterior oesophagus bears numerous striated spines and several hypotheses concerning their physiological role are discussed. PMID:7209958

Michel, C; DeVillez, E J

1980-01-01

273

The Electron Microscopy of the Left Colleterial Gland of the Cockroach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been made of the cells of the left colleterial gland o f the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.), using the electron microscope, and the results com- pared with previous histological and histochemical studies. The colleterial gland consists of an arborescent bunch of long tubules composed mainly of the cells which secrete the structural protein of the egg case

E. H. Mercer; P. C. J. BRUNET; D. Phil

1959-01-01

274

THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE WAX GLAND OF THE HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.)  

E-print Network

THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE WAX GLAND OF THE HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.) Malcolin T. SANFORD Alfred An electron microscopic study was initiated to elucidate the ultrastructure of the wax gland in an actively wax secreting worker honey bee. The investigation showed that the cuticle is penetrated by bundles

Boyer, Edmond

275

Effect of Irradiation on Cell Transcriptome and Proteome of Rat Submandibular Salivary Glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salivary glands (SGs) are irreversibly damaged by irradiation (IR) treatment in head and neck cancer patients. Here, we used an animal irradiation model to investigate and define the molecular mechanisms affecting SGs following IR, focusing on saliva proteome and global transcription profile of submandibular salivary gland (SSG) tissue.We show that saliva secretion was gradually reduced to 50% of its initial

Raluca Stiubea-Cohen; Ran David; Yoav Neumann; Guy Krief; Omer Deutsch; Batia Zacks; Doron J. Aframian; Aaron Palmon

2012-01-01

276

Salivary glands as a potential gene transfer target for gene therapeutics of some monogenetic endocrine disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salivary glands (SGs) exhibit several important features which are also common to endocrine glands: self- containment due to a surrounding capsule, highly efficient protein production and the ability to secrete proteins into the bloodstream. We have hypothesized that SGs are potentially useful as gene transfer targets for the correction of inherited monogenetic endocrine disorders. In the pres- ent communication, we

Antonis Voutetakis; Ioannis Bossis; Marc R Kok; Weitian Zhang; Jianghua Wang; Ana P Cotrim; Changyu Zheng; John A Chiorini; Lynnette K Nieman; Bruce J Baum

2005-01-01

277

Uterine glands: biological roles in conceptus implantation, uterine receptivity, and decidualization  

PubMed Central

All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in uterine receptivity, blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, and stromal cell decidualization. Studies with the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model support a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid histrotroph for conceptus survival and development. In rodents, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are unequivocally required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation and also may influence blastocyst trophectoderm activation and stromal cell decidualization in the uterus. Similarly in humans, histotroph from uterine glands appears critical for blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus nutrition during the first trimester and uterine glands likely have a role in stromal cell decidualization. An increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of fertility problems, particularly infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, in domestic animals and humans. PMID:25023676

Filant, Justyna; Spencer, Thomas E.

2014-01-01

278

Evaluation of the Effects of Quercetin on Damaged Salivary Secretion  

PubMed Central

With the aim of discovering an effective method to treat dry mouth, we analyzed the effects of quercetin on salivary secretion and its mechanism of action. We created a mouse model with impaired salivary secretion by exposure to radiation and found that impaired secretion is suppressed by quercetin intake. Moreover, secretion levels were enhanced in quercetin-fed normal mice. To elucidate the mechanisms of these effects on salivary secretion, we conducted an analysis using mouse submandibular gland tissues, a human salivary gland epithelial cell line (HSY), and mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs). The results showed that quercetin augments aquaporin 5 (AQP5) expression and calcium uptake, and suppresses oxidative stress and inflammatory responses induced by radiation exposure, suggesting that quercetin intake may be an effective method to treat impaired salivary secretion. PMID:25629520

Takahashi, Ayako; Inoue, Hiroko; Mishima, Kenji; Ide, Fumio; Nakayama, Ryoko; Hasaka, Ayaka; Ryo, Koufuchi; Ito, Yumi; Sakurai, Takashi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Saito, Ichiro

2015-01-01

279

Salivary gland disorders.  

PubMed

Patients with salivary gland disease present with certain objective and/or subjective signs. An accurate diagnosis for these patients requires a range of techniques that includes the organized integration of information derived from their history, clinical examination, imaging, serology, and histopathology. This article highlights the signs and symptoms of the salivary gland disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center, and emphasizes the methodology used to achieve a definitive diagnosis and therapy. PMID:25443682

Mandel, Louis

2014-11-01

280

Parasympathetic Control of Airway Submucosal Glands: Central Reflexes and the Airway Intrinsic Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Airway submucosal glands produce the mucus that lines the upper airways to protect them against insults. This review summarizes evidence for two forms of gland secretion, and hypothesizes that each is mediated by different but partially overlapping neural pathways. Airway innate defense comprises low level gland secretion, mucociliary clearance and surveillance by airway-resident phagocytes to keep the airways sterile in spite of nearly continuous inhalation of low levels of pathogens. Gland secretion serving innate defense is hypothesized to be under the control of intrinsic (peripheral) airway neurons and local reflexes, and these may depend disproportionately on non-cholinergic mechanisms, with most secretion being produced by VIP and tachykinins. In the genetic disease cystic fibrosis, airway glands no longer secrete in response to VIP alone and fail to show the synergy between VIP, tachykinins and ACh that is observed in normal glands. The consequent crippling of the submucosal gland contribution to innate defense may be one reason that cystic fibrosis airways are infected by mucus-resident bacteria and fungi that are routinely cleared from normal airways. By contrast, the acute (emergency) airway defense reflex is centrally mediated by vagal pathways, is primarily cholinergic, and stimulates copious volumes of gland mucus in response to acute, intense challenges to the airways, such as those produced by very vigorous exercise or aspiration of foreign material. In cystic fibrosis, the acute airway defense reflex can still stimulate the glands to secrete large amounts of mucus, although its properties are altered. Importantly, treatments that recruit components of the acute reflex, such as inhalation of hypertonic saline, are beneficial in treating cystic fibrosis airway disease. The situation for recipients of lung transplants is the reverse; transplanted airways retain the airway intrinsic nervous system but lose centrally mediated reflexes. The consequences of this for gland secretion and airway defense are poorly understood, but it is possible that interventions to modify submucosal gland secretion in transplanted lungs might have therapeutic consequences. Introduction and overviewProtecting the Airways: mucus and submucosal glands.The airway intrinsic nervous system: a special role in innate defense?Innate defense: prophylactic secretion and local responses.Acute ‘Emergency’ airway defense reflexesAirway receptors: Improved methods reveal greater diversityHijacking emergency defense for innate defense: receptor plasticity and airways sensitization.Conclusion: Implications for cystic fibrosis and lung transplantation. PMID:17350348

Wine, Jeffrey J.

2007-01-01

281

Silks produced by insect labial glands  

PubMed Central

Insect silks are secreted from diverse gland types; this chapter deals with the silks produced by labial glands of Holometabola (insects with pupa in their life cycle). Labial silk glands are composed of a few tens or hundreds of large polyploid cells that secrete polymerizing proteins which are stored in the gland lumen as a semi-liquid gel. Polymerization is based on weak molecular interactions between repetitive amino acid motifs present in one or more silk proteins; cross-linking by disulfide bonds may be important in the silks spun under water. The mechanism of long-term storage of the silk dope inside the glands and its conversion into the silk fiber during spinning is not fully understood. The conversion occurs within seconds at ambient temperature and pressure, under minimal drawing force and in some cases under water. The silk filament is largely built of proteins called fibroins and in Lepidoptera and Trichoptera coated by glue-type proteins known as sericins. Silks often contain small amounts of additional proteins of poorly known function. The silk components controlling dope storage and filament formation seem to be conserved at the level of orders, while the nature of polymerizing motifs in the fibroins, which determine the physical properties of silk, differ at the level of family and even genus. Most silks are based on fibroin ?-sheets interrupted with other structures such as ?-helices but the silk proteins of certain sawflies have predominantly a collagen-like or polyglycine II arrangement and the silks of social Hymenoptera are formed from proteins in a coiled coil arrangement. PMID:19221523

Sutherland, Tara

2008-01-01

282

Hoopoes color their eggs with antimicrobial uropygial secretions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uropygial gland secretions are used as cosmetics by some species of birds to color and enhance properties of feathers and teguments, which may signal individual quality. Uropygial secretions also reach eggshells during incubation and, therefore, may influence the coloration of birds' eggs, a trait that has attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists for more than one century. The color of hoopoe eggs typically changes along incubation, from bluish-gray to greenish-brown. Here, we test experimentally the hypothesis that dark uropygial secretion of females is responsible for such drastic color change. Moreover, since uropygial secretion of hoopoes has antimicrobial properties, we also explore the association between color and antimicrobial activity of the uropygial secretion of females. We found that eggs stayed bluish-gray in nests where female access to the uropygial secretion was experimentally blocked. Furthermore, experimental eggs that were maintained in incubators and manually smeared with uropygial secretion experienced similar color changes that naturally incubated eggs did, while control eggs that were not in contact with the secretions did not experience such color changes. All these results strongly support the hypothesis that female hoopoes use their uropygial gland secretion to color the eggs. Moreover, saturation of the uropygial secretion was associated with antimicrobial activity against Bacillus licheniformis. Given the known antimicrobial potential of uropygial secretions of birds, this finding opens the possibility that in scenarios of sexual selection, hoopoes in particular and birds in general signal antimicrobial properties of their uropygial secretion by mean of changes in egg coloration along incubation.

Soler, Juan J.; Martín-Vivaldi, M.; Peralta-Sánchez, J. M.; Arco, L.; Juárez-García-Pelayo, N.

2014-09-01

283

Aqueous solvents for extracting glanded cottonseed protein without gland rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of pigment glands has thwarted attempts to extract edible cottonseed protein aqueously from glanded seeds or\\u000a gland-rich meals, probably because of the widely held belief that glands rupture on contact with aqueous media. We found several\\u000a aqueous salt solutions in which glands did not rupture. Glands remained intact in saturated (2m) sodium sulfate, but not in saturated 2m

L. L. Muller; T. J. Jacks; T. P. Hensarling

1976-01-01

284

HIV Accessory Proteins versus Host Restriction Factors  

PubMed Central

Primate immunodeficiency viruses, including HIV-1, are characterized by the presence of accessory genes such as vif, vpr, vpx, vpu, and nef. Current knowledge indicates that none of the primate lentiviral accessory proteins has enzymatic activity. Instead, these proteins interact with cellular ligands to either act as adapter molecules to redirect the normal function of host factors for virus-specific purposes or to inhibit a normal host function by mediating degradation or causing intracellular mislocalization/sequestration of the factors involved. This review aims at providing an update of our current understanding of how Vif, Vpu, and Vpx control the cellular restriction factors APOBEC3G, BST-2, and SAMHD1, respectively. PMID:24246762

Strebel, Klaus

2013-01-01

285

Accessory mineral records of tectonic environments? (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accessory mineral research continues to gather momentum as we seek to unleash their full potential. It is now widely recognised that robust accessory minerals, such as zircon, rutile, titanite, allanite and monazite, are archives of important trace elements that can help deduce metamorphic reaction history in metapelites, metabasites and other rock types. Moreover, they are important carriers of certain trace elements and govern or influence the products of partial melting and of fluid-rock interaction (e.g. magmas and mineralisation) in settings like subduction zones and hydrothermal systems. Perhaps most importantly, they can often be dated using the U-Th-Pb system. More recently, radiogenic (Lu-Hf, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr) and stable (O) isotope systems have been applied and have further pushed the utility of accessory mineral research. In this talk I will discuss some of these advances towards one particular aim: the use of detrital accessory minerals for fingerprinting tectonic environments. This is a particularly laudable aim in Precambrian rocks, for which the preservation potential of orogenic belts and fossil subduction zones and their diagnostic metamorphic rocks is low. The implication is that our understanding of plate tectonics, particularly in the Archaean, is biased by the preserved in-tact rock record. An analogy is that Jack Hills zircons record evidence of Earth’s crust some 400 Ma before the preserved rock record begins. I will focus on some recent advances and new data from rutile and also the mineral inclusion record within zircon, which shows great promise for petrologic interpretation.

Storey, C.; Marschall, H. R.; Enea, F.; Taylor, J.; Jennings, E. S.

2010-12-01

286

Salivary Gland Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

287

Acid and base secretion in the Calu-3 model of human serous cells.  

PubMed

Submucosal glands are the primary source of airway mucus, a critical component of lung innate defenses. Airway glands are defective in cystic fibrosis (CF), showing a complete absence of secretion to vasoactive intestinal peptide or forskolin, which increase intracellular cAMP concentration. This defect is attributed to gland serous cells, which express the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. Calu-3 cells, which mimic many features of serous cells, secrete Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-), with HCO(3)(-) secretion predominating for forskolin stimulation and Cl(-) secretion predominating for stimuli that open basolateral K(+) channels to hyperpolarize the cells. We used pH stat and ion substitution experiments to clarify the mechanisms and consequences of these two modes of secretion. We confirm that Calu-3 cells secrete primarily HCO(3)(-) in response to forskolin. Unexpectedly, HCO(3)(-) secretion continued in response to K(+) channel openers, with Cl(-) secretion being added to it. Secretion of HCO(3)(-) from hyperpolarized cells occurs via the conversion of CO(2) to HCO(3)(-) and is reduced by approximately 50% with acetazolamide. A gap between the base equivalent current and short-circuit current was observed in all experiments and was traced to secretion of H(+) via a ouabain-sensitive, K(+)-dependent process (possibly H(+)-K(+)-ATPase), which partially neutralized the secreted HCO(3)(-). The conjoint secretion of HCO(3)(-) and H(+) may help explain the puzzling finding that mucus secreted from normal and CF glands has the same acidic pH as does mucus from glands stimulated with forskolin or ACh. It may also help explain how human airway glands produce mucus that is hypotonic. PMID:15310554

Krouse, Mauri E; Talbott, Jason F; Lee, Martin M; Joo, Nam Soo; Wine, Jeffrey J

2004-12-01

288

Occurrence of parotoid glands in tadpoles of the tropical frog, Clinotarsus curtipes and their role in predator deterrence.  

PubMed

Tadpoles of the tropical bicolored frog, Clinotarsus curtipes are unique in having parotoid glands secreting a white viscous fluid and are structurally similar to granular glands from other amphibians. To ascertain the involvement of these glands and their secretion in predator deterrence, it was tested against a predatory fish, Clarias gariepinus, using a paired choice behavioral assay. The results showed that the fish avoid eating C. curtipes tadpoles when paired with tadpoles of a sympatric species, Sylvirana temporalis. While the fish fed on C. curtipes tadpoles whose parotoid glands were surgically removed, did not touch those with intact glands, suggesting a role for the parotoid gland secretion in predator deterrence. Histochemical and biochemical analyses of the gland secretion revealed the presence of high concentrations of proteins, lipids, and alkaloids. SDS-PAGE showed the presence of proteins with prominent bands at 17 and 50kDa. The presence of other small molecules (950-2000amu) as detected by LC-MS showed the presence of five major peaks. Peaks 1 and 2 are probably tetrodotoxin and/or its analogs. Peaks 3 and 5 are possibly bufalin and argininosuccinic acid, respectively while peak 4 remains unidentified. Thus, secretion of parotoid glands of larval C. curtipes contains chemicals which, either alone or in combination, might be responsible for deterring predators. PMID:24468740

Gosavi, Sachin M; Gaikwad, Prashant S; Gramapurohit, Narahari P; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi

2014-04-01

289

Ultrastructural localization of microliths in salivary glands of cat.  

PubMed

Although microliths occur in normal human salivary glands and may be an aetiological factor of sialadenitis, little is known of their natural history. In an attempt to remedy this, we investigated a large archival collection of normal and experimental feline parotid, submandibular and sublingual salivary glands. In submandibular and sublingual glands, microliths were detected ultrastructurally in: all types of acinar secretory cells; myoepithelial cells; ductal cells; lumina; intercellular spaces; basement membrane; stroma; macrophages; multinuclear giant cells; and neutrophils. Microliths were not detected ultrastructurally in parotid glands. Microliths appear to form in acinar cells during autophagy and in stagnant secretory material in lumina. Microliths appear to be removed by secretion in the saliva, discharge from cells laterally and basally, and engulfment by macrophages. There appears to be a turnover of microliths, which possibly is upset by secretory inactivity with a resulting accumulation that leads to localized obstruction and sialadenitis. PMID:8283401

Harrison, J D; Triantafyllou, A; Garrett, J R

1993-09-01

290

Carbonic anhydrase in minor salivary glands of quail: histochemistry versus immunohistochemistry.  

PubMed

Studies on the mechanisms of saliva secretion have indicated that carbonic anhydrase (CA) is expressed in mammalian salivary glands. The enzyme is present in the saliva as the only known secretory isoenzyme, CAVI; its activity has been related to the modulation of taste and caries development. Unlike mammals, in birds, saliva is produced by the so-called minor salivary glands, mostly concentrated in the tongue. The involvement of CA has never been explored in avian salivary secretion. Thus, we aimed here to ascertain the enzyme occurrence in the quail lingual glands by a parallel investigation of the distributional patterns of CA activity sites, as visualized by histochemistry, and the immunohistochemical patterns of cytosolic CAII and secretory CAVI. The comparative evaluation of our findings does not rule out that some CA isoforms, associated to basolateral borders of the secretory cells and antigenically different from cytosolic CAII and secretory CAVI, may be involved in the salivary secretion in the quail lingual glands. PMID:23323952

Gabrielli, Maria Gabriella; Tomassoni, Daniele

2014-02-01

291

Possible role of nitric oxide in radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction.  

PubMed

In this study, we developed a murine model of xerostomia to elucidate the mechanism of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction and determined the levels of nitric oxide (NO) in the salivary glands to assess its involvement in the salivary dysfunction induced by radiation. In addition, an inhibitor of NO synthesis was administered to the model in vivo, and its effect on saliva secretion was investigated. Salivary gland irradiation at a dose of 15 Gy caused a significant decrease in secretion compared to unirradiated salivary glands. There were no marked differences between the irradiated mice and unirradiated mice in water or food consumption or in body weight changes. The NO levels in the cultured salivary gland epithelial cells were increased by treatment with a combination of interferon gamma (Ifng), interleukin 1-beta (Il1b), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnfa). Irradiation increased the NO level in the salivary gland tissue. The presence of N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine acetate (l-NMMA), an inhibitor of NO synthesis, caused a decrease in the NO level in cultured salivary gland tissues after irradiation. Administration of l-NMMA to irradiated mice improved saliva secretion. These results suggest that excessive production of NO induced by radiation is involved in the formation of radiation-induced xerostomia. The finding that administration of an inhibitor of NO synthesis ameliorated the dysfunction of irradiated salivary glands indicates that NO plays a role as a mediator of the dry mouth symptoms that occur after irradiation. PMID:12643791

Takeda, Ienaka; Kizu, Yasuhiro; Yoshitaka, Okamoto; Saito, Ichiro; Yamane, Gen-Yuki

2003-04-01

292

21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

2010-04-01

293

21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

2011-04-01

294

21 CFR 870.4200 - Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4200 Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment. (a)...

2013-04-01

295

21 CFR 870.4200 - Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4200 Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment. (a)...

2014-04-01

296

Fine structure of squamous epitheilum and submucosal glands of human oesophagus.  

PubMed

Normal squamous epithelium and submucosal glands of the human oesophagus have been studied in biopsy and resection specimens. The squamous epithelium has a structure similar to that seen in other histologically comparable sites, and contains Langerhans cells. Features of note within the squamous cells include microfibrillar intranuclear bodies and occasional intracytoplasmic desmosomes. The submucosal glands are comparable in many respects to the mucous-secreting minor salivary glands. Myoepithelial cells are observed within the acini and smaller ducts; occasional oncocytic cells are identified at the junction between duct and acinus. The innvervation of these glands appears to be indirect. PMID:885784

Al Yassin, T M; Toner, P G

1977-07-01

297

HIV-1 Accessory Proteins: Vpu and Vif  

PubMed Central

HIV-1 Vif and Vpu are accessory factors involved in late stages of viral replication. Vif regulates viral infectivity by preventing virion incorporation of APOBEC3G and other members of the family of cytidine deaminases, while Vpu causes degradation of CD4 and promotes virus release by functionally inactivating the host factor BST-2. This chapter described techniques used for the characterization of Vif and Vpu and their functional interaction with host factors. Many of the techniques are, however, applicable to the functional analysis of other viral proteins. PMID:24158820

Andrew, Amy; Strebel, Klaus

2014-01-01

298

Salivary gland derived peptides as a new class of anti-inflammatory agents: review of preclinical pharmacology of C-terminal peptides of SMR1 protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limitations of steroidal and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have prompted investigation into other biologically based therapeutics, and identification of immune selective anti-inflammatory agents of salivary origin. The traditional view of salivary glands as accessory digestive structures is changing as their importance as sources of systemically active immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory factors is recognized. Salivary gland involvement in maintenance of whole

Ronald D Mathison; Joseph S Davison; A Dean Befus; Daniel A Gingerich

2010-01-01

299

Antimicrobial chemicals in hoopoe preen secretions are produced by symbiotic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Animals frequently use metabolites produced by symbiotic bacteria as agents against pathogens and parasites. Secretions from the preen gland of birds are used for this purpose, although its chemicals apparently are produced by the birds themselves. European hoopoes Upupa epops and green woodhoopoes Phoeniculus purpureus harbour symbiotic bacteria in the uropygial gland that might be partly responsible for the chemical composition of secretions. Here we investigate the antimicrobial activity of the volatile fraction of chemicals in hoopoe preen secretions, and, by means of experimental antibiotic injections, test whether symbiotic bacteria living within the uropygial gland are responsible for their production. Hoopoes produce two different kinds of secretions that differ drastically in their chemical composition. While the malodorous dark secretions produced by nestlings included a complex mix of volatiles, these chemicals did not appear in white secretions produced by non-nesting birds. All volatiles detected showed strong antibacterial activity, and a mixture of the chemicals at the concentrations measured in nestling glands inhibited the growth of all bacterial strains assayed. We found support for the hypothesized role of bacteria in the production of such antimicrobial chemicals because experimental clearance of bacteria from glands of nestlings with antibiotics resulted in secretions without most of the volatiles detected in control individuals. Thus, the presence of symbiotic bacteria in the uropygial gland provides hoopoes with potent antimicrobials for topical use. PMID:19812087

Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Peńa, Aránzazu; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Sánchez, Lourdes; Ananou, Samir; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan José

2010-01-01

300

Enlarged prostate gland  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... is encased within the prostate gland. As a man ages, the prostate typically enlarges in size in ... urinate, and incontinence. Less than half of all men with BPH have symptoms of the disease, or ...

301

Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones  

MedlinePLUS

... Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Endocrine System » Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

302

Reviewing prescription spending and accessory usage.  

PubMed

This article aims to explore the role of the stoma nurse specialist in the community and how recent initiatives within the NHS have impacted on the roles in stoma care to react to the rising prescription costs in the specialty. The article will explore how the stoma care nurse conducted her prescription reviews within her own clinical commissioning group (CCG). The findings of the reviews will be highlighted by a small case history and a mini audit that reveals that some stoma patients may be using their stoma care accessories inappropriately, which may contribute to the rise in stoma prescription spending. To prevent the incorrect use of stoma appliances it may necessitate an annual review of ostomates (individuals who have a stoma), as the author's reviews revealed that inappropriate usage was particularly commonplace when a patient may have not been reviewed by a stoma care specialist for some considerable amount of time. Initial education of the ostomate and ongoing education of how stoma products work is essential to prevent the misuse of stoma appliances, particularly accessories, as the reviews revealed that often patients were not always aware of how their products worked in practice. PMID:24642774

Oxenham, Julie

303

Functional heterogeneity among cell types in the normal pituitary gland and in human and rat pituitary tumors.  

E-print Network

??abstractHormone secretion by the anterior pituitary gland is under control of hypothalamic regulatory factorsjhormones (see chapter I.l) and peripheral hormones. Apart from the direct effects… (more)

L.J. Hofland (Leo)

1989-01-01

304

76 FR 585 - In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories and Packaging Thereof; Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Handbags, Luggage, Accessories and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Investigation AGENCY...handbags. luggage, accessories and packaging thereof by reason of infringement of...handbags, luggage, accessories and packaging thereof that infringe the `594...

2011-01-05

305

Radionuclide salivary gland imaging  

SciTech Connect

Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

Mishkin, F.S.

1981-10-01

306

The mammary gland and its origin during synapsid evolution.  

PubMed

Lactation appears to be an ancient reproductive trait that predates the origin of mammals. The synapsid branch of the amniote tree that separated from other taxa in the Pennsylvanian (>310 million years ago) evolved a glandular rather than scaled integument. Repeated radiations of synapsids produced a gradual accrual of mammalian features. The mammary gland apparently derives from an ancestral apocrine-like gland that was associated with hair follicles. This association is retained by monotreme mammary glands and is evident as vestigial mammary hair during early ontogenetic development of marsupials. The dense cluster of mammo-pilo-sebaceous units that open onto a nipple-less mammary patch in monotremes may reflect a structure that evolved to provide moisture and other constituents to permeable eggs. Mammary patch secretions were coopted to provide nutrients to hatchlings, but some constituents including lactose may have been secreted by ancestral apocrine-like glands in early synapsids. Advanced Triassic therapsids, such as cynodonts, almost certainly secreted complex, nutrient-rich milk, allowing a progressive decline in egg size and an increasingly altricial state of the young at hatching. This is indicated by the very small body size, presence of epipubic bones, and limited tooth replacement in advanced cynodonts and early mammaliaforms. Nipples that arose from the mammary patch rendered mammary hairs obsolete, while placental structures have allowed lactation to be truncated in living eutherians. PMID:12751889

Oftedal, Olav T

2002-07-01

307

Simon Effect with and without Awareness of the Accessory Stimulus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated whether a Simon effect could be observed in an accessory-stimulus Simon task when participants were unaware of the task-irrelevant accessory cue. In Experiment 1A a central visual target was accompanied by a suprathreshold visual lateral cue. A regular Simon effect (i.e., faster cue-response corresponding reaction times…

Treccani, Barbara; Umilta, Carlo; Tagliabue, Mariaelena

2006-01-01

308

Ultrastructural investigation of a salivary gland in a centipede: structure and origin of the maxilla I-gland of Scutigera coleoptrata (Chilopoda, Notostigmophora).  

PubMed

The maxilla I-gland of Scutigera coleoptrata was investigated using light and electron microscopy methods. This is the first ultrastructural investigation of a salivary gland in Chilopoda. The paired gland opens via the hypopharynx into the foregut and extends up to the third trunk segment. The gland is of irregular shape and consists of numerous acini consisting of several gland units. The secretion is released into an arborescent duct system. Each acinus consists of multiple of glandular units. The units are composed of three cell types: secretory cells, a single intermediary cell, and canal cells. The pear-shaped secretory cell is invaginated distally, forming an extracellular reservoir lined with microvilli, into which the secretion is released. The intermediary cell forms a conducting canal and connects the secretory cell with the canal cell. Proximally, the intermediary cell bears microvilli, whereas the distal part is covered with a distinct cuticle. The cuticle is a continuation of the cuticle of the canal cells. This investigation shows that the structure of the glandular units of the salivary maxilla I-gland is comparable to that of the glandular units of epidermal glands. Thus, it is likely that in Chilopoda salivary glands and epidermal glands share the same ground pattern. It is likely that in compound acinar glands a multiplication of secretory and duct cells has taken place, whereas the number of intermediary cells remains constant. The increase in the number of salivary acini leads to a shifting of the secretory elements away from the epidermis, deep into the head. Comparative investigations of the different head glands provide important characters for the reconstruction of myriapod phylogeny and the relationships of Myriapoda and Hexapoda. PMID:16380969

Hilken, Gero; Rosenberg, Jörg

2006-03-01

309

Effect of rat salivary glands extracts on the proliferation of cultured skin cells - a wound healing model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Salivary gland secretions play an important role in promotion of wound healing. The healing of intra- or extra-oral wounds\\u000a is delayed in desalivated rats. However, the specific role of each salivary gland in promoting wound healing is unknown. This\\u000a study was aimed to investigate the effect of crude extracts of rat salivary glands on a simplified in vitro wound

Nili Grossman; Li-At Binyamin; Lipa Bodner

2004-01-01

310

Effect of Rat Salivary Glands Extracts on the Proliferation of Cultured Skin Cells – A Wound Healing Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Salivary gland secretions play an important role in promotion of wound healing. The healing of intra- or extra-oral wounds\\u000a is delayed in desalivated rats. However, the specific role of each salivary gland in promoting wound healing is unknown. This\\u000a study was aimed to investigate the effect of crude extracts of rat salivary glands on a simplified in vitro wound

Nili Grossman; Li-At Binyamin; Lipa Bodner

2004-01-01

311

[Post-operative functional evaluation of accessory nerve reconstruction].  

PubMed

A nerve reconstruction was performed in 20 patients whose spinal accessory nerve was resected during total neck dissection. Re-anastomosis or a cable graft was performed between both cut ends of the accessory nerve in 14 patients (accessory nerve reconstruction group), and between the peripheral cut end of the accessory nerve and the central cut end of the cervical nerve (C2 or C3) in 6 patients (cervical/accessory nerve reconstruction group). There was no difference in the postoperative shoulder functions between the reconstruction groups, and both groups were significantly better than the group without reconstruction (n = 13), although they tended to be poorer than the nerve preservation group (n = 41). PMID:24601096

Asakura, Koji; Honma, Tomo; Keira, Takashi; Nagaya, Tomonori; Himi, Tetsuo

2014-01-01

312

Control system for engine-operated automotive accessories  

SciTech Connect

A control system is described for an accessory of an automobile, comprising: an engine, an engine output detector for detecting the output of the engine; a gear transmission coupled to the engine and responsive to detection of an idling condition of the automobile for selecting a neutral gear position; an accessory drivable by the engine; a clutch disposed between the accessory and the engine for connecting and disconnecting the output of the engine to the accessory; a speed sensor for detecting the speed of travel of the automobile from the gear transmission; and control means for comparing an actual running condition of the automobile with a prescribed running condition in which the output of the engine and the speed of the automobile are lower than respective prescribed levels; and for inhibiting operation of the accessory by disconnecting the clutch when the automobile is under the prescribed running conditions.

Nishikawa, M.; Aoki, T.; Sato, Y.; Fukuda, Y.

1987-08-25

313

Mobile Proactive secret sharing  

E-print Network

This thesis describes mobile proactive secret sharing (MPSS), an extension of proactive secret sharing. Mobile proactive secret sharing is much more flexible than proactive secret sharing in terms of group membership: ...

Schultz, David Andrew

2007-01-01

314

Soldier Formation Regulated by a Primer Pheromone from the Soldier Frontal Gland in a Higher Termite, Nasutitermes lujae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the nasute higher termite Nasutitermes lujae, the differentiation of new soldiers is suppressed or delayed by the soldiers themselves. Experimental data strongly suggest that this inhibitory effect results from the action of a primer phermone secreted by the frontal gland of soldiers. The pheromone must be contacted directly. Thus, the frontal gland of termite soldiers assumes a new role

Patrick Lefeuve; Christian Bordereau

1984-01-01

315

Nasal secretion of the ozone scavenger uric acid  

SciTech Connect

Uric acid, an important scavenger of ozone, has been identified as the major low molecular weight antioxidant in baseline and cholinergically induced nasal secretions. The purpose of this study was to determine the specific tissue source of uric acid in airway secretions. The secretion of uric acid is increased by cholinergic stimulation and correlates closely with the secretion of lactoferrin (a nasal glandular protein), suggesting that submucosal glands are involved. Indeed, nasal turbinate tissue was found to contain uric acid. However, careful analysis of nasal turbinate tissue failed to reveal the presence of xanthine oxidase, the enzyme responsible for uric acid synthesis. These data suggest that uric acid might be taken up secondarily by glands from plasma. This possibility was strengthened by the observation that lowering the plasma urate level with probenecid concomitantly lowered urate secretion. These findings are consistent with the hypotheses that the principal source of uric acid in nasal secretions is plasma and that uric acid is taken up, concentrated, and secreted by nasal glands.

Peden, D.B.; Swiersz, M.; Ohkubo, K.; Hahn, B.; Emery, B.; Kaliner, M.A. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States))

1993-08-01

316

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2013-04-01

317

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2014-04-01

318

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2011-04-01

319

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2012-04-01

320

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2010-04-01

321

Skull fracture vs. accessory sutures: how can we tell the difference?  

E-print Network

K (2003) Unusual accessory cranial sutures in pediatric headcranial CT is deemed clinically necessary in trauma patients, questionable fractures can be confidently differen- tiated from unusual accessory sutures

Sanchez, Thomas; Stewart, Deborah; Walvick, Matthew; Swischuk, Leonard

2010-01-01

322

Isolation of viable multicellular glands from tissue of the carnivorous plant, Nepenthes.  

PubMed

Many plants possess specialized structures that are involved in the production and secretion of specific low molecular weight compounds and proteins. These structures are almost always localized on plant surfaces. Among them are nectaries or glandular trichomes. The secreted compounds are often employed in interactions with the biotic environment, for example as attractants for pollinators or deterrents against herbivores. Glands that are unique in several aspects can be found in carnivorous plants. In so-called pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes, bifunctional glands inside the pitfall-trap on the one hand secrete the digestive fluid, including all enzymes necessary for prey digestion, and on the other hand take-up the released nutrients. Thus, these glands represent an ideal, specialized tissue predestinated to study the underlying molecular, biochemical, and physiological mechanisms of protein secretion and nutrient uptake in plants. Moreover, generally the biosynthesis of secondary compounds produced by many plants equipped with glandular structures could be investigated directly in glands. In order to work on such specialized structures, they need to be isolated efficiently, fast, metabolically active, and without contamination with other tissues. Therefore, a mechanical micropreparation technique was developed and applied for studies on Nepenthes digestion fluid. Here, a protocol is presented that was used to successfully prepare single bifunctional glands from Nepenthes traps, based on a mechanized microsampling platform. The glands could be isolated and directly used further for gene expression analysis by PCR techniques after preparation of RNA. PMID:24378909

Rottloff, Sandy; Mithöfer, Axel; Müller, Ute; Kilper, Roland

2013-01-01

323

Rostral floor plate (flexural organ) secretes glycoproteins immunologically similar to subcommissural organ glycoproteins in dogfish ( Scyliorhinus canicula) embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subcommissural organ of vertebrates secretes glycoproteins into the cerebrospinal fluid of the third cerebral ventricle. This material polymerizes in Reissner's fiber. During ontogenetic development, besides the subcommissural organ, the ependyma lining the pontine flexure constitutes an additional Reissner's fiber-secreting gland named flexural organ. We have studied the secretion of the flexural organ and the subcommissural organ in dogfish (Scyliorhinus

M. D López-Avalos; M Cifuentes; J. M Grondona; E Miranda; J Pérez; P Fernández-Llebrez

1997-01-01

324

Tokens of love: Functions and regulation of drosophila male accessory gland products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A male fruit fly influences the behavior and physiology of his mate via molecules that he transmits to her'in his semen. The mated female fly has an elevated rate of egg laying, a decreased receptivity to mating and a shorter life span; she also stores sperm from the mating. Molecular genetic analyses possible in this insect model system permit the

Mariana F. Wolfner

1997-01-01

325

The paracellular component of water flow in the rat submandibular salivary gland  

PubMed Central

The pathway of water flow during salivary secretion by the isolated, perfused rat submandibular gland was examined using a family of homologous radiodextran molecules as probes of paracellular fluid transfer. The secretion/perfusate ratio (S/P) of the secreted probes versus molecular radius during fluid secretion evoked by ACh could be resolved into two components: one that fitted a free-diffusion (Stokes-Einstein) curve and indicated diffusion through large channels, and a convective component that was linearly related to radius. The convective component had a cut-off point at 0.5 nm (5 Ĺ) radius and an S/P intercept of near 1.0 at the radius of water, which indicates that most of the volume flow was paracellular. The nature of such a paracellular flow is discussed together with the possible integration of this volume flow with the cellular transport of ions, resulting in an isotonic primary secretion from the gland. PMID:11744763

Murakami, Masataka; Shachar-Hill, Bruria; Steward, Martin C; Hill, A E

2001-01-01

326

Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Treatment (Posterior Blepharitis)  

MedlinePLUS

... Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Treatment What are Meibomian (Oil) Glands? Meibomian glands are glands that are arranged ... lashes. The force of an eyelid blink causes oil to be excreted onto the posterior lid margin. ...

327

Development and Structure of Internal Glands and External Glandular Trichomes in Pogostemon cablin  

PubMed Central

Pogostemon cablin possesses two morphologically and ontogenetically different types of glandular trichomes, one type of bristle hair on the surfaces of leaves and stems and one type of internal gland inside the leaves and stems. The internal gland originates from elementary meristem and is associated with the biosynthesis of oils present inside the leaves and stems. However, there is little information on mechanism for the oil biosynthesis and secretion inside the leaves and stems. In this study, we identified three kinds of glandular trichome types and two kinds of internal gland in the Pogostemon cablin. The oil secretions from internal glands of stems and leaves contained lipids, flavones and terpenes. Our results indicated that endoplasmic reticulum and plastids and vacuoles are likely involved in the biosynthesis of oils in the internal glands and the synthesized oils are transported from endoplasmic reticulum to the cell wall via connecting endoplasmic reticulum membranes to the plasma membrane. And the comparative analysis of the development, distribution, histochemistry and ultrastructures of the internal and external glands in Pogostemon cablin leads us to propose that the internal gland may be a novel secretory structure which is different from external glands. PMID:24205002

Guo, Jiansheng; Yuan, Yongming; Liu, Zhixue; Zhu, Jian

2013-01-01

328

[Effects of mitotane therapy in dogs with pituitary dependent Cushing syndrome on the adrenal gland size--an ultrasonographic study].  

PubMed

The effect of mitotane therapy on adrenal gland size was evaluated in 13 dogs with pituitary dependent hyperadrenocorticism. Ultrasonographic measurements were obtained before and during mitotane therapy. During therapy both adrenal glands were shorter and thinner (median during therapy: left adrenal gland 19.4 mm long, 5.4 mm thick, right adrenal gland 18.1 mm long, 6.1 mm thick) than before mitotane therapy (median before therapy: left adrenal gland 23.6 mm long, 8.3 mm thick, right adrenal gland 21.6 mm long, 8.1 mm thick). Statistical evaluation showed a significant reduction in size. But ultrasonographic measurement of adrenal gland size is not useful in the evaluation of adrenal reserve during mitotane therapy. Inadequate adrenal reserve was not identified and adrenal size measurement by ultrasonography was not helpful to differentiate adequate and inadequate control of adrenal cortisol secretion during mitotane therapy. PMID:10354742

Hörauf, A; Reusch, C

1999-01-01

329

The buffer capacity of airway epithelial secretions  

PubMed Central

The pH of airway epithelial secretions influences bacterial killing and mucus properties and is reduced by acidic pollutants, gastric reflux, and respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). The effect of acute acid loads depends on buffer capacity, however the buffering of airway secretions has not been well characterized. In this work we develop a method for titrating micro-scale (30 ?l) volumes and use it to study fluid secreted by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3, a widely used model for submucosal gland serous cells. Microtitration curves revealed that HCO?3 is the major buffer. Peak buffer capacity (?) increased from 17 to 28 mM/pH during forskolin stimulation, and was reduced by >50% in fluid secreted by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient Calu-3 monolayers, confirming an important role of CFTR in HCO?3 secretion. Back-titration with NaOH revealed non-volatile buffer capacity due to proteins synthesized and released by the epithelial cells. Lysozyme and mucin concentrations were too low to buffer Calu-3 fluid significantly, however model titrations of porcine gastric mucins at concentrations near the sol-gel transition suggest that mucins may contribute to the buffer capacity of ASL in vivo. We conclude that CFTR-dependent HCO?3 secretion and epithelially-derived proteins are the predominant buffers in Calu-3 secretions. PMID:24917822

Kim, Dusik; Liao, Jie; Hanrahan, John W.

2014-01-01

330

The buffer capacity of airway epithelial secretions.  

PubMed

The pH of airway epithelial secretions influences bacterial killing and mucus properties and is reduced by acidic pollutants, gastric reflux, and respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). The effect of acute acid loads depends on buffer capacity, however the buffering of airway secretions has not been well characterized. In this work we develop a method for titrating micro-scale (30 ?l) volumes and use it to study fluid secreted by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3, a widely used model for submucosal gland serous cells. Microtitration curves revealed that HCO(-) 3 is the major buffer. Peak buffer capacity (?) increased from 17 to 28 mM/pH during forskolin stimulation, and was reduced by >50% in fluid secreted by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient Calu-3 monolayers, confirming an important role of CFTR in HCO(-) 3 secretion. Back-titration with NaOH revealed non-volatile buffer capacity due to proteins synthesized and released by the epithelial cells. Lysozyme and mucin concentrations were too low to buffer Calu-3 fluid significantly, however model titrations of porcine gastric mucins at concentrations near the sol-gel transition suggest that mucins may contribute to the buffer capacity of ASL in vivo. We conclude that CFTR-dependent HCO(-) 3 secretion and epithelially-derived proteins are the predominant buffers in Calu-3 secretions. PMID:24917822

Kim, Dusik; Liao, Jie; Hanrahan, John W

2014-01-01

331

Gender differences in the anatomy of the perineal glands in Guinea pigs and the effect of castration.  

PubMed

Perineal glands in guinea pigs are part of the sebaceous glandular complex. Their secretions are used for scent marking. This is important for social status and can be seen in both sexes and castrated males. Discrepancy exits about the existence of these glands in female guinea pigs and knowledge of the anatomical consequences of castration on the male perineal glands is sparse. To examine these uncertainties related to gender, perineal glands from 13 sexually mature pet guinea pigs were examined macro- and microscopically. Clear gender differences in the anatomy of perineal glands were found, and castrated males showed signs of atrophy and fatty infiltration in the glands. Females do have perineal glands, although smaller than the glands in the male. The glands are typically sebaceous with multiple excretory ducts. A macroscopic unique feature in the males was the clearly evident orifices of a large excretory duct on each side of the slightly everted perineal sac. However, the reason for this gender difference is not clear. In castrated males, the orifices were atrophied and difficult to see. In addition, the sebaceous glands of the hair follicles in the skin folds of the perineal opening were smaller and less abundant in females and castrated males. The changes in castrated males are presumably linked to the hormonal changes and decreased secretion after castration. The dense keratin layer in the perineal sac was thicker in males than in both castrated males and females and could contribute to the concrement formation seen mainly in males. PMID:22671423

Iburg, T M; Arnbjerg, J; Ruelřkke, M L

2013-02-01

332

Management of Salivary Gland Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Carcinomas of the salivary glands are uncommon representing only 2–6.5% of all head and neck cancer and less than 1% of all\\u000a cancers. About 85% of salivary gland tumors arise in the parotid glands and approximately 75% of these are benign while about\\u000a 75% of tumors arising from minor salivary glands are malignant. The latest WHO’s histological classification (2005) includes

Laura D. Locati; Marco Guzzo; Patrizia Olmi; Lisa Licitra

333

Getting across the cell envelope: mycobacterial protein secretion.  

PubMed

Protein secretion is an essential determinant of mycobacterial virulence. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a unique cell envelope consisting of two lipid bilayers, which requires dedicated protein secretion pathways. The conserved general Sec and Tat translocation systems are responsible for protein transport across the inner membrane and are both essential. Additionally, the accessory Sec pathway specifically contributes to virulence. How transport of Sec/Tat substrates across the outer membrane is accomplished is currently an enigma. In addition to these pathways, M. tuberculosis also developed specialized secretion systems for protein transport across both membranes, the type VII or ESX secretion systems. Here, we discuss our current knowledge about the mechanisms and substrates of these different protein translocation systems and their role in mycobacterial physiology and virulence. PMID:23239236

van der Woude, Aniek D; Luirink, Joen; Bitter, Wilbert

2013-01-01

334

Function of parotid gland following irradiation and its relation to biological parameters  

SciTech Connect

The function of the parotid gland in the mouse (synthesis and secretion of ..cap alpha..-amylase) following X irradiation was analyzed in relation to the parameters of surviving acinar cell fraction, DNA or protein content, and wet weight of the gland. Both synthesis and secretion of amylase in parotid were essentially unchanged when mice were irradiated with a dose of up to 3000 rad. When mice were irradiated and then given a proliferative stimulus of isoproterenol, latent lethal damage in the acinar cell population was expressed and resulted in cell degeneration in a dose-dependent manner. The mean value of amylase activity per gland in similarly treated parotids was, however, totally unaffected. The relationship between amylase activity per gland and the other biological parameters was analyzed by regression analysis. The results indicate that amylase activity per surviving acinar cell increased proportionately to compensate for the loss of acinar cells.

Sasaki, T. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai, Japan); Yamamoto, M.; Takeda, M.

1980-09-01

335

Salivary Gland Changes in Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrastructural alterations occurring in human salivary glands as a result of a variety of diseases are described. Major changes in these organs in cases of cystic fibrosis are probably the result of duct blockage, as indicated by study of chronically inflamed salivary glands. A new disease of salivary glands is reported in which parotid serous granules are distorted by bundles

B. Tandler

1987-01-01

336

Biomacromolecule conjugated nanofiber scaffold for salivary gland tissue engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Xerostomia or dry mouth, resulting from loss of salivary gland secretion can be alleviated by tissue engineering approaches to restore glandular cell function. Engineering an artificial salivary gland structure requires closely mimicking the natural environment, both physically and functionally, to promote epithelial cell proliferation, monolayer formation and apico-basal polarization. While the physical structure of the salivary gland extracellular matrix (ECM) can be reconstructed using biocompatible nanofiber scaffolds, the chemical signals from ECM macromolecules are equally involved in the gland morphogenesis. In these glands, Hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomacromolecule that is a major component of the ECM, plays a crucial role in recruiting growth factors to improve cell viability and growth in these glands. Another molecule of interest that improved salivary epithelial cell viability and apico-basal differentiation is laminin, a major protein found in the basement membrane. We hypothesize that these biomacromolecules, when conjugated nanofiber scaffolds, will provide the essential chemical signals that promote cell viability, proliferation, polarity in the salivary cell line of interest. These morphological changes will in turn promote the secretory function (salivary production). The nanofiber scaffold consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid is conjugated with HA using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamine crosslinker. This conjugation was confirmed using fluorescence spectrometry, water contact angle test and immunocytochemistry analysis using confocal microscopy. The effect of HA in promoting cell survival in-vitro was established with MTT assay using SIMS (mouse submandibular immortalized ductal SIMS cells) cells. The effect of HA in improving the apico - basal polarity of SIMS cells will be assessed. Chemical modification of synthetic nanopolymeric scaffolds with ECM molecules e.g., HA, laminin are the next step towards developing "smart scaffolds", that can be used to specifically induce proper salivary gland function. These scaffolds can potentially be used to provide a viable approach for creating future artificial tissue engineered glands.

Jayarathanam, Kavitha

337

Bartholin's Gland Cyst  

MedlinePLUS

MENU ... the vagina were the face of a clock, these glands would be found at about 4 and 8 o'clock. Normally they are invisible. They make a small amount of fluid that lubricates the vaginal lips. If a flap of skin grows over ...

338

Angiotensin II Receptors in Paraventricular Nucleus, Subfornical Organ, and Pituitary Gland of Hypophysectomized, Adrenalectomized, and Vasopressin-Deficient Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiotensin II has been implicated in the regulation of adrenocorticotropin and vasopressin secretion. Angiotensin II may influence the secretion of these hormones either directly at the pituitary gland or by increasing corticotropin-releasing hormone or vasopressin release from cells that are located in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Pituitary hormone release may also be influenced by circulating angiotensin II through receptors outside

Eero Castren; Juan M. Saavedra

1989-01-01

339

Ex vivo preparations of the intact vomeronasal organ and accessory olfactory bulb.  

PubMed

The mouse accessory olfactory system (AOS) is a specialized sensory pathway for detecting nonvolatile social odors, pheromones, and kairomones. The first neural circuit in the AOS pathway, called the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), plays an important role in establishing sex-typical behaviors such as territorial aggression and mating. This small (<1 mm(3)) circuit possesses the capacity to distinguish unique behavioral states, such as sex, strain, and stress from chemosensory cues in the secretions and excretions of conspecifics. While the compact organization of this system presents unique opportunities for recording from large portions of the circuit simultaneously, investigation of sensory processing in the AOB remains challenging, largely due to its experimentally disadvantageous location in the brain. Here, we demonstrate a multi-stage dissection that removes the intact AOB inside a single hemisphere of the anterior mouse skull, leaving connections to both the peripheral vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) and local neuronal circuitry intact. The procedure exposes the AOB surface to direct visual inspection, facilitating electrophysiological and optical recordings from AOB circuit elements in the absence of anesthetics. Upon inserting a thin cannula into the vomeronasal organ (VNO), which houses the VSNs, one can directly expose the periphery to social odors and pheromones while recording downstream activity in the AOB. This procedure enables controlled inquiries into AOS information processing, which can shed light on mechanisms linking pheromone exposure to changes in behavior. PMID:25145699

Doyle, Wayne I; Hammen, Gary F; Meeks, Julian P

2014-01-01

340

Influence of mustelid scent-gland compounds on suppression of feeding by snowshoe hares ( Lepus americanus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the influence of mustelid anal-gland compounds in suppressing feeding by snowshoe hares on coniferous tree seedlings. Pen and field bioassays indicated that 3-propyl-1,2-dithiolane from the stoat (Mustela erminea), and secondarily, 2,2-dimethylthietane from the mink (M. vison) had a very negative effect on feeding behavior of hares. The major component of stoat anal gland secretions, 2-propylthietane, and the

Thomas P. Sullivan; Douglas R. Crump

1984-01-01

341

21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...use of a cast, orthosis (brace), or prosthesis. Examples of prosthetic and orthotic accessories include the following: A pelvic support band and belt, a cast shoe, a cast bandage, a limb cover, a prosthesis alignment device, a postsurgical...

2012-04-01

342

21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... A biliary catheter and accessories is a tubular flexible device used for temporary or prolonged drainage of the biliary tract, for splinting of the bile duct during healing, or for preventing stricture of the bile duct. This generic...

2010-04-01

343

What next for accessory dwellings? : getting from bylaws to buildings  

E-print Network

Accessory dwellings-secondary, self-contained housing units on the same property as a primary residence, either attached to or detached from the main dwelling, and subordinate in size, location and appearance-are recognized ...

Stege, Elinor Hope

2009-01-01

344

Where to Find Hair Loss Accessories and Breast Cancer Products  

MedlinePLUS

Where to Find Hair Loss Accessories and Breast Cancer Products Cancer treatments can cause major changes in the way you look – ... the form. You should wear whatever bra you find most comfortable. Keep in mind that the best ...

345

21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010 Section 872.6010...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010...

2012-04-01

346

21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010 Section 872.6010...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010...

2013-04-01

347

Reducing Exposure: Hands-free Kits and Other Accessories  

MedlinePLUS

... Phones Current Research Results Radiofrequency Background Reducing Exposure: Hands-free Kits and Other Accessories Steps to reduce ... distance between your head and the cell phone. Hands-free kits Hand-free kits may include audio ...

348

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A speculum is a...

2013-04-01

349

21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope...accessories is an AC-powered device intended for use during surgery to provide a magnified view of the surgical field....

2010-04-01

350

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical...

2010-04-01

351

21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical drape and drape accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

352

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical...

2013-04-01

353

21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope...accessories is an AC-powered device intended for use during surgery to provide a magnified view of the surgical field....

2012-04-01

354

21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical drape and drape accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

355

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical...

2014-04-01

356

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical...

2012-04-01

357

21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical drape and drape accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

358

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A speculum is a...

2011-04-01

359

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical...

2011-04-01

360

21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope...accessories is an AC-powered device intended for use during surgery to provide a magnified view of the surgical field....

2014-04-01

361

21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical drape and drape accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

362

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A speculum is a...

2010-04-01

363

21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope...accessories is an AC-powered device intended for use during surgery to provide a magnified view of the surgical field....

2013-04-01

364

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A speculum is a...

2012-04-01

365

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A speculum is a...

2014-04-01

366

21 CFR 878.4370 - Surgical drape and drape accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4370 Surgical drape and drape accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

367

21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical microscope...accessories is an AC-powered device intended for use during surgery to provide a magnified view of the surgical field....

2011-04-01

368

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

2011-04-01

369

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

2010-04-01

370

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

2014-04-01

371

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

2012-04-01

372

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

2013-04-01

373

21 CFR 884.1720 - Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Devices § 884.1720 Gynecologic laparoscope and accessories...Identification. A gynecologic laparoscope is...perform diagnostic and surgical procedures on the female genital... (2) Class I for gynecologic laparoscope...

2010-04-01

374

21 CFR 884.4900 - Obstetric table and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4900 Obstetric table and accessories...the various positions required during obstetric and gynecologic procedures. This generic type of device may include...

2010-04-01

375

21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the dialysate delivery system of the peritoneal dialysis system and accessories (§ 876.5630...hemodialysis system include the unpowered dialysis chair without a scale, the powered dialysis chair without a scale, the dialyzer...

2010-04-01

376

21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the dialysate delivery system of the peritoneal dialysis system and accessories (§ 876.5630...hemodialysis system include the unpowered dialysis chair without a scale, the powered dialysis chair without a scale, the dialyzer...

2011-04-01

377

Hoopoes color their eggs with antimicrobial uropygial secretions.  

PubMed

Uropygial gland secretions are used as cosmetics by some species of birds to color and enhance properties of feathers and teguments, which may signal individual quality. Uropygial secretions also reach eggshells during incubation and, therefore, may influence the coloration of birds' eggs, a trait that has attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists for more than one century. The color of hoopoe eggs typically changes along incubation, from bluish-gray to greenish-brown. Here, we test experimentally the hypothesis that dark uropygial secretion of females is responsible for such drastic color change. Moreover, since uropygial secretion of hoopoes has antimicrobial properties, we also explore the association between color and antimicrobial activity of the uropygial secretion of females. We found that eggs stayed bluish-gray in nests where female access to the uropygial secretion was experimentally blocked. Furthermore, experimental eggs that were maintained in incubators and manually smeared with uropygial secretion experienced similar color changes that naturally incubated eggs did, while control eggs that were not in contact with the secretions did not experience such color changes. All these results strongly support the hypothesis that female hoopoes use their uropygial gland secretion to color the eggs. Moreover, saturation of the uropygial secretion was associated with antimicrobial activity against Bacillus licheniformis. Given the known antimicrobial potential of uropygial secretions of birds, this finding opens the possibility that in scenarios of sexual selection, hoopoes in particular and birds in general signal antimicrobial properties of their uropygial secretion by mean of changes in egg coloration along incubation. PMID:25011415

Soler, Juan J; Martín-Vivaldi, M; Peralta-Sánchez, J M; Arco, L; Juárez-García-Pelayo, N

2014-09-01

378

Defective beta adrenergic response of cystic fibrosis sweat glands in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Abnormal ductal NaCl absorption has been known as the only defect in cystic fibrosis (CF) sweat glands. We have fortuitously found that the secretory portion of CF sweat glands is also abnormal in that it failed to show a sweating response to beta adrenergic stimulation (isoproterenol, [ISO]) both in vivo and in vitro. For the in vitro sweat test, eccrine sweat glands were isolated from skin biopsy specimens of the forearm, cannulated, and stimulated to secrete sweat. All 14 isolated CF sweat glands failed to respond to ISO + theophylline (TH, as aminophylline), but 17 of 18 control glands responded with a mean rate (SR) of 1.1 nl/min per gland. Cholinergic responsiveness of isolated CF sweat glands was comparable with that of control glands. The in vivo sweat test was performed by intradermal injection in the forearm of 0.2 ml of 2.4 or 8 X 10(-5) M ISO with or without 10(-2) M TH (and 1.4 X 10(-4) M atropine as a necessary anticholinergic agent). The beads of sweat secreted into the oil-filled sweat collection ring glued to the skin were then collected with a glass capillary under a stereomicroscope. Of 28 CF patients, 26 failed to show a secretory response to intradermal injection of ISO + TH, and 2 CF patients gave SR of less than 0.007 nl/min per gland in the first test but no response in the repeat test performed later. In contrast, all 35 age- and sex-matched control subjects responded with the mean SR of 0.72 nl/min per gland. Response of CF patients to epinephrine and phenylephrine was comparable with control, indicating that the alpha adrenergic responsiveness of CF sweat glands is not defective. A preliminary attempt was made to determine tissue cyclic AMP accumulation by radioimmunoassay in isolated sweat glands. No significant difference was observed between CF and control glands in their maximal accumulation of tissue cAMP in response to ISO or ISO + TH, except that the rise time of ISO + TH-induced cAMP accumulation in CF glands was significantly slower during the first 5 min of incubation. The data suggest that beta adrenergic regulation is abnormal in CF sweat glands and justifies further investigations into the mechanism of beta adrenergic regulation of the eccrine sweat gland in both normal and CF subjects. Images PMID:6327771

Sato, K; Sato, F

1984-01-01

379

Multiscale modelling of saliva secretion.  

PubMed

We review a multiscale model of saliva secretion, describing in brief how the model is constructed and what we have so far learned from it. The model begins at the level of inositol trisphosphate receptors (IPR), and proceeds through the cellular level (with a model of acinar cell calcium dynamics) to the multicellular level (with a model of the acinus), finally to a model of a saliva production unit that includes an acinus and associated duct. The model at the level of the entire salivary gland is not yet completed. Particular results from the model so far include (i) the importance of modal behaviour of IPR, (ii) the relative unimportance of Ca(2+) oscillation frequency as a controller of saliva secretion, (iii) the need for the periodic Ca(2+) waves to be as fast as possible in order to maximise water transport, (iv) the presence of functional K(+) channels in the apical membrane increases saliva secretion, (v) the relative unimportance of acinar spatial structure for isotonic water transport, (vi) the prediction that duct cells are highly depolarised, (vii) the prediction that the secondary saliva takes at least 1mm (from the acinus) to reach ionic equilibrium. We end with a brief discussion of future directions for the model, both in construction and in the study of scientific questions. PMID:25014770

Sneyd, James; Crampin, Edmund; Yule, David

2014-11-01

380

Longitudinal, 3D In Vivo Imaging of Sebaceous Glands by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Normal Function and Response to Cryotherapy.  

PubMed

Sebaceous glands perform complex functions, and they are centrally involved in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Current techniques for studying sebaceous glands are mostly static in nature, whereas the gland's main function-excretion of sebum via the holocrine mechanism-can only be evaluated over time. We present a longitudinal, real-time alternative-the in vivo, label-free imaging of sebaceous glands using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy, which is used to selectively visualize lipids. In mouse ears, CARS microscopy revealed dynamic changes in sebaceous glands during the holocrine secretion process, as well as in response to damage to the glands caused by cooling. Detailed gland structure, plus the active migration of individual sebocytes and cohorts of sebocytes, were measured. Cooling produced characteristic changes in sebocyte structure and migration. This study demonstrates that CARS microscopy is a promising tool for studying the sebaceous gland and its associated disorders in three dimensions in vivo. PMID:25026458

Jung, Yookyung; Tam, Joshua; Jalian, H Ray; Anderson, R Rox; Evans, Conor L

2015-01-01

381

Transcriptome analysis of the salivary glands of Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler).  

PubMed

The green rice leafhopper (GRH), Nephotettix cincticeps, is one of the most important pests of rice in temperate Asian countries. GRH, a vascular feeder, secretes watery and gelling saliva in the process of feeding on phloem and xylem sap. It is known that GRH saliva contains several bioactive proteins, including enzymes such as laccase and beta-glucosidase. In this study, we performed transcriptome analysis of salivary glands of GRH using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Of 51,788 assembled contigs, 16,017 (30.9%) showed significant similarity to known proteins in the NCBI nr database, while 34,978 (67.5%) could not be annotated by similarity search, Pfam, or gene ontology (GO). Contigs (905) with predicted signal peptides and no putative transmembrane domains are suggested to represent secreted protein coding genes. Among the 76 most highly expressed putative secretory protein contigs, 68 transcripts were found to be salivary gland-specific or at least -dominant, but not expressed in stomach or Malpighian tubules. However, 45 of the 68 transcripts were unknown proteins. These findings suggest that most of the GRH transcripts encoding secreted proteins expressed in salivary glands are species and/or tissue specific. Our results provide a fundamental list of genes involved in GRH-Poaceae host plant interactions including successful feeding and plant pathogen transmission. PMID:25450428

Matsumoto, Yukiko; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Hattori, Makoto

2014-12-01

382

Original article Synthesis and secretion of beeswax in honeybees  

E-print Network

Original article Synthesis and secretion of beeswax in honeybees HR Hepburn RTF Bernard BC Davidson November 1990) Summary — The ultrastructure of the cells of the wax gland complex in honeybee workers of the hydrocarbon fraction of beeswax is consistent with histo- chemical and autoradiographic data for honeybees

Boyer, Edmond

383

Milk lipid secretion: recent biomolecular aspects  

PubMed Central

Neonates of most species depend on milk lipids for calories, fat-soluble vitamins, and bioactive lipid components for growth and development during the postnatal period. To meet neonatal nutrition and development needs, the mammary gland has evolved efficient mechanisms for synthesizing and secreting large quantities of lipid during lactation. Although the biochemical steps involved in milk lipid synthesis are understood, the identities of the genes mediating these steps and the molecular physiology of milk lipid production and secretion have only recently begun to be understood in detail through advances in mouse genetics, gene expression analysis, protein structural properties, and the cell biology of lipid metabolism. This review discusses emerging data about the molecular, cellular, and structural determinants of milk lipid synthesis and secretion within the context of physiological functions. PMID:24605173

McManaman, James L.

2014-01-01

384

A disturbed interaction with accessory cells upon opportunistic infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa contributes to an impaired IFN-? production of NK cells in the lung during sepsis-induced immunosuppression.  

PubMed

Impaired resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced pneumonia after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a mouse model for human polymicrobial sepsis, is associated with decreased IFN-?, but increased IL-10, levels in the lung. We investigated the so far unknown mechanisms underlying this reduced IFN-? synthesis in CLP mice. CD11b(+) NK cells, but not T or NKT cells in the lung were impaired in IFN-? synthesis upon challenge with Pseudomonas in vitro and in vivo after CLP. The inhibition of NK cells was independent of IL-10. IFN-? synthesis of NK cells was only partly restored by addition of recombinant IL-12. Accessory cells including dendritic cells and alveolar macrophages were required for maximal IFN-? secretion. But accessory cells of CLP mice suppressed the IFN-? secretion from naive lung leukocytes. In turn, naive accessory cells were unable to restore the IFN-? production from lung leukocytes of CLP mice. Thus, a disturbed interaction of accessory cells and NK cells is involved in the impaired IFN-? release in response to Pseudomonas in the lung of CLP mice. Considering the importance of IFN-? in the immune defense against bacteria the dysfunction of accessory cells and NK cells might contribute to the enhanced susceptibility to Pseudomonas after CLP. PMID:24406749

Pastille, Eva; Pohlmann, Stephanie; Wirsdörfer, Florian; Reib, Anna; Flohé, Stefanie B

2015-02-01

385

Chemistry and function of mandibular gland products of bees of the genusExoneura (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae).  

PubMed

FemaleExoneura richardsoni, E. bicolor, andE. bicincta (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae) release a pungent, staining liquid from their mandibular glands upon disturbance. This secretion is primarily composed of ethyl dodecanoate, with lesser amounts of homologous ethyl and methyl esters, salicylaldehyde, and 1,4-benzoquinone. The secretion elicits vigorous grooming when topically applied to antennae ofFormica ants. The shared, unique combination of mandibular gland lipids of these threeExoneura species supports their monophyletic classification, while the presence of salicylaldehyde may associateExoneura (Allodapini) withPithitis (Ceratinini). PMID:24408855

Cane, J H; Michener, C D

1983-12-01

386

Subcellular distribution of aquaporin 5 in salivary glands in primary Sjögren's syndrome.  

PubMed

Secretions from salivary and lacrimal glands are reduced in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS). Since aquaporin 5 is involved in transport of water and is present in salivary and lacrimal glands, this protein was thought to have a major role in the pathogenesis of PSS. We used indirect immunofluorescence and an immunoperoxidase technique to assess expression and subcellular localisation of aquaporin 5 in patients and controls. Our results suggest that the distribution and density of aquaporin 5 in salivary glands does not differ between patients with PSS and those without. Thus, the role of aquaporin 5 in the pathogenesis of PSS needs to be reassessed and alternative pathogenetic mechanisms investigated. PMID:11741631

Beroukas, D; Hiscock, J; Jonsson, R; Waterman, S A; Gordon, T P

2001-12-01

387

Dietary monosodium glutamate enhances gastric secretion.  

PubMed

Dietary L-glutamate (Glu), an amino acid abundant in many foodstuffs in a free form, is able to modulate physiological functions in the stomach, including secretion and motility. Recently, specific receptors for Glu were identified in the apical membrane of chief cells in the lower region of fundic glands and in the somatostatin-secreting D-cell fraction of the gastric mucosa. This Glu-sensing system in the stomach is linked to activation of the vagal afferents. Among 20 kinds of amino acid, luminal Glu alone activated the vagal afferents in the stomach through a paracrine cascade led by nitric oxide and followed by serotonin (5-HT). In dogs with Pavlov pouches, found that supplementation of an amino acid-rich diet lacking Glu with monosodium Glu (MSG) enhanced the secretion of acid, pepsinogen, and fluid. However, MSG did not affect these secretions induced by a carbohydrate-rich diet and it had no effect on basal secretion when MSG was applied alone without the diet. Enhancement of gastric secretion by MSG was abolished by blockage of the gastric afferents using intra-gastric applied lidocaine. This effect of MSG was due in part to stimulation of 5-HT(3) receptors in the gastric mucosa. PMID:20224184

Khropycheva, Raisa; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Torii, Kunio; Zolotarev, Vasiliy

2009-01-01

388

Preen gland removal increases plumage bacterial load but not that of feather-degrading bacteria.  

PubMed

The preen gland is a holocrine sebaceous gland of the avian integument which produces an oily secretion that is spread on the plumage during preening. It has been suggested that birds may defend themselves against feather-degrading bacteria (FDB) and other potential pathogens using preen gland secretions. However, besides some in vitro studies, the in vivo bacterial inhibitory effects of the preen oil on the abundance of feather-associated bacterial species has not yet been studied in passerines. Here we tested the effect of gland removal on the abundance of FDB and other-cultivable bacterial loads (OCB) of male house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Our results did not support earlier results on in vitro antibacterial activity of preen oil against FDB since the absence of the preen gland did not significantly affect their loads related to the control birds. In contrast, we found that preen gland removal led to higher loads of OCB. This result suggests that the antimicrobial spectrum of the preen oil is broader than previously thought and that, by reducing the overall feather bacterial loads, the preen gland could help birds to protect themselves against a variety of potentially harmful bacteria. PMID:23288399

Czirják, Gábor Arpád; Pap, Péter László; Vágási, Csongor István; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Mure?an, Cosmin; Mirleau, Pascal; Heeb, Philipp

2013-02-01

389

Ultrastructure of posterior sternal glands of Macrotermes annandalei (Silvestri): new members of the sexual glandular set found in termites (Insecta).  

PubMed

In female alates of Macrotermes annandalei, two types of abdominal glands are involved in the secretion of sex pheromone. Tergal glands are found at the anterior margin of tergites 6-10 and posterior sternal glands (PSGs) are located at the anterior margin of sternites 6-7. The cytological features of both types of glands are quite similar. The fine structural organization of PSGs is studied more precisely and described for the first time. The glandular cuticle is pitted with narrow apertures corresponding to the openings of numerous subcuticular pouches. Several Class 3 glandular units open in each pouch. One canal cell and one secretory cell make an individual glandular unit. The canal cell is enlarged apically and is connected with the other canal cells to form a common pouch. Based on the structural features found in these glands, we propose a common secretory process for PSGs and tergal glands. During the physiological maturation of alates inside the nest, secretory vesicles amass in the cytoplasm of secretory cells, while large intercellular spaces collapse the cuticular pouches. At the time of dispersal flight, pouches are filled with the content of secretory vesicles while intercellular spaces are sharply reduced. After calling behavior, no secretion remains in the glands and pouches collapse again, while secretory cells are drastically reduced in size. The structure and the secretory processes of PSGs and tergal glands are compared to those of abdominal sexual glands known in termites. PMID:15487007

Quennedey, André; Peppuy, Alexis; Courrent, Annie; Robert, Alain; Everaerts, Claude; Bordereau, Christian

2004-12-01

390

?-Conopeptides Specifically Expressed in the Salivary Gland of Conus pulicarius†  

PubMed Central

To date, studies conducted on cone snail venoms have attributed the origins of this complex mixture of neuroactive peptides entirely to gene expression by the secretory cells lining the lumen of the venom duct. However, specialized tissues such as the salivary glands also secrete their contents into the anterior gut and could potentially contribute some venom components injected into target animals; evidence supporting this possibility is reported here. Sequence analysis of a cDNA library created from a salivary gland of Conus pulicarius revealed the expression of two transcripts whose predicted gene products, after post-translational processing, strikingly resemble mature conopeptides belonging to the ?-conotoxin family. These two transcripts, like ?-conotoxin transcripts, putatively encode mature peptides containing the conserved A-superfamily cysteine pattern (CC-C-C) but, the highly conserved A-superfamily signal sequences were not present. Analysis of A-superfamily members expressed in the venom duct of the same C. pulicarius specimens revealed three putative ?-conotoxin sequences; the salivary gland transcripts were not found in the venom duct cDNA library, suggesting that these ?-conotoxins are salivary gland-specific. Therefore, expression of conotoxin-like gene products by the salivary gland could potentially add to the complexity of Conus venoms. PMID:18625510

Biggs, Jason S.; Olivera, Baldomero M.; Kantor, Yuri I.

2008-01-01

391

The pineal gland in newborn southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina.  

PubMed

In the newborn southern elephant seal the pineal gland is very large, and both pineal and plasma melatonin concentration is elevated. The pineal gland was investigated during the first 24 h, and up to 20 days of age, in elephant seal pups. A primary aim of this investigation was to determine whether there are obvious ultrastructural characteristics of pinealocytes that are exhibiting extraordinarily high levels of activity. Blood and pineal glands were collected from thirty seven pups of known age which were sampled at random from early September to early November (1985) at Macquarie Island. The pineal gland is large (mean weight, 4.71 +/- 0.35 gm, range 1-9.3 gm) and actively secreting melatonin at birth. Melatonin concentrations were extremely variable, yet very high in pups during the first 24 h post-partum. Mean melatonin plasma concentration for pups 0-24 h was 17632.8 +/- 5723.8 pmol/l (4090.8 +/- 1327.9 pg/ml), ranging from 126 pmol/l (29 pg/ml) to 297000 pmol/l (68904 pg/ml). Electron microscopic examination did not reveal any marked changes in pinealocyte ultrastructure suggestive of increased secretory activity during this period. The large and extremely active pineal gland in newborn southern elephant seal suggests that it is actively involved in thermoregulation. PMID:2277325

Little, G J; Bryden, M M

1990-01-01

392

Production of a cyanogenic secretion by a thyridid caterpillar (Calindoea trifascialis, Thyrididae, Lepidoptera)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thyridid caterpillar, Calindoea trifascialis, when disturbed, emits a defensive secretion from two sac-like glands that open dorsolaterally on the first abdominal segment. The larva has two arm-like protuberances that project outward from the body just in front of the gland openings. These "arms", which are wetted by secretion when the larva activates its glands, appear to function specifically for administration of the fluid. A primary component of the secretion is mandelonitrile, a cyanogenic compound, but the fluid also contains other potential deterrents, including benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, (E,E)-?-farnesene, and 3-methylbutyl-3-methylbutanoate. Tests done in the field in Vietnam, where the species is native, showed the secretion to be protective against ants.

Darling, Christopher; Schroeder, Frank; Meinwald, Jerrold; Eisner, Maria; Eisner, Thomas

2001-06-01

393

Renaissance Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed as part of a partnership between the Open University and the BBC, the Renaissance Secrets (based in part on a television series) addresses four different historical questions dealing with various aspects of the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance, along with providing helpful material on the practice and art of writing about and understanding history. The four topics include a discussion of the many faces of Venice during the Renaissance, medical care and hospitals during the Renaissance, the conspiracy to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I, and Johannes Gutenberg. Within each of these four topic areas, visitors can read short thematic essays about related topics and find out more about the evidence and historical knowledge that informs each related topic. By doing so, visitors (particularly students) will be able to better understand how historians "do" history. Finally, from the site's home page, visitors can also read essays from practicing historians about their own work and how they begin to collect evidence and interpret the past.

2001-01-01

394

Loss of Igfbp7 Causes Precocious Involution in Lactating Mouse Mammary Gland  

PubMed Central

Background Insulin like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) are secreted peptides that play major roles in regulating the normal development and maturation of mammary gland. While Igfbp7 has been shown to decrease breast tumor growth, its role in regulating the normal mammary gland development has not been studied. To this end, we generated Igfbp7-null mice and examined the development and maturation of mammary glands in the virgin, pregnant and lactating animals. Results We report here that loss of Igfbp7 significantly retards mammary gland development in the virgin animals. More significantly, the pregnant Igfpb7-null glands contained fewer alveolar structures and that during lactation these glands exhibit the morphological changes that are associated with involution. The transcriptome profile of the Igfbp7-null glands on the lactation day 3 revealed a distinct involution-related gene signature compared to the lactating WT glands. Interestingly, we found that the lactating Igfbp7-null glands exhibit increased expression of Stat3 and enhanced activation of (phosphorylated) Stat3, combined with decreased expression of Stat5 suggesting that the absence of Igfbp7 accelerates the onset of involution. We also found that in absence of Igfpb7, the lactating glands contain increased Igfbp5 protein along with decreased expression of IGF-1 Receptor and Akt activation. Finally, we show that during the normal course of involution, Igfbp7 expression is significantly decreased in the mammary gland. Conclusion Our data suggest that loss of Igfbp7 induces precocious involution possibly through diminished cell survival signals. Our findings identify Igfbp7 as major regulator of involution in the mammary gland. PMID:24505323

Chatterjee, Sumanta; Bacopulos, Stephanie; Yang, Wenyi; Amemiya, Yutaka; Spyropoulos, Demetri

2014-01-01

395

The Rapalogue, CCI-779, Improves Salivary Gland Function following Radiation  

PubMed Central

The standard of care for head and neck cancer typically includes surgical resection of the tumor followed by targeted head and neck radiation. However depending on tumor location and stage, some cases may not require surgical resection while others may be treated with chemoradiation. Unfortunately, these radiation treatments cause chronic negative side effects for patients. These side effects are associated with damage to surrounding normal salivary gland tissue and include xerostomia, changes in taste and malnutrition. The underlying mechanisms of chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction are unknown, however, in rodent models persistently elevated proliferation is correlated with reduced stimulated salivary flow. The rapalogue, CCI-779, has been used in other cell systems to induce autophagy and reduce proliferation, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if CCI-779 could be utilized to ameliorate chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Four to six week old Atg5f/f; Aqp5-Cre, Atg5+/+; Aqp5-Cre and FVB mice were treated with targeted head and neck radiation. FVB mice were treated with CCI-779, chloroquine, or DMSO post-radiation. Stimulated salivary flow rates were determined and parotid and submandibular salivary gland tissues were collected for analyses. Mice with a defect in autophagy, via a conditional knockout of Atg5 in the salivary glands, display increased compensatory proliferation in the acinar cell compartment and hypertrophy at 24-72 hours following radiation. FVB mice treated with post-therapy CCI-779 have significant improvements in salivary gland physiology as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates, proliferation indices and amylase production and secretion. Consequently, post-radiation use of CCI-779 allows for improvement of salivary gland function and reestablishment of glandular homeostasis. As CCI-779 is already FDA approved for other uses, it could have a secondary use to alleviate the chronic side effects in head and neck cancer patients who have completed anti-tumor therapy. PMID:25437438

Morgan-Bathke, Maria; Harris, Zoey I.; Arnett, Deborah G.; Klein, Rob R.; Burd, Randy; Ann, David K.; Limesand, Kirsten H.

2014-01-01

396

Computed tomographic study of hormone-secreting microadenomas  

SciTech Connect

A review was made of the computed tomographic (CT) studies of 33 patients with hormone-secreting microadenomas that had been verified by transsphenoidal surgery and endocrinologic evaluation. In previous studies in small series of patients, the CT appearance of pituitary microadenomas has been reported as hypodense, isodense, and hyperdense. In this study, CT showed a region of diminished enhancement and ususally an enlarged pituitary gland in cases of prolactin-secreting adenomas. HGH- or ACTH-secreting adenomas were less consistently hypodense. It is concluded that hypodensity and enlargement in the pituitary gland are the most useful criteria for identification of microadenomas. Some technical factors that may affect the CT appearance of microadenomas and lead to conflicting reports are discussed.

Hemminghytt, S.; Kalkhoff, R.K.; Daniels, D.L.; Williams, A.L.; Grogan, J.P.; Haughton, V.M.

1983-01-01

397

Age-dependent changes in ultrastructure of the defensive glands of Neocapritermes taracua workers (Isoptera, Termitidae).  

PubMed

Protection against predators and competitors is one of the main concerns of termite colonies, which developed a specialised defensive caste, the soldiers. However, soldiers are rare or even missing in several lineages of termites, while workers often develop new defence strategies especially in soil-feeding species. Here, we describe the morphology and ultrastructure of the autothysis-associated glands of Neocapritermes taracua workers and report their age-related changes in structure. The defensive glands of N. taracua workers consist of a pair of labial and a pair of crystal glands, whose secretions mix together through autothysis. Autothysis always occurs at the line of weakness connecting the anterior parts of the crystal-bearing pouches. The crystal glands consist of groups of bicellular secretory units (secretory and corresponding canal cells) which secrete the blue crystal material into external pouches. Their secretory activity is maximal in the middle of worker life, and is considerably lower in very young and old workers. The labial glands are composed of two types of secretory cells: the central and the parietal cells. While the central cells are developed similarly to other termites and secrete proteinaceous secretion into labial gland ducts, the parietal cells develop proteinaceous granules which may eventually bud off the cells. The secretory function of parietal cells is so far unique to N. taracua and differs from other termite species in which they are only responsible of water uptake by acini. The defensive device of N. taracua is truly exceptional as it involves a new gland and a previously undescribed function for parietal cells, being a remarkable example of evolution of morphological innovation. PMID:24631892

Sobotník, Jan; Kutalová, Kate?ina; Vytisková, Blahoslava; Roisin, Yves; Bourguignon, Thomas

2014-05-01

398

Modes of action of local hypothalamic and skin thermal stimulation on salivary secretion in rats.  

PubMed Central

1. In urethane or ketamine-anaesthetized rats, salivary secretion was observed when local brain sites or trunk skin were stimulated thermally or electrically. 2. Salivary secretion was facilitated by bilateral local brain warming. Sensitive sites were restricted to the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus, but in a region distinct from a previously reported sensitive site for producing saliva-spreading behaviour. 3. Unilateral warming of the preoptic area produced greater salivary secretion from the ipsilateral submandibular/sublingual salivary glands than from the contralateral glands. Electrical stimulation of the same sites elicited salivation only from the ipsilateral glands. 4. Trunk skin, not including the scrotum, was unilaterally cooled when spontaneous salivary secretion was observed in a hot environment. Salivary secretion from both sides was equally suppressed in response to the unilateral skin cooling. 5. We conclude that efferent signals from the anterior part of the hypothalamus project dominantly to the ipsilateral salivary gland for thermally induced salivary secretion. Thermal signals from the skin of either side of the trunk, on the other hand, appear to be integrated and to affect salivary secretion bilaterally. PMID:2391658

Kanosue, K; Nakayama, T; Tanaka, H; Yanase, M; Yasuda, H

1990-01-01

399

The Role of the Comstock-Kellogg Glands in Egg Tanning in Romalea guttata  

Microsoft Academic Search

FreshIy laid eggs of the Eastern Lubber grasshopper, Romalea guttata, are yellow and soft-shelled, but within several hours the eggs become hardened and dark brown. In a similar process, calyx and oviduct secretions, which from the egg pod, become frothy, darkened, hardened, and water insoluble during oviposition. It has been suggested that secretions from the paired Comstock-Kellogg glands accelerate tanning

Elizabeth A. Elasser

1998-01-01

400

Differentiation of immortalized epithelial cells derived from cystic fibrosis airway submucosal glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Cystic fibrosis (CF) involves abnormalities in mucus production and secretion of the airway. Studies of the regulation of\\u000a airway mucin production and secretion has been difficult due to the lack of in vitro models of the airway epithelial cells\\u000a which express functional differentiation. Because the majority of the mucin in the airway is apparently produced by the submucosal\\u000a glands, we

D. P. CHOPRA; L. Reddy; S. K. Gupta; L. Wan; P. A. Mathieu; R. L. Shoemaker; J. S. Rhim

1994-01-01

401

Current knowledge on exocrine glands in carabid beetles: structure, function and chemical compounds  

PubMed Central

Abstract Many exocrine products used by ground beetles are pheromones and allomones that regulate intra- and interspecific interactions and contribute to their success in terrestrial ecosystems. This mini-review attempts to unify major themes related to the exocrine glands of carabid beetles. Here we report on both glandular structures and the role of secretions in carabid adults, and that little information is available on the ecological significance of glandular secretions in pre-imaginal stages. PMID:21738412

Giglio, Anita; Brandmayr, Pietro; Talarico, Federica; Brandmayr, Tullia Zetto

2011-01-01

402

The extensive set of accessory Pseudomonas aeruginosa genomic components.  

PubMed

Up to 20% of the chromosomal Pseudomonas aeruginosa DNA belong to the so-called accessory genome. Its elements are specific for subgroups or even single strains and are likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Similarities of the accessory genomic elements to DNA from other bacterial species, mainly the DNA of ?- and ?-proteobacteria, indicate a role of interspecies HGT. In this study, we analysed the expression of the accessory genome in 150 clinical P. aeruginosa isolates as uncovered by transcriptome sequencing and the presence of accessory genes in eleven additional isolates. Remarkably, despite the large number of P. aeruginosa strains that have been sequenced to date, we found new strain-specific compositions of accessory genomic elements and a high portion (10-20%) of genes without P. aeruginosa homologues. Although some genes were detected to be expressed/present in several isolates, individual patterns regarding the genes, their functions and the possible origin of the DNA were widespread among the tested strains. Our results demonstrate the unaltered potential to discover new traits within the P. aeruginosa population and underline that the P. aeruginosa pangenome is likely to increase with increasing sequence information. PMID:24766399

Pohl, Sarah; Klockgether, Jens; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Khaledi, Ariane; Schniederjans, Monika; Chouvarine, Philippe; Tümmler, Burkhard; Häussler, Susanne

2014-07-01

403

Taxonomy of Salivary Gland Neoplasm  

PubMed Central

Classification of neoplasms of any organ should be predicted on the patterns of differentiation that reflect the organization and cell types of the parental tissue. The ability to classify a neoplasm instills confidence in its predicted biologic behavior and the selection of treatment. There has not been a single universally used classification system for salivary gland tumor. Histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts and the developing information on various molecular parameters will have significant influence on the classification of salivary glands tumors. In this article we would highlight the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts in salivary gland neoplasms and elaborate on the taxonomic system of classification of salivary gland neoplasms. PMID:24783163

Sreeja, C.; Shahela, Tanveer; Aesha, Syeda; Satish, Muthu Kumar

2014-01-01

404

Dynamic Interaction between the CpxA Sensor Kinase and the Periplasmic Accessory Protein CpxP Mediates Signal Recognition in E. coli  

PubMed Central

Two-component systems, consisting of an inner membrane sensor kinase and a cytosolic response regulator, allow bacteria to respond to changes in the environment. Some two-component systems are additionally orchestrated by an accessory protein that integrates additional signals. It is assumed that spatial and temporal interaction between an accessory protein and a sensor kinase modifies the activity of a two-component system. However, for most accessory proteins located in the bacterial envelope the mechanistic details remain unclear. Here, we analyzed the interaction between the periplasmic accessory protein CpxP and the sensor kinase CpxA in Escherichia coli in dependency of three specific stimuli. The Cpx two-component system responds to envelope stress and plays a pivotal role for the quality control of multisubunit envelope structures, including type three secretion systems and pili of different pathogens. In unstressed cells, CpxP shuts off the Cpx response by a yet unknown mechanism. We show for the first time the physical interaction between CpxP and CpxA in unstressed cells using bacterial two-hybrid system and membrane-Strep-tagged protein interaction experiments. In addition, we demonstrate that a high salt concentration and the misfolded pilus subunit PapE displace CpxP from the sensor kinase CpxA in vivo. Overall, this study provides clear evidence that CpxP modulates the activity of the Cpx system by dynamic interaction with CpxA in response to specific stresses. PMID:25207645

Tschauner, Karolin; Hörnschemeyer, Patrick; Müller, Volker Steffen; Hunke, Sabine

2014-01-01

405

Gastric inhibitory peptide, serotonin, and glucagon are unexpected chloride secretagogues in the rectal gland of the skate (Leucoraja erinacea).  

PubMed

Since the discovery of the rectal gland of the dogfish shark 50 years ago, experiments with this tissue have greatly aided our understanding of secondary active chloride secretion and the secretagogues responsible for this function. In contrast, very little is known about the rectal gland of skates. In the present experiments, we performed the first studies in the perfused rectal gland of the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), an organ weighing less than one-tenth of the shark rectal gland. Our results indicate that the skate gland can be studied by modified perfusion techniques and in primary culture monolayers, and that secretion is blocked by the inhibitors of membrane proteins required for secondary active chloride secretion. Our major finding is that three G protein-coupled receptor agonists, the incretin gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), also known as glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, as well as glucagon and serotonin, are unexpected potent chloride secretagogues in the skate but not the shark. Glucagon stimulated chloride secretion to a mean value of 1,661 ± 587 ?eq·h(-1)·g(-1) and serotonin stimulated to 2,893 ± 699 ?eq·h(-1)·g(-1). GIP stimulated chloride secretion to 3,733 ± 679 ?eq·h(-1)·g(-1) and significantly increased tissue cAMP content compared with basal conditions. This is the first report of GIP functioning as a chloride secretagogue in any species or tissue. PMID:24553297

Kelley, Catherine A; Decker, Sarah E; Silva, Patricio; Forrest, John N

2014-05-01

406

Ultrastructure of the Lyonet's glands in larvae of Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

PubMed

The Lyonet's gland is found in Lepidoptera larvae, close to the excretory duct of the silk gland. The role played by this gland is still uncertain. This work aims to describe the ultrastructure of the Lyonet's gland in Diatraea saccharalis larvae, offering suggestions regarding its possible function. The insects were reared under laboratory-controlled conditions. The glands were conventionally prepared for transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electron microscopy. SEM showed that Lyonet's glands are paired small structures located in the ventral side of the head. They are composed by clustered long cells resembling leaves. Under TEM observations, each cell is surrounded by a thin basal lamina and contains large stellate nucleus. The cytoplasm presents large and empty canaliculi with small microvilli. The basal plasma membrane forms numerous infoldings where numerous and well-developed mitochondria are concentrated. The cytoplasmic membrane system is poorly developed. Our ultrastructural results suggest that the Lyonet's gland in D. saccharalis larvae may be involved in the uptake of small molecules from the hemolymph; no morphological evidences of macromolecules synthesis and secretion were noticed. The detection of nerve fibers in the gland suggest a neural control for the glandular cell function. PMID:15462568

Victoriano, Eliane; Gregório, Elisa A

2004-08-01

407

Accessory tragus: a possible sign of Goldenhar syndrome.  

PubMed

The accessory tragus is a relatively common benign congenital anomaly. The tragus is a cartilaginous projection that normally occurs anterior to the external auditory meatus. Although aberrancy of the tragus may occur in isolation and is exclusively derived from the first branchial arch, it may occasionally signal a defect in the first or second branchial arches. Thus it may be a sign of other syndromes, such as oculoauricularvertebral dysplasia (Goldenhar syndrome). In fact, accessory tragus is a constant feature of this syndrome and may be associated with other syndromes. Accessory tragi are polypoid and should be distinguished from acrochordon (skin tags), as the shave excision commonly employed for skin tags may expose cartilage and cause slow healing or chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis. PMID:21916271

Rankin, James S; Schwartz, Robert A

2011-08-01

408

Neural Regulation of Lacrimal Gland Secretory Processes: Relevance in Dry Eye Diseases  

PubMed Central

The lacrimal gland is the major contributor to the aqueous layer of the tear film which consists of water, electrolytes and proteins. The amount and composition of this layer is critical for the health, maintenance, and protection of the cells of the cornea and conjunctiva (the ocular surface). Small changes in the concentration of tear electrolytes have been correlated with dry eye syndrome. While the mechanisms of secretion of water, electrolytes and proteins from the lacrimal gland differ, all three are under tight neural control. This allows for a rapid response to meet the needs of the cells of the ocular surface in response to environmental conditions. The neural response consists of the activation of the afferent sensory nerves in the cornea and conjunctiva to stimulate efferent parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves that innervate the lacrimal gland. Neurotransmitters are released from the stimulated parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves that cause secretion of water, electrolytes, and proteins from the lacrimal gland and onto the ocular surface. This review focuses on the neural regulation of lacrimal gland secretion under normal and dry eye conditions. PMID:19376264

Dartt, Darlene A.

2013-01-01

409

Salivary gland diseases in children  

PubMed Central

Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

2014-01-01

410

What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... grow into or spread to the salivary glands. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma: Most non-Hodgkin lymphomas start in lymph nodes. Rarely, these cancers start ... For more information on lymphomas, see our document Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma . Sarcomas: The salivary glands contain blood vessels, muscle ...

411

Microfilaria in thyroid gland nodule.  

PubMed

Presence of microfilaria in the thyroid gland is a rare finding. Filariasis is a common public health problem in the Indian sub-continent. Most of the cases of microfilaria in thyroid gland reported in the literature are associated with goiter and thyroid neoplasms. Here, we present a rare case that showed microfilaria on fine needle aspiration cytology of solitary thyroid nodule. PMID:18417874

Chowdhary, Monisha; Langer, Sabeena; Aggarwal, Meenu; Agarwal, Chetna

2008-01-01

412

GENES EXPRESSED EXCLUSIVELY IN THE SALIVARY GLANDS OF THE FIRST INSTAR LARVAE OF HESSIAN FLY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several families of genes that are exclusively expressed in the salivary glands of the first instar larvae have been identified and characterized by sequencing clones from a Hessian fly [Mayetiola destructor (Say)] salivary cDNA library. All of these genes encode putative proteins with secretion sig...

413

Lactoferrin Concentration During Involution of the Bovine Mammary Gland[1] and [2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroimmunodif fusion assay was used to quantitate changes in lactoferrin concentration in mammary secretions during involution of the bovine mammary gland. Concentration of lactoferrin began to increase 2 to 4 days after cessation of regular milking and continued to increase linearly at a rate of 1.15 mg\\/ml per day as a result of increased net synthesis of lactoferrin during the

F. K. Welty; K. Larry Smith; F. L. Schanbacher

1976-01-01

414

Symbiotic association between hoopoes and antibiotic-producing bacteria that live in their uropygial gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. It has been recently showed that one bacterial strain isolated from the uropygial gland of a nes- tling hoopoe Upupa epops produced antimicrobial peptides active against a broad spectrum of pathogenic bacteria. These bacteria might thus mediate antimicrobial properties of the uropygial secretions as a consequence of the symbiotic association with hoopoes. 2. We study antimicrobial properties of

J. J. Soler; M. Martín-Vivaldi; M. Ruiz-Rodríguez; E. Valdivia; A. M. Martín-Platero; M. Martínez-Bueno; J. M. Peralta-Sánchez; M. Méndez

2008-01-01

415

X-ray microanalysis of exocrine glands in animal models for cystic fibrosis  

SciTech Connect

Elemental distribution and ultrastructure of the submandibular gland, the parotid gland and the pancreas were investigated in three suggested animal models of the disease cystic fibrosis: the chronically reserpinized rat, the chronically isoproterenol-treated rat, and the chronically pilocarpine-treated rat. To elucidate the cellular mechanism underlying the effects of these treatments, chronic effects of specific alpha - and beta -adrenergic agonists, as well as acute effects of reserpine and various agonists were also investigated. Reserpine, isoproterenol, and pilocarpine cause an increase in the calcium concentration in submandibular gland acinar cells, due to an increased calcium content of the intracellular mucus. In the parotid gland, reserpine and isoproterenol cause a decrease of the calcium concentration in acinar cells, due to a lower calcium content of the zymogen granules. In the submandibular gland, a decreased cellular Na concentration was noted after chronic treatment with isoproterenol or pilocarpine, and after a single dose of reserpine or isoproterenol. Ultrastructural changes in the exocrine glands investigated included excessive accumulation of intracellular secretory material and formation of abnormal uncondensed secretion granules. A common pattern in the animal models appears to be (1) inhibition of secretion resulting in intracellular accumulation of secretory material, (2) synthesis of secretory macromolecules with altered cation-binding properties.

Mueller, R.M.R.; Roomans, G.M.

1985-01-01

416

Management of bile duct injuries combined with accessory hepatic duct during laparoscopic cholecystectomy  

PubMed Central

Bile duct injuries (BDIs) are difficult to avoid absolutely when the biliary tract has a malformation, such as accessory hepatic duct. Here, we investigated the management strategies for BDI combined with accessory hepatic duct during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:25232275

Ren, Pei-Tu; Lu, Bao-Chun; Yu, Jian-Hua; Zhu, Xin

2014-01-01

417

26 CFR 48.4062(a)-1 - Specific parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Specific parts or accessories. 48...Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(a)-1 Specific parts or accessories. ...with, or as component parts of, automobile trucks, other...

2012-04-01

418

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-2 - Definition of parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Definition of parts or accessories... Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061... Definition of parts or accessories...component part of an automobile truck or bus chasis...hand, parts for automobile parts or...

2011-04-01

419

26 CFR 48.4062(a)-1 - Specific parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Specific parts or accessories. 48...Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(a)-1 Specific parts or accessories. ...with, or as component parts of, automobile trucks, other...

2011-04-01

420

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-2 - Definition of parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Definition of parts or accessories... Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061... Definition of parts or accessories...component part of an automobile truck or bus chasis...hand, parts for automobile parts or...

2012-04-01

421

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-2 - Definition of parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Definition of parts or accessories... Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061... Definition of parts or accessories...component part of an automobile truck or bus chasis...hand, parts for automobile parts or...

2013-04-01

422

26 CFR 48.4062(a)-1 - Specific parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Specific parts or accessories. 48...Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(a)-1 Specific parts or accessories. ...with, or as component parts of, automobile trucks, other...

2013-04-01

423

26 CFR 48.4062(a)-1 - Specific parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 true Specific parts or accessories. 48...Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(a)-1 Specific parts or accessories. ...with, or as component parts of, automobile trucks, other...

2010-04-01

424

77 FR 37768 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Aeronautical Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly AGENCY...Accessories, Inc. (AAI), High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly (aft crosstube...of a crosstube, collapse of the landing gear, and subsequent loss of...

2012-06-25

425

77 FR 5420 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories Inc. High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Aeronautical Accessories Inc. High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly AGENCY...Accessories Inc. (AAI) High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly (aft crosstube...of a crosstube, collapse of the landing gear, and subsequent loss of...

2012-02-03

426

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-3 - Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...parts or accessories. Reboring or other machining, rewinding, and comparable major operations constitute rebuilding. The person...accessory. The tax attaches whether the machining or other operation is performed by the rebuilder...

2013-04-01

427

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-3 - Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...parts or accessories. Reboring or other machining, rewinding, and comparable major operations constitute rebuilding. The person...accessory. The tax attaches whether the machining or other operation is performed by the rebuilder...

2011-04-01

428

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-3 - Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...parts or accessories. Reboring or other machining, rewinding, and comparable major operations constitute rebuilding. The person...accessory. The tax attaches whether the machining or other operation is performed by the rebuilder...

2010-04-01

429

26 CFR 48.4061(b)-3 - Rebuilt, reconditioned, or repaired parts or accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...parts or accessories. Reboring or other machining, rewinding, and comparable major operations constitute rebuilding. The person...accessory. The tax attaches whether the machining or other operation is performed by the rebuilder...

2012-04-01

430

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software, and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software, and systems. 121.8...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software, and systems. (a) An...Rivets, wire, bolts, etc.) (e) Firmware and any related unique support...

2014-04-01

431

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 ...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...Rivets, wire, bolts, etc.) (e) Firmware and any related unique support...

2012-04-01

432

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 ...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...Rivets, wire, bolts, etc.) (e) Firmware and any related unique support...

2013-04-01

433

77 FR 15390 - Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...337-TA-754] Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest...exclusion order covering handbags, luggage, accessories, and packaging thereof that infringe U.S. Trademark Registration...

2012-03-15

434

77 FR 22802 - Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Determination Not To Review an...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...337-TA-754] Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination...importation of certain handbags, luggage, accessories, and packaging thereof by reason of infringement of U.S. Trademark...

2012-04-17

435

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 Section 121...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...is not limited to circuits into which software has been programmed. (f)...

2010-04-01

436

Isolated rupture of an accessory liver from blunt abdominal trauma in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accessory liver is uncommonly encountered in surgical practice. It can rarely cause acute abdominal pain. An isolated\\u000a injury to an accessory liver from blunt trauma in a 10-year-old boy caused major intraperitoneal haemorrhage. Laparotomy and\\u000a excision of the lacerated accessory liver lobe was necessary; the patient recovered uneventfully. The literature on accessory\\u000a liver is reviewed.

E. S. Garba; E. A. Ameh

2002-01-01

437

Short-chain carboxylic acids from gray catbird ( Dumetella carolinensis) uropygial secretions vary with testosterone levels and photoperiod  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uropygial gland of birds produces secretions that are important in maintaining the health and structural integrity of feathers. Non-volatile components of uropygial secretions are believed to serve a number of functions including waterproofing and conditioning the feathers. Volatile components have been characterized in fewer species, but are particularly interesting because of their potential importance in olfactory interactions within and

Rebecca J. Whelan; Tera C. Levin; Jennifer C. Owen; Mary C. Garvin

2010-01-01

438

Experimental evidence that oral secretions of northwestern ring-necked snakes ( Diadophis punctatus occidentalis) are toxic to their prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ring-necked snakes (Diadophis punctatus) are suspected of being venomous because their Duvernoy's gland secretions have high levels of phospholipase activity, which is characteristic of many viperid and elapid venoms, and because anecdotal reports of feeding behavior are consistent with the use of a venom. We tested the toxicity of northwestern ring-necked snake oral secretions to a natural prey species, northwestern

Ryan P. O’Donnell; Kevin Staniland; Robert T. Mason

2007-01-01

439

Functional anatomy of scent glands in Paranemastoma quadripunctatum (Opiliones, Dyspnoi, Nemastomatidae).  

PubMed

The morphological organization and functional anatomy of prosomal defensive (scent) glands in Paranemastoma quadripunctatum, a representative of the dyspnoid harvestmen, was investigated by means of histological semithin sections, software-based 3D-reconstruction and scanning electron microscopy. Scent glands comprise large, hollow sacs on either side of the prosoma, each of these opening to the outside via one orifice (ozopore) immediately above coxa I. In contrast to the situation known from laniatorean, cyphophthalmid and some eupnoid Opiliones, ozopores are not exposed but hidden in a depression (atrium), formed by a dorsal integumental fold of the carapace and the dorsal parts of coxae I. Glandular sacs are connected to ozopores via a short duct which is equipped with a specific closing mechanism in its distal part: A layer of modified epidermal cells forms a kind of pad-like tissue, surrounding the duct like a valve. Several muscles attached to the anterior parts of the glandular reservoir and to the epithelial pad may be associated with ozopore-opening. The actual mechanism of secretion discharge seems to be highly unusual and may be hypothesized on the basis of corroborating data from behavioral observations, scent gland anatomy and secretion chemistry as follows: Enteric fluid is considered to be directed towards the ozopores via cuticular grooves in the surface of the coxapophyses of legs I. Then, the fluid is sucked into the anterior part of the scent gland reservoirs by the action of dorsal dilator muscles that widen the reservoir and produce a short-term negative pressure. After dilution/solution of the naphthoquinone-rich scent gland contents, a secretion-loaded fluid is thought to be discharged with the help of transversal compressor muscles. This is the first detailed study on the functional anatomy of scent glands and the mechanisms of secretion discharge in the Dyspnoi. PMID:21618269

Schaider, Miriam; Komposch, Christian; Stabentheiner, Edith; Raspotnig, Günther

2011-10-01

440

Establishment of Functional Acinar-like Cultures from Human Salivary Glands.  

PubMed

Disorders of human salivary glands resulting from therapeutic radiation treatment for head and neck cancers or from the autoimmune disease Sjögren syndrome (SS) frequently result in the reduction or complete loss of saliva secretion. Such irreversible dysfunction of the salivary glands is due to the impairment of acinar cells, the major glandular cells of protein, salt secretion, and fluid movement. Availability of primary epithelial cells from human salivary gland tissue is critical for studying the underlying mechanisms of these irreversible disorders. We applied 2 culture system techniques on human minor salivary gland epithelial cells (phmSG) and optimized the growth conditions to achieve the maintenance of phmSG in an acinar-like phenotype. These phmSG cells exhibited progenitor cell markers (keratin 5 and nanog) as well as acinar-specific markers-namely, ?-amylase, cystatin C, TMEM16A, and NKCC1. Importantly, with an increase of the calcium concentration in the growth medium, these phmSG cells were further promoted to acinar-like cells in vitro, as indicated by an increase in AQP5 expression. In addition, these phmSG cells also demonstrated functional calcium mobilization, formation of epithelial monolayer with high transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), and polarized secretion of ?-amylase secretion after ?-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Taken together, suitable growth conditions have been established to isolate and support culture of acinar-like cells from the human salivary gland. These primary epithelial cells can be useful for study of molecular mechanisms involved in regulating the function of acinar cells and in the loss of salivary gland function in patients. PMID:25416669

Jang, S I; Ong, H L; Gallo, A; Liu, X; Illei, G; Alevizos, I

2015-02-01

441

Liouville theory, {N} = 2 gauge theories and accessory parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The correspondence between the semiclassical limit of the DOZZ quantum Liouville theory and the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the {N} = 2 (?-deformed) U(2) super-Yang-Mills theories is used to calculate the unknown accessory parameter of the Fuchsian uniformization of the 4-punctured sphere. The computation is based on the saddle point method. This allows to find an analytic expression for the N f = 4, U(2) instanton twisted superpotential and, in turn, to sum up the 4-point classical block. It is well known that the critical value of the Liouville action functional is the generating function of the accessory parameters. This statement and the factorization property of the 4-point action allow to express the unknown accessory parameter as the derivative of the 4-point classical block with respect to the modular parameter of the 4-punctured sphere. It has been found that this accessory parameter is related to the sum of all rescaled column lengths of the so-called 'critical' Young diagram extremizing the instanton 'free energy'. It is shown that the sum over the 'critical' column lengths can be rewritten in terms of a contour integral in which the integrand is built out of certain special functions closely related to the ordinary Gamma function.

Ferrari, Franco; Piatek, Marcin

2012-05-01

442

Accessory proteins of SARS-CoV and other coronaviruses.  

PubMed

The huge RNA genome of SARS coronavirus comprises a number of open reading frames that code for a total of eight accessory proteins. Although none of these are essential for virus replication, some appear to have a role in virus pathogenesis. Notably, some SARS-CoV accessory proteins have been shown to modulate the interferon signaling pathways and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The structural information on these proteins is also limited, with only two (p7a and p9b) having their structures determined by X-ray crystallography. This review makes an attempt to summarize the published knowledge on SARS-CoV accessory proteins, with an emphasis on their involvement in virus-host interaction. The accessory proteins of other coronaviruses are also briefly discussed. This paper forms part of a series of invited articles in Antiviral Research on "From SARS to MERS: 10 years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses" (see Introduction by Hilgenfeld and Peiris (2013)). PMID:24995382

Liu, Ding Xiang; Fung, To Sing; Chong, Kelvin Kian-Long; Shukla, Aditi; Hilgenfeld, Rolf

2014-09-01

443

Accessory cells in the immune defense of the dental pulp.  

PubMed

This communication focuses on the participation of accessory cells in the initial recognition and processing of antigenic substances in the dental pulp. Immunohistochemical analyses have demonstrated the presence of two types of accessory cells--one with a dendritic morphology located in the periphery of the pulp and one with a macrophage-like appearance located more centrally. Functional studies in vitro have provided evidence for the dendritic cells being the most significant of the two cells regarding their capacity to induce T-cell proliferation. Studies on ontogeny have revealed that the appearance of pulp accessory cells is delayed compared to other peripheral tissues. In experimentally induced pulp lesions a rapid increase of cells with morphologic and phenotypic features similar to normally occurring accessory cells was found. These data demonstrate that the dental pulp contains the necessary cellular constituents to mount an immunologic defense reaction. Future studies should focus on elucidating possible interactions between these immune cells and the neurovascular system of the pulp. PMID:1508890

Jontell, M; Bergenholtz, G

1992-01-01

444

RESEARCH Open Access Are accessory hearing structures linked to inner  

E-print Network

and detectable frequency ranges (for an overview see [1-4]). This structural and functional di- versity far exceeds that observed in amniotes and renders teleost fishes an interesting group to study adaptationsRESEARCH Open Access Are accessory hearing structures linked to inner ear morphology? Insights from

Ladich, Friedrich

445

The sea lamprey has a primordial accessory olfactory system  

PubMed Central

Background A dual olfactory system, represented by two anatomically distinct but spatially proximate chemosensory epithelia that project to separate areas of the forebrain, is known in several classes of tetrapods. Lungfish are the earliest evolving vertebrates known to have this dual system, comprising a main olfactory and a vomeronasal system (VNO). Lampreys, a group of jawless vertebrates, have a single nasal capsule containing two anatomically distinct epithelia, the main (MOE) and the accessory olfactory epithelia (AOE). We speculated that lamprey AOE projects to specific telencephalic regions as a precursor to the tetrapod vomeronasal system. Results To test this hypothesis, we characterized the neural circuits and molecular profiles of the accessory olfactory epithelium in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Neural tract-tracing revealed direct and reciprocal connections with the dorsomedial telencephalic neuropil (DTN) which in turn projects directly to the dorsal pallium and the rostral hypothalamus. High-throughput sequencing demonstrated that the main and the accessory olfactory epithelia have virtually identical profiles of expressed genes. Real time quantitative PCR confirmed expression of representatives of all 3 chemoreceptor gene families identified in the sea lamprey genome. Conclusion Anatomical and molecular evidence shows that the sea lamprey has a primordial accessory olfactory system that may serve a chemosensory function. PMID:23957559

2013-01-01

446

Evolutionary Dynamics of the Accessory Genome of Listeria monocytogenes  

PubMed Central

Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is comprised of four phylogenetic lineages that vary with regard to their serotypes and distribution among sources. In order to characterize lineage-specific genomic diversity within L. monocytogenes, we sequenced the genomes of eight strains from several lineages and serotypes, and characterized the accessory genome, which was hypothesized to contribute to phenotypic differences across lineages. The eight L. monocytogenes genomes sequenced range in size from 2.85–3.14 Mb, encode 2,822–3,187 genes, and include the first publicly available sequenced representatives of serotypes 1/2c, 3a and 4c. Mapping of the distribution of accessory genes revealed two distinct regions of the L. monocytogenes chromosome: an accessory-rich region in the first 65° adjacent to the origin of replication and a more stable region in the remaining 295°. This pattern of genome organization is distinct from that of related bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The accessory genome of all lineages is enriched for cell surface-related genes and phosphotransferase systems, and transcriptional regulators, highlighting the selective pressures faced by contemporary strains from their hosts, other microbes, and their environment. Phylogenetic analysis of O-antigen genes and gene clusters predicts that serotype 4 was ancestral in L. monocytogenes and serotype 1/2 associated gene clusters were putatively introduced through horizontal gene transfer in the ancestral population of L. monocytogenes lineage I and II. PMID:23825666

den Bakker, Henk C.; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Griggs, Allison D.; Peters, Joseph E.; Zeng, Qiandong; Young, Sarah K.; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Yandava, Chandri; Hepburn, Theresa A.; Haas, Brian J.; Birren, Bruce W.; Wiedmann, Martin

2013-01-01

447

49 CFR 192.147 - Flanges and flange accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...flange or flange accessory (other than cast iron) must meet the minimum requirements...c) Each flange on a flanged joint in cast iron pipe must conform in dimensions...gasket design to ASME/ANSI B16.1 and be cast integrally with the pipe, valve, or...

2011-10-01

448

Evolutionary dynamics of the accessory genome of Listeria monocytogenes.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is comprised of four phylogenetic lineages that vary with regard to their serotypes and distribution among sources. In order to characterize lineage-specific genomic diversity within L. monocytogenes, we sequenced the genomes of eight strains from several lineages and serotypes, and characterized the accessory genome, which was hypothesized to contribute to phenotypic differences across lineages. The eight L. monocytogenes genomes sequenced range in size from 2.85-3.14 Mb, encode 2,822-3,187 genes, and include the first publicly available sequenced representatives of serotypes 1/2c, 3a and 4c. Mapping of the distribution of accessory genes revealed two distinct regions of the L. monocytogenes chromosome: an accessory-rich region in the first 65° adjacent to the origin of replication and a more stable region in the remaining 295°. This pattern of genome organization is distinct from that of related bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The accessory genome of all lineages is enriched for cell surface-related genes and phosphotransferase systems, and transcriptional regulators, highlighting the selective pressures faced by contemporary strains from their hosts, other microbes, and their environment. Phylogenetic analysis of O-antigen genes and gene clusters predicts that serotype 4 was ancestral in L. monocytogenes and serotype 1/2 associated gene clusters were putatively introduced through horizontal gene transfer in the ancestral population of L. monocytogenes lineage I and II. PMID:23825666

den Bakker, Henk C; Desjardins, Christopher A; Griggs, Allison D; Peters, Joseph E; Zeng, Qiandong; Young, Sarah K; Kodira, Chinnappa D; Yandava, Chandri; Hepburn, Theresa A; Haas, Brian J; Birren, Bruce W; Wiedmann, Martin

2013-01-01

449

Salvage of poorly developed arteriovenous fistulae with percutaneous ligation of accessory veins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many arteriovenous (AV) fistulae fail to achieve an adequate blood flow or size for successful cannulation because of accessory veins. We describe a simple technique to ligate accessory veins that does not require a surgical incision. In this retrospective study, 17 end-stage renal disease patients underwent ligation of accessory veins of poorly developed AV fistulae. There were 14 men and

Rashid Faiyaz; Kenneth Abreo; Fahim Zaman; Aslam Pervez; Gazi Zibari; Jack Work

2002-01-01

450

26 CFR 48.4062(b)-1 - Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on an exchange basis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Rebuilt parts or accessories sold...Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(b)-1 Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on...include the value of a like part or accessory accepted...example, if a rebuilt automobile engine is sold...

2012-04-01

451

26 CFR 48.4062(b)-1 - Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on an exchange basis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Rebuilt parts or accessories sold...Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4062(b)-1 Rebuilt parts or accessories sold on...include the value of a like part or accessory accepted...example, if a rebuilt automobile engine is sold...

2013-04-01

452

Volatile compounds released by disturbed and undisturbed adults of Anchomenus dorsalis (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Platynini) and structure of the pygidial gland  

PubMed Central

Abstract Volatile compounds produced by adults of Anchomenus dorsalis under undisturbed and disturbed conditions were investigated with an all-glass aeration apparatus. GC-MS analysis of the crude extracts from undisturbed and disturbed adults highlighted four major volatile compounds, undecane, heneicosane, Z-9 tricosene and tricosane, of which significantly more undecane was released by disturbed adults compared to undisturbed beetles. The pygidial glands of adults of Anchomenus dorsalis were investigated using light and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Each gland showed dense aggregates of secretory cells organized into visually distinct lobes; a long collecting canal that drains the secretion towards the reservoir, a bean-shaped double lobed muscular reservoir in which secretion is stored and a short duct (efferent duct) through which the secretion is discharged. The function of the pygidial glands and the possible role played by undecane as a defensive allomone and/or chemical signalling molecule are discussed. PMID:21594158

Bonacci, Teresa; Brandmayr, Pietro; Zetto, Tullia; Perrotta, Ida Daniela; Guarino, Salvatore; Peri, Ezio; Colazza, Stefano

2011-01-01

453

Sexual communication in the termite Prorhinotermes simplex (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae) mediated by a pheromone from female tergal glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the post-flight behavior and sex attraction in imagoes of the termite Prorhinotermes simplex (Rhinotermitidae, Prorhinotermitinae). Pairing is mediated by the secretion from tergal glands, exposed by females in a calling\\u000a posture and highly attractive to males. Analysis of extracts of these glands by means of gas chromatography with electroantennographic\\u000a detection indicated a chromatographic area corresponding to an intense

R. Hanus; A. Luxová; J. Šobotník; B. Kalinová; P. Jiroš; J. K?e?ek; T. Bourguignon; C. Bordereau

2009-01-01

454

Reassessing the role of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) Dufour's gland in egg marking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dufour's gland secretion may allow worker honeybees to discriminate between queen-laid and worker-laid eggs. To investigate this, we combined the chemical analysis of individually treated eggs with an egg removal bioassay. We partitioned queen Dufour's gland into hydrocarbon and ester fractions. The bioassay showed that worker-laid eggs treated with either whole gland extract, ester fraction or synthetic gland esters were removed more slowly than untreated worker-laid eggs. However, the effect only lasted up to 20 h. Worker-laid eggs treated with the hydrocarbon fraction were removed at the same rate as untreated eggs. The amount of ester which reduced the egg removal rate was far higher than that naturally found on queen-laid or worker-laid eggs, and at natural ester levels no effect was found. Our results indicate that esters or hydrocarbons probably do not function as the signal by which eggs can be discriminated.

Martin, Stephen; Jones, Graeme; Châline, Nicolas; Middleton, Helen; Ratnieks, Francis

2002-10-01

455

Age-dependent changes in structure and function of the male labial gland in Bombus terrestris.  

PubMed

The cephalic region of the labial gland in the buff-tailed bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, consists of numerous acini (formed by associated secretory cells and a central lumen) and connecting ducts. Age-dependent changes in secretion production (both qualitative and quantitative) are associated with changes in the amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), Golgi apparatus, and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). The main secretory organelle is RER in the youngest individuals (pharate, and less-than-a-day old males), Golgi apparatus in 1-day-old males, and SER in males older than 2 days. Secretory cell death starts at 5 days of age, with maximal longevity to 10 days. Pheromone production starts immediately after eclosion, with pheromone quantities increasing until day 7. 2,3-dihydrofarnesol, the main component of the male-marking pheromone, appears in 1-day-old male glands, and reaches a maximum at 7 days of age, when its presence in the gland starts to decrease gradually. Older glands contain compounds not present in young ones. Variation in pheromone quantity and composition are reflected sensitively in the response of the queen antennae. Though queen antennae responded to gland extracts of all ages examined, maximum sensitivity was observed in response to extracts of glands 2-10 days old, while extracts of older glands gradually lose their effectiveness. Both major and minor components of the labial gland secretion extract elicited queen antennal responses suggesting that the pheromone is a multicomponent blend. Age-dependent changes in pheromone production, accumulation and tuning of pheromone activity are all synchronized approximately with male flight from the hive. PMID:17950308

Sobotník, Jan; Kalinová, Blanka; Cahlíková, Lucie; Weyda, Frantisek; Ptácek, Vladimír; Valterová, Irena

2008-01-01

456

Intrasellar remote metastasis from adenoid cystic carcinoma of parotid gland: case report.  

PubMed

Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a tumor of exocrine glands originating primarily from the minor and major salivary glands, lacrimal gland, bronchus, breast, and intestinal and genital tracts. Intracranial remote metastasis from adenoid cystic carcinoma in salivary gland is quite rare. The authors encountered a case of intrasellar remote metastasis from an adenoid cystic carcinoma of parotid gland origin, presenting with hyponatremia secondary to the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of metastasis from an adenoid cystic carcinoma to intrasellar area. A 78-year-old woman had an adenoid cystic carcinoma in the left parotid gland, which was resected surgically followed by local radiation therapy of 60 Gy. After 4 years, the patient presented with general malaise, followed by disturbed consciousness caused by hyponatremia. The clinical data showed severe hyponatremia induced by SIADH. An intrasellar heterogenous mass lesion compressing the optic chiasm was resected subtotally via an endonasal transsphenoidal approach. Histopathological examination of the tumor specimens revealed adenoid cystic carcinoma, which had identical histological findings as those of the painful superficial cervical lymph nodes resected in the same operation. Tumors such as the present case are easily confused with pituitary adenoma or craniopharyngioma. Although rare, metastasis from tumors including those of salivary gland origin should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unusual pituitary tumors. PMID:16902261

Kawamata, Takakazu; Harashima, Shiho; Kubo, Osami; Hori, Tomokatsu

2006-10-01

457

FGF signaling activates a Sox9-Sox10 pathway for the formation and branching morphogenesis of mouse ocular glands.  

PubMed

Murine lacrimal, harderian and meibomian glands develop from the prospective conjunctival and eyelid epithelia and produce secretions that lubricate and protect the ocular surface. Sox9 expression localizes to the presumptive conjunctival epithelium as early as E11.5 and is detected in the lacrimal and harderian glands as they form. Conditional deletion showed that Sox9 is required for the development of the lacrimal and harderian glands and contributes to the formation of the meibomian glands. Sox9 regulates the expression of Sox10 to promote the formation of secretory acinar lobes in the lacrimal gland. Sox9 and FGF signaling were required for the expression of cartilage-associated extracellular matrix components during early stage lacrimal gland development. Fgfr2 deletion in the ocular surface epithelium reduced Sox9 and eliminated Sox10 expression. Sox9 deletion from the ectoderm did not affect Fgf10 expression in the adjacent mesenchyme or Fgfr2 expression in the epithelium, but appeared to reduce FGF signaling. Sox9 heterozygotes showed a haploinsufficient phenotype, in which the exorbital branch of the lacrimal gland was absent in most cases. However, enhancement of epithelial FGF signaling by expression of a constitutively active FGF receptor only partially rescued the lacrimal gland defects in Sox9 heterozygotes, suggesting a crucial role of Sox9, downstream of FGF signaling, in regulating lacrimal gland branching and differentiation. PMID:24924191

Chen, Ziyan; Huang, Jie; Liu, Ying; Dattilo, Lisa K; Huh, Sung-Ho; Ornitz, David; Beebe, David C

2014-07-01

458

Dopaminergic neurons in the brain and dopaminergic innervation of the albumen gland in mated and virgin helisoma duryi (mollusca: pulmonata)  

PubMed Central

Background Dopamine was shown to stimulate the perivitelline fluid secretion by the albumen gland. Even though the albumen gland has been shown to contain catecholaminergic fibers and its innervation has been studied, the type of catecholamines, distribution of fibers and the precise source of this neural innervation has not yet been deduced. This study was designed to address these issues and examine the correlation between dopamine concentration and the sexual status of snails. Results Dopaminergic neurons were found in all ganglia except the pleural and right parietal, and their axons in all ganglia and major nerves of the brain. In the albumen gland dopaminergic axons formed a nerve tract in the central region, and a uniform net in other areas. Neuronal cell bodies were present in the vicinity of the axons. Dopamine was a major catecholamine in the brain and the albumen gland. No significant difference in dopamine quantity was found when the brain and the albumen gland of randomly mating, virgin and first time mated snails were compared. Conclusions Our results represent the first detailed studies regarding the catecholamine innervation and quantitation of neurotransmitters in the albumen gland. In this study we localized catecholaminergic neurons and axons in the albumen gland and the brain, identified these neurons and axons as dopaminergic, reported monoamines present in the albumen gland and the brain, and compared the dopamine content in the brain and the albumen gland of randomly mating, virgin and first time mated snails. PMID:11513757

Kiehn, Lana; Saleuddin, Saber; Lange, Angela

2001-01-01

459

Expression of the long-chain fatty acid receptor GPR120 in the gonadotropes of the mouse anterior pituitary gland.  

PubMed

G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) has been known to be a receptor of long-chain fatty acids. Here, we investigated GPR120 expression in the mouse pituitary gland via real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. GPR120 mRNA was abundantly expressed in the pituitary gland of ad-lib fed animals. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed GPR120 expression in the gonadotropes of the anterior pituitary gland, but not in thyrotropes, somatotropes, lactotropes, corticotropes, melanotropes, and the posterior pituitary gland. Furthermore, 24 h of fasting induced an increase in GPR120 mRNA expression in the pituitary gland. These results demonstrate that GPR120 in mouse pituitary gonadotropes is upregulated by fasting and that it may play a role in controlling gonadotropin secretion. PMID:25112963

Moriyama, Ryutaro; Deura, Chikaya; Imoto, Shingo; Nose, Kazuhiro; Fukushima, Nobuyuki

2015-01-01

460

Decreased phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase and catechol-O-methyltransferase activity in rabbit adrenal glands during pregnancy.  

PubMed Central

1 Phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT) activity in adrenal gland was lower than the control values at day 24 of rabbit pregnancy and fell throughout the gestational period. 2 Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity during pregnancy and parturition followed a similar pattern to PNMT. 3 Adrenaline content of the adrenal gland declined significantly during the last few days of pregnancy but at parturition showed a tendency to return towards normal. 4 The biochemical mechanisms which result in a decline in PNMT and COMT activities and adrenaline concentration appear to be the consequence of modifications in endocrine gland secretion during pregnancy. PMID:974321

Parvez, H; Parvez, S; Raza-Bukhari, A

1976-01-01

461

Odorant-binding protein and its mRNA are localized to lateral nasal gland implying a carrier function.  

PubMed Central

Odorant-binding protein selectively binds various odorants and is discretely concentrated in nasal mucosa and secretions. We have localized rat odorant-binding protein mRNA to the lateral nasal gland by in situ hybridization histochemistry and have also localized the protein to this gland by immunohistochemistry and by tritiated-odorant autoradiography. The lateral nasal gland extends a long duct toward the external nares. Odorant-binding protein, released from this duct, may transport odorants to olfactory receptor neurons. Images PMID:3353387

Pevsner, J; Hwang, P M; Sklar, P B; Venable, J C; Snyder, S H

1988-01-01

462

[Effects of ambroxol HCl on the guinea pig tracheal mucous secretion and the rat pulmonary surfactant secretion].  

PubMed

The effects of orally administered ambroxol HCl (ambroxol) on guinea pig tracheal mucous secretion and rat pulmonary surfactant secretion were investigated histologically and biochemically. Ambroxol significantly increased the number of active goblet cells in guinea pig tracheal epithelium and total mucopolysaccharide level. Moreover, ambroxol significantly increased the neutral mucopolysaccharide level and PAS-positive substance in the guinea pig tracheal submucosal glands. Ambroxol did not show a significant effect on the content of the total phosphatidylcholine in rat lung lavage fluid, while ambroxol significantly increased the ratio of disaturated phosphatidylcholine to total phosphatidylcholine. From these results, it is suggested that ambroxol increases both the tracheal mucous secretion, especially the neutral mucopolysaccharide, and pulmonary surfactant secretion and these effects reflect part of the expectorant mechanism of the drug. PMID:1446879

Uchida, M; Noguchi, Y; Arakawa, R; Hashimoto, Y; Ikarashi, Y; Honda, H

1992-10-01

463

Pleomorphic adenoma of lacrimal gland  

PubMed Central

We present a case of a 62-year-old male patient with pleomorphic adenoma and painless solid mass in his right eye. Computerized tomography demonstrated a mass with a diameter of 2.5 cm located in the right lacrimal gland. The mass was removed completely by combined orbitofrontal craniotomy through a transcranial approach. Histopathologic examination revealed pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland. Orbital tumors originate primarily from vascular, muscle, cartilage, neural tissues, lacrimal glands and lymphoid structures. Five percent of all intraorbital masses originate from the lacrimal gland. Pleomorphic adenoma presents as a painless and slowly growing mass and also as exophthalmoses. Pleomorphic adenoma has a high morbidity. Morbidity increases due to the total displacement of the tumor without its capsule and incisional biopsy for the purpose of diagnosis. The success of the treatment depends on the removal of the tumor with its capsule. PMID:24964328

Binatli, Özcan; Yaman, Onur; Özdemir, Nail; Gökçöl Erdo?an, I??n

2013-01-01

464

CELLULAR AND SECRETORY PROTEINS OF THE SALIVARY GLANDS OF SCIARA COPROPHILA DURING THE LARVAL-PUPAL TRANSFORMATION  

PubMed Central

The cellular and secretory proteins of the salivary gland of Sciara coprophila during the stages of the larval-pupal transformation were examined by electrophoresis in 0.6 mm sheets of polyacrylamide gel with both SDS-continuous and discontinuous buffer systems. After SDS-electrophoresis, all electrophoretograms of both reduced and nonreduced proteins from single glands stained with Coomassie brilliant blue revealed a pattern containing the same 25 bands during the stages of the larval-pupal transformation. With the staining procedures used in this study, qualitative increases and decreases were detected in existing proteins and enzymes. There was no evidence, however, for the appearance of new protein species that could be correlated with the onset of either pupation or gland histolysis. Electrophoretograms of reduced samples of anterior versus posterior gland parts indicated that no protein in the basic pattern of 25 bands was unique to either the anterior or posterior gland part. Electrophoretograms of reduced samples of secretion collected from either actively feeding or "cocoon"-building animals showed an electrophoretic pattern containing up to six of the 25 protein fractions detected in salivary gland samples, with varied amounts of these same six proteins in electrophoretograms of secretion samples from a given stage. Zymograms of non-specific esterases in salivary gland samples revealed a progressive increase in the amount of esterase reaction produce in one major band and some decrease in the second major band during later stages of the larval-pupal transformation. PMID:4116523

Been, Anita C.; Rasch, Ellen M.

1972-01-01

465

The pathobiology of salivary gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In the transgenic TG.SH (mouse mammary tumour virus\\/v-Ha-ras) mouse, designed to develop mammary tumours, occasional spontaneous salivary gland tumours have been reported, predominantly in males. The incidence and histomorphology of salivary gland tumours in 73 TG.SH mice were surveyed and in total, 21.9% developed both overt and microscopic parotid tumours. The majority developed between 73 and 150 days of

Irving Dardick; Aileen P. Burford-Mason; David S. Garlick; Walter P. Carney

1992-01-01

466

Localization of the cystogenous glands of Opisthorchis viverrini cercariae.  

PubMed

Opisthorchiasis in northeastern Thailand is an important etiology of cholangiocarcinoma. To form the infectious stage, free swimming cercariae penetrate cyprinid fish, shed their tails, and then secret a cystic substance to cover their larval stage to form metacercariae in the fish body. We determined the location of the cystogenous glands in Opisthorchis viverrini cercariae. The cercariae and metacercariae were obtained from the naturally infected snail host, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos and from cyprinid fish, respectively. The cyst walls of the metacercariae were separated and used to immunize inbred male BALB/c mice to obtain cyst wall antibodies. The general characteristics of the O. viverrini cercariae and metacercariae were studied by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stainin