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1

The B proteins secreted by the tubular accessory sex glands of the male mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, have sequence similarity to moth pheromone-binding proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

B proteins represent one of the four major protein groups secreted by the tubular accessory glands of adult, male mealworm beetles. They are acidic proteins with an apparent molecular mass of 18.8 kDa. In this paper we present the deduced amino-acid sequences of two, almost identical B proteins, termed B1 and B2. The mature proteins are 118 amino acids long.

Guido C. Paesen; George M. Happ

1995-01-01

2

Morphological study of accessory gland of Bothrops jararaca and its secretory cycle.  

PubMed

The venom gland apparatus of Bothrops jararaca is composed of four distinct parts: main venom gland, primary duct, accessory gland and secondary duct. Despite the numerous studies concerning morphology and venom production and secretion in the main venom gland, there are few studies about the accessory gland and its secretion. We characterized the accessory gland of B. jararaca snake and determined the secretion cycle by morphological analysis using light and transmission electron microscopy. Our data showed that the accessory gland of B. jararaca has a simple secretory epithelium with at least six types of cells in the anterior region: two types of secretory cells, mitochondria-rich cells without secretory vesicles, horizontal cells, dark cells and basal cells, and in the posterior region a simple epithelium with two types of cells: seromucous cells and horizontal cells. Furthermore, the mucous secretory cells of the accessory gland show a delayed and massive exocytosis that occurs four days after the extraction of venom. Morphological analysis at different steps after venom extraction showed that the accessory gland has a long cycle of production and secretion, which is not synchronous with the main venom gland secretory cycle. PMID:22227156

Sakai, Fernanda; Carneiro, Sylvia M; Yamanouye, Norma

2011-12-30

3

Salivary Gland Secretion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)|

Dorman, H. L.; And Others

1981-01-01

4

Salivary Gland Secretion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

Dorman, H. L.; And Others

1981-01-01

5

Fine structure of the spermatheca and of the accessory glands in Orchesella villosa (Collembola, Hexapoda).  

PubMed

The spermatheca and the accessory glands of the collembolan Orchesella villosa are described for the first time. Both organs exhibit ultrastructural differences, according to the time of the intermolt in which the specimens were observed. A thick cuticular layer lines the epithelial cells of the accessory glands. In the reproductive phase, they are involved in secretory activity; a moderately dense secretion found in the apical cell region opens into the gland lumen. Cells with an extracellular cistern are intermingled with the secretory cells. These cells could be involved in fluid secretion, with the secretory product opening into the cistern which is filled with an electron-transparent material. After the reproductive phase, the gland lumen becomes filled with a dense secretion. The accessory gland secretion may play a protective role towards the eggs. The spermatheca is located between the accessory glands; its epithelium is lined by a thin cuticle forming spine-like projections into the lumen and consists of cells provided with an extracellular cistern. Secretory cells, similar to those seen in the accessory glands, are missing. Cells with a cistern could be involved in the production of a fluid secretion determining sperm unrolling and sperm motility. PMID:18157861

Dallai, Romano; Zizzari, Zaira Valentina; Fanciulli, Pietro Paolo

2008-04-01

6

New Genes for Male Accessory Gland Proteins in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accessory gland of male insects produces components of the seminal fluid that alter the behavior, physiology and life span of the mated female, and contribute to her efficient storage and utilization of sperm. As a step towards understanding how this occurs, we have isolated genes encoding 12 previously unreported accessory gland-specific mRNAs from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We

Mariana F. Wolfner; Heidi A. Harada; Michael J. Bertram; Thomas J. Stelick; Kevin W. Kraus; John M. Kalb; Y. Oliver Lung; Deborah M. Neubaum; Morgan Park; Uyen Tram

1997-01-01

7

Genes for Male Accessory Gland Proteins in Drosophila Melanogaster.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention provides a number of accessory gland proteins from Drosophila. The invention also provides an accessory gland protein which is toxic to insect cells and can be used to kill or inhibit the development of insects. Methods of controllin...

K. U. Tram M. F. Wolfner O. Lung

2005-01-01

8

Accessory parotid gland lesions: case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

There are numerous causes for chronic cheek swelling, including masseteric hypertrophy, lymphadenopathy, diffuse inflammatory changes and neoplasia. We report an unusual case of a recurrent swelling as the result of sialolithiasis of an accessory parotid gland, which lay isolated from the main parotid gland along the Stensen's duct. The calculi developed in the accessory salivary tissue whereas all major salivary glands presented without sialolithiasis. Clinical findings as well as imaging results are shown and surgical management and histopathology are discussed. Hereby, for the first time we report a case with multiple calculi in an accessory parotid gland removed via a standard parotid incision. Further to this, we give a comprehensive review of literature on accessory parotid gland lesions. PMID:18193255

Stenner, M; Preuss, S F; Hüttenbrink, K-B; Klussmann, J P

2008-01-11

9

Accessory parotid gland lesions: case report and review of literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are numerous causes for chronic cheek swelling, including masseteric hypertrophy, lymphadenopathy, diffuse inflammatory\\u000a changes and neoplasia. We report an unusual case of a recurrent swelling as the result of sialolithiasis of an accessory parotid\\u000a gland, which lay isolated from the main parotid gland along the Stensen’s duct. The calculi developed in the accessory salivary\\u000a tissue whereas all major salivary

M. Stenner; S. F. Preuss; K.-B. Hüttenbrink; J. P. Klussmann

2008-01-01

10

Pleomorphic adenoma occurring outside the submandibular gland: a case report of an accessory submandibular gland.  

PubMed

The accessory submandibular gland is a rare anatomic variant and the incidence of pathology reported within an accessory submandibular gland is even rarer. This report describes the case of a 22-year-old woman who presented with a slowly enlarging mass in the submandibular triangle, which on ultrasound examination suggested that it was close to, but not arising from, the submandibular gland. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was consistent with a pleomorphic adenoma. At surgery, the tumor was found to be entirely separate from the submandibular gland. This case presents an extremely rare occurrence of an accessory submandibular gland and, to the authors' knowledge, is the first report of a pleomorphic adenoma occurring within an accessory submandibular gland. PMID:23769461

Bryan, Stephanie; Bodner, Lipa; Manor, Esther; Brennan, Peter A

2013-06-14

11

A case of buccal abscess; originating from an ectopic accessory parotid gland?  

PubMed

We report a case of an abscess from an 'ectopic' accessory parotid gland in the cheek demonstrated by sialography and computed tomography (CT). The accessory parotid gland was ectopically located anterolateral to the masseter muscle and isolated from the main parotid gland. The orifice and ductal system of the ectopic accessory parotid gland were separated from those of Stensen's duct. The abscess developed from this ectopic accessory gland, and the main parotid gland was free of inflammation. Using sialography and CT, we confirmed the presence of this ectopic accessory gland. PMID:11945200

Lee, Dong-Hee

2002-04-01

12

Probing the function of Drosophila melanogaster accessory glands by directed cell ablation.  

PubMed Central

The female Drosophila melanogaster fly undergoes behavioral changes after mating, including an increase in egg laying and an avoidance of remating. Accessory-gland products elicit these changes transiently when introduced into unmated female flies. We report here the generation and phenotype of flies that lack functional accessory-gland main cells as a consequence of genetically directed delivery of diphtheria toxin subunit A to those cells. Only main-cell secretions are essential for the short-term inhibition to remating; no other products of the genital tract can replace their function. Long-term inhibition to remating depends only on the storage of sperm in the female. Both sperm and main-cell secretions have roles in the increase of egg laying by the mated female. In addition to full-strength diphtheria toxin, we used low-activity toxins to kill only those cells that express toxin at high levels. These transgenic strains that express diphtheria toxins of different strengths in accessory-gland main cells will be useful in further defining the role of these cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2

Kalb, J M; DiBenedetto, A J; Wolfner, M F

1993-01-01

13

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising in the accessory parotid gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rare case of a 9-year-old female with mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising in the accessory parotid gland is reported. She had complained of a painless and round mass of the left cheek for a duration of 14 months. Sialography, ultrasonography, CT scan and MRI were performed preoperatively. Sialography revealed a small duct separating from the Stensen’s duct. CT and MRI showed

Toshio Yoshihara; Saori Suzuki; Koichi Nagao

1999-01-01

14

Ultrastructure of male reproductive accessory glands and ejaculatory duct in the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrastructure of male reproductive accessory glands and ejaculatory duct in the Queensland fruit fly (Q-fly), Bactrocera tryoni, were investigated and compared with those of other tephritid flies. Male accessory glands were found to comprise one pair of mesodermic glands and three pairs of ectodermic glands. The mesodermic accessory glands consist of muscle-lined, binucleate epithelial cells, which are highly microvillated and

Preethi Radhakrishnan; Daniela Marchini; Phillip W. Taylor

2009-01-01

15

A peptide from the male accessory glands of the Colorado potato beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes a study of the male accessory glands of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). These glands add various substances to the ejaculate. On mating, the ejaculate is transferred to the female, together with the substances from the male accessory glands. The function of these substances is unknown in the case of the Colorado potato beetle. From

H. M. Smid

1998-01-01

16

Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins in adrenal gland physiology and beyond.  

PubMed

The melanocortin receptor (MCR) family consists of five G-protein-coupled receptors (MC1R-MC5R) with diverse physiological roles. MC1R controls pigmentation, MC2R is a critical component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, MC3R and MC4R have a vital role in energy homeostasis and MC5R is involved in exocrine function. The melanocortin receptor accessory protein (MRAP) and its paralogue MRAP2 are small single-pass transmembrane proteins that have been shown to regulate MCR expression and function. In the adrenal gland, MRAP is an essential accessory factor for the functional expression of the MC2R/ACTH receptor. The importance of MRAP in adrenal gland physiology is demonstrated by the clinical condition familial glucocorticoid deficiency, where inactivating MRAP mutations account for ?20% of cases. MRAP is highly expressed in both the zona fasciculata and the undifferentiated zone. Expression in the undifferentiated zone suggests that MRAP could also be important in adrenal cell differentiation and/or maintenance. In contrast, the role of adrenal MRAP2, which is highly expressed in the foetal gland, is unclear. The expression of MRAPs outside the adrenal gland is suggestive of a wider physiological purpose, beyond MC2R-mediated adrenal steroidogenesis. In vitro, MRAPs have been shown to reduce surface expression and signalling of all the other MCRs (MC1,3,4,5R). MRAP2 is predominantly expressed in the hypothalamus, a site that also expresses a high level of MC3R and MC4R. This raises the intriguing possibility of a CNS role for the MRAPs. PMID:23418361

Novoselova, T V; Jackson, D; Campbell, D C; Clark, A J L; Chan, L F

2013-03-19

17

Liquid secretion properties of airway submucosal glands  

PubMed Central

The tracheobronchial submucosal glands secrete liquid that is important for hydrating airway surfaces, supporting mucociliary transport, and serving as a fluid matrix for numerous secreted macromolecules including the gel-forming mucins. This review details the essential structural elements of airway glands and summarizes what is currently known regarding the ion transport processes responsible for producing the liquid component of gland secretion. Liquid secretion most likely arises from serous cells and is principally under neural control with muscarinic agonists, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) functioning as effective secretogogues. Liquid secretion is driven by the active transepithelial secretion of both Cl? and HCO3? and at least a portion of this process is mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which is highly expressed in glands. The potential role of submucosal glands in cystic fibrosis lung disease is discussed.

Ballard, Stephen T; Inglis, Sarah K

2004-01-01

18

EST analysis of male accessory glands from Heliconius butterflies with divergent mating systems  

PubMed Central

Background Heliconius butterflies possess a remarkable diversity of phenotypes, physiologies, and behaviors that has long distinguished this genus as a focal taxon in ecological and evolutionary research. Recently Heliconius has also emerged as a model system for using genomic methods to investigate the causes and consequences of biological diversity. One notable aspect of Heliconius diversity is a dichotomy in mating systems which provides an unusual opportunity to investigate the relationship between sexual selection and the evolution of reproductive proteins. As a first step in pursuing this research, we report the generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the male accessory gland of H. erato and H. melpomene, species representative of the two mating systems present in the genus Heliconius. Results We successfully sequenced 933 ESTs clustering into 371 unigenes from H. erato and 1033 ESTs clustering into 340 unigenes from H. melpomene. Results from the two species were very similar. Approximately a third of the unigenes showed no significant BLAST similarity (E-value <10-5) to sequences in GenBank's non-redundant databases, indicating that a large proportion of novel genes are expressed in Heliconius male accessory glands. In both species only a third of accessory gland unigenes were also found among genes expressed in wing tissue. About 25% of unigenes from both species encoded secreted proteins. This includes three groups of highly abundant unigenes encoding repetitive proteins considered to be candidate seminal fluid proteins; proteins encoded by one of these groups were detected in H. erato spermatophores. Conclusion This collection of ESTs will serve as the foundation for the future identification and evolutionary analysis of male reproductive proteins in Heliconius butterflies. These data also represent a significant advance in the rapidly growing collection of genomic resources available in Heliconius butterflies. As such, they substantially enhance this taxon as a model system for investigating questions of ecological, phenotypic, and genomic diversity.

Walters, James R; Harrison, Richard G

2008-01-01

19

Regulation of Anopheles gambiae male accessory gland genes influences postmating response in female.  

PubMed

In Drosophila, the accessory gland proteins (Acps) secreted from the male accessory glands (MAGs) and transferred along with sperm into the female reproductive tract have been implicated in triggering postmating behavioral changes, including refractoriness to subsequent mating and propensity to egg laying. Recently, Acps have been found also in Anopheles, suggesting similar functions. Understanding the mechanisms underlying transcriptional regulation of Acps and their functional role in modulating Anopheles postmating behavior may lead to the identification of novel vector control strategies to reduce mosquito populations. We identified heat-shock factor (HSF) binding sites within the Acp promoters of male Anopheles gambiae and discovered three distinct Hsf isoforms; one being significantly up-regulated in the MAGs after mating. Through genome-wide transcription analysis of Hsf-silenced males, we observed significant down-regulation in 50% of the Acp genes if compared to control males treated with a construct directed against an unrelated bacterial sequence. Treated males retained normal life span and reproductive behavior compared to control males. However, mated wild-type females showed a ?46% reduction of egg deposition rate and a ?23% reduction of hatching rate (?58% combined reduction of progeny). Our results highlight an unsuspected role of HSF in regulating Acp transcription in A. gambiae and provide evidence that Acp down-regulation in males leads a significant reduction of progeny, thus opening new avenues toward the development of novel vector control strategies. PMID:22997226

Dottorini, Tania; Persampieri, Tania; Palladino, Pietro; Baker, Dean A; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Senin, Nicola; Crisanti, Andrea

2012-09-20

20

Fine structure of the tegumentary glands secreting the protective "shield" in a sessile insect (Homoptera, Diaspiddae).  

PubMed

The tegumentary pygidial glands of Aonidiella aurantii (Homoptera, Diaspididae) produce a secretion forming the shield of these fixed parasites of plants. They are formed of seven cells: a principal unpaired secretory cell which produces an abundant glycoproteinaceous secretion; a small associated cell with a secondary reservoir for this secretion; two accessory secretory cells which have very abundant tubular extensions coming from the plasma membrane, and a flocculent secretion gathered in a large sub-cuticular space; two cells forming an enlarged part of the excretory canal, functioning like a spinneret; and finally a single cell forming the tubular duct of this complex gland. The cuticle of the secretory cells has a very special porous structure, through which the secretion passes. The final product is a ribbon formed by two hollow strands stuck together. The exact nature of this secretion is not clear. It is comparable to a silk secretion though it has its own particular characteristics. PMID:675671

Pesson, P; Foldi, I

1978-01-01

21

Juvenile hormone regulation of male accessory gland activity in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum  

PubMed Central

Male accessory gland proteins (Acps) act as key modulators of reproductive success in insects by influencing the female reproductive physiology and behavior. We used custom microarrays and identified 112 genes that were highly expressed in male accessory glands (MAG) in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Out of these 112 identified genes, 59 of them contained sequences coding for signal peptide and cleavage site and the remaining 53 contained transmembrane domains. The expression of 14 these genes in the MAG but not in other tissues of male or female was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. In virgin males, juvenile hormone (JH) levels increased from second day post adult emergence (PAE), remained high on third day PAE and declined on fourth day PAE. The ecdysteroid titers were high soon after adult emergence but declined to minimal levels from 1-5 days PAE. Feeding of juvenile hormone analog, hydroprene, but not the ecdysteroid analog, RH-2485, showed an increase in size of MAGs, as well as an increase in total RNA and protein content of MAG. Hydroprene treatment also increased the expression Acp genes in the MAG. RNAi-mediated knock-down in the expression of JHAMT gene decreased the size of MAGs and expression of Acps. JH deficiency influenced male reproductive fitness as evidenced by a less vigor in mating behavior, poor sperm transfer, low egg and the progeny production by females mated with the JH deficient males. These data suggest a critical role for JH in the regulation of male reproduction especially through MAG secretions.

Parthasarathy, R.; Tan, A.; Sun, Z.; Chen, J.; Rainkin, M.; Palli, S. R.

2009-01-01

22

Recurrent inflammation of accessory parotid tissue associated with unilateral parotid gland aplasia: diagnostic and therapeutic implications.  

PubMed

Aplasia of the major salivary glands is a rare condition due to an alteration in the development of the ectodermal tissue of the oral cavity often related to other craniofacial abnormalities or alteration of structures deriving from the first or second archial branch, in particular the lacrimal glands; it can be total or partial and determine clinical states ranging from an asymptomatic condition to a severe xerostomia. The accessory parotid tissue is similar to normal parotid tissue, completely independent from the main gland and susceptible to the same pathological disorders. We describe a very unusual case of an inflammatory disorder of accessory parotid tissue in a 44-year-old male patient with concomitant, and previously unknown, aplasia of the main ipsilateral parotid gland. We also discuss the role of imaging and conservative therapeutic modalities such as botulinum toxin therapy and, in the future, minimally invasive endoscopic-assisted resection in the management of such salivary disorder. PMID:22218848

Capaccio, Pasquale; Luca, Nicola; Sigismund, Paolo Enrico; Pignataro, Lorenzo

2012-01-05

23

Comparative fine structural analysis of the male reproductive accessory glands in Bactrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology and ultrastructure of the male reproductive accessory glands from Bactrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata were comparatively investigated. In both insects, there are two types of glands, mesoderm? and ectoderm?derived, which open in the ejaculatory duct. The mesoderm?derived glands are sac?like in B. oleae and very long tubules in C. capitata, whereas the ectodermic glands, generally branched finger?like structures,

Daniela Marchini; Giovanna Del Bene

2006-01-01

24

Postoperative evaluation of the surgical treatment of accessory teat and gland cistern complexes in dairy cows.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was the long-term evaluation of a method of surgically repairing the abnormal condition of accessory teat and gland cistern complexes in dairy cattle. A prospective evaluation of three cows that had undergone the procedure was done. These cows were evaluated from four months to one year, postoperatively. A thorough history, physical examination, contrast radiography, and ultrasonic examination were done on each cow. A retrospective evaluation of an additional 13 cows that had also undergone the procedure was obtained four months to three years following the surgery, via owner communication. The prospective portion of this study demonstrated patency of the communication between main and accessory teat cisterns. Postoperative complications included initial slow milking and mild swelling of the involved teat. These problems resolved in all cows one to two months postoperatively. None of the 16 cows that had undergone the surgery either developed or was treated for mastitis. Likewise, none of these cows was sold or slaughtered as a result of postoperative teat problems or unsatisfactory milk production. Our study demonstrated that this particular method of surgical correction of accessory teat and gland cistern complexes is effective, is esthetically acceptable, produces minimal associated complications, and preserves the milk production capacity of the gland. Images Figure 2. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6.

Schmit, K A; Arighi, M; Dobson, H

1994-01-01

25

Seminal leukocyte concentration and related specific reactive oxygen species production in patients with male accessory gland infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine whether differences occur in seminal concentrations of white blood corpuscles (sWBC) and whether WBC production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is related to the infiltration of one or more male sexual glands. We studied 70 infertile patients affected by bacterial male accessory gland infections (MAGI) who were divided clinically and, by ultrasound

E. Vicari

1999-01-01

26

Mucus secretion from individual submucosal glands of the ferret trachea  

PubMed Central

Mucus secretion from individual tracheal glands in adult ferrets was studied with time-lapse optical imaging of mucus droplets under an oil layer. Density of functional glands (determined by responses to 1 ?M carbachol) was 1.5 ± 0.3 per mm2 (n = 6). Secretion rates (in pl·min?1·gland?1) were as follows: 4.1 ± 0.7 basal (unstimulated; n = 27, 669 glands), 338 ± 70 to 10 ?M forskolin (n = 8, 90 glands), 234 ± 13 to 1 ?M VIP (n = 6, 57 glands), 183 ± 92 to 10 ?M isoproterenol (n = 3, 33 glands), 978 ± 145 to 1 ?M carbachol (n = 11, 131 glands), and 1,348 ± 325 to 10 ?M phenylephrine (n = 7, 74 glands). The potency (EC50, in ?M) and efficacy (Vmax, in pl·min?1·gland?1) were 7.6 (EC50) and 338 ± 16 (Vmax) to forskolin, 1.0 (EC50) and 479 ± 19 (Vmax) to VIP, 0.6 (EC50) and 1,817 ± 268 (Vmax) to carbachol, and 3.7 (EC50) and 1,801 ± 95 (Vmax) to phenylephrine. Although carbachol and phenylephrine were equally effective secretagogues, only carbachol caused contractions of the trachealis muscle. Synergy was demonstrated between 300 nM isoproterenol and 100 nM carbachol, which, when combined, produced a secretion rate almost fourfold greater than predicted from their additive effect. The dependence of fluid secretion on Cl? and HCO3? varied depending on the mode of stimulation. Secretion stimulated by VIP or forskolin was reduced by ?60% by blocking either anion, while carbachol-stimulated secretion was blocked 68% by bumetanide and only 32% by HEPES replacement of HCO3?. These results provide parametric data for comparison with fluid secretion from glands in ferrets lacking CFTR.

Cho, Hyung-Ju; Joo, Nam Soo

2010-01-01

27

Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects.  

PubMed

Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis of ecdysone (E), the precursor of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), are expressed in the tubular accessory glands (TAGs) of adult males. In contrast, expression of the gene encoding the enzyme mediating 20E synthesis was detected in the ovaries of females. Further, Spookiest (Spot), an enzyme presumably required for endowing tissues with competence to produce ecdysteroids, is male specific and predominantly expressed in the TAGs. We also show that prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), a regulator of E synthesis during larval development, regulates ecdysteroid levels in the adult stage in Drosophila melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises the possibility that E and 20E have sex-specific roles analogous to the vertebrate sex steroids, where males produce primarily testosterone, the precursor of estradiol. Furthermore this study provides the first evidence that PTTH regulates ecdysteroid synthesis in the adult stage and could explain the original finding that some adult insects are a rich source of PTTH. PMID:23383307

Hentze, Julie L; Moeller, Morten E; Jørgensen, Anne F; Bengtsson, Meghan S; Bordoy, Anna M; Warren, James T; Gilbert, Lawrence I; Andersen, Ole; Rewitz, Kim F

2013-02-01

28

Accessory Gland as a Site for Prothoracicotropic Hormone Controlled Ecdysone Synthesis in Adult Male Insects  

PubMed Central

Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis of ecdysone (E), the precursor of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), are expressed in the tubular accessory glands (TAGs) of adult males. In contrast, expression of the gene encoding the enzyme mediating 20E synthesis was detected in the ovaries of females. Further, Spookiest (Spot), an enzyme presumably required for endowing tissues with competence to produce ecdysteroids, is male specific and predominantly expressed in the TAGs. We also show that prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), a regulator of E synthesis during larval development, regulates ecdysteroid levels in the adult stage in Drosophila melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises the possibility that E and 20E have sex-specific roles analogous to the vertebrate sex steroids, where males produce primarily testosterone, the precursor of estradiol. Furthermore this study provides the first evidence that PTTH regulates ecdysteroid synthesis in the adult stage and could explain the original finding that some adult insects are a rich source of PTTH.

Hentze, Julie L.; Moeller, Morten E.; J?rgensen, Anne F.; Bengtsson, Meghan S.; Bordoy, Anna M.; Warren, James T.; Gilbert, Lawrence I.; Andersen, Ole; Rewitz, Kim F.

2013-01-01

29

Aquaporin-5 dependent fluid secretion in airway submucosal glands.  

PubMed

Fluid and macromolecule secretion by submucosal glands in mammalian airways is believed to play an important role in airway defense and surface liquid homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis. Immunocytochemistry revealed strong expression of aquaporin water channel AQP5 at the luminal membrane of serous epithelial cells in submucosal glands throughout the mouse nasopharynx and upper airways and AQP4 at the contralateral basolateral membrane in some glands. Novel methods were applied to measure secretion rates and composition of gland fluid in wild type mice and knockout mice lacking AQP4 or AQP5. In mice breathing through a tracheotomy, total gland fluid output was measured from the dilution of a volume marker present in the fluid-filled nasopharynx and upper trachea. Pilocarpine-stimulated fluid secretion was 4.3 +/- 0.4 microl/min in wild type mice, 4.9 +/- 0.9 microl/min in AQP4 null mice, and 1.9 +/- 0.3 microl/min in AQP5 null mice (p < 0.001). Similar results were obtained when secreted fluid was collected in the oil-filled nasopharyngeal cavity. Real-time video imaging of fluid droplets secreted from individual submucosal glands near the larynx in living mice showed a 57 +/- 4% reduced fluid secretion rate in AQP5 null mice. Analysis of secreted fluid showed a 2.3 +/- 0.2-fold increase in total protein in AQP5 null mice and a smaller increase in [Cl(-)], suggesting intact protein and salt secretion across a relatively water impermeable epithelial barrier. Submucosal gland morphology and density did not differ significantly in wild type versus AQP5 null mice. These results indicate that AQP5 facilitates fluid secretion in submucosal glands and that the luminal membrane of gland epithelial cells is the rate-limiting barrier to water movement. Modulation of gland AQP5 expression or function might provide a novel approach to treat hyperviscous gland secretions in cystic fibrosis and excessive fluid secretions in infectious or allergic bronchitis/rhinitis. PMID:11514581

Song, Y; Verkman, A S

2001-08-20

30

A novel function for the Hox gene Abd-B in the male accessory gland regulates the long-term female post-mating response in Drosophila.  

PubMed

In insects, products of the male reproductive tract are essential for initiating and maintaining the female post-mating response (PMR). The PMR includes changes in egg laying, receptivity to courting males, and sperm storage. In Drosophila, previous studies have determined that the main cells of the male accessory gland produce some of the products required for these processes. However, nothing was known about the contribution of the gland's other secretory cell type, the secondary cells. In the course of investigating the late functions of the homeotic gene, Abdominal-B (Abd-B), we discovered that Abd-B is specifically expressed in the secondary cells of the Drosophila male accessory gland. Using an Abd-B BAC reporter coupled with a collection of genetic deletions, we discovered an enhancer from the iab-6 regulatory domain that is responsible for Abd-B expression in these cells and that apparently works independently from the segmentally regulated chromatin domains of the bithorax complex. Removal of this enhancer results in visible morphological defects in the secondary cells. We determined that mates of iab-6 mutant males show defects in long-term egg laying and suppression of receptivity, and that products of the secondary cells are influential during sperm competition. Many of these phenotypes seem to be caused by a defect in the storage and gradual release of sex peptide in female mates of iab-6 mutant males. We also found that Abd-B expression in the secondary cells contributes to glycosylation of at least three accessory gland proteins: ovulin (Acp26Aa), CG1656, and CG1652. Our results demonstrate that long-term post-mating changes observed in mated females are not solely induced by main cell secretions, as previously believed, but that secondary cells also play an important role in male fertility by extending the female PMR. Overall, these discoveries provide new insights into how these two cell types cooperate to produce and maintain a robust female PMR. PMID:23555301

Gligorov, Dragan; Sitnik, Jessica L; Maeda, Robert K; Wolfner, Mariana F; Karch, François

2013-03-28

31

MALE ACCESSORY GLAND FACTORS ELICIT CHANGE FROM 'VIRGIN' TO 'MATED' BEHAVIOUR IN THE FEMALE CORN EARWORM MOTH HELICOVERPA ZEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary After mating, the females of many species of moths become depleted of sex pheromone, calling behaviour is terminated, and they become transiently or permanently unreceptive to additional matings. In the corn earworm moth, Helicoverpa zea, we have found that the male accessory gland\\/duplex is required for evoking the post-mating depletion of sex pheromone but apparently not for the cessation

TIMOTHY G. KINGAN; PATRICIA A. THOMAS-LAEMONT

1993-01-01

32

Clinical and Experimental Considerations of the Immunologic Response to Prostatic and Other Accessory Glands Tissues of Reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In the present report two distinct but aligned areas of investigation pursued in this and other laboratories are reviewed. In the first, the experimental production of hetero-, iso-, and autoantibodies to prostatic and other accessory glands tissues of reproduction of man, monkey, canine, and rabbit have been employed to study the immunologic properties of these tissues and their possible

R. J. Ablin; W. A. Soanes; M. J. Gonder

1970-01-01

33

Chronic prostatitis and male accessory gland infection - is there an impact on male infertility (diagnosis and therapy)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The aim of this article was to discuss by means of a review of the literature and own study material the multifactorial aetiology of male infer- tility, extrapolate this hypothesis to male accessory gland infection (MAGI) and relate it to chronic prostatitis and its treatment. Infertility is a multifac- torial disease and diagnosis and therapy must be oriented as

K. Everaert; A. Mahmoud; C. Depuydt; M. Maeyaert; F. Comhaire

2003-01-01

34

The morphology of the phallosome and accessory gland material transfer during copulation in the blowfly, Lucilia cuprina (Insecta, Diptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of insemination in Lucilia cuprina is described. There are four duct openings on the phallosome. The terminal pore is continuous with the internal reproductive organs. The sub-terminal pore and paired, lateral pores are the openings of ducts formed by cuticular invaginations. The male accessory gland material appears to be re-routed from the terminal pore into the ducts of

D. J. Merritt

1989-01-01

35

Male contributions to egg production: the role of accessory gland products and sperm in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed Central

Drosophila melanogatser seminal fluid components, accessory gland proteins (Acps) and sperm, induce females to deposit high numbers of fertilized eggs for about 11 days. This high and sustained level of egg deposition requires that oogenesis be stimulated to provide the necessary mature oocytes. To investigate the relative timing and contributions of Acps and sperm in the egg-production process, we examined the rates of oogenic progression and egg deposition in females mated to genetically altered males that have seminal fluid deficient in Acps and/or sperm, and subjected these data to path analysis. We found that Acps and sperm are complementary stimuli necessary for inducing high rates of oogenic progression and rapid egg deposition. While egg deposition and oogenic progression can be induced by Acps alone, both Acps and sperm are required for maximum stimulation of oogenic progression and egg deposition immediately after mating.

Heifetz, Y; Tram, U; Wolfner, M F

2001-01-01

36

Secretions of stingless bees: the Dufour gland of Nannotrigona testaceicornis.  

PubMed

The Dufour gland of Nannotrigona testaceicornis is a large, wide, pear-shaped sac. The gland secretion consists chiefly of the diterpene ester all-trans-geranylgeranyl acetate (64% of the total), together with a complex mixture of small amounts of cyclic ketals; mono-, sesqui-, and diterpene compounds; acetates; and other oxygenated compounds. Samples of N. testaceicornis collected at two sites in Brazil and one in México shared the same composition of their glands, suggesting that the species is uniform over this wide geographical area. PMID:11382068

Cruz-López, L; Patricio, E F; Morgan, E D

2001-01-01

37

The relationship between the morphology of cell organelles and kinetics of the secretory process in male sex accessory glands of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two male sex accessory glands of the mouse, seminal vesicle and coagulating gland, were compared with the aim of relating differences in the morphology of organelles to the kinetics of the secretory process. The epithelial cells of the two glands were assessed by morphometric analysis, cytochemical staining, and electron-microscopic autoradiography after administration of a labeled amino acid. The rough endoplasmic

Lynn H. Samuel; Charles J. Flickinger

1987-01-01

38

Effect of blood removal and infusion on gull salt gland secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The effect of blood removal and addition on salt gland secretion was studied in freshwater and seawater acclimated gulls,Larus glaucescens.2.In contrast to published reports that blood removal decreased and blood infusion increased salt gland secretion in ducks, neither blood removal nor addition had an effect on concentration or volume of salt gland secretion in gulls.

Maryanne R. Hughes

1987-01-01

39

Bone morphogenetic protein- and mating-dependent secretory cell growth and migration in the Drosophila accessory gland  

PubMed Central

The paired male accessory glands of Drosophila melanogaster enhance sperm function, stimulate egg production, and reduce female receptivity to other males by releasing a complex mixture of glycoproteins from a secretory epithelium into seminal fluid. A small subpopulation of about 40 specialized secretory cells, called secondary cells, resides at the distal tip of each gland. We show that these cells grow via mechanisms promoted by mating. If aging males mate repeatedly, a subset of these cells delaminates from and migrates along the apical surface of the glandular epithelium toward the proximal end of the gland. Remarkably, these secretory cells can transfer to females with sperm during mating. The frequency of this event increases with age, so that more than 50% of triple-mated, 18-d-old males transfer secondary cells to females. Bone morphogenetic protein signaling specifically in secondary cells is needed to drive all of these processes and is required for the accessory gland to produce its normal effects on female postmating behavior in multiply mated males. We conclude that secondary cells are secretory cells with unusual migratory properties that can allow them to be transferred to females, and that these properties are a consequence of signaling that is required for secondary cells to maintain their normal reproductive functions as males age and mate.

Leiblich, Aaron; Marsden, Luke; Gandy, Carina; Corrigan, Laura; Jenkins, Rachel; Hamdy, Freddie; Wilson, Clive

2012-01-01

40

Do secretions from the uropygial gland of birds attract biting midges and black flies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bird susceptibility to attacks by blood-sucking flying insects could be influenced by urogypial gland secretions. To determine\\u000a the effect of these secretions on biting midges and black flies, we set up a series of tests. First, we placed uropygial gland\\u000a secretions from blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus broods inside empty nest boxes while empty nest boxes without gland secretions were treated

Josué Martínez-de la Puente; Juan Rivero-de Aguilar; Sara del Cerro; Anastasio Argüello; Santiago Merino

41

Semen alterations and flow-citometry evaluation in patients with male accessory gland infections.  

PubMed

Male accessory gland infections (MAGI) represent a major cause of male infertility mainly through the secretory dysfunction of the prostate, seminal vesicles, and epididymis. This study was undertaken to evaluate conventional and nonconventional sperm parameters in these patients, therefore 150 patients with MAGI were selected. Each of them underwent to two sperm analyses and evaluation of DNA fragmentation mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, chromatin compactness, by flow cytometry. Results showed that patients with MAGI had a lower sperm progressive motility (11.4 ± 5.0 vs 34.0 ± 7.0%), and percentage of normal forms (9.0 ± 3.7 vs 33.0 ± 13.0%) compared to controls, instead, these patients showed higher number of seminal white blood cells (2.2 ± 1.0 vs 0.4 ± 0.6 106/ml). Patients with MAGI showed a higher number of spermatozoa with DNA fragmentation compared to controls (8.2 ± 3.0 vs 1.0 ± 1.0%). In addition, they have also a higher percentage of spermatozoa with low MMP (28.0 ± 4.0 vs 2.0 ± 2.0%). Patients with MAGI, showed a higher percentage of spermatozoa with PS externalization (8.0 ± 4.0 vs 3.0 ± 3.0%), an early sign of apoptosis, and lower percentage of viable spermatozoa (64.5 ± 12.0 vs 88.0 ± 10.0%). An increased percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal chromatin compactness (18.0 ± 4.0 vs 5.0 ± 3.0%) was found in patients with MAGI. In conclusion, patients with MAGI show alterations of conventional and biofunctional sperm parameters compared to controls. These results suggest to consider the flow cytometry evaluation among the diagnostic tools for male infertility. PMID:21946047

La Vignera, S; Condorelli, R; D'Agata, R; Vicari, E; Calogero, A E

2011-09-23

42

Variation in sperm displacement and its association with accessory gland protein loci in Drosophila melanogaster  

SciTech Connect

Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophila melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female`s reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm. This lack of correlation, and the association of Acp alleles with resisting subsequent sperm only, suggests that different mechanisms mediate the two components of sperm displacement. 36 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Clark, A.G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Prout, T.; Harshman, L.G. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)] [and others

1995-01-01

43

Diversity and Partitioning of Bacterial Populations within the Accessory Nidamental Gland of the Squid Euprymna scolopes  

PubMed Central

Microbial consortia confer important benefits to animal and plant hosts, and model associations are necessary to examine these types of host/microbe interactions. The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) is a female reproductive organ found among cephalopod mollusks that contains a consortium of bacteria, the exact function of which is unknown. To begin to understand the role of this organ, the bacterial consortium was characterized in the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, a well-studied model organism for symbiosis research. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the ANG revealed dense bacterial assemblages of rod- and coccus-shaped cells segregated by morphology into separate, epithelium-lined tubules. The host epithelium was morphologically heterogeneous, containing ciliated and nonciliated cells with various brush border thicknesses. Hemocytes of the host's innate immune system were also found in close proximity to the bacteria within the tubules. A census of 16S rRNA genes suggested that Rhodobacterales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia bacteria were prevalent, with members of the genus Phaeobacter dominating the consortium. Analysis of 454-shotgun sequencing data confirmed the presence of members of these taxa and revealed members of a fourth, Flavobacteria of the Bacteroidetes phylum. 16S rRNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that many ANG tubules were dominated by members of specific taxa, namely, Rhodobacterales, Verrucomicrobia, or Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroidetes, suggesting symbiont partitioning to specific host tubules. In addition, FISH revealed that bacteria, including Phaeobacter species from the ANG, are likely deposited into the jelly coat of freshly laid eggs. This report establishes the ANG of the invertebrate E. scolopes as a model to examine interactions between a bacterial consortium and its host.

Collins, Andrew J.; LaBarre, Brenna A.; Wong Won, Brian S.; Shah, Monica V.; Heng, Steven; Choudhury, Momena H.; Haydar, Shahela A.; Santiago, Jose

2012-01-01

44

The role of male accessory gland protein Acp36DE in sperm competition in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed Central

A crucial factor determining sperm fertilization success in multiply mated Drosophila melanogaster females is the efficiency with which sperm are stored. This process is modulated by the accessory gland protein Acp36DE. In this study, we show that the effect of Acp36DE on sperm storage itself alters the outcome of sperm competition. As second-mating males, Acp36DE1 (null) males had significantly lower P2-values than Acp36DE2 (truncation) or Acp36DE+ (control) males, as might be expected as the null males' sperm are poorly stored. We used spermless males, which are null for Acp36DE, to show that, in the absence of sperm co-transfer, Acp36DE itself could not displace first-male sperm. The results therefore suggest that males null for Acp36DE suffer in sperm displacement because fewer sperm are stored or retained, not because Acp36DE itself displaces sperm. Acp36DE1 (null) males also gained significantly fewer fertilizations than controls when they were the first males to mate. Using spermless males, we also showed that significantly more second-male offspring were produced following the transfer of Acp36DE by spermless first-mating males. This implies that the transfer of Acp36DE itself by the first male facilitated the storage or use of the second male's sperm and that co-transfer with sperm is not necessary for Acp36DE effects on second-male sperm storage. Acp36DE may persist in the reproductive tract and aid the storage of any sperm including those of later-mating males or prime the female for future efficient sperm storage. Our results indicate that mutations in genes that affect sperm storage can drastically affect the outcome of sperm competition.

Chapman, T; Neubaum, D M; Wolfner, M F; Partridge, L

2000-01-01

45

Cellular and molecular biology of chloride secretion in the shark rectal gland: Regulation by adenosine receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular and molecular biology of chloride secretion in the shark rectal gland: Regulation by adenosine receptors. The rectal gland of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) is a sodium chloride secreting epithelial organ whose function was discovered in 1959 by Wendell Burger. The gland, composed of homogenous tubules of a single cell type, is an important model for secondary active chloride

John N Forrest

1996-01-01

46

Anogenital gland secretions code for sex and age in the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anogenital gland secretions play a major role in chemical communication by giant pandas, Ailuropoda melanoleuca (David, 1869). We analyzed 45 samples of anogenital gland secretions collected from 24 captive pandas (5 male adults, 6 female adults, 6 male subadults, and 7 female subadults) by gas chromatography and mass spectrom- etry. The secretions contained over 95 compounds. Based on 56 common

Hong Yuan; Dingzhen Liu; Lixing Sun; Rongping Wei; Guiquan Zhang; Ruyong Sun

2004-01-01

47

Mammary gland secretion: hormonal coordination of endocytosis and exocytosis.  

PubMed

The mammary epithelium coordinates the uptake of milk precursors and the transport of milk components in order to produce milk of relatively constant composition at a particular stage of lactation, as long as the mammary gland is healthy. The mammary epithelial cell controls the uptake of blood-borne molecules at its basal side and the release of products into milk at its apical side, through mechanisms of internalization (endocytosis) and mechanisms of release (exocytosis). These events are strictly dependent on the physiological stage of the mammary gland. This review addresses the mechanisms responsible for these processes and points out new questions that remain to be answered concerning possible interconnections between them, for an optimal milk secretion. PMID:22443558

Truchet, S; Ollivier-Bousquet, M

2009-12-01

48

Vasoactive intestinal peptide stimulates tracheal submucosal gland secretion in ferret  

SciTech Connect

We studied the effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on the output of 35S-labeled macromolecules from ferret tracheal explants either placed in beakers or suspended in modified Ussing chambers. In Ussing chamber experiments, the radiolabel precursor, sodium (35S)sulfate, and all drugs were placed on the submucosal side of the tissue. Washings were collected at 30-min intervals from the luminal side and were dialyzed to remove unbound 35S, leaving radiolabeled macromolecules. Vasoactive intestinal peptide at 3 X 10(-7) M stimulated bound 35S output by a mean of + 252.6% (n . 14). The VIP response was dose-dependent with a near maximal response and a half maximal response at approximately 10(-6) M and 10(-8), M, respectively. The VIP effect was not inhibited by a mixture of tetrodotoxin, atropine, I-propranolol, and phentolamine. Vasoactive intestinal peptide had no effect on the electrical properties of the of the tissues. We conclude that VIP stimulates output of sulfated-macromolecules from ferret tracheal submucosal glands without stimulating ion transport. Our studies also suggest that VIP acts on submucosal glands via specific VIP receptors. Vasoactive intestinal peptide has been shown to increase intracellular levels of cyclic AMP, and we suggest that this may be the mechanism for its effect on the output of macromolecules. This mechanism may be important in the neural regulation of submucosal gland secretion.

Peatfield, A.C.; Barnes, P.J.; Bratcher, C.; Nadel, J.A.; Davis, B.

1983-07-01

49

The effect of metacestodes of Hymenolepis diminuta on the bean-shaped accessory glands in male Tenebrio molitor.  

PubMed

Metacestodes of Hymenolepis diminuta affect several aspects of female reproductive physiology in Tenebrio molitor and such effects are mediated via the endocrine system. The effects on male reproduction are less well known and were studied with respect to the Bean-Shaped Accessory Glands (BAGs). The size and wet and dry weight of BAGs from infected and uninfected beetles were compared and rose to a plateau from 0-6 days post-emergence in uninfected beetles but in infected individuals continued to increase in both size and weight. These effects were density independent. Glands from both infected and uninfected beetles were assayed for trehalase activity measured by its ability to convert the sugar trehalose to glucose. The activity of this enzyme, per mg wet weight, was not affected by the parasite. However, total activity per gland increased in infected males. Total protein content and electrophoretic profiles of BAGs from infected and uninfected individuals showed no change in profile but showed an increase in all protein subunits per gland over a broad molecular weight range. PMID:9509029

Carver, F J; Hurd, H

1998-02-01

50

Chemistry and Behavioral Significance of Rectal and Accessory Gland Contents in Camponotus pennsylvanicus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anatomical source of the trail pheromone in the black carpenter ant, Camponotus pennsylvanicus (De Geer), was investigated by presenting workers with hindgut extracts, testing for attractancy and trail-following behavior. Chemical analyses were used in conjunction with behav- ioral bioassays to detect and identify volatiles from the rectum, poison gland, and Dufour's gland. Rectal material was also examined to determine

Anne E. Hillery; Richard D. Fell

2000-01-01

51

Increased secretion of salivary glands produced by facial vibrotactile stimulation  

PubMed Central

Patients with low-back pain can be evaluated immediately by means of an electrical tool that produces bony vibration to the lumbar spinal processes (Yrjama M, Vanharanta H. Bony vibrotactile stimulation: A new, non-invasive method for examining intradiscal pain. European Spine Journal 1994;3:233–235). In the rehabilitation of masticatory disturbance and dysphagia, an electric toothbrush is commonly used as an oral motor exercise tool for the facilitation of blood flow and metabolism in the orofacial region in Japanese hospitals. However, subjects receiving vibration in the facial regions reported increased salivary secretion. We attempted to develop an oral motor exercise apparatus modified by a headphone headset that was fixed and could be used for extended periods. The vibration apparatus of the heating conductor is protected by the polyethyle methacrylate (dental mucosa protective material), and electric motors for vibration control of the PWM circuit. We examined the amount of salivation during vibration stimuli on the bilateral masseter muscle belly, using a cotton roll positioned at the opening of the secretory duct for 3 min. Although the quantity of salivation in each subject showed various and large fluctuations in the right and left sides of the parotid and submandibular and sublingual glands, one or more of the salivary glands were effectively stimulated by 89 Hz vibration. The reported apparatus will be useful as an additional method in orofacial rehabilitation.

Hiraba, Hisao; Yamaoka, Masaru; Fukano, Mika; Fujiwara, Tadao; Ueda, Kouichirou

2008-01-01

52

Embryos sired by males without accessory sex glands induce failure of uterine support: a study of VEGF, MMP and TGF expression in the golden hamster.  

PubMed

To account for reproductive failure induced by surgical deletion of paternal accessory sex glands in the golden hamster in vivo, we studied expression of vegf, FLT-1 (VEGF-R1), FLK-1 (VEGF-R2), MMP and TGF-beta in endometrium of the dam and sired embryos during 5-7 days post coitum by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridisation, semiquantitative RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Spatiotemporal pattern of vegf expression in the control animals was similar to that reported for intact animals by our group. Removal of paternal ampullary glands did not disturb the normal expression pattern. Removal of ventral prostate glands alone or all accessory sex glands was associated with reduction of vegf transcripts and protein levels in both the embryo and endometrium. FLT-1, FLK-1 and MMP-2 were also reduced. MMP-1 was not changed whereas TGF-beta1 expression was enhanced. There was no expression in endometrium in between implantation sites. Thus the implanted embryos had a trophic effect on growth factor production by the endometrium, and the levels of expression were determined by viability and structural integrity of the conceptus. Based on these findings we concluded that incompetent embryos sired by males without the ventral prostate gland or all accessory sex glands reduced the potential of the uterus to support pregnancy. A negative cycle of events was thus set up and eventually led to premature termination of pregnancies. PMID:12592572

Chow, P H; Jiang, H Y; Poon, H K; Lee, K H; O, W S

2003-01-29

53

Mimicry of queen Dufour's gland secretions by workers of Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the Dufour's gland of workers of the two honey bee races Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis was measured. The Dufour's glands of A. m. capensis workers were longer and increased in length more rapidly than the glands of workers of A. m. scutellata at comparable ages. Analysis of the Dufour's gland secretions of workers and queens of both races revealed that there were caste and racial differences. Secretions of queenright A. m. scutellata workers were dominated by a series of long-chain hydrocarbons. In contrast the secretions of the A. m. capensis workers both under queenright and queenless conditions were a mixture of hydrocarbons and wax-type esters, as were those of queens. Multivariate analysis of the secretion profiles indicated that laying workers of both races mimic queens. The secretions of the A. m. capensis laying workers mimicked queen secretions most closely, enabling them to act as successful social parasites.

Sole, Catherine; Kryger, Per; Hefetz, Abraham; Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Crewe, Robin

2002-10-01

54

Composition of the cloacal gland secretion of tuatara, Sphenodon punctatus.  

PubMed

The lipophilic content of the cloacal gland secretion of the tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) was investigated. GC/EI-MS Analysis of CH2Cl2 extracts of the secretions revealed triacylglycerols as major glandular constituents. Twelve major medium-chain fatty acids were found to be conjugated to glycerol in different combinations, resulting in complex mixtures. These acids were identified by transesterification and subsequent derivatization of natural samples, and their structures were verified by synthesis. The natural glycerides contain predominantly three of the following acids: octanoic (A), (E)- and (Z)-oct-4-enoic (B and C, resp.), (4E,6Z)-octa-4,6-dienoic (tuataric acid; D), (R)-2,6-dimethylheptanoic (E), (R)-2,6-dimethylhept-5-enoic (F), (Z)-dec-4-enoic (G), (4Z,7Z)-deca-4,7-dienoic (H), (R)-3,7-dimethyloct-6-enoic (I), (R)-4,8-dimethylnon-7-enoic (J), (2R,6S)-2,6,10-trimethylundec-9-enoic (K), and (2R,5E)-2,6,10-trimethylundeca-5,9-dienoic acids (L). Several additional acids, occurring in trace amounts only, were tentatively identified by MS. The elucidation of the absolute configuration of the acids was performed by GC on chiral phases. Individual tuatara show specific mixtures of glycerides with up to 100 components. The individual mixtures may permit individual recognition because the bouquets seem to be stable over years. PMID:19180453

Flachsbarth, Birte; Fritzsche, Matthias; Weldon, Paul J; Schulz, Stefan

2009-01-01

55

The in vitro secretion of epidermal growth factor by mouse submandibular salivary gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for the study of epidermal growth factor (EGF) secretion from salivary gland pieces in vitro is described and the responses to a variety of drugs are compared to the results of previously reported in vivo studies. Adrenaline stimulates secretion of the growth factor as does the a-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine, while isoprenaline is less active in stimulating EGF secretion.

M. L. Roberts

1977-01-01

56

Trehalase from male accessory gland of an insect, Tenebrio molitor. cDNA sequencing and developmental profile of the gene expression.  

PubMed Central

A cDNA of alpha alpha-trehalase (EC 3.2.1.28) from a cDNA library of male bean-shaped accessory gland of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, has been isolated by the homology screening approach. Sequence analysis of the cDNA (1830 bp) revealed that the cDNA encoded a protein of 555 amino acids with a calculated M(r) of 64457. The deduced amino acid sequence had significant similarities to rabbit small intestine and Escherichia coli trehalases. Northern blotting and semi-quantitative PCR analyses revealed that a trehalase transcript with about 2.0 kb was abundant in bean-shaped accessory glands. In the glands, the amount of trehalase transcript increased from 1 to 2 days after adult ecdysis. These tissue- and stage-specific gene expressions of trehalase corresponded to the tissue- and stage-specificity of trehalase activity. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4

Takiguchi, M; Niimi, T; Su, Z H; Yaginuma, T

1992-01-01

57

Aspiration biopsy of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of accessory parotid gland: Another diagnostic dilemma in matrix-containing tumors of the salivary glands.  

PubMed

Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a newly described rare salivary gland tumor, which shares morphologic features with acinic cell carcinoma, low-grade cystadenocarcinoma, and secretory carcinoma of the breast. This is the first reported case of MASC of an accessory parotid gland detected by aspiration biopsy with radiologic and histologic correlation in a 34-year-old patient. Sonographically-guided aspiration biopsy showed cytologic features mimicking those of low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, including sheets of bland epithelial cells, dissociated histiocytoid cells with intracytoplasmic mucinous material, and spindle cells lying in a web-like matrix. Histologic sections showed a circumscribed tumor with microcystic spaces lined by bland uniform epithelial cells and containing secretory material. The tumor cells expressed mammaglobin and BRST-2. The cytologic features, differential diagnosis, and pitfalls are discussed. The pathologic stage was pT1N0. The patient showed no evidence of disease at 1 year follow-up. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2012; © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22807408

Levine, Pascale; Fried, Karen; Krevitt, Lane D; Wang, Beverly; Wenig, Bruce M

2012-07-16

58

Guanylin and uroguanylin in the parotid and submandibular glands: potential intrinsic regulators of electrolyte secretion in salivary glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intestinal peptides guanylin and uroguanylin regulate the electrolyte\\/water transport in the gastrointestinal epithelium via activation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the cystic fibrosis gene product. Because a major but incompletely understood function of the salivary glands is the CFTR-mediated secretion of an electrolyte-rich fluid, we investigated the rat and guinea pig parotid and submandibular glands for expression,

Hasan Kulaksiz; Ulrich Rausch; Rosa Vaccaro; Tindaro G. Renda; Yalcin Cetin

2001-01-01

59

Schistosoma Mansoni: Histochemical Analysis of the Postacetabular Gland Secretion of Cercariae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents of the funduses and ducts of the postacetabular glands of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae, the secreted deposits, and the surface film wre compared by their histochemical reactions. Techniques for carbohydrate-containing substances, neutral and aci...

M. A. Stirewalt M. Waters

1972-01-01

60

Human Parathyroid Hormone Is Secreted Primarily into the Bloodstream After Rat Parotid Gland Gene Transfer  

PubMed Central

Abstract Hypoparathyroidism is a hormone deficiency syndrome that leads to low blood calcium levels and for which current replacement therapy is inadequate. Gene transfer to salivary glands leads to safe and abundant secretion of therapeutic protein into either saliva or the bloodstream. We previously reported the successful transduction of rat submandibular glands with an adenoviral vector encoding human parathyroid hormone (Ad.hPTH), but unfortunately most of the hPTH was secreted into saliva. Because submandibular and parotid glands are morphologically and functionally different, we hypothesized that hPTH sorting might be different in parotid glands. After 2 days, the pattern of hPTH secretion from transduced parotid glands of intact rats was reversed from that of transduced submandibular glands, that is, most transgenic hPTH was detected in serum (5?×?1010 viral particles per gland; the saliva-to-serum ratio of total hPTH secreted was 0.04). Vector copies were localized to the targeted parotid glands, with none detected in liver or spleen. Ad.hPTH next was administered to parotid glands of parathyroidectomized rats. Two days after delivery no hPTH was detectable in saliva, but high levels were found in serum, leading to normalization of serum calcium and a significant increase in the urinary phosphorus-to-creatinine ratio. This study demonstrates for the first time differential sorting of transgenic hPTH between submandibular and parotid glands, suggesting that hPTH may be a valuable model protein for understanding the molecular basis of transgenic secretory protein sorting in these exocrine glands. We also show the clinical potential of salivary gland hPTH gene therapy for patients with hypoparathyroidism.

Adriaansen, J.; Perez, P.; Zheng, C.; Collins, M.T.

2011-01-01

61

Isolation, identification, and function of the Dufour gland secretion of Xylocopa virginica texana (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dufour's gland secretion ofXylocopa virginica texana possesses short-term repellency for conspecifics when applied to passion flowers. This secretion contains a number of straight-chain hydrocarbons. The two major components are the methyl esters of palmitic and myristic acid. A mixture of the two esters and two of the available hydrocarbons were as effective as the Dufour's gland extract in eliciting

S. B. Vinson; G. W. Frankie; M. S. Blum; J. W. Wheeler

1978-01-01

62

Atrial natriuretic peptide stimulates salt secretion by shark rectal gland by releasing VIP  

SciTech Connect

Salt secretion by the isolated perfused rectal gland of the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, is stimulated by synthetic rat atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP II) as well as extracts of shark heart, but not by 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate. Cardiac peptides have no effect on isolated rectal gland cells or perfused tubules, suggesting that stimulation requires an intact gland. The stimulation of secretion by ANP II is eliminated by maneuvers that block neurotransmitter release. Cardiac peptides stimulate the release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), known to be present in rectal glands nerves, into the venous effluent of perfused glands in parallel with their stimulation of salt secretion, but the release of VIP induced by ANP II is prevented by perfusion with procaine. VIP was measured by radioimmunoassay. Cardiac peptides thus appear to regulate rectal gland secretion by releasing VIP from neural stores within the gland. It is possible that other physiological effects of these hormones might be explained by an action to enhanced local release of neurotransmitters.

Silva, P.; Stoff, J.S.; Solomon, R.J.; Lear, S.; Kniaz, D.; Greger, R.; Epstein, F.H.

1987-01-01

63

Alarm communication: a new function for the scent-gland secretion in harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most harvestmen are nocturnal, nonacoustical, and nonvisual arthropods. They have a pair of exocrine glands on the cephalothorax that produce defensive volatile secretions. We investigated in the field the possible alarm effect of these secretions in the gregarious harvestman Goniosoma aff. proximum. A cotton swab soaked with the species' own exudate (treatment), or with water (control), was held 1-2 cm

Glauco Machado; Vinícius Bonato; Paulo S. Oliveira

2002-01-01

64

Cytoplasmic Carbonic Anhydrase II of Rat Coagulating Gland Is Secreted via the Apocrine Export Mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Two different pathways for protein secretion are described for epithelial cells of rat coagulating gland and dorsal prostate: the classical merocrine and the alternative apocrine release mode. Apocrine-secreted proteins are synthesized on cytoplasmic polyri- bosomes and are subsequently exported in protrusions on the apical cell surface (apo- somes). In this article we report the identification and purification to homogeneity

Beate Wilhelm; Claudia Keppler; Gudrun Hoffbauer; Friedrich Lottspeich; Dietmar Linder; Andreas Meinhardt; Gerhard Aumüller; Jürgen Seitz

1998-01-01

65

Neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G stimulate secretion from cultured bovine airway gland serous cells.  

PubMed Central

To investigate the hypothesis that neutrophil proteases stimulate airway gland secretion, we studied the effect of human cathepsin G and elastase on secretion of 35S-labeled macromolecules from cultured bovine airway gland serous cells. Both proteases stimulated secretion in a concentration-dependent fashion with a threshold of greater than or equal to 10(-10) M. Elastase was more potent than cathepsin G, causing a maximal secretory response of 1,810 +/- 60% over baseline at 10(-8) M. The maximal response to cathepsin G (1,810 +/- 70% over baseline at 10(-7) M) was similar to the maximal response to elastase. These responses were greater than 10-fold larger than the response to other agonists such as histamine. Protease-induced secretion was noncytotoxic and required catalytically active enzymes. The predominant sulfated macromolecule released by proteases was chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. Immunocytochemical staining demonstrated chondroitin sulfate in cytoplasmic granules and decreased granular staining after stimulation of cells with elastase. The neutrophil proteases also degraded the proteoglycan released from serous cells. Cathepsin G and elastase in supernatant obtained by degranulation of human peripheral neutrophils also caused a secretory response. Thus, neutrophil proteases stimulate airway gland serous cell secretion of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and degrade the secreted product. These findings suggest a potential role for neutrophil proteases in the pathogenesis of increased and abnormal submucosal gland secretions in diseases associated with inflammation and neutrophil infiltration of the airways. Images

Sommerhoff, C P; Nadel, J A; Basbaum, C B; Caughey, G H

1990-01-01

66

Control of rectal gland secretion by blood acid–base status in the intact dogfish shark ( Squalus acanthias)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to address the possible role of blood acid–base status in controlling the rectal gland, dogfish were fitted with indwelling arterial catheters for blood sampling and rectal gland catheters for secretion collection. In intact, unanaesthetized animals, isosmotic volume loading with 500mmolL?1 NaCl at a rate of 15mLkg?1h?1 produced a brisk, stable rectal gland secretion flow of about 4mLkg?1h?1. Secretion

Chris M. Wood; R. Stephen Munger; Jill Thompson; Trevor J. Shuttleworth

2007-01-01

67

[Destabilase: an enzyme of medicinal leech salivary gland secretion hydrolyzes the isopeptide bonds in stabilized fibrin].  

PubMed

The salivary gland secretion of the leech Hirudo medicinalis contains an enzyme termed by us as destabilase, which hydrolyzes the epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)-lysine bonds as a result of fibrin stabilization by factor XIIIa in the presence of Ca2+. This hydrolysis, apart from the original lysine and glutamine, is characterized by an appearance of lysine and glutamic acid residues. The accumulation of glutamic acid residues leads to spontaneous depolymerization of the destabilized fibrin. As a result, fluid "spots" of destabilized fibrin depolymerization (DFD) begin to appear at the sites of leech secretion application on the surface of stabilized fibrin plates. The DFD activity of the leech salivary gland secretion manifests itself only in case of stabilized fibrin and increases with an increase in the stabilization degree. Treatment of leech secretion with diisopropylfluorophosphate does not affect the enzyme activity, which is completely blocked by monoiodoacetate. The mechanism of action of leech salivary gland secretion and the enzyme isolated from it, i. e., destabilase, was studied, using a synthetic chromogenic substrate - p-nitroanilide-gamma-glutamic acid. The amidolytic activity of leech salivary gland secretion is 2.2 +/- 0.18 nkat/ml, Km(app) for destabilase is 0.6 X 10(-5) M, V = 5.4 X 10(-3) mol/min. PMID:3922436

Baskova, I P; Nikonov, G I

1985-03-01

68

Patterns of transcriptome divergence in the male accessory gland of two closely related species of field crickets.  

PubMed

One of the central questions in evolutionary genetics is how much of the genome is involved in the early stages of divergence between populations, causing them to be reproductively isolated. In this article, we investigate genomic differentiation in a pair of closely related field crickets (Gryllus firmus and G. pennsylvanicus). These two species are the result of allopatric divergence and now interact along an extensive hybrid zone in eastern North America. Genes encoding seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) are often divergent between species, and it has been hypothesized that these proteins may play a key role in the origin and maintenance of reproductive isolation between diverging lineages. Hence, we chose to scan the accessory gland transcriptome to enable direct comparisons of differentiation for genes known to encode SFPs with differentiation in a much larger set of genes expressed in the same tissue. We have characterized differences in allele frequency between two populations for >6000 SNPs and >26,000 contigs. About 10% of all SNPs showed nearly fixed differences between the two species. Genes encoding SFPs did not have significantly elevated numbers of fixed SNPs per contig, nor did they seem to show larger differences than expected in their average allele frequencies. The distribution of allele frequency differences across the transcriptome is distinctly bimodal, but the relatively high proportion of fixed SNPs does not necessarily imply "ancient" divergence between these two lineages. Further studies of linkage disequilibrium and introgression across the hybrid zone are needed to direct our attention to those genome regions that are important for reproductive isolation. PMID:23172857

Andrés, Jose A; Larson, Erica L; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Harrison, Richard G

2012-11-19

69

A novel giant secretion polypeptide in Chironomus salivary glands: implications for another Balbiani ring gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chironomus salivary glands contain a family of high M, (~1,000 x 103) secretion polypeptides thought to consist of three components: sp-la, sp-lb, and sp-lc. The use of a new extraction protocol revealed a novel high M, component, sp-ld. Results of a survey of individual salivary glands indicated that sp-ld was widespread in more than a dozen strains of C. tentans

WEN-YEN KAO; STEVEN T. CASE

1985-01-01

70

Lubiprostone stimulates secretion from tracheal submucosal glands of sheep, pigs, and humans.  

PubMed

Lubiprostone, a putative ClC-2 chloride channel opener, has been investigated for its effects on airway epithelia (tracheas). Lubiprostone is shown to increase submucosal gland secretion in pigs, sheep, and humans and to increase short-circuit current (SCC) in the surface epithelium of pigs and sheep. Use of appropriate blocking agents and ion-substitution experiments shows anion secretion is the driving force for fluid formation in both glands and surface epithelium. From SCC concentration-response relations, it is shown that for apical lubiprostone K(d) = 10.5 nM with a Hill slope of 1.08, suggesting a single type of binding site and, from the speed of the response, close to the apical surface, confirmed the rapid blockade by Cd ions. Responses to lubiprostone were reversible and repeatable, responses being significantly larger with ventral compared with dorsal epithelium. Submucosal gland secretion rates following basolateral lubiprostone were, respectively, 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 nl gl(-1) min(-1) in humans, sheep, and pigs. These rates dwarf any contribution surface secretion adds to the accumulation of surface liquid under the influence of lubiprostone. Lubiprostone stimulated gland secretion in two out of four human cystic fibrosis (CF) tissues and in two of three disease controls, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (COPD/IPF), but in neither type of tissue was the increase significant. Lubiprostone was able to increase gland secretion rates in normal human tissue in the continuing presence of a high forskolin concentration. Lubiprostone had no spasmogenic activity on trachealis muscle, making it a potential agent for increasing airway secretion that may have therapeutic utility. PMID:19233902

Joo, N S; Wine, J J; Cuthbert, A W

2009-02-20

71

Platelet-activating factor increases platelet-dependent glycoconjugate secretion from tracheal submucosal gland  

SciTech Connect

Using isolated glands from feline trachea, we examined the effect of platelet-activating factor (PAF) on radiolabeled glycoconjugate release and glandular contraction by measuring induced tension in the absence or presence of platelets. PAF alone did not produce any significant glandular contraction nor any significant change in glycoconjugate release from isolated glands. In the presence of purified platelets containing no plasma, PAF (10(-8) to 10(-5) M) produced significant glycoconjugate secretion in a dose-dependent fashion, but it produced no significant glandular contraction. PAF-evoked glycoconjugate secretion was time dependent, reaching a peak response of 277% of control 15-30 min after the exposure of isolated glands to 10(-5) M PAF in the presence of platelets and returning to 135% of controls at 2 h. Platelets alone did not produce any significant stimulation in glycoconjugate release. CV-3988, a known PAF antagonist, inhibited the secretory response to PAF. Methysergide, a known antagonist to receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine, did not alter PAF-evoked glycoconjugate secretion. Both indomethacin and SQ 29,548, a thromboxane receptor antagonist, abolished the PAF-evoked glycoconjugate secretion from isolated submucosal glands. Epithiomethanothromboxane A2, a stable thromboxane A2 analogue, produced a significant increase in glycoconjugate secretion in a dose-dependent fashion. These findings indicate that PAF increases glycoconjugate release in the presence of platelets and that the increase is dependent on some aspect of platelet function, namely thromboxane generation.

Sasaki, T.; Shimura, S.; Ikeda, K.; Sasaki, H.; Takishima, T. (Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan))

1989-12-01

72

Procedure for the Removal of Vesicles and Prostate Secretions from Motile Rabbit Sperm Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accessory gland secretions and prostatic vesicular bodies were removed from rabbit semen by centrifugation of the sperm cell suspension through a discontinuous percoll density gradient. Purified sperm cells were motile up to 20 hr. after centrifugation al...

R. J. Young W. C. Starke

1988-01-01

73

Regulation and specificity of antifungal metapleural gland secretion in leaf-cutting ants.  

PubMed

Ants have paired metapleural glands (MGs) to produce secretions for prophylactic hygiene. These exocrine glands are particularly well developed in leaf-cutting ants, but whether the ants can actively regulate MG secretion is unknown. In a set of controlled experiments using conidia of five fungi, we show that the ants adjust the amount of MG secretion to the virulence of the fungus with which they are infected. We further applied fixed volumes of MG secretion of ants challenged with constant conidia doses to agar mats of the same fungal species. This showed that inhibition halos were significantly larger for ants challenged with virulent and mild pathogens/weeds than for controls and Escovopsis-challenged ants. We conclude that the MG defence system of leaf-cutting ants has characteristics reminiscent of an additional cuticular immune system, with specific and non-specific components, of which some are constitutive and others induced. PMID:22915672

Yek, Sze Huei; Nash, David R; Jensen, Annette B; Boomsma, Jacobus J

2012-08-22

74

Regulation and specificity of antifungal metapleural gland secretion in leaf-cutting ants  

PubMed Central

Ants have paired metapleural glands (MGs) to produce secretions for prophylactic hygiene. These exocrine glands are particularly well developed in leaf-cutting ants, but whether the ants can actively regulate MG secretion is unknown. In a set of controlled experiments using conidia of five fungi, we show that the ants adjust the amount of MG secretion to the virulence of the fungus with which they are infected. We further applied fixed volumes of MG secretion of ants challenged with constant conidia doses to agar mats of the same fungal species. This showed that inhibition halos were significantly larger for ants challenged with virulent and mild pathogens/weeds than for controls and Escovopsis-challenged ants. We conclude that the MG defence system of leaf-cutting ants has characteristics reminiscent of an additional cuticular immune system, with specific and non-specific components, of which some are constitutive and others induced.

Yek, Sze Huei; Nash, David R.; Jensen, Annette B.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

2012-01-01

75

Volatile components in scent gland secretions of garter snakes ( Thamnophis spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous analyses of the scent gland secretions of snakes have focused on the nonvolatile components. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of secretions from North American garter snakes (Thamnophis butleri, T. couchi, T. elegans, T. melanogaster, andT. sirtalis) indicated the following seven major volatile components: acetic, propanoic, 2-methylpropanoic, butanoic, and 3-methylbutanoic acids, trimethylamine, and 2-piperidone. Five or more of these compounds were observed

William F. Wood; Joshua M. Parker; Paul J. Weldon

1995-01-01

76

Correlation of secretion of retinol and protein by the lacrimal gland  

SciTech Connect

Retinol, which is present in tears, is secreted by the lacrimal gland. Retinol secretion is stimulated by cholinergic drugs and vasoactive intestinal peptide with characteristics very similar to the exocytotic secretion of protein by the lacrimal gland, suggesting that retinol and protein are secreted by similar mechanisms. The authors investigated this by cannulating the lacrimal gland ducts of rabbits and collecting lacrimal gland fluid (LGF) under conditions of maximal flow stimulated by IV injection of pilocarpine (400 ..mu..g/kg) every 20 min for 4.5 hr. Over this period LGF protein concentration decreased 36.4% from 22.8 +/- 1.94 mg/ml to 8.29 1.86 mg/ml while retinol decreased 37% from 55.1 +/- 16.2 ng/ml to 20.4 +/- 6.5 ng/ml. The retinol/protein ratio remained constant at 2.88 ng/mg. This demonstrates a strong correlation between retinol and protein secretion, suggesting that retinol may be protein bound. To investigate binding of retinol to LGF protein, LGF was incubated with /sup 3/H-retinol. The bound and unbound retinol were separated on a Lipidex 1000 column. Retinol binding was linear over a range of 1.25-200 nM /sup 3/H-retinol. Binding was not inhibited by PCMBS or addition of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled retinol and was not increased by prior extraction of endogenous retinol from the LGF. This indicates that the binding of retinol to LGF protein is non-specific. Retinol therefore appears to be secreted by the lacrimal gland cells in non-specific association with protein.

Ubels, J.L.; Rismondo, V.

1986-03-01

77

Mechanism of NaCl secretion in rectal gland tubules of spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Segments of rectal gland tubules (RGT) the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) were perfused in vitro to study the cellular mechanism by which NaCl secretion is stimulated. Transepithelial PD (PDte), transepithelial resistance (Rte), the PD across the basolateral membrane (PDbl), the fractional resistance of the lumen membrane (FR1), and the cellular activities for Cl-, Na+, and K+ (axcell) were measured. In

Rainer Greger; Eberhard Schlatter; Fong Wang; John N. Forrest Jr

1984-01-01

78

Antimicrobial substances in secretion, interstitial fluid, and tissue of normal and infected canine prostate glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven antimicrobial substances — three basic, three acidic and one amphoteric — were given in constant infusion experiments to dogs to monitor their distribution in the prostate gland. In some of the dogs an experimental bacterial prostatitis had been induced prior to the experiments. Drug levels were measured in plasma, (P1), prostatic interstitial fluid (PIF), prostatic secretion (PS) and prostatic

A. Baumueller; P. O. Madsen

1982-01-01

79

A Novel, Local Technique for Studying Rabbit Lacrimal Gland Secretion in situ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To develop a local approach to study rabbit lacrimal secretion in situ by administering specific secretagogues directly onto the lacrimal gland (LG). Methods: After the rabbit has been anesthetized, the inferior bulbar conjunctiva and underlying connective tissue are blunt dissected. A polyethylene tube, for drug delivery, is inserted through the fibrous membrane overlying the inferior surface of the orbital

Chuanqing Ding; Lawrence Rife; Tamako Nakamura; Yu-Wen Wang; Kimberly Kopp; Joel E. Schechter

2008-01-01

80

Unusual conservation among genes encoding small secreted salivary gland proteins from a gall midge  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In most protein-coding genes, greater sequence variation is observed in noncoding regions (introns and untranslated regions) than in coding regions due to selective constraints. During characterization of genes and transcripts encoding small secreted salivary gland proteins (SSSGPs) from the Hessian fly, we found exactly the opposite pattern of conservation in several families of genes: the non-coding regions were

Ming-Shun Chen; Xuming Liu; Ziheng Yang; Huixian Zhao; Richard H Shukle; Jeffrey J Stuart; Scot Hulbert

2010-01-01

81

Hydrocarbons in the antennal gland secretion of female European beewolves, Philanthus triangulum (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antennae of female European beewolves (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) contain unique gland reservoirs that are inhabited by the symbiotic bacterium ‘Candidatus Streptomyces philanthi’. The reservoir content is secreted into the subterranean brood cells where it serves a dual function:\\u000a (1) It provides the larvae with spatial information about the orientation of cocoon spinning, and (2) it supplies the larva

Martin Kaltenpoth; Thomas Schmitt; Erhard Strohm

2009-01-01

82

Secreted Frizzled-related Protein 2 (SFRP2) is Highly Expressed in Canine Mammary Gland Tumors but not in Normal Mammary Glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine mammary gland tumor (MGT) is the commonest tumor in female dogs and a good animal model of human breast cancer. A group of newly identified genes encoding secreted frizzled-related proteins (SFRP) have been implicated in apoptosis regulation and tumorigenesis. Canine mammary tissues from 50 spontaneous MGTs and 10 normal mammary glands (MGs) were obtained from surgically excised specimens and

Jia-Lin Lee; Ching-Jin Chang; Szu-Ying Wu; David R. Sargan; Chung-Tien Lin

2004-01-01

83

Roles of Caspase 1 and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase in Inflammation-Induced Inhibition of Lacrimal Gland Protein Secretion  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of the present study was to investigate the roles of caspase 1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in inflammation-induced inhibition of lacrimal gland secretion. Methods Lacrimal gland inflammation was induced by injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; to study the role of caspase 1) or IL-1? (to study the role of ERK). Lacrimal gland protein secretion was measured using a spectrofluorometric assay. Caspase 1 and ERK activities in the lacrimal gland were measured by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, or both. Aqueous tear production was measured using phenol red-impregnated cotton threads. Results Injection of LPS into the lacrimal gland inhibited neurally and adrenergic agonist–induced protein secretion by 77% and 54%, respectively, and activated caspase 1. The degree of inhibition achieved by LPS was similar to that obtained with injection of IL-1?. Inhibition of caspase 1 alleviated the inhibitory effect of LPS on lacrimal gland secretion. IL-1? activated ERK in the lacrimal gland in vitro and in vivo, and this effect was blocked by UO126, an inhibitor of MEK, the ERK-activating enzyme. IL-1? injection into the lacrimal gland inhibited aqueous tear production by 52% and inhibited neurally and adrenergic agonist-induced protein secretion by 80% and 55%, respectively. UO126 alleviated the inhibitory effect of IL-1? on aqueous tear production and lacrimal gland protein secretion. Conclusions LPS inhibits lacrimal gland secretion by activating caspase 1, and IL-1? activates the ERK pathway to inhibit lacrimal gland protein secretion and aqueous tear production.

Zoukhri, Driss; Ko, Sunghwan; Stark, Paul C.; Kublin, Claire L.

2008-01-01

84

Studies on secretion of catecholamines evoked by acetylcholine or transmural stimulation of the rat adrenal gland.  

PubMed Central

1. A method of studying the secretion of catecholamines (CA) in the isolated perfused rat adrenal gland by transmural stimulation or by application of acetylcholine (ACh) has been described. 2. Secretion of CA was practically linear in response to ACh administration, starting from 4.42 microM to 1.32 mM. Transmural stimulation enhanced secretion from a stimulation frequency of 0.5--3 Hz; the effect levelled at 10 Hz, and declined as frequency was raised to 30 Hz. The secretory response to transmural stimulation was maximal over 1 msec duration and 60 V. 3. Secretion evoked by transmural stimulation was blocked (70-95%) by 0.31 microM-tetrodotoxin (TTX) irrespective of stimulus duration, voltage and frequency of stimulation. Secretion evoked by ACh was depressed 43% by TTX. After mecamylamine (0.59 mM) treatment, secretory response evoked by either procedure was blocked by about 80%. 4. Adenosine (0.18 mM), adenosine monophosphate (0.28 mM), or adenosine triphosphate (0.19 mM) lowered CA secretion evoked by transmural stimulation by about 40%, but had no effect on secretion induced by ACh. 5. Isoprenaline (4.52 microM), propranolol (11.58 microM), clonidine (13.00 microM), phenoxybenzamine (3.30 microM), and 4-aminopyridine (3 mM) did not modify CA secretion evoked by transmural stimulation or by ACh. 6. Perfusion of the adrenal gland with 0.25 mM-Ca-Krebs solution completely abolished CA secretion evoked by transmural stimulation, but ACh-induced secretion was still 30-50% of the control value. 20 mM-Mg blocked electrically induced secretion by 60%, but that evoked by ACh was unaffected. 7. Perfusion with Ca-free Krebs solution for 2 hr did not completely abolish the response. However, treatment with EGTA (5 mM) for 30 min totally blocked ACh-induced secretion. 8. La or Mn were more effective in blocking transmurally evoked secretion than ACh-evoked secretion of CA. Verapamil (0.1 mM) had no significant effect on secretion evoked by either procedure. A 5-fold increase in its concentration caused about 75% blockade of secretion. 9. Differential effects of various ions and agents on CA secretion are explained on the basis that these compounds affect neurosecretory properties of the presynaptic splanchnic nerve terminals and of chromaffin cells differently.

Wakade, A R

1981-01-01

85

Lacrimal gland PKC isoforms are differentially involved in agonist-induced protein secretion.  

PubMed

In the present study, we have synthesized and N-myristoylated peptides derived from the pseudosubstrate sequences of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, -delta, and -epsilon [Myr-PKC-alpha-(15-28), Myr-PKC-delta-(142-153), and Myr-PKC-epsilon-(149-164)], three isoforms present in rat lacrimal gland, and a peptide derived from the sequence of the endogenous inhibitor of protein kinase A [Myr-PKI-(17-25)]. Lacrimal gland acini were preincubated for 60 min with the myristoylated peptides (10(-10) to 3 x 10(-7) M), then protein secretion was stimulated with a phorbol ester, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (10(-6) M); vasoactive intestinal peptide (10(-8) M); a cholinergic agonist, carbachol (10(-5) M); or an alpha 1-adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine (10(-4) M), for 20 min. In intact lacrimal gland acini, Myr-PKC-alpha-(15-28) inhibited phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate-induced protein secretion. This effect was not reproduced by the acetylated peptide or by the myristoylated PKI, which inhibited vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced protein secretion, a response mediated by protein kinase A. Carbachol-induced protein secretion was inhibited by all three peptides. In contrast, phenylephrine-induced protein secretion was inhibited only by Myr-PKC-epsilon-(149-164), whereas Myr-PKC-alpha-(15-28) and Myr-PKC-delta-(142-153) had a stimulatory effect. None of these myristoylated peptides affected the calcium increase evoked by cholinergic or alpha 1-adrenergic agonists. We concluded that phorbol ester- and receptor-induced protein secretion involve different PKC isoforms in lacrimal gland. PMID:9038832

Zoukhri, D; Hodges, R R; Sergheraert, C; Toker, A; Dartt, D A

1997-01-01

86

Cryopreservation of aoudad (Ammotragus lervia sahariensis) sperm obtained by transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands and electroejaculation.  

PubMed

This study examines (1) the effectiveness of transrectal, ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands (TUMASG) combined with electroejaculation for obtaining aoudad (Ammotragus lervia sahariensis) sperm samples for cryopreservation, and (2) the effectiveness of a Tris-citric acid-glucose-based medium (TCG; usually used for freezing ibex sperm) and a TES-Tris-glucose-based medium (TTG; typically used in the cryopreservation of mouflon sperm) as sperm extenders. After TUMASG, just one to three electrical pulses were required for ejaculation to occur in five of the six animals studied; one ejaculated after TUMASG alone. Transrectal, ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands would therefore appear to be useful in obtaining sperm samples from this species, requiring few subsequent electrical electroejaculation stimuli and sometimes none at all. After thawing, the membrane integrity (assessed by nigrosin-eosin staining) of sperm extended with TTG was greater than that of sperm extended with TCG (P < 0.05). The total percentage of sperm showing an intact acrosome, as assessed by fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut (Arachis hypogea) agglutinin, was also higher in the TTG-extended sperm (P < 0.05), and the percentage of dead sperm with a damaged acrosome was lower (P < 0.05). No differences were seen between TCG and TTG in terms of apoptotic manifestations (DNA damage, caspase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, and plasmalemma stability). Therefore, TTG appears to be a better extender than TCG for cryopreserving aoudad sperm. PMID:23158213

Santiago-Moreno, J; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Esteso, M C; López-Sebastián, A; Guerra, R; Ruiz, M J; Mendoza, N; Luna, C; Cebrián-Pérez, J A; Hildebrandt, T B

2012-11-14

87

The effects of histamine, pyrilamine, cimetidine, and ranitidine on secretion of lingual lipase and amylase from rat von Ebner's glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minced von Ebner's glands of rat tongue were incubatedin vitro with histamine and histamine receptor antagonists. At various time intervals, media and homogenates of the tissue were assayed for lingual lipase and amylase activity and percentage secretion calculated. Histamine elicited moderate secretion (?10%) of lingual lipase and amylase. In contrast, pyrilamine, and H1 receptor antagonist, elicited>60% secretion. There were statistically

Ruth B. Field; Stuart J. Chirtel

1992-01-01

88

Cigarette smoke in lungs evokes reflex increase in tracheal submucosal gland secretion in dogs.  

PubMed

Stimulation of pulmonary C-fibers (PCs) by capsaicin and of rapidly adapting receptors (RARs) by reduced lung compliance reflexly increases airway submucosal gland secretion in dogs. Because both PCs and RARs are stimulated by cigarette smoke (nicotine being the primary stimulus), we performed experiments in anesthetized open-chest artificially ventilated dogs (with aortic nerves cut) to determine whether cigarette smoke reflexly stimulates airway secretion. We measured submucosal gland secretion by counting the hillocks in a 1.2-cm2 field of tracheal epithelium coated with tantalum dust. Secretion was stimulated by delivery of 40-320 ml smoke from high-nicotine cigarettes to the lower trachea, secretion rate increasing from 7.4 +/- 1.3 to 48.1 +/- 5.1 hillocks.cm-2.min-1. Results of cutting the pulmonary vagal branches or carotid sinus nerves or both indicated that the secretory response was initiated by stimulation of lower respiratory vagal afferents and augmented several seconds later by stimulation of carotid chemoreceptors. Results of cooling the cervical vagus nerves to 7 and 0 degrees C indicated that most of the vagally mediated increase in secretion was due to stimulation of afferent lung C-fibers. PMID:1757327

Schultz, H D; Davis, B; Coleridge, H M; Coleridge, J C

1991-09-01

89

Effect of ethanol on acid secretion by isolated gastric glands from rabbit  

SciTech Connect

Isolated gastric glands from rabbit, as well as basolateral and microsomal membranes derived therefrom, were used to examine the effect of ethanol on several parameters related to acid secretion. Low concentrations of ethanol, 0.2%-5% (vol/vol), had no effect on basal aminopyrine accumulation by isolated gastric glands but significantly potentiated aminopyrine accumulation stimulated by histamine. In contrast, this dose range of ethanol inhibited aminopyrine accumulation stimulated by forskolin or dibutyryl-cyclic adenosine monophosphate. This dose range of ethanol produced a similar effect on adenylate cyclase activity of basolateral membranes from isolated gastric glands, with potentiation of histamine stimulation and inhibition of forskolin stimulation. Low-dose ethanol was found to produce increased proton permeability of the apical membrane of the parietal cell but had no effect on hydrogen-potassium-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase activity. Ethanol (10%) significantly inhibited all parameters of acid secretion studied. Ethanol has a biphasic effect on acid secretion with potentiation of histamine-stimulated aminopyrine accumulation and adenylate cyclase activity at low doses and inhibition of all parameters of acid secretion at high doses.

Reichstein, B.J.; Okamoto, C.; Forte, J.G.

1986-08-01

90

Secretion of electrolytes, protein and urea by the mandibular gland of the common wombat ( Vombatus ursinus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saliva was collected from the mandibular glands of anaesthetized common wombats (Vombatus ursinus) to ascertain maximal flow rates, salivary compostion and possible adaptations, particularly PO43- secretion, to assist digestion. After temporary catheterization of the main duct through its oral opening, salivary secretion was evoked at flow rates ranging from 0.02±0.002 (±SEM) ml·min-1 (0.7±0.07 µl·min-1·kg body weight-1) to 0.4±0.05 ml·min-1(14±1.9 µl·min-1·kg

A. M. Beal

1995-01-01

91

Two-photon microscopic analysis of acetylcholine-induced mucus secretion in guinea pig nasal glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatiotemporal changes in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) as well as fluid secretion and exocytosis induced by acetylcholine (ACh) in intact acini of guinea pig nasal glands were investigated by two-photon excitation imaging. Cross-sectional images of acini loaded with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fura-2 revealed that the ACh-evoked increase in [Ca2+]i was immediate and spread from the apical region

Akihiro Oshima; Tatsuya Kojima; Kenji Dejima; Yasuo Hisa; Haruo Kasai; Tomomi Nemoto

2005-01-01

92

Sex recognition by odour and variation in the uropygial gland secretion in starlings.  

PubMed

1.?Although a growing body of evidence supports that olfaction based on chemical compounds emitted by birds may play a role in individual recognition, the possible role of chemical cues in sexual selection of birds has been only preliminarily studied. 2.?We investigated for the first time whether a passerine bird, the spotless starling Sturnus unicolor, was able to discriminate the sex of conspecifics by using olfactory cues and whether the size and secretion composition of the uropygial gland convey information on sex, age and reproductive status in this species. 3.?We performed a blind choice experiment during mating, and we found that starlings were able to discriminate the sex of conspecifics by using chemical cues alone. Both male and female starlings preferred male scents. Furthermore, the analysis of the chemical composition of the uropygial gland secretion by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed differences between sexes, ages and reproductive status. 4.?In conclusion, our study reveals for first time that a passerine species can discriminate the sex of conspecifics by relying on chemical cues and suggests that the uropygial gland secretion may potentially function as a chemical signal used in mate choice and/or intrasexual competition in this species. PMID:22220811

Amo, Luisa; Avilés, Jesús M; Parejo, Deseada; Peña, Aránzazu; Rodríguez, Juan; Tomás, Gustavo

2012-01-05

93

A Preliminary Investigation of the Effects of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide on Secretion from the Lingual Salt Glands of Crocodylus porosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-like immunoreactivity was demonstrated in the lingual salt glands of the estuarine crocodile,Crocodylus porosus.Varicose fibers showing VIP-like immunoreactivity ramified the salt glands, forming a dense network around the basal region of the exocrine cells. Secretions from the lingual salt glands were monitored in hatchlingC. porosus.Spontaneous secretory activity was variable, ranging from 0.3 to 5.3 ?mol Na 100

Craig E. Franklin; Susanne Holmgren; Greg C. Taylor

1996-01-01

94

Anatomy of secretory glands in the eyelid and conjunctiva: a photographic review.  

PubMed

The eyelid and conjunctiva are main targets in ophthalmic plastic surgery. Although dry eyes are known to occasionally occur after ophthalmic plastic surgery, little attention has been paid to the secretory glands in the eyelid and conjunctiva. The secretary glands in the eyelid and conjunctiva contain the main lacrimal gland, accessory lacrimal glands of Wolfring and Krause, goblet cells, ciliary glands of Moll and Zeis, and the meibomian gland of the tarsal plate. Understanding the details of these glands is helpful in preventing and managing secretion reduction after oculoplastic procedures. PMID:23381567

Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Akihide; Matsuda, Hiromichi; Nakamura, Yasuhisa; Nakano, Takashi; Asamoto, Ken; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kakizaki, Hirohiko

95

Radioprotective Effect of Lidocaine on Neurotransmitter Agonist-Induced Secretion in Irradiated Salivary Glands  

PubMed Central

Background Previously we verified the radioprotective effect of lidocaine on the function and ultrastructure of salivary glands in rabbits. However, the underlying mechanism of lidocaine's radioprotective effect is unknown. We hypothesized that lidocaine, as a membrane stabilization agent, has a protective effect on intracellular neuroreceptor-mediated signaling and hence can help preserve the secretory function of salivary glands during radiotherapy. Methods and Materials Rabbits were irradiated with or without pretreatment with lidocaine before receiving fractionated radiation to a total dose of 35 Gy. Sialoscintigraphy and saliva total protein assay were performed before radiation and 1 week after the last radiation fraction. Isolated salivary gland acini were stimulated with either carbachol or adrenaline. Ca2+ influx in response to the stimulation with these agonists was measured using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Results The uptake of activity and the excretion fraction of the parotid glands were significantly reduced after radiation, but lidocaine had a protective effect. Saliva total protein concentration was not altered after radiation. For isolated acini, Ca2+ influx in response to stimulation with carbachol, but not adrenaline, was impaired after irradiation; lidocaine pretreatment attenuated this effect. Conclusions Lidocaine has a radioprotective effect on the capacity of muscarinic agonist-induced water secretion in irradiated salivary glands.

Su, Yu-xiong; Benedek, Geza A.; Sieg, Peter; Liao, Gui-qing; Dendorfer, Andreas; Meller, Birgit; Rades, Dirk; Klinger, Matthias; Hakim, Samer G.

2013-01-01

96

Pharmacogenetics of human ABC transporter ABCC11: new insights into apocrine gland growth and metabolite secretion  

PubMed Central

Cell secretion is an important physiological process that ensures smooth metabolic activities and tissue repair as well as growth and immunological functions in the body. Apocrine secretion occurs when the secretory process is accomplished with a partial loss of cell cytoplasm. The secretory materials are contained within secretory vesicles and are released during secretion as cytoplasmic fragments into the glandular lumen or interstitial space. The recent finding that the non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) 538G > A (rs17822931; Gly180Arg) in the ABCC11 gene determines the type of earwax in humans has shed light on the novel function of this ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter in apocrine glands. The wild-type (Gly180) of ABCC11 is associated with wet-type earwax, axillary osmidrosis, and colostrum secretion from the mammary gland as well as the potential risk of mastopathy. Furthermore, the SNP (538G > A) in the ABCC11 gene is suggested to be a clinical biomarker for the prediction of chemotherapeutic efficacy. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview on the discovery and characterization of genetic polymorphisms in the human ABCC11 gene and to explain the impact of ABCC11 538G > A on the apocrine phenotype as well as the anthropological aspect of this SNP in the ABCC11 gene and patients’ response to nucleoside-based chemotherapy.

Ishikawa, Toshihisa; Toyoda, Yu; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro; Niikawa, Norio

2013-01-01

97

Pharmacogenetics of human ABC transporter ABCC11: new insights into apocrine gland growth and metabolite secretion.  

PubMed

Cell secretion is an important physiological process that ensures smooth metabolic activities and tissue repair as well as growth and immunological functions in the body. Apocrine secretion occurs when the secretory process is accomplished with a partial loss of cell cytoplasm. The secretory materials are contained within secretory vesicles and are released during secretion as cytoplasmic fragments into the glandular lumen or interstitial space. The recent finding that the non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) 538G > A (rs17822931; Gly180Arg) in the ABCC11 gene determines the type of earwax in humans has shed light on the novel function of this ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter in apocrine glands. The wild-type (Gly180) of ABCC11 is associated with wet-type earwax, axillary osmidrosis, and colostrum secretion from the mammary gland as well as the potential risk of mastopathy. Furthermore, the SNP (538G > A) in the ABCC11 gene is suggested to be a clinical biomarker for the prediction of chemotherapeutic efficacy. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview on the discovery and characterization of genetic polymorphisms in the human ABCC11 gene and to explain the impact of ABCC11 538G > A on the apocrine phenotype as well as the anthropological aspect of this SNP in the ABCC11 gene and patients' response to nucleoside-based chemotherapy. PMID:23316210

Ishikawa, Toshihisa; Toyoda, Yu; Yoshiura, Koh-Ichiro; Niikawa, Norio

2013-01-02

98

Evidence that absence of endometrial gland secretions in uterine gland knockout ewes compromises conceptus survival and elongation.  

PubMed

Endometrial glands are necessary for conceptus implantation and growth. In the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model, blastocysts hatch normally but fail to survive or elongate. This peri-implantation defect in UGKO ewes may be due to the absence of endometrial glands or, alternatively, to the lack of certain epithelial adhesion molecules or the inability of the endometrium to respond to signals from the conceptus. Two studies were performed to examine these hypotheses. In study one, normal (n = 8) and UGKO (n = 12) ewes were mated at oestrus (day 0) with intact rams and their uteri were flushed 14 days after oestrus. Normal ewes (n = 4) were also flushed on 14 days after oestrus. Uterine flushes from bred normal ewes contained filamentous conceptuses (n = 7 of 8), whereas those from UGKO ewes contained no conceptus (n = 5 of 12), a growth-retarded, tubular conceptus (n = 6 of 12), or a fragmented, filamentous conceptus (n = 1 of 12). In all groups, expression of mucin 1 and integrin alpha(v), alpha(5), beta(3) and beta(5) was localized at the apical surface of the endometrial luminal epithelium with no detectable differences between normal and UGKO ewes. Uterine flushes from pregnant ewes, but not cyclic or UGKO ewes, contained abundant immunoreactive interferon tau and the cell adhesion proteins, osteopontin and glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule one. In study two, UGKO ewes were fitted with uterine catheters 5 days after oestrus, infused with recombinant ovine interferon tau or control proteins from 11 to 15 days after oestrus, and underwent hysterectomy 16 days after oestrus. Expression of several interferon tau-stimulated genes (ISG17, STAT1, STAT2 and IRF-1) was increased in the endometrium from interferon tau-infused UGKO ewes. These results support the hypothesis that the defects in conceptus elongation and survival in UGKO ewes are due to the absence of endometrial glands and their secretions rather than to alterations in expression of anti-adhesive or adhesive molecules on the endometrial luminal epithelium or to the responsiveness of the endometrium to the conceptus pregnancy recognition signal. PMID:12141942

Gray, C A; Burghardt, R C; Johnson, G A; Bazer, F W; Spencer, T E

2002-08-01

99

Analysis of the labial gland secretions of the male bumblebee Bombus griseocollis (Hymenoptera: Apidae).  

PubMed

The labial gland secretions from males of the bumblebee Bombus (Separatobombus) griseocollis De Geer, a bumblebee exhibiting perching behaviour, were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in the electron impact and positive ion chemical ionization mode. The major compound of the complex mixture of alkenols, acetates, hydrocarbons, wax type esters and steroids is tetradecyl acetate, considerable amounts of hexadecyl, geranyllinaloyl, geranylgeranyl, docosyl, tetracosenyl and hexacosenyl acetate were also found. 1,3-Tetradecanediol diacetate, detected as a minor component, has not yet been identified in male bumblebee labial gland secretions. Besides small amounts of primary alcohols (tetradecanol and hexadecanol) the tertiary alcohol geranyllinalool (3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-hexadeca-1,6,10,14-tetraene-3-ol) was also present. The primary alcohols were also present as esters of butanoic, dodecanoic, tetradecanoic, and hexadecanoic acid. Besides the usual mixture of un- and mono-unsaturated straight chain hydrocarbons, the labial gland contains the isoprenoid hydrocarbons beta-springene [(6E, 10E)-7,11,15-trimethyl-3-methylene-hexadeca-1,6,10,14-tetraene] and two isomers of a-springene [(3Z,6E,10E)- and (3E,6E,10E)-3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-hexadeca-1,3,6,10,14-pentaene]. The close relationship in chemical composition in male bumblebees with perching and flight pass behaviour is discussed. PMID:15540604

Bertsch, Andreas; Schweer, Horst; Titze, Andreas

100

C-type natriuretic peptides stimulate chloride secretion in the rectal gland of Squalus acanthias.  

PubMed

Homologous shark C-type natriuretic peptide (sCNP) was infused as a bolus and as a constant infusion in the isolated perfused rectal gland of the same species, Squalus acanthias. sCNP was a potent stimulator of chloride secretion similar in its dose-response curve to vasoactive intestinal peptide. sCNP was equipotent with killifish CNP but more potent than human CNP (hCNP). Truncated and substituted, forms of hCNP were also capable of stimulation of chloride secretion in the order hCNP greater than hCNP (6-22) = [Gly9]hCNP greater than hCNP-(7-21). sCNP was more potent than human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP), which was more potent than porcine brain natriuretic peptide. hANP-(31-67) was without effect. These studies suggest that sCNP may be the physiological regulator of rectal gland function. The receptor in the rectal gland is unknown but based on the order of potencies, position 4 in the NH2-terminal end and the ring itself are important for ligand effects. PMID:1566937

Solomon, R; Protter, A; McEnroe, G; Porter, J G; Silva, P

1992-04-01

101

Secretion of Catecholamines from Adrenal Gland by a Single Electrical Shock: Electrotonic Depolarization of Medullary Cell Membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmural stimulation of the isolated adrenal gland of the rat and guinea pig results in secretion of catecholamines. The secretion is due to activation of cholinergic receptors of the adrenal medulla by acetylcholine released from splanchnic nerve terminals after transmural stimulation. Our aim was to see whether the same experimental technique could be used to directly excite the adrenal medullary

Arun R. Wakade; Taruna D. Wakade

1982-01-01

102

Melatonin secretion from organ-cultured pineal glands of rats: modulation by gonadectomy and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of pretreatments such as gonadectomy in male and female rats, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) administration in female rats, on levels of secretion of melatonin, using an organ culture of pineal glands. Gonadectomy 2 weeks before the animal was killed increased the amount of melatonin secreted into the medium by

Bunpei Ishizuka; Shigeyoshi Fusama; Kunihko Hirai; Takeshi Hosaka; Naomi Hamad; Akira Amemiya; Masanori T Itoh

2000-01-01

103

Defective Fluid Secretion from Submucosal Glands of Nasal Turbinates from CFTR-/- and CFTR?F508/?F508 Pigs  

PubMed Central

Background Cystic fibrosis (CF), caused by reduced CFTR function, includes severe sinonasal disease which may predispose to lung disease. Newly developed CF pigs provide models to study the onset of CF pathophysiology. We asked if glands from pig nasal turbinates have secretory responses similar to those of tracheal glands and if CF nasal glands show reduced fluid secretion. Methodology/Principal Findings Unexpectedly, we found that nasal glands differed from tracheal glands in five ways, being smaller, more numerous (density per airway surface area), more sensitive to carbachol, more sensitive to forskolin, and nonresponsive to Substance P (a potent agonist for pig tracheal glands). Nasal gland fluid secretion from newborn piglets (12 CF and 12 controls) in response to agonists was measured using digital imaging of mucus bubbles formed under oil. Secretion rates were significantly reduced in all conditions tested. Fluid secretory rates (Controls vs. CF, in pl/min/gland) were as follows: 3 µM forskolin: 9.2±2.2 vs. 0.6±0.3; 1 µM carbachol: 143.5±35.5 vs. 52.2±10.3; 3 µM forskolin + 0.1 µM carbachol: 25.8±5.8 vs. CF 4.5±0.9. We also compared CF?F508/?F508 with CFTR-/- piglets and found significantly greater forskolin-stimulated secretion rates in the ?F508 vs. the null piglets (1.4±0.8, n?=?4 vs. 0.2±0.1, n?=?7). An unexpected age effect was also discovered: the ratio of secretion to 3 µM forskolin vs. 1 µM carbachol was ?4 times greater in adult than in neonatal nasal glands. Conclusions/Significance These findings reveal differences between nasal and tracheal glands, show defective fluid secretion in nasal glands of CF pigs, reveal some spared function in the ?F508 vs. null piglets, and show unexpected age-dependent differences. Reduced nasal gland fluid secretion may predispose to sinonasal and lung infections.

Cho, Hyung-Ju; Joo, Nam Soo; Wine, Jeffrey J.

2011-01-01

104

Neurokinin A in the parotid and submandibular glands of the rat: immunohistochemical localization and effect on protein and peroxidase secretion.  

PubMed

An indirect immunofluorescence technique was used to study the distribution of neurokinin A immunoreactive (NKA-IR) nerve fibres in submandibular and parotid glands of the rat. The functional role of neurokinin A on protein and peroxidase secretion in these glands was evaluated by using in vitro methods. In the parotid gland neurokinin A immunoreactive fibres were mainly distributed around the secretory acini, but some were also in evidence around the stromal blood vessels and ducts. The number of the neurokinin A immunoreactive nerve fibres was lower in the submandibular gland than in the parotid gland. They were mainly distributed around the secretory acini and stromal blood vessels and ducts. In vitro, neurokinin A significantly stimulated the release of total amount of released proteins and peroxidase from parotid gland fragments, while in the submandibular gland only the release of peroxidase was increased. By using SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) specific changes were found in the release of proteins after neurokinin A stimulation. The results of the present study demonstrate that neurokinin A immunoreactive nerve fibres are present in the rat parotid and submandibular glands. Their localization around the secretory elements of the glands and the effect of neurokinin A in vitro experiments indicates that neurokinin A might have a significant role in the regulation of salivary secretion. PMID:1652185

Virta, E; Kangas, S; Tolonen, R; Schultz, T; Salo, A; Uusitalo, H

1991-06-01

105

( sup 3 H)protein secretion in rat parotid gland: Substance P-. beta. -adrenergic synergism  

SciTech Connect

In parotid fragment ({sup 3}H)protein, secretion induced by substance P was moderate, but strongly Ca dependent. However, secretion induced by isoproterenol was large and Ca independent. Potentiation of protein secretion was observed when substance P (SP) and isoproterenol (ISO) acted together. Addition of 10{sup {minus}8} M SP caused a shift to the left in the secretion dose-response curve caused by ISO, but did not enhance ISO-induced maximal response. The potentiating effect seems to be a postreceptor event, since it can be mimicked by forskolin (FK), known to induce directly cAMP accumulation, thus bypassing the {beta}-adrenergic receptor. The synergism described above was, therefore, investigated at the second messenger production level. Stimulation of parotid gland fragments by simultaneous addition of SP plus ISO or FK did not modify cAMP nor inositol trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) accumulation induced independently by each secretagogue alone. The ionophore A23187 was also able to potentiate secretion induced by a {beta}-adrenergic agonist, this effect being totally abolished by external calcium omission, thus suggesting a role for external calcium in this potentiation phenomenon. These results suggest that the potentiation phenomenon observed is a postreceptor event that occurs at a step distal from the second messenger production.

Dreux, C.; Imhoff, V.; Rossignol, B. (Universite Paris-Sud (France))

1987-12-01

106

Lipids and proteins in the Rathke's gland secretions of the North American mud turtle (Kinosternon subrubrum)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lipids and proteins in the Rathke's gland secretions of the North American mud turtle (Kinosternon subrubrum, Kinosternidae) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), respectively. Analysis by GC-MS indicates 2,3-dihydroxypropanal and C3?C24 free or esterified fatty acids. Analysis by SDS-PAGE indicates a major protein component with an approximate molecular mass of 60 kDa and minor components ranging from ca. 23 to 34 kDa. The major component of K. subrubrum glandular secretions exhibits a mobility that matches that of the Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempi, Cheloniidae), suggesting that these proteins are evolutionarily conserved.

Seifert, W.E., Jr.; Gotte, S.W.; Leto, T.L.; Weldon, P.J.

1994-01-01

107

Mandibular and postpharyngeal gland secretions of Acromyrmex landolti (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as chemical cues for nestmate recognition.  

PubMed

Nestmate recognition is fundamental for the cohesiveness of the colony in social insects. Acromyrmex landolti is a higher Attini, a leaf-cutter ant with largest nest and morphological castes. We studied the location of the recognition signal of A. landolti on the whole ant body, the isolation effect on the capacity of nestmate recognition, and the role of the mandibular (MG) and post-pharyngeal glands (PPG) as putative sources for chemical recognition signals in this species. We performed behavioral bioassays and chemical analyses of MG and PPG glands; MG volatiles in different castes were also characterized. In order to determine the occurrence of nestmate recognition signals, behavioral tests were performed for which the whole body, body parts or gland extracts from a nestmate and an alien worker ant, were placed on the central axis of an active field trail. Besides, the isolation effect of the nestmate chemical signal persistence was evaluated by repeating the experiments with whole ant bodies after 12 h, 24 h and 48 h of isolation. The agonistic behavior of the ants on the trail was classified as inspection, threatening and biting. Gland volatiles were obtained by headspace solid phase microextraction, and PPG by solid sample analyses; and chemical analyses were performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Workers performed agonistic behaviors more frequently towards non-nestmate whole bodies, body parts and gland extracts, primarily those from the post-pharyngeal glands. Nestmate thoraces odorized with alien extracts were also recognized from aliens. Nestmate recognition ability persists for 12 h and 24 h after isolation, but decreases after 48 h, suggesting that the chemical signal changes over time. Inter-colonial chemical analyses showed no differences in the PPG hydrocarbon profiles, while the relative proportions of MG compounds showed significant differences between colonies. These results showed that nestmate recognition was achieved by MG volatiles. Possibly, the PPG secretion works as a matrix that absorbs MG volatiles. We report, for the first time, some mandibular gland compounds for the genus Acromyrmex and for the tribe Attini group. PMID:24027922

Sainz-Borgo, Cristina; Leal, Bernardo; Cabrera, Aivlé; Hernández, José V

2013-09-01

108

Identification and characterization of a Candida albicans-binding proteoglycan secreted from rat submandibular salivary glands.  

PubMed Central

A previously identified Candida albicans-binding glycoprotein secreted from rat submandibular glands (RSMG) has been further purified from an aqueous RSMG extract by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Biochemical analysis of the glycoprotein revealed high levels of uronic acid and sulfate, suggesting that it was a proteoglycan. Its amino acid and carbohydrate compositions were similar to those observed for other proteoglycans and differed significantly from those of RSMG mucin, the major secretory glycoprotein of RSMG. In addition, the apparent molecular weight of the glycoprotein was reduced following treatment with either chondroitinase ABC or heparitinase, demonstrating the presence of chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate. On the basis of its structure and anatomical source, the glycoprotein is referred to as submandibular gland secreted proteoglycan 1 (SGSP1). SGSP1 also binds monoclonal antibody 1F9, which recognizes the human blood group A carbohydrate epitope found on RSMG mucin. Hence, SGSP1 appears to be a hybrid molecule with carbohydrate structures found in both proteoglycans and RSMG mucin. Enzymatic digestion of SGSP1, followed by its interaction with a radiolabelled C. albicans strain in a filter-binding assay, demonstrated that binding to this strain appears to be mediated primarily via the heparan sulfate side chains of SGSP1 and not via the blood group A oligosaccharide. Images

Hoffman, M P; Haidaris, C G

1994-01-01

109

Endothelin-1 inhibits pre-stimulated tracheal submucosal gland secretion and epithelial albumin transport.  

PubMed Central

1. Endothelin-1 potently contracts smooth muscle, including that in the airways. However, its effect on airway mucosal function has not so far been studied. 2. We have used the ferret whole trachea in vitro to examine the effect of endothelin-1 on tracheal smooth muscle tone, transepithelial potential difference (p.d.), submucosal gland secretion (including lysozyme secretion from serous cells) and active epithelial albumin transport. In addition we have examined the effects of endothelin on submucosal gland secretion and albumin transport pre-stimulated with the muscarinic agonist methacholine and the alpha-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. The effects of the Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine on the responses to endothelin have also been assessed. 3. Endothelin (0.1-100 nM) produced concentration-dependent increases in intraluminal tracheal pressure indicating smooth muscle contraction, and in the negativity of the transepithelial p.d. These effects were partially inhibited by nifedipine (10 microM). 4. Endothelin (0.01-100 nM) had no significant effect on baseline rates of mucus, lysozyme or albumin outputs, but produced concentration-dependent reductions in maintained methacholine- and phenylephrine-induced mucus, lysozyme and albumin outputs. In general endothelin was more potent against methacholine-induced effects. All of the concentration-response curves for endothelin were shallow and some appeared to be biphasic, suggesting the possibility of more than one mechanism of action of endothelin. 5. The effects of endothelin (at concentrations greater than 1 nM) on phenylephrine-induced mucus volume, lysozyme and albumin outputs were significantly inhibited by nifedipine. Similarly the effect of endothelin (greater than 1 nM) on methacholine-induced mucus volume and albumin outputs (but not lysozyme output) was attenuated by nifedipine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Yurdakos, E.; Webber, S. E.

1991-01-01

110

Microarray analysis of the rat lacrimal gland following the loss of parasympathetic control of secretion  

PubMed Central

Previous studies showed that loss of muscarinic parasympathetic input to the lacrimal gland (LG) leads to a dramatic reduction in tear secretion and profound changes to LG structure. In this study, we used DNA microarrays to examine the regulation of the gene expression of the genes for secretory function and organization of the LG. Long-Evans rats anesthetized with a mixture of ketamine/xylazine (80:10 mg/kg) underwent unilateral sectioning of the greater superficial petrosal nerve, the input to the pterygopalatine ganglion. After 7 days, tear secretion was measured, the animals were killed, and structural changes in the LG were examined by light microscopy. Total RNA from control and experimental LGs (n = 5) was used for DNA microarray analysis employing the U34A GeneChip. Three statistical algorithms (detection, change call, and signal log ratio) were used to determine differential gene expression using the Microarray Suite (5.0) and Data Mining Tools (3.0). Tear secretion was significantly reduced and corneal ulcers developed in all experimental eyes. Light microscopy showed breakdown of the acinar structure of the LG. DNA microarray analysis showed downregulation of genes associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi, including genes involved in protein folding and processing. Conversely, transcripts for cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix components, inflammation, and apoptosis were upregulated. The number of significantly upregulated genes (116) was substantially greater than the number of downregulated genes (49). Removal of the main secretory input to the rat LG resulted in clinical symptoms associated with severe dry eye. Components of the secretory pathway were negatively affected, and the increase in cell proliferation and inflammation may lead to loss of organization in the parasympathectomized lacrimal gland.

Nguyen, Doan H.; Toshida, Hiroshi; Schurr, Jill; Beuerman, Roger W.

2010-01-01

111

Mucin glycosylation changes in cystic fibrosis lung disease are not manifest in submucosal gland secretions.  

PubMed

SMG (submucosal gland) secretions are a major component of the airway surface liquid, are associated with innate immunity in the lung, and have been reported to be altered in lung disease. Changes in lung mucosal glycosylation have been reported in CF (cystic fibrosis), which may be responsible for differential bacterial binding to glycosylated components in the lung mucosa and hence increased pre-disposition to pulmonary infection. Glycoproteomic analysis was performed on SMG secretions collected from explanted bronchial tissue of subjects with severe lung disease, with and without CF, and controls without lung disease. Mucins MUC5B and MUC5AC were shown to be the dominant high-molecular-mass glycoprotein components, with a minor non-mucin glycoprotein component, gp-340, also present. Oligosaccharides containing blood-group determinants corresponding to subjects' blood type were abundant on MUC5B/MUC5AC, as were Lewis-type epitopes and their sialylated analogues, which are ligands for pathogens and leucocytes. No significant differences were found in the glycosylation of MUC5B/MUC5AC or gp-340 between CF and non-CF subjects with severe lung disease, implying that CF does not influence SMG secretion mucin glycosylation in end-stage lung disease. There were also no significant differences found in the glycosylation of these components in severe lung disease compared with non-diseased lungs. This suggests that previously reported changes in the glycosylation of respiratory glycoconjugates in CF, and other pulmonary conditions, are not due to the glycosylation of components in SMG secretions, but may involve other secretions, responses or extracellular factors. PMID:15563276

Schulz, Benjamin L; Sloane, Andrew J; Robinson, Leanne J; Sebastian, Lucille T; Glanville, Allan R; Song, Yuanlin; Verkman, Alan S; Harry, Jenny L; Packer, Nicolle H; Karlsson, Niclas G

2005-05-01

112

Antigen-induced inhibition of the autoimmune response to rat male accessory glands: bone marrow dependence of the enhancement of IA+ but not IE+ antigen-presenting cells.  

PubMed

IE+ peritoneal cells (PC), involved in the induction of suppression of autoimmune response to rat male accessory glands (RAG), are obtained from rats 2 h after i.p. injection of a purified fraction (FI) of RAG (FI-PC2h). In contrast, IA+ PC, involved in the induction of autoimmune response to RAG, are obtained from rats 24 h after FI of RAG injection (FI-PC24h). The present report analyzes the effect of irradiation or irradiation/bone marrow reconstitution on the induction of both populations of PC. Peritoneal cell donor rats were irradiated in a telegamma therapeutic Cs137. Twenty hours later half of them were i.v. reconstituted with 40 x 10(7) bone marrow cells. Six days later rats were i.p. injected with 200 micrograms of FI of RAG and 10(7) resident PC. The PC were harvested 2 h or 24 h later. The ability of resident PC to yield IE+ FI-PC2h involved in the induction of suppression is not impaired by irradiation, but the ability of resident PC to yield IA+ FI-PC24h involved in the induction of a positive response is impaired by irradiation and restored by bone marrow reconstitution of irradiated rats. Culture of normal PC with FI of RAG for 2 h or 24 h shows a selective increase in IE+ cells able to induce suppression to RAG.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1500091

Rivero, V E; Riera, C M; Ferro, M E

1992-05-01

113

Dynamics of protein and fluid secretion from the major salivary glands of rat: relevance of research findings to clinically observed defective secretion in cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

Although there are indications of a defect in secretion of protein from exocrine cells in cystic fibrosis (CF), this remains an aspect of CF research that has not been adequately addressed. Using salivary glands of rat as model systems, and following the effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic nerve stimulation on these glands, we demonstrate the existence of three separate pathways through which secretion of protein can be evoked from serous and mucous exocrine cells. These pathways allow the secretion of proteins from the intracellular compartments in a constitutive, intermediate or regulated manner. The primary aspects of secretory profile including concentration and the degree of hydration of secreted material differ greatly between the pathways, are cell type specific, and presumably are a direct consequence of controlled changes in the levels of second messengers induced upon stimulation of these cells. As previously published reports suggest that only the beta-adrenergic regulated pathway is affected by CF, differences between the pathways in their secretory profiles may influence the development of lung disease, through disparate disturbances in the secretion of protein and fluid from serous and mucous cells of the submucosal glands that line the bronchiolar tree in humans. We gratefully acknowledge support from The Wellcome Trust and from The European Union Biomed II Programme. PMID:11845296

Shori, D K; Asking, B

2001-10-03

114

Residues of organochlorine pesticides in milk gland secretion of cows in perinatal period  

SciTech Connect

Persistent organochlorine (OC) compounds such as DDT and its derivatives, isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may pose toxicological and ecological impact due to their persistence in some biological compartments. Despite the fact that agriculture has discontinued the use of the majority of these pesticides in many countries, the considerable differences in their concentrations in samples of human and animal origin are evidence that biological magnification via the food chain still exists in the case of OC compounds. This phenomenon may by illustrated by the close relationship between OC compound concentration in the fat of human and cow milk. The purpose of the present study was to determine the rate of excretion of the OC pesticide complex including their metabolites in the perinatal and postnatal period during various gland secretion phases.

Sitarska, E.; Klucinski, W.; Winnicka, A. (Agricultural Univ., Warsaw (Poland)); Ludwicki, J. (National Inst. of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland))

1991-12-01

115

Positive Secretion of the Parotid Gland of Macaque Rhesus Monkeys (Bezuslovnaya Sekretsiya Okoloushnoi Zhelezy Obezyany Makaka Rezus).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a macaque rhesus monkey secretion of the parotid gland takes place only in the presence of conditional stimuli or at absolute stimulation of the hollow of the mouth. Monkey saliva differs from dog saliva by the presence of amylases, high content of den...

O. V. Malinovskii

1967-01-01

116

Histochemical and ultrastructural evidence of lipid secretion by the silk gland of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

The silk gland in Lepidoptera larvae is responsible for the silk production used for shelter or cocoon construction. The secretion of fibroin and sericin by the different silk gland regions are well established. There are few attempts to detect lipid components in the insect silk secretion, although the presence of such element may contribute to the resistance of the shelter to wet environment. This study characterizes the glandular region and detects the presence of lipid components in the secretion of the silk gland of Diatraea saccharalis(Fabricius). The silk gland was submitted to histochemical procedure for lipid detection or conventionally prepared for ultrastructural analyses. Lipid droplets were histochemically detected in both the apical cytoplasm of cell of the anterior region and in the lumen among the microvilli. Ultrastructural analyses of the anterior region showed lipid material, visualized as myelin-like structures within the vesicular Golgi complex and in the apical secretory globules, mixed up with the sericin; similar material was observed into the lumen, adjacent to the microvilli. Lipids were not detected in the cells neither in the lumen of the posterior region. Our results suggest that the silk produced by D. saccharalis has a minor lipid content that is secreted by the anterior region together with the sericin. PMID:18060296

Victoriano, Eliane; Pinheiro, Daniela O; Gregório, Elisa A

117

Do Eurasian beavers smear their pelage with castoreum and anal gland secretion?  

PubMed

The scent-matching hypothesis postulates that scent marks provide an olfactory link between a resident owner and his territory, and that this enables intruding animals to recognize the chance of escalated conflicts. However, it is unclear if Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) mark their own pelage with castoreum from their castor sacs (i.e., the same material used in territorial marking); and/or if beavers mark their pelage with anal gland secretion (AGS) from the anal glands to waterproof the pelage and to act as a "living-scent mark." Chemical analysis (gas chromatography and mass spectrometry) of hair samples from 22 live-trapped beavers revealed that castoreum compounds were not present in any samples, AGS compounds were found from 3 animals (13.6%) around the cloaca, and the compound squalene was found in all the samples. Beavers may release castoreum directly into the water when it meets an intruder. Thereby, the "scent mark" in the water can provide an olfactory link between a resident owner and his territory. Squalene, in contrast to AGS, may be essential for keeping beaver pelts water-repellant. PMID:12371821

Rosell, Frank

2002-08-01

118

The spectrophotometric sulfo-phospho-vanillin assessment of total lipids in human meibomian gland secretions.  

PubMed

Human meibomian gland secretions (meibum) are the major lipid component of the human preocular tear film. The predominant lipid classes found in meibum include waxes (WE), cholesteryl esters (CE), and varying amounts of cholesterol (Chl). The classical sulfo-phospho-vanillin assay (SPVA), adapted for a microplate reader, was used to quantitate lipids in meibum. To account for varying reactivities of different lipids in SPVA, a model meibomian lipid mixture (MMx) that approximated the WE/CE/Chl composition of meibum was developed and used to quantitate meibomian lipids. The overall SPV responses of MMx and meibum were found to be close, with similar intermediate and final reaction products for both. Saturated WE that had not been expected to be reactive were found to be SPV-positive. A reaction mechanism for these compounds in SPVA which involves the formation of alkenyl ethers is proposed and discussed. Tested proteins were non-reactive in SPVA. Thus, by comparing the results of gravimetric analyses of meibum samples with the results of a properly calibrated SPVA, it was estimated that the SPV-reactive lipid content of dry meibum in tested samples was about 78 % (w/w). The SPV method can also be adopted for analyzing other types of complex lipids secretions, such as sebum, as well as whole lipid extracts from other lipid-enriched organs and tissues, if proper standards are chosen. PMID:23345137

McMahon, Anne; Lu, Hua; Butovich, Igor A

2013-01-24

119

[Lysozyme activity of the salivary gland secretion of the medicinal leech H. verbana, H. medicinalis and H. orientalis].  

PubMed

Salivary gland secretions of three species of the medicinal leech differ in the level of lysozyme peptidoglycan-lysing activity. Using the synthetic fluorogenic substrate, 4-methyl-umbelliferyl tetra N-acetyl-beta-chitotetraosid, the glycosidase activity (as one of peptidoglycan-lysing activities) of salivary gland secretion of three species of the medicinal leech was quantitatively evaluated in comparison with egg lysozyme. It is supposed, that lysozyme activity of the leech secretions is determined not only by 5 isoforms of destabilase-lysozyme, but by some other enzymes which can utilize this substrate. These may be lysozymes other than i- (invertebrate) lysozymes (such as destabilase-lysozyme, or related enzymes). PMID:22629601

Baskova, I P; Kharitonova, O V; Zavalova, L L

120

Effect of Ilex extracts and isolated compounds on peroxidase secretion of rat submandibulary glands.  

PubMed

Free radicals are involved in diverse disorders such as tumoral, central nervous system alterations, immunological and inflammatory pathologies. Peroxidase is an oral enzyme involved in the defense of the oral cavity. Ilex species such as Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. and the commercial product made with it "Yerba Mate" are used traditionally as antirheumatics and for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases among others and also as a beverage with nutritional and stimulant properties. The presence of polyphenolic derivatives and flavonoids in the aqueous extract has been determined by HPLC analysis. In this study, the activity of aqueous extracts of I. paraguariensis and "Yerba Mate" on peroxidase secretion in female rat submandibular glands was investigated. The contribution to this pharmacological activity by some major hydrocynnamic acid derivatives present in the crude extracts, such as chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid and the most abundant methylxanthine, caffeine, was also evaluated. Spectrophotometrical determination of peroxidase activity showed that both extracts produced a significant increase in both secreted peroxidase and total peroxidase activity, though "Yerba Mate" showed a higher activity (EC(50) "Yerba Mate": 148+/-10 microg/ml; EC(50)I. paraguariensis: 841+/-20 microg/ml). The HPLC/DAD analysis of the crude extracts was performed and chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and caffeine were identified and quantified. The results (expressed as W/W percentage of dried material) were as follows: I. paraguariensis: chlorogenic acid: 2.80+/-0.30, caffeic acid: 0.023+/-0.004, caffeine: 1.06+/-0.06; "Yerba Mate": chlorogenic acid: 1.98+/-0.37; caffeic acid: 0.020+/-0.003, caffeine: 0.70+/-0.06. Caffeine and chlorogenic acid were proved to play an important role in the induction of peroxidase secretion induced by the extracts. PMID:17141390

Filip, Rosana; Sebastian, Turner; Ferraro, Graciela; Anesini, Claudia

2006-10-27

121

Regeneration of complex oil-gland secretions and its importance for chemical defense in an oribatid mite.  

PubMed

Most oribatid mites possess a pair of opisthonotal exocrine glands that produce mostly complex, species-specific secretions. Such blends may contain more than 10 different compounds, but hardly anything is known about their primary biosynthesis or regeneration. I analyzed recovery of the 6 main components from the 11-compound secretion of the oribatid mite Archegozetes longisetosus Aoki, including the main chemical classes hydrocarbons, aromatics, and terpenes, during a 20-day time course after complete gland depletion. About 10 % of the original total secretion amount was restored after 24 hr, and after 2-6 days, the amount had reached the range of total amount observed in the control group. Most compounds were recovered at similar rates within the first 48 hr. An important exception was pentadecane, which was predominantly produced in the first few hours, suggesting that this compound is the main solvent of the secretion. Although relative amounts of the main compounds differed significantly over time, the complex profile of the whole secretion was stable and not confidently distinguishable among the sampling dates. The general recovery rate was high during the first 48 hr, about 25 times higher than in the remaining 18 days. The biological importance of this high initial investment was supported by predation experiments: the predacious rove beetle Stenus juno was first repelled after 48 hr when at least 25 % of secretions was restored. PMID:22836827

Heethoff, Michael

2012-07-27

122

Apical maxi-K (KCa1.1) channels mediate K+ secretion by the mouse submandibular exocrine gland.  

PubMed

The exocrine salivary glands of mammals secrete K+ by an unknown pathway that has been associated with HCO3(-) efflux. However, the present studies found that K+ secretion in the mouse submandibular gland did not require HCO3(-), demonstrating that neither K+/HCO3(-) cotransport nor K+/H+ exchange mechanisms were involved. Because HCO3(-) did not appear to participate in this process, we tested whether a K channel is required. Indeed, K+ secretion was inhibited >75% in mice with a null mutation in the maxi-K, Ca2+-activated K channel (KCa1.1) but was unchanged in mice lacking the intermediate-conductance IKCa1 channel (KCa3.1). Moreover, paxilline, a specific maxi-K channel blocker, dramatically reduced the K+ concentration in submandibular saliva. The K+ concentration of saliva is well known to be flow rate dependent, the K+ concentration increasing as the flow decreases. The flow rate dependence of K+ secretion was nearly eliminated in KCa1.1 null mice, suggesting an important role for KCa1.1 channels in this process as well. Importantly, a maxi-K-like current had not been previously detected in duct cells, the theoretical site of K+ secretion, but we found that KCa1.1 channels localized to the apical membranes of both striated and excretory duct cells, but not granular duct cells, using immunohistochemistry. Consistent with this latter observation, maxi-K currents were not detected in granular duct cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the secretion of K+ requires and is likely mediated by KCa1.1 potassium channels localized to the apical membranes of striated and excretory duct cells in the mouse submandibular exocrine gland. PMID:18216162

Nakamoto, Tetsuji; Romanenko, Victor G; Takahashi, Atsushi; Begenisich, Ted; Melvin, James E

2008-01-23

123

The in vitro synthesis and secretion of alpha-ecdysone by the ring glands of the fly, Sarcophaga bullata.  

PubMed

The in vitro secretory product of larval Sarcophage bullata ring glands has been identified as 2beta, 3beta, 14alpha, 22R, 25-pentahydroxy-5beta-cholest-7-en-6-one (alpha-ecdysone). Mid to late 3rd instar larval ecdysones were isolated and identified as 2beta, 3beta, 14alpha, 20R, 22R, 25-hexahydroxy-5beta-cholest-7-en-6-one (beta-ecdysone) and alpha-ecdysone at a ratio of 27:1. The low level of alpha-ecdysone in vivo, relative to its exclusive in vitro synthesis and secretion by the ring glands, is a function of the very active C20 hydroxylation mechanism in tissues peripheral to the ring gland. The role of alpha-ecdysone as a prohormone in dipteran metamorphosis is discussed. PMID:1265796

Bollenbacher, W E; Goodman, W; Vedeckis, W V; Gilbert, L I

1976-03-01

124

Protein-lipid particles of medicinal leech salivary gland secretion; their size and morphology.  

PubMed

The relative location of proteins and lipids in particles of medicinal leech salivary gland secretion (SGS) is revealed for the first time. Their sizes and morphology are described. Using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, it was determined that SGS consists of particles of different sizes and form. This picture is supported by confocal laser scanning microscopy of SGS preparations treated with fluorescein isothiocyanate. After incubation with nonionic detergents (Brij 35 and Tween 20), transmission electron microscopy revealed the dissociation of fragments composing protein-lipid particles (PLP), and in this case an increase in free protein concentration determined by a modification of the Lowry method was observed. Perylene probing of lipids in SGS preparations showed that they are concentrated mainly inside PLP and are almost absent on the surface. Cholesterol was detected during SGS probing using the cholesteryl-Bodipy (hydrophobic fluorescent analog of cholesterol) on surface sections during confocal analysis of electron microphotographs of SGS. This analysis detected PLP structures in SGS resembling caveoles full of cholesterol. SGS, preliminary frozen at -70 degrees C, transformed into a multitude of similar small particles visualized by transmission electron microscopy, whose fixed distribution resembled water crystal structure. PMID:20632937

Baskova, I P; Yudina, T G; Zavalova, L L; Dudkina, A S

2010-05-01

125

Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of lipids present in human meibomian gland secretions.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to qualitatively characterize the major lipid species present in human meibomian gland secretions (MGS) by means of high-performance liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometric detection of the analytes (NP HPLC-MS). Two different NP HPLC-MS methods have been developed to analyze lipid species that were expected to be present in MGS. The first method was optimized for the analysis of relatively nonpolar lipids [wax esters (WE), di- and triacyl glycerols (DAG and TAG), cholesterol (Chl) and its esters (Chl-E), and ceramides (Cer)], while the second method was designed to separate and detect phospholipids. The major lipid species in MGS were found to be WE, Chl-E, and TAG. A minor amount of free Chl (less then 0.5% of the Chl-E fraction) was detected in MGS. No appreciable amounts of DAG and Cer were found in MGS. The second NP HPLC-MS method, capable of analyzing model mixtures of authentic phospholipids (e.g. phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, and sphingomyelin) in submicrogram/mL concentrations, showed little or no presence of these species in the MGS samples. These observations suggest that MGS are a major source of the nonpolar lipids of the WE and Chl-E families for the tear film lipid layer (TFLL), but not of the previously reported phospholipid components of the TFLL. PMID:17605062

Butovich, Igor A; Uchiyama, Eduardo; Di Pascuale, Mario A; McCulley, James P

2007-06-29

126

Glutamate Transporter-Mediated Glutamate Secretion in the Mammalian Pineal Gland  

PubMed Central

Glutamate transporters are expressed throughout the central nervous system where their major role is to clear released glutamate from presynaptic terminals. Here we report a novel function of the transporter in rat pinealocytes. This electrogenic transporter conducted inward current in response to L-glutamate and L- or D-aspartate and depolarized the membrane in patch clamp experiments. Ca2+ imaging demonstrated that the transporter-mediated depolarization induced a significant Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. The Ca2+ rise finally evoked glutamate exocytosis as detected by carbon-fiber amperometry and by high-performance liquid chromatography. In pineal slices with densely packed pinealocytes, glutamate released from the cells effectively activated glutamate transporters in neighboring cells. The Ca2+ signal generated by KCl depolarization or acetylcholine propagated through several cell layers by virtue of the regenerative ‘glutamate-induced glutamate release’. Therefore we suggest that glutamate transporters mediate synchronized elevation of L-glutamate and thereby efficiently down-regulate melatonin secretion via previously identified inhibitory metabotropic glutamate receptors in the pineal gland.

Kim, Mean-Hwan; Uehara, Shunsuke; Muroyama, Akiko; Hille, Bertil; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Koh, Duk-Su

2008-01-01

127

A super-family of genes coding for secreted salivary gland proteins from the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously characterized a gene coding for the secreted-salivary-gland-protein 11A1 (SSGP-11A1) from the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera Cecidomyiidae). Here we report the cloning and characterization of three new genes coding for proteins designated SSGP-11B1, SSGP-11C1, and SSGP-11C2, and their relationship with the SSGP-11A1-encoding gene. Based on their structural conservation, similar regulation, and clustered genomic organization, we conclude

Ming-Shun Chen; John P. Fellers; Yu Cheng Zhu; Jeffrey J. Stuart; Scot Hulbert; Mustapha El-Bouhssini; Xiang Liu

2006-01-01

128

The effect of organotin compounds on chloride secretion by the in vitro perfused rectal gland of Squalus acanthias  

SciTech Connect

The effects of various organotins on membrane function and electrolyte transport were studied in the marine elasmobranch, Squalus acanthias. The isolated perfused rectal gland was used as a model of electrolyte transport. This gland can be stimulated to secrete chloride by atrial natriuretic peptide, veratrine, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide although the mechanism of action of each secretagogue is different. By analysis of the inhibitory effect of an organotin in the presence of each secretagogue, the mechanism of inhibition can be inferred. Tributyltin (TBT) produced a reversible inhibition of epithelial transport at 10(-8) to 10(-7) M which resulted from inhibition of stimulus-secretion coupling in VIP-containing neurons within the gland. The transporting epithelial cells were unaffected at these concentrations. Trimethytin (TMT) produced inhibition at 10(-7) M which was not reversible and which affected primarily the transporting epithelial cells. Triethyltin and triphenyltin were without effect. The inhibitory effect of TBT and TMT was not affected by simultaneous administration of dithiothreitol. TBT also produced inhibition of oxygen consumption, Na+,K-ATPase, and proton ATPase in dispersed rectal gland cells. These results indicate that organotins are toxic to cell membrane functions which are intimately involved in the movement of electrolytes. This is the first evidence of toxicity to membrane transport functions in a marine species which is at risk from environmental exposure.

Solomon, R.; Lear, S.; Cohen, R.; Spokes, K.; Silva, P. Jr.; Silva, M.; Solomon, H.; Silva, P. (New York Medical College, Valhalla (USA))

1989-09-01

129

Labial gland marking secretions of male Bombus lucorum bumblebees from Europe and China reveal two separate species: B. lucorum (Linnaeus 1761) and Bombus minshanicola (Bischoff 1936)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in male bumblebee labial gland secretions can be used to separate species pairs. Cephalic labial gland secretions from male Bombus lucorum Linnaeus bumblebees from Europe, and male ‘B. lucorum’ bumblebees from China, were analyzed by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS). In the European B. lucorum L., ethyl tetradec-9-enoate was identified as the major compound (58% peak area), along with a

Andreas Bertsch; Horst Schweer

2011-01-01

130

Trapping cDNAs encoding secreted proteins from the salivary glands of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae  

PubMed Central

The signal sequence trap method was used to isolate cDNAs corresponding to proteins containing secretory leader peptides and whose genes are expressed specifically in the salivary glands of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Fifteen unique cDNA fragments, ranging in size from 150 to 550 bp, were isolated and sequenced in a first round of immunoscreening in COS-7 cells. All but one of the cDNAs contained putative signal sequences at their 5? ends, suggesting that they were likely to encode secreted or transmembrane proteins. Expression analysis by reverse transcription–PCR showed that at least six cDNA fragments were expressed specifically in the salivary glands. Fragments showing a high degree of similarity to D7 and apyrase, two salivary gland-specific genes previously found in Aedes aegypti, were identified. Of interest, three different D7-related cDNAs that are likely to represent a new gene family were found in An. gambiae. Moreover, three salivary gland-specific cDNA fragments that do not show similarity to known proteins in the databases were identified, and the corresponding full length cDNAs were cloned and sequenced. RNA in situ hybridization to whole female salivary glands showed patterns of expression that overlap only in part those observed in the culicine mosquito A. aegypti.

Arca, Bruno; Lombardo, Fabrizio; de Lara Capurro, Margareth; della Torre, Alessandra; Dimopoulos, George; James, Anthony A.; Coluzzi, Mario

1999-01-01

131

Unusual conservation among genes encoding small secreted salivary gland proteins from a gall midge  

PubMed Central

Background In most protein-coding genes, greater sequence variation is observed in noncoding regions (introns and untranslated regions) than in coding regions due to selective constraints. During characterization of genes and transcripts encoding small secreted salivary gland proteins (SSSGPs) from the Hessian fly, we found exactly the opposite pattern of conservation in several families of genes: the non-coding regions were highly conserved, but the coding regions were highly variable. Results Seven genes from the SSSGP-1 family are clustered as one inverted and six tandem repeats within a 15 kb region of the genome. Except for SSSGP-1A2, a gene that encodes a protein identical to that encoded by SSSGP-1A1, the other six genes consist of a highly diversified, mature protein-coding region as well as highly conserved regions including the promoter, 5'- and 3'-UTRs, a signal peptide coding region, and an intron. This unusual pattern of highly diversified coding regions coupled with highly conserved regions in the rest of the gene was also observed in several other groups of SSSGP-encoding genes or cDNAs. The unusual conservation pattern was also found in some of the SSSGP cDNAs from the Asian rice gall midge, but not from the orange wheat blossom midge. Strong positive selection was one of the forces driving for diversification whereas concerted homogenization was likely a mechanism for sequence conservation. Conclusion Rapid diversification in mature SSSGPs suggests that the genes are under selection pressure for functional adaptation. The conservation in the noncoding regions of these genes including introns also suggested potential mechanisms for sequence homogenization that are not yet fully understood. This report should be useful for future studies on genetic mechanisms involved in evolution and functional adaptation of parasite genes.

2010-01-01

132

Dopamine actions in vitro on enzyme and electrolyte secretion from normal and sympathectomized rat parotid glands.  

PubMed Central

1. Adult rats were denervated unilaterally by removal of the left superior cervical ganglion or chemically denervated with 6-hydroxydopamine or reserpine. Two weeks later the parotid glands were used for in vitro secretory studies and their catecholamines and major metabolites were measured. 2. Noradrenaline concentrations were reduced 2 weeks after surgical sympathectomy and reserpine pre-treatment 18 h previously, whereas 6-hydroxydopamine pre-treatment for 3 days reduced both noradrenaline and dopamine concentrations. 3. Dopamine caused a prominent amylase release from incubated control glands. However, a subsensitivity for dopamine-induced amylase release was recorded on the denervated side. 4. Dopamine caused a prominent potassium efflux measured as 86Rb+ efflux from control glands, but was without effect in denervated glands. This is in contrast to noradrenaline-induced 86Rb+ efflux which was equally effective in both denervated and control glands. 5. Dopamine caused [3H]noradrenaline efflux in control glands, but was without effect in surgically denervated glands and in glands pre-treated with reserpine or 6-hydroxydopamine. 6. It is concluded that dopamine-induced potassium release is caused by a presynaptic action on noradrenergic nerves, whereas dopamine-induced amylase release has a presynaptic and a postsynaptic component. The results suggest a specific action of dopamine in salivary glands, with different effects on enzyme release and ionic fluxes.

Danielsson, A; Henriksson, R; Sundstrom, S; Wester, P

1988-01-01

133

Increased fluid secretion after adenoviral-mediated transfer of the aquaporin-1 cDNA to irradiated rat salivary glands  

PubMed Central

A replication-deficient, recombinant adenovirus encoding human aquaporin-1 (hAQP1), the archetypal water channel, was constructed. This virus, AdhAQP1, directed hAQP1 expression in several epithelial cell lines in vitro. In polarized MDCK cell monolayers, hAQP1 was localized in the apical and basolateral plasma membranes. Fluid movement across monolayers infected by AdhAQP1 in response to an osmotic gradient was ?4-fold that seen with uninfected monolayers or monolayers infected by a control virus. When AdhAQP1 was administered to rat submandibular glands by retrograde ductal instillation, significant hAQP1 expression was observed by Western blot analysis in crude plasma membranes and by immunohistochemical staining in both acinar and ductal cells. Three or four months after exposure to a single radiation dose (17.5 or 21 Gy, respectively), AdhAQP1 administration to rat submandibular glands led to a two- to threefold increase in salivary secretion compared with secretion from glands administered a control virus. These results suggest that hAQP1 gene transfer may have potential as an unique approach for the treatment of postradiation salivary hypofunction.

Delporte, Christine; O'Connell, Brian C.; He, Xinjun; Lancaster, Henry E.; O'Connell, Anne C.; Agre, Peter; Baum, Bruce J.

1997-01-01

134

Overexpression of des(1-3)hIGF-I in the mammary gland during prolonged lactation enhances milk yield and elevates prolactin secretion  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During prolonged lactation, the mammary gland loses the capacity to synthesize and secrete the large amounts of milk that are produced during early lactation. This loss occurs despite the continued presence of a suckling stimulus and complete removal of mammary secretions. The decline in milk synthe...

135

Effects of coumestrol administration to maternal mice during pregnancy and lactation on immunoblogulin A-secreting cells in mammary glands.  

PubMed

Mortality and morbidity of neonates continue to be major problems in humans and animals, and immunoblogulin A (IgA) provides protection against microbial antigens at mucosal surfaces. The present study was conducted to clarify the effects of coumestrol administration to maternal mice during pregnancy and lactation on IgA antibody-secreting cells (ASC) in mammary glands in lactating mice. From 6.5 to 16.5 days post coitus and 1 to 13 days post partum (dpp), maternal mice were administered coumestrol at 200??g/kg body weight/day. Coumestrol administration increased the number of IgA ASC and the messenger RNA expression of IgA C-region and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in mammary glands of maternal mice at 14 dpp, but coumestrol administration had no effect on the number of IgA ASC in the ileum. Coumestrol administration increased serum IgA concentration in maternal mice at 14 dpp, but IgA concentrations in serum, stomach contents, intestine and feces of neonatal mice were not affected by treatment. These results imply that coumestrol administration to maternal mice during pregnancy and lactation is effective in increasing the numbers of IgA ASC in mammary glands during lactation owing to the activated messenger RNA expressions of IgA C-region and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in mammary gland. PMID:23590506

Wang, Mengdong; Sugimoto, Miki; Ikeda, Shuntaro; Kume, Shinichi

2012-12-03

136

ANG II-induced attenuation of duck salt gland secretion does not depend upon the release of adrenal catecholamines.  

PubMed

Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were bilaterally adrenalectomized (ADX) using a two-stage procedure and given daily i.m. injections of 1 mg kg bw(-1) of dexamethasone (DEXA), a steroid lacking mineralocorticoid activity, and 0.9% saline drinking water ad libitum to counterbalance renal losses of salt and water. Mean arterial blood pressure (mmHg) fell from 161+/- 3.7 (intact controls) to 116 +/- 6.9 (bilateral ADX+DEXA), a decrease of 27%, but heart rates (HR) were unchanged. The nasal salt glands were fully active after ADX + DEXA. Rates of fluid secretion and electrolyte and osmolal concentrations were unchanged. Secretion stopped, then rebounded several minutes later if ADX + DEXA ducks were injected i.v. with 1 microg of [Asn(1),Val(5)]-angiotensin II (ANG II) kg bw(-1) which showed that attenuation was not adrenal catecholamine-dependent. PMID:16292650

Butler, David Gordon; Lam, Wallace; Tong, Jeff

2005-11-16

137

Dufour's gland secretion as a repellent used during usurpation by the slave-maker ant Rossomyrmex minuchae.  

PubMed

In slave-making ants, the invasion of the host colony by newly mated queens is a critical stage. We studied the strategy used by Rossomyrmex minuchae queens to invade their host Proformica longiseta. Field observations revealed that queens enter the host nest unchallenged by the host workers in the vicinity of the nest entrance. Pre-usurpation queens were found to possess a highly inflated Dufour's gland, which considerably reduces in size after successful usurpation. Chemical analysis of these queen glands revealed tetradecanal to be the major product in pre-usurpation Rossomyrmex queens, but to be almost absent in queens that have been adopted by P. longiseta. We consequently hypothesized that tetradecanal is a repellent that is used by queens to prevent host worker aggression. We tested its repellent effect by attempting to deter starved, highly motivated workers from a droplet of honey. Tetradecanal indeed proved to be highly repellent both to host worker P. longiseta and non-host worker Formica selysi. It was even more powerful than limonene, a reported general ant repellent. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that R. minuchae queens use Dufour's gland secretion as a weapon during nest usurpation. The general use of tetradecanal as a defensive compound, and its seemingly non-specific repellent effect on ants, indicate that it may act as a general ant repellent. Its adoption by R. minuchae queens thus provides them with an efficient defensive and offensive chemical weapon during their long and risky search for new host nests. PMID:16076474

Ruano, Francisca; Hefetz, Abraham; Lenoir, Alain; Francke, Wittko; Tinaut, Alberto

2005-08-01

138

Adrenalectomy fails to block salt gland secretion in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) adapted to 0.9% saline drinking water.  

PubMed

Salt-adapted Pekin ducks were observed during a 2-week period following adrenalectomy so as to test the hypothesis that NaCl secretion by the nasal salt glands depends on adrenocortical steroids. Three days after adrenalectomy the total inputs of fluid and Na+ during a 90-min iv infusion of 1000 mOsm/kg NaCl were 77 and 80% respectively, of those in the sham-operated controls; 7 days after adrenalectomy they were 88 and 90%. Two weeks after adrenalectomy, cardiovascular function had deteriorated slightly and the total outputs of fluid and Na+ had fallen to 65 and 64%, respectively, of the control outputs. The onset of cardiovascular deterioration was delayed by feeding the ducks 0.9% NaCl drinking water ad libitum for 1 month before, and 2 weeks after, adrenalectomy. Adaptive hypertrophy of the nasal salt glands was not steroid-dependent since there was no measurable decrease in the weight of the glands during a 2-week period following adrenalectomy. PMID:3582949

Butler, D G

1987-05-01

139

Anion secretion induced by capacitative Ca2+ entry through apical and basolateral membranes of cultured equine sweat gland epithelium.  

PubMed Central

1. Anion secretion induced by capacitative Ca2+ entry through apical and basolateral membranes of cultured equine sweat gland epithelium was studied using the short-circuit current (Isc) technique. 2. Thapsigargin induced an increase in Isc that could be inhibited when external Ca2+ was chelated by EGTA. 3. The inhibition of the thapsigargin-induced Isc could be reversed by re-addition of Ca2+ to apical or basolateral solutions. The magnitude of the reactivated Isc depended predominantly on basolateral Ca2+ concentration. 4. The magnitude of the reactivated Isc upon basolateral Ca2+ addition increased with the thapsigargin concentration, indicating its dependence on the emptied state of the Ca2+ store induced by thapsigargin. 5. The thapsigargin-induced Isc, as well as the Ca(2+)-dependent reactivation of Isc in EGTA-treated epithelia, was inhibitable by apical, but not basolateral, addition of flufenamate, and by basolateral addition of La3+. Other Ca2+ channel blockers, verapamil and nifedipine, had no effect when applied to either membrane. 6. The results suggest that thapsigargin-induced anion secretion by the equine sweat gland epithelial cells is crucially dependent upon the Ca2+ influx occurring primarily through the basolateral membrane, and that apical and basolateral membranes may possess different pathways for Ca2+ entry.

Ko, W H; Chan, H C; Wong, P Y

1996-01-01

140

Regulation of membrane potential and fluid secretion by Ca2+-activated K+ channels in mouse submandibular glands.  

PubMed

We have recently shown that the IK1 and maxi-K channels in parotid salivary gland acinar cells are encoded by the K(Ca)3.1 and K(Ca)1.1 genes, respectively, and in vivo stimulated parotid secretion is severely reduced in double-null mice. The current study tested whether submandibular acinar cell function also relies on these channels. We found that the K(+) currents in submandibular acinar cells have the biophysical and pharmacological footprints of IK1 and maxi-K channels and their molecular identities were confirmed by the loss of these currents in K(Ca)3.1- and K(Ca)1.1-null mice. Unexpectedly, the pilocarpine-stimulated in vivo fluid secretion from submandibular glands was essentially normal in double-null mice. This result and the possibility of side-effects of pilocarpine on the nervous system, led us to develop an ex vivo fluid secretion assay. Fluid secretion from the ex vivo assay was substantially (about 75%) reduced in animals with both K(+) channel genes ablated - strongly suggesting systemic complications with the in vivo assay. Additional experiments focusing on the membrane potential in isolated submandibular acinar cells revealed mechanistic details underlying fluid secretion in K(+) channel-deficient mice. The membrane potential of submandibular acinar cells from wild-type mice remained strongly hyperpolarized (-55 +/- 2 mV) relative to the Cl(-) equilibrium potential (-24 mV) during muscarinic stimulation. Similar hyperpolarizations were observed in K(Ca)3.1- and K(Ca)1.1-null mice (-51 +/- 3 and -48 +/- 3 mV, respectively), consistent with the normal fluid secretion produced ex vivo. In contrast, acinar cells from double K(Ca)3.1/K(Ca)1.1-null mice were only slightly hyperpolarized (-35 +/- 2 mV) also consistent with the ex vivo (but not in vivo) results. Finally, we found that the modest hyperpolarization of cells from the double-null mice was maintained by the electrogenic Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. PMID:17379640

Romanenko, Victor G; Nakamoto, Tetsuji; Srivastava, Alaka; Begenisich, Ted; Melvin, James E

2007-03-22

141

beta -Endrophin and Adrenocorticotropin Are Secreted Concomitantly by the Pituitary Gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opiate-like peptide beta -endorphin and adrenocorticotropin are concomitantly secreted in increased amounts by the adenohypophysis in response to acute stress or long-term adrenalectomy as well as in vitro in response to purified corticotropin releasing factor and other secretagogues. Conversely, administration of the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone inhibits the secretion of both adrenocorticotropin and beta -endorphin. Thus, both hormones possess common

Roger Guillemin; Therese Vargo; Jean Rossier; Scott Minick; Nicholas Ling; Catherine Rivier; Wylie Vale; Floyd Bloom

1977-01-01

142

Changes in pHi associated with activation of ion secretion in avian nasal salt gland cells.  

PubMed

The fluorescent pH-sensitive dye 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)- carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) was used to determine changes in intracellular pH (pHi) associated with activation of secretion in isolated cells from the salt-secreting avian nasal gland. A correction procedure overcoming artifacts due to BCECF leakage is described. Resting pHi averaged 7.15 +/- 0.03 and was unaffected by the nominal removal of medium HCO3- or by the addition of the anion-exchange inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) but was significantly reduced by amiloride (7.07 +/- 0.02). Muscarinic activation of secretion resulted in a rapid intracellular acidification that was compensated by mechanisms which raised pHi to restore approximately resting levels within 5 min. The principal mechanism involved was amiloride-sensitive and independent of any sustained intracellular Ca2+ concentration change. Recovery of pHi was also aided by HCO3(-)-dependent and DIDS-sensitive mechanisms not seen in the resting cell. The direction of the latter was pHi-dependent, with DIDS further decreasing pHi in acidified cells and increasing pHi in alkalinized cells. This suggests that the DIDS-sensitive pathways are activated under conditions where pHi has been shifted away from resting levels in either direction and act primarily to restore resting pHi. PMID:1733231

Shuttleworth, T J; Wood, C M

1992-01-01

143

The evolution of size of the uropygial gland: mutualistic feather mites and uropygial secretion reduce bacterial loads of eggshells and hatching failures of European birds.  

PubMed

Potentially, pathogenic bacteria are one of the main infective agents against which a battery of chemical and physical barriers has evolved in animals. Among these are the secretions by the exocrine uropygial gland in birds. The antimicrobial properties of uropygial secretions may prevent colonization and growth of microorganisms on feathers, skin and eggshells. However, uropygial gland secretions also favour the proliferation of feather mites that feed on secretions and microorganisms living on feathers that would otherwise reach eggshells during incubation if not consumed by feather mites. Therefore, at the interspecific level, uropygial gland size (as an index of volume of uropygial secretion) should be positively related to eggshell bacterial load (i.e. the risk of egg infection), whereas eggshell bacterial loads may be negatively related to abundance of feather mites eating bacteria. Here, we explore these previously untested predictions in a comparative framework using information on eggshell bacterial loads, uropygial gland size, diversity and abundance of feather mites and hatching success of 22 species of birds. The size of the uropygial gland was positively related to eggshell bacterial loads (mesophilic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae), and bird species with higher diversity and abundance of feather mites harboured lower bacterial density on their eggshells (Enterococcus and Staphylococcus), in accordance with the hypothesis. Importantly, eggshell bacterial loads of mesophilic bacteria, Enterococcus and Enterobacteriaceae were negatively associated with hatching success, allowing us to interpret these interspecific relationships in a functional scenario, where both uropygial glands and mutualistic feather mites independently reduce the negative effects of pathogenic bacteria on avian fitness. PMID:22805098

Soler, J J; Peralta-Sánchez, J M; Martín-Platero, A M; Martín-Vivaldi, M; Martínez-Bueno, M; Møller, A P

2012-07-13

144

Matching Accessories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Heterodimerization enhances the complexity of ligand recognition and diversity of signaling responses of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Many accessory proteins (for ion channels or GPCRs) appear to associate with their partners relatively early in the process whereby proteins are transported to the cell surface; their roles in modulating function may have evolved out of simple proximity to a protein that once upon a time they either facilitated or accompanied through the maturation process. The receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) are a family of single-transmembrane accessory proteins that heterodimerize with GPCRs and, thereby, allow individual GPCRs to recognize multiple ligands and to activate various signaling pathways in response to ligand binding. The M10 family of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class 1b proteins has recently been shown to associate with murine vomeronasal V2R receptors, as well as to escort them to the cell surface. The exact role of M10 in modulating V2R function (or vice versa) remains to be determined.

Steven M. Foord (Stevenage;Target Bioinformatics, GlaxoSmithKline Medicine Research Centre REV)

2003-07-08

145

Rapid identification of primary constituents in parotoid gland secretions of the Australian cane toad using HPLC/MS-Q-TOF.  

PubMed

Toad parotoid gland secretion or toad venom has in recent years been increasingly shown to possess potentially beneficial pharmacological effects; this speculation has drawn much interest centred on elucidating the chemical basis of its multimodal effects. For this purpose, we explored the use of a rapid and accurate analysis method for systemic investigation of the parotoid gland chemistry, when extracted from Australian cane toads. Full-scan data of cane toad venom extract was acquired using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry system (HPLC/MS-Q-TOF), with multiple ionization sources (ESI and APCI) in positive and negative mixed modes. By measuring the exact mass differences between the theoretical and measured mass of each assumed compound, we confirmed the presence of 12 key constituents. The present results demonstrate that the use of HPLC/MS-Q-TOF with multiple ionization sources delivers exemplary selectivity and sensitivity, allowing for the rapid and accurate identification of constituents within cane toad venom. This paves the way for this technique to be used in future routine screening of components within the genus Bufo and for key analytes too, then reliably assessed for any purported beneficial (clinic) properties. PMID:23319165

Jing, Jing; Ren, Wei C; Li, Chun; Bose, Utpal; Parekh, Harendra S; Wei, Ming Q

2013-01-14

146

High degree of conservancy among secreted salivary gland proteins from two geographically distant Phlebotomus duboscqi sandflies populations (Mali and Kenya)  

PubMed Central

Background Salivary proteins from sandflies are potential targets for exploitation as vaccines to control Leishmania infection; in this work we tested the hypothesis that salivary proteins from geographically distant Phlebotomus duboscqi sandfly populations are highly divergent due to the pressure exerted by the host immune response. Salivary gland cDNA libraries were prepared from wild-caught P. duboscqi from Mali and recently colonised flies of the same species from Kenya. Results Transcriptome and proteome analysis resulted in the identification of the most abundant salivary gland-secreted proteins. Orthologues of these salivary proteins were identified by phylogenetic tree analysis. Moreover, comparative analysis between the orthologues of these two different populations resulted in a high level of protein identity, including the predicted MHC class II T-cell epitopes from all these salivary proteins. Conclusion These data refute the hypothesis that salivary proteins from geographically distinct populations of the same Phlebotomus sandfly species are highly divergent. They also suggest the potential for using the same species-specific components in a potential vector saliva-based vaccine.

Kato, Hirotomo; Anderson, Jennifer M; Kamhawi, Shaden; Oliveira, Fabiano; Lawyer, Phillip G; Pham, Van My; Sangare, Constance Souko; Samake, Sibiry; Sissoko, Ibrahim; Garfield, Mark; Sigutova, Lucie; Volf, Petr; Doumbia, Seydou; Valenzuela, Jesus G

2006-01-01

147

Complementary roles of the main and accessory olfactory systems in mammalian mate recognition.  

PubMed

We review studies conducted in mouse and ferret that have specified roles of both the main and the accessory olfactory nervous systems in the detection and processing of body odorants (e.g., urinary pheromones, extraorbital lacrimal gland secretions, major histocompatibility complex peptide ligands, and anal scent gland secretions) that play an essential role in sex discrimination and attraction between males and females leading to mate choice and successful reproduction. We also review literature that compares the forebrain processing of inputs from the two olfactory systems in the two sexes that underlies heterosexual partner preferences. Finally, we review experiments that raise the possibility that body odorants detected by the main olfactory system contribute to mate recognition in humans. PMID:18817511

Baum, Michael J; Kelliher, Kevin R

2009-01-01

148

ATP stimulated catecholamine secretion: Response in perfused adrenal glands and a subpopulation of cultured chromaffin cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracellular ATP is shown to induce catecholamine secretion in bovine chromaffin cells. Our data indicate that cells in culture gradually increase their response to ATP, and we have separated freshly isolated cells on a density gradient and found that the lighter cells develop a much stronger response to ATP than do the heavier cells. To see if the ATP sensitivity

Lih Fang Lin; Marga C. Bott; Lung-Sen Kao; Edward W. Westhead

1995-01-01

149

No evidence for basolateral secretion of milk protein in the mammary gland of lactating goats.  

PubMed

Recent research suggests that a small percentage of milk proteins may be secreted basolaterally, which would have implications for our work on the permeability of tight junctions in the mammary epithelium. In our work, the presence of alpha-lactalbumin (LA) or lactose in plasma is used as an indicator of permeability. The aim of this study was to examine basolateral secretion by determining the presence of milk proteins in efferent mammary lymph. Five Saanen goats were fitted with mammary lymph catheters and were administered intramammary isosmotic bolus infusions of sucrose control solutions or ethylene glycolbis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid to induce leaky tight junctions. Lymph samples were collected before and approximately 5 h after infusion. Lymph was analyzed by Western blotting for the presence of alpha-casein (CN), beta-CN, and alpha-LA No alpha-CN or beta-CN was detected in lymph, but alpha-LA was detected in all lymph samples. Moreover, the signal was much stronger in samples from goats that were treated with ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, and concentrations of alpha-LA in lymph were significantly increased with this treatment. These changes and the absence of casein in lymph suggest increased permeability of tight junctions rather than basolateral secretion. In summary, these data do not support basolateral secretion. PMID:9532497

Stelwagen, K; McLaren, R D; Turner, S A; McFadden, H A; Prosser, C G

1998-02-01

150

Exposure to TCDD during development permanently alters reproductive function in male Long Evans rats and hamsters: reduced ejaculated and epididymal sperm numbers and sex accessory gland weights in offspring with normal androgenic status.  

PubMed

Prenatal administration of relatively low doses of TCDD alters reproductive development and fertility of the progeny. Fertility was reduced in the progeny of Wistar rats exposed to 0.5 micrograms TCDD/kg/day from Gestational Day (GD) 6 to GD 15. In a three-generation reproduction study, TCDD reduced fertility of Sprague-Dawley rats in the F1 and F2 but not the F0 (no developmental exposure) generation at 0.01 microgram/kg/day in the diet. Furthermore, administration of TCDD on GD 15 (at 0.064 to 1 microgram/kg) both demasculinized and feminized morphology and behavior of Holtzman male rat offspring. Our objectives were to expand the observations of Mably et al. (1992, Toxicol, Appl. Pharmacol. 114, 97-107, 108-117, 118-126) on the effects of gestational administration of a single dose of TCDD to another strain of rat and another species, the hamster. In the first study, Long Evans (LE) hooded rats were dosed by gavage with 1 microgram TCDD/kg on GD 8 (during the period of major organogenesis) or GD 15 (the gestational day used by Mably et al.). In the second study, pregnant Syrian hamsters, a species relatively insensitive to the lethal effects of TCDD, were dosed on GD 11, equivalent to GD 15 in the rat, with TCDD at 2 micrograms/kg. When LE rats were dosed on GD 15, or when hamsters were dosed on GD 11, puberty (preputial separation) was delayed by about 3 days, ejaculated sperm counts were reduced by at least 58%, and epididymal sperm storage was reduced by 38%. Testicular sperm production was less affected. The sex accessory glands were also reduced in size in LE rat offspring treated on GD 15 despite the fact that serum testosterone (T), T production by the testis in vitro, and androgen receptor (AR) levels were not reduced. Some reproductive measures, such as anogenital distance and male sex behavior, were altered by TCDD treatment in rat but not hamster offspring. Since T and AR levels appeared normal in the sex accessory glands and the epididymis following perinatal TCDD exposure, the alterations in these tissues are not likely to have resulted from an alteration of the androgenic status of the male offspring. PMID:7878665

Gray, L E; Kelce, W R; Monosson, E; Ostby, J S; Birnbaum, L S

1995-03-01

151

A strong association between human earwax-type and apocrine colostrum secretion from the mammary gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we provided the first genetic evidence for an association between the degree of apocrine colostrum secretion and human\\u000a earwax type. Genotyping at the earwax-type locus, rs17822931 within the ABCC11 gene, revealed that 155 of 225 Japanese women were dry-type and 70 wet-type. Frequency of women without colostrum among dry-type\\u000a women was significantly higher than that among wet-type women (P P = 0.0341).

Kiyonori Miura; Koh-ichiro Yoshiura; Shoko Miura; Takako Shimada; Kentaro Yamasaki; Atsushi Yoshida; Daisuke Nakayama; Yoshisada Shibata; Norio Niikawa; Hideaki Masuzaki

2007-01-01

152

Crystal content investigation in dried human bulbo-urethral gland (Cowper's) secretion.  

PubMed

The present study compiled the data furnished by 77 different specimens of human bulbo-urethral secretion obtained from 4 donors. It established that Cowper's fluid, allowed to dry at room temperature, gives rise to dendritic crystalline structures showing a remarkable pattern closely resembling fern leaves. In addition to the dendrites, which may develop in some other mucoid secretions and are known to be mainly composed of NaCl crystals, numberless tiny spherulites are also observed within interdendritic intervals, in the central part of the preparations. These spherulites consist of polycrystalline microstructures radiating from a central nucleus. It can be inferred from their structure and localization that they are composed of salts other than NaCl and do not crystallize in the cubic system. Far from being an occasional phenomenon, ferning crystallization is considered to be an unequivocal physical constant of dried human bulbo-urethral fluid. As for interdendritic crystalline spherulites that were described previously as occasional structures present only in ovulatory cervical mucus, both their abundance and range of size variation make them a constant and specific feature of dried Cowper's fluid. PMID:8597306

Berthou, J; Chretien, F C

153

Muscle and skin necrotizing and edema-forming activities of Duvernoy's gland secretion of the xenodontine colubrid snake Philodryas patagoniensis from the north-east of Argentina.  

PubMed

Philodryas patagoniensis is a colubrid snake spread by all South America, but very little is known about the composition and biological activities of its Duvernoy's gland secretion. In order to characterize it, we studied edematogenic, dermonecrotic and myonecrotic activities. For edematogenic activity, solutions containing different amounts of secretion were injected s.c. in the right foot pad of mice, both feet were subsequently cut off and weighed individually. For myonecrotic activity, mice were injected i.m. with solutions containing 40 microg of secretion, and at various time intervals mice were bled to determine serum creatine kinase activity and gastrocnemius muscles were removed for microscopic examination (Hematoxylin-Eosin stain). For dermonecrotic activity, solutions containing different amounts of secretion were injected into the shaved dorsal skin of mice; the necrotic lesion was measured on the inner surface of the skin and trimmed for microscopic examination (Hematoxylin-Eosin stain). Phospholipase A(2) activity was evaluated using a kinetic method. Results showed that P. patagoniensis Duvernoy's gland secretion exhibits a high edematogenic activity and moderate myonecrotic and dermonecrotic activities, while lacking phospholipase A(2) effect. Regarding edema, a 30% increase in the weight was produced by injecting 0.26 microg of Duvernoy's gland secretion. Microscopically, myonecrosis reached its highest intensity 12 h after injection, which was also demonstrated by serum creatine kinase levels. Dermonecrosis was proportional to the amount of secretion injected, with a minimum necrotizing dose of 15.7 microg. Myonecrotic, edematogenic and dermonecrotic activities were inhibited when the secretion was pre-incubated with 1 mM Na(2)EDTA. This suggests that the enzymes responsible for those activities are mostly metalloproeinases. All the studies carried out up to now demonstrate the potential toxicity of P. patagoniensis Duvernoy's gland secretion (which inhabits the north-east region of Argentina) and that the local lesions caused by this colubrid snake are very similar to those found in bothropic accidents. This latter suggests a more careful evaluation of the victims when considering the medical treatment to be adopted. PMID:15501284

Peichoto, M E; Acosta, O; Leiva, L; Teibler, P; Maruñak, S; Ruíz, R

2004-11-01

154

Salivary Glands: A Paradigm for Diversity of Gland Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major salivary glands of mammals are represented by three pairs of organs that cooperate functionally to produce saliva for the oral cavity. While each type of gland produces a signature secretion that complements the secretions from the other glands, there is also redundancy as evidenced by secretion of functionally similar and, in some cases, identical products in the three

P. C. Denny; W. D. Ball; R. S. Redman

1997-01-01

155

The mandibular gland secretions of the leaf-cutting ants Atta sexdens sexdens and Atta opaciceps exhibit intercaste and intercolony variations.  

PubMed

The mandibular gland secretions of worker castes from wild colonies of the leaf-cutting ants Atta sexdens sexdens and Atta opaciceps were analyzed quantitatively by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The secretions comprised a complex mixture of volatile, mainly oxygenated compounds, and their profiles exhibited considerable qualitative and quantitative variations among species and castes. The known alarm pheromone 4-methyl-3-heptanone was common to both species. The elevated relative proportions of this ketone found in the secretions of gardeners and generalists suggest that such castes are primarily responsible for the production and release of the alarm pheromone. Quantitative variations (but no qualitative differences) in the profiles of secretions of soldiers from different colonies of A. sexdens sexdens were detected, supporting the view that intraspecific colony recognition is mediated through mandibular gland secretions. Subsequent laboratory assays showed that, among the compounds identified by GC-MS, 4-methyl-3-heptanone elicited a strong alarm response in workers of A. sexdens sexdens and A. opaciceps. PMID:16683202

Francelino, M R; Mendonça, A L; Do Nascimento, R R; Sant'ana, A E G

2006-04-25

156

The neurite-stimulating activity of components of the salivary gland secretion of the medicinal leech in cultures of sensory neurons.  

PubMed

The effects of components of the salivary gland secretion (proteases and protease inhibitors) of the medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis) on the growth of neurites of sensory neurons from chick embryos (10-11 days old) were studied in organotypic cultures. Destabilase and high-molecular-weight bdellin B, (0.01, 0.02, 0.05, and 0.1 ng/ml), bdellastasin (0.02 and 0.05 ng/ml), and eglin C (0.1 ng/ml) had neurite-stimulating effects on day 3 of cultivation of spinal ganglia. Identification of the neurite-stimulating activity of these components of medicinal leech salivary gland secretions creates the basis for creating new therapeutic agents for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:12774845

Chalisova, N I; Pennijajnen, V P; Baskova, I P; Zavalova, L L; Bazanova, A V

2003-05-01

157

Predominant subpopulations of T lymphocytes in the mammary gland secretions during lactation and intraepithelial T lymphocytes in the intestine of dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphocytes obtained from mammary gland secretions (MGS) during lactation or the dry period of dairy cows were simultaneously analyzed and compared to ileal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) using monoclonal antibodies (mAb) specific for bovine leukocyte differentiation antigens. The T-lymphocytes of MGS during lactation and those in IEL were predominantly CD8+, while T-cells in MGS during the

Ken-ichi Asai; Yumiko Komine; Tomoyuki Kozutsumi; Takahiro Yamaguchi; Ken-ichi Komine; Katsuo Kumagai

2000-01-01

158

The proteomes of human parotid and submandibular/sublingual gland salivas collected as the ductal secretions.  

PubMed

Saliva is a body fluid with important functions in oral and general health. A consortium of three research groups catalogued the proteins in human saliva collected as the ductal secretions: 1166 identifications--914 in parotid and 917 in submandibular/sublingual saliva--were made. The results showed that a high proportion of proteins that are found in plasma and/or tears are also present in saliva along with unique components. The proteins identified are involved in numerous molecular processes ranging from structural functions to enzymatic/catalytic activities. As expected, the majority mapped to the extracellular and secretory compartments. An immunoblot approach was used to validate the presence in saliva of a subset of the proteins identified by mass spectrometric approaches. These experiments focused on novel constituents and proteins for which the peptide evidence was relatively weak. Ultimately, information derived from the work reported here and related published studies can be used to translate blood-based clinical laboratory tests into a format that utilizes saliva. Additionally, a catalogue of the salivary proteome of healthy individuals allows future analyses of salivary samples from individuals with oral and systemic diseases, with the goal of identifying biomarkers with diagnostic and/or prognostic value for these conditions; another possibility is the discovery of therapeutic targets. PMID:18361515

Denny, Paul; Hagen, Fred K; Hardt, Markus; Liao, Lujian; Yan, Weihong; Arellanno, Martha; Bassilian, Sara; Bedi, Gurrinder S; Boontheung, Pinmannee; Cociorva, Daniel; Delahunty, Claire M; Denny, Trish; Dunsmore, Jason; Faull, Kym F; Gilligan, Joyce; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Halgand, Frédéric; Hall, Steven C; Han, Xuemei; Henson, Bradley; Hewel, Johannes; Hu, Shen; Jeffrey, Sherry; Jiang, Jiang; Loo, Joseph A; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R; Malamud, Daniel; Melvin, James E; Miroshnychenko, Olga; Navazesh, Mahvash; Niles, Richard; Park, Sung Kyu; Prakobphol, Akraporn; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Richert, Megan; Robinson, Sarah; Sondej, Melissa; Souda, Puneet; Sullivan, Mark A; Takashima, Jona; Than, Shawn; Wang, Jianghua; Whitelegge, Julian P; Witkowska, H Ewa; Wolinsky, Lawrence; Xie, Yongming; Xu, Tao; Yu, Weixia; Ytterberg, Jimmy; Wong, David T; Yates, John R; Fisher, Susan J

2008-03-25

159

The Proteomes of Human Parotid and Submandibular/Sublingual Gland Salivas Collected as the Ductal Secretions  

PubMed Central

Saliva is a body fluid with important functions in oral and general health. A consortium of three research groups catalogued the proteins in human saliva collected as the ductal secretions: 1166 identifications—914 in parotid and 917 in submandibular/sublingual saliva—were made. The results showed that a high proportion of proteins that are found in plasma and/or tears are also present in saliva along with unique components. The proteins identified are involved in numerous molecular processes ranging from structural functions to enzymatic/catalytic activities. As expected, the majority mapped to the extracellular and secretory compartments. An immunoblot approach was used to validate the presence in saliva of a subset of the proteins identified by mass spectrometric approaches. These experiments focused on novel constituents and proteins for which the peptide evidence was relatively weak. Ultimately, information derived from the work reported here and related published studies can be used to translate blood-based clinical laboratory tests into a format that utilizes saliva. Additionally, a catalogue of the salivary proteome of healthy individuals allows future analyses of salivary samples from individuals with oral and systemic diseases, with the goal of identifying biomarkers with diagnostic and/or prognostic value for these conditions; another possibility is the discovery of therapeutic targets.

Denny, Paul; Hagen, Fred K.; Hardt, Markus; Liao, Lujian; Yan, Weihong; Arellanno, Martha; Bassilian, Sara; Bedi, Gurrinder S.; Boontheung, Pinmannee; Cociorva, Daniel; Delahunty, Claire M.; Denny, Trish; Dunsmore, Jason; Faull, Kym F.; Gilligan, Joyce; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Halgand, Frederic; Hall, Steven C.; Han, Xuemei; Henson, Bradley; Hewel, Johannes; Hu, Shen; Jeffrey, Sherry; Jiang, Jiang; Loo, Joseph A.; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Malamud, Daniel; Melvin, James E.; Miroshnychenko, Olga; Navazesh, Mahvash; Niles, Richard; Park, Sung Kyu; Prakobphol, Akraporn; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Richert, Megan; Robinson, Sarah; Sondej, Melissa; Souda, Puneet; Sullivan, Mark A.; Takashima, Jona; Than, Shawn; Wang, Jianghua; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Wolinsky, Lawrence; Xie, Yongming; Xu, Tao; Yu, Weixia; Ytterberg, Jimmy; Wong, David T.; Yates, John R.; Fisher, Susan J.

2009-01-01

160

First Transcriptome of the Testis-Vas Deferens-Male Accessory Gland and Proteome of the Spermatophore from Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae)  

PubMed Central

Ticks are important vectors of numerous human diseases and animal diseases. Feeding stimulates spermatogenesis, mating and insemination of male factors that trigger female reproduction. The physiology of male reproduction and its regulation of female development are essentially a black box. Several transcriptomes have catalogued expression of tick genes in the salivary glands, synganglion and midgut but no comprehensive investigation has addressed male reproduction and mating. Consequently, a new global approach using transcriptomics, proteomics, and quantitative gene expression is needed to understand male reproduction and stimulation of female reproduction. This first transcriptome to the reproductive biology of fed male ticks, Dermacentor variabilis, was obtained by 454 pyrosequencing (563,093 reads, 12,804 contigs). Gene Ontology (Biological Processes level III) recognized 3,866 transcripts in 73 different categories; spermiogenesis; spermatogenesis; peptidases, lipases and hydrolases; oxidative and environmental stress; immune defense; and protein binding. Reproduction-associated genes included serine/threonine kinase, metalloendoproteinases, ferritins, serine proteases, trypsin, cysteine proteases, serpins, a cystatin, GPCR and others. qRT-PCR showed significant upregulation from unfed versus fed adult male reproductive organs of zinc metalloprotease, astacin metalloprotease and serine protease, enzymes important in spermiogenesis and mating activity in insects, as well as a GPCR with the greatest similarity to a SIFamide receptor known to be important in regulating courtship behavior in Drosophila. Proteomics on these organs and the spermatophore by tryptic digestion/Liquid chromatography/Mass spectrometry/Mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) demonstrated expression of many of the same messages found by 454 sequencing, supporting their identification, and revealed differences in protein distribution in the reproductive system versus the spermatophore. We found Ef? but no EF ? in the transcriptome and neither of these proteins in the spermatophore. Thus, the previously described model for male regulation of female reproduction may not apply to other ticks. A new paradigm is needed to explain male stimulation of female tick reproduction.

Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Bissinger, Brooke W.; Egekwu, Noble; Donohue, Kevin V.; Khalil, Sayed M.; Roe, R. Michael

2011-01-01

161

Cl- secretion by cultured shark rectal gland cells. III. Ca2+ regulation of apical membrane Cl- conductance.  

PubMed

Calcium ionophores (ionomycin and A-23187) were employed to assess the effects of increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) on apical membrane Cl- conductance (GaCl) and rate of transepithelial Cl- secretion in cultured shark rectal gland (SRG) cells. Apical 2 microM ionomycin induced dramatic changes in cellular electrophysiological properties: the apical membrane electrical potential difference (V(a)) depolarized from -66 mV to -46 mV, the fractional resistance of the apical membrane (fRa) decreased from 0.88 to 0.23, and the transepithelial electrical potential difference (Vab) increased slightly from +1.2 mV to +1.4 mV. These effects result from increased GaCl because apical low-Cl- shark Ringer (SR) depolarized V(a) by 32 mV and increased fRa from 0.23 to 0.36. Ionomycin-stimulated Vab or short-circuit current (Isc) results largely from increased Cl- secretion because approximately 80% of the increase in Isc is Cl- dependent. Establishing the Ca2+ dependence of ionophore activation of GaCl was confounded because apical low-Ca2+ SR [Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]) 1 mM to 0.1 microM] alone activated this conductive pathway. To establish the Ca2+ dependence of ionophore action, we assessed the effect of ionomycin on Isc in low-Ca2+ SR ([Ca2+] = 0.1 microM) and in SR. In low-Ca2+ SR, apical ionomycin stimulated Isc by 14.0 microA/cm2. In SR (normal [Ca2+]), ionomycin increased Isc further by 27.0 microA/cm2. Superfusing the basolateral surface with 2 microM ionomycin for 8-16 min failed to activate GaCl. In every case, subsequent superfusion of the apical surface with ionophore for 1.5-2 min activated GaCl. Bilateral 4 microM indomethacin (45-min superfusion) failed to block the ionomycin-induced GaCl.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8214020

Moran, W M; Valentich, J D

1993-09-01

162

Absence of a direct role of phospholipid methylation in stimulus-secretion coupling and control of adenylate cyclase in guinea-pig and rat parotid gland.  

PubMed Central

The present study was undertaken to investigate a possible involvement of phospholipid methyltransferases in the coupling of receptor-mediated stimulation to secretion. Phospholipid methyltransferases were assayed in isolated parotid acini in the presence of carbamoylcholine or isoprenaline. Carbamoylcholine reduced the incorporation of methyl groups into phospholipids, whereas isoprenaline showed no effect. Amylase secretion stimulated either by carbamoylcholine or by isoprenaline could not be affected by inhibitors of methyltransferases (3-deaza-adenosine alone or plus homocysteine thiolactone) under conditions where phospholipid methylation was strongly inhibited. The activity of adenylate cyclase in isolated parotid microsomal membranes was not inhibited or stimulated by S-adenosyl-homocysteine or -methionine respectively. These results indicate that phospholipid methylation does not play an essential role in stimulus-secretion coupling in the parotid gland.

Padel, U; Unger, C; Soling, H D

1982-01-01

163

Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans  

PubMed Central

Literature from the past 168 years has been filtered to provide a unified summary of the regional distribution of cutaneous water and electrolyte losses. The former occurs via transepidermal water vapour diffusion and secretion from the eccrine sweat glands. Daily insensible water losses for a standardised individual (surface area 1.8 m2) will be 0.6–2.3 L, with the hands (80–160 g.h?1) and feet (50–150 g.h?1) losing the most, the head and neck losing intermediate amounts (40–75 g.h?1) and all remaining sites losing 15–60 g.h?1. Whilst sweat gland densities vary widely across the skin surface, this same individual would possess some 2.03 million functional glands, with the highest density on the volar surfaces of the fingers (530 glands.cm?2) and the lowest on the upper lip (16 glands.cm?2). During passive heating that results in a resting whole-body sweat rate of approximately 0.4 L.min?1, the forehead (0.99 mg.cm?2.min?1), dorsal fingers (0.62 mg.cm?2.min?1) and upper back (0.59 mg.cm?2.min?1) would display the highest sweat flows, whilst the medial thighs and anterior legs will secrete the least (both 0.12 mg.cm?2.min?1). Since sweat glands selectively reabsorb electrolytes, the sodium and chloride composition of discharged sweat varies with secretion rate. Across whole-body sweat rates from 0.72 to 3.65 mg.cm?2.min?1, sodium losses of 26.5–49.7 mmol.L?1 could be expected, with the corresponding chloride loss being 26.8–36.7 mmol.L?1. Nevertheless, there can be threefold differences in electrolyte losses across skin regions. When exercising in the heat, local sweat rates increase dramatically, with regional glandular flows becoming more homogeneous. However, intra-regional evaporative potential remains proportional to each local surface area. Thus, there is little evidence that regional sudomotor variations reflect an hierarchical distribution of sweating either at rest or during exercise.

2013-01-01

164

Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans.  

PubMed

Literature from the past 168 years has been filtered to provide a unified summary of the regional distribution of cutaneous water and electrolyte losses. The former occurs via transepidermal water vapour diffusion and secretion from the eccrine sweat glands. Daily insensible water losses for a standardised individual (surface area 1.8 m2) will be 0.6-2.3 L, with the hands (80-160 g.h-1) and feet (50-150 g.h-1) losing the most, the head and neck losing intermediate amounts (40-75 g.h-1) and all remaining sites losing 15-60 g.h-1. Whilst sweat gland densities vary widely across the skin surface, this same individual would possess some 2.03 million functional glands, with the highest density on the volar surfaces of the fingers (530 glands.cm-2) and the lowest on the upper lip (16 glands.cm-2). During passive heating that results in a resting whole-body sweat rate of approximately 0.4 L.min-1, the forehead (0.99 mg.cm-2.min-1), dorsal fingers (0.62 mg.cm-2.min-1) and upper back (0.59 mg.cm-2.min-1) would display the highest sweat flows, whilst the medial thighs and anterior legs will secrete the least (both 0.12 mg.cm-2.min-1). Since sweat glands selectively reabsorb electrolytes, the sodium and chloride composition of discharged sweat varies with secretion rate. Across whole-body sweat rates from 0.72 to 3.65 mg.cm-2.min-1, sodium losses of 26.5-49.7 mmol.L-1 could be expected, with the corresponding chloride loss being 26.8-36.7 mmol.L-1. Nevertheless, there can be threefold differences in electrolyte losses across skin regions. When exercising in the heat, local sweat rates increase dramatically, with regional glandular flows becoming more homogeneous. However, intra-regional evaporative potential remains proportional to each local surface area. Thus, there is little evidence that regional sudomotor variations reflect an hierarchical distribution of sweating either at rest or during exercise. PMID:23849497

Taylor, Nigel As; Machado-Moreira, Christiano A

2013-02-01

165

Evidence for the presence of makisterone A in Drosophila larvae and the secretion of 20-deoxymakisterone A by the ring gland  

PubMed Central

Ring glands or brain—ring gland complexes from third-instar Drosophila melanogaster larvae secreted ecdysone [(22R)-2?,3?,14?,22,25-pentahydroxy-5?-cholest-7-en-6-one] and two less polar ecdysteroids (LP1 and LP2) in vitro. Radioimmunoassay with different antisera indicated that LP1 and LP2 are side-chain-modified analogues of ecdysone. In high-performance liquid chromatography, the retention time of LP2 was equivalent to that of a precursor of makisterone A [(20R,22R)-2?,3?,14?,20,22,25-hexahydroxy-24-methyl-5?-cholest-7-en-6-one] secreted by Dysdercus fasciatus prothoracic glands in vitro. LP2 was metabolized in vitro by the fat body of Drosophila larvae to a product with the characteristics of makisterone A when analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (selected ion monitoring). Evidence was obtained for the presence of makisterone A in Drosophila larvae. These data suggest that LP2 is 20-deoxymakisterone A (24-methylecdysone) and that makisterone A could function as an additional moulting hormone in Drosophila, although 20-deoxymakisterone A production is apparently dependent on the sterol composition of the diet. LP1 has not been identified.

Redfern, Christopher P. F.

1984-01-01

166

( Z,E )-?-farnesene: Major component of secretion from metathoracic scent gland of cotton seed bug, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (Costa) (Heteroptera; Lygaeidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isolation and identification of (Z,E)-a-farnesene[(3Z, 6E)-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-1,3,6,10-tetraene] (III) as the major component of the secretion from the metathoracic scent gland of the cotton seed bug,Oxycarenus hyalinipennis, is reported. The compound was identified by a combination of [1H] NMR, [13C] NMR, UV, and mass spectral data and by comparison with a synthetic sample, prepared by dehydration of (E)-nerolidol. (Z,E)-a-Farnesene (III) has

D. W. Knight; M. Rossiter; B. W. Staddon

1984-01-01

167

Accessory Sexual Glands of Male 'Blattella germanica'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several synthetic juvenile hormones were applied topically and by injection to adult male Blattella germanica. These compounds included the Law synthetic juvenile hormone, the synthetic Roeller compound and farnesyl O-methyl ether. Mortalities were low up...

P. M. Fox

1973-01-01

168

Inositol lipid turnover and adenosine 3,5 cyclic monophosphate in the salt-secreting rectal gland of the dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula).  

PubMed

The rectal gland of the dogfish is rich in inositol lipids. Total phospholipids from the gland contained 9.1 mol% of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), 1.0 mol% of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) and 0.9 mol% of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PtdIns4,5P2). [32P]Orthophosphate was readily incorporated into PtdIns, phosphatidic acid (PtdA) and especially into PtdIns4P and PtdIns4,5P2 in salt gland slices incubated in elasmobranch Ringer with glucose and no other additions over a 2 hr period. The calcium ionophore A23187 stimulated incorporation into PtdIns and PtdA, but not into PtdIns4P or PtdIns4,5P2. Oxygen uptake by rectal gland slices was maximally stimulated by 0.08mM forskolin, 2.5mM 8-chlorophenylthio cyclic AMP, 2.0mM dibutyryl cyclic AMP and 0.25mM theophylline. Stimulated oxygen uptake was inhibited by 0.1mM ouabain in all cases. Incorporation of [32P]orthophosphate into PtdIns, PtdA, PtdIns4P and PtdIns4,5P2 was inhibited by 0.08mM forskolin and 2.0mM dibutyryl cyclic AMP over a 2 hr period. The results are discussed in relation to the control of salt secretion by the rectal gland. PMID:3004806

Simpson, C M; Sargent, J R

1985-01-01

169

Synthesis and secretion of human serum albumin by mammary gland explants of virgin and lactating transgenic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic mice were produced, carrying hybrid genes comprised of the ovine ?-lactoglobulin (BLG) milk protein gene promoter and human serum albumin (HSA) coding sequences.In situ hybridization revealed high levels of BLG\\/HSA hybrid mRNA, confined to the epithelial cells of the lactating mammary gland with a several hundred fold lower concentration in virgin mammary glands. During the first 24 h in

Itamar Barash; Alexander Faerman; Ariela Baruch; Margaret Nathan; David R. Hurwitz; Moshe Shani

1993-01-01

170

The relative effect of an anticholinergic drug, glycopyrrolate, on basal gastric secretion and sweat- and salivary-gland activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A finger-tip sweat-gland counting method and a salivary flow test have been used as indices of undesirable effects in a study of an injectable form of glycopyrrolate. Both tests were reliable indicators of drug effect, but the sweat-gland test was more repeatable and more sensitive than the salivary flow technic. Using these tests, glycopyrrolate in the injectable form had a

Kerrison Juniper

1967-01-01

171

Chemistry of the cephalic labial gland secretions of male Bombus morrisoni and B. rufocinctus, two North American bumblebee males with perching behavior.  

PubMed

The labial gland secretions from males of the North American bumblebees Bombus morrisoni Cresson and B. rufocinctus Cresson were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In both species, 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2,6,10,14-hexadecatetraenyl acetate was found as the major compound of a complex mixture of alkenols, acetates, hydrocarbons, and wax-type esters. In addition to a mixture of saturated and mono-unsaturated straight chain hydrocarbons, the labial gland of both species contained the isoprenoid hydrocarbons (6E, 10E)-3,7,15-trimethyl-3-methylene-hexadeca-1,6,10,14-tetraene [beta-springene], three isomers of 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-hexadeca-1,3,6,10,14-pentaene [alpha-springene], and two further unidentified cyclic diterpenes. In B. morrisoni, 3,7,11-trimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrien-1-ol and 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-6,10,14-hexadecatrien-1-ol were detected as characteristic alcohols, as well as small amounts of 9-hexadecenol and hexadecanol. Furthermore, a large peak of hexadecyl dodecanoate and minor amounts of 9-hexadecenyl, 9-octadecenyl, and eicosenyl 9-tetradecenoate were found as typical esters in this species. In B. rufocinctus, 9-hexadecenol, hexadecanol, and 9-octadecenol were present in considerable amounts, with their acetates and 9-tetradecenoic, tetradecanoic, hexadecanoic, and 11-octadecenoic acids. The chemical composition of cephalic labial glands in male bumblebees with perching behavior is discussed. PMID:18758863

Bertsch, Andreas; Schweer, Horst; Titze, Andreas

2008-08-30

172

Stimulatory Pathways of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor on Acid Secretion in Freshly Isolated Human Gastric Glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric acid secretion is not only stimulated via the classical known neuronal and hormonal pathways but also by the Ca2+-Sensing Receptor (CaSR) located at the basolateral membrane of the acid-secretory gastric parietal cell. Stimulation of CaSR with divalent cations or the potent agonist Gd3+ leads to activation of the H+\\/K+-ATPase and subsequently to gastric acid secretion. Here we investigated the

Christine Remy; Philipp Kirchhoff; Patricia Hafner; Stephanie Busque; Markus Mueller; John Geibel; Carsten Wagner

2007-01-01

173

The Effects of Capsaicin on Gastrin Secretion in Isolated Human Antral Glands: Before and After Ingestion of Red Chilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Capsaicin is known to have regulatory effects on gastrointestinal functions via the vanilloid receptor (VR1). We reported\\u000a previously that endocrine-like cells in the human antrum express VR1. Aim To identify VR1-expressing endocrine-like cells in human antral glands and to examine whether stimulation with capsaicin\\u000a causes release of gastrin, somatostatin, and serotonin. Further, to investigate the effects of a chilli-rich

A. Ericson; E. Mohammed Nur; F. Petersson; S. Kechagias

2009-01-01

174

Trapping cDNAs Encoding Secreted Proteins from the Salivary Glands of the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The signal sequence trap method was used to isolate cDNAs corresponding to proteins containing secretory leader peptides and whose genes are expressed specifically in the salivary glands of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Fifteen unique cDNA fragments, ranging in size from 150 to 550 bp, were isolated and sequenced in a first round of immunoscreening in COS-7 cells. All but

Bruno Arca; Fabrizio Lombardo; Margareth De Lara Capurro; Alessandra della Torre; George Dimopoulos; Anthony A. James; Mario Coluzzi

1999-01-01

175

Identification of (Z)-4- and 1-Tridecene in the Metathoracic Gland Secretions of Stink Bugs Employing the GC/FT-IR Technique.  

PubMed

The composition of stink bug allomones is similar for most species and includes hydrocarbons, as well as saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and esters. Analysis of extracts of the metathoracic glands of seven pentatomid species from different genera by gas chromatography/Fourier transform-infrared (GC/FT-IR) showed that the compound previously thought to be 1-tridecene actually showed characteristic bands of an internal as well as terminal double bond, the former compound having (Z)-configuration. The mass spectrum of an epoxy-derivative of the natural material demonstrated that the internal double bound was located at C4. GC/FT-IR and co-injections with synthetic standards on different capillary columns proved that all these stink bugs had 1-tridecene and (Z)-4-tridecene in their defensive secretions. PMID:23943279

Fávaro, Carla F; Zarbin, Paulo H G

2013-08-13

176

Effect of monochromatic light on melatonin secretion and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase mRNA expression in the retina and pineal gland of broilers.  

PubMed

The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of various monochromatic lights on plasma melatonin (MT) levels and the expression of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) mRNA in the pineal gland and retina. A total of 160 newly hatched (posthatching day 1, P1) broilers, including intact, sham-operated, and pinealectomized groups were exposed to blue light (BL), green light (GL), red light (RL), and white light (WL) by light emitting diode (LED) system for short term (24 hr) or long term (2 weeks), separately. For intact and sham-operated birds, the plasma MT level exhibited marked circadian rhythms at P7 and P14 regardless of short-term and long-term exposure to four monochromatic lights. However, WL and BL showed a faint suppression of MT secretion in contrast to GL and RL at either light or dark time points, with the following rank order: GL < RL < WL < BL. Larger circadian amplitude of MT levels was observed in GL group versus BL group (at P14: 87.70 pg/mL vs. 19.85 pg/mL, respectively). Pinealectomy disturbed the MT rhythm under different light colors, especially in RL. Additionally, consistent with the alteration of plasma MT levels, we observed increased AANAT mRNA expression and immunoreactive cell numbers of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and c-Fos in the pineal gland or retina in GL than that of BL, whereas 5-HT immunoreactive cell number was significantly decreased in GL. These data suggested that GL enhanced chick pinealocytes and retinal cells to express AANAT mRNA and to secrete MT, which may be depended on promoting c-Fos expression and cell proliferation. PMID:21618440

Jin, Erhui; Jia, Liujun; Li, Jian; Yang, Guang; Wang, Zixu; Cao, Jing; Chen, Yaoxing

2011-05-25

177

Identification of the most abundant secreted proteins from the salivary glands of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, vector of Leishmania chagasi.  

PubMed

Using massive cDNA sequencing, proteomics and customized computational biology approaches, we have isolated and identified the most abundant secreted proteins from the salivary glands of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Out of 550 randomly isolated clones from a full-length salivary gland cDNA library, we found 143 clusters or families of related proteins. Out of these 143 families, 35 were predicted to be secreted proteins. We confirmed, by Edman degradation of Lu. longipalpis salivary proteins, the presence of 17 proteins from this group. Full-length sequence for 35 cDNA messages for secretory proteins is reported, including an RGD-containing peptide, three members of the yellow-related family of proteins, maxadilan, a PpSP15-related protein, six members of a family of putative anticoagulants, an antigen 5-related protein, a D7-related protein, a cDNA belonging to the Cimex apyrase family of proteins, a protein homologous to a silk protein with amino acid repeats resembling extracellular matrix proteins, a 5'-nucleotidase, a peptidase, a palmitoyl-hydrolase, an endonuclease, nine novel peptides and four different groups of proteins with no homologies to any protein deposited in accessible databases. Sixteen of these proteins appear to be unique to sand flies. With this approach, we have tripled the number of isolated secretory proteins from this sand fly. Because of the relationship between the vertebrate host immune response to salivary proteins and protection to parasite infection, these proteins are promising markers for vector exposure and attractive targets for vaccine development to control Leishmania chagasi infection. PMID:15371479

Valenzuela, Jesus G; Garfield, Mark; Rowton, Edgar D; Pham, Van M

2004-10-01

178

Updating the Salivary Gland Transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi (Tunisian Strain): The Search for Sand Fly-Secreted Immunogenic Proteins for Humans  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sand fly saliva plays an important role in both blood feeding and outcome of Leishmania infection. A cellular immune response against a Phlebotomus papatasi salivary protein was shown to protect rodents against Leishmania major infection. In humans, P. papatasi salivary proteins induce a systemic cellular immune response as well as a specific antisaliva humoral immune response, making these salivary proteins attractive targets as markers of exposure for this Leishmania vector. Surprisingly, the repertoire of salivary proteins reported for P. papatasi–a model sand fly for Leishmania-vector-host molecular interactions–is very limited compared with other sand fly species. We hypothesize that a more comprehensive study of the transcripts present in the salivary glands of P. papatasi will provide better knowledge of the repertoire of proteins of this important vector and will aid in selection of potential immunogenic proteins for humans and of those proteins that are highly conserved between different sand fly strains. Methods and Findings A cDNA library from P. papatasi (Tunisian strain) salivary glands was constructed, and randomly selected transcripts were sequenced and analyzed. The most abundant transcripts encoding secreted proteins were identified and compared with previously reported sequences. Importantly, we identified salivary proteins not described before in this sand fly species. Conclusions Comparative analysis between the salivary proteins of P. papatasi from Tunisia and Israel strains shows a high level of identity, suggesting these proteins as potential common targets for markers of vector exposure or inducers of cellular immune responses in humans for different geographic areas.

Ben Ahmed, Melika; Zhioua, Elyes; Chelbi, Ifhem; Cherni, Saifedine; Louzir, Hechmi; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.

2012-01-01

179

Mammary Glands: Developmental Changes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mammary gland progresses from the accumulation of a few cells in the embryonic ectoderm to a highly arborescent tubulo-alveolar gland capable of secreting a highly nutritious product for consumption. Throughout this progression, various changes occur during each developmental stage: prenatal, pr...

180

Ligand-independent epidermal growth factor receptor hyperactivation increases sebaceous gland size and sebum secretion in mice.  

PubMed

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) system is an established regulator of the development and homeostasis of the hair follicle and interfollicular epidermis. Here, we evaluated EGFR actions on the sebaceous glands (SGs) by employing Dsk5 mice, a mutant line in which the EGFR is constitutively activated in a ligand-independent manner. Compared to control littermates, Dsk5 mice showed increased sebum levels and enlarged SGs, which contained a higher number of cells and showed stronger proliferation. c-myc transcript levels were increased in Dsk5 skin, suggesting that c-myc mediates the proliferative stimuli of the EGFR in the SG. Analysis of differentiation markers revealed deregulated expression of Scd1 and Scd3, indicating that sebaceous lipogenesis is affected in Dsk5 mice. In conclusion, our study indicates that the EGFR is an important regulator of presebocyte proliferation, contributing to the final cell number, to the size and to the lipid output of SGs. PMID:24079739

Dahlhoff, Maik; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Wolf, Eckhard; Schneider, Marlon R

2013-10-01

181

Intrapancreatic accessory spleen.  

PubMed

A case of accessory spleen located in the tail of the pancreas in a stillbirth male foetus is reported. The congenital anomaly was revealed at autopsy. The intrapancreatic spleen was well demarcated and was composed of red and white pulp; however, same pancreatic ducts were intermingled with the splenic parenchyma. As well as the intrapancreatic lesion another minute accessory spleen was also found at the hilum of the proper organ. Since a lack of morphological features of trisomy 13 syndrome were found in the foetus, the ectopic spleens were regarded as incidental findings. PMID:22532185

Szumi?o, J; Fronczek, A; Bukharin, S; Burdan, F

2012-02-01

182

Isolated secretion granules from parotid glands of chronically stimulated rats possess an alkaline internal pH and inward-directed H+ pump activity  

PubMed Central

Secretion granules have been isolated from the parotid glands of rats that have been chronically stimulated with the beta-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol. These granules are of interest because they package a quantitatively different set of secretory proteins in comparison with granules from the normal gland. Polypeptides enriched in proline, glycine, and glutamine, which are known to have pI's greater than 10, replace alpha-amylase (pI's = 6.8) as the principal content species. The internal pH of granules from the treated rats ranges from 7.8 in a potassium sulfate medium to 6.9 in a choline chloride medium. The increased pH over that of normal parotid granules (approximately 6.8) appears to reflect the change in composition of the secretory content. Whereas normal mature parotid granules have practically negligible levels of H+ pumping ATPase activity (Arvan, P., G. Rudnick, and J. D. Castle, 1985, J. Biol. Chem., 260, 14945-14952) the isolated granules from isoproterenol-treated rats undergo a time-dependent internal acidification (approximately 0.2 pH unit) that requires the presence of ATP and is abolished by an H+ ionophore. Additionally, an inside- positive granule transmembrane potential develops after ATP addition that depends upon ATP hydrolysis. Two independent methods have been used that exclude the possibility that contaminating organelles are the source of the H+-ATPase activity. Together these data provide clear evidence for the presence of an H+ pump in the membranes of parotid granules from chronically stimulated rats. However, despite the presence of H+-pump activity, fluorescence microscopy with the weak base, acridine orange, reveals that the intragranular pH in live cells is greater than that of the cytoplasm.

1986-01-01

183

Isolated secretion granules from parotid glands of chronically stimulated rats possess an alkaline internal pH and inward-directed H/sup +/ pump activity  

SciTech Connect

Secretion granules have been isolated from the parotid glands of rats that have been chronically stimulated with the ..beta..-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol. These granules are of interest because they package a quantitatively different set of secretory proteins in comparison with granules from the normal gland. Polypeptides enriched in proline, glycine, and glutamine, which are known to have pI's >10, replace ..cap alpha..-amylase (pI's = 6.8) as the principal content species. The internal pH of granules from the treated rats changes from 7.8 in a potassium sulfate medium to 6.9 in a choline chloride medium. The increased pH over that of normal parotid granules (approx.6.8) appears to protect the change in composition of the secretory contents. Whereas normal mature parotide granules have practically negligible levels of H/sup +/ pumping ATPase activity, the isolated granules from isoproterenol-treated rats undergo a time-dependent internal acidification that requires the presence of ATP and is abolished by an H/sup +/ ionophore. Additionally, an inside-positive granule transmembrane potential develops after ATP addition that depends upon ATP hydrolysis. Two independent methods have been used that exclude the possibility that contaminating organelles are the source of the H/sup +/-ATPase activity. Together these data provide clear evidence for the presence of an H/sup +/ pump in the membranes of parotid granules from chronically stimulated rats. However, despite the presence of H/sup +/-pump activity, fluorescence microscopy with the weak base, acridine orange, reveals that the intragranular pH in live cells is greater than that of the cytoplasm.

Arvan, P.; Castle, J.D.

1986-10-01

184

A neglected gland: a review of Cowper's gland.  

PubMed

Cowper's glands are pea sized glands present inferior to the prostate gland in the male reproductive system. They produce thick clear mucus prior to ejaculation that drains into the spongy urethra. Though it is well established that the function of the Cowper's gland secretions is to neutralize traces of acidic urine in the urethra, knowledge regarding the various lesions and associated complications of this gland is scarce. This review provides a comprehensive report on the development, function and various lesions associated with Cowper's gland. PMID:15811067

Chughtai, Bilal; Sawas, Ahmed; O'Malley, Rebecca L; Naik, Rohan R; Ali Khan, S; Pentyala, Srinivas

2005-04-01

185

Double accessory tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report a case of double accessory tongue in a female neonate. The embryology of this extremely rare congenital anomaly, along with the diagnostic approach followed and the surgical intervention undertaken, are discussed. The surgical procedure was radical and led to good functional and esthetic results.

F. S. Chiarenza; A. D'Alessio; S. De Pascale; M. Cheli; C. Giardina; G. Rota; D. Schievano; G. Locatelli

1994-01-01

186

Accessory cell function of Th2 clones.  

PubMed

We have investigated the ability of T helper clones to serve as accessory cells and in the presence of mitogen activate freshly-isolated, splenic T cells. In this type of costimulatory assay, the Th cells that secrete IL-4 but not the Th cells that secrete IL-2 function as AC to induce T cell proliferation in the presence of various T cell mitogens (Con A, anti-CD3 mAb, anti-TCR mAb, and anti-Thy-1 mAb). The signal provided by the accessory Th2 cells occurred independently of MHC restriction, and the analysis of dose-response curves showed the involvement of a single stimulator cell. CD4, as well as CD8 expressing splenic T cells were induced to proliferate by the Th2 clones and mitogen, but mAb specific for CD4 or CD8 failed to affect the response. These findings indicate that cloned Th2 cells functioned as accessory cells and induced naive T cells to proliferate in the presence of mitogen. PMID:2528580

Evavold, B D; Quintans, J

1989-09-15

187

The Formation and Continuous Turnover of a Fraction of Phosphatidic Acid on Stimulation of NaCl Secretion by Acetylcholine in the Salt Gland  

PubMed Central

Acetylcholine, which stimulates NaCl secretion in the avian salt gland, causes the rapid formation of a fraction of phosphatidic acid, as measured by 32P incorporation, which amounts maximally to about 0.18 µmoles per g of fresh tissue. This does not appear to involve synthesis of the diglyceride moiety of phosphatidic acid, as measured by glycerol-1-14C incorporation. It presumably involves formation of phosphatidic acid by the diglyceride kinase pathway from preformed diglyceride and ATP. The specific activity of the AT32P of the tissue is not increased in the presence of acetylcholine. At time intervals after addition of acetylcholine during which a full response, measured as increased O2 uptake, may be observed, phosphatidic acid appears to be the only phosphatide which shows any increase either in total 32P radioactivity or in net specific acitvity. This responsive fraction of phosphatidic acid undergoes continuous turnover of its phosphate moiety. There is no evidence that this turnover is due to the phosphatidic acid acting as a pool of intermediate for the synthesis of other phospholipids or glycerides. The responsive fraction amounts to not more than 20% of the total phosphatidic acid of the tissue; it does not mix with the other (non-responsive) phosphatidic acid of the tissue. The observations suggest that this phosphatidic acid plays some role in the over-all secretory process.

Hokin, Mabel R.; Hokin, Lowell E.

1967-01-01

188

Androlog Summary Copious Pre-Ejaculation: Small Glands—Major Headaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Note: Postings to Androlog have been lightly edited before publication. Pre-ejaculate is a clear mucoid fluid produced by accessory sex glands and expressed on sexual stimula- tion into the urethra. The organs that produce this fluid are Cowper glands, the glands of Littre, and possibly the glands of Morgagni. Pre-ejaculate volume may range in normal men from a few drops

ALEKSANDER CHUDNOVSKY; CRAIG S. NIEDERBERGER

189

Axillary accessory breast associated with galactorrhea in an adolescent girl  

PubMed Central

We present herein a case of right axillary accessory breast associated with galactorrhea in an adolescent girl. A 14-year-old Japanese girl presented with an 11-month history of a tender, subcutaneous lesion in the right axillary fossa. Seven months later, she experienced menarche. Subsequently, the patient noticed pressure-induced galactorrhea from both nipples. Physical examination revealed an elastic, firm and well-demarcated subcutaneous tumor 3 × 2 cm in size. A biopsy specimen showed proliferation of mammary gland tissue in the stroma located below the subcutaneous fat tissue. On the basis of these findings the patient was diagnosed with an accessory breast. Interestingly, the galactorrhea ceased after surgical removal of the accessory breast.

Kyo, Akemi; Sasaki, Yoshihito; Fukunaga, Atsushi; Nagano, Tohru; Funasaka, Yoko; Nishigori, Chikako

2010-01-01

190

Insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in the bovine mammary gland: Receptors, endogenous secretion, and appearance in milk  

SciTech Connect

This is the first study to characterize both insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) in bovine milk, to characterize the IGF-I receptor in the dry and lactating mammary gland, and to report de novo synthesis and secretion of IGF-I and IGFBP from normal mammary tissue. Immunoreactive IGF-I was principally associated with 45 kDa IGFBP in milk. Multiparous cows had a higher IGF-I concentration of 307 ng/ml than primiparous cows at 147 ng/ml. IGF-I concentration on day 56 of lactation was 34 ng/ml for combined parity groups. At parturition, IGF-I mass in blood and milk pools was 1.4 and 1.2 mg, respectively. Binding of {sup 125}I-IGF-I was specific for IGF-I with anIC{sub 50} of 2.2 ng which was a 10- and 1273-fold greater affinity than IGF-II and insulin, respectively. Association constants, as determined by Scatchard analysis, were similar for both pregnant and lactating cows at 3.5 and 4.0 L/nM, respectively. In addition, estimated mean receptor concentration was 0.25 and 0.23 pM/mg protein for pregnant and lactating cows, respectively. In a survey of mammary microscomes prepared from 48 cows, {sup 125}I-IGF-I binding declined with progressing lactation and a similar trend was observed during pregnancy.

Campbell, P.G.

1988-01-01

191

Aircraft-Engine-Accessory Vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The overhang-moment limit, or still better a limit on the moment of inertia of the accessory about a line through the center of the accessory mounting surface, would be helpful by limiting one of the two factors which control the natural frequency of the accessory-rear-cover combination. However, the natural frequency is the factor of prime importance, and, if control

John Tyler

1944-01-01

192

Accessory apartment conversion programs.  

PubMed

In recent years, state housing finance agencies have joined with state units on aging to develop programs to help the frail, elderly homeowner. Under an accessory apartment conversion program, a low-income homeowner will borrow money at a reduced interest rate to underwrite conversion of excess space into a rental apartment. The tenant will provide additional income as well as, ideally, certain kinds of personal assistance and a friendly presence. To date, few elderly clients have used this option. The initial rationale for the program is explained as are plausible reasons for the fact that it has not met expectations. PMID:10186784

Retsinas, J; Retsinas, N P

1991-01-01

193

Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging  

PubMed Central

Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands.

Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

2012-01-01

194

Accessory antlers in male Cervidae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accessory (supernumerary) antlers are an infrequent phenomenon in male cervids. These bony protuberances grow mostly from permanent pedicles, which developed in response to a repeated or a severe trauma to frontal, nasal or parietal bones. They regularly undergo seasonal mineralization, casting and regrowth and may persist for many years. Three examples of accessory antlers in telemetacarpal cervids, roe deer (Capreolus

G. A. Bubenik; K. J. Hundertmark

2002-01-01

195

The foetal pig pineal gland is richly innervated by nerve fibres containing catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and C-terminal flanking peptide of NPY, but it does not secrete melatonin.  

PubMed

Innervation of the mammalian pineal gland during prenatal development is poorly recognized. Therefore, immunofluorescence studies of the pineals of 70- and 90-day-old foetuses of the domestic pig were performed using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-?-hydroxylase (D?H), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and C-terminal flanking peptide of NPY (CPON). The investigated glands were supplied by numerous nerve fibres containing TH and D?H. The density of these fibres was higher in the distal and middle parts of the gland than in the proximal one. NPY and CPON were identified in the majority of D?H-positive fibres as well as in a small population of D?H-negative fibres localized mainly in the proximal part of the pineal. The immunoreactive fibres were more numerous in 90-day-old foetuses than in 70-day-old ones. The effect of norepinephrine on melatonin secretion by the foetal pineals in the short-term organ culture was studied to determine the role of D?H-positive fibres during prenatal life. For the same purpose melatonin was measured in the blood in the umbilical cords and in the jugular vein of the mother. The pineals of both groups of foetuses did not secrete melatonin in the organ culture, independently of the presence or absence of norepinephrine in the medium. Melatonin concentrations in the blood in the umbilical cords of foetuses from the same litter and in the jugular vein of their mother were similar. The presence of adrenergic nerve fibres in the pig pineal during gestation does not seem to be associated with the control of melatonin secretion. PMID:23408385

Bulc, Micha?; Lewczuk, Bogdan; Prusik, Magdalena; Ca?ka, Jaros?aw

2013-02-14

196

Minor Salivary Gland Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Minor oral salivary glands exist in large numbers in the labial, buccal and palatal mucosa, and account for approximately half of the baseline secretion of saliva. They can be transplanted together with the overlying mucosa as a complex graft to the posterior lamella of the eyelids to increase ocular surface lubrication and reduce discomfort in dry eyes. Material and

G. Geerling; P. Raus; J. Murube

2008-01-01

197

A new twist on an old pathway - accessory Sec systems  

PubMed Central

Summary The export of proteins from their site of synthesis in the cytoplasm across the inner membrane is an important aspect of bacterial physiology. Because the location of extracytoplasmic proteins is ideal for host-pathogen interactions, protein export is also important to bacterial virulence. In bacteria there are conserved protein export systems that are responsible for the majority of protein export: the general secretion (Sec) pathway and the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway. In some bacteria, there are also specialized export systems dedicated to exporting specific subsets of proteins. In this review, we discuss a specialized export system that exists in some Gram-positive bacteria and mycobacteria – the accessory Sec system. The common element to the accessory Sec system is an accessory SecA protein called SecA2. Here we present our current understanding of accessory Sec systems in Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus parasanguinis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Listeria monocytogenes, making an effort to highlight apparent similarities and differences between the systems. We also review the data showing that accessory Sec systems can contribute to bacterial virulence.

Rigel, Nathan W.; Braunstein, Miriam

2008-01-01

198

ACCESSORY RENAL VESSELS  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of the variations of the renal artery has grown in importance with increasing of renal transplants, vascular reconstructions and various surgical and radiologic techniques performing in recent years. We report the presence of unilateral doubled renal vessels, discovered on routine dissection of a male cadaver, on the right side; additional renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta. In addition the right suprarenal gland received arteries from right renal and inferior phrenic arteries only. The right inferior phrenic originated from the right renal artery.

Ali Mohammed, Ammar Mohammed; Elseed Abdalrasol, Rami Gusm; Alamin Abdalhai, Khatim; Gommaa Hamad, Mohamed

2012-01-01

199

Mechanical Accessories for Mobile Teleoperators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems a...

M. J. Feldman J. N. Herndon

1985-01-01

200

Accessory drive for a turbine engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes, in combination: a radial flow turbine engine having a main shaft and a casing with air inlets open radially at one end, and an accessory drive comprising: an accessory housing positioned axially adjacent the one end of the turbine engine casing, a gear ring rotatably mounted within the accessory housing, means for mechanically drivingly connecting the gear ring to the turbine main shaft, the connecting means comprising a planetary gear arrangement contained in the accessory housing, the accessory housing having apertures open to the gear ring and circumferentially spaced from each other, at least one accessory having a driven gear, and means for mounting the at least one accessory to the accessory housing so that the accessory registers with one of the plurality of apertures and so that the gear ring meshes with the driven gear, wherein each aperture is adapted for connection with a separate accessory.

Brogdon, J.W.; Allen, K.D.; Barton, J.S.; Hicks, R.J.

1987-02-03

201

A secretory protease inhibitor requires androgens for its expression in male sex accessory tissues but is expressed constitutively in pancreas.  

PubMed Central

A full length cDNA clone encoding a mouse prostatic secretory glycoprotein (p12) whose synthesis is dependent upon testicular androgens has been cloned and characterized. The predicted amino acid sequence of p12 shares extensive homology with several members of the Kazal family of secretory protease inhibitors, in particular the pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitors. In agreement with sequence data, prostatic secretory p12, purified from mouse ventral prostate secretion, exhibits anti-trypsin activity. Steady-state levels of protease inhibitor mRNA in ventral prostate are reduced from approximately 0.06% in normal mice to undetectable after androgen withdrawal but are inducible within 4 h by re-administration of testosterone. Androgen-dependent expression of the secretory protease inhibitor mRNA was also observed in coagulating gland and seminal vesicle. In seminal vesicle, a tissue of different embryonic origin to the prostate, the kinetics of secretory protease inhibitor mRNA loss after castration are not as rapid as in the ventral prostate and coagulating gland. Low-level androgen independent expression was also observed in the pancreas. There appears to be a single gene for this secretory protease inhibitor and yet expression is markedly stimulated by testosterone in the sex accessory tissues and unaffected by this hormone in the pancreas. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7.

Mills, J S; Needham, M; Parker, M G

1987-01-01

202

Accessory pathway reciprocating tachycardia.  

PubMed

Patients who have an accessory pathway (AP) of atrioventricular (AV) conduction may develop circus movement tachycardia otherwise known as atrioventricular re-entrant tachycardia (AVRT). Orthodromic AVRT is the most common form. It occurs as a result of antegrade conduction through the normal AV conduction system and retrograde conduction to the atria via the AP. Less commonly, conduction occurs in the opposite direction resulting in antidromic AVRT. Tachycardia may also involve multiple APs which may provide both antegrade and retrograde conduction and may alternate antegradely or retrogradely. Tachycardia may occur in which the AP simply acts as a bystander, and does not participate in the tachycardia mechanism. When atrial fibrillation is conducted to the ventricles via and AP, the resultant ventricular rate may be extremely rapid, placing the patient at risk of developing ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest. This paper reviews the anatomical and physiological substrates involved in the pathogenesis of AVRT. The acute and long-term management of patients who suffer from these arrhythmias will then be discussed. The normal AV annulus is composed exclusively of electrically inert fibrous tissue. The AV node and His bundle normally act as the sole route of electrical conduction. Accessory pathways occur at all points along the AV ring, and usually occur as isolated abnormalities, although a proportion of patients have associated congenital abnormalities. This is particularly true of right-sided APs. Most APs exhibit non-decremental conduction properties, and conduct faster than normal AV conduction tissue. In many patients with APs the surface ECG reveals clear evidence of pre-excitation, and a good idea of pathway localization is possible using one or more of several algorithms which have been developed. Patients with latent pre-excitation, intermittent pre-excitation, and patients with concealed APs have not evidence of pre-excitation on a proportion or all of Their surface ECGs. Patients present with a history of paroxysmal palpitations, often with associated symptoms such as chest discomfort Syncope is a rare presenting symptom. Unless bundle branch block is present, patients with orthodromic AVRT exhibit a narrow complex tachycardia on the surface ECG. Patients with pre-excited tachycardia including antidromic AVRT, and other forms of SVT in which the AP conducts to the ventricles as a bystander but does not participate in the tachycardias mechanism, present as broad complex tachycardias on the surface ECG which may be difficult to distinguish from ventricular tachycardia. Adenosine is increasingly used for this purpose since it is highly efficacious and has an extremely short half-life. Adenosine is also very useful in the diagnosis of broad-complex tachycardia, and in unmasking latent pre-excitation during sinus rhythm. Electrophysiology study in these patients is frequently performed at the same time as an attempt at catheter ablation; it aims to diagnose, localize and determine the functional characteristics of an AP, and to characterize the role of the pathway in tachycardia. AVRT can be reliably terminated by effective AV nodal blockade. Drug therapy for the prevention of AVRT is useful for temporary control whilst awaiting more definitive measures and in certain cases as long-term management. No class of drug stands out as 'therapy of choice', and physician preference, pro-arrhythmic effects and associated conditions need to be taken into account such that an individual choice can be made in each patient. The management of patients with AVRT has been revolutionized in recent years with the advent of catheter-based techniques for their cure. Whilst this method of treatment is highly effective and has low complication rates, pathways in particular locations such as the septal region remain challenging. PMID:9717020

Obel, O A; Camm, A J

1998-05-01

203

Histological and histochemical studies on the albumen gland and capsular gland of Thais bufo (Lamarck) (Mollusca: Gastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histology and histochemistry of the albumen and capsular glands are described. Histochemical tests revealed the high proteinaceous\\u000a nature of these glands. The secretion of the albumen gland is rich in carbohydrates besides protein whereas that of the capsular\\u000a gland is a mucoprotein.

R C Rajalakshmi Bhanu; K Shyamasundari; K Hanumantha Rao

1982-01-01

204

EFFECT OF INFLAMMATION ON LACRIMAL GLAND FUNCTION  

PubMed Central

The lacrimal gland is the main contributor to the aqueous layer of the tear film. It secretes proteins, electrolytes and water, which helps to nourish and protect the ocular surface. Lacrimal gland secretion is primarily under neural control, which is achieved through a neural reflex arc. Stimuli to the ocular surface activate afferent sensory nerves in the cornea and conjunctiva. This in turn activates efferent parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves in the lacrimal gland to stimulate secretion. Sex steroid hormones are also important regulators of lacrimal gland functions. A decrease or lack of lacrimal gland secretion is the leading cause of aqueous tear deficient dry eye syndrome (DES). It has been suggested that DES is an inflammatory disorder that affects the ocular surface and the lacrimal gland. In several pathological instances, the lacrimal gland can become a target of the immune system and show signs of inflammation. This can result from autoimmune diseases (Sjögren's syndrome), organ transplantation (graft versus host disease), or simply as a result of aging. The hallmarks of lacrimal gland inflammation are the presence of focal lymphocytic infiltrates and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. The mechanisms leading to lacrimal gland dysfunction are still poorly understood. Apoptosis, production of autoantibodies, hormonal imbalance, alterations in signaling molecules, neural dysfunction, and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines have been proposed as possible mediators of lacrimal gland insufficiency in disease states.

Zoukhri, Driss

2005-01-01

205

[Secretion of the salivary glands of the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis inhibits ADP-induced aggregation of human platelets and platelet adhesion to a collagen-coated surface].  

PubMed

As was earlier demonstrated, secretion of medical leech exhibits high antithrombin activity of hirudin and inhibits contact activation of factor XII. Attempts were made to investigate the effects of the leech secretion on (i) the ADP-induced aggregation of platelets in suspension, registered by photometry according to Born, and (ii) platelet adhesion to the calf skin collagen-coated surface measured by scanning electron microscopy. The following results were obtained: 1) the secretion at doses of 0.13 vol % and 0.75 vol % inhibits the ADP-induced aggregation of gel-filtered human platelets by 50 and 97%, respectively; 2) the secretion inhibits the total adhesion and initial attachment of the gel-filtered platelets to the collagen substrate by 60-70% (dose 0.1-1.0 vol %) and 87-88% (dose 10 vol %); 3) platelet spreading on the collagen substrate and adhesion of the platelets from suspension to the upper surface of the spread platelets are inhibited by the secretion as well, but these effects are not statistically significant. The data obtained suggest that the secretion contains components which inhibit both the coagulating and platelet-vascular wall pathways of hemostasis. PMID:6743809

Baskova, I P; Missel'vitts, F; Nikonov, G I; Novikov, I D; Le?tin, V L

1984-06-01

206

Mammary Gland Development  

PubMed Central

The mammary gland develops through several distinct stages. The first transpires in the embryo as the ectoderm forms a mammary line that resolves into placodes. Regulated by epithelial/mesenchymal interactions, the placodes descend into the underlying mesenchyme and produce the rudimentary ductal structure of the gland present at birth. Subsequent stages of development – pubertal growth, pregnancy, lactation and involution – occur postnatally under the regulation of hormones. Puberty initiates branching morphogenesis, which requires growth hormone and estrogen, as well as IGF1, to create a ductal tree that fills the fat pad. Upon pregnancy the combined actions of progesterone and prolactin generate alveoli, which secrete milk during lactation. Lack of demand for milk at weaning initiates the process of involution whereby the gland is remodeled back to its pre-pregnancy state. These processes require numerous signaling pathways that have distinct regulatory functions at different stages of gland development. Signaling pathways also regulate a specialized subpopulation of mammary stem cells that fuel the dramatic changes in the gland occurring with each pregnancy. Our knowledge of mammary gland development and mammary stem cell biology has significantly contributed to our understanding of breast cancer and has advanced the discovery of therapies to treat this disease.

Macias, Hector

2012-01-01

207

The Pineal Gland and Mammalian Photoperiodism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mammalian pineal gland appears to be a major endocrine component in the regulation of photoperiodic responses. The circadian pattern of secretion of the pineal hormone, melatonin, is regulated by the nervous system. Changes in photoperiod, acting via the nervous system, alter the temporal pattern of melatonin secretion. The changes in secretion pattern convey information about daylength from neural components

Bruce D. Goldman; Janet M. Darrow

1983-01-01

208

Split gland  

DOEpatents

A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention.

Petranto, Joseph J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01

209

Split gland  

DOEpatents

A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

Petranto, J.J.

1989-09-05

210

Membrane potential and conductance of frog skin gland acinar cells in resting conditions and during stimulation with agonists of macroscopic secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frog skin glands were stripped of connective tissue and investigated using the nystatin-permeabilized whole-cell patch-clamp configuration. The membrane potential in unstimulated acinar cells was -69.5ǂ.7 mV, and the conductance was dominated by K+, based on ion substitution experiments. The cells were electrically coupled through heptanol- and halothane-sensitive gap junctions. During application of gap junction blockers, the whole-cell current\\/voltage relationship displayed

Jakob Balslev Sørensen; Erik Hviid Larsen

1999-01-01

211

Effects of ANG II and III and angiotensin receptor blockers on nasal salt gland secretion and arterial blood pressure in conscious Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertebrate renin-angiotensin system controls cardiovascular, renal and osmoregulatory functions. Angiotensin II (ANG\\u000a II) is the most potent hormone of the RAS but in some vertebrate animals angiotensin III (Val4-ANG III) may be a hormone. We studied the effects of some angiotensins and mammalian ANG II receptor antagonists on nasal\\u000a salt gland function and arterial blood pressure in conscious white

D. G. Butler; R. Zandevakili; G. Y. Oudit

1998-01-01

212

Evaluation of Accessory Materials for Desalination Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Test results on accessory coatings, sealants, and polymeric products are presented. This was one part of a five-part investigation to evaluate concrete and accessory materials under a variety of temperature-pressure-salinity conditions encountered in a se...

B. V. Jones V. L. Kuehn W. R. Morrison

1973-01-01

213

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section...Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a) Identification. Microscopes and accessories are optical...

2010-04-01

214

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section...Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a) Identification. Microscopes and accessories are optical...

2009-04-01

215

The Human Submandibular Gland  

PubMed Central

Submandibular acinar glands secrete numerous proteins such as digestive enzymes and defense proteins on the basis of the exocrine secretion mode. Exocytosis is a complex process, including a soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE)–mediated membrane fusion of vesicles and target membrane and the additional activation of cytoskeletal proteins. Relevant data are available predominantly for animal salivary glands, especially of the rat parotid acinar cells. The authors investigated the secretory molecular machinery of acinar (serous) cells in the human submandibular gland by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence and found diverse proteins associated with exocytosis for the first time. SNAP-23, syntaxin-2, syntaxin-4, and VAMP-2 were localized at the luminal plasma membrane; syntaxin-2 and septin-2 were expressed in vesicles in the cytoplasm. Double staining of syntaxin-2 and septin-2 revealed a colocalization on the same vesicles. Lactoferrin and ?-amylase served as a marker for secretory vesicles and were labeled positively together with syntaxin-2 and septin-2 in double-staining procedures. Cytoskeletal components such as actin, myosin II, cofilin, and profilin are concentrated at the apical plasma membrane of acinar submandibular glands. These observations complement the understanding of the complex exocytosis mechanisms.

Scherer, Elias Q.; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Loeffelbein, Denys J.; Rohleder, Nils H.; Nieberler, Markus; Hasler, Rafael; Kesting, Marco R.

2012-01-01

216

Teaching Techniques for Accessory Percussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Everyone is familiar with the main percussion instruments of the contemporary orchestra: bass drum, snare drum, suspended cymbal, vibraphone, and timpani. But as source material broadens, so do the demands placed on the percussion section. Accessory, or auxiliary percussion, can make the difference between a typical rendition of a well-known…

Micallef, Ken

2007-01-01

217

Sustained Exendin-4 Secretion through Gene Therapy Targeting Salivary Glands in Two Different Rodent Models of Obesity/Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Exendin-4 (Ex-4) is a Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist approved for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM), which requires daily subcutaneous administration. In T2DM patients, GLP-1 administration is reported to reduce glycaemia and HbA1c in association with a modest, but significant weight loss. The aim of present study was to characterize the site-specific profile and metabolic effects of Ex-4 levels expressed from salivary glands (SG) in vivo, following adeno-associated virus-mediated (AAV) gene therapy in two different animal models of obesity prone to impaired glucose tolerance and T2DM, specifically, Zucker fa/fa rats and high fed diet (HFD) mice. Following percutaneous injection of AAV5 into the salivary glands, biologically active Ex-4 was detected in the blood of both animal models and expression persisted in salivary gland ductal cell until the end of the study. In treated mice, Ex-4 levels averaged 138.9±42.3 pmol/L on week 6 and in treated rats, mean circulating Ex-4 levels were 238.2±72 pmol/L on week 4 and continued to increase through week 8. Expression of Ex-4 resulted in a significant decreased weight gain in both mice and rats, significant improvement in glycemic control and/or insulin sensitivity as well as visceral adipose tissue adipokine profile. In conclusion, these results suggest that sustained site-specific expression of Ex-4 following AAV5-mediated gene therapy is feasible and may be useful in the treatment of obesity as well as trigger improved metabolic profile.

Raimondi, Laura; Pagano, Claudio; Egan, Josephine M.; Cozzi, Andrea; Cinci, Lorenzo; Loreto, Andrea; Manni, Maria E.; Berretti, Silvia; Morelli, Annamaria; Zheng, Changyu; Michael, Drew G.; Maggi, Mario; Vettor, Roberto; Chiorini, John A.; Mannucci, Edoardo; Rotella, Carlo M.

2012-01-01

218

Simultaneous duct ectasia of accessory and normally located breast.  

PubMed

Accessory breast and duct ectasia are common clinical problems in their own right. However, their coexistence is a rare entity. Duct ectasia is a dilation in one or more of the larger lactiferous duct filled with a stagnant brown or green secretion, which may or may not discharge through the nipple. This material acts as an irritant and leads to periductal mastitis. Duct ectasia may present with subareolar mass, nipple discharge, nipple retraction, non-cyclical mastalgia or mammary fistula. Surgical options are microdochectomy or cone excision of major ducts. This case report describes the presence of duct ectasia in both accessory breast situated in the axilla and ipsilateral normal breast simultaneously. PMID:19149984

Afridi, Shahida Parveen; Shamim, M Shahid; Rahman, Shafiq Ur; Samo, Khursheed Ahmed; Sabir, Shazia

2009-01-01

219

Recurrent malignant salivary gland neoplasms.  

PubMed

Recurrent salivary gland malignancies present difficult therapeutic decisions and poor prognosis in many instances, and treatment becomes of a palliative nature only. As many of the salivary gland malignancies we see are of the recurrent type, the following study was done to determine the efficacy of a vigorous attempt at retreatment. During the period January 1, 1960, through December 31, 1984, 352 patients with major and minor salivary gland tumors were evaluated at our institution. There were 149 benign lesions and 203 patients with malignant tumors. Of these, 99 patients had recurrent and metastatic tumors that had been treated initially elsewhere. Thirty-three of these patients were able to be treated with curative intent: surgery, 21; surgery plus radiation, 9; radiation therapy alone, 2; and radiation plus chemotherapy, 1. The 5 year survival with no evidence of disease was achieved in three patients with surgery alone and two patients with surgery plus radiation therapy. The group of five patients was comprised of two patients with adenoid cystic carcinomas of the parotid, one with intermediate grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid, one, sebaceous cell carcinoma of the parotid, and one, adenoid cystic carcinoma of an accessory salivary gland. The results of this study serve to re-emphasize the relative poor yield of attempts at retreatment of loco-regional recurrence of salivary gland tumors. PMID:2796352

Rodriguez-Bigas, M A; Sako, K; Razack, M S; Shedd, D P; Bakamjian, V Y; Castillo, N B; Rao, U

1989-10-01

220

Prostate gland: Structure, functions and regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. It secretes enzymes, lipids, amines and metal ions essential\\u000a for the normal function of spermatozoa. Development, differentiation and maintenance of the prostate gland depend on steroid\\u000a and peptide hormones. Beside hormones growth factors also regulate the prostate gland. This review will focus on the structure,\\u000a functions and mode of regulation

V. L. Kumar; P. K. Majumder

1995-01-01

221

Morphology and Volatile Compounds of Metathoracic Scent Gland in Tessaratoma papillosa (Drury) (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae).  

PubMed

Tessaratoma papillosa (Drury) (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae) is a serious insect pest of litchi and longan in South China. When disturbed, this insect could release large quantities of disagreeable odorous volatiles from its scent gland. Knowledge on the scent gland and its secretion is crucial for developing the semiochemical methods to manage this pest. Morphology and ultrastructure of the metathoracic scent glands (MTGs) were studied under stereo and scanning electron microscopy, and the volatile compounds of MTGs from both male and female T. papillosa were analyzed with coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The MTG complex is located between the metathorax and the first abdominal segment at the ventral surface of the insect, which has a well-developed single double valve cystic-shaped orange median reservoir, paired colorless lateral glands in both sides, and a long and wavy tubular accessory gland that inlays tightly into the ventral edge around the median reservoir. The MTG opens to the body surface through paired ostioles located between the meso- and metacoxae of the evaporatorium with mushroom bodies. The GC-MS analyses showed that female and male adults have nine major volatile components in common. Tridecane is the most abundant in both females and males, reaching up to 47.1% and 51.8% of relative amount, respectively. The minor component is benzophenone with only 0.28% and 0.14%. Furthermore, undecane, tetradecane, 3-methyl-tridecane, and cyclopentadecane were found only in males. The possible function of volatile compounds of MTG contents in T. papillosa is addressed. PMID:23950062

Zhao, Dongxiang; Gao, J; Wang, Y; Jiang, J; Li, R

2012-05-30

222

Mammary Gland Immunity and Mastitis Susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactation is considered the final phase of the mammalian reproductive cycle, and the mammary gland provides milk for nourishment and disease resistance to the newborn. However, the cellular and soluble immune components associated with mammary tissues and secretion also can play an important role in protecting the gland from infectious diseases, such as mastitis. Mastitis can affect essentially all lactating

Lorraine M. Sordillo; Katie L. Streicher

2002-01-01

223

High expression of the human hepatocarcinoma-intestine-pancreas/pancreatic-associated protein (HIP/PAP) gene in the mammary gland of lactating transgenic mice. Secretion into the milk and purification of the HIP/PAP lectin.  

PubMed

The human hepatocarcinoma-intestine-pancreas/pancreatic-associated protein (HIP/PAP) gene was previously identified because of its increased expression in primary liver cancers and during the acute phase of pancreatitis. In normal tissues, HIP/PAP is expressed both in endocrine and exocrine cells of the intestine and pancreas. HIP/PAP is a lactose binding C-type lectin which acts as an adhesion molecule for rat hepatocytes. The aim of the work was to study the HIP/PAP secretory pathway and to produce high levels of HIP/PAP in the milk of lactating transgenic mice. In view of its lactose C-type lectin properties, we have studied the consequences of the expression of HIP/PAP on mammary epithelial cells. In homozygous mice, production reached 11.2 mg.mL-1 of milk. High levels of soluble and pure HIP/PAP (18.6 mg) were purified from 29 mL of milk. The purified protein was sequenced and the N-terminal amino acid of the mature HIP/PAP was identified as Glu27, thus localizing the site of cleavage of the signal peptide. The HIP/PAP transgene was only expressed in the mammary gland of lactating transgenic mice. HIP/PAP was detected by immunofluorescence in the whole gland, but labelling was heterogeneous between alveolar clusters, with strongly positive sparse cells. Using immuno electron microscopy, HIP/PAP was observed in all the compartments of the secretory pathway within the mammary epithelial cells. We provide evidence that HIP/PAP is secreted through the Golgi pathway. However, the number of distended Golgi saccules was increased when compared to that found in wild-type mouse mammary cells. These modifications could be related to HIP/PAP C-type lectin specific properties. PMID:10712597

Christa, L; Pauloin, A; Simon, M T; Stinnakre, M G; Fontaine, M L; Delpal, S; Ollivier-Bousquet, M; Bréchot, C; Devinoy, E

2000-03-01

224

Cowper’s gland calcification: A new radiographic finding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cowper’s gland calcification is reported in 3 elderly patients. The anatomy, pathology, and radiology of Cowper’s glands are\\u000a reviewed. Postulated etiologies of Cowper’s gland calcification include ductal obstruction with stasis of secretions, infection\\u000a with urea-splitting organisms, and sequelae of diabetes mellitus.

J. M. White; Edward S. Amis; John J. Cronan

1983-01-01

225

Atrial natriuretic factor intracellular signaling in the rat submandibular gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously reported that intravenously administered atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) induced no salivation but enhanced agonist-evoked secretion in submandibular glands. The gene expression of ANF and natriuretic peptide receptors (NPR) was later reported in the glands. In the present study we sought to establish the intracellular signalling mechanisms underlying ANF modulation of salivary secretion. Fasted rats were prepared with submandibular

María S. Ventimiglia; Myrian R. Rodríguez; Juan C. Elverdín; Carlos A. Davio; Marcelo S. Vatta; Liliana G. Bianciotti

2008-01-01

226

Regulation of salt gland, gut and kidney interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine birds can drink seawater because their cephalic ‘salt’ glands secrete a sodium chloride (NaCl) solution more concentrated than seawater. Salt gland secretion generates osmotically free water that sustains their other physiological processes. Acclimation to saline induces interstitial water and Na move into cells. When the bird drinks seawater, Na enters the plasma from the gut and plasma osmolality (Osmpl)

M. R. Hughes

2003-01-01

227

Biomarker genes highlight intraspecific and interspecific variations in the responses of Pinus taeda L. and Pinus radiata D. Don to Sirex noctilio F. acid gland secretions.  

PubMed

Sirex noctilio F., a Eurasian horntail woodwasp recently introduced into North America, oviposits in pines and other conifers and in the process spreads a phytopathogenic fungus that serves as a food source for its larvae. During oviposition the woodwasp also deposits mucus produced in its acid (venom) gland that alters pine defense responses and facilitates infection by the fungus. A 26,496-feature loblolly pine cDNA microarray was used to survey gene expression of pine tissue responding to S. noctilio venom. Six genes were selected for further assessment by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), including one that encoded an apparent PR-4 protein and another that encoded a thaumatin-like protein. Expression of both was strongly induced in response to venom, while expression of an apparent actin gene (ACT1) was stable in response to the venom. The pattern of gene response was similar in Pinus taeda L. and Pinus radiata D. Don, but the magnitude of response in P. radiata was significantly stronger for each of the induced genes. The magnitude of the biomarker gene response to venom also varied according to genotype within these two species. The qRT-PCR assay was used to demonstrate that the primary bioactive component in S. noctilio venom is a polypeptide. PMID:23042767

Bordeaux, John Michael; Lorenz, W Walter; Dean, Jeffrey F D

2012-10-05

228

Accessory origin of the piriformis muscle.  

PubMed

Incidental finding of an accessory slip of the piriformis muscle in the gluteal region is reported. Following routine dissection of the gluteal region in three formalin-fixed cadavers, an accessory slip of the piriformis was observed. The accessory slip was cleaned, attachments were identified, and dimensions were measured in two parts as fleshy and tendinous parts with a graduated scale to the nearest millimetre. The accessory slip was innervated by a small twig from the sciatic nerve. Having considered the available literature, the accessory slip of piriformis is rare, and if found, could be a cause for the undiagnosed chronic pain in the back and gluteal region, as this accessory slip may compress the sciatic nerve. PMID:18756338

Ravindranath, Y; Manjunath, K Y; Ravindranath, R

2008-08-01

229

TheFlowRateofUnstimulated HumanLabial GlandSaliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although theminorsalivary glands contribute an important fraction oftheresting flowofsaliva, whichmay beparticularly relevant inxerostomia, there iscurrently no precise methodofmeasuring theflowfromindividual glands orrecording thenumberofactive glands inagiven area. These experiments weredevised totest aphotographic methodofassaying labial gland saliva andtoseewhether subjects ofdifferent ageshaddiffering flowrates and\\/or numbers ofglands. Unstimulated saliva secretion fromlabial salivary glands wasmeasured inhealthy non-medicated subjects aged20to55years byaphotographic method. The numberofglands inaunitarea, theindividual gland

D. B. Ferguson

230

Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) innervation of the human eyelid glands.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to obtain morphological proof of innervating nerve fibres in the glands of the human eyelid (accessory lacrimal glands of Wolfring, meibomian glands, goblet cells, glands of Zeis, glands of Moll, sweat glands, glands of lanugo hair follicles) and identification of the secretomotorically active neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) as a common transmitter. Epoxy-embedded ultrathin sections of tissue samples from human eyelids were studied using electron microscopy. Paraffin sections fixed in Bouin-Hollande solution were immunostained with rabbit antiserum against VIP. With the electron microscope we were able to identify nerves in the glandular stroma of all the glands examined with the exception of goblet cells. Intraepithelial single axons were only seen in the parenchyma of Wolfring glands. The morphological findings corresponded with the immunological finding of VIP-positive, nerve-like structures in the same locations, with the exception of lanugo hair follicle glands, and goblet cells. Our findings indicate that the glands of the eyelids and main lacrimal gland represent a functional unit with VIP as a possible common stimulating factor. PMID:10375432

Seifert, P; Spitznas, M

1999-06-01

231

Tears and Their Secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exposed surface of the eye is continuously covered by a thin film of fluid, the tear film, which covers the entire ocular surface, including the cornea (the clear “window” of the eye) and conjunctiva (the white part of the eye, which extends under the eyelid). The tear film is a complex fluid that is secreted by several different glands

Darlene A. Dartt; Robin R. Hodges; Driss Zoukhri

2005-01-01

232

The Accessory Genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Summary: Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains exhibit significant variability in pathogenicity and ecological flexibility. Such interstrain differences reflect the dynamic nature of the P. aeruginosa genome, which is composed of a relatively invariable “core genome” and a highly variable “accessory genome.” Here we review the major classes of genetic elements comprising the P. aeruginosa accessory genome and highlight emerging themes in the acquisition and functional importance of these elements. Although the precise phenotypes endowed by the majority of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome have yet to be determined, rapid progress is being made, and a clearer understanding of the role of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome in ecology and infection is emerging.

Kung, Vanderlene L.; Ozer, Egon A.; Hauser, Alan R.

2010-01-01

233

21 CFR 890.5925 - Traction accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5925 Traction accessory. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

234

Engine starter and accessory drive system  

SciTech Connect

An engine starter and accessory drive system is described which consists of: an accessory drive means; a planetary gearset having a sun gear driveably connected to the accessory drive means, a ring gear, a carrier and planet pinions rotatably mounted on the carrier, fixed to the engine crankshaft, meshing with the sun gear and with the ring gear; means for holding the ring gear against rotation; and a starter motor and first clutch means for providing a one-way driving connection between the motor and the accessory drive means.

Stockton, T.R.

1986-10-07

235

Pitfall of the accessory spleen.  

PubMed

Two patients, one with insulinoma and one with Cushing's syndrome, are presented. Biochemical evaluation readily suggested the correct diagnosis. During radiologic imaging, the anatomic abnormality giving rise to these diseases, i.e. a pancreatic islet cell tumor, and an adrenal adenoma, at first were mistakenly interpreted as an accessory spleen on the basis of specific computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging appearances. The insulinoma was identified as such during laparotomy, whereas additional jodo-cholesterol scintigraphy revealed the real nature of the lesion in the patient with Cushing's syndrome. Both patients were operated successfully. PMID:10727761

Sels, J P; Wouters, R M; Lamers, R; Wolffenbuttel, B H

2000-04-01

236

Mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators  

SciTech Connect

The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems available, and an argument for force reflecting manipulation. The theme presented is that the accomplishment of humanlike endeavors in hostile environments will be most successful when man model capabilities are utilized. The application of recent electronic technology to manipulator development has made new tools available to be applied to emergency response activities. The development activities described are products of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 7 figs.

Feldman, M.J.; Herndon, J.N.

1985-01-01

237

Microscopy of the echidna sublingual glands.  

PubMed

The secretory units and duct system of the echidna sublingual glands exhibit subtle architectural modifications to accommodate the viscous secretion produced by these glands. The glands are compound tubular glands, the secretory units of which are elongate with open lumina and consist only of mucous cells. Closely packed spindle-shaped myoepithelial cells invest the secretory units, but are absent around the ducts. The branched secretory tubules open into an abbreviated duct system characterized by wide lumina. Striated ducts normally associated with the second portion of the intralobular duct system are absent. The duct system shows the most obvious modification of general salivary gland architecture presumably to accommodate the viscous secretion propelled from the secretory units by surrounding myoepithelial cells. PMID:21671992

Krause, William J

2011-06-15

238

Pituitary gland  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... stimulates breast tissue in nursing mothers to produce milk ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) - causes the adrenal glands to ... less urine Oxytocin – initiates labor, uterine contractions and milk ejection in mothers

239

Resident macrophages influence stem cell activity in the mammary gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Macrophages in the mammary gland are essential for morphogenesis of the ductal epithelial tree and have been implicated in promoting breast tumor metastasis. Although it is well established that macrophages influence normal mammopoiesis, the mammary cell types that these accessory cells influence have not been determined. Here we have explored a role for macrophages in regulating mammary stem cell

David E Gyorki; Marie-Liesse Asselin-Labat; Nico van Rooijen; Geoffrey J Lindeman; Jane E Visvader

2009-01-01

240

Three Accessories for a Rotating Platform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes three accessories developed to be used in conjunction with the rotating platform or turntable. Three demonstrations using these accessories are included. These demonstrations are: (a) conservation of angular momentum; (b) gravity-defying goblets; and (c) direct measurement of centripetal force. (HM)|

Riley, James A.; Fryer, Oscar G.

1980-01-01

241

Insights learned from pBTAi1, a 229-kb accessory plasmid from Bradyrhizobium sp. strain BTAi1 and prevalence of accessory plasmids in other Bradyrhizobium sp. strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

In silico, physiological and in planta analyses were used to characterize pBTAi1, a 229-kb accessory plasmid from Bradyrhizobium sp. strain BTAi1, and assess its potential ecological function under free-living and symbiotic growth conditions. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of an uptake hydrogenase system, a repABC family plasmid replication module and open reading frames encoding type IV secretion system, TraI and

Eddie J Cytryn; Siriluck Jitacksorn; Eric Giraud; Michael J Sadowsky

2008-01-01

242

Salivary Gland Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... the bottom of each page. About the salivary glands The body’s salivary glands are tissues that produce ... often called the minor salivary glands. About salivary gland cancer Cancer begins when normal cells change and ...

243

Lacrimal gland tumor  

MedlinePLUS

A lacrimal gland tumor is a tumor in the glands that produce tears. These glands are located under the outer part of each eyebrow. Lacrimal gland tumors can be harmless ( benign ) or cancerous ( malignant ). ...

244

Thermally induced changes in neural and hormonal control of osmoregulation in a bird with salt glands ( Anas platyrhynchos )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conscious Pekin ducks adapted to hypertonic saline (1.9%) as drinking water, steady state secretion of the salt glands was established by continuous intravenous salt loading and the effects of hypothalamic thermal stimulation on salt gland activity and on the plasma concentrations of arginine vasotocin (AVT) and angiotensin II (AII) were observed. Hypothalamic cooling depressed salt gland secretion and the

Tetsuro Hori; Christa Simon-Oppermann; David A. Gray; Eckhart Simon

1986-01-01

245

Controlled Speed Accessory Drive Demonstration Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Controlled Speed Accessory Drive System was examined in an effort to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars. Concept feasibility and the performance of a typical system during actual road driving conditions were demonstrated. The CSAD system is desc...

F. W. Hoehn

1981-01-01

246

21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification...suspension sling, head and trunk support, and blanket and leg rest strap. (b) Classification. Class I...

2006-04-01

247

21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification...suspension sling, head and trunk support, and blanket and leg rest strap. (b) Classification. Class I...

2008-04-01

248

21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification...suspension sling, head and trunk support, and blanket and leg rest strap. (b) Classification. Class I...

2005-04-01

249

21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification...suspension sling, head and trunk support, and blanket and leg rest strap. (b) Classification. Class I...

2013-04-01

250

Accessory subunits of mitochondrial complex I.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial complex I has a molecular mass of almost 1 MDa and comprises more than 40 polypeptides. Fourteen central subunits harbour the bioenergetic core functions. We are only beginning to understand the significance of the numerous accessory subunits. The present review addresses the role of accessory subunits for assembly, stability and regulation of complex I and for cellular functions not directly associated with redox-linked proton translocation. PMID:24059519

Kmita, Katarzyna; Zickermann, Volker

2013-10-01

251

What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... statistics about salivary gland cancer? What is salivary gland cancer? Salivary gland cancer is a cancer that ... can develop in these glands. About the salivary glands Salivary glands produce saliva -- the lubricating fluid found ...

252

On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells, but is also caused by damage to the extracellular environment, preventing proper cell functioning.

Konings, Antonius W.T. [Department of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Coppes, Rob P. [Department of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Vissink, Arjan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands)

2005-07-15

253

Control of salt gland activity in the hatchling green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas.  

PubMed

We studied the control of salt gland secretion in hatchling Chelonia mydas. The threshold salt load to activate salt secretion was between 400 mumol NaCl 100 g bodymass (BM)-1 and 600 mumol NaCl 100 g BM-1, which caused an increase in plasma sodium concentration of 13% to 19%. Following a salt load of 2700 mumol NaCl 100 g BM-1, salt gland secretion commenced in 12 +/- 1.3 min and reached maximal secretory concentration within 2-7 min. Maximal secretory rate of a single gland averaged 415 mumol Na 100 g BM-1 h-1. Plasma sodium concentration and total osmotic concentration after salt loading were significantly higher than pretreatment values within 2 min. Adrenalin (25 micrograms kg BM-1) and the cholinergic agonist methacholine (1 mg kg BM-1) inhibited salt gland activity. Atropine (10 mg kg BM-1) reversed methacholine inhibition and stimulated salt gland secretion when administered with a subthreshold salt load. Arginine vasotocin produced a transient reduction in sodium secretion by the active gland, while atrial natriuretic factor, vasoactive intestinal peptide and neuropeptide Y had no measurable effect on any aspect of salt gland secretion. Our results demonstrated that secretion of the salt gland in C. mydas can be modified by neural and hormonal chemicals in vivo and that the cholinergic and adrenergic stimulation of an exocrine gland do not appear to have the typical, antagonist actions on the chelonian salt gland. PMID:10707322

Reina, R D; Cooper, P D

2000-02-01

254

Ultrastructure of the Intramandibular Gland of Workers and Queens of the Stingless Bee, Melipona quadrifasciata  

PubMed Central

The intramandibular glands of workers and queens of Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae), at different ages and from different functional groups, were studied using light and transmission electron microscopy. The results demonstrated that these glands are composed of two types of secretory structures: 1.A hypertrophied epidermis on the dorsal side of the mandible that is an epithelial gland. 2. Free secretory cells filling the inner spaces of the appendices that constitute a unicellular gland. The epithelial gland is larger in the young (1-2-day-old workers), and the gland becomes involuted during the nurse worker stage. The unicellular glands of the workers posses some secretion during all of the studied phases, but secretory activity is more intensive in the foraging workers. Vesicles of secretion are absent in the unicellular glands of queens. These results demonstrate that these glands show functional adaptations in different castes corresponding to the functions of each caste.

Da Cruz-Landim, Carminda; Gracioli-Vitti, Luciana F.; Abdalla, Fabio C.

2011-01-01

255

Pituitary Gland Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Excessive secretion of pituitary hormones, as well as their deficiency, may cause a constellation of clinical and pathological\\u000a manifestations involving major organ systems of the body, including the skin.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a There are no specific cutaneous signs or symptoms that are pathognomonic for the main manifestations of pituitary gland diseases\\u000a such as acromegaly, hyperprolactinemia, Cushing’s disease, or hypopituitarism.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In

Martina Montinari; Franco Rongioletti

256

[Protective role of melatonin in pancreatic gland disorders].  

PubMed

Numerous experimantal data show that melatonin secreted by the pineal gland and enterochromaffin cells (apudocites) of the gastrointestinal tract plays an universal protective role in cases of various disorders of the pancreatic gland. In experiments, this hormone restricts the manifestations of acute pancreatitis and diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that, after reliable clinical justification, melatonin can probably be used for therapeutic aims. PMID:22702112

Arushanian, É B

2012-01-01

257

Immunohistochemical Demonstration of Opioids and Tachykinins in Human Pineal Gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human pineal gland secretes melatonin in a circadian rhythm manner. The rhythm of melatonin synthesis is primarily controlled by the noradrenergic sympathetic system originating from the superior cervical ganglion. Several neurotranmitters\\/neuropeptides have been reported to influence the production of melatonin in the pineal glands of many mammalian species. Both opioid peptide, a pain suppressing peptide and substance P, a

Pansiri Phansuwan-Pujito; Piyarat Govitrapong; Morten Mller

258

Secreted Frizzled Related Protein 2 (sFRP2) Decreases Susceptibility to UV-Induced Apoptosis in Primary Culture of Canine Mammary Gland Tumors by NF-?B Activation or JNK Suppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor formation can result from a decrease in cell death, as well as an increase in cell proliferation. In spite of the high incidence of mammary gland tumors (MGTs) in female dogs, the understanding of its etiology is still poor. Consistent with several proto-oncogenes (such as Wnt) for the mammary gland, sFRP2 is expressed in canine MGTs which is normally

Jia-Lin Lee; Ching-Jin Chang; Ling-Ling Chueh; Chung-Tien Lin

2006-01-01

259

Salivary Gland Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Your salivary glands make saliva - sometimes called spit - and empty it into your mouth through openings called ducts. Saliva makes your ... antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause the glands to become irritated and ...

260

Salivary gland tumors  

MedlinePLUS

Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the ducts that drain the salivary glands. ... The salivary glands are located around the mouth. They produce saliva, which moistens food to help with chewing and swallowing. Saliva ...

261

Electron microscopy of the oxynticopeptic cells of the gastric glands and the intestinal glands of the caecum of the guineapig  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Histomorphology of the gastric and intestinal glands was investigated in 19 sexually mature, adult guinea pigs by light and transmission electron microscopy. Gastric glands exhibited the cytological characteristics of oxynticopeptic cells capable of both hydrochloric acid (HCI) and pepsinogen secretion. In the Uterature, occurrence of oxynticopeptic cells in tbe proventriculus of the domestic fowl (Toner, 1963; Bell & Freeman,·

H. S. Bal; N. G. Ghoshal

1992-01-01

262

Salivary gland disease.  

PubMed

Salivary gland disease covers a wide range of pathological entities, including salivary gland-specific disease, as well as manifestations of systemic diseases. This chapter discusses the recent advances in managing obstructive salivary gland disease, the move from gland excision to gland preservation, the dilemmas in diagnosing and managing tumours of the salivary glands, and the international data collection to understand the aetiology and progression of Sjögren's disease. PMID:20428015

Thomas, Bethan L; Brown, Jackie E; McGurk, Mark

2010-04-20

263

Presence of Antibacterial Peptides on the Laid Egg Chorion of the Medfly Ceratitis capitata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female reproductive accessory glands of the medflyCeratitis capitataproduce a secretion with antibacterial activity mainly ascribed to ceratotoxin peptides. To study whether the secretion from the accessory glands of the female protects the eggs and early larva from microbes, we examined whether ceratotoxins and other accessory gland components could be found on the egg surface. This was found to be the

Daniela Marchini; Laura Marri; Marco Rosetto; Andrea G. O. Manetti; Romano Dallai

1997-01-01

264

Feedback control of milk secretion from milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracellular storage allows biologically-active substances in milk to influence mammary function. Among these factors is one which regulates the rate of milk secretion acutely according to frequency or completeness of milk removal in each mammary gland. The active factor in goat's milk has been identified by screening milk constituents for their ability to inhibit milk constituent secretion in tissue and

Malcolm Peaker; Colin J. Wilde

1996-01-01

265

Gamma probe-confirmed laparoscopic accessory splenectomy.  

PubMed

The simultaneous occurrence of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and Hodgkin's disease in the same patient is uncommon. There have been only a limited number of reported cases of newly diagnosed ITP following Hodgkin's disease. Even more uncommon is the development of ITP after splenectomy for Hodgkin's disease. Of the reported cases of ITP following splenectomy for Hodgkin's disease, all have been successfully treated with medical therapy. We report an unusual case of an accessory spleen causing ITP in a patient who had undergone a splenectomy for Hodgkin's disease 10 years earlier. The patient underwent hand-held gamma-probe-assisted laparoscopic accessory splenectomy. PMID:12296313

Hendrickson, R J; Koniaris, L G; Kovach, S J; Johnson, J A

2002-09-01

266

Guanylin and Functional Coupling Proteins in the Human Salivary Glands and Gland Tumors  

PubMed Central

Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated secretion of an electrolyte-rich fluid is a major but incompletely understood function of the salivary glands. We provide molecular evidence that guanylin, a bioactive intestinal peptide involved in the CFTR-regulated secretion of electrolyte/water in the gut epithelium, is highly expressed in the human parotid and submandibular glands and in respective clinically most relevant tumors. Moreover, in the same organs we identified expression of the major components of the guanylin signaling pathway, ie, guanylin-receptor guanylate cyclase-C, cGKII, and CFTR, as well as of the epithelial Cl?/HCO3? anion exchanger type 2 (AE2). At the cellular level, guanylin is localized to epithelial cells of the ductal system that, based on its presence in the saliva, is obviously released into the salivary gland ducts. The guanylin-receptor guanylate cyclase-C, cGKII, CFTR, and AE2 are all confined exclusively to the apical membrane of the same duct cells. These findings implicate guanylin as intrinsic regulator of electrolyte secretion in the salivary glands. We assume that duct epithelial cells synthesize and release guanylin into the saliva to regulate electrolyte secretion in the ductal system by an intraductal luminocrine signaling pathway. Moreover, the high expression of guanylin in pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin tumors (cystadenolymphoma), the most common neoplasms of salivary glands, predicts guanylin as a significant marker in tumor pathology.

Kulaksiz, Hasan; Rehberg, Elisabeth; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Cetin, Yalcin

2002-01-01

267

21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

268

21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a)...

2009-04-01

269

19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts...

2013-04-01

270

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2009-04-01

271

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 ...MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a)...

2010-04-01

272

21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120 Section...OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

273

21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5350 Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. (a) Identification. A contraceptive diaphragm is a closely...

2010-04-01

274

21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5350 Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. (a) Identification. A contraceptive diaphragm is a closely...

2009-04-01

275

21 CFR 884.5350 - Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. 884...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5350 Contraceptive diaphragm and accessories. (a) Identification. A contraceptive diaphragm is a closely...

2013-04-01

276

21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section...PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

2010-04-01

277

21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section...PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

2013-04-01

278

21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. 890.3025 Section...PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

2009-04-01

279

21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. 884...Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to...

2010-04-01

280

21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884...Monitoring Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to...

2010-04-01

281

21 CFR 884.2960 - Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. 884...Devices § 884.2960 Obstetric ultrasonic transducer and accessories. (a) Identification. An obstetric ultrasonic transducer is a device used to...

2009-04-01

282

21 CFR 884.2660 - Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. 884...Monitoring Devices § 884.2660 Fetal ultrasonic monitor and accessories. (a) Identification. A fetal ultrasonic monitor is a device designed to...

2009-04-01

283

21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accessories. (a) Identification. An abrasive device and accessories is a device constructed of various abrasives, such as diamond chips, that are glued to shellac-based paper. The device is intended to remove excessive restorative materials,...

2013-04-01

284

21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories....

2013-04-01

285

21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories....

2013-04-01

286

Secretory capacity of the lachrymal salt gland of hatchling sea turtles, Chelonia mydas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lachrymal salt glands ofChelonia mydas were functional when hatchlings emerged from the nest. Osmotic concentrations up to 720 mosmol kg-1 were recorded in spontaneously produced tears (salt gland secretions). When injected with a Na+ load (1500–2700 µmol (100 g)-1) newly emerged hatchlings produced tears ranging in osmotic concentration from 1000–1900 mosmol kg-1 with Na+ secretion rates from single glands

A. T. Marshall; P. D. Cooper

1988-01-01

287

Bilateral spinal accessory nerve palsy after rhytidectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 64-year-old patient experienced palsy of the right spinal accessory nerve after rhytidectomy. She was evaluated 6 months after surgery for unexplained shoulder pain and weakness since the procedure. Electrophysiological testing showed bilateral spinal nerve palsy without abnormalities in the other shoulder nerves. The electrophysiological findings supported entrapment as the mechanism, rather than nerve section or pure axonal disease due to

Paul Seror; Henri Lellouche

2006-01-01

288

Controlled Speed Accessory Drive Demonstration Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One phase of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) effort to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars has been the investigation of a Controlled Speed Accessory Drive (CSAD) System. The objective of this specific program, initiated by DOE in association w...

F. W. Hoehn

1981-01-01

289

21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4960 Operating tables and accessories...components, intended for use during diagnostic examinations or surgical procedures to support and position a patient. (b)...

2013-04-01

290

21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4950 Manual operating table and accessories...used to support a patient during diagnostic examinations or surgical procedures. (b) Classification. Class I...

2013-04-01

291

Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets  

SciTech Connect

In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets.

Davis, H.H., II; Varki, A.; Heaton, W.A.; Siegel, B.A.

1980-01-01

292

Salt gland function in the common eider duck ( Somateria mollissima )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of the supra-orbital salt gland was studied in the common eider duck (Somateria mollissima). The maximum salt-secreting capacity was determined in (1) wild ducks which had been living in a marine environment, (2) ducks reared in captivity on fresh water, and (3) ducks from group 2 adapted to salt water. The maximum secreting capacity was found by infusing

L. Bokenes; J. B. Mercer

1995-01-01

293

Histochemistry of gland cells of Eurytrema pancreaticum cercariae.  

PubMed

The cercariae of Eurytrema pancreaticum (Janson, 1889) possess four types of gland cells - proper cystogenic, penetration, ventral and dorsal gland cells. The secretion of ventral and dorsal gland cells is released into the tegument. The proper cystogenic gland cells are the largest and their contents serve for the formation of the cyst wall of metacercariae in the second intermediate host. The secretion of proper cystogenic gland cells contains besides neutral mucosubstances also acid mucosubstances with both carboxyl- and sulphogroups digestible with beta-glucuronidase. The secretion of penetration gland cells contains neutral mucosubstances and proteins with tyrosine, tryptophan and SS groups. The ventral gland cells contain mostly acid mucosubstances with sulphogroups, which are digested with beta-glucuronidase, and proteins with tyrosine, tryptophan and SH groups. The rudimentary dorsal gland cells contain a small amount of acid mucosubstances. The whole tegument of cercariae and the two main collecting canals of the excretory system exhibit a high alkaline phosphatase activity. The nerve ring and the main nerve truncs contain proteins with SH groups and hydrophilic lipids and exhibit a cholinesterase activity. The suckers contain a larger amount of glycogen. PMID:161544

Zdárská, Z

1979-01-01

294

Accessories to the crime: Recent advances in HIV accessory protein biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in understanding the roles of the lentiviral accessory proteins have provided fascinating insight into the\\u000a molecular biology of the virus and uncovered previously unappreciated innate immune mechanisms by which the host defends itself.\\u000a HIV-1 and other lentiviruses have developed accessory proteins that counterattack the antiviral defenses in a sort of evolutionary\\u000a battle. The virus is remarkably adept at

Thomas Gramberg; Nicole Sunseri; Nathaniel R. Landau

2009-01-01

295

ATP dependence of H+ secretion.  

PubMed

Cells in isolated rabbit gastric gland were made permeable to ATP by high voltage discharge across a gland suspension. In both normal (5.4 mM K+) and high K+ (108 mM) medium, this electrical shock resulted in a marked reduction in the ability of the parietal cell to produce and accumulate acid. Acid production was monitored both microscopically by acridine orange accumulation in the secretory canaliculus and by accumulation of the weak base [14C]aminopyrine. In 108 mM K+ solutions but not in 5.4 mM K+ solutions 5, mM ATP was able to restore the accumulation of these probes to control (unshocked) levels. When shocked glands had been previously stimulated by secretagogues, the aminopyrine accumulation ratio was only partly restored by ATP. Inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by cyanide, azide, or Amytal abolished acid secretion; the subsequent addition of ATP to shocked glands increased the aminopyrine accumulation ratio to 47 and resulted in an acridine orange fluorescence indistinguishable from that of histamine-stimulated, unshocked glands. We conclude that ATP can act as a substrate for H+ secretion in the parietal cell, and that perhaps no additional energy source is necessary. PMID:7372713

Berglindh, T; Dibona, D R; Pace, C S; Sachs, G

1980-05-01

296

Caffeoyltartronic acid from catnip ( Nepeta cataria ): A precursor for catechol in lubber grasshopper ( Romalea guttata ) defensive secretions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adults of the lubber grasshopper (Romalea guttata) secrete increased amounts of catechol from their defensive glands when fed diets containing only catnip leaves (Nepeta cataria). Model compound bioassays showed that these insects were able to sequester and biomagnify simple phenols, such as catechol and hydroquinone, in their defense gland secretions. Excessive catechol secretions from caffeic acid-fortified diets indicated metabolic pathways

Maurice E. Snook; Murray S. Blum; Douglas W. Whitman; Richard F. Arrendale; Catherine E. Costello; John S. Harwood

1993-01-01

297

Electron microscopic studies on the thyroid gland of domestic fowl, with special reference to the mode of secretion and the occurrence of a central flagellum in the follicular cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal and TSH-stimulated thyroid glands of White Leghorn domestic fowl, ranging in age from 19 days of incubation to 2 years were studied with the electron microscope.1)Intracellular droplets of high and low electron densities are enclosed by a limiting membrane, 70–90 Å thick, which is composed of two dense and a less dense layers. This structure corresponds to a unit

Hisao Fujita

1963-01-01

298

Salivary gland disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Salivary gland disorders are conditions that lead to swelling or pain in the saliva-producing tissues around the mouth. ... The salivary glands produce saliva (spit), which moistens food ... and swallowing. Saliva contains enzymes that begin the digestion ...

299

Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview  

MedlinePLUS

... Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Overview The pituitary gland is a tiny organ, the size of a ... the base of the brain. As the “master gland” of the body, it produces many hormones that ...

300

Enlarged prostate gland  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

The prostate gland is located underneath the bladder and is about the size of a chestnut. In this cut ... part of the urethra is encased within the prostate gland. As a man ages, the prostate typically ...

301

About the Parathyroid Glands  

MedlinePLUS

... glands is a newly discovered molecule called the Calcium Sensing Receptor (CaSR). This CaSR responds to very small changes in the blood level of calcium to turn the parathyroid glands on and off ...

302

Adrenal Gland Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

303

Regulation and formation of the Drosophila salivary glands.  

PubMed

The homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr), is a master regulator of Drosophila salivary gland formation. Embryos in which Scr function is missing do not form salivary glands, and embryos in which SCR protein is expressed everywhere form extra salivary glands. However, other known proteins, including the homeotic protein Abdominal-B, the unusual zinc finger protein Teashirt, and the secreted signaling molecule Decapentaplegic (a TGF-beta family member), limit the recruitment of SCR-expressing cells to salivary glands. To learn the molecular details of how salivary gland gene expression is controlled and as a first step toward understanding how the SCR transcription factor controls salivary gland morphogenesis, we screened for genes expressed in the developing salivary gland. Among our best candidates for potential direct downstream targets of SCR in the salivary gland are the genes trachealess (trh), dCREB-A, jalapeño, and Semaphorin II (SemaII). Our genetic studies suggest distinct and important roles for each of these genes in salivary gland morphogenesis. Current work includes studying the molecular interactions between SCR and these downstream target genes and asking how target genes coordinate their activities to effect the cell biological changes required to build functional salivary glands. PMID:9599294

Andrew, D J

1998-04-15

304

Perspectives on the convergent evolution of tetrapod salt glands.  

PubMed

Since their discovery in 1958, the function of specialized salt-secreting glands in tetrapods has been studied in great detail, and such studies continue to contribute to a general understanding of transport mechanisms of epithelial water and ions. Interestingly, during that same time period, there have been only few attempts to understand the convergent evolution of this tissue, likely as a result of the paucity of taxonomic, embryological, and molecular data available. In this review, we synthesize the available data regarding the distribution of salt glands across extant and extinct tetrapod lineages and the anatomical position of the salt gland in each taxon. Further, we use these data to develop hypotheses about the various factors that have influenced the convergent evolution of salt glands across taxa with special focus on the variation in the anatomical position of the glands and on the molecular mechanisms that may have facilitated the development of a salt gland by co-option of a nonsalt-secreting ancestral gland. It is our hope that this review will stimulate renewed interest in the topic of the convergent evolution of salt glands and inspire future empirical studies aimed at evaluating the hypotheses we lay out herein. PMID:22586069

Babonis, Leslie S; Brischoux, François

2012-05-13

305

Cross-talk of phosphoinositide- and cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling pathways in differentiating avian nasal gland cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many bird species, the nasal glands secrete excess salt ingested with drinking water or food. In ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos), osmotic stress results in adaptive cell proliferation and differentiation in the gland. Using ‘naive’ nasal gland cells isolated from animals that had never ingested excess salt or ‘differentiated’ cells from animals fed with a 1% NaCl solution for 48 h,

M. Krohn; J.-P. Hildebrandt

2004-01-01

306

Ceruminous gland neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY.Ceruminous glands are modified sweat glands, confined to the skin lining of the cartilaginous part of the external auditory meatus. Tumours arising from these glands are extremely rare. Confusion exists regarding the nomenclature ‘ceruminoma’ and controversies prevail on the standard way of management. Treatment often involves a multidisciplinary approach, requiring reconstruction after extensive surgical resection.A case report of adenoid cystic

A. Iqbal; P. Newman

1998-01-01

307

Adrenal Gland Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Your adrenal, or suprarenal, glands are located on the top of each kidney. These glands produce hormones that you can't live without, including sex ... other functions. Adrenal disorders can cause your adrenal glands to make too much or not enough hormones. ...

308

The Salivary Secretome of the Tsetse Fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) Infected by Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe competence of the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera; Glossinidae) to acquire salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV), to support virus replication and successfully transmit the virus depends on complex interactions between Glossina and SGHV macromolecules. Critical requisites to SGHV transmission are its replication and secretion of mature virions into the fly's salivary gland (SG) lumen. However, secretion of host proteins

Henry M. Kariithi; Ikbal A. Ince; Sjef Boeren; Adly M. M. Abd-Alla; Andrew G. Parker; Serap Aksoy; Just M. Vlak; Monique M. van Oers

2011-01-01

309

21 CFR 870.4200 - Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4200 Cardiopulmonary bypass accessory equipment. (a) Identification. Cardiopulmonary...

2013-04-01

310

HIV-1 Accessory Proteins: Vpu and Vif.  

PubMed

HIV-1 Vif and Vpu are accessory factors involved in late stages of viral replication. Vif regulates viral infectivity by preventing virion incorporation of APOBEC3G and other members of the family of cytidine deaminases, while Vpu causes degradation of CD4 and promotes virus release by functionally inactivating the host factor BST-2. This chapter described techniques used for the characterization of Vif and Vpu and their functional interaction with host factors. Many of the techniques are, however, applicable to the functional analysis of other viral proteins. PMID:24158820

Andrew, Amy; Strebel, Klaus

2014-01-01

311

The anatomy and innervation of the mammalian pineal gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parenchymal cells of the mammalian pineal gland are the hormone-producing pinealocytes and the interstitial cells. In addition, perivascular phagocytes are present. The phagocytes share antigenic properties with microglial and antigen-presenting cells. In certain species, the pineal gland also contains neurons and\\/or neuron-like peptidergic cells. The peptidergic cells might influence the pinealocyte by a paracrine secretion of the peptide. Nerve

Morten Møller; Florian M. M. Baeres

2002-01-01

312

Airway Submucosal Glands: Physiology and Pharmacology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Secretory processes in airway submucosal glands contribute to homeostasis and to first-line defence against inhaled insult.\\u000a Secretion of high molecular weight mucous glycoproteins (mucins) and of water onto the internal surface of the airways are\\u000a two important processes which contribute to regulation of the volume and physicochemical properties of airway surface liquid.\\u000a Absorption of water is also an important homeostatic

Denis C. K. Fung; Duncan F. Rogers

313

Functional lacrimal gland regeneration by transplantation of a bioengineered organ germ  

PubMed Central

The lacrimal gland has a multifaceted role in maintaining a homeostatic microenvironment for a healthy ocular surface via tear secretion. Dry-eye disease, which is caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction, is one of the most prevalent eye diseases that cause corneal epithelial damage and results in significant loss of vision and a reduction in the quality of life. Here we demonstrate orthotopic transplantation of bioengineered lacrimal gland germs into adult mice with an extra-orbital lacrimal gland defect, a mouse model that mimics the corneal epithelial damage caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction. The bioengineered lacrimal gland germs and harderian gland germs both develop in vivo and achieve sufficient physiological functionality, including tear production in response to nervous stimulation and ocular surface protection. This study demonstrates the potential for bioengineered organ replacement to functionally restore the lacrimal gland.

Hirayama, Masatoshi; Ogawa, Miho; Oshima, Masamitsu; Sekine, Yurie; Ishida, Kentaro; Yamashita, Kentaro; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Shimmura, Shigeto; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Tsubota, Kazuo; Tsuji, Takashi

2013-01-01

314

Fine structure of the integumental glands of a termite soldier.  

PubMed

The ultrastructure of some integumental glands occurring in the head, thorax and abdomen of K. flavicollis soldiers is described. The secretory units consist of two cells, the canal cell and the secretory cell (this latter filled with secretion granules). A cylindrical and distorted extracellular space, or reservoir, with an irregular outline is lined by short microvilli. The end-apparatus is made up of small overlapping cuticular laminae which in section resemble small wavy rods. The ample distribution of the units has led the authors to consider them dermal glands. Scanning electron micrographs confirm that the glands' activity consists in the secretion of material which then spreads over the surface of the integument. The dissimilar appearance of the secretion granules present in glands of different soldiers suggests that the electron-lucid granules and the granules with fibrils are two completely different secretions at different ages of the animal. The authors do not therefore rule out the hypothesis that these integumental glands may later produce or release pheromones. PMID:6857628

Sbrenna, G; Leis, M

1983-01-01

315

Accessory cell populations in the cornea.  

PubMed

According to the "classical" doctrine, resident cells of the cornea include the stratified epithelial cells, quiescent keratocytes, and a single layer of nondividing endothelial cells. However, it has become increasingly evident that other cell types are involved in the homeostasis of the cornea. The presence of various cell types from different lineages has raised concern among researchers as to what we are actually "seeing" in the cornea. Although definitive conclusions cannot yet be drawn, this review attempts to clarify the various accessory cell types reported in the human and murine cornea. The epithelial layer of the limbal area includes melanocytes, as well as antigen-presenting cells that are also present in the peripheral clear cornea. The most debated tissue currently is perhaps the corneal stroma, where resident keratocytes are not as large a population as was previously believed. Bone marrow-derived cells are found in the cornea, and these may not express the typical HLA molecules usually found on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. Nerve fibers extend though the superficial stroma to form a plexus beneath the epithelium. Although the cell body of the neuron itself is not in the cornea, neural glial cells, such as Schwann cells, are present in the stroma. The use of specific molecular markers and high-quality imaging techniques will be required to fully elucidate the various accessory cells of the cornea and their function. PMID:16681078

Shimmura, Shigeto; Kawakita, Tetsuya

2006-04-01

316

[The functional state of the thyroid gland following partial pancreatectomy].  

PubMed

In Wistar rats a study was made of a functional condition of the thyroid gland 1, 6 and 24 hours after partial pancreatectomy. The following signs-served as criteria of a functional condition of the gland: the amount of neutrone-activated iodine in iron, iodine-absorptive capacity of the gland by I131, the amount of protein-bound stable and radioactive iodine in the blood, a morphological condition of the gland structures. It was demonstrated that, despite the initial intensification of the process of synthesis and secretion in the thyroid gland, its secretory activity fell by the end of the experiment. This reduction is regarded as an adaptive response to partial insulin deficiency. PMID:1227591

Sheianov, G G; Za?chik, V E; Vazilo, V E

1975-05-01

317

Larval salivary glands are a source of primer and releaser pheromone in honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brood pheromone identified in honeybee larvae has primer and releaser pheromone effects on adult bees. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate fatty acid esters—the pheromonal compounds—in different parts of the larvae, we have localized the source of the esters as the larval salivary glands. A histochemical study describes the glands and confirms the presence of lipids in the glands. Epithelial cells of the gland likely secrete the fatty acids into the lumen of the gland. These results demonstrate the salivary glands to be a reservoir of esters, components of brood pheromone, in honeybee larvae.

Conte, Yves Le; Bécard, Jean-Marc; Costagliola, Guy; de Vaublanc, Gérard; Maâtaoui, Mohamed El; Crauser, Didier; Plettner, Erika; Slessor, Keith N.

2006-05-01

318

Comparing the secretory pathway in honeybee venom and hypopharyngeal glands.  

PubMed

We provide insights into the secretory pathway of arthropod gland systems by comparing the royal jelly-producing hypopharyngeal glands and the venom-producing glands of the honeybee, Apis mellifera. These glands have different functions and different product release characteristics, but both belong to the class 3 types of insect glands, each being composed of two cells, a secretory cell and a microduct-forming cell. The hypopharyngeal secretory cells possess an extremely elongate tubular invagination that is filled with a cuticular structure, the end-apparatus, anchored against the cell membrane by a conspicuous series of actin rings. In contrast, venom glands have no actin rings, but instead have an actin-rich brush border surrounding the comparatively short and narrow end-apparatus. We relate these cytoskeletal differences to the production system and utilisation of secretions; venom is stored in a reservoir whereas royal jelly and enzymes are produced on demand. Fluorescence-based characterisation of the actin cytoskeleton combined with scanning electron microscopy of the end-apparatus allows for detailed characterisation of the point of secretion release in insect class 3 glands. PMID:23142089

Kheyri, Homayoun; Cribb, Bronwen W; Merritt, David J

2012-11-07

319

21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments...4820 Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments...Identification. Surgical instrument motors and accessories are AC-powered...osteotome), dermabrasion brush, dermatome, drill bit,...

2009-04-01

320

49 CFR 178.255-7 - Protection of valves and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of valves and accessories. 178.255-7 Section 178...Portable Tanks § 178.255-7 Protection of valves and accessories. (a) All valves, fittings, accessories, safety...

2011-10-01

321

Unusual insidious spinal accessory nerve palsy: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Isolated spinal accessory nerve dysfunction has a major detrimental impact on the functional performance of the shoulder girdle, and is a well-documented complication of surgical procedures in the posterior triangle of the neck. To the best of our knowledge, the natural course and the most effective way of handling spontaneous spinal accessory nerve palsy has been described in only

Ioannis N Charopoulos; Nikolas Hadjinicolaou; Ioannis Aktselis; George P Lyritis; Nikolaos Papaioannou; Constantinos Kokoroghiannis

2010-01-01

322

The evolution of sweat glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammals have two kinds of sweat glands, apocrine and eccrine, which provide for thermal cooling. In this paper we describe the distribution and characteristics of these glands in selected mammals, especially primates, and reject the suggested development of the eccrine gland from the apocrine gland during the Tertiary geological period. The evidence strongly suggests that the two glands, depending on

G. Edgar Folk; A. Semken

1991-01-01

323

Successful treatment of crocodile tears by injection of botulinum toxin into the lacrimal gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivePathologic lacrimation (crocodile tears) is a rare but stigmatizing symptom after facial nerve paralysis. The aim of this pilot study was to examine whether botulinum toxin injection into the lacrimal gland is effective in reducing pathologic tear secretion.

Randolf Riemann; Stefan Pfennigsdorf; Elke Riemann; Markus Naumann

1999-01-01

324

Characteristics of ATP-induced catecholamine secretion from adrenal chromaffin cells of the guinea-pig  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ATP on catecholamine secretion and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was examined using perfused adrenal glands and dispersed chromaffin cells of the guinea-pig. The application of ATP (2 to 10 mM) for 2 min caused a dose-dependent increase in catecholamine secretion from perfused adrenal glands. ADP, but neither AMP nor adenosine, was also effective in increasing catecholamine secretion,

Tadashi Asano; Ken-ichi Otsuguro; Toshio Ohta; Takeshi Sugawara; Shigeo Ito; Yoshikazu Nakazato

1995-01-01

325

21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories. 876...GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories....

2013-04-01

326

Submucosal gland distribution in the mouse has a genetic determination localized on Chromosome 9  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Submucosal glands (SMG) are important secretory glands that are present in the major airways and bronchioles of humans. In\\u000a mice the structure, cellular composition, and density of SMG are similar to those seen in humans, but the glands are present\\u000a only in the trachea. Characterization of SMG is important as they secrete bacteriocidal products such as lactoferrin, lysozyme,\\u000a and

Brendan A. Innes; Julia R. Dorin

2001-01-01

327

Use of semiconducting laser in drug-induced chronic bilateral inflammation of parotid glands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A case of chronic bilateral inflammation of parotid glands in a patient as a results of complication induced by the drug Ospolot in the treatment of epilepsy was presented. Apart from conventional methods a semiconducting laser was used. The laser beam had beneficial effect on elimination of pain and increase in the parotid gland secretion activity.

Grzesiak-Janas, Grazyna

1997-10-01

328

Development and Control of the Circadian Pacemaker for Melatonin Release in the Chicken Pineal Gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melatonin (MT) release from explanted pineal glands of 3- to 20-week-old chicken was investigated in a 5-day perifusion system. Both the chicken and the explanted glands were exposed to various environmental lighting regimens. Observations: (1) The explanted chicken pineal is sensitive to direct light. Continuous illumination during thein vitroperiod abolishes the circadian rhythm of the MT secretion in 3 days.

Valér Csernus; Meenakshi Ghosh; Béla Mess

1998-01-01

329

The Electron Microscopy of the Left Colleterial Gland of the Cockroach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been made of the cells of the left colleterial gland o f the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.), using the electron microscope, and the results com- pared with previous histological and histochemical studies. The colleterial gland consists of an arborescent bunch of long tubules composed mainly of the cells which secrete the structural protein of the egg case

E. H. Mercer; P. C. J. BRUNET; D. Phil

1959-01-01

330

COMPARATIVE ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE MANDIBULAR GLAND IN Scaptotrigona postica (HYMENOPTERA, APIDAE, MELIPONINI) WORKERS AND MALES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in the ultrastructure and function of the mandibular glands in developing workers and mature males of the meliponine stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica suggest that there are age-dependent variations in the contents of the secretion and glandular functions. In this work, we used transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electron microscopy to examine the mandibular glands of S. postica workers of

Luciana Fioretti Gracioli-Vitti; Fábio Camargo Abdalla

331

VPAC receptors: structure, molecular pharmacology and interaction with accessory proteins  

PubMed Central

The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuropeptide with wide distribution in both central and peripheral nervous systems, where it plays important regulatory role in many physiological processes. VIP displays a large biological functions including regulation of exocrine secretions, hormone release, fetal development, immune responses, etc. VIP appears to exert beneficial effect in neuro-degenerative and inflammatory diseases. The mechanism of action of VIP implicates two subtypes of receptors (VPAC1 and VPAC2), which are members of class B receptors belonging to the super-family of GPCR. This article reviews the current knowledge regarding the structure and molecular pharmacology of VPAC receptors. The structure–function relationship of VPAC1 receptor has been extensively studied, allowing to understand the molecular basis for receptor affinity, specificity, desensitization and coupling to adenylyl cyclase. Those studies have clearly demonstrated the crucial role of the N-terminal ectodomain (N-ted) of VPAC1 receptor in VIP recognition. By using different approaches including directed mutagenesis, photoaffinity labelling, NMR, molecular modelling and molecular dynamic simulation, it has been shown that the VIP molecule interacts with the N-ted of VPAC1 receptor, which is itself structured as a ‘Sushi’ domain. VPAC1 receptor also interacts with a few accessory proteins that play a role in cell signalling of receptors. Recent advances in the structural characterization of VPAC receptor and more generally of class B GPCRs will lead to the design of new molecules, which could have considerable interest for the treatment of inflammatory and neuro-degenerative diseases. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Secretin Family (Class B) G Protein-Coupled Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.166.issue-1

Couvineau, Alain; Laburthe, Marc

2012-01-01

332

Parasympathetic Control of Airway Submucosal Glands: Central Reflexes and the Airway Intrinsic Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Airway submucosal glands produce the mucus that lines the upper airways to protect them against insults. This review summarizes evidence for two forms of gland secretion, and hypothesizes that each is mediated by different but partially overlapping neural pathways. Airway innate defense comprises low level gland secretion, mucociliary clearance and surveillance by airway-resident phagocytes to keep the airways sterile in spite of nearly continuous inhalation of low levels of pathogens. Gland secretion serving innate defense is hypothesized to be under the control of intrinsic (peripheral) airway neurons and local reflexes, and these may depend disproportionately on non-cholinergic mechanisms, with most secretion being produced by VIP and tachykinins. In the genetic disease cystic fibrosis, airway glands no longer secrete in response to VIP alone and fail to show the synergy between VIP, tachykinins and ACh that is observed in normal glands. The consequent crippling of the submucosal gland contribution to innate defense may be one reason that cystic fibrosis airways are infected by mucus-resident bacteria and fungi that are routinely cleared from normal airways. By contrast, the acute (emergency) airway defense reflex is centrally mediated by vagal pathways, is primarily cholinergic, and stimulates copious volumes of gland mucus in response to acute, intense challenges to the airways, such as those produced by very vigorous exercise or aspiration of foreign material. In cystic fibrosis, the acute airway defense reflex can still stimulate the glands to secrete large amounts of mucus, although its properties are altered. Importantly, treatments that recruit components of the acute reflex, such as inhalation of hypertonic saline, are beneficial in treating cystic fibrosis airway disease. The situation for recipients of lung transplants is the reverse; transplanted airways retain the airway intrinsic nervous system but lose centrally mediated reflexes. The consequences of this for gland secretion and airway defense are poorly understood, but it is possible that interventions to modify submucosal gland secretion in transplanted lungs might have therapeutic consequences. Introduction and overviewProtecting the Airways: mucus and submucosal glands.The airway intrinsic nervous system: a special role in innate defense?Innate defense: prophylactic secretion and local responses.Acute ‘Emergency’ airway defense reflexesAirway receptors: Improved methods reveal greater diversityHijacking emergency defense for innate defense: receptor plasticity and airways sensitization.Conclusion: Implications for cystic fibrosis and lung transplantation.

Wine, Jeffrey J.

2007-01-01

333

Thyroid gland biopsy (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating ... sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ...

334

Salivary Gland Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

335

Expression of prepro-ghrelin and related receptor genes in the rat adrenal gland and evidences that ghrelin exerts a potent stimulating effect on corticosterone secretion by cultured rat adrenocortical cells.  

PubMed

The orexigenic peptide ghrelin (GHREL) and obestatin (OBS) originate from the same peptide precursor, preproghrelin (ppGHREL). Apart from orexigenic effect, GHREL also regulates neuroendocrine function. We investigated GHREL and OBS effects on corticosterone secretion by freshly isolated and cultured rat adrenocortical cells. Classic RT-PCR revealed the presence of ppGHREL, GHS-R1a, GPR39v1 and GPR39v2 and GOAT4 (ghrelin O-acyl transferase) mRNAs in rat adrenals and cultured for 4 days rat adrenocortical cells. Expression of ppGHREL, GHS-R1a, and GOAT genes was notably higher in the cortex than in medulla. High expression level of GOAT gene was found in the zona glomerulosa, while expression level of both GPR39v1 and GPR39v2 genes was similar in adrenal cortical zones and in medulla. In freshly isolated cells neither GHREL nor OBS had an effect on corticosteroid output. Prolonged exposure of cultured cells to GHREL resulted in a potent, comparable to ACTH, stimulating effect of GHREL on corticosterone secretion. Prolonged exposure to OBS was ineffective. Neither GHREL nor OBS had any effect on proliferation of studied cells, while ACTH notably lowered it. GHREL down regulated GHS-R1a gene expression while both ACTH and GHREL stimulated expression level of GPR39v1 gene. Expression of CYP11A1 gene was notably stimulated and that of StAR gene remained unaffected by ACTH or GHREL. Thus, our study is the first to demonstrate direct stimulating effect of GHREL on corticosterone output by cultured rat adrenocortical cells. This stimulating action differs from that evoked by ACTH and is not dependent on the presence of functional ACTH receptor. PMID:19416745

Rucinski, Marcin; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Tyczewska, Marianna; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

2009-05-04

336

Perineal Accessory Scrotum with Congenital Lipoma: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

A case of accessory scrotum in a 1-year-old boy is reported because of its rarity. A boy presented with a tumor mass attached with scrotum-like skin on its tip in the right side of perineum between the scrotum and anus. Both testes had descended into the scrotum. There was no other urological anomaly. Histological findings of the tumor indicated perineal lipoma, and the scrotum-like portion accessory scrotum. An overview of sequences during the normal development of male external genitalia has been provided and the deranged mechanism resulting in this anomaly has been reviewed with hypothesis regarding etiology of accessory scrotum.

Chatterjee, Souvik; Gajbhiye, Vishal; Nath, Sasanka; Ghosh, Dipak; Chattopadhyay, Sarbani; Das, Sukanta Kumar

2012-01-01

337

Adaptation of the pituitary gland to prolonged LRH stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary With prolonged constant rate infusion of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LRH), the LH secretion rate of the rat pituitary gland changes continuously until a steady state of relative desensitization has developed. Recovery from this state can occur independently from changes in the pituitary's LH content.

T. R. Koiter; N. Pols-Valkhof; G. A. Schuiling

1981-01-01

338

Motor control of airway goblet cells and glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activation of nerves increases airway mucus secretion. The mucus derives from submucosal glands and epithelial goblet cells. Depending upon species and airway level, innervation comprises parasympathetic (cholinergic), sympathetic (adrenergic) and ‘sensory-efferent’ pathways. In all species studied, cholinergic mechanisms predominate, particularly in human airways. Muscarinic M3 receptors on the secretory cells mediate the cholinergic response. Tachykinins (substance P and neurokinin A)

Duncan F Rogers

2001-01-01

339

Age-related Changes in Sebaceous Gland Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sebaceous glands of man show age-related differences in their activity as determined by quantitative and qualitative examination of sebum. Sebaceous secretion is low in children and begins to increase in mid- to late childhood under the influence of androgens. This rise continues until the late teens, after which no further significant change takes place until late in life.In elderly

Peter E. Pochi; John S. Strauss; Donald T. Downing

1979-01-01

340

The metapleural gland of ants.  

PubMed

The metapleural gland (MG) is a complex glandular structure unique to ants, suggesting a critical role in their origin and ecological success. We synthesize the current understanding of the adaptive function, morphology, evolutionary history, and chemical properties of the MG. Two functions of the MG, sanitation and chemical defence, have received the strongest empirical support; two additional possible functions, recognition odour and territorial marking, are less well supported. The design of the MG is unusual for insects; glandular secretions are stored in a rigid, non-compressible invagination of the integument and the secretion is thought to ooze out passively through the non-closable opening of the MG or is groomed off by the legs and applied to target surfaces. MG loss has occurred repeatedly among the ants, particularly in the subfamilies Formicinae and Myrmicinae, and the MG is more commonly absent in males than in workers. MG chemistry has been characterized mostly in derived ant lineages with unique biologies (e.g. leafcutter ants, fire ants), currently precluding any inferences about MG chemistry at the origin of the ants. A synthetic approach integrating functional morphology, phylogenetic transitions and chemical ecology of the MGs of both the derived and the unstudied early-branching (basal) ant lineages is needed to elucidate the evolutionary origin and diversification of the MG of ants. PMID:21504532

Yek, Sze Huei; Mueller, Ulrich G

2010-12-24

341

Tokens of love: Functions and regulation of drosophila male accessory gland products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A male fruit fly influences the behavior and physiology of his mate via molecules that he transmits to her'in his semen. The mated female fly has an elevated rate of egg laying, a decreased receptivity to mating and a shorter life span; she also stores sperm from the mating. Molecular genetic analyses possible in this insect model system permit the

Mariana F. Wolfner

1997-01-01

342

Autogeny in saltmarsh mosquitoes induced by a substance from the male accessory gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

OVARIAN maturation by mosquitoes and other haematophagous Diptera without a prior blood meal is called autogeny, while the term anautogeny applies to those cases where blood is necessary. Many populations of the saltmarsh mosquito, Aedes taeniorhynchus, contain both autogenous and anautogenous females1-2. Moreover, within this species there are two types of autogenous females : (1) those that need a stimulus

George F. O'Meara; David G. Evans

1977-01-01

343

Proteomic analysis of Drosophila mojavensis male accessory glands suggests novel classes of seminal fluid proteins.  

PubMed

Fruit-flies of the genus Drosophila are characterized by overwhelming variation in fertilization traits such as copulatory plug formation, sperm storage organ use, and nutritional ejaculatory donation. Despite extensive research on the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster, little is known about the molecular underpinnings of these interspecific differences. This study employs a proteomic approach to pin-point candidate seminal fluid proteins in Drosophila mojavensis, a cactophilic fruit-fly that exhibits divergent reproductive biology when compared to D. melanogaster. We identify several classes of candidate seminal fluid proteins not previously documented in the D. melanogaster male ejaculate, including metabolic enzymes, nutrient transport proteins, and clotting factors. Conversely, we also define 29 SFPs that are conserved despite >40 million years of Drosophila evolution. We discuss our results in terms of universal processes in insect reproduction, as well as the specialized reproductive biology of D. mojavensis. PMID:19328853

Kelleher, Erin S; Watts, Thomas D; LaFlamme, Brooke A; Haynes, Paul A; Markow, Therese A

2009-03-28

344

Male Accessory Gland Protein Reduces Egg Laying in a Simultaneous Hermaphrodite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seminal fluid is an important part of the ejaculate of internally fertilizing animals. This fluid contains substances that nourish and activate sperm for successful fertilization. Additionally, it contains components that influence female physiology to further enhance fertilization success of the sperm donor, possibly beyond the recipient's optimum. Although evidence for such substances abounds, few studies have unraveled their identities, and

Joris M. Koene; Wiebe Sloot; Kora Montagne-Wajer; Scott F. Cummins; Bernard M. Degnan; John S. Smith; Gregg T. Nagle; Andries Ter Maat; Laszlo Orban

2010-01-01

345

Relevance of male accessory gland infection for subsequent fertility with special focus on prostatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infections of the male genitourinary tract may contribute to infertility to a various extent depending on the site of inflammation. Especially in prostatitis, the exact classification of the infection contributes to its impact on changes in the ejaculate. Similarly, in urethritis, epididymitis and orchitis, only a clear clinical diagnosis allows a rational approach to altered sperm parameters. Several inflammatory and

W. Weidner; W. Krause; M. Ludwig

1999-01-01

346

EST analysis of male accessory glands from Heliconius butterflies with divergent mating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Heliconius butterflies possess a remarkable diversity of phenotypes, physiologies, and behaviors that has long distinguished this genus as a focal taxon in ecological and evolutionary research. Recently Heliconius has also emerged as a model system for using genomic methods to investigate the causes and consequences of biological diversity. One notable aspect of Heliconius diversity is a dichotomy in mating

James R Walters; Richard G Harrison

2008-01-01

347

Cysteamine-induced inhibition of mucosal and pancreatic alkaline secretion in rat duodenum  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the effect of cysteamine on the alkaline secretion by the duodenal epithelium, pancreas, and Brunner's glands in relation to the pathogenesis of duodenal ulceration, the alkaline secretion by various types of duodenal loops was comparatively studied. The results obtained were as follows: (1) Cysteamine significantly reduced both mucosal and pancreatobiliary alkaline secretion in the proximal duodenum of rats.

Keiji Ohe; Yoshifumi Miura; Yoshio Taoka; Yoshiomi Okada; Akima Miyoshi

1988-01-01

348

Accessory spleens: Clinical significance with particular reference to the recurrence of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the important stages during splenectomy is the search for accessory spleens. The average frequency of accessory spleens is an estimated 11%. In our own material in 611 patients who had splenectomy in hematological disorders, accessory spleens were found in 110 patients (18%). The surgical anatomy, embryology, and clinical significance of the accessory spleens, with particular reference to the

Witold J. Rudowski

1985-01-01

349

21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accessories (through a change in the light source) used for medical purposes include...that fluoresce under ultraviolet light. (3) Inverted stage microscopes...contained in bottles or tubes with the light source mounted above the specimen....

2013-04-01

350

21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Gynecological Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories...a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic fluid...

2010-04-01

351

21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Gynecological Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories...a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic fluid...

2013-04-01

352

21 CFR 884.2700 - Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Gynecological Monitoring Devices § 884.2700 Intrauterine pressure monitor and accessories...a) Identification. An intrauterine pressure monitor is a device designed to detect and measure intrauterine and amniotic fluid...

2009-04-01

353

Giant Accessory Right-Sided Suprarenal Spleen in Thalassaemia  

PubMed Central

An accessory spleen is defined as ectopic splenic tissue that develops due to failure of fusion of cells during embryonic development as they migrate from the midline to the left upper quadrant. While benign, complications may arise which include trauma, torsion, or infarction of the ectopic tissue. Additionally, patients who have had a splenectomy secondary to treatment for previous pathology such as a haematological malignancy or idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura may experience persistent symptoms due to the accessory splenic tissue. The presence of an accessory spleen is therefore of significant diagnostic and therapeutic importance. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this case is the second and largest reported case of a giant right suprarenal accessory spleen and highlights the difficulty in differentiation of these masses from malignant adrenal tumours.

Arra, A.; Ramdass, Michael J.; Mohammed, A.; Okoye, O.; Thomas, D.; Barrow, S.

2013-01-01

354

21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and...

2009-04-01

355

21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and...

2010-04-01

356

21 CFR 868.5860 - Pressure tubing and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5860 Pressure tubing and accessories. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

357

21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...gastro-urological irrigation tray (for gastrological use). (b) Classification. (1) Class II (special controls). The barium enema retention catheter and tip with or without a bag that is a gastrointestinal tube and accessory is exempt from the...

2013-04-01

358

21 CFR 876.5250 - Urine collector and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...device intended to collect urine. The device and accessories consist of tubing, a suitable receptacle, connectors, mechanical supports, and may include a means to prevent the backflow of urine or ascent of infection. The two kinds of urine...

2013-04-01

359

21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4700 Surgical...accessories is an AC-powered device intended for use during surgery to provide a magnified view of the surgical...

2013-04-01

360

21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

361

21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

362

21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

363

21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

364

21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

365

21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

2013-04-01

366

21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

367

21 CFR 884.4120 - Gynecologic electrocautery and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tissue contact with an electrically heated probe. It is used to excise cervical lesions, perform biopsies, or treat chronic cervicitis under direct visual observation. This generic type of device may include the following accessories: an electrical...

2010-04-01

368

21 CFR 884.4120 - Gynecologic electrocautery and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tissue contact with an electrically heated probe. It is used to excise cervical lesions, perform biopsies, or treat chronic cervicitis under direct visual observation. This generic type of device may include the following accessories: an electrical...

2009-04-01

369

21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental...

2013-04-01

370

21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...material or urine following an ileostomy, colostomy, or ureterostomy (a surgically created opening of the small intestine, large intestine, or the ureter on the surface of the body). This generic type of device and its accessories...

2013-04-01

371

21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental handpiece and...

2013-04-01

372

21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories...intended to cut or remove soft tissue or to control bleeding during surgical procedures in the oral cavity. An electrical current...

2013-04-01

373

Controlled Speed Accessory Drive Program: Programmatic Environmental Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is a programmatic environmental assessment of the Department of Energy's Controlled Speed Accessory Drive (CSAD) program and alternatives. Its purpose is to evaluate CSAD alternatives to assure that environmental priorities are considered at...

1980-01-01

374

Salivary gland neoplasms.  

PubMed

Treatment and cure of salivary gland neoplasms requires surgical intervention in most cases. For parotid neoplasms, the most common surgical procedure performed is the superficial parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation. Postoperative radiation therapy is indicated in high-grade salivary gland malignancies and malignancies with increased risk of locoregional recurrence. Primary radiation, including neutron beam techniques, may play a role in certain histologic types or nonoperative candidates. Chemotherapy has yet to result in improvements in survival or quality of life in the treatment of salivary gland malignancy. Advances in radiation therapy techniques, including intensity-modulated radiation therapy, provide opportunities for reduced morbidity. PMID:14697153

Day, Terry A; Deveikis, John; Gillespie, M Boyd; Joe, John K; Ogretmen, Besim; Osguthorpe, J David; Reed, Susan G; Richardson, Mary S; Rossi, Michael; Saini, Ranjiv; Sharma, Anand K; Stuart, Robert K

2004-02-01

375

Epicardial electric shock ablation of the left lateral accessory pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty patients with drug-resistant, recurrent tachyarrhythmias causing Wolff—Parkinson—White syndrome underwent surgery between 1990 and 1992. All recognized surgical methods for accessory pathway destruction were performed. Epicardial electric shock ablation was first used as a method of surgically destroying an accessory atrioventricular pathway in 1983. This technique avoids the need for cardioplegia and hypothermia during operation. The procedure is based on

K. Suwalski; M. Pytkowski; P. ?elazny; D. Wojciechowski; E. Sitkowska; Z. Sadowski; W. Sitkowski

1995-01-01

376

Choosing the correct accessory for each stoma type: an update.  

PubMed

There are many people with a stoma that report a good quality of life. However, for many, problems can be encountered that can directly affect them. The use of a stoma accessory, in addition to the stoma appliance, can often benefit people with a stoma in relation to treating sore skin or preventing appliances from leakage. This article focuses on some of the more common stoma accessories, including when and why they should be used. PMID:24037328

Burch, Jennie

2013-09-12

377

An unusual cause of subtalar pain and instability: accessory calcaneus.  

PubMed

We report on a 45-yr-old male sports instructor with chronic pain and instability of the ankle. He was a recreational basketball player, but because of repeated ankle sprains and chronic subtalar pain this activity became impossible. The radiologic findings were compatible with the diagnosis of accessory calcaneus. In an initial therapeutic approach the patient was treated conservatively with taping and physical therapy, but this failed to relieve the symptoms. Next, a ligamentoplasty was performed. The instability improved, but the pain remained the same. Finally the accessory calcaneus was resected and short term follow-up was unremarkable. Accessory calcaneus is an uncommon anatomical variation that may cause subtalar pain and instability. Resection of the accessory bone may be necessary to provide relief of symptoms. Accessory calcaneus can be well demonstrated on CT, SPECT-CT, and MR. MR and nuclear medicine can indicate instability of the accessory bone by showing bone marrow edema on MR or uptake on fusion imaging. PMID:23405487

Boulet, C; De Maeseneer, M; Everaert, H; Kichouh, M; De Mey, J; Shahabpour, M

378

Soybean and Tobacco Floral nectary Glands: their Structural and Functional Similarities and Differences  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect attraction and pollination of flowers are controlled by characters such as: color (visual cue); shape (accommodation); opening and pollen dehiscence (timing); volatiles production (smell); and nectar secretion from nectary glands (reward). The floral nectary and its secretion products are tw...

379

Functional requirement of aquaporin-5 in plasma membranes of sweat glands.  

PubMed

The distribution and function of aquaporins (AQPs) have not previously been defined in sweat glands. In this study, AQP1, AQP3, and AQP5 mRNA were demonstrated in rat paw by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, but AQP2 and AQP4 were not. AQP1, AQP3, and AQP5 protein were confirmed in these tissues by immunoblotting. AQP1 was identified in capillary endothelial cells by immunohistochemical labeling, but not in sweat glands or epidermis. Abundant AQP3 expression was seen in basal levels of epidermis, but not in sweat glands. AQP2 and AQP4 were not observed in either skin or sweat glands. Immunohistochemical labeling revealed abundant AQP5 in secretory parts of rat and mouse sweat glands, where immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated abundant AQP5 labeling in the apical plasma membrane. AQP5 immunolabeling of human sweat glands yielded a similar pattern. To establish the role of AQP5 in sweat secretion, we tested the response of adult mice to s.c. injection of pilocarpine, as visualized by reaction of secreted amylase with iodine/starch. The number of active sweat glands was dramatically reduced in AQP5-null (-/-) mice compared with heterozygous (+/-) and wild-type (+/+) mice. We conclude that the presence of AQP5 in plasma membranes of sweat glands is essential for secretion, providing potential insight into mechanisms underlying mammalian thermoregulation, tactile sensitivity, and the pathophysiology of hyperhidrosis. PMID:11773623

Nejsum, Lene N; Kwon, Tae-Hwan; Jensen, Uffe B; Fumagalli, Ornella; Frøkiaer, Jørgen; Krane, Carissa M; Menon, Anil G; King, Landon S; Agre, Peter C; Nielsen, Søren

2002-01-02

380

Prothoracic gland semiochemicals of green lacewings.  

PubMed

Adult chrysopids have paired prothoracic glands (PG) that are thought to produce defensive secretions (allomones). We analyzed PG extracts of the following green lacewings from North and South America, Australia, and China: Ceraeochrysa cubana (Brazil); Chrysopa (= Co.) oculata, Co. nigricornis, Co. incompleta, Co. quadripunctata (USA), and Co. septempunctata (China); Chrysoperla (= Cl.) rufilabris (USA) and Cl. sp. (Brazil); Plesiochrysa ramburi and Mallada spp. (Australia). PG secretions are characteristic for species within a genus, except for Chrysopa spp. (Z)-4-Tridecene is ubiquitous, but (Z,Z)-4,7-tridecadiene is a major PG constituent in some Chrysopa spp. and in P. ramburi. Earlier reports that Co. oculata and Co. nigricornis produce 1-tridecene were shown to be in error. Chrysopa PG secretions are distinguished by the presence or absence of N-3-methylbutylacetamide, plus skatole (3-methylindole). Skatole is also identified for the first time from the Plesiochrysa and Ceraeochrysa. The PG secretion in Plesiochrysa ramburi is characterized by the presence of (Z)-4-undecene instead of (Z)-4-tridecene, and N-3-methylbutylpropanamide instead of the acetamide, resembling the PG secretions of Chrysopa nigricornis, Co. septempunctata and Co. incompleta. The chemotaxonomic value of PG semiochemicals is discussed, including evidence for subgroups within the genus Chrysopa as it now stands. PMID:19844760

Aldrich, Jeffrey Richard; Le, Thanh C; Zhang, Qing-He; Torres, Jorge; Winterton, Shaun L; Han, Baoyu; Miller, Gary L; Chauhan, Kamlesh R

2009-10-22

381

[The quantitative and qualitative analysis fro submandibular gland of human being.].  

PubMed

30 cases of submandibular gland tissue were determined quantitatively in this article.It is noticed that there was no great change during and after the birth .But at the adolesence stage,the data began to change was steady in adult state.At pressenium,the change speed of mean was faster.Observation under microscope:the submandibular gland in 7-8 month old embryo was developed basically and similar to newborn.It had good blood supply and secrete function.Adipose tissue,which is important indication of changed with age in saliva gland,did not exit in submandibular gland of human being.In addition.it is normal that there were a few lymphatic cells and plasmocytes with secrete SIgA in the gland and is relating with protective principle of normal environment. PMID:16538314

Zhang, Z Y; Jin, B L; Tao, S F

1994-09-01

382

Parathyroid gland removal  

MedlinePLUS

... invasive parathyroidectomy: You may receive a shot of nuclear medicine before this surgery. This helps highlight the ... Risks for any anesthesia are: Reactions to medicines Breathing ... Risks for parathyroidectomy are: Injury to the thyroid gland or ...

383

Salivary Gland Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... gls/f_guidelines.asp. Accessed April 9, 2012. Laurie SA. Salivary gland tumors: Epidemiology, diagnosis, evaluation and ... e-mail Clicking "send" signifies that you have read and agree to our privacy policy. Share this ...

384

Secret Messages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use Teflon (PTFE) tape to write secret messages. Learners may be familiar with Teflon-coated pans, but they probably do not know that Teflon is also made into tape that is used by plumbers. Teflon tape is great for plumbing because it stretches a little and makes a great seal, and since it is slippery, it makes pipes easier to screw together. Learners take advantage of Teflon tape's stretchiness to write secret messages. Use this activity to discuss the various types of polymer structures.

Mississippi, University O.

2003-01-01

385

Secret Sharing System and Secret Sharing Matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

To make the secret sharing management more effective and safe, based on the (k, n) threshold secret sharing scheme, this article propose a new concept of generalized (k, n)-secret sharing matrix, and proposed a more safe (t, k, n) threshold secret sharing scheme by generalizing the (t, k, n) threshold secret sharing matrix. This article gave the concept of the

Guangliang Liu; Lingyun Li; Shengxian Xie; Junqing Li

2009-01-01

386

Thermally induced changes in neural and hormonal control of osmoregulation in a bird with salt glands (Anas platyrhynchos).  

PubMed

In conscious Pekin ducks adapted to hypertonic saline (1.9%) as drinking water, steady state secretion of the salt glands was established by continuous intravenous salt loading and the effects of hypothalamic thermal stimulation on salt gland activity and on the plasma concentrations of arginine vasotocin (AVT) and angiotensin II (AII) were observed. Hypothalamic cooling depressed salt gland secretion and the plasma level of AVT. Hypothalamic warming caused transient activation and subsequent inhibition of salt gland secretion without consistent changes of the plasma levels of AVT and AII. Whole body cooling by heat extraction with a colonic thermode produced moderate inhibition of salt gland activity, without changes in plasma AVT and AII, which may be explained by peripheral vasoconstriction. The results are consistent with the view that hypothalamic osmoregulation is under an influence of local temperature by combined osmo/thermo-responsiveness of hypothalamic neurons and temperature dependence of signal transmission in hypothalamic neural integration of osmoregulation. PMID:3774509

Hori, T; Simon-Oppermann, C; Gray, D A; Simon, E

1986-10-01

387

Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace), the third toxin of a Vibrio cholerae virulence cassette.  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae causes the potentially lethal disease cholera through the elaboration of the intestinal secretogen cholera toxin. A second toxin of V. cholerae, Zot, decreases intestinal tissue resistance by modifying intercellular tight junctions. In this report, a third toxin of V. cholerae, Ace (accessory cholera enterotoxin), is described. Ace increases short-circuit current in Ussing chambers and causes fluid secretion in ligated rabbit ileal loops. The predicted protein sequence of Ace shows striking similarity to eukaryotic ion-transporting ATPases, including the product of the cystic fibrosis gene. The gene encoding Ace is located immediately upstream of the genes encoding Zot and cholera toxin. The ctx, zot, and ace genes, which are located on a dynamic sector of the chromosome, comprise a V. cholerae "virulence cassette."

Trucksis, M; Galen, J E; Michalski, J; Fasano, A; Kaper, J B

1993-01-01

388

Antimicrobial chemicals in hoopoe preen secretions are produced by symbiotic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Animals frequently use metabolites produced by symbiotic bacteria as agents against pathogens and parasites. Secretions from the preen gland of birds are used for this purpose, although its chemicals apparently are produced by the birds themselves. European hoopoes Upupa epops and green woodhoopoes Phoeniculus purpureus harbour symbiotic bacteria in the uropygial gland that might be partly responsible for the chemical composition of secretions. Here we investigate the antimicrobial activity of the volatile fraction of chemicals in hoopoe preen secretions, and, by means of experimental antibiotic injections, test whether symbiotic bacteria living within the uropygial gland are responsible for their production. Hoopoes produce two different kinds of secretions that differ drastically in their chemical composition. While the malodorous dark secretions produced by nestlings included a complex mix of volatiles, these chemicals did not appear in white secretions produced by non-nesting birds. All volatiles detected showed strong antibacterial activity, and a mixture of the chemicals at the concentrations measured in nestling glands inhibited the growth of all bacterial strains assayed. We found support for the hypothesized role of bacteria in the production of such antimicrobial chemicals because experimental clearance of bacteria from glands of nestlings with antibiotics resulted in secretions without most of the volatiles detected in control individuals. Thus, the presence of symbiotic bacteria in the uropygial gland provides hoopoes with potent antimicrobials for topical use.

Martin-Vivaldi, Manuel; Pena, Aranzazu; Peralta-Sanchez, Juan Manuel; Sanchez, Lourdes; Ananou, Samir; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Magdalena; Soler, Juan Jose

2010-01-01

389

Determinants of the streptococcal surface glycoprotein GspB that facilitate export by the accessory Sec system.  

PubMed

GspB is a large cell-surface glycoprotein expressed by Streptococcus gordonii M99 that mediates binding of this organism to human platelets. This adhesin is glycosylated in the cytoplasm, and is then transported to the cell surface via an accessory Sec system. To assess the structural features of GspB that are needed for export, we examined the effects of altering the carbohydrate moieties or the polypeptide backbone of GspB. Truncated, glycosylated variants of GspB were exported exclusively via the accessory Sec pathway. When glycosylation was abolished, the GspB variants were still exported by this pathway, but minor amounts could also be transported by the canonical Sec system. GspB variants with in-frame insertions or deletions in the N-terminus were not secreted, indicating that this domain is necessary for export. However, the N-terminus is not sufficient for the transport of heterologous proteins, because C-terminal fusion of passenger proteins to this domain hindered export. In contrast, fusion of GspB to a canonical signal peptide resulted in the efficient export of non-glycosylated forms of the fusion protein via the canonical Sec pathway, whereas glycosylated forms could not be exported. Thus, the carbohydrate moieties and the atypical signal sequence of GspB interfere with export via the canonical pathway, and direct GspB towards the accessory Sec system. PMID:16313630

Bensing, Barbara A; Takamatsu, Daisuke; Sullam, Paul M

2005-12-01

390

[A non-exocrine function of the submaxillary gland].  

PubMed

Emphasizing on the concept of "banalization" and multifactoriality of the signal molecules of the cellular communication, the authors review data of the literature which allow to attribute to some substances synthetized by the submandibular salivary glands (SSG), mainly growth factors as EGF and NGF, an endocrine role. Because of their direct secretion in the oral cavity or their overflow into bloodstream the consequences of the deficit of these growth factors could be correlated with some oral pathologies such as aphthous lesions, puberty and pregnancy gingivitis, which endocrine etiology is often assumed, as well as autoimmune salivary pathologies. Thus, the results obtained after SSG removal furnish a support for envisaging a link between the submandibular salivary glands and the reproductive function (decrease in plasma LH level, ultrastructural changes of the Leydig cells, spontaneous abortion) and with some structures of the central nervous system such as hypothalamus (variation in hypothalamic TRH content) or pineal gland (decrease in pineal cyclic AMP content). Particularly interesting is the possibility that NGF secreted in blood by the SSG during a stress may represent the signal able to stimulate the peripheral immunity cells as well as to inform the central nervous system through a neuronal pathway via the superior cervical ganglia and the pineal gland. This brain afferent information could be associated with an increased hypothalamic NGF synthesis, also observed during stress, whose finality might be to stimulate the secretion of hypophyseal ACTH, the main hormone involved in the interrelationship between endocrine and immune response. PMID:1819220

Boyer, R; Jame, F; Arancibia, S

1991-01-01

391

Llama oviductal sperm reservoirs: involvement of bulbourethral glands.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of llama seminal plasma in the formation of oviductal sperm reservoirs. Female llamas with follicles in the mature phase were mated with a bulbourethral glands-removed male. Females mated with nonbulbourethral glands-removed males were used as control. Oviducts were obtained by surgery 24 h after mating. The uterotubal junction and isthmus were examined by scanning electron microscopy, and mucopolysaccharides were identified by Alcian blue staining. To know the proteins probably involved in sperm reservoir formation, SDS-PAGE of seminal plasma (8% and 18% resolving gel) was made. Spermatozoa only adhered to the oviductal mucosa surface of uterotubal junction of females mated with nonbulbourethral glands-removed males confirming that seminal plasma and, in particular, bulbourethral secretions are related with the oviductal sperm reservoir formation. Histological sections showed sperm in the lumen, immersed in substance, positive for acid mucopolysaccharides. Alcian blue staining of seminal plasma proteins SDS-PAGE showed a band of high molecular weight containing mucopolysaccharides, only present in nonbulbourethral glands-removed males. Bulbourethral glands would secrete at least eight different proteins that most likely participate in the process of sperm storage in the oviduct. PMID:23463949

Apichela, S A; Argañaraz, M E; Giuliano, S; Zampini, R; Carretero, I; Miragaya, M; Miceli, D C

2013-03-01

392

Insights learned from pBTAi1, a 229-kb accessory plasmid from Bradyrhizobium sp. strain BTAi1 and prevalence of accessory plasmids in other Bradyrhizobium sp. strains.  

PubMed

In silico, physiological and in planta analyses were used to characterize pBTAi1, a 229-kb accessory plasmid from Bradyrhizobium sp. strain BTAi1, and assess its potential ecological function under free-living and symbiotic growth conditions. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of an uptake hydrogenase system, a repABC family plasmid replication module and open reading frames encoding type IV secretion system, TraI and TraR autoinducer proteins and several copper resistance-related proteins. Bradyrhizobium sp. BTAi1 was capable of growing in 200 mg l(-1) CuCl2. In contrast, the closely related, plasmid-free Bradyrhizobium sp. strain ORS278 could not grow at copper concentrations exceeding 100 mg l(-1). The plasmid-localized hydrogenase genes were phylogenetically distinct from those typically found in other rhizobial species, and were most related to hup genes from Thiobacillus denitrificans. The induction of the plasmid-borne hydrogenase genes during symbiosis was significantly lower than the two chromosomal-borne hydrogenase clusters. CHEF-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used for a comprehensive analysis of the diversity, abundance and genetic composition of accessory plasmids in other Bradyrhizobium strains. Plasmids were detected in 11 of 46 (23.9%) geographically diverse Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii strains, isolated from the United States, China and Thailand. Plasmid size was heterogeneous, ranging from 75 to 330 kb, with only two strains (DASA01244 and DASA01265) harboring plasmids with identical (240 kb) size. None of the plasmids harbored nodulation or hydrogenase genes. Taken together, our results indicate that while plasmids having ecologically significant functions may be detected in Bradyrhizobium sp. strains, they lack genes necessary for symbioses with legumes. PMID:18219284

Cytryn, Eddie J; Jitacksorn, Siriluck; Giraud, Eric; Sadowsky, Michael J

2008-01-24

393

Sebaceous lymphadenoma of submandibular gland.  

PubMed

Sebaceous lymphadenoma is a rare primary tumour of the salivary gland, benign in nature arising from differentiated Sebaceous glands and cells in the salivary gland. Most of the tumours are seen in the parotid gland and very rarely in the submandibular gland. Herein a case of sebaceous lymphadenoma is reported in a 45 years old female with a swelling in the submandibular region. Histopathological study after surgical excision showed islands of sebaceous epithelial cells with dense collections of lymphoid cells in stroma and a diagnosis of sebaceous lymphadenoma of submandibular gland was made. PMID:24000514

Pattnaik, Niharika; Parmar, Deepankar; Rao, B Rama Mohan; Rao, Epari Sanjeeva

2013-01-01

394

The evolution of sweat glands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mammals have two kinds of sweat glands, apocrine and eccrine, which provide for thermal cooling. In this paper we describe the distribution and characteristics of these glands in selected mammals, especially primates, and reject the suggested development of the eccrine gland from the apocrine gland during the Tertiary geological period. The evidence strongly suggests that the two glands, depending on the presence or absence of fur, have equal and similar functions among mammals; apocrine glands are not primitive. However, there is a unique and remarkable thermal eccrine system in humans; we suggest that this system evolved in concert with bipedalism and a smooth hairless skin.

Folk, G. Edgar; Semken, A.

1991-09-01

395

The evolution of sweat glands.  

PubMed

Mammals have two kinds of sweat glands, apocrine and eccrine, which provide for thermal cooling. In this paper we describe the distribution and characteristics of these glands in selected mammals, especially primates, and reject the suggested development of the eccrine gland from the apocrine gland during the Tertiary geological period. The evidence strongly suggests that the two glands, depending on the presence or absence of fur, have equal and similar functions among mammals; apocrine glands are not primitive. However, there is a unique and remarkable thermal eccrine system in humans; we suggest that this system evolved in concert with bipedalism and a smooth hairless skin. PMID:1778649

Folk, G E; Semken, H A

1991-11-01

396

A new type of exocrine gland and its function in mass recruitment in the ant Cylindromyrmex whymperi (Formicidae, Cerapachyinae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Workers of the ant Cylindromyrmex whymperi display mass trail recruitment. Bioassays show that the trail pheromone originates from a unique gland between abdominal sternites 6 and 7. The gland has a hitherto unknown structural organization. Upon leaving the secretory cell, the duct cell widens to form a sclerotized pear-shaped reservoir chamber, lined with multiple duct cells. Each duct thus forms a miniature reservoir for the secretions of each single secretory cell, a novel structural arrangement in exocrine glands of social Hymenoptera.

Gobin, Bruno; Rüppell, Olav; Hartmann, Annegret; Jungnickel, Harald; Morgan, David; Billen, Johan

2001-08-01

397

Autoregulation in the parathyroid glands by PTH\\/PTHrP receptor ligands in normal and uremic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoregulation in the parathyroid glands by PTH\\/PTHrP receptor ligands in normal and uremic rats.BackgroundThe secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) from the parathyroid glands might be regulated by autocrine\\/paracrine factors. We have previously shown that N-terminal parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) enhanced the secretory PTH response to low calcium in vivo and in vitro in rat parathyroid glands. N-terminal PTHrP fragments are

Ewa Lewin; Bartolome Garfia; Yolanda Almaden; Mariano Rodriguez; Klaus Olgaard

2003-01-01

398

Intervention of D-glucose ameliorates the toxicity of streptozotocin in accessory sex organs of rat  

SciTech Connect

Streptozotocin (STZ) is a naturally occurring compound isolated from Streptomyces achromogens. It is used extensively for inducing diabetes in experimental animals. Diabetes mellitus is known to have proven adverse effects on male sexual organs and their reproductive functions. The atrophy of prostate gland and other organs of the genitourinary tract were observed in experimental diabetic animals. STZ exhibits a structural resemblance to D-glucose due to the presence of sugar moiety in its structure. Pancreatic {beta}-cells mainly contain GLUT1 and GLUT2 glucose transporters. Possibly due to structural resemblance, STZ and D-glucose, share a common recognition site for entry into the {beta}-cells. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of D-glucose on STZ-induced toxicity in accessory sex organs of male rats. Animals were kept on overnight fasting. One group received vehicle and served as negative control, while all other groups were given STZ (45 mg/kg). Animals that received only STZ served as positive control. The effect of D-glucose was studied on STZ treated animals with different dosage of D-glucose (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg). Restoration of body weight, plasma glucose and plasma insulin was evident only at 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of D-glucose. The protective effect of D-glucose is evident only when it is administered simultaneously with STZ. In the present investigation, we report that simultaneous administration of D-glucose along with STZ ameliorates STZ-induced toxicity. This is evident from the restoration of accessory sex organ's weight, cellular morphology as well as insulin level.

Vikram, A.; Tripathi, D.N.; Ramarao, P. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab-160062 (India); Jena, G.B. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab-160062 (India)], E-mail: gbjena@gmail.com

2008-01-01

399

Molecular signaling pathways that regulate prostate gland development  

PubMed Central

Prostate gland development is a complex process that involves coordination of multiple signaling pathways including endocrine, paracrine, autocrine, juxtacrine and transcription factors. To put this into proper context, the present manuscript will begin with a brief overview of the stages of prostate development and a summary of androgenic signaling in the developing prostate, which is essential for prostate formation. This will be followed by a detailed description of other transcription factors and secreted morphogens directly involved in prostate formation and branching morphogenesis. Except where otherwise indicated, results from rodent models will be presented since studies that examine molecular signaling in the developing human prostate gland are sparse at the present time.

Putz, Oliver

2010-01-01

400

The SNARE Machinery in Mast Cell Secretion  

PubMed Central

Mast cells are known as inflammatory cells which exert their functions in allergic and anaphylactic reactions by secretion of numerous inflammatory mediators. During an allergic response, the high-affinity IgE receptor, Fc?RI, becomes cross-linked by receptor-bound IgE and antigen resulting in immediate release of pre-synthesized mediators – stored in granules – as well as in de novo synthesis of various mediators like cytokines and chemokines. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (SNAP) receptors (SNARE) proteins were found to play a central role in regulating membrane fusion events during exocytosis. In addition, several accessory regulators like Munc13, Munc18, Rab GTPases, secretory carrier membrane proteins, complexins, or synaptotagmins were found to be involved in membrane fusion. In this review we summarize our current knowledge about the SNARE machinery and its mechanism of action in mast cell secretion.

Lorentz, Axel; Baumann, Anja; Vitte, Joana; Blank, Ulrich

2012-01-01

401

Nasal secretion of the ozone scavenger uric acid  

SciTech Connect

Uric acid, an important scavenger of ozone, has been identified as the major low molecular weight antioxidant in baseline and cholinergically induced nasal secretions. The purpose of this study was to determine the specific tissue source of uric acid in airway secretions. The secretion of uric acid is increased by cholinergic stimulation and correlates closely with the secretion of lactoferrin (a nasal glandular protein), suggesting that submucosal glands are involved. Indeed, nasal turbinate tissue was found to contain uric acid. However, careful analysis of nasal turbinate tissue failed to reveal the presence of xanthine oxidase, the enzyme responsible for uric acid synthesis. These data suggest that uric acid might be taken up secondarily by glands from plasma. This possibility was strengthened by the observation that lowering the plasma urate level with probenecid concomitantly lowered urate secretion. These findings are consistent with the hypotheses that the principal source of uric acid in nasal secretions is plasma and that uric acid is taken up, concentrated, and secreted by nasal glands.

Peden, D.B.; Swiersz, M.; Ohkubo, K.; Hahn, B.; Emery, B.; Kaliner, M.A. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States))

1993-08-01

402

Avian Salt Glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processes involved at the apical and basal cell membranes in the formation of the hypertonic sodium chloride secretion in marine birds are discussed. Recent work indicates that the concentration gradient is established across the apical, i.e. luminal membrane probably by a sodium pump. There is also some evidence to suggest that during secretion, the uptake of sodium and chloride

M. Peaker

1971-01-01

403

Possible mechanisms of the histochemical changes in the eccrine sweat glands during stress.  

PubMed

In order to determine the relative role of neural factors in the regulation of the activity of the eccrine glands of rats during stress, the cytological and cytochemical criteria of their activity that we used earlier (glycogen, isoelectric point of the mitochondria, ratio of light and dark secretory cells) were applied to the eccrine glands of rats with chemical sympathectomy, induced for four-week administration of guanethidine. The level of sweat secretion and the histochemistry of monamine oxidase and cholinesterases were also investigated. It is found that after 2-h immobilization stress and in the case of chemical sympathectomy, the eccrine glands of rats exhibit practically complete similarity in the level of sweat secretion and in various histochemical indices of the activity of the glands and the state of the neuromediator systems. In comparison with the control, in these glands the sweat secretion is increased, there is no glycogen, the number of light secretory cells is increased and the number of dark ones decreased, the isoelectric point of the mitochondria is shifted by a unit of the pH scale in the alkaline direction, the monamine oxidase activity of the mitochondria of the secretory cells and the myelinated nerves is sharply reduced, and the anticholinesterase of the nerves that interlace the gland disappears. In the case of immobilization stress there is an apparent functional denervation of the eccrine glands. PMID:7225470

Sokolov, V E; Shabadash, S A; Zelikina, T I

404

Cellular site of gastric acid secretion.  

PubMed

Isolated gastric glands of the rabbit were examined both with differential interference-contrast microscopy and with electron microscopy to describe the morphologic correlates of acid secretion. Stimulation of the glands with histamine resulted in the development of intracellular spaces within the parietal cells. A similar transformation was produced by addition of 1 mM aminopyrine, whether the weak base was added in the presence of normal-K+ (5.4 mM) or high-K+ (108 mM) solutions. The intracellular space was compatible with the expanded canaliculus described in stimulated parietal cells. Confirmation that the space produced by histamine is the site of acid secretion was gained by combining fluorescence and interference-contrast methods in the presence of the dye acridine orange, which displays a pH-dependent metachromasia in its emission spectrum. Human gastrin I resulted in an observable discharge of peptic granules. PMID:42918

DiBona, D R; Ito, S; Berglindh, T; Sachs, G

1979-12-01

405

Zeis gland carcinoma.  

PubMed

Sebaceous carcinoma of the Zeis gland of the cilia is a rare malignant tumor. A 90-year-old Japanese man with a Zeis gland carcinoma on the left upper eyelid is reported. The tumor was a 12 x 3-mm, reddish, partially yellow, papillomatous nodule accompanied by loss of several lashes. Histologically, two types of tumor cells, a dark basaloid cell and a larger pale cell, showed lobular and comedo-acinar growth patterns. The carcinoma did not recur during the 8 months following surgery; however, the patient died of gastric carcinoma. PMID:9350107

Kato, N; Sotodate, A; Tomita, Y

1997-09-01

406

Salivary gland emergencies.  

PubMed

Salivary gland disorders are uncommon in the emergency department setting. Given the vast differential that spans infectious, autoimmune, neoplastic, and metabolic processes, they can pose a diagnostic challenge even to skilled clinicians. There is a paucity of evidence-based data regarding the management of these disorders with frequent incongruence between specific sources. Although by no means exhaustive or absolute, this article reconciles existing literature and serves as a concise and informative guide to salivary gland disorders encountered by the emergency care practitioner. PMID:23601484

Armstrong, Matthew A; Turturro, Michael A

2013-05-01

407

Scanning of the Salivary Glands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description is given of a technique of scanning of the salivary glands after Tc99m administration of sodium pertechnetate. Investigations were performed in 19 healthy persons and 34 patients. Scannograms of parotid and submaxillary salivary glands were ...

L. A. Yudin N. D. Kovalchuk N. F. Tarasov I. F. Romacheva

1971-01-01

408

The anterior pituitary gland: lessons from livestock.  

PubMed

There has been extensive research of the anterior pituitary gland of livestock and poultry due to the economic (agricultural) importance of physiological processes controlled by it including reproduction, growth, lactation and stress. Moreover, farm animals can be biomedical models or useful in evolutionary/ecological research. There are for multiple sites of control of the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones. These include the potential for independent control of proliferation, differentiation, de-differentiation and/or inter-conversion cell death, expression and translation, post-translational modification (potentially generating multiple isoforms with potentially different biological activities), release with or without a specific binding protein and intra-cellular catabolism (proteolysis) of pituitary hormones. Multiple hypothalamic hypophysiotropic peptides (which may also be produced peripherally, e.g. ghrelin) influence the secretion of the anterior pituitary hormones. There is also feedback for hormones from the target endocrine glands. These control mechanisms show broadly a consistency across species and life stages; however, there are some marked differences. Examples from growth hormone, prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone will be considered. In addition, attention will be focused on areas that have been neglected including the role of stellate cells, multiple sub-types of the major adenohypophyseal cells, functional zonation within the anterior pituitary and the role of multiple secretagogues for single hormones. PMID:15905067

Scanes, C G; Jeftinija, S; Glavaski-Joksimovic, A; Proudman, J; Arámburo, C; Anderson, L L

2005-07-01

409

Clinical collection and protein properties of expressed prostatic secretions as a source for biomarkers of prostatic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prostate gland secretes many proteins in a prostatic fluid that combines with seminal vesicle derived fluids to promote sperm activation and function. Proximal fluids of the prostate that can be collected clinically are seminal plasma and expressed-prostatic secretion (EPS) fluids. EPS represents the fluid being secreted by the prostate following a digital rectal prostate massage, which in turn can

Richard R. Drake; Krista Y. White; Thomas W. Fuller; Elena Igwe; Mary Ann Clements; Julius O. Nyalwidhe; Robert W. Given; Raymond S. Lance; O. John Semmes

2009-01-01

410

An Accessory Muscle of Pectoral Region: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Among the variations of pectoral muscles, this case appears to be unique in the literature. This was a case of an accessory pectoral muscle which was located between pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles, which was discovered during a routine anatomy dissection. The accessory muscle originated from 6th and 7th ribs at costo-chondral junction, which travelled supero-laterally and inserted by fusing with fibres of pectoralis minor. This unusual muscle holds importance for surgeons while they perform dissectomies, in avoiding complications.

Bannur, B.M.; Mallashetty, Nagaraj; Endigeri, Preetish

2013-01-01

411

Management of Salivary Gland Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Carcinomas of the salivary glands are uncommon representing only 2–6.5% of all head and neck cancer and less than 1% of all\\u000a cancers. About 85% of salivary gland tumors arise in the parotid glands and approximately 75% of these are benign while about\\u000a 75% of tumors arising from minor salivary glands are malignant. The latest WHO’s histological classification (2005) includes

Laura D. Locati; Marco Guzzo; Patrizia Olmi; Lisa Licitra

412

Ideal secret sharing schemes with multiple secrets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider secret sharing schemes which, through an initial issuing of shares to a group of participants, permit a number of different secrets to be protected. Each secret is associated with a (potentially different) access structure and a particular secret can be reconstructed by any group of participants from its associated access structure without the need for further broadcast information.

Wen-Ai Jackson; Keith M. Martin; Christine M. O'Keefe

1996-01-01

413

75 FR 41523 - Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job Connections, New Smithville...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TA-W-71,106; TA-W-71,106A] Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site...Job Connections, New Smithville, PA; Paris Accessories, Inc., Allentown, PA...Reconsideration applicable to workers of Paris Accessories, Inc., including...

2010-07-16

414

75 FR 34180 - Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job Connections, New Smithsville...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Training Administration [TA-W-71,106] Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site...reconsideration, I determine that workers of Paris Accessories, Inc., New Smithsville...following certification: All workers of Paris Accessories, Inc., New...

2010-06-16

415

The paracellular component of water flow in the rat submandibular salivary gland  

PubMed Central

The pathway of water flow during salivary secretion by the isolated, perfused rat submandibular gland was examined using a family of homologous radiodextran molecules as probes of paracellular fluid transfer. The secretion/perfusate ratio (S/P) of the secreted probes versus molecular radius during fluid secretion evoked by ACh could be resolved into two components: one that fitted a free-diffusion (Stokes-Einstein) curve and indicated diffusion through large channels, and a convective component that was linearly related to radius. The convective component had a cut-off point at 0.5 nm (5 Å) radius and an S/P intercept of near 1.0 at the radius of water, which indicates that most of the volume flow was paracellular. The nature of such a paracellular flow is discussed together with the possible integration of this volume flow with the cellular transport of ions, resulting in an isotonic primary secretion from the gland.

Murakami, Masataka; Shachar-Hill, Bruria; Steward, Martin C; Hill, A E

2001-01-01

416

Autocrine regulation of milk secretion by a protein in milk.  

PubMed

Frequency or completeness of milk removal from the lactating mammary gland regulates the rate of milk secretion by a mechanism which is local, chemical and inhibitory in nature. Screening of goat's milk proteins in rabbit mammary explant cultures identified a single whey protein of M(r) 7600 able to inhibit synthesis of milk constituents. The active whey protein, which we term FIL (Feedback inhibitor of Lactation), also decreased milk secretion temporarily when introduced into a mammary gland of lactating goats. FIL was synthesized by primary cultures of goat mammary epithelial cells, and was secreted vectorially together with other milk proteins. N-terminal amino acid sequencing indicated that it is a hitherto unknown protein. The evidence indicates that local regulation of milk secretion by milk removal is through autocrine feedback inhibition by this milk protein. PMID:7826353

Wilde, C J; Addey, C V; Boddy, L M; Peaker, M

1995-01-01

417

Adrenal gland and bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adrenal gland synthesizes steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex and catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. Both cortisol and adrenal androgens can have powerful effects on bone. The overproduction of cortisol in Cushing’s disease leads to a dramatic reduction in bone density and an increase risk of fracture. Overproduction of adrenal androgens in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) leads to marked

Rowan Hardy; Mark S. Cooper

2010-01-01

418

Salivary gland infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Warm salt water rinses (1/2 teaspoon of salt in 1 cup of water) may be soothing and keep the mouth moist. Drink lots of water and use sugar-free lemon drops to increase the flow of saliva and reduce swelling. Massaging the gland with heat may help.

419

Ectopic Lacrimal Gland Tissue.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All of the cases coded as aberrant or ectopic lacrimal gland at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology were reexamined, and observations on 35 are reported. The cornea was involved in ten of the 18 cases in which the choristomatous tissue was present in ...

W. R. Green L. Zimmerman

1967-01-01

420

Salivary gland and autoimmunity.  

PubMed

Recent evidences suggest that the apoptotic pathway plays a central role in tolerazing T cells to tissue-specific self antigen, and may drive the autoimmune phenomenon in the salivary glands. We found that retinoblastoma-associated protein RbAp48 overexpression induces p53-mediated apoptosis in the salivary glands caused by estrogen deficiency. We demonstrated that transgenic (Tg) expression of RbAp48 resulted in the development of autoimmune exocrinopathy resembling Sjögren's syndrome (SS). CD4(+)T cell-mediated autoimmune lesions in the salivary glands were aggravated with age, in association with autoantibody productions. We obtained evidences that salivary epithelial cells can produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) besides interleukin (IL)-18, which activates interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1), and class II transactivator (CIITA). Indeed, the autoimmune lesions into Rag2(-/-) mice were induced by the adoptive transfer of lymph node cells from RbAp48-Tg mice. These results indicate a novel immunocompetent role of epithelial cells that can produce IFN-gamma, resulting in loss of local tolerance prior to developing gender-based autoimmunity. The studies reviewed the molecular mechanisms on the development of salivary gland autoimmunity, and gender-related differences in SS. PMID:20224179

Hayashi, Yoshio; Arakaki, Rieko; Ishimaru, Naozumi

2009-01-01

421

Circulating immunoglobulin A- and immunoglobulin G-secreting hybridoma cells in peripheral blood preferably migrate to female genital tracts. The role of sex hormones  

PubMed Central

Antigen-specific circulating immunoglobulin-secreting cells (ISC) migrate to various secondary and tertiary lymphoid tissues. To understand the migration of the cells into the genital tract and its regulation by sex hormones, spleen-derived SG2 hybridoma cells secreting immunoglobulin G2b (IgG2b) and Peyer's patch-derived PA4 hybridoma cells secreting polymer IgA were labelled with 3H-TdR, and intravenously injected into syngeneic mice of both sexes. Using flow cytometry, surface molecular markers of plasma cells, CD38 and CD138, and adhesion molecules, CD49d, CD162, and CD11a were found to be positive in SG2 and PA4 cells, but CD62L, ?4?7 and CD44 were not expressed on these cells. The relative distribution indexes (RDIs) of the cells in genital tract and other tissues were measured. The means of RDIs of SG2 and PA4 cells in female genital tissues were 6·5 and 4·5 times as many as the means in male genital tissues, respectively. The treatment of ovariectomized mice with ?-oestradiol significantly increased the RDIs of PA4 cells in cervix and vagina, but decreased the RDIs of SG2 cells in vagina, horn of uterus, uterus and rectum (P<0·05). Progesterone treatment increased the RDIs of PA4 cells in vagina and rectum (P<0·05). The treatment with testosterone significantly increased the RDIs of SG2 and PA4 cells in epididymis and accessory sex glands (P<0·05). These results demonstrate that the female genital tract is the preferable site for the migration of circulating hybridoma cells to the male genital tract, and sex hormones play an important role in regulation of the migration of circulating ISC to genital tracts.

Wang, Xiaolei; Zhao, Xudong; Ben, Kunlong; Cao, Xiaomei; Wang, Yuqi; Zhou, Hongming

2002-01-01

422

Disruptive effects of anion secretion inhibitors on airway mucus morphology in isolated perfused pig lung  

PubMed Central

Since anion secretion inhibitors reproduce important aspects of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease, the effects of these antagonists on airway mucus morphology were assessed in isolated perfused pig lungs. Maximal inhibitory concentrations of bumetanide and dimethylamiloride, which respectively block Cl? and HCO3? secretion in porcine airways, induced the formation of dense ‘plastered’ mucus on the airway surface, depletion of periciliary fluid and collapse of cilia. This effect was more pronounced when lungs were also exposed to bethanechol to stimulate submucosal gland secretion, when plastered mucus covered > 98% of the airway surface. Bethanechol also reduced gland duct mucin content in the absence, but not presence, of the anion secretion inhibitors. Anion secretion inhibitors did not induce measurable increases in goblet cell degranulation. We conclude that inhibition of anion and liquid secretion in porcine lungs disrupts the normal morphology of airway surface mucus, providing further evidence that impaired anion secretion alone could account for critical aspects of CF lung disease.

Trout, Laura; Townsley, Mary I; Bowden, Amy L; Ballard, Stephen T

2003-01-01

423

21 CFR 884.4150 - Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories...Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4150 Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories. (a) Identification. A bipolar endoscopic...

2009-04-01

424

21 CFR 884.4150 - Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories...Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4150 Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories. (a) Identification. A bipolar endoscopic...

2010-04-01

425

49 CFR 178.255-7 - Protection of valves and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...Tanks § 178.255-7 Protection of valves and accessories. (a) All valves, fittings, accessories, safety devices, gauging devices, and...

2012-10-01

426

21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6190 Assisted... (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical...

2013-04-01

427

21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and...

2013-04-01

428

22 CFR 121.8 - End-items, components, accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. 121.8 Section 121...accessories, attachments, parts, firmware, software and systems. (a) An end-item...is not limited to circuits into which software has been programmed. (f)...

2013-04-01

429

Viperid venom glands with defective venom production. Morphological study.  

PubMed

The venom of viperid snakes is collected monthly at Butantan Institute for research purposes and production of antivenoms. Here we describe histological and ultrastructural changes on Crotalus durissus terrificus and Bothrops sp. venom glands with defective venom production. Secretory tubules commonly showed partial or total obliteration of their lumina by masses of necrotic cells and cellular debris. Secretory cells showed varying degrees of degenerative and/or metaplastic alterations seriously affecting the structures responsible for the synthesis and secretion of venom. The intertubular connective tissue presented fibroblast hyperplasia, inflammatory cells infiltration, vacuolated cells and blood vessels alterations. In two venom glands out of nineteen snakes examined, virus-like particles were found. The alterations observed in most of the glands could have been caused by excessive manual pressure, during venom extraction routine, causing disruption of the secretory tubules and leakage of venom to the intertubular connective tissue. PMID:23583664

Giannotti, Karina Cristina; Sesso, Antonio; Grego, Kathleen Fernandes; Fernandes, Wilson; Cardoso, Rubens Pinto; Camargo, Gabriela Grilo; Carneiro, Sylvia Mendes

2013-04-09

430

The sea lamprey has a primordial accessory olfactory system  

PubMed Central

Background A dual olfactory system, represented by two anatomically distinct but spatially proximate chemosensory epithelia that project to separate areas of the forebrain, is known in several classes of tetrapods. Lungfish are the earliest evolving vertebrates known to have this dual system, comprising a main olfactory and a vomeronasal system (VNO). Lampreys, a group of jawless vertebrates, have a single nasal capsule containing two anatomically distinct epithelia, the main (MOE) and the accessory olfactory epithelia (AOE). We speculated that lamprey AOE projects to specific telencephalic regions as a precursor to the tetrapod vomeronasal system. Results To test this hypothesis, we characterized the neural circuits and molecular profiles of the accessory olfactory epithelium in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Neural tract-tracing revealed direct and reciprocal connections with the dorsomedial telencephalic neuropil (DTN) which in turn projects directly to the dorsal pallium and the rostral hypothalamus. High-throughput sequencing demonstrated that the main and the accessory olfactory epithelia have virtually identical profiles of expressed genes. Real time quantitative PCR confirmed expression of representatives of all 3 chemoreceptor gene families identified in the sea lamprey genome. Conclusion Anatomical and molecular evidence shows that the sea lamprey has a primordial accessory olfactory system that may serve a chemosensory function.

2013-01-01

431

Accessory child safety harnesses: do the risks outweigh the benefits?  

PubMed

Accessory child safety harnesses are available in some countries as alternative restraints for young children or as an accessory restraint used with booster seats. Their use, in Australia at least, is becoming more common. There have been concerns that the risk of misuse of these restraints outweighs any potential benefit this system might have over a retractable lap-shoulder belt system used with a booster seat. However to date there is no evidence to confirm or deny this. This study used laboratory simulated frontal crash tests to examine the performance of accessory child safety harness systems compared to the lap-shoulder belt when used alone and when used with two common designs of Australian booster seat. The performance of the child safety harness system when misused was also investigated. The results demonstrate that the correctly used child safety harness system performed no better than the lap-shoulder system, and in fact allows for a greater risk of submarining. Furthermore, one common form of child safety harness misuse, where the harness is over-tightened causing the lap belt to be positioned high over the abdomen, allowed extremely undesirable dummy motion. This involved gross submarining and direct contact between the harness system and the dummy's neck. These findings suggest that the risks associated with accessory child safety harness systems most likely outweigh any potential benefits, in frontal impacts at least. PMID:19887151

Brown, Julie; Wainohu, Derek; Aquilina, Peter; Suratno, Basuki; Kelly, Paul; Bilston, Lynne E

2009-08-03

432

Conservative management of accessory spleen torsion in children.  

PubMed

Accessory spleen torsion is very rare condition especially in children. The aim of this study is to report the conservative treatment option. In April 2009 we observed a 10-year-old child affected by hereditary spherocytosis who reported acute abdominal pain without fever or vomiting. At hospitalization all blood tests were within normal value. Abdominal ultrasounds showed an increase in spleen volume and a solid round-shaped hypoechogenic formation with hyperechogenic areas in the lower pole without vascolarisation on color-Doppler scan. These findings suggested torsion of the accessory spleen. We opted for a conservative approach: analgesics on demand and antibiotics. After a week symptoms resolved spontaneously and patient was discharged in good health conditions. Follow-up ultrasound scans were performed at one week, three-six months and one year after hospitalization and showed a progressive reduction of the dimensions of the solid round-shaped formation. Accessory spleen torsion needs to be added to the differential diagnosis of cases of acute abdomen in children. Ultrasounds with eco-color-Doppler scans seem to be the best option for the diagnosis of such condition in the pediatric age since other diagnostic methods are more invasive and require sedation of patients. Once accessory spleen torsion is correctly diagnosed it is possible to opt for its conservative treatment. PMID:24051978

Scirè, G; Zampieri, N; El-Dalati, G; Camoglio, F S

2013-08-01

433

21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

A hemodialysis system and accessories is a device that is used as an artificial kidney system for the treatment of patients with renal failure or toxemic conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a dialysate delivery system, and...

2009-04-01

434

21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

A hemodialysis system and accessories is a device that is used as an artificial kidney system for the treatment of patients with renal failure or toxemic conditions and that consists of an extracorporeal blood system, a conventional dialyzer, a dialysate delivery system, and...

2010-04-01

435

Clothing/Apparel and Accessories Merchandising. A Suggested Interdisciplinary Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide contains three sections: introduction, curriculum material, and an annotated bibliography. Introductory information provides an overview of the clothing/apparel and accessories merchandising area, aptitudes needed, and career opportunities; discusses potential career ladders, which are divided into entry level, middle…

Wray, Ralph D.; Hayden, Margaret B.

436

Evolutionary dynamics of the accessory genome of Listeria monocytogenes.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is comprised of four phylogenetic lineages that vary with regard to their serotypes and distribution among sources. In order to characterize lineage-specific genomic diversity within L. monocytogenes, we sequenced the genomes of eight strains from several lineages and serotypes, and characterized the accessory genome, which was hypothesized to contribute to phenotypic differences across lineages. The eight L. monocytogenes genomes sequenced range in size from 2.85-3.14 Mb, encode 2,822-3,187 genes, and include the first publicly available sequenced representatives of serotypes 1/2c, 3a and 4c. Mapping of the distribution of accessory genes revealed two distinct regions of the L. monocytogenes chromosome: an accessory-rich region in the first 65° adjacent to the origin of replication and a more stable region in the remaining 295°. This pattern of genome organization is distinct from that of related bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The accessory genome of all lineages is enriched for cell surface-related genes and phosphotransferase systems, and transcriptional regulators, highlighting the selective pressures faced by contemporary strains from their hosts, other microbes, and their environment. Phylogenetic analysis of O-antigen genes and gene clusters predicts that serotype 4 was ancestral in L. monocytogenes and serotype 1/2 associated gene clusters were putatively introduced through horizontal gene transfer in the ancestral population of L. monocytogenes lineage I and II. PMID:23825666

den Bakker, Henk C; Desjardins, Christopher A; Griggs, Allison D; Peters, Joseph E; Zeng, Qiandong; Young, Sarah K; Kodira, Chinnappa D; Yandava, Chandri; Hepburn, Theresa A; Haas, Brian J; Birren, Bruce W; Wiedmann, Martin

2013-06-25

437

21 CFR 884.1600 - Transabdominal amnioscope (fetoscope) and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Date premarket approval application (PMA) or notice of completion of a product development protocol (PDP) is required. A PMA or a notice of completion of a PDP...and accessories shall have an approved PMA or a declared completed PDP in effect...

2013-04-01

438

Advancement of Small Gas Turbine Engine Accessory Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic requirements for controls and accessories for gas generators in the 2-to-5 pound per second airflow range are established. These requirements are then investigated in terms of current and projected state-of-the-art relative to the various contro...

H. L. Richardson R. M. Tommasini

1967-01-01

439

Basketry accessories: footwear, bags and fans in ancient Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ancient Egyptians had —by the New Kingdom— developed many basket making and matting techniques. These techniques were not only used for making all types and sizes of baskets and mats, but were also adopted for making other accessories such as bags, fans and different types of footwear, that seem to have been heavily used. Materials and techniques of nine objects

N. M. N. El Hadidi; R. Hamdy

2011-01-01

440

Schwannoma of the Spinal Accessory Nerve: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

We are reporting a rare case of a schwannoma which originated from the cervical portion of the spinal accessory nerve, which was located in the left posterior triangle of the neck and did not have any neurological deficit, which was diagnosed by the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan and confirmed histopathologically after surgery.

Kohli, Ritesh; Singh, Surinder; Gupta, Sahwani K.; Matreja, Prithpal S.

2013-01-01

441

49 CFR 192.147 - Flanges and flange accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...flange or flange accessory (other than cast iron) must meet the minimum requirements...Each flange on a flanged joint in cast iron pipe must conform in dimensions...design to ASME/ANSI B16.1 and be cast integrally with the pipe,...

2011-10-01

442

Patent Accessory Canals: Incidence in Molar Furcation Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A total of 46 extracted maxillary and mandibular molars were examined to determine the incidence of accessory canals in the coronal and middle third of the root surface. A radiopaque dye was drawn through the root canal system under a vacuum of 5 p.s.i., ...

J. V. Lowman R. S. Burke G. B. Pelleu

1974-01-01

443

Mrap2: an accessory protein linked to obesity.  

PubMed

Melanocortin receptors are critical modulators of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. Companion studies published in Science (Asai et al., 2013; Sebag et al., 2013) establish a role for melanocortin receptor accessory protein 2 (Mrap2) in regulating melanocortin receptor activity and in the development of obesity in zebrafish, rodents, and humans. PMID:24011068

Liu, Tiemin; Elmquist, Joel K; Williams, Kevin W

2013-09-01

444

Peripheral melatonin mediates neural stimulation of duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion  

PubMed Central

Melatonin is released from intestinal enterochromaffin cells and from the pineal gland, but its role in gastrointestinal function is largely unknown. Our aim was to study the involvement of intestinal and central nervous melatonin in the neurohumoral control of the duodenal mucosa-protective bicarbonate secretion. Working in anesthetized rats, we cannulated a 12-mm segment of duodenum with an intact blood supply and titrated the local bicarbonate secretion with pH-stat. Melatonin and receptor ligands were supplied to the duodenum by close intra-arterial infusion. Even at low doses, melatonin and the full agonist 2-iodo-N-butanoyl-5-methoxytryptamine increased duodenal bicarbonate secretion. Responses were inhibited by the predominantly MT2-selective antagonist luzindole but not by prazosin, acting at MT3 receptors. Also, luzindole almost abolished the marked rise in secretion induced by intracerebroventricular infusion of the adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. This response was also abolished by sublaryngeal ligation of all nerves around the carotid arteries. However, it was insensitive to truncal vagotomy alone or sympathectomy alone and was unaffected by removal of either the pineal gland or pituitary gland. Thus, melatonin stimulates duodenal bicarbonate secretion via action at enterocyte MT2-receptors and mediates neural stimulation of the secretion.

Sjoblom, Markus; Jedstedt, Gunilla; Flemstrom, Gunnar

2001-01-01

445

A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Consumers’ Conspicuous Consumption of Branded Fashion Accessories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study attempts to (1) demonstrate whether the purchase of branded fashion accessories is motivated by consumers’ desire to reflect their social status, convey their self-image, and boost their self-esteem; (2) find whether the purchase of luxury fashion accessories may fall under the umbrella of conspicuous consumption; and (3) examine whether conspicuous consumption of branded fashion accessories varies across cultures.

Nizar Souiden; Bouthaina M’Saad; Frank Pons

2011-01-01

446

The poison gland of the ant Myrmicaria eumenoides and its role in recruitment communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The antMyrmicaria eumenoides is a significant arthropod predator. For rapid attraction of large numbers of nestmates to newly discovered food sources the ants use an efficient recruitment communication system based on the poison gland secretion. Workers exhibit age-based division of labour. Young workers perform brood-care; their poison gland reservoir develops and reaches its final size of ˜ 0.5 µl

Manfred Kaib; Hubert Dittebrand

1990-01-01

447

Prostaglandins as biochemical markers of radiation injury to the salivary glands after iodine-131 therapy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Because salivary glands, as well as thyroid tissue, are able to concentrate radioiodine, the treatment of thyroid diseases\\u000a with iodine-131 may have secondary effects on salivary gland function which seriously impair the quality of life. Such effects\\u000a include sialoadenitis and xerostomia. Salivary secretion is stimulated by prosta- glandins (PGs). In this study we evaluate\\u000a whether 131I therapy influences the

Margarida Rodrigues; Ernst Havlik; Bernhard Peskar; Helmut Sinzinger

1998-01-01

448

Functional vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-system in salt glands of the Pekin duck  

Microsoft Academic Search

In saltwater-acclimated ducks with fully specialized supraorbital salt glands, intracarotid application of acetylcholine (5 nmoles\\/min\\/kg b.w.) or porcine vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (pVIP) (240 pmoles\\/min\\/kg b.w.) induced secretion from the salt glands at threshold conditions of secretory activity. pVIP-like immunoreactivity could be localized in fibers of the postganglionic secretory nerve ramifying throughout the glandular parenchyma. Both middle-sized arterioles and secretory tubules

Rfidiger Gerstberger

1988-01-01

449

ISOLATION OF IXODES RICINUS SALIVARY GLAND mRNA ENCODING FACTORS INDUCED DURING BLOOD FEEDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tick salivary glands, genes induced during blood feeding result in the expression of new proteins secreted into tick saliva. These proteins are potentially involved in modulation of vertebrate host immune and hemostatic responses. In this study, subtractive and full-length cDNA libraries were constructed by use of mRNA extracted from salivary glands of unfed and 5-day engorged Ixodes ricinus. Sequences

GERARD LEBOULLE; CANDICE ROCHEZ; JAMILA LOUAHED; BERNARD RUTTI; MICHEL BROSSARD; ALEX BOLLEN; EDMOND GODFROID

450

Uterine Gland Formation in Mice Is a Continuous Process, Requiring the Ovary after Puberty, But Not after Parturition1  

PubMed Central

Uterine gland formation occurs postnatally in an ovary- and steroid-independent manner in many species, including humans. Uterine glands secrete substances that are essential for embryo survival. Disruption of gland development during the postnatal period prevents gland formation, resulting in infertility. Interestingly, stabilization of beta-catenin (CTNNB1) in the uterine stroma causes a delay in gland formation rather than a complete absence of uterine glands. Thus, to determine if a critical postnatal window for gland development exists in mice, we tested the effects of extending the endocrine environment of pregnancy on uterine gland formation by treating neonatal mice with estradiol, progesterone, or oil for 5 days. One uterine horn was removed before puberty, and the other was collected at maturity. Some mice were also ovariectomized before puberty. The hormone-treated mice exhibited a delay in uterine gland formation. Hormone-treatment increased the abundance of uterine CTNNB1 and estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) before puberty, indicating possible mechanisms for delayed gland formation. Despite having fewer glands, progesterone-treated mice were fertile, suggesting that a threshold number of glands is required for pregnancy. Mice that were ovariectomized before puberty did not undergo further uterine growth or gland development. Finally, to establish the role of the ovary in postpartum uterine gland regeneration, mice were either ovariectomized or given a sham surgery after parturition, and uteri were evaluated 1 wk later. We found that the ovary is not required for uterine growth or gland development following parturition. Thus, uterine gland development occurs continuously in mice and requires the ovary after puberty, but not after parturition.

Stewart, C. Allison; Fisher, Sara J.; Wang, Ying; Stewart, M. David; Hewitt, Sylvia C.; Rodriguez, Karina F.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Behringer, Richard R.

2011-01-01

451

The morphogenesis of spermathecae and spermathecal glands in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Sperm storage in female insects is important for reproductive success and sperm competition. In Drosophila melanogaster females, sperm viability during storage is dependent upon secretions produced by spermathecae and parovaria. Class III dermal glands are present in both structures. Spermathecal glands are initially comprised of a three-cell unit that is refined to a single secretory cell in the adult. It encapsulates an end-apparatus joining to a cuticular duct passing secretions to the spermathecal lumen. We have examined spermatheca morphogenesis using DIC and fluorescence microscopy. In agreement with a recent study, cell division ceases by 36 h after puparium formation (APF). Immunostaining of the plasma membrane at this stage demonstrates that gland cells wrap around the developing end-apparatus and each other. By 48-60 h APF, the secretory cell exhibits characteristic adult morphology of an enlarged nucleus and extracellular reservoir. A novel finding is the presence of an extracellular reservoir in the basal support cell that is continuous with the secretory cell reservoir. Some indication of early spermathecal gland formation is evident in the division of enlarged cells lying adjacent to the spermathecal lumen at 18 h APF and in cellular processes that bind clusters of cells between 24 and 30 h APF. PMID:23872109

Mayhew, Mark Leonard; Merritt, David John

2013-07-18

452

Image Secret Sharing Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents an image secret sharing method which essentially incorporates two k-out-of-n secret sharing schemes: (1) Shamir's secret sharing scheme and (2) matrix projection secret sharing scheme. The technique allows a secret image to be divided ...

A. Ortiz D. Dalessandro L. Bai S. Biswas

2006-01-01

453

Melanocortin 4 Receptor Becomes an ACTH Receptor by Coexpression of Melanocortin Receptor Accessory Protein 2.  

PubMed

Melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) is the only canonical ACTH receptor. Its functional expression requires the presence of an accessory protein, known as melanocortin receptor 2 accessory protein 1 (MRAP1). The vertebrate genome exhibits a paralogue gene called MRAP2, which is duplicated in zebrafish (MRAP2a and MRAP2b), although its function remains unknown. In this paper, we demonstrate that MRAP2a enables MC4R, a canonical MSH receptor, to be activated by ACTH with a similar sensitivity to that exhibited by MC2R. Both proteins physically interact and are coexpressed in the neurons of the preoptic area, a key region in the control of the energy balance and hypophyseal secretion in fish. ACTH injections inhibit food intake in wild-type zebrafish but not in fish lacking functional MC4R. Both MRAP1 and MRAP2a are hormonally regulated, suggesting that these proteins are substrates for feed-back regulatory pathways of melanocortin signaling. Fasting has no effect on the central expression of MRAP2a but stimulates MRAP2b expression. This protein interacts and is colocalized with MC4R in the tuberal hypothalamic neurons but has no effect on the pharmacologic profile of MC4R. However, MRPA2b is able to decrease basal reporter activity in cell lines expressing MC4R. It is plausible that MRAP2b decreases the constitutive activity of the MC4R during fasting periods, driving the animal toward a positive energy balance. Our data indicate that MRAP2s control the activity of MC4R, opening up new pathways for the regulation of melanocortin signaling and, by extension, for the regulation of the energy balance and obesity. PMID:24085819

Josep Agulleiro, Maria; Cortés, Raúl; Fernández-Durán, Begoña; Navarro, Sandra; Guillot, Raúl; Meimaridou, Eirini; Clark, Adrian J L; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel

2013-10-01

454

Mammary Gland Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Knockout mice have been made which carry null mutations of genes encoding molecules essential for prolactin release, prolactin,\\u000a the prolactin receptor and various members of the receptor’s signalling pathway, allowing in vivo genetic analysis of the role of the lactogenic hormones in mammary gland development. In prolactin and prolactin receptor\\u000a knockout mice mammary ductal side branching was absent, terminal end

Christopher J. Ormandy; Nelson D. Horseman; Matthew J. Naylor; Jessica Harris; Fiona Robertson; Nadine Binart; Paul A. Kelly

455