Sample records for accessory gland secretions

  1. Morphology and protein patterns of honey bee drone accessory glands.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Landim, Carminda da; Dallacqua, Rodrigo Pires

    2005-01-01

    We used light and transmission electron microscopy to examine the morphology of the accessory glands of immature and mature adult males of Apis mellifera L. We also made an electrophoretic analysis of the protein content of the mature gland. The glands of the immature male actively secrete a mucous substance that can be seen in the lumen of the gland of the mature male. This secretion stains with mercury bromophenol blue and with periodic acid-Schiff reaction, which stain glyconjugates. The protein content was higher in the lumen secretion than in the gland wall extracts. The electrophoresis patterns of the wall extracts were different from those of the secretion found in the gland lumen. PMID:16342031

  2. Isolation of serotonin from the accessory salivary glands of the marine snail Nucella lapillus.

    PubMed

    West, D J; Andrews, E B; McVean, A R; Osborne, D J; Thorndyke, M C

    1994-10-01

    We report here the presence of a bioactive compound in the secretion of the accessory salivary glands (ASGs) of Nucella lapillus. We have purified the compound using HPLC and identified it as serotonin by mass spectrometry, UV spectroscopy, HPLC and capillary electrophoresis. Serotonin was not found in the secretions of the acinous salivary glands or the hypobranchial gland. The amount of serotonin in the secretion of the ASGs does not show seasonal or regional variation. PMID:7846696

  3. Oncocytic carcinoma of the accessory lobe of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Colella, Giuseppe; Apicella, Adolfo; Bove, Pierfrancesco; Rossiello, Luigi; Trodella, Michele; Rossiello, Raffaele

    2010-11-01

    Oncocytic carcinoma is a rare tumor of the parotid gland. An additional case, characterized by an exceptional localization in the accessory lobe of the parotid gland, never reported to date in the literature, is described. The clinical and histologic difficulties in relationship to the diagnosis of a midcheek mass consisting of an unusual tumor are emphasized. PMID:21119478

  4. Ductal Cysts of the Accessory Lacrimal Glands: CT Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nabil J. Khoury; Maurice C. Haddad; Ayman N. Tawil; Riad N. Ma' luf

    Summary: Benign ductal cysts of the accessory lacrimal glands are uncommon lesions of the orbit, arising from the glands of Wolfring and Krause. We report two patients with histopathologically proved cysts in whom CT scans revealed well-circumscribed extraconal cystic lesions ad- jacent to the globe, involving both eyelids. Radiologists should be aware of these rare lesions so as to include

  5. Chemocauterization of Congenital Fistula from the Accessory Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bong Jik; Sung, Myung-Whun; Kim, Kwang Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Congenital sialo-cutaneous fistula arising from the accessory parotid gland is extremely rare. Although the fistula tract can be successfully excised after making a skin incision along the skin tension line around the fistula opening, a facial scar inevitably remains. We here report a case of sialo-cutaneous fistula that was treated with chemocauterization with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). TCA cauterization is an easy and effective option for the treatment of congenital fistula from an accessory parotid gland, especially from the aesthetic point of view. PMID:19434283

  6. Female accessory glands and sperm reception in Tingidae (Heteroptera)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Livingstone; M H S Yacoob

    1990-01-01

    Studies on the anatomy of the female internal organs of reproduction and the intromittent organs of 34 species of Tingidae\\u000a confirm the absence of spermathecae. The accessory glands are vesicular and primitively unpaired. There is no vermiform gland\\u000a and the term pseudosperrnatheca, introduced by Carayon in heteropteran literature, is a misnomer. The lateral oviduct and\\u000a all the 7 pedicels of

  7. Liquid secretion properties of airway submucosal glands

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Stephen T; Inglis, Sarah K

    2004-01-01

    The tracheobronchial submucosal glands secrete liquid that is important for hydrating airway surfaces, supporting mucociliary transport, and serving as a fluid matrix for numerous secreted macromolecules including the gel-forming mucins. This review details the essential structural elements of airway glands and summarizes what is currently known regarding the ion transport processes responsible for producing the liquid component of gland secretion. Liquid secretion most likely arises from serous cells and is principally under neural control with muscarinic agonists, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) functioning as effective secretogogues. Liquid secretion is driven by the active transepithelial secretion of both Cl? and HCO3? and at least a portion of this process is mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which is highly expressed in glands. The potential role of submucosal glands in cystic fibrosis lung disease is discussed. PMID:14660706

  8. Male Accessory Gland Infection: Relevance of Serum Total Testosterone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, R. A.; Calogero, A. E.; Vicari, E.; Favilla, V.; Cimino, S.; Russo, G. I.; Morgia, G.; La Vignera, S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate the different ultrasound characterization of fertile symptomatic patients with MAGI (male accessory gland infection) according to different serum concentrations of total T (TT). We analyzed the ultrasound and hormonal data of 200 patients aged between 24.0 and 67.0 years. Patients were divided into six groups according to the sextile distribution of TT. Patients with serum concentrations of TT < 3.6?ng?mL?1 had a higher mean duration of symptoms compared to the other examined groups. Patients with serum concentrations of TT > 6.6?ng?mL?1 showed a frequency of ultrasound criteria suggestive for bilateral form of prostatitis and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis and significantly lower compared to the other examined groups. At multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and BMI, TT was an independent predictive factor of prostatovesiculitis (OR = 0.818 [95% CI: 0.675–0.992]; P < 0.01) and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis (OR = 0.714 [95% CI: 0.578–0.880]; P < 0.01), which represent the main forms of complicated MAGI. The results of this study suggest that male hypogonadism could be associated with a different ultrasound characterization of these patients. PMID:25276133

  9. Morphology of accessory genital glands of spotted paca (Agouti paca Linnaeus, 1766).

    PubMed

    Borges, Edson Moreira; Branco, Érika; de Lima, Ana Rita; Leal, Leonardo Martins; Martins, Leandro Luiz; Reis, Ana Carolina Gonçalves; Cruz, Claudinei; Machado, Márcia Rita Fernandes; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2014-02-01

    The spotted paca is the second largest rodent in Brazil, where it is of great economic interest in impoverished regions in view of its prominence as a low-cost source of protein. Little is known about the morphology of the accessory genital glands of this species. Thus, we studied the position and morphology of the genitals in ten adult male spotted pacas. The animals were divided into two groups, five animals were used for fixing of samples in 10% aqueous formaldehyde for macroscopic studies and the other five animals were designated for microscopic analysis. These were arranged in pairs and had the vesicular, prostate, coagulating and bulbourethral glands identified, being structured as mucous glands, which lead into the pelvic urethra. It was concluded that the accessory genital glands found in the paca are the same as those found in most rodents, showing similar histological aspects. PMID:24461579

  10. Original article Honeybee queen tergal gland secretion affects

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Honeybee queen tergal gland secretion affects ovarian development in caged workers 1998; accepted 9 March 1999) Abstract - The inhibitory effects of honeybee queen tergal gland secretion on worker ovarian devel- opment was studied using a laboratory bioassay with the honeybee races Apis

  11. Ultrastructure of the principal and accessory submandibular glands of the common vampire bat.

    PubMed

    Tandler, B; Toyoshima, K; Phillips, C J

    1990-12-01

    The principal and accessory submandibular glands of the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus, were examined by electron microscopy. The secretory endpieces of the principal gland consist of serous tubules capped at their blind ends by mucous acini. The substructure of the mucous droplets and of the serous granules varies according to the mode of specimen preparation. With ferrocyanide-reduced osmium postfixation, the mucous droplets are moderately dense and homogeneous; the serous granules often have a polygonal outline and their matrix shows clefts in which bundles of wavy filaments may be present. With conventional osmium postfixation, the mucous droplets have a finely fibrillogranular matrix; the serous granules are homogeneously dense. Mucous cells additionally contain many small, dense granules that may be small peroxisomes, as well as aggregates of 10-nm cytofilaments. Intercalated duct cells are relatively unspecialized. Striated ducts are characterized by highly folded basal membranes and vertically oriented mitochondria. Luminal surfaces of all of the secretory and duct cells have numerous microvilli, culminating in a brush borderlike affair in the striated ducts. The accessory gland has secretory endpieces consisting of mucous acini with small mucous demilunes. The acinar mucous droplets contain a large dense region; the lucent portion has punctate densities. Demilune mucous droplets lack a dense region and consist of a light matrix in which fine fibrillogranular material is suspended. A ring of junctional cells, identifiable by their complex secretory granules, separates the mucous acini from the intercalated ducts. The intercalated ducts lack specialized structure. Striated ducts resemble their counterparts in the principal gland. As in the principal gland, all luminal surfaces are covered by an array of microvilli. At least some of the features of the principal and accessory submandibular glands of the vampire bat may be structural adaptations to the exigencies posed by the exclusively sanguivorous diet of these animals and its attendant extremely high intake of sodium chloride. PMID:2285039

  12. Adhesive Exocrine Glands in Insects: Morphology, Ultrastructure, and Adhesive Secretion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Betz

    \\u000a A literature survey is provided summarizing the available information on exocrine epidermal glands that produce adhesive secretions\\u000a in insects. The focus is on both the ultrastructure of the gland cells and the identity and function of the chemical secretion\\u000a produced by them. Insects employ adhesives for various functions such as tarsal attachment during locomotion, resisting external\\u000a detachment forces, mating, phoresy

  13. Protein and Peptide Composition of Male Accessory Glands of Apis mellifera Drones Investigated by Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Blenau, Wolfgang; Koeniger, Gudrun; Römpp, Andreas; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, reproductive females usually mate early in their life with more than 10 males in free flight, often within 10 minutes, and then store male gametes for up to five years. Because of the extreme polyandry and mating in free flight special adaptations in males are most likely. We present here the results of an investigation of the protein content of four types of male reproductive glands from the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone, namely seminal vesicles (secretion in ejaculate), as well as bulbus, cornua and mucus glands (secretions for the mating plug). Using high resolution and accuracy mass spectrometry and a combination of database searching and de novo sequencing techniques it was possible to identify 50 different proteins in total, inside all mentioned glands, except in the mucus gland. Most of the proteins are unique for a specific gland type, only one of them (H9KEY1/ATP synthase subunit O) was found in three glands, and 7 proteins were found in two types of glands. The identified proteins represent a wide variety of biological functions and can be assigned to several physiological classes, such as protection, energy generation, maintaining optimal conditions, associated mainly with vesicula seminalis; signaling, cuticle proteins, icarpin and apolipoproteins located mainly in the bulbus and cornua glands; and some other classes. Most of the discovered proteins were not found earlier during investigation of semen, seminal fluid and tissue of reproductive glands of the bee drone. Moreover, we provide here the origin of each protein. Thus, the presented data might shed light on the role of each reproductive gland. PMID:25955586

  14. Effects of access to preen gland secretions on mallard plumage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraudeau, Mathieu; Duval, Camille; Guillon, Noel; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Gutierrez, Claude; Heeb, Philipp

    2010-06-01

    Preen glands exist in almost every bird species and several non-exclusive functions have been proposed for this gland and the oils that it produces. One function generally admitted is that the oily secretions of the preen gland would provide a waterproofing layer when spread over feathers. Alternatively, several authors have proposed that plumage waterproofness is mostly due to the spatial micro-structure of feathers. The purpose of this study was to examine, by manipulating the access to the preen gland, the effect of the preen oil on the plumage waterproofness and condition. To explore this question, we carried out two independent experiments where we temporarily blocked access to the preen gland secretions with a removable mechanism in one group of captive mallards ( Anas platyrhynchos), whilst a second group of birds had access to gland secretions. In a long-term experiment (3 months of treatment) and a short-term experiment (10 days), we measured plumage water retention and condition. After 3 months without access to preen glands, we found a significant decrease of plumage condition and an associated increase in plumage water retention. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between plumage condition and water retention ability. In contrast, after 10 days of treatment, no significant effect was found on plumage condition and water retention. Our study shows that preen oil acts to maintain plumage condition and suggests that feather microstructure is essential to maintain plumage waterproofness.

  15. Some chemical characteristics of human minor salivary gland secretions.

    PubMed

    Hensten-Pettersen, A

    1976-01-01

    The minor salivary glands contribute to the composition of whole saliva, but little information has been available about their chemical constituents. Pilocarpine-stimulated labial and palatine secretion from 4 human subjects was investigated by paper and disc electrophoresis, immunochemical analysis, and for content of carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids, hexuronic acids and sulphate. No significant differences were noted between the labial and palatine secretions by any of the methods employed. The minor gland secretions appeared to consist mainly of mucosubstances, possibly with blood group specificity. In addition, three water-soluble components with the characteristics of albumin, alpha-amylase and secretory IgA were seen. The minor gland secretions had an amino acid profile different from those of the major salivary glands and contained higher proportions of carbohydrate. Only one lipid component, with the characteristics of a polar lipid, was seen. Hexuronic acids were not detected in either secretion, whereas both contained sulphate. It would appear that the minor mucous glands contribute to the content of mucosubstances in whole saliva, whereas their content of water-soluble material is negligible in this respect. PMID:822684

  16. Lateral nasal gland secretion in the anaesthetized dog.

    PubMed Central

    Wells, U; Widdicombe, J G

    1986-01-01

    The effects of pharmacological and nervous stimuli on the flow of secretion from the dog lateral nasal gland following catheterization are described. Drugs were injected close-arterially into the arterial supply to the nose, or intravenously. Cholinergic agonists (pilocarpine, methacholine), given intravenously (I.V.) or intra-arterially (I.A.), and stimulation of the vidian nerve produced a copious flow of secretion which was blocked by atropine. The adrenoceptor agonists phenylephrine (alpha) and salbutamol (beta 2), given I.V. or I.A., and stimulation of the vagosympathetic nerve produced a small but consistent flow of secretion. Histamine (50 micrograms), substance P (0.1 micrograms) and prostaglandin E1 (1-5 micrograms), injected I.A., produced small flows of secretion. Bradykinin (25 ng-50 micrograms), 5-hydroxytryptamine (100 ng-50 micrograms) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) (10 ng-50 micrograms) did not cause secretion. The total protein content, the composition of secretions as revealed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide agarose gel electrophoresis, and changes in [Na] and [K] in relation to flow of secretion are described. Differences in ion and protein concentrations, and in protein composition, are described for vidian nerve-induced and vagosympathetically induced secretions. Electron microscopy revealed that the gland contains serous cells in the secretory region, and ducts morphologically similar to the intercalated, striated and excretory ducts of salivary glands. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:3746694

  17. Ion Secretion by Salt Glands of Desert Iguanas (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) Lisa C. Hazard*

    E-print Network

    Hazard, Lisa C.

    22 Ion Secretion by Salt Glands of Desert Iguanas (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) Lisa C. Hazard* DepartmentCl-secreting salt glands of many birds and reptiles, the nasal salt glands of lizards can secrete potassium as well iguana, Dipsosaurus dorsalis. Lizards were given combinations of ions for several days, and secreted salt

  18. Measurement of fluid secretion from intact airway submucosal glands.

    PubMed

    Wine, Jeffrey J; Joo, Nam Soo; Choi, Jae Young; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Krouse, Mauri E; Wu, Jin V; Khansaheb, Monal; Irokawa, Toshiya; Ianowski, Juan; Hanrahan, John W; Cuthbert, Alan W; Tran, Kim V

    2011-01-01

    Human airways are kept sterile by a mucosal innate defense system that includes mucus secretion. Mucus is secreted in healthy upper airways primarily by submucosal glands and consists of defense molecules mixed with mucins, electrolytes, and water and is also a major component of sputum. Mucus traps pathogens and mechanically removes them via mucociliary clearance while inhibiting their growth via molecular (e.g., lysozyme) and cellular (e.g., neutrophils, macrophages) defenses. Fluid secretion rates of single glands in response to various mediators can be measured by trapping the primary gland mucus secretions in an oil layer, where they form spherical bubbles that can be optically measured at any desired interval to provide detailed temporal analysis of secretion rates. The composition and properties of the mucus (e.g., solids, viscosity, pH) can also be determined. These methods have now been applied to mice, ferrets, cats, pigs, sheep, and humans, with a main goal of comparing gland secretion in control and CFTR-deficient humans and animals. PMID:21547728

  19. Calcium and parotid gland secretion: a cytochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, H W; Bowers, D E; Piscopo, I

    1983-01-01

    Acinar cells of parotid glands from untreated, pilocarpine-treated, and atropine treated rats were studied, using a potassium pyroantimonate technique and X-ray microanalysis of calcium localization at the ultrastructural level. This was done in order to identify intracellular compartmentalisation of calcium and to elucidate any calcium translocation that might occur during the secretory process. Calcium pyroantimonate complexes were shown to be most prevalent on the plasma membrane of the non-secreting cells. These membranes gave up their calcium complexes during secretion. Conversely, the mitochondrial precipitates increased during secretion indicating an increase in intracellular calcium. The function of calcium in parotid gland secretion and the association of calcium with other cell structures are discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6885619

  20. Orthology, Function and Evolution of Accessory Gland Proteins in the Drosophila repleta Group

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Francisca C.; DeSalle, Rob

    2009-01-01

    The accessory gland proteins (Acps) of Drosophila have become a model for the study of reproductive protein evolution. A major step in the study of Acps is to identify biological causes and consequences of the observed patterns of molecular evolution by comparing species groups with different biology. Here we characterize the Acp complement of Drosophila mayaguana, a repleta group representative. Species of this group show important differences in ecology and reproduction as compared to other Drosophila. Our results show that the extremely high rates of Acp evolution previously found are likely to be ubiquitous among species of the repleta group. These evolutionary rates are considerably higher than the ones observed in other Drosophila groups' Acps. This disparity, however, is not accompanied by major differences in the estimated number of Acps or in the functional categories represented as previously suggested. Among the genes expressed in accessory glands of D. mayaguana almost half are likely products of recent duplications. This allowed us to test predictions of the neofunctionalization model for gene duplication and paralog evolution in a more or less constrained timescale. We found that positive selection is a strong force in the early divergence of these gene pairs. PMID:19015541

  1. Chronic prostatitis and male accessory gland infection - is there an impact on male infertility (diagnosis and therapy)?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Everaert; A. Mahmoud; C. Depuydt; M. Maeyaert; F. Comhaire

    2003-01-01

    Summary. The aim of this article was to discuss by means of a review of the literature and own study material the multifactorial aetiology of male infer- tility, extrapolate this hypothesis to male accessory gland infection (MAGI) and relate it to chronic prostatitis and its treatment. Infertility is a multifac- torial disease and diagnosis and therapy must be oriented as

  2. Anal gland secretion codes for family membership in the beaver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lixing Sun; Dietland Müller-Schwarze

    1998-01-01

    We investigated how information about family membership is coded by the individually specific anal gland secretion (AGS)\\u000a in the beaver, Castor canadensis. Because beavers live in strict family units and relatives share more features in the AGS profile than non-relatives, family\\u000a members share more AGS features than non-family members. Therefore, family recognition seems to be a natural consequence of\\u000a the

  3. Antigenic homogeneity of male Müllerian gland (MG) secretory proteins of a caecilian amphibian with secretory proteins of the mammalian prostate gland and seminal vesicles: evidence for role of the caecilian MG as a male accessory reproductive gland.

    PubMed

    Radha, Arumugam; Sree, Sreesha; Faisal, Kunnathodi; Kumar, G Pradeep; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2014-10-01

    Whereas in all other vertebrates the Müllerian ducts of genetic males are aborted during development, under the influence of Müllerian-inhibiting substance, in the caecilian amphibians they are retained as a pair of functional glands. It has long been speculated that the Müllerian gland might be the male accessory reproductive gland but there has been no direct evidence to this effect. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the caecilian Müllerian gland secretory proteins would bear antigenic similarity to secretory proteins of the prostate gland and/or the seminal vesicles of a mammal. The secretory proteins of the Müllerian gland of Ichthyophis tricolor were evaluated for cross-reactivity with antisera raised against rat ventral prostate and seminal vesicle secretory proteins, adopting SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblot techniques. Indeed there was a cross-reaction of five Müllerian gland secretory protein fractions with prostatic protein antiserum and of three with seminal vesicle protein antiserum. A potential homology exists because in mammals the middle group of the prostate primordia is derived from a diverticulum of the Müllerian duct. Thus this study, by providing evidence for expression of prostatic and seminal vesicle proteins in the Müllerian gland, substantiates the point that in caecilians the Müllerian glands are the male accessory reproductive glands. PMID:25160003

  4. Developmental Mucin Gene Expression in the Gastroduodenal Tract and Accessory Digestive Glands. II. Duodenum and Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Pierre Buisine; Louise Devisme; Pierre Degand; Marie-Claire Dieu; Bernard Gosselin; Marie-Christine Copin; Jean-Pierre Aubert; Nicole Porchet

    SUMMARY Studies were undertaken to provide information regarding cell-specific ex- pression of mucin genes and their relation to developmental and neoplastic patterns of ep- ithelial cytodifferentiation. In situ hybridization was used to study mRNA expression of mu- cin genes in duodenum and accessory digestive glands (liver, gallbladder, pancreas) of 13 human embryos and fetuses (6.5-27 weeks' gestation), comparing these with

  5. Adaptive Evolution of Recently Duplicated Accessory Gland Protein Genes in Desert Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, Bradley J.; Begun, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between animal mating system variation and patterns of protein polymorphism and divergence is poorly understood. Drosophila provides an excellent system for addressing this issue, as there is abundant interspecific mating system variation. For example, compared to D. melanogaster subgroup species, repleta group species have higher remating rates, delayed sexual maturity, and several other interesting differences. We previously showed that accessory gland protein genes (Acp's) of Drosophila mojavensis and D. arizonae evolve more rapidly than Acp's in the D. melanogaster subgroup and that adaptive Acp protein evolution is likely more common in D. mojavensis/D. arizonae than in D. melanogaster/D. simulans. These findings are consistent with the idea that greater postcopulatory selection results in more adaptive evolution of seminal fluid proteins in the repleta group flies. Here we report another interesting evolutionary difference between the repleta group and the D. melanogaster subgroup Acp's. Acp gene duplications are present in D. melanogaster, but their high sequence divergence indicates that the fixation rate of duplicated Acp's has been low in this lineage. Here we report that D. mojavensis and D. arizonae genomes contain several very young duplicated Acp's and that these Acp's have experienced very rapid, adaptive protein divergence. We propose that rapid remating of female desert Drosophila generates selection for continuous diversification of the male Acp complement to improve male fertilization potential. Thus, mating system variation may be associated with adaptive protein divergence as well as with duplication of Acp's in Drosophila. PMID:17720912

  6. Social cues of sperm competition influence accessory reproductive gland size in a promiscuous mammal

    PubMed Central

    Lemaître, Jean-François; Ramm, Steven A.; Hurst, Jane L.; Stockley, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that males should increase overall investment in ejaculate expenditure with increasing levels of sperm competition. Since ejaculate production is costly, we may expect males to tailor their reproductive investment according to anticipated levels of sperm competition. Here, we investigate plasticity in ejaculate investment in response to cues of population average levels of sperm competition in a promiscuous mammal, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). We manipulated the social experience of experimental subjects during sexual development via differential exposure to the odour of rival males, to simulate conditions associated with relatively high or low average levels of sperm competition. Males exposed to a high level of competition developed larger major accessory reproductive glands (seminal vesicles) than those that experienced a low level of competition, suggesting that an increased investment in the production of copulatory plugs and/or mating rate may be beneficial at relatively high sperm competition levels. However, investment in sperm production, testis size and sperm motility were not altered according to social experience. Our findings emphasize the importance of non-sperm components of the ejaculate in mammalian postcopulatory sexual selection, and add to the growing evidence linking plasticity in reproductive traits to social cues of sperm competition. PMID:20880887

  7. Nutrition regulation of male accessory gland growth and maturation in Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingjing; Anciro, Ashlee L; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway is known to control growth, development and reproduction. Insulin-like peptide mediated body size plasticity in Drosophila melanogaster has been reported. Here, our studies showed that IIS pathway and nutrition regulate growth and maturation of the male accessory gland (MAG) in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. The size of MAG increased from day 1 to day 5 post-adult emergence (PAE). This increase in the size of MAG is contributed by an increase in cell size, but not cell number. The growth of MAG was impaired after double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated knockdown in the expression of genes coding for ILP3, InR, Chico, PI3k, AKT, and GATA1 involved in IIS pathway. Interestingly, starvation showed similar effects on the growth and maturation of MAG. The phenotypes observed in animals where IIS signaling pathway genes were knocked down are similar to the phenotypes observed after starving beetles for 5 days PAE. These data suggest that nutrition signals working through IIS pathway regulate maturation of MAG by promoting the growth of MAG cells. PMID:26035685

  8. Prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in patients with male accessory gland infection.

    PubMed

    La Vignera, S; Vicari, E; Condorelli, R A; Franchina, C; Scalia, G; Morgia, G; Perino, A; Schillaci, R; Calogero, A E

    2015-04-01

    The frequency of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the semen of patients with male accessory gland infection (MAGI) was evaluated. One hundred infertile patients with MAGI were classified into group A: patients with an inflammatory MAGI (n = 48) and group B: patients with a microbial form (n = 52). Healthy age-matched fertile men (34.0 ± 4.0 years) made up the control group (n = 20). Amplification of HPV DNA was carried out by HPV-HS Bio nested polymerase chain reaction for the detection of HPV DNA sequences within the L1 ORF. Ten patients in group A (20.8%) and 15 patients in group B (28.8%) had a HPV infection; two controls (10.0%) had HPV infection. Patients with MAGI had a significantly higher frequency of HPV infection compared with controls; patients with a microbial MAGI had significantly higher frequency of HPV infection compared with patients with an inflammatory form (both P < 0.05). Patients with MAGI and HPV had a slight, but significantly lower sperm progressive motility and normal morphology compared with patients with MAGI HPV-negative (P < 0.05). Elevated frequency of HPV infection occurred in patients with MAGI, suggesting that HPV should be investigated in the diagnostic work-up of these patients. PMID:25684094

  9. Male accessory gland inflammation prevalence in type 2 diabetic patients with symptoms possibly reflecting autonomic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E; La Vignera, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Male accessory gland inflammation or infection (MAGI) is a potentially underdiagnosed complication of type 2 diabetes (DM2); specifically, we reported in a recent study that the frequency of MAGI was 43% among DM2 patients. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is associated with a peculiar ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles (SVs) in DM2 patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of MAGI in two different categories of DM2 patients (i.e. patients with and without symptoms that possibly reflect DAN) and the respective ultrasound characterizations. Sixty DM2 patients with a mean (± s.e.m.) age of 42.0 ± 6.0 years (range: 34–47 years) were classified according to the presence or the absence of symptoms that could possibly reflect DAN (group A: DM2 with symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 28 patients and group B: DM2 without symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 32 patients). The patients in Group A exhibited a significantly higher frequency of MAGI compared with those in group B patients (P < 0.05); moreover, the Group A patients exhibited a significantly higher frequency of ultrasound signs suggestive of vesiculitis (P < 0.05). Finally, the concentrations of lymphocytes but not the concentrations of the leukocytes in the semen were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in group A compared with group B. PMID:24799635

  10. Substance P stimulates human airway submucosal gland secretion mainly via a CFTR-dependent process

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Young; Khansaheb, Monal; Joo, Nam Soo; Krouse, Mauri E.; Robbins, Robert C.; Weill, David; Wine, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic bacterial airway infections are the major cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF). Normal airway defenses include reflex stimulation of submucosal gland mucus secretion by sensory neurons that release substance P (SubP). CFTR is an anion channel involved in fluid secretion and mutated in CF; the role of CFTR in secretions stimulated by SubP is unknown. We used optical methods to measure SubP-mediated secretion from human submucosal glands in lung transplant tissue. Glands from control but not CF subjects responded to mucosal chili oil. Similarly, serosal SubP stimulated secretion in more than 60% of control glands but only 4% of CF glands. Secretion triggered by SubP was synergistic with vasoactive intestinal peptide and/or forskolin but not with carbachol; synergy was absent in CF glands. Pig glands demonstrated a nearly 10-fold greater response to SubP. In 10 of 11 control glands isolated by fine dissection, SubP caused cell volume loss, lumen expansion, and mucus flow, but in 3 of 4 CF glands, it induced lumen narrowing. Thus, in CF, the reduced ability of mucosal irritants to stimulate airway gland secretion via SubP may be another factor that predisposes the airways to infections. PMID:19381016

  11. LOCALIZATION AND SECRETION OF SALT BY THE SALT GLANDS OF Tamarix aphylla.

    PubMed

    Thomson, W W; Berry, W L; Liu, L L

    1969-06-01

    Analysis of salt secreted by the salt glands of Tamarix aphylla shows that the composition of the secreted salt is dependent on the salt composition of the root environment. Rubidium ion, if added to culture solutions in which the plants were growing, is also taken up by the plants and subsequently secreted by the glands. Electron micrographs of glands from the ribidium-secreting plants show accumulations of electron-dense material in the microvacuoles of the secretory cells. It is concluded that rubidium is accumulated in the microvacuoles and subsequently secreted by their fusion with the plasmalemma. PMID:16591764

  12. LOCALIZATION AND SECRETION OF SALT BY THE SALT GLANDS OF Tamarix aphylla*

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, W. W.; Berry, W. L.; Liu, L. L.

    1969-01-01

    Analysis of salt secreted by the salt glands of Tamarix aphylla shows that the composition of the secreted salt is dependent on the salt composition of the root environment. Rubidium ion, if added to culture solutions in which the plants were growing, is also taken up by the plants and subsequently secreted by the glands. Electron micrographs of glands from the ribidium-secreting plants show accumulations of electron-dense material in the microvacuoles of the secretory cells. It is concluded that rubidium is accumulated in the microvacuoles and subsequently secreted by their fusion with the plasmalemma. Images PMID:16591764

  13. Molecular Mechanism of Pancreatic and Salivary Glands Fluid and HCO3? Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Goo; Ohana, Ehud; Park, Hyun Woo; Yang, Dongki; Muallem, Shmuel

    2013-01-01

    Fluid and HCO3? secretion is a vital function of all epithelia and is required for the survival of the tissue. Aberrant fluid and HCO3? secretion is associated with many epithelial diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, Sjögren’s syndrome and other epithelial inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Significant progress has been made over the last 20 years in our understanding of epithelial fluid and HCO3? secretion, in particular by secretory glands. Fluid and HCO3? secretion by secretory glands is a two step process. Acinar cells secrete isotonic fluid in which the major salt is NaCl. Subsequently, the duct modifies the volume and electrolyte composition of the fluid to absorb the Cl? and secrete HCO3?. The relative volume secreted by acinar and duct cells and modification of electrolyte composition of the secreted fluids varies among secretory glands to meet their physiological functions. In the pancreas, acinar cells secrete small amount of NaCl-rich fluid, while the duct absorbs the Cl? and secretes HCO3? and the bulk of the fluid in the pancreatic juice. Fluid secretion appears to be driven by active HCO3? secretion. In the salivary glands, acinar cells secrete the bulk of the fluid in the saliva that contains high concentrations of Na+ and Cl? and fluid secretion is mediated by active Cl? secretion. The salivary glands duct absorbs both the Na+ and Cl? and secretes K+ and HCO3?. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanism of fluid and HCO3? secretion by the pancreas and salivary glands, to highlight the similarities of the fundamental mechanisms of acinar and duct cell functions, and point the differences to meet glands specific secretions. PMID:22298651

  14. Bone morphogenetic protein- and mating-dependent secretory cell growth and migration in the Drosophila accessory gland

    PubMed Central

    Leiblich, Aaron; Marsden, Luke; Gandy, Carina; Corrigan, Laura; Jenkins, Rachel; Hamdy, Freddie; Wilson, Clive

    2012-01-01

    The paired male accessory glands of Drosophila melanogaster enhance sperm function, stimulate egg production, and reduce female receptivity to other males by releasing a complex mixture of glycoproteins from a secretory epithelium into seminal fluid. A small subpopulation of about 40 specialized secretory cells, called secondary cells, resides at the distal tip of each gland. We show that these cells grow via mechanisms promoted by mating. If aging males mate repeatedly, a subset of these cells delaminates from and migrates along the apical surface of the glandular epithelium toward the proximal end of the gland. Remarkably, these secretory cells can transfer to females with sperm during mating. The frequency of this event increases with age, so that more than 50% of triple-mated, 18-d-old males transfer secondary cells to females. Bone morphogenetic protein signaling specifically in secondary cells is needed to drive all of these processes and is required for the accessory gland to produce its normal effects on female postmating behavior in multiply mated males. We conclude that secondary cells are secretory cells with unusual migratory properties that can allow them to be transferred to females, and that these properties are a consequence of signaling that is required for secondary cells to maintain their normal reproductive functions as males age and mate. PMID:23129615

  15. Responses by canids to scent gland secretions of the western diamondback rattlesnake ( Crotalus atrox )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Weldon; Daniel B. Fagre

    1989-01-01

    Many snakes discharge malodorous fluids from paired scent glands in the base of the tail when they are disturbed. A number of authors suggest that these secretions repel predators. Scent gland secretions of the western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox), or dichloromethane extracts of them, were presented to coyotes (Canis latrans) in three field tests, and to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris)

  16. Diversity and Partitioning of Bacterial Populations within the Accessory Nidamental Gland of the Squid Euprymna scolopes

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Andrew J.; LaBarre, Brenna A.; Wong Won, Brian S.; Shah, Monica V.; Heng, Steven; Choudhury, Momena H.; Haydar, Shahela A.; Santiago, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Microbial consortia confer important benefits to animal and plant hosts, and model associations are necessary to examine these types of host/microbe interactions. The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) is a female reproductive organ found among cephalopod mollusks that contains a consortium of bacteria, the exact function of which is unknown. To begin to understand the role of this organ, the bacterial consortium was characterized in the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, a well-studied model organism for symbiosis research. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the ANG revealed dense bacterial assemblages of rod- and coccus-shaped cells segregated by morphology into separate, epithelium-lined tubules. The host epithelium was morphologically heterogeneous, containing ciliated and nonciliated cells with various brush border thicknesses. Hemocytes of the host's innate immune system were also found in close proximity to the bacteria within the tubules. A census of 16S rRNA genes suggested that Rhodobacterales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia bacteria were prevalent, with members of the genus Phaeobacter dominating the consortium. Analysis of 454-shotgun sequencing data confirmed the presence of members of these taxa and revealed members of a fourth, Flavobacteria of the Bacteroidetes phylum. 16S rRNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that many ANG tubules were dominated by members of specific taxa, namely, Rhodobacterales, Verrucomicrobia, or Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroidetes, suggesting symbiont partitioning to specific host tubules. In addition, FISH revealed that bacteria, including Phaeobacter species from the ANG, are likely deposited into the jelly coat of freshly laid eggs. This report establishes the ANG of the invertebrate E. scolopes as a model to examine interactions between a bacterial consortium and its host. PMID:22504817

  17. Variation in Sperm Displacement and Its Association with Accessory Gland Protein Loci in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Clark, A. G.; Aguade, M.; Prout, T.; Harshman, L. G.; Langley, C. H.

    1995-01-01

    Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophilia melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female's reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes, Glucose dehydrogenase (Gld), and Esterase-6 (Est-6). Acp genes encode proteins that are in some cases known to be transmitted to the female in the seminal fluid and are likely candidates for genes that might mediate the phenomenon of sperm displacement. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability to resist being displaced by subsequent sperm. This lack of correlation, and the association of Acp alleles with resisting subsequent sperm only, suggests that different mechanisms mediate the two components of sperm displacement. PMID:7705622

  18. A "virtual gland" method for quantifying epithelial fluid secretion.

    PubMed

    Irokawa, Toshiya; Krouse, Mauri E; Joo, Nam Soo; Wu, Jin V; Wine, Jeffrey J

    2004-10-01

    We developed a new apparatus, the virtual gland (VG), for measuring the rate of fluid secretion (Jv), its composition, and the transepithelial potential (TEP) in cultured epithelial cells under open circuit. The VG creates a 10-microl chamber above the apical surface of epithelial cells on a Costar filter with a small hole leading to an oil-filled reservoir. After the chamber is primed with a fluid of choice, secreted fluid is forced through the hole into the oil, where it forms a bubble that is monitored optically to determine Jv and collected for analysis. Calu-3 cells were mounted in the VG with a basolateral bath consisting of Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer at 37 degrees C. Basal Jv was 2.7 +/- 0.1 microl x cm(-2) x h(-1) (n = 42), and TEP was -9.2 +/- 0.6 mV (n = 33); both measures were reduced to zero by ouabain (n = 6) x Jv and TEP were stimulated 64 and 59%, respectively, by 5 microM forskolin (n = 10), 173 and 101% by 1 mM 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone (n = 5), 213 and 122% by 333 nM thapsigargin (n = 5), and 520 and 240% by forskolin + thapsigargin (n = 6). Basal Jv and TEP were inhibited to 82 and 63%, respectively, with 10 microM bumetanide (n = 5), 71 and 82% with 100 microM acetazolamide (n = 5), and 47 and 56% with 600 microM glibenclamide (n = 4). Basal Jv and TEP were 52 and 89% of control values, respectively, after HCO3- replacement with HEPES (n = 16). The net HCO3- concentration of the secreted fluid was close to that of the bath (25 mM), except when stimulated with forskolin or VIP, when it increased (approximately 80 mM). These results validate the use of the VG apparatus and provide the first direct measures of Jv in Calu-3 cells. PMID:15169677

  19. Larval salivary gland secretion proteins in Drosophila. Identification and characterization of the Sgs-5 structural gene.

    PubMed

    Guild, G M; Shore, E M

    1984-11-01

    The 90BC locus on the polytene chromosomal map of Drosophila melanogaster contains the structural gene for a third-instar, salivary gland-specific, polyadenylated RNA (the group V RNA). This also belongs to the intermolt puff set whose dispersed and co-ordinately regulated members are (1) transcriptionally active in the salivary gland during the third-instar developmental stage and (2) comprise (at least in part) the structural genes for a set of salivary gland secretion proteins. Previous developmental studies of the group V intermolt gene (located cytogenetically within the 90B3-8 interval) suggest that it controls the expression of a salivary gland secretion protein. By analyzing different D. melanogaster laboratory stocks for variation in group V gene expression, we have been able to correlate the presence of the group V RNA with the salivary gland secretion protein P4. In vitro translation experiments show that the salivary gland messenger RNA population derived from a stock that fails to synthesize the group V RNA does not direct the synthesis of a polypeptide similar in molecular weight to protein P4. In addition, cloned genomic DNA segments complementary to the group V RNA are capable of arresting the in vitro translation of this protein. Comparative two-dimensional fractionation of cysteine-labeled, protease-generated peptides shows that (1) the in vitro translation product arrested by group V gene DNA is biochemically very similar to or identical with the salivary gland secretion protein P4, and (2) protein P4 is equivalent to the salivary gland secretion protein previously designated SGS-5. Since designations of the latter type have been employed in naming the genetic loci that represent the structural genes for the salivary gland secretion protein gene set, the group V gene (previous designation) represents the SGS-5 structural gene and its appropriate genetic designation should now be Sgs-5. PMID:6439875

  20. Atrial natriuretic peptide stimulates salt secretion by shark rectal gland by releasing VIP

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, P.; Stoff, J.S.; Solomon, R.J.; Lear, S.; Kniaz, D.; Greger, R.; Epstein, F.H.

    1987-01-01

    Salt secretion by the isolated perfused rectal gland of the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, is stimulated by synthetic rat atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP II) as well as extracts of shark heart, but not by 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate. Cardiac peptides have no effect on isolated rectal gland cells or perfused tubules, suggesting that stimulation requires an intact gland. The stimulation of secretion by ANP II is eliminated by maneuvers that block neurotransmitter release. Cardiac peptides stimulate the release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), known to be present in rectal glands nerves, into the venous effluent of perfused glands in parallel with their stimulation of salt secretion, but the release of VIP induced by ANP II is prevented by perfusion with procaine. VIP was measured by radioimmunoassay. Cardiac peptides thus appear to regulate rectal gland secretion by releasing VIP from neural stores within the gland. It is possible that other physiological effects of these hormones might be explained by an action to enhanced local release of neurotransmitters.

  1. Glycerol monoethers in the scent gland secretions of the western diamondback rattlesnake ( Crotalus atrox ; Serpentes, Crotalinae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Weldon; H. A. Lloyd; M. S. Blum

    1990-01-01

    Summary 1-O-Monoalkylglycerols with C12 to C20 chains were identified in the scent, gland secretions of the western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). This is the first documentation of these compounds in the skin secretions of a reptile.

  2. Mammalian exocrine secretions XV. Constituents of secretion of ventral gland of male dwarf hamster, Phodopus sungorus sungorus.

    PubMed

    Burger, B V; Smit, D; Spies, H S; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, U; Telitsina, A Y; Grierson, G R

    2001-06-01

    In a study aimed at the chemical characterization of constituents of the ventral gland secretion of the male dwarf hamster, Phodopus sungorus sungorus, 48 compounds, including saturated alcohols, saturated and unsaturated ketones, saturated and unsaturated straight-chain carboxylic acids, iso- and anteisocarboxylic acids, 3-phenylpropanoic acid, hydroxyesters, 2-piperidone, and some steroids were identified in the secretion. The position of the double bonds in gamma-icosadienyl-gamma-butyrolactone and gamma-henicosadienyl-gamma-butyrolactone, and the position of methylbranching in seven C16-C21 saturated ketones could not be established. Several constituents with typically steroidal mass spectra also remained unidentified. The female dwarf hamster's ventral gland either does not produce secretion or produced so little secretion that it was impossible to collect enough material for analysis. PMID:11504027

  3. Volatile components in scent gland secretions of garter snakes (Thamnophis spp.).

    PubMed

    Wood, W F; Parker, J M; Weldon, P J

    1995-02-01

    Previous analyses of the scent gland secretions of snakes have focused on the nonvolatile components. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of secretions from North American garter snakes (Thamnophis butleri, T. couchi, T. elegans, T. melanogaster, andT. sirtalis) indicated the following seven major volatile components: acetic, propanoic, 2-methylpropanoic, butanoic, and 3-methylbutanoic acids, trimethylamine, and 2-piperidone. Five or more of these compounds were observed in secretions of select boid, colubrid, pythonid, and viperid snakes, suggesting that they are widespread scent gland products. 3-Methylbutanal also was detected in some snake species. PMID:24234020

  4. Induction of a heparin-stimulated serine proteinase in sex accessory gland tumors of the Lobund-Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael J; Lind, Jeremy; Sinha, Akhouri A

    2015-08-01

    Induction of new proteinase activities that may process growth factors, modify cell surface receptors, cleave extracellular matrix proteins, etc. is considered fundamental in carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to characterize a novel proteinase activity induced in sex accessory gland cancers (about 70% in seminal vesicles) of adult male Lobund-Wistar rats by a single injection of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU; 25mg/kg) followed by implanted testosterone propionate (45mg in silastic tubing every 2months) treatment for 10-14months. A 28kDa proteinase activity was detected in tumor extracts using SDS-gelatin gel zymography with incubations done without CaCl2. Its activity was stimulated 15 fold by heparin (optimal activity 1.5-3.0?g/lane) added to the tissue extract-SDS sample buffer prior to electrophoresis. No 28kDa heparin-stimulated proteinase (H-SP) was found in the dorsal, lateral and anterior (coagulating gland) prostate lobes or seminal vesicles of untreated adult rats, but there was a 26-30kDa Ca(2+)-independent proteinase activity in the ventral prostate that showed limited heparin stimulation. The 28kDa H-SP was completely inhibited by 1.0mM 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonylfluoride (AESBF) indicating that it was a serine-type proteinase. Other types of proteinase inhibitors were without effect, including serine proteinase inhibitors benzamidine, tranexamic acid and ?-aminocaproic acid. Proteinase activities of about 28kDa were found with casein, fibrinogen or carboxymethylated transferrin as substrate, however, these activities were not stimulated by heparin. Similar levels of activities of the 28kDa H-SP were found in primary tumors and their metastases, but little/no activity was detected in serum, even from rats with large tumor volume and metastases. These data demonstrate overexpression of a heparin-stimulated 28kDa serine proteinase in the primary tumors of sex accessory gland cancers and their metastases. This proteinase either does not leak into or is inactivated in the blood. The role of this proteinase remains to be determined, but its possible interaction with extracellular glycosaminoglycans could focus its proteolytic activity in the tumor microenvironment and affect tumor growth. PMID:25913327

  5. Secretion of kallikrein and its role in vasodilatation in the submaxillary gland

    PubMed Central

    Beilenson, Susanne; Schachter, M.; Smaje, L. H.

    1968-01-01

    1. The effects of parasympathetic (chorda) and sympathetic nerve stimulation on the concentration and output of kallikrein secreted in saliva from the cat's submaxillary gland were compared. Sympathetic stimulation always produced a much higher concentration (up to 500 times) and output (up to 390 times) of kallikrein than parasympathetic stimulation. In the dog, in which sympathetic nerve stimulation produces little or no secretion from the submaxillary gland, there was also a marked increase in the secretion of kallikrein when sympathetic was superimposed on parasympathetic secretion. This effect did not occur, however, in the rabbit's submaxillary gland. 2. It was possible to deplete the cat's submaxillary gland of kallikrein, either by ligation of the duct for several days or by duct ligation and sympathetic nerve stimulation, so that it was undetectable either in the gland or in saliva after stimulation of the chorda. Such glands, nevertheless, responded to chorda stimulation with a normal atropine-resistant vasodilatation. 3. There is a close parallelism between the rate of secretion of salvia and vasodilatation over a range of frequencies of chorda stimulation, but the output (and concentration) of kallikrein in saliva is distinctly different for the same frequencies of nerve stimulation. 4. Our results are consistent with the view that vasodilator nerves exist in the parasympathetic nerves to the submaxillary gland. We suggest that they are cholinergic in nature despite the fact that chorda vasodilatation is resistant to atropine. It is further suggested that neither the kallikrein—kinin system nor adrenergic vasodilator nerve fibres play a significant role in chorda vasodilatation. PMID:5723514

  6. Secretion of estradiol-17beta by porcine mammary gland of ovariectomized steroid-treated sows.

    PubMed

    Staszkiewicz, J; Franczak, A; Kotwica, G; Koziorowski, M

    2004-03-01

    Although the mammary gland of many species secretes estradiol (E(2)), nothing is known of E(2) secretion in the porcine gland. The present study was designed to investigate whether porcine mammary gland was a source of E(2), and to test the influence of individual and combined effects of exogenous progesterone and estradiol benzoate (EB) on the secretion of E(2). Immature crossbred gilts were ovariectomized at 7 months of age followed by 4 weeks later by steroid hormone replacement therapy to produce estradiol and progesterone (P(4)) blood concentrations similar to those observed during a normal estrous cycle. Arterial and venous blood plasma (from carotid artery and anterior mammary vein, respectively) were sampled for 2h at 10 min intervals. Plasma concentrations of progesterone, androstenedione (A(4)), testosterone (T), estrone (E(1)) and estradiol were determined by RIA. In all gilts treated with progesterone alone or in combination with EB, concentrations of P(4), A(4) and E(1) in blood collected from venous outflow were lower compared to concentrations in arterial blood, whereas concentrations of E(2) were higher in blood plasma from the anterior mammary vein compared to plasma from the carotid artery. The results indicated that the porcine mammary gland secreted E(2). Increased concentrations of plasma E(2) collected only from P(4)-treated animals suggested that progesterone activated enzymes involved in steroidogenesis in porcine mammary gland, or those utilized in its metabolism. PMID:14749051

  7. Fractionation of hagfish slime gland secretions: partial characterization of the mucous vesicle fraction.

    PubMed

    Salo, W L; Downing, S W; Lidinsky, W A; Gallagher, W H; Spitzer, R H; Koch, E A

    1983-01-01

    This paper deals with the collection, fractionation and partial characterization of the slime gland secretion of the Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stouti) with emphasis on the mucous fraction. Secretions were collected by electrical stimulation of the glands of anesthetized hagfish and, using three different methods, separated into three fractions: 1) the thread cells, 2) the mucous vesicles of the mucous cells, and 3) the soluble fraction. The methods take advantage of the stabilization of the thread cells and mucous vesicles by ammonium sulfate and sodium citrate. PMID:6878177

  8. Platelet-activating factor increases platelet-dependent glycoconjugate secretion from tracheal submucosal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, T.; Shimura, S.; Ikeda, K.; Sasaki, H.; Takishima, T. (Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan))

    1989-12-01

    Using isolated glands from feline trachea, we examined the effect of platelet-activating factor (PAF) on radiolabeled glycoconjugate release and glandular contraction by measuring induced tension in the absence or presence of platelets. PAF alone did not produce any significant glandular contraction nor any significant change in glycoconjugate release from isolated glands. In the presence of purified platelets containing no plasma, PAF (10(-8) to 10(-5) M) produced significant glycoconjugate secretion in a dose-dependent fashion, but it produced no significant glandular contraction. PAF-evoked glycoconjugate secretion was time dependent, reaching a peak response of 277% of control 15-30 min after the exposure of isolated glands to 10(-5) M PAF in the presence of platelets and returning to 135% of controls at 2 h. Platelets alone did not produce any significant stimulation in glycoconjugate release. CV-3988, a known PAF antagonist, inhibited the secretory response to PAF. Methysergide, a known antagonist to receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine, did not alter PAF-evoked glycoconjugate secretion. Both indomethacin and SQ 29,548, a thromboxane receptor antagonist, abolished the PAF-evoked glycoconjugate secretion from isolated submucosal glands. Epithiomethanothromboxane A2, a stable thromboxane A2 analogue, produced a significant increase in glycoconjugate secretion in a dose-dependent fashion. These findings indicate that PAF increases glycoconjugate release in the presence of platelets and that the increase is dependent on some aspect of platelet function, namely thromboxane generation.

  9. A Syringe-Like Love Dart Injects Male Accessory Gland Products in a Tropical Hermaphrodite

    PubMed Central

    Koene, Joris M.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2013-01-01

    Sexual conflict shapes the evolution of many behaviours and processes involved in reproduction. Nearly all evidence supporting this comes from species where the sexes are separated. However, a substantial proportion of animals and most plants are hermaphroditic, and theoretical work predicts that sexual conflict plays an important role even when the sexes are joined within one individual. This seems to have resulted in bizarre mating systems, sophisticated sperm packaging and complex reproductive morphologies. By far the best-known example of such a strategy in hermaphrodites is the shooting of so-called love-darts in land snails. All known love darts carry a gland product on their outside and enter this into the partner’s hemolymph by stabbing. Here, we show that species of the snail genus Everettia possess a syringe-like dart that serves as a real injection needle. Their dart is round in cross-section, contains numerous channels, and has perforations along its side. Histology and electron microscopy show that these holes connect to the channels inside the dart and run all the way up to the elaborate mucus glands that are attached to the dart sac. This is the first report on a love dart that is used as a syringe to directly inject the gland product into the partner’s hemolymph. Although the exact use and function of this dart remains to be demonstrated, this clearly adds to the complexity of the evolution of reproductive strategies in hermaphrodites in general. Moreover, the perforations on the outside of the love dart resemble features of other injection devices, thus uncovering common design and repeated evolution of such features in animals. PMID:23894565

  10. Volatile components in scent gland secretions of garter snakes ( Thamnophis spp.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William F. Wood; Joshua M. Parker; Paul J. Weldon

    1995-01-01

    Previous analyses of the scent gland secretions of snakes have focused on the nonvolatile components. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of secretions from North American garter snakes (Thamnophis butleri, T. couchi, T. elegans, T. melanogaster, andT. sirtalis) indicated the following seven major volatile components: acetic, propanoic, 2-methylpropanoic, butanoic, and 3-methylbutanoic acids, trimethylamine, and 2-piperidone. Five or more of these compounds were observed

  11. Molecular Population Genetics of Accessory Gland Protein Genes and Testis-Expressed Genes in Drosophila mojavensis and D. arizonae

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, Bradley J.; Begun, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Molecular population genetic investigation of Drosophila male reproductive genes has focused primarily on melanogaster subgroup accessory gland protein genes (Acp's). Consistent with observations from male reproductive genes of numerous taxa, Acp's evolve more rapidly than nonreproductive genes. However, within the Drosophila genus, large data sets from additional types of male reproductive genes and from different species groups are lacking. Here we report findings from a molecular population genetics analysis of male reproductive genes of the repleta group species, Drosophila arizonae and D. mojavensis. We find that Acp's have dramatically higher average pairwise Ka/Ks (0.93) than testis-enriched genes (0.19) and previously reported melanogaster subgroup Acp's (0.42). Overall, 10 of 19 Acp's have Ka/Ks > 1 either in nonpolarized analyses or in at least one lineage of polarized analyses. Of the nine Acp's for which outgroup data were available, average Ka/Ks was considerably higher in D. mojavensis (2.08) than in D. arizonae (0.87). Contrasts of polymorphism and divergence suggest that adaptive protein evolution at Acp's is more common in D. mojavensis than in D. arizonae. PMID:16085702

  12. Use of anal gland secretion to distinguish the two beaver species Castor canadensis and C. fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Rosell; Lixing Sun

    Rosell, F. & Sun, L. 1999: Use of anal gland secretion to distinguish the two beaver species Castor canadensis and C. fiber. - Wildl. Biol. 5: 119-123. Introduced North American beavers Castor canadensis pose a potential threat to the continuing recovery of Eurasian beaver C. fiber populations in several European countries. For management purposes, it is necessary to be able

  13. The timing of acid-induced increase in saliva secretion in transplanted submandibular glands.

    PubMed

    Liu, X J; Li, M; Su, J Z; Xie, Z; Yu, G Y

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the timing of acid-induced increase in saliva secretion and to investigate the possibility of parasympathetic reinnervation of transplanted submandibular glands (SMGs). Citric acid stimulation-induced changes in secretion of transplanted SMGs were evaluated in 27 patients who underwent SMG transplantation for keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS); (99m)Tc scintigraphy and Schirmer tests were done at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months after transplantation. Acetylcholinesterase staining was conducted to confirm the presence of parasympathetic reinnervation in three SMGs at 6 and 9 months after transplantation. Schirmer tests showed significantly increased secretion of the transplanted SMGs after acid stimulation at 6 and 9 months, but not at 1 and 3 months. On (99m)Tc scintigraphy, no decline was detected on the dynamic time-activity curve after acid stimulation at 1 and 3 months, but a decline was detected in nine glands at 6 months and in 19 glands at 9 months. No decline was observed in the remaining eight glands at 9 months after transplantation. The histology findings were consistent with scintigraphy results. In conclusion, acid-induced increase in saliva secretion occurs at ?6 months after SMG transplantation, and parasympathetic reinnervation of the transplanted SMG might occur. PMID:25697065

  14. Do marmots display a `dear enemy phenomenon' in response to anal gland secretions?

    E-print Network

    Blumstein, Daniel T.

    Do marmots display a `dear enemy phenomenon' in response to anal gland secretions? H. B. Cross1 , D; marmots; scent marking. Correspondence Frank Rosell, Faculty of Art and Sciences, Department. We tested philopatric female yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) for the presence of DEP

  15. Evaluation of acetaminophen P-glycoprotein-mediated salivary secretion by rat submandibular glands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula Schaiquevich; Niselman Viviana; Tumilasci Omar; Rubio Modesto

    2004-01-01

    The constant ratio between saliva and plasma acetaminophen concentrations (S\\/P) during the elimination phase is assumed to result from the equilibrium established among the free-drug concentrations in the arterial blood, venous blood and saliva. Salivary secretion of acetaminophen is assumed to result from a passive diffusion of the drug to saliva from the blood that supplies the salivary glands. However,

  16. Ca2+ Signaling and Regulation of Fluid Secretion in Salivary Gland Acinar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ambudkar, Indu S.

    2014-01-01

    Neurotransmitter stimulation of plasma membrane receptors stimulates salivary gland fluid secretion via a complex process that is determined by coordinated temporal and spatial regulation of several Ca2+ signaling processes as well as ion flux systems. Studies over the past four decades have demonstrated that Ca2+ is a critical factor in the control of salivary gland function. Importantly, critical components of this process have now been identified, including plasma membrane receptors, calcium channels, and regulatory proteins. The key event in activation of fluid secretion is an increase in intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) triggered by IP3-induced the release of Ca2+ from ER via the IP3R. This increase regulates the ion fluxes required to drive vectorial fluid secretion. IP3Rs determine the site of initiation and the pattern of [Ca2+]i signal in the cell. However, Ca2+ entry into the cell is required to sustain the elevation of [Ca2+]i and fluid secretion. This Ca2+ influx pathway, store-operated calcium influx pathway (SOCE), has been studied in great detail and the regulatory mechanisms as well as key molecular components have now been identified. Orai1, TRPC1, and STIM1 are critical components of SOCE and among these, Ca2+ entry via TRPC1 is a major determinant of fluid secretion. The receptor-evoked Ca2+ signal in salivary gland acinar cells is unique in that it starts at the apical pole and then rapidly increases across the cell. The basis for the polarized Ca2+ signal can be ascribed to the polarized arrangement of the Ca2+ channels, transporters, and signaling proteins. Distinct localization of these proteins in the cell suggests compartmentalization of Ca2+ signals during regulation of fluid secretion. This chapter will discuss new concepts and findings regarding the polarization and control of Ca2+ signals in the regulation of fluid secretion. PMID:24646566

  17. HCO3(-) secretion by murine nasal submucosal gland serous acinar cells during Ca2+-stimulated fluid secretion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Robert J; Harlow, Janice M; Limberis, Maria P; Wilson, James M; Foskett, J Kevin

    2008-07-01

    Airway submucosal glands contribute to airway surface liquid (ASL) composition and volume, both important for lung mucociliary clearance. Serous acini generate most of the fluid secreted by glands, but the molecular mechanisms remain poorly characterized. We previously described cholinergic-regulated fluid secretion driven by Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) secretion in primary murine serous acinar cells revealed by simultaneous differential interference contrast (DIC) and fluorescence microscopy. Here, we evaluated whether Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) secretion was accompanied by secretion of HCO(3)(-), possibly a critical ASL component, by simultaneous measurements of intracellular pH (pH(i)) and cell volume. Resting pH(i) was 7.17 +/- 0.01 in physiological medium (5% CO(2)-25 mM HCO(3)(-)). During carbachol (CCh) stimulation, pH(i) fell transiently by 0.08 +/- 0.01 U concomitantly with a fall in Cl(-) content revealed by cell shrinkage, reflecting Cl(-) secretion. A subsequent alkalinization elevated pH(i) to above resting levels until agonist removal, whereupon it returned to prestimulation values. In nominally CO(2)-HCO(3)(-)-free media, the CCh-induced acidification was reduced, whereas the alkalinization remained intact. Elimination of driving forces for conductive HCO(3)(-) efflux by ion substitution or exposure to the Cl(-) channel inhibitor niflumic acid (100 microM) strongly inhibited agonist-induced acidification by >80% and >70%, respectively. The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) inhibitor dimethylamiloride (DMA) increased the magnitude (greater than twofold) and duration of the CCh-induced acidification. Gene expression profiling suggested that serous cells express NHE isoforms 1-4 and 6-9, but pharmacological sensitivities demonstrated that alkalinization observed during both CCh stimulation and pH(i) recovery from agonist-induced acidification was primarily due to NHE1, localized to the basolateral membrane. These results suggest that serous acinar cells secrete HCO(3)(-) during Ca(2+)-evoked fluid secretion by a mechanism that involves the apical membrane secretory Cl(-) channel, with HCO(3)(-) secretion sustained by activation of NHE1 in the basolateral membrane. In addition, other Na(+)-dependent pH(i) regulatory mechanisms exist, as evidenced by stronger inhibition of alkalinization in Na(+)-free media. PMID:18591422

  18. Autophagy facilitates secretion and protects against degeneration of the Harderian gland.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Ulrich; Fobker, Manfred; Lengauer, Barbara; Brandstetter, Marlene; Resch, Guenter P; Gröger, Marion; Plenz, Gabriele; Pammer, Johannes; Barresi, Caterina; Hartmann, Christine; Rossiter, Heidemarie

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial derived Harderian gland consists of 2 types of secretory cells. The more numerous type A cells are responsible for the secretion of lipid droplets, while type B cells produce dark granules of multilamellar bodies. The process of autophagy is constitutively active in the Harderian gland, as confirmed by our analysis of LC3 processing in GFP-LC3 transgenic mice. This process is compromised by epithelial deletion of Atg7. Morphologically, the Atg7 mutant glands are hypotrophic and degenerated, with highly vacuolated cells and pyknotic nuclei. The mutant glands accumulate lipid droplets coated with PLIN2 (perilipin 2) and contain deposits of cholesterol, ubiquitinated proteins, SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) positive aggregates and other metabolic products such as porphyrin. Immunofluorescence stainings show that distinct cells strongly aggregate both proteins and lipids. Electron microscopy of the Harderian glands reveals that its organized structure is compromised, and the presence of large intracellular lipid droplets and heterologous aggregates. We attribute the occurrence of large vacuoles to a malfunction in the formation of multilamellar bodies found in the less abundant type B Harderian gland cells. This defect causes the formation of large tertiary lysosomes of heterologous content and is accompanied by the generation of tight lamellar stacks of endoplasmic reticulum in a pseudo-crystalline form. To test the hypothesis that lipid and protein accumulation is the cause for the degeneration in autophagy-deficient Harderian glands, epithelial cells were treated with a combination of the proteasome inhibitor and free fatty acids, to induce aggregation of misfolded proteins and lipid accumulation, respectively. The results show that lipid accumulation indeed enhanced the toxicity of misfolded proteins and that this was even more pronounced in autophagy-deficient cells. Thus, we conclude autophagy controls protein and lipid catabolism and anabolism to facilitate bulk production of secretory vesicles of the Harderian gland. PMID:25484081

  19. Volatile compounds from the red deer (Cervus elaphus) Secretion from the tail gland.

    PubMed

    Bakke, J M; Figenschou, E

    1983-04-01

    The major volatile, organic compounds secreted by the tail gland of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) have been identified as phenol,m-cresol, cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, benzoic acid, phenylacetic acid, ethylphenol, dimethyl sulfone,o-cresol and 3-phenylpropanoic acid. The secretion from ten dead and three live animals was investigated, those from the live ones over a period of time. There were variations in the relative amounts of the identified compounds, but no correlation of the variations with time of sampling was possible. PMID:24407458

  20. Cidea Control of Lipid Storage and Secretion in Mouse and Human Sebaceous Glands

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shasha; Shui, Guanghou; Wang, Guanqun; Wang, Chao; Sun, Shuhong; Zouboulis, Christos C.; Xiao, Ran; Ye, Jing; Li, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Sebaceous glands are skin appendages that secrete sebum onto hair follicles to lubricate the hair and maintain skin homeostasis. In this study, we demonstrated that Cidea is expressed at high levels in lipid-laden mature sebocytes and that Cidea deficiency led to dry hair and hair loss in aged mice. In addition, Cidea-deficient mice had markedly reduced levels of skin surface lipids, including triacylglycerides (TAGs) and wax diesters (WDEs), and these mice were defective in water repulsion and thermoregulation. Furthermore, we observed that Cidea-deficient sebocytes accumulated a large number of smaller-sized lipid droplets (LDs), whereas overexpression of Cidea in human SZ95 sebocytes resulted in increased lipid storage and the accumulation of large LDs. Importantly, Cidea was highly expressed in human sebaceous glands, and its expression levels were positively correlated with human sebum secretion. Our data revealed that Cidea is a crucial regulator of sebaceous gland lipid storage and sebum lipid secretion in mammals and humans. PMID:24636991

  1. Apocrine Secretion in Drosophila Salivary Glands: Subcellular Origin, Dynamics, and Identification of Secretory Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Farkaš, Robert; ?atková, Zuzana; Mentelová, Lucia; Löw, Péter; Be?ová-Liszeková, Denisa; Be?o, Milan; Sass, Miklós; ?ehulka, Pavel; ?ehulková, Helena; Raška, Otakar; Ková?ik, Lubomír; Šmigová, Jana; Raška, Ivan; Mechler, Bernard M.

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the well defined mechanism of merocrine exocytosis, the mechanism of apocrine secretion, which was first described over 180 years ago, remains relatively uncharacterized. We identified apocrine secretory activity in the late prepupal salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster just prior to the execution of programmed cell death (PCD). The excellent genetic tools available in Drosophila provide an opportunity to dissect for the first time the molecular and mechanistic aspects of this process. A prerequisite for such an analysis is to have pivotal immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, biochemical and proteomic data that fully characterize the process. Here we present data showing that the Drosophila salivary glands release all kinds of cellular proteins by an apocrine mechanism including cytoskeletal, cytosolic, mitochondrial, nuclear and nucleolar components. Surprisingly, the apocrine release of these proteins displays a temporal pattern with the sequential release of some proteins (e.g. transcription factor BR-C, tumor suppressor p127, cytoskeletal ?-tubulin, non-muscle myosin) earlier than others (e.g. filamentous actin, nuclear lamin, mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase). Although the apocrine release of proteins takes place just prior to the execution of an apoptotic program, the nuclear DNA is never released. Western blotting indicates that the secreted proteins remain undegraded in the lumen. Following apocrine secretion, the salivary gland cells remain quite vital, as they retain highly active transcriptional and protein synthetic activity. PMID:24732043

  2. TRPV1 in Salivary Gland Epithelial Cells Is Not Involved in Salivary Secretion via Transcellular Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seulki; Shin, Yong-Hwan; Namkoong, Eun; Hwang, Sung-Min; Cong, Xin; Yu, Guangyan

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) was originally found in sensory neurons. Recently, it has been reported that TRPV1 is expressed in salivary gland epithelial cells (SGEC). However, the physiological role of TRPV1 in salivary secretion remains to be elucidated. We found that TRPV1 is expressed in mouse and human submandibular glands (SMG) and HSG cells, originated from human submandibular gland ducts at both mRNA and protein levels. However, capsaicin (CAP), TRPV1 agonist, had little effect on intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in these cells, although carbachol consistently increased [Ca2+]i. Exposure of cells to high temperature (>43?) or acidic bath solution (pH5.4) did not increase [Ca2+]i, either. We further examined the role of TRPV1 in salivary secretion using TRPV1 knock-out mice. There was no significant difference in the pilocarpine (PILO)-induced salivary flow rate between wild-type and TRPV1 knock-out mice. Saliva flow rate also showed insignificant change in the mice treated with PILO plus CAP compared with that in mice treated with PILO alone. Taken together, our results suggest that although TRPV1 is expressed in SGEC, it appears not to play any direct roles in saliva secretion via transcellular pathway. PMID:25598668

  3. Cidea control of lipid storage and secretion in mouse and human sebaceous glands.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shasha; Shui, Guanghou; Wang, Guanqun; Wang, Chao; Sun, Shuhong; Zouboulis, Christos C; Xiao, Ran; Ye, Jing; Li, Wei; Li, Peng

    2014-05-01

    Sebaceous glands are skin appendages that secrete sebum onto hair follicles to lubricate the hair and maintain skin homeostasis. In this study, we demonstrated that Cidea is expressed at high levels in lipid-laden mature sebocytes and that Cidea deficiency led to dry hair and hair loss in aged mice. In addition, Cidea-deficient mice had markedly reduced levels of skin surface lipids, including triacylglycerides (TAGs) and wax diesters (WDEs), and these mice were defective in water repulsion and thermoregulation. Furthermore, we observed that Cidea-deficient sebocytes accumulated a large number of smaller-sized lipid droplets (LDs), whereas overexpression of Cidea in human SZ95 sebocytes resulted in increased lipid storage and the accumulation of large LDs. Importantly, Cidea was highly expressed in human sebaceous glands, and its expression levels were positively correlated with human sebum secretion. Our data revealed that Cidea is a crucial regulator of sebaceous gland lipid storage and sebum lipid secretion in mammals and humans. PMID:24636991

  4. Electrolyte and protein secretion by the perfused rabbit mandibular gland stimulated with acetylcholine or catecholamines

    PubMed Central

    Case, R. M.; Conigrave, A. D.; Novak, I.; Young, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    1. A method is described for the isolation and vascular perfusion in vitro of the mandibular gland of the rabbit. The perfusate is a physiological salt solution containing glucose as the only metabolic substrate. 2. During perfusion with solutions containing acetylcholine, the gland secretes vigorously at a rate and in a manner similar to that seen in vivo. Although the gland becomes oedematous during perfusion, the extent of this oedema appears to have no influence on secretory ability: the perfused glands were capable of functioning for at least 4 h, and often for more than 6 h. 3. Acetylcholine evoked a small secretory response at a concentration of 8 × 10-9 mol l-1 and a maximum response at 8 × 10-7 mol l-1. Eserine (2 × 10-5 mol l-1) evoked secretory responses comparable to those evoked by acetylcholine in a concentration of 8 × 10-9 mol l-1. Secretion, whether unstimulated or evoked by acetylcholine or eserine, could be blocked completely by atropine. 4. During prolonged stimulation with acetylcholine, the fluid secretory response declined rapidly over a period of about 15 min from an initial high value to a much lower plateau value. After 3 or more hours of stimulation, the secretory response began once more to decline, this time towards zero. If, before the second period of decline begins, stimulation is interrupted for about 30 min, the gland recovers its initial responsiveness to further stimulation with acetylcholine. 5. The Na, K, Cl and HCO3 concentrations and the osmolality of acetylcholine evoked saliva exhibited flow-dependency similar to that seen in vivo. The concentrations of Na and Cl, but not K and HCO3, increased by about 25 mmol l-1 during periods of prolonged stimulation with acetylcholine even though the salivary secretory rate was constant. The concentrations of K and HCO3, but not Na and Cl, increased progressively as the concentration of infused acetylcholine was increased. 6. Salivary protein secretion increased with increasing concentrations of acetylcholine to a greater extent than did fluid secretion. During continuous stimulation, the rate of protein secretion fell off much faster than the rate of fluid secretion. 7. The ?-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol evoked a fluid secretory response only equal to about 5% of that evoked by acetylcholine, but still the response declined during continued stimulation. The electrolyte composition of isoproterenol-evoked saliva was vastly different from that evoked by acetylcholine, being particularly rich in K and HCO3. The isoproterenol-evoked saliva was also extremely rich in protein so that the total protein secretion evoked by isoproterenol was much greater than that evoked by acetylcholine. 8. The ?-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine was without stimulatory effect on salivary fluid secretion and caused a reduction in the secretory response to acetylcholine. The drug had little or no effect on the electrolyte content of acetylcholine-evoked saliva and appeared to reduce its protein content. PMID:7381794

  5. Mechanism involved in Danshen-induced fluid secretion in salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fei; Wei, Mu-Xin; Murakami, Masataka

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Danshen’s capability to induce salivary fluid secretion and its mechanisms were studied to determine if it could improve xerostomia. METHODS: Submandibular glands were isolated from male Wistar rats under systemic anesthesia with pentobarbital sodium. The artery was cannulated and vascularly perfused at a constant rate. The excretory duct was also cannulated and the secreted saliva was weighed in a cup on an electronic balance. The weight of the accumulated saliva was measured every 3 s and the salivary flow rate was calculated. In addition, the arterio-venous difference in the partial oxygen pressure was measured as an indicator of oxygen consumption. In order to assess the mechanism involved in Danshen-induced fluid secretion, either ouabain (an inhibitor of Na+/K+ ATPase) or bumetanide (an inhibitor of NKCC1) was additionally applied during the Danshen stimulation. In order to examine the involvement of the main membrane receptors, atropine was added to block the M3 muscarinic receptors, or phentolamine was added to block the ?1 adrenergic receptors. In order to examine the requirement for extracellular Ca2+, Danshen was applied during the perfusion with nominal Ca2+ free solution. RESULTS: Although Danshen induced salivary fluid secretion, 88.7 ± 12.8 ?L/g-min, n = 9, (the highest value around 20 min from start of DS perfusion was significantly high vs 32.5 ± 5.3 ?L/g-min by carbamylcholine, P = 0.00093 by t-test) in the submandibular glands, the time course of that secretion differed from that induced by carbamylcholine. There was a latency associated with the fluid secretion induced by Danshen, followed by a gradual increase in the secretion to its highest value, which was in turn followed by a slow decline to a near zero level. The application of either ouabain or bumetanide inhibited the fluid secretion by 85% or 93%, and suppressed the oxygen consumption by 49% or 66%, respectively. These results indicated that Danshen activates Na+/K+ ATPase and NKCC1 to maintain Cl- release and K+ release for fluid secretion. Neither atropine or phentolamine inhibited the fluid secretion induced by Danshen (263% ± 63% vs 309% ± 45%, 227% ± 63% vs 309% ± 45%, P = 0.899, 0.626 > 0.05 respectively, by ANOVA). Accordingly, Danshen does not bind with M3 or ?1 receptors. These characteristics suggested that the mechanism involved in DS-induced salivary fluid secretion could be different from that induced by carbamylcholine. Carbamylcholine activates the M3 receptor to release inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and quickly releases Ca2+ from the calcium stores. The elevation of [Ca2+]i induces chloride release and quick osmosis, resulting in an onset of fluid secretion. An increase in [Ca2+]i is essential for the activation of the luminal Cl- and basolateral K+ channels. The nominal removal of extracellular Ca2+ totally abolished the fluid secretion induced by Danshen (1.8 ± 0.8 ?L/g-min vs 101.9 ± 17.2 ?L/g-min, P = 0.00023 < 0.01, by t-test), suggesting the involvement of Ca2+ in the activation of these channels. Therefore, IP3-store Ca2+ release signalling may not be involved in the secretion induced by Danshen, but rather, there may be a distinct signalling process. CONCLUSION: The present findings suggest that Danshen can be used in the treatment of xerostomia, to avoid the systemic side effects associated with muscarinic drugs. PMID:25663764

  6. Ion transport mechanisms linked to bicarbonate secretion in the esophageal submucosal glands

    PubMed Central

    Nakhoul, Hani N.; Kalliny, Medhat I.; Gyftopoulos, Alex; Rabon, Edd; Doetjes, Rienk; Brown, Karen; Nakhoul, Nazih L.

    2011-01-01

    The esophageal submucosal glands (SMG) secrete HCO3? and mucus into the esophageal lumen, where they contribute to acid clearance and epithelial protection. This study characterized the ion transport mechanisms linked to HCO3? secretion in SMG. We localized ion transporters using immunofluorescence, and we examined their expression by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. We measured HCO3? secretion by using pH stat and the isolated perfused esophagus. Using double labeling with Na+-K+-ATPase as a marker, we localized Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporter (NBCe1) and Cl?-HCO3? exchanger (SLC4A2/AE2) to the basolateral membrane of duct cells. Expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator channel (CFTR) was confirmed by immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, and in situ hybridization. We identified anion exchanger SLC26A6 at the ducts' luminal membrane and Na+-K+-2Cl? (NKCC1) at the basolateral membrane of mucous and duct cells. pH stat experiments showed that elevations in cAMP induced by forskolin or IBMX increased HCO3? secretion. Genistein, an activator of CFTR, which does not increase intracellular cAMP, also stimulated HCO3? secretion, whereas glibenclamide, a Cl? channel blocker, and bumetanide, a Na+-K+-2Cl? blocker, decreased it. CFTRinh-172, a specific CFTR channel blocker, inhibited basal HCO3? secretion as well as stimulation of HCO3? secretion by IBMX. This is the first report on the presence of CFTR channels in the esophagus. The role of CFTR in manifestations of esophageal disease in cystic fibrosis patients remains to be determined. PMID:21474426

  7. Cystic fibrosis and the relationship between mucin and chloride secretion by cultures of human airway gland mucous cells

    PubMed Central

    Zlock, Lorna T.; Morikawa, Masatoshi; Lao, Anna Y.; Dasari, Vijay; Widdicombe, Jonathan H.

    2011-01-01

    —We investigated how cystic fibrosis (CF) alters the relationship between Cl? and mucin secretion in cultures of non-CF and CF human tracheobronchial gland mucous (HTGM and CFTGM, respectively) cells. Biochemical studies showed that HTMG cells secreted typical airway mucins, and immunohistochemical studies showed that these cells expressed MUC1, MUC4, MUC5B, MUC8, MUC13, MUC16, and MUC20. Effects of cumulative doses of methacholine (MCh), phenylephrine (Phe), isoproterenol (Iso), and ATP on mucin and Cl? secretion were studied on HTGM and CFTGM cultures. Baseline mucin secretion was not significantly altered in CFTGM cells, and the increases in mucin secretion induced by mediators were unaltered (Iso, Phe) or slightly decreased (MCh, ATP). Across mediators, there was no correlation between the maximal increases in Cl? secretion and mucin secretion. In HTGM cells, the Cl? channel blocker, diphenylamine-2-carboxylic acid, greatly inhibited Cl? secretion but did not alter mucin release. In HTGM cells, mediators (10?5 M) increased mucin secretion in the rank order ATP > Phe = Iso > MCh. They increased Cl? secretion in the sequence ATP > MCh ? Iso > Phe. The responses in Cl? secretion to MCh, ATP, and Phe were unaltered by CF, but the response to Iso was greatly reduced. We conclude that mucin secretion by cultures of human tracheobronchial gland cells is independent of Cl? secretion, at baseline, and is unaltered in CF; that the ratio of Cl? secretion to mucus secretion varies markedly depending on mediator; and that secretions induced by stimulation of ?-adrenergic receptors will be abnormally concentrated in CF. PMID:21724859

  8. Short-chain aliphatic acids in the interdigital gland secretion of reindeer ( Rangifer tarandus L.), and their discrimination by reindeer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Brundin; Gustav Andersson; Kurt Andersson; Torgny Mossing; Lollo Källquist

    1978-01-01

    Interdigital gland secretion from reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and gas chromato-graphy. The short-chain acid fraction consisted of acetic, propionic, isobutyric,n-butyric, isovaleric, 2-methylbutyric,n-valeric, isocaproic, andn-caproic acids. The short-chain acids were produced by sterol esters when hydrolyzed in the gland-probably by microorganisms. Triglycerides present did not contain any short-chain acids. By testing isovaleric acid and isobutyric acid

  9. Chemical composition of the frontal gland secretion ofSyntermes soldiers (Isoptera, Termitidae).

    PubMed

    Baker, R; Coles, H R; Edwards, M; Evans, D A; Howse, P E; Walmsley, S

    1981-01-01

    The defensive secretions from the frontal glands of soldier termites of the genusSyntermes contain similar mixtures of mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The major components inS. dirus, S. molestus, S. brevimalatus, S. peruanus, and a new species (Syntermes sp. n), iscis-?-ocimene. A substantial amount of aristolochene is found inSyntermes sp. n. and is present at lower levels in all the other species;S. brevimalatus contains onlycis-?-ocimene and aristolochene. The four other species also contain minor amounts of epi-?-selinene and germacrene A. The latter compound has been identified on the basis of its rearrangement product ?-elemene. The termiteS. grandis differed markedly from the otherSyntermes species in that no terpenoid components were found in the soldier extract. With the obvious exception ofS. grandis, the same soldier-specific mono- and sesquiterpenes occurred in all species. The total amount of secretion per unit weight of soldiers varies with the species and is inversely proportional to the development of the mandibular apparatus. InS. molestus smaller gland size is compensated for by a greater number of soldiers foraging trails. PMID:24420433

  10. Optical imaging of Ca2+-evoked fluid secretion by murine nasal submucosal gland serous acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Robert J; Limberis, Maria P; Hennessy, Michael F; Wilson, James M; Foskett, J Kevin

    2007-08-01

    Airway submucosal glands are sites of high expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel and contribute to fluid homeostasis in the lung. However, the molecular mechanisms of gland ion and fluid transport are poorly defined. Here, submucosal gland serous acinar cells were isolated from murine airway, identified by immunofluorescence and gene expression profiling, and used in physiological studies. Stimulation of isolated acinar cells with carbachol (CCh), histamine or ATP was associated with marked decreases in cell volume (20 +/- 2% within 62 +/- 5 s) that were tightly correlated with increases in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) as revealed by simultaneous DIC and fluorescent indicator dye microscopy. Simultaneous imaging of cell volume and the Cl(-)-sensitive fluorophore SPQ indicated that the 20% shrinkage was associated with a fall of [Cl(-)](i) from 65 mm to 28 mm, reflecting loss of 67% of cell Cl(-) content, accompanied by parallel efflux of K(+). Upon agonist removal, [Ca(2+)](i) relaxed and the cells swelled back to resting volume via a bumetanide-sensitive Cl(-) influx pathway, likely to be NKCC1. Accordingly, agonist-induced serous acinar cell shrinkage and swelling are caused by activation of solute efflux and influx pathways, respectively, and cell volume reflects the secretory state of these cells. In contrast, elevation of cAMP failed to elicit detectible volume responses, or enhance those induced by submaximal [CCh], because the magnitude of the changes were likely to be below the threshold of detection using optical imaging. Finally, when stimulated with cholinergic or cAMP agonists, cells from mice that lacked CFTR, as well as wild-type cells treated with a CFTR inhibitor, exhibited identical rates and magnitudes of shrinkage and Cl(-) efflux compared with control cells. These results provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of salt and water secretion by lung submucosal glands, and they suggest that while murine submucosal gland fluid secretion in response to cholinergic stimulation can originate from CFTR-expressing serous acinar cells, it is not dependent upon CFTR function. PMID:17525116

  11. Pleomorphic adenoma of the accessory parotid gland: case report and reappraisal of intraoral extracapsular dissection for management.

    PubMed

    Tsegga, Tibebu M; Britt, Jennifer D; Ellwanger, Aragon R

    2015-03-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common tumor of the major and minor salivary glands. Rarely is it found evolving from an ectopic location of major salivary glandular tissue in the mid cheek. A healthy 56-year-old woman presented to our institution with a 20-year duration of a slowly growing right cheek soft tissue mass that was causing facial asymmetry. No significant functional or neurosensory dysfunction was appreciated. Radiologic examination showed a heterogeneous, hyperintense, well-delineated mass within the region of the right buccal fat pad. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy showed benign salivary gland elements consistent with pleomorphic adenoma. The decision was made to perform intraoral extracapsular dissection for removal. Discussion of the clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation with an emphasis on intraoral extracapsular dissection for definitive surgical therapy of longstanding benign salivary gland tumors is emphasized. PMID:25530278

  12. Characterization of BGTG-1, a tergal gland-secreted alpha-amylase, from the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.).

    PubMed

    Saltzmann, K D; Saltzmann, K A; Neal, J J; Scharf, M E; Bennett, G W

    2006-08-01

    The protein fraction of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), tergal gland secretion was examined. SDS-PAGE separation of proteins present in B. germanica tergal gland secretion revealed a tergal gland-secreted protein, BGTG-1, at approximately 63 kDa. BGTG-1 first appeared in tergal gland secretion at 2 days postimaginal moult and the amount of protein observed increased through day 5. A 2051 bp cDNA sequence, bgtg-1, was obtained by RACE polymerase chain reaction and contains a 1494 bp ORF encoding a predicted protein of 498 amino acids. In a Northern hybridization experiment using total RNA from B. germanica tergal gland tissue, a (32)P-labelled bgtg-1 probe hybridized to an RNA approximately 2000 bp and confirmed the 2051 bp cDNA size obtained by RACE PCR. Using the BLASTx sequence similarity search tool, the top match to the bgtg-1 ORF was found to be an alpha-amylase from Drosophila kikkawai (e-value = 1 x 10(-178)). Alignment of the bgtg-1 deduced protein sequence with alpha-amylases from fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, honey bee, Apis mellifera (L.) and yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor (L.), revealed conserved residues throughout the ORF and sequence identities ranging from 58.4 to 58.2%. Using a gel-based assay, degradation of starch by native BGTG-1 was demonstrated in vitro and we propose that BGTG-1 may be involved in processing phagostimulatory sugars present in B. germanica tergal gland secretion. PMID:16907829

  13. Radioprotection by WR-2721 of gamma-irradiated rat parotid gland: effect on gland weight and secretion at 8-10 days post irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas W Menard; Kenneth T Izutsu; W. Y. Ensign; Patricia J Keller; Thomas H Morton; Edmond L Truelove

    1984-01-01

    Changes in rat parotid salivary gland weight and functional parameters were evaluated at 8 to 10 days post irradiation in WR-2721 protected and non-protected animals following exposure to a single 15.3 Gy dose of Cs-137 radiation to the head. Glandular fluid secretory capacity was assessed by maximum flow rate, total volume of saliva and duration of secretion following pilocarpine stimulation.

  14. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1998 Origin and Secretion of Milk Lipids

    E-print Network

    Mather, Ian

    Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1998 Origin and Secretion of Milk Lipids Ian H. Mather1,3 and Thomas W. Keenan2 The cream fraction of milk comprises droplets-bounded compartments of the secretory pathway. Milk lipids originate as small droplets of triacylglycerol, synthesized

  15. Secretion of Catecholamines from Adrenal Gland by a Single Electrical Shock: Electrotonic Depolarization of Medullary Cell Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakade, Arun R.; Wakade, Taruna D.

    1982-05-01

    Transmural stimulation of the isolated adrenal gland of the rat and guinea pig results in secretion of catecholamines. The secretion is due to activation of cholinergic receptors of the adrenal medulla by acetylcholine released from splanchnic nerve terminals after transmural stimulation. Our aim was to see whether the same experimental technique could be used to directly excite the adrenal medullary cell membrane by electrical stimulation and whether such stimulation would result in secretion of catecholamines. We demonstrate here that a single electrical shock to the perfused adrenal gland of the rat results in massive secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine. The secretion is directly related to the strength and duration of the applied stimulus over a wide range. Catecholamine secretion is unaffected by tetrodotoxin or hexamethonium/atropine but is abolished by Ca2+ lack or 3 mM Mn2+. We suggest that the adrenal medullary membrane undergoes nonpropagated electrotonic depolarization on electrical stimulation and thereby voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels are opened to initiate secretion.

  16. Tachykinin NK3 and NK1 receptor activation elicits secretion from porcine airway submucosal glands

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Jonathan E; Hey, John A; Corboz, Michel R

    2003-01-01

    We presently characterized the tachykinin receptor subtypes, using tachykinin receptor agonists and selective antagonists, that induce submucosal gland fluid flux (JG) from porcine tracheal explants with the hillocks technique. We also investigated the effects of the tachykinin receptor agonists on the electrophysiologic parameters of the tracheal epithelium in Ussing chambers. The NK1 tachykinin receptor agonist substance P (SP, 1 ?M) and the NK3 tachykinin receptor agonist [MePhe7]neurokinin B ([MePhe7]NKB, 1 ?M) induced gland fluid fluxes of 0.29±0.03 ?l min?1 cm?2 (n=26) and 0.36±0.05 ?l min?1 cm?2 (n=24), respectively; while the NK2 tachykinin receptor agonist [?Ala8]neurokinin A (4-10) ([?Ala8]NKA (4-10), 1 ?M) had no effect on JG (n=10). The NK1 receptor antagonist CP99994 (1 ?M, n=9) blocked 93% of the SP-induced JG, whereas the NK3 receptor antagonist SB223412 (1 ?M, n=12) had no effect on the SP-induced JG. However, SB223412 (1 ?M, n=9) blocked 89% of the [MePhe7]NKB-induced JG while CP99994 (1 ?M, n=10) did not affect the [MePhe7]NKB-induced JG. The NK2 receptor antagonist SR48968 (1 ?M) did not block the JG induced by either the NK1 (n=4) or NK3 (n=13) receptor agonists. The nicotinic ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antagonist hexamethonium (1 ?M) and the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine (1 ?M) also decreased the NK3 receptor agonist-induced JG by 67% (n=10) and 71% (n=12), respectively. The potential difference (PD), short-circuit current (ISC), and membrane resistance (RM) of the porcine tracheal epithelial membranes were not significantly affected by any of the neurokinin agonists or antagonists (1 ?M, basolateral) used in this study, although SP and [?Ala8]NKA (4-10) induced a slight transient epithelial hyperpolarization. These data suggest that NK1 and NK3 receptors induce porcine airway gland secretion by different mechanisms and that the NK3 receptor agonists induced secretion is likely due to activation of prejunctional NK3 receptors on parasympathetic nerves, resulting in acetylcholine-release. We conclude that tachykinin receptor antagonists may have therapeutic potential in diseases with pathophysiological mucus hypersecretion such as asthma and chronic bronchitis. PMID:12522097

  17. Effect of semen collection by transrectal massage of accessory sexual glands or artificial vagina on the outcome of breeding soundness examinations of Italian yearling beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Sylla, Lakamy; Palombi, Claudio; Stradaioli, Giuseppe; Vagniluca, Antonio; Monaci, Maurizio

    2015-03-15

    Although semen quality is one of the major traits that influence breeding soundness examination outcomes in bulls, field conditions occasionally do not allow for the collection of semen samples by means of an artificial vagina. The aims of the present study were to report the results of a large number of semen collections that were performed via the transrectal massage (TRM) of the accessory sexual glands of Italian yearling beef bulls and compare this semen collection method to the artificial vagina (AV) method in term of breeding soundness examination outcomes; furthermore, we determined whether the breed affected the semen characteristics. In the TRM group (n = 475), the semen samples were collected via TRM of the accessory sexual glands, and in the AV group (n = 502), the AV method was used. In the TRM group, semen samples were obtained from 81.3% of the bulls and penile protrusion was observed in 87.6% of the animals during semen collection. The sperm concentrations (920.5 ± 439.0 vs. 281.0 ± 259.8 × 10(6)/mL) and the percentages of total abnormal spermatozoa (22.8 ± 15.0 vs. 18.8 ± 12.9) were significantly higher in the AV group than those in the TRM group. The percentage of bulls that did not meet the minimum requirement for normal cells (?70%) was 6.2% higher in the AV group than that in the TRM group (P < 0.05). Moreover, the samples collected from Chianina bulls by TRM exhibited a lower percentage of motile sperm and a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa when compared with the other two breeds. The major drawbacks of the TRM technique were the inability to conduct complete evaluation of the libido and mating ability of the yearling bulls, a significant reduction of the number of spermatozoa collected, and an increase in the variability of the semen characteristics due to breed. In conclusion, despite the drawbacks, TRM guarantees that semen evaluation can be conducted in cases in which the semen samples cannot be collected with the AV method. PMID:25488791

  18. Protein secretion in cockroach salivary glands requires an increase in intracellular cAMP and Ca2+ concentrations.

    PubMed

    Rietdorf, K; Blenau, W; Walz, B

    2005-10-01

    The salivary glands in the cockroach Periplaneta americana secrete protein-containing saliva when stimulated by serotonin (5-HT) and protein-free saliva upon dopamine stimulation. In order to obtain information concerning the signalling pathways involved in 5-HT-induced protein secretion, we have determined the protein content of saliva secreted after experimental manipulations that potentially elevate intracellular Ca2+ and cyclic nucleotide concentrations in isolated glands. We have found that 5-HT stimulates the rate of protein secretion in a dose-dependent manner (threshold: 3 x 10(-8)M; EC50 1.5 x 10(-6)M). The maximal rate of 5-HT-induced protein secretion was 2.2 +/- 0.2 microg/min. Increasing intracellular Ca2+ or cAMP by bath application of ionomycin (5 microM), db cAMP (10mM), forskolin (100 microM) or IBMX (100 microM), respectively, stimulated protein secretion at significantly lower rates, whereas db cGMP (1mM) did not activate protein secretion. The high rates and the kinetics of 5-HT-induced protein secretion could only be mimicked by either applying forskolin together with IBMX (with or without ionomycin) or by applying IBMX together with ionomycin. Our measurements suggest that 5-HT-induced protein secretion is mediated by an elevation of [cAMP]i and that Ca2+ may function as a co-agonist and augment the rate of protein secretion. PMID:16029878

  19. Leaf-cutting antAtta laevigata (Formicidae: Attini) marks its territory with colony-specific dufour gland secretion.

    PubMed

    Salzemann, A; Nagnan, P; Tellier, F; Jaffe, K

    1992-02-01

    The workers of the leaf-cutting antAtta laevigata were found to mark a territory around their nest and along trunk trails. Elsewhere, we reported that the territorial mark had orientation and agonistic functions. The presence of this mark induced an alarm behavior in intruder workers and stimulated the residents' aggressiveness. Of the parts of the body tested, only the extracts from gaster or Dufour gland were able to induce the same agonistic behavior. The compoundsn-heptadecane, (Z)-9-nonadecene, 8,11-nonadecadiene, and (Z)-9-tricosene, secreted by Dufour gland were identified on foraging trails in the field as components of the territorial odor. PMID:24254908

  20. Variation and Genomic Localization of Genes Encoding DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER Male Accessory Gland Proteins Separated by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, Michael; Wilson, Thomas G.

    1986-01-01

    Accessory gland proteins from Drosophila melanogaster males have been separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis into nine major bands. When individual males from 175 strains were examined, considerable polymorphism for nearly one-half of the major protein bands was seen, including null alleles for three bands. Variation was observed not only among long-established laboratory strains but also among stocks recently derived from natural populations. There was little difference in the amount of variation between P and M strains, indicating that P element mutagenesis is not a factor producing the variation. Codominant expression of variants for each of five bands was found in heterozygotes, suggesting structural gene variation and not posttranslational modification variation. Stocks carrying electrophoretic variants of four of the major proteins were used to map the presumed structural genes for these proteins; the loci were found to be dispersed on the second chromosome. Since males homozygous for variant proteins were fertile, the polymorphism seems to have little immediate effect on successful sperm transfer. We propose that a high degree of polymorphism can be tolerated because these proteins play a nutritive rather than enzymatic role in Drosophila reproduction. PMID:3095182

  1. Radioprotection by WR-2721 of gamma-irradiated rat parotid gland: effect on gland weight and secretion at 8-10 days post irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Menard, T.W.; Izutsu, K.T.; Ensign, W.Y.; Keller, P.J.; Morton, T.H.; Truelove, E.L.

    1984-09-01

    Changes in rat parotid salivary gland weight and functional parameters were evaluated at 8 to 10 days post irradiation in WR-2721 protected and non-protected animals following exposure to a single 15.3 Gy dose of Cs-137 radiation to the head. Glandular fluid secretory capacity was assessed by maximum flow rate, total volume of saliva and duration of secretion following pilocarpine stimulation. Protection against radiomucositis was also evaluated indirectly by daily monitoring of food and water intake, body weight and paraoral symptomatology. WR-2721 provided a significant degree of protection for all glandular functional parameters as well as gland weight. Relative protective factors (RPF) were computed for irradiated protected and non-protected animals compared to their sham-irradiated, pair-fed controls. Protection against radiomucositis and preservation of residual parotid gland secretory capacity as determined by functional parameters suggests that WR-2721 may be of significant benefit in alleviating oral symptoms and maintaining salivary gland function for patients receiving radiotherapy for head and neck tumors.

  2. Constituents of wing gland and abdominal hair pencil secretions of male African sugarcane borer, Eldana saccharina walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. V. Burger; A. E. Nell; D. Smit; H. S. C. Spies; W. M. Mackenroth; D. Groche; P. R. Atkinson

    1993-01-01

    In addition totrans-3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-4-olide (eldanolide), vanillin, and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, identified by French workers in the wing gland and abdominal hair pencil secretions of the male African sugarcane borer,Eldana saccharina, we have, in an earlier note, reported the presence of several other terpenoid, aromatic, and unbranched-chain compounds such as, (Z)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienoic acid, 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanol, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl alcohol, 1-octadecane thiol, 16-hexadecanolide, and 18-octadecanolide in these secretions. In

  3. The effect of organotin compounds on chloride secretion by the in vitro perfused rectal gland of Squalus acanthias

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, R.; Lear, S.; Cohen, R.; Spokes, K.; Silva, P. Jr.; Silva, M.; Solomon, H.; Silva, P. (New York Medical College, Valhalla (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The effects of various organotins on membrane function and electrolyte transport were studied in the marine elasmobranch, Squalus acanthias. The isolated perfused rectal gland was used as a model of electrolyte transport. This gland can be stimulated to secrete chloride by atrial natriuretic peptide, veratrine, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide although the mechanism of action of each secretagogue is different. By analysis of the inhibitory effect of an organotin in the presence of each secretagogue, the mechanism of inhibition can be inferred. Tributyltin (TBT) produced a reversible inhibition of epithelial transport at 10(-8) to 10(-7) M which resulted from inhibition of stimulus-secretion coupling in VIP-containing neurons within the gland. The transporting epithelial cells were unaffected at these concentrations. Trimethytin (TMT) produced inhibition at 10(-7) M which was not reversible and which affected primarily the transporting epithelial cells. Triethyltin and triphenyltin were without effect. The inhibitory effect of TBT and TMT was not affected by simultaneous administration of dithiothreitol. TBT also produced inhibition of oxygen consumption, Na+,K-ATPase, and proton ATPase in dispersed rectal gland cells. These results indicate that organotins are toxic to cell membrane functions which are intimately involved in the movement of electrolytes. This is the first evidence of toxicity to membrane transport functions in a marine species which is at risk from environmental exposure.

  4. Mucins secreted by a transformed cell line derived from human tracheal gland cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lo-Guidice, J M; Merten, M D; Lamblin, G; Porchet, N; Houvenaghel, M C; Figarella, C; Roussel, P; Perini, J M

    1997-01-01

    High-molecular-mass glycoconjugates are secreted by the continuous cell line MM-39, which has been obtained from cultured human tracheal gland cells transformed by simian virus 40. They were purified on Sepharose(R) CL-4B and then by two steps of density-gradient centrifugation. High-molecular-mass glycoproteins resistant to digestion by hyaluronidase, chondroitin ABC lyase and heparitinase were obtained, in addition to hyaluronic acid and proteoglycans. They were susceptible to beta-elimination. They contained polylactosaminoglycan chains as well as carbohydrate chains with a terminal sialic acid in the NeuAc alpha2-3 sequence. Most of them have a buoyant density of 1.45 g/ml in CsCl-density-gradient centrifugation, except for MUC1. The MM-39 cells were also characterized by a high expression of MUC1 and MUC4 genes, but they did not express MUC2, MUC3, MUC5B and MUC5AC. Therefore the MM-39 cells synthesized mucin-like glycoproteins as well as lysozyme and mucous proteinase inhibitor [Merten, Kammouni, Renaud, Birg, Mattéi and Figarella (1996) Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. 15, 520-528]; they should be considered as having a mixed, both serous and mucous, phenotype. PMID:9291115

  5. Is the rapid post-mating inhibition of pheromone response triggered by ecdysteroids or other factors from the sex accessory glands in the male moth Agrotis ipsilon?

    PubMed

    Vitecek, Simon; Maria, Annick; Blais, Catherine; Duportets, Line; Gaertner, Cyril; Dufour, Marie-Cécile; Siaussat, David; Debernard, Stéphane; Gadenne, Christophe

    2013-05-01

    In many animals, male copulation is dependent on the detection and processing of female-produced sex pheromones, which is generally followed by a sexual refractory post-ejaculatory interval (PEI). In the male moth, Agrotis ipsilon, this PEI is characterized by a transient post-mating inhibition of behavioral and central nervous responses to sex pheromone, which prevents males from re-mating until they have refilled their reproductive tracts for a potential new ejaculate. However, the timing and possible factors inducing this rapid olfactory switch-off are still unknown. Here, we determined the initial time delay and duration of the PEI. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that the brain, the testis and/or the sex accessory glands (SAGs) could produce a factor inducing the PEI. Lastly, we investigated the possible involvement of ecdysteroids, hormones essential for development and reproduction in insects, in this olfactory plasticity. Using brain and SAG cross-injections in virgin and newly-mated males, surgical treatments, wind tunnel behavioral experiments and EIA quantifications of ecdysteroids, we show that the PEI starts very shortly after the onset of copulation, and that SAGs contain a factor, which is produced/accumulated after copulation to induce the PEI. Moreover, SAGs were found to be the main source of ecdysteroids, whose concentration decreased after mating, whereas it increased in the haemolymph. 20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) was identified as the major ecdysteroid in SAGs of A. ipsilon males. Finally, 20E injections did not reduce the behavioral pheromone response of virgin males. Altogether our data indicate that 20E is probably not involved in the PEI. PMID:23562716

  6. Evaluation of atorvastatin efficacy and toxicity on spermatozoa, accessory glands and gonadal hormones of healthy men: a pilot prospective clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention advocate lowering both cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol systemic levels, notably by statin intake. However, statins are the subject of questions concerning their impact on male fertility. This study aimed to evaluate, by a prospective pilot assay, the efficacy and the toxicity of a decrease of cholesterol blood levels, induced by atorvastatin on semen quality and sexual hormone levels of healthy, normocholesterolaemic and normozoospermic men. Methods Atorvastatin (10 mg daily) was administrated orally during 5 months to 17 men with normal plasma lipid and standard semen parameters. Spermatozoa parameters, accessory gland markers, semen lipid levels and blood levels of gonadal hormones were assayed before statin intake, during the treatment, and 3 months after its withdrawal. Results Atorvastatin treatment significantly decreased circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol concentrations by 42% and 24% (p?

  7. On the enigmatic scent glands of dyspnoan harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones): first evidence for the production of volatile secretions.

    PubMed

    Raspotnig, Günther; Schaider, Miriam; Stabentheiner, Edith; Leis, Hans-Jörg; Karaman, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    While considerable knowledge on the chemistry of the scent gland secretions from the opilionid suborders Laniatores and Cyphophthalmi has been compiled, it is the Palpatores (Eupnoi and Dyspnoi) where chemical data are scarce. In particular, the Dyspnoi have remained nearly unstudied, mainly due to their reported general reluctance to release secretions as well as to the phenomenon of production of insoluble-and inaccessible-solid secretion. We here show that at least certain nemastomatid Dyspnoi, namely all three species of genus Carinostoma, indeed produce a volatile secretion, comprising octan-3-one, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and acetophenone in species-specific combinations. In all Carinostoma spp., these volatiles are embedded in a semi-volatile, naphthoquinone matrix (mainly 1,4-naphthoquinone and 6-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone). In detail, acetophenone and traces of naphthoquinones characterize the secretions of Carinostoma carinatum. A mixture of octan-3-one, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and large amounts of naphthoquinones were found in C. elegans, and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one together with small amounts of naphthoquinones in the secretions of C. ornatum. So far, exclusively naphthoquinones had been reported from a single dyspnoan hitherto studied, Paranemastoma quadripunctatum. PMID:24634568

  8. Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter-mediated fluid secretion increases under hypotonic osmolarity in the mouse submandibular salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Kidokoro, Manami; Nakamoto, Tetsuji; Mukaibo, Taro; Kondo, Yusuke; Munemasa, Takashi; Imamura, Atsushi; Masaki, Chihiro; Hosokawa, Ryuji

    2014-05-15

    Water-handling epithelia are sensitive to the osmotic environment. In this study, the effects of a hypo-osmotic challenge on carbachol (CCh)-induced fluid secretion was investigated using an ex vivo submandibular gland perfusion technique and intracellular pH and Ca(2+) measurements. The osmolality of the perfusion solution was altered to examine the response of the gland to a hypotonic challenge. The flow rate was increased by 34% with a 30% hypotonic solution (225 mosmol/kgH2O), although the Ca(2+) response was unchanged. The lowering of the external Cl(-) by 50% abolished this increase in the 30% hypotonic solution. Furthermore, bumetanide, an inhibitor of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1), completely inhibited the fluid secretion increase caused by the 30% hypotonic solution, and both the total amount of fluid and the flow rate were identical to those of the isotonic solution. This finding was confirmed by measuring the NKCC1 bumetanide-dependent NH4 (+) transport; Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) transport was upregulated >40% by a 30% hypotonic challenge. Therefore, the increase in CCh-induced fluid secretion in response to hypotonic conditions can be attributed, to a large extent, to the specific activation of the NKCC1. PMID:24623142

  9. Identification of a lipocalin in mucosal glands of the human tracheobronchial tree and its enhanced secretion in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Redl, B; Wojnar, P; Ellemunter, H; Feichtinger, H

    1998-09-01

    Members of the lipocalin protein family are characterized by their ability to bind small hydrophobic molecules. Some of them are known to be produced by various glands and secretory cells. Under certain conditions, these proteins would be ideally suited for clearance of lipophilic, potentially harmful substances and might also act as protection factors in airway secretions. We therefore used RT-PCR analysis with a set of oligonucleotide primers deduced from conserved regions of lipocalin members to identify specific RNA isolated from human trachea. With two of these oligonucleotide primers, a positive result was obtained. Sequencing of the RT-PCR products revealed that the DNA fragments were identical to the lipocalin 1 (LCN1) encoding cDNA. LCN1 is an unusual lipocalin member that binds a variety of lipophilic compounds and exhibits cysteine proteinase inhibitor and antimicrobial activities. The local production and topographic distribution of LCN1 in the human tracheobronchial tree was then investigated by immunoperoxidase staining on thin-layer sections using a specific antiserum. LCN1 was detectable in the acini of serous mucosal glands and sometimes within the glandular lumen, suggesting excretion of the protein. The latter finding was tested and verified by Western blot analysis of bronchial secretions of healthy individuals. Furthermore, the results of SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis of bronchial secretions from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), which are usually characterized by an increase of airway lipids, suggested that LCN1 secretion was enhanced. Northern blot analysis of RNA from normal trachea and RNA isolated from tracheal biopsies of patients with CF indicated that induced secretion was due to an up-regulated expression of the LCN1 gene. Thus, our investigations present the first clear evidence that LCN1 is induced in infection or inflammation and support the idea that this lipocalin functions as a physiologic protection factor of epithelia in vivo. PMID:9759656

  10. Analysis of the scent gland secretions of Dumeril's ground boa (Acrantophis dumerili Jan) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    E-print Network

    Simpson, John Thomas

    1989-01-01

    SIMPSON Approved to style and content by: Karl H. Dahm (Co-Chair of Committee) &9 Paul J. Weldon (Co-Chair of Committee) as . arp (Me er) Michael B. all (Head of Department) May 1989 ABSTRACT Analysis of the Scent Gland Secretions of Dumeri...Vs Ground Boa (Acranrophis dumerili Jan) by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. (May 1989) John Thomas Simpson, B. S. , Louisiana State University Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Karl H. Dahm Dr. Paul J. Weldon When disturbed by predators, many...

  11. Secretory and basal cells of the epithelium of the tubular glands in the male Mullerian gland of the caecilian Uraeotyphlus narayani (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    George, Jancy M; Smita, Matthew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2004-12-01

    Caecilians are exceptional among the vertebrates in that males retain the Mullerian duct as a functional glandular structure. The Mullerian gland on each side is formed from a large number of tubular glands connecting to a central duct, which either connects to the urogenital duct or opens directly into the cloaca. The Mullerian gland is believed to secrete a substance to be added to the sperm during ejaculation. Thus, the Mullerian gland could function as a male accessory reproductive gland. Recently, we described the male Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and histochemistry. The present TEM study reports that the secretory cells of both the tubular and basal portions of the tubular glands of the male Mullerian gland of this caecilian produce secretion granules in the same manner as do other glandular epithelial cells. The secretion granules are released in the form of structured granules into the lumen of the tubular glands, and such granules are traceable to the lumen of the central duct of the Mullerian gland. This is comparable to the situation prevailing in the epididymal epithelium of several reptiles. In the secretory cells of the basal portion of the tubular glands, mitochondria are intimately associated with fabrication of the secretion granules. The structural and functional organization of the epithelium of the basal portion of the tubular glands is complicated by the presence of basal cells. This study suggests the origin of the basal cells from peritubular tissue leukocytes. The study also indicates a role for the basal cells in acquiring secretion granules from the neighboring secretory cells and processing them into lipofuscin material in the context of regression of the Mullerian gland during the period of reproductive quiescence. In these respects the basal cells match those in the epithelial lining of the epididymis of amniotes. PMID:15487004

  12. Chemistry of the sternal gland secretion of the Mediterranean centipede Himantarium gabrielis (Linnaeus, 1767) (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Himantariidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujisi?, Ljubodrag V.; Vu?kovi?, Ivan M.; Makarov, Slobodan E.; Ili?, Bojan S.; Anti?, Dragan Ž.; Jadranin, Milka B.; Todorovi?, Nina M.; Mrki?, Ivan V.; Vajs, Vlatka E.; Lu?i?, Luka R.; ?ur?i?, Božidar P. M.; Miti?, Bojan M.

    2013-09-01

    The geophilomorph centipede, Himantarium gabrielis, when disturbed, discharges a viscous and proteinaceous secretion from the sternal glands. This exudate was found by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry and NMR analyses to be composed of hydrogen cyanide, benzaldehyde, benzoyl nitrile, benzyl nitrile, mandelonitrile, mandelonitrile benzoate, 3,7,6 O-trimethylguanine (himantarine), farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate and farnesyl farnesoate. This is the first report on the presence of benzyl nitrile and mandelonitrile benzoate in secreted substances from centipedes. Farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate is a new compound, while himantarine and farnesyl farnesoate were not known as natural products. A post-secretion release of hydrogen cyanide by reaction of mandelonitrile and benzoyl nitrile was observed by NMR, and hydrogen cyanide signals were completely assigned. In addition, a protein component of the secretion was analysed by electrophoresis which revealed the presence of a major 55 kDa protein. Analyses of the defensive exudates of other geophilomorph families should produce further chemical surprises.

  13. Effects of methotrexate on rat parotid and submandibular glands and their secretions

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with methotrexate for 3 days. Parotid and submandibular main ducts were cannulated and saliva flow was evoked by either intravenous infusion of acetylcholine or an intravenous injection of benthanechol. Methotrexate was found to reduce significantly mean food consumption, body weight, and parotid gland wet weights. Experimental animal salivary total gland DNA levels were not different, but total parotid gland RNA, protein, amylase and water content, and submandibular gland RNA were significantly lower compared to control. Acetylcholine, but not bethanechol, evoked parotid protein and amylase outputs and submandibular protein output from experimental animals were significantly higher than the control groups'. The increased outputs were apparently linked to ..beta..-adrenergic receptor activation, since hexamethonium or propranolol eliminated the significant increases while phenoxybenzamine did not. Plasma catecholamine levels were significantly higher in the methotrexate treated animals and probably played a role in the salivary gland ..beta..-adrenergic activation. Methotrexate treatment significantly increased the submandibular gland ..beta..-adrenergic receptor concentration as determined by (/sup 3/H)-dihydroalprenolol receptor binding assays. Muscarinic receptor concentrations determined with (/sup 3/H)-quinuclidninyl benzilate were not changed.

  14. Differential scanning calorimetric evaluation of human meibomian gland secretions and model lipid mixtures: transition temperatures and cooperativity of melting

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hua; Wojtowicz, Jadwiga C.; Butovich, Igor A.

    2013-01-01

    Meibomian gland secretions (or meibum) are produced by holocrine meibomian glands and are secreted in melted form onto the ocular surface of humans and animals to form a protective tear film lipid layer (TFLL). Its protective effect strongly depends on the composition and, hence, thermotropic behavior of meibum. The goal of our study was to quantitatively evaluate the melting characteristics of human meibum and model lipid mixtures using differential scanning microcalorimetry. Standard calorimetric parameters, e.g. changes in calorimetric enthalpy, transition temperatures T(m), cooperativity of melting etc. were assessed. We found that thermotropic behavior of meibum resembled that of relatively simple mixtures of unsaturated wax esters, but showed a lower change in calorimetric enthalpy, which can be indicative of a looser packing of lipids in meibum compared with pure standards and their simple mixtures. The cooperativity of melting of meibomian lipids was comparable to that of an equimolar mixture of four oleic-acid based wax esters. We demonstrated that the phase transitions in meibum start at about 10 to 15 °C and end at 35-36 °C, with T(m) being about 30 °C. The highly asymmetrical shape of the thermotropic peak of meibum is important for the physiology and biophysics of TFLL. PMID:23578711

  15. PPAR ? Regulates Genes Involved in Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Secretion in Mammary Gland Epithelial Cells of Dairy Goats.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hengbo; Luo, Jun; Zhu, Jiangjiang; Li, Jun; Sun, Yuting; Lin, Xianzi; Zhang, Liping; Yao, Dawei; Shi, Huaiping

    2013-01-01

    To explore the function of PPAR ? in the goat mammary gland, we cloned the whole cDNA of the PPAR ? gene. Homology alignments revealed that the goat PPAR ? gene is conserved among goat, bovine, mouse, and human. Luciferase assays revealed that rosiglitazone enhanced the activity of the PPAR ? response element (PPRE) in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs). After rosiglitazone (ROSI) treatment of GMECs, there was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the expression of genes related to triacylglycerol synthesis and secretion: LPL, FASN, ACACA, PLIN3, FABP3, PLIN2, PNPLA2, NR1H3, SREBF1, and SCD. The decreases in expression observed after knockdown of PPAR ? relative to the control group (Ad-NC) averaged 65%, 52%, 67%, 55%, 65%, 58%, 85%, 43%, 50%, and 24% for SCD, DGAT1, AGPAT6, SREBF1, ACACA, FASN, FABP3, SCAP, ATGL, and PLIN3, respectively. These results provide direct evidence that PPAR ? plays a crucial role in regulating the triacylglycerol synthesis and secretion in goat mammary cells and underscore the functional importance of PPAR ? in mammary gland tissue during lactation. PMID:23710163

  16. Semiochemicals and social signaling in the wild European rabbit in Australia: II. Variations in chemical composition of chin gland secretion across sampling sites.

    PubMed

    Hayes, R A; Richardson, B J; Claus, S C; Wyllie, S G

    2002-12-01

    The volatile components of the chin gland secretion of the wild European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.), were investigated with the use of gas chromatography. Studies of the chemical nature of this secretion by previous workers demonstrated that it was important in the maintenance of social structure in this species. This study identified 34 different volatile components that consist primarily of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Especially common are a series of alkyl-substituted benzene derivatives that provide most of the compound diversity in the secretion. Samples of chin gland secretion collected from animals at three different geographical locations, separated by more than 100 km, showed significant differences in composition. This work suggests that variation among populations needs to be considered when undertaking semiochemical research. Alternate nonparametric methods are also used for the analysis of chromatographic data. PMID:12564804

  17. Secretion by the mandibular gland of the red kangaroo ( Macropus rufus ) during isoprenaline infusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Beal

    1989-01-01

    Intracarotid infusion of isoprenaline, either alone or in combination with acetylcholine infusion was used to stimulate salivation by the mandibular glands of anaesthetized red kangaroos. Isoprenaline alone (0.20–1.25 ?mol·kg-1·min-1) elicited flow rates ranging from 0.014 to 0.239 ml·min-1 (1.21–28.1 µl·g gland-1·min-1). Salivary concentrations of sodium, chloride, phosphate and urea were negatively correlated with flow, whereas potassium, calcium, magnesium, hydrogen ion,

  18. Effect of ?-antagonists on isoprenaline-induced secretion of fluid, amylase and protein by the parotid gland of the red kangaroo, Macropus rufus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M Beal

    2000-01-01

    Selective and non-selective ?-adrenoceptor antagonists were used to block the increases in fluid, protein and amylase secretion caused by sympathomimetic stimulation of the parotid gland of red kangaroos during intracarotid infusion of isoprenaline. ICI118551 at antagonist\\/agonist ratios up to 300:1 caused increasing but incomplete blockade of fluid secretion, and protein\\/amylase release. Atenolol at antagonist\\/agonist ratios up to 300:1 was only

  19. Blockade of isoprenaline-induced fluid and protein secretion by the mandibular glands of the red kangaroo, Macropus rufus, with selective antagonists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M Beal

    2000-01-01

    Selective and non-selective ?-adrenoceptor antagonists were used to block the increases in fluid and protein secretion caused by sympathomimetic stimulation of the mandibular gland of red kangaroos during intracarotid infusion of isoprenaline. Atenolol or ICI118551 at antagonist:agonist ratios up to 300:1 caused increasing but incomplete blockade of fluid secretion and protein release. Both selective antagonists had equal potency and both

  20. Seasonal Variation in Volatile Compound Profiles of Preen Gland Secretions of the Dark-eyed Junco

    E-print Network

    by hydrolyzing the waxes (mostly nonvolatile com- pounds) under basic conditions into acids, acid esters in hydrolyzed wax collected from the preen gland of the mute swan (Cygnus olor) (Odham, 1965) and also from alcohols were also recovered from hydrolyzed preen wax in a shorebird, the red knot (Calidris canutus

  1. ELECTRON MICROPROBE AND IONSELECTIVE MICROELECTRODE STUDIES OF FLUID SECRETION IN THE SALIVARY GLANDS OF CALLIPHORA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRIJ L. GUPTA; M. J. BERRIDGE; T. A. HALL

    1978-01-01

    SUMMARY 1. The concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride and water in the cells, secretory canaliculi and the lumen of Calliphora salivary glands have been measured by microprobe analysis of frozen-hydrated sections. Free concentrations of K+ and Cl~ in all three compartments were measured with ion-selective microelectrodes. 2. Most of the quantitative data from the two techniques are in close agreement.

  2. Leptin Inhibits Directly Glucocorticoid Secretion by Normal Human and Rat Adrenal Gland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRANCOIS P. PRALONG; RAPHAEL RODUIT; GERARD WAEBER; EINAR CASTILLO; FRANCOIS MOSIMANN; BERNARD THORENS; ROLF C. GAILLARD

    1998-01-01

    Different interactions have been described between glucocorticoids and the product of the ob gene leptin. Leptin can inhibit the activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis by stressful stimuli, whereas adrenal glucocorticoids stimulate leptin production by the adipocyte. The present study was designed to investigate the poten- tial direct effects of leptin to modulate glucocorticoid production by the adrenal. Human adrenal glands

  3. Oral Administration of Royal Jelly Restores Tear Secretion Capacity in Rat Blink-Suppressed Dry Eye Model by Modulating Lacrimal Gland Function

    PubMed Central

    Imada, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Shigeru; Kitamura, Naoki; Shibuya, Izumi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Tears are secreted from the lacrimal gland (LG), a dysfunction in which induces dry eye, resulting in ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Honey bee products are used as a nutritional source in daily life and medicine; however, little is known about their effects on dry eye. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of honey bee products on tear secretion capacity in dry eye. We selected raw honey, propolis, royal jelly (RJ), pollen, or larva from commercially available honey bee products. Tear secretion capacity was evaluated following the oral administration of each honey bee product in a rat blink-suppressed dry eye model. Changes in tear secretion, LG ATP content, and LG mitochondrial levels were measured. RJ restored the tear secretion capacity and decrease in LG ATP content and mitochondrial levels to the largest extent. Royal jelly can be used as a preventative intervention for dry eye by managing tear secretion capacity in the LG. PMID:25243778

  4. Enantioselective visualization of D -alanine in rat anterior pituitary gland: localization to ACTH-secreting cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sachise Etoh; Kenji Hamase; Akiko Morikawa; Tomohiro Ohgusu; Kiyoshi Zaitsu

    2009-01-01

    The cellular localization of D-alanine (D-Ala) in the rat pituitary gland, the tissue containing the highest amount of D-Ala, has been clarified for the first time by enantioselective visualization of D-Ala using our own established mouse monoclonal antibody against D-Ala. D-Ala immunopositive cells were present predominantly in the anterior lobe, while no intense staining was observed in the intermediate\\u000a and

  5. Functional role of phenylacetic acid from metapleural gland secretions in controlling fungal pathogens in evolutionarily derived leaf-cutting ants.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Nash, David R; Higginbotham, Sarah; Estrada, Catalina; van Zweden, Jelle S; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Wcislo, William T; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2015-05-22

    Fungus-farming ant colonies vary four to five orders of magnitude in size. They employ compounds from actinomycete bacteria and exocrine glands as antimicrobial agents. Atta colonies have millions of ants and are particularly relevant for understanding hygienic strategies as they have abandoned their ancestors' prime dependence on antibiotic-based biological control in favour of using metapleural gland (MG) chemical secretions. Atta MGs are unique in synthesizing large quantities of phenylacetic acid (PAA), a known but little investigated antimicrobial agent. We show that particularly the smallest workers greatly reduce germination rates of Escovopsis and Metarhizium spores after actively applying PAA to experimental infection targets in garden fragments and transferring the spores to the ants' infrabuccal cavities. In vitro assays further indicated that Escovopsis strains isolated from evolutionarily derived leaf-cutting ants are less sensitive to PAA than strains from phylogenetically more basal fungus-farming ants, consistent with the dynamics of an evolutionary arms race between virulence and control for Escovopsis, but not Metarhizium. Atta ants form larger colonies with more extreme caste differentiation relative to other attines, in societies characterized by an almost complete absence of reproductive conflicts. We hypothesize that these changes are associated with unique evolutionary innovations in chemical pest management that appear robust against selection pressure for resistance by specialized mycopathogens. PMID:25925100

  6. Lacrimal gland (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The lacrimal gland lies within the orbit on the outer portion of the upper eye. The gland continually secretes tears which moisten, lubricate, and protect the surface of the eye. Excess tears drain into small ducts which ...

  7. Contribution of the secretory material of caecilian (amphibia: Gymnophiona) male Mullerian gland to motility of sperm: a study in Uraeotyphlus narayani.

    PubMed

    George, Jancy M; Smita, Mathew; Kadalmani, Balamuthu; Girija, Ramankutty; Oommen, Oommen V; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2005-02-01

    Caecilians are a unique group of limbless burrowing amphibians with discontinuous distribution. Several caecilian species are viviparous, and all practice internal fertilization. In amniotic vertebrates the sperm undergo post-testicular physiological maturation when they are initiated into motility under the influence of an epididymal secretion. Further, during ejaculation mammalian sperm are suspended in a fluid secreted by the male accessory sex glands, viz., prostate gland and seminal vesicles. Caecilians lack comparable glands, but still practice internal fertilization. Uniquely, male caecilians retain the Mullerian ducts in the adults as a pair of functional glands. It has long been hypothesized, based on indirect evidence, that the Mullerian gland would be a male accessory sex gland, secreting a fluid in which sperm are suspended during ejaculation and which would also provide nutritional support to the ejaculated sperm. In the present study, the secretory material of the Mullerian gland of Uraeotyphlus narayani was mixed with sperm obtained from the testis, and the changes in motility were recorded. Uraeotyphlus narayani sperm possess a perforatorium of the acrosome proceeding deep into the endonuclear canal of the nucleus. The midpiece is characterized by closely applied centrioles, the anterior ends of the axoneme and axial fiber, and a mitochondrial sheath. The long tail has an undulating membrane on one side, supported by the axoneme and an axial fiber. The live sperm possess a mitochondrial vesicle, also known as the cytoplasmic droplet, anywhere along the head and the midpiece, as in anuran sperm, which is shed from sperm that have ceased motility. Uraeotyphlus narayani sperm are motile the moment they are released directly from the testis, indicating that the sperm do not require post-testicular physiological maturation. On being mixed with the secretory material of the Mullerian gland, the spermatozoa are enhanced in speed as well as duration of motility. Therefore, the caecilian male Mullerian gland is considered to be the male accessory sex gland. PMID:15605393

  8. The Anatomy of Secretion in the Follicular Cells of the Thyroid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Wissig, Steven L.

    1960-01-01

    The paper contains a description of the fine structure of the thyroid gland of the normal rat. The follicular colloid, a homogeneous substance of faintly granular texture, is bounded by cuboidal or low columnar epithelial cells. Numerous pleomorphic microvilli, often permeated by small vesicles extend from the apices of the epithelial cells into the colloid. Many small, membrane-limited vesicles lie in the superficial cytoplasmic layer just below the apical plasmalemma. The ergastoplasmic sacs of the follicular cells are dilated and contain a substance resembling colloid. They are of irregular outline, and the larger sacs tend to be located in the base of the cells. The Golgi apparatus lies in the vicinity of the nucleus and consists primarily of numerous small, membrane-bound droplets with a homogeneous content. Droplets, similar to the Golgi vesicles but larger, lie in the same vicinity and are tentatively identified as colloid droplets. The colloid droplets contain an extremely fine, dense particulate material. Other droplets with a denser, more heterogenous content are also present. Both the follicular cells and the perifollicular capillaries are bounded by a continuous basement membrane. The capillary endothelium is in certain regions extremely attenuated and is pierced by numerous patent pores, 450 A in diameter. The marked similarity between the presumptive colloid droplets and vesicles of the Golgi apparatus suggests that the droplets arise from this organelle. On morphological grounds alone no relation can be established between any of the organelles of the follicular cell and the process of colloid resorption. PMID:13845420

  9. Chemical composition of scent-gland secretions in an old world monkey (Mandrillus sphinx): influence of sex, male status, and individual identity.

    PubMed

    Setchell, Joanna M; Vaglio, Stefano; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Boscaro, Francesca; Calamai, Luca; Knapp, Leslie A

    2010-03-01

    Primates are traditionally considered to be microsmatic, with decreased reliance on olfactory senses in comparison to other sensory modalities such as vision. This is particularly the case for Old World monkeys and apes (catarrhines). However, various lines of evidence suggest that chemical communication may be important in these species, including the presence of a sternal scent-gland in the mandrill. We investigated the volatile components of mandrill odor using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified a total of 97 volatile components in 88 swabs of the sternal gland secretion and 95 samples of sternal gland hair saturated with scent-gland secretion collected from 27 males and 18 females. We compared odor profiles with features of the signaler using principle components and discriminant function analyses and found that volatile profiles convey both variable (age, dominance rank in males) and fixed (sex, possibly individual identity) information about the signaler. The combination of an odor profile that signals sex, age, and rank with increased motivation to scent-mark and increased production of secretion in high-ranking males leads to a potent signal of the presence of a dominant, adult male with high testosterone levels. This may be particularly relevant in the dense Central African rain forest which mandrills inhabit. By contrast, we were unable to differentiate between either female cycle stage or female rank based on odor profiles, which accords with behavioral studies suggesting that odor signals are not as important in female mandrills as they are in males. The similarity of our findings to those for other mammals and in primates that are more distantly related to humans suggests a broader role for odor in primate communication than is currently recognized. PMID:20089603

  10. Surgical management of accessory parotid tumors.

    PubMed

    Rodino, W; Shaha, A R

    1993-11-01

    Accessory parotid gland tumors are defined as masses within salivary gland tissue located adjacent to Stensen's duct, but separate from the main body of the parotid gland. These tumors usually present as asymptomatic cheek masses. There is a temptation to excise these masses locally; however, the likelihood of injury to branches of the facial nerve is high. The best surgical approach to tumors in the accessory parotid region is via a standard parotid incision and concomitant superficial parotidectomy. Eight patients have been surgically treated with accessory parotid gland masses. Six patients had mixed tumors, one had a low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and one had a localized parotitis. Our approach included a standard parotid incision, raising an anterior flap beyond the mass, and exposing the main trunk of the facial nerve, with careful tracing of all its branches. This approach to accessory parotid gland tumors is superior in that it provides a better margin of resection and minimizes functional and cosmetic deformities. Most importantly, there is less danger of injury to branches of the facial nerve. PMID:8412169

  11. Matching Accessories

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Steven M. Foord (Stevenage; Target Bioinformatics, GlaxoSmithKline Medicine Research Centre REV)

    2003-07-08

    Heterodimerization enhances the complexity of ligand recognition and diversity of signaling responses of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Many accessory proteins (for ion channels or GPCRs) appear to associate with their partners relatively early in the process whereby proteins are transported to the cell surface; their roles in modulating function may have evolved out of simple proximity to a protein that once upon a time they either facilitated or accompanied through the maturation process. The receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) are a family of single-transmembrane accessory proteins that heterodimerize with GPCRs and, thereby, allow individual GPCRs to recognize multiple ligands and to activate various signaling pathways in response to ligand binding. The M10 family of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class 1b proteins has recently been shown to associate with murine vomeronasal V2R receptors, as well as to escort them to the cell surface. The exact role of M10 in modulating V2R function (or vice versa) remains to be determined.

  12. Lipopolysaccharides, cytokines, and nitric oxide affect secretion of prostaglandins and leukotrienes by bovine mammary gland during experimentally induced mastitis in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska-Tomala, K K; Bah, M M; Jankowska, K; Lukasik, K; Warmowski, P; Galvao, A M; Skarzynski, D J

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), interleukin-1-alpha (IL-1?), and nitric oxide donor (NONOate) on both in vivo and in vitro secretion of prostaglandin (PG)E2, PGF2?, leukotriene (LT)B4, and LTC4 by the bovine mammary gland. In the first experiment, tissues isolated from the teat cavity and lactiferous sinus were treated in vitro with LPS (10 ng/mL), TNF (10 ng/mL), IL-1? (10 ng/mL), NONOate (10(-4) M), and the combination of TNF + IL-1? + NONOate for 4 or 8 h. PGE2 or PGF2? secretion was stimulated by all treatments (P < 0.05) excepting NONOate alone, which did not stimulate PGF2? secretion. Moreover, all factors increased LTB4 and LTC4 secretion (P < 0.05). In the second experiment, mastitis was experimentally mimicked in vivo by repeated (12 h apart) intramammary infusions (5 mL) of (1) sterile saline; (2) 250-?g LPS; (3) 1-?g/mL TNF; (4) 1-?g/mL IL-1?; (5) 12.8-?g/mL NONOate; and (6) TNF + IL-1? + NONOate into 2 udder quarters. All infused factors changed PGE2, 13,14-dihydro,15-keto-PGF2?, and LT concentrations in blood plasma collected from the caudal vena cava, the caudal superficial epigastric (milk) vein, the jugular vein, and the abdominal aorta (P < 0.05). In summary, LPS and other inflammatory mastitis mediators modulate PG and LT secretion by bovine mammary gland in both in vivo and in vitro studies. PMID:25935895

  13. Semiochemicals and social signaling in the wild European rabbit in Australia: I. Scent profiles of chin gland secretion from the field.

    PubMed

    Hayes, R A; Richardson, B J; Wyllie, S G

    2002-02-01

    The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) uses the secretion of the chin gland in the maintenance of social status. Previous work has concentrated on secretion collected directly from the animal. In this study, the analysis was conducted by collecting scent marks made by free-ranging animals. Scent marks were found to be concentrated at the center of the area controlled by a social group, and at the boundaries between two adjacent social groups. Only the mark from dominant animals could be identified. Marks were also collected from the skin of rabbits, where they had been placed by the dominant individual. The mark found on the head of a subordinate animal may, in the future, be used to identify the dominant animal of the social group, who placed the mark. PMID:11925074

  14. The housekeeping gene xanthine oxidoreductase is necessary for milk fat droplet enveloping and secretion: gene sharing in the lactating mammary gland

    PubMed Central

    Vorbach, Claudia; Scriven, Alistair; Capecchi, Mario R.

    2002-01-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is the rate-limiting enzyme in purine catabolism occurring in most cell types. However, this housekeeping gene is expressed at very high levels in a number of mammalian tissues including the lactating mammary epithelium, suggesting additional roles for XOR in these tissues. Mice with targeted disruption of XOR were generated to assess these potential additional roles. XOR?/? mice are runted and do not live beyond 6 wk of age. Strikingly, however, XOR+/? females, although of healthy appearance and normal fertility, are unable to maintain lactation and their pups die of starvation 2 wk postpartum. Histological and whole-mount analyses showed that in XOR+/? females the mammary epithelium collapses, resulting in premature involution of the mammary gland. Electron microscopy showed that XOR is specifically required for enveloping milk fat droplets with the apical plasma membrane prior to secretion from the lactating mammary gland. We present evidence that XOR may have primarily a structural role, as a membrane-associated protein, in milk fat droplet secretion and thus XOR provides another example of “gene sharing”. About 5% of women experience primary lactation insufficiency. The above observations suggest that human females suffering from xanthinuria, a deficiency in XOR, are potential candidates for lactation problems. PMID:12502743

  15. Male accessory glands of Drosophila melanogaster make a secreted angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ANCE), suggesting a role for the peptide-processing enzyme in seminal fluid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline M. Rylett; Michael J. Walker; Gareth J. Howell; Alan D. Shirras; R. Elwyn Isaac

    2007-01-01

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) expressed on the surface of endothelial cells is responsible for the last step in the synthesis of circulating angiotensin II and the inactivation of bradykinin. Mammalian ACE is also expressed in the prostate with other components of the renin-angiotensin system, and in developing spermatids, where the peptidase activity is known to be critical for normal sperm

  16. Lacrimal gland anatomy (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The lacrimal gland is located within the orbit above the lateral end of the eye. It continually releases fluid which cleanses and protects the eye's surface as it lubricates and moistens it. These lacrimal secretions are commonly known ...

  17. Hormones, Sex Accessory Structures, and Secondary Sexual Characteristics

    E-print Network

    Sever, David M.

    gland secretions) and secondary sexual characteristics (e.g., genial glands and skin glands of newts pads of American newts (e.g., Notophthalmus viridescens), whereas oxytocin antagonizes the influence of prolactin. In the Japanese newt (Cynops pyrrhogaster), however, estrogens block the action of prolactin

  18. The Laser Accessory Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Ashvin

    1988-09-01

    Wandering through the exhibit hall yesterday, I noticed that if you look at the laser companies and if you look at the accessory companies, there are pretty much the same number of accessory booths as well as the laser companies. There was one difference. Laser company booths are all sexy looking, very flashy, big booths. Whereas if you look at the accessories booths, they were small, not so prominent.

  19. Isolated secretion granules from parotid glands of chronically stimulated rats possess an alkaline internal pH and inward-directed H+ pump activity

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Secretion granules have been isolated from the parotid glands of rats that have been chronically stimulated with the beta-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol. These granules are of interest because they package a quantitatively different set of secretory proteins in comparison with granules from the normal gland. Polypeptides enriched in proline, glycine, and glutamine, which are known to have pI's greater than 10, replace alpha-amylase (pI's = 6.8) as the principal content species. The internal pH of granules from the treated rats ranges from 7.8 in a potassium sulfate medium to 6.9 in a choline chloride medium. The increased pH over that of normal parotid granules (approximately 6.8) appears to reflect the change in composition of the secretory content. Whereas normal mature parotid granules have practically negligible levels of H+ pumping ATPase activity (Arvan, P., G. Rudnick, and J. D. Castle, 1985, J. Biol. Chem., 260, 14945-14952) the isolated granules from isoproterenol-treated rats undergo a time-dependent internal acidification (approximately 0.2 pH unit) that requires the presence of ATP and is abolished by an H+ ionophore. Additionally, an inside- positive granule transmembrane potential develops after ATP addition that depends upon ATP hydrolysis. Two independent methods have been used that exclude the possibility that contaminating organelles are the source of the H+-ATPase activity. Together these data provide clear evidence for the presence of an H+ pump in the membranes of parotid granules from chronically stimulated rats. However, despite the presence of H+-pump activity, fluorescence microscopy with the weak base, acridine orange, reveals that the intragranular pH in live cells is greater than that of the cytoplasm. PMID:3021780

  20. Secretion granules of the rabbit parotid gland. Isolation, subfractionation, and characterization of the membrane and content subfractions

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    A fraction of secretion granules has been isolated from rabbit parotid by a procedure which was found to be especially effective in reducing contamination resulting from aggregation and/or cosedimentation of granules with other cell particulates. The fraction, representing 15 percent (on the average) of the total tissue amylase activity, was homogeneous as judged by electron microscopy and contaminated to exceedingly low levels by other cellular organelles as judged by marker enzymatic and chemical assays. Lysis of the granules was achieved by their gradual exposure to hypotonic NaHCO3, containing 0.5 mM EDTA. The content and the membranes separated by centrifugation of the granule lysate were characterized primarily by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis which indicated that the content was composed of a limited number of molecular weight classes of polypeptides of which three bands (having approximate mol wt 58,000, 33, 000, and 12,000) could be considered major components. The gel profile of the membrane subfraction was characterized by 20-30 Coomassie brilliant blue-staining bands of which a single species of mol wt 40,000 was the conspicuous major polypeptide. Two types of experiments employing gel electrophoretic analysis were carried out for identifying and assessing the extent of residual secretory protein adsorbed to purified granule membranes: (a) examination of staining and radioactivity profiles after mixing of radioactive secretion granule extract with nonradioactively labeled granule membranes and (b) comparison of gel profiles of secretion granule extract and granule membranes with those of unlysed secretion granules and secretory protein dischraged from lobules in vitro or collected by cannulation of parotid ducts, the last two samples being considered physiologic secretory standards. The results indicated that the membranes were contaminated to a substantial degree by residual, poorly extractable secretory protein even though assays of membrane fractions for a typical secretory enzyme activity (amylase) indicated quite through separation of membranes and content. Hence, detailed examination of membrane subfractions for residual content species by gel electrophoresis points to the general unity and sensitivity of this technique as a means for accurately detecting a defined set of polypeptides occurring as contaminants in cellular fractions or organelle subfractions. PMID:162790

  1. Coevolution of the ATPase ClpV, the Sheath Proteins TssB and TssC, and the Accessory Protein TagJ/HsiE1 Distinguishes Type VI Secretion Classes*

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Andreas; Planamente, Sara; Manoli, Eleni; Lossi, Nadine S.; Freemont, Paul S.; Filloux, Alain

    2014-01-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a bacterial nanomachine for the transport of effector molecules into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. It involves the assembly of a tubular structure composed of TssB and TssC that is similar to the tail sheath of bacteriophages. The sheath contracts to provide the energy needed for effector delivery. The AAA+ ATPase ClpV disassembles the contracted sheath, which resets the systems for reassembly of an extended sheath that is ready to fire again. This mechanism is crucial for T6SS function. In Vibrio cholerae, ClpV binds the N terminus of TssC within a hydrophobic groove. In this study, we resolved the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ClpV1 and observed structural alterations in the hydrophobic groove. The modification in the ClpV1 groove is matched by a change in the N terminus of TssC, suggesting the existence of distinct T6SS classes. An accessory T6SS component, TagJ/HsiE, exists predominantly in one of the classes. Using bacterial two-hybrid approaches, we showed that the P. aeruginosa homolog HsiE1 interacts strongly with ClpV1. We then resolved the crystal structure of HsiE1 in complex with the N terminus of HsiB1, a TssB homolog and component of the contractile sheath. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these differences distinguish T6SS classes that resulted from a functional co-evolution between TssB, TssC, TagJ/HsiE, and ClpV. The interaction of TagJ/HsiE with the sheath as well as with ClpV suggests an alternative mode of disassembly in which HsiE recruits the ATPase to the sheath. PMID:25305017

  2. The Formation and Continuous Turnover of a Fraction of Phosphatidic Acid on Stimulation of NaCl Secretion by Acetylcholine in the Salt Gland

    PubMed Central

    Hokin, Mabel R.; Hokin, Lowell E.

    1967-01-01

    Acetylcholine, which stimulates NaCl secretion in the avian salt gland, causes the rapid formation of a fraction of phosphatidic acid, as measured by 32P incorporation, which amounts maximally to about 0.18 µmoles per g of fresh tissue. This does not appear to involve synthesis of the diglyceride moiety of phosphatidic acid, as measured by glycerol-1-14C incorporation. It presumably involves formation of phosphatidic acid by the diglyceride kinase pathway from preformed diglyceride and ATP. The specific activity of the AT32P of the tissue is not increased in the presence of acetylcholine. At time intervals after addition of acetylcholine during which a full response, measured as increased O2 uptake, may be observed, phosphatidic acid appears to be the only phosphatide which shows any increase either in total 32P radioactivity or in net specific acitvity. This responsive fraction of phosphatidic acid undergoes continuous turnover of its phosphate moiety. There is no evidence that this turnover is due to the phosphatidic acid acting as a pool of intermediate for the synthesis of other phospholipids or glycerides. The responsive fraction amounts to not more than 20% of the total phosphatidic acid of the tissue; it does not mix with the other (non-responsive) phosphatidic acid of the tissue. The observations suggest that this phosphatidic acid plays some role in the over-all secretory process. PMID:6034504

  3. Review of accessory tragus with highlights of its associated syndromes.

    PubMed

    Bahrani, Bahar; Khachemoune, Amor

    2014-12-01

    Accessory tragus is a developmental defect involving malformation of part of the external ear. It is a moderately rare congenital condition reported in 1858 by Birkett for the first time. Histological features of accessory tragus include a thin layer of stratum corneum with a rugated epidermis, presence of eccrine glands, and irregular spatial positioning of vellus hair follicles accompanied by sebaceous glands. Accessory tragus is commonly a limited deformity; however, it can be a sign of associated congenital syndromes. It has been shown to be associated with Goldenhar syndrome, Townes-Brocks syndrome, Treacher-Collins syndrome, VACTERL syndrome, and Wolf-Hirschhron syndrome. Surgical excision, the most common form of management of accessory tragus lesions, typically leads to a positive outcome. An extensive search was performed using pubmed.gov, Embase, MedLine, and Googlescholar.com using key words: accessory tragus, congenital malformations of ear, first branchial arch, and embryology. In this paper, we review the clinical and histological presentation, associated syndromes, management, and outcome of accessory tragus. PMID:25266223

  4. Accessories Around the Clock. 

    E-print Network

    Boyles, Rheba Merle; Hard, Graham; Roberson, Nena; Eaton, Fannie Brown

    1958-01-01

    Accessories Around the Clock RHEBA MERLE BOYLES GRAHAM HARD NENA ROBERSON FANNIE BROWN EATON Extension Clothing Specialists k. The Texas A. a M. College System 2? well-dressed woman of today believes a wardrobe of fewer q, well chosen...

  5. Salivary Glands

    MedlinePLUS

    ... salivary gland tumors usually show up as painless enlargements of these glands. Tumors rarely involve more than ... otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon should check these enlargements. Malignant tumors of the major salivary glands can ...

  6. Accessories Around the Clock.

    E-print Network

    Boyles, Rheba Merle; Hard, Graham; Roberson, Nena; Eaton, Fannie Brown

    1958-01-01

    ~t~.~~, r as the basic garment; varied colors I be used in smaller, less expensive ac- jories. Good leather bags, gloves and - rather than na Ies are a park of a well-dressed person, - smoothiy. fmishd. >Q. . . . .- . A should .;b= considered...~~i The effect usually is spotted if two bright-colored matching 4 are worn at one time. One brighd accessory often is smarter than @ the other accessories harmonizing If a brilliant hat is worn wih a bl wear dark shoes and bag. 'a 1 Gloves may match...

  7. Original article Cornual gland of the honeybee drone

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Cornual gland of the honeybee drone (Apis mellifera L): structure and secretion G 1996) Summary — The cornual gland of the drone's endophallus is an epithelial gland, whose cells subtended by a layer of fatty tissue, and oenocytes can also be attached. The secretion in a 3-day-old drone

  8. Ontogenetic changes in the chemistry and morphology of oil glands in Hermannia convexa (Acari: Oribatida)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Günther Raspotnig; Günther Krisper; Reinhart Schuster

    2005-01-01

    As a first example for the chemistry of oil gland secretions in the Hermannioidea (one of the three superfamilies of desmonomatan Oribatida), the oil gland secretion of Hermannia convexa was investigated by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Hexane extracts of all juvenile stages showed a multicomponent chromatographic pattern, mainly consisting of well-known oil gland secretion components such as neral, geranial, -acaridial and

  9. Spinal accessory nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Wiater, J M; Bigliani, L U

    1999-11-01

    Injury to the spinal accessory nerve can lead to dysfunction of the trapezius. The trapezius is a major scapular stabilizer and is composed of three functional components. It contributes to scapulothoracic rhythm by elevating, rotating, and retracting the scapula. The superficial course of the spinal accessory nerve in the posterior cervical triangle makes it susceptible to injury. Iatrogenic injury to the nerve after a surgical procedure is one of the most common causes of trapezius palsy. Dysfunction of the trapezius can be a painful and disabling condition. The shoulder droops as the scapula is translated laterally and rotated downward. Patients present with an asymmetric neckline, a drooping shoulder, winging of the scapula, and weakness of forward elevation. Evaluation should include a complete electrodiagnostic examination. If diagnosed within 1 year of the injury, microsurgical reconstruction of the nerve should be considered. Conservative treatment of chronic trapezius paralysis is appropriate for older patients who are sendentary. Active and healthy patients in whom 1 year of conservative treatment has failed are candidates for surgical reconstruction. Studies have shown the Eden-Lange procedure, in which the insertions of the levator scapulae, rhomboideus minor, and rhomboideus major muscles are transferred, relieves pain, corrects deformity, and improves function in patients with irreparable injury to the spinal accessory nerve. PMID:10613148

  10. The Pineal Gland and Mammalian Photoperiodism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce D. Goldman; Janet M. Darrow

    1983-01-01

    The mammalian pineal gland appears to be a major endocrine component in the regulation of photoperiodic responses. The circadian pattern of secretion of the pineal hormone, melatonin, is regulated by the nervous system. Changes in photoperiod, acting via the nervous system, alter the temporal pattern of melatonin secretion. The changes in secretion pattern convey information about daylength from neural components

  11. Secretory discharge and microflora of milk gland in tsetse flies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Chun Ma; David L. Denlinger

    1974-01-01

    THE uterine or milk glands in tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) are modified female accessory reproductive glands which elaborate and release a nutritive liquid of proteinaceous and lipoid nature for the maturing intrauterine larva1-3. The multi-branched tubules of the gland converge into a pair of efferent ducts which fuse inside the oviductal shelf and open into the lumen of the uterus

  12. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of porcine CCL28: Possible involvement in homing of IgA antibody secreting cells into the mammary gland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustapha Berri; François Meurens; François Lefevre; Claire Chevaleyre; Galliano Zanello; Volker Gerdts; Henri Salmon

    2008-01-01

    Constitutive expression of chemokines by epithelial cells controls the recruitment and the localization of specialized lymphocytes. Mucosae associated-epithelial chemokine (MEC\\/CCL28) cloned from porcine salivary gland and colon tissues consisted of an open reading frame (ORF) of 384-bp coding for 127 amino-acids protein with 22 residues signal sequence. The resulting mature protein is composed of 105 aa with 4 conserved cysteine

  13. Expression of a carboxy terminally truncated Stat5 with no transactivation domain in the mammary glands of transgenic mice inhibits cell proliferation during pregnancy, delays onset of milk secretion, and induces apoptosis upon involution.

    PubMed

    Iavnilovitch, Elena; Eilon, Tali; Groner, Bernd; Barash, Itamar

    2006-07-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat5) is a transcription factor, which transduces extracellular cytokine and growth-factor signals to the nuclei of mammalian cells. As a major mediator of prolactin action, it is involved in the regulation of the development, function, and survival of mammary epithelial cells. The carboxyl terminal of Stat5 encodes a transactivation domain (TAD), which interacts with coactivators and is crucial for the transcriptional induction of Stat5 target genes. To study the role of the Stat5 TAD in mediating Stat5 functions, a carboxy terminally truncated Stat5 variant (Stat5Delta750) was directed for expression in the mammary glands of transgenic mice by regulatory sequences of the beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) gene. Expression of Stat5Delta750 in mammary tissue reduced the rates of cell proliferation at mid and late pregnancy. Subsequently, morphological signs of milk secretion upon parturition were delayed. In double-transgenic mice, expression of Stat5Delta750 drastically decreased BLG/luciferase activity during lactation, but did not affect the expression and secretion of the endogenous beta-casein or alpha-lactalbumin into the milk. Expression of Stat5Delta750 also caused an increase in the number of apoptotic cells during mammary involution by a factor of 3 relative to control glands. Our data established a role for the Stat5 TAD in mediating the effects of Stat5 on mammary development, regulation of milk protein gene activity, and cell survival. The full effects of Stat5Delta750 may be partially buffered by the expression of endogenous wild-type Stat5 and the formation of truncated and wild-type heterodimers. PMID:16596634

  14. Meibomian glands and contact lens wear

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A S Henriquez; D R Korb

    1981-01-01

    A study of a syndrome characterised by deficient or inadequate Meibomian gland secretions, minimal or transient symptoms suggestive of ocular dryness, fluorescein staining of the cornea (often detected only after delayed observation or sequential instillation of stain), and contact lens intolerance is described. Clinical and cytological studies indicate that the syndrome is due to obstruction of the Meibomian gland orifices

  15. Mammary Gland Immunity and Mastitis Susceptibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorraine M. Sordillo; Katie L. Streicher

    2002-01-01

    Lactation is considered the final phase of the mammalian reproductive cycle, and the mammary gland provides milk for nourishment and disease resistance to the newborn. However, the cellular and soluble immune components associated with mammary tissues and secretion also can play an important role in protecting the gland from infectious diseases, such as mastitis. Mastitis can affect essentially all lactating

  16. A thermoactive secreted phospholipase A? purified from the venom glands of Scorpio maurus: relation between the kinetic properties and the hemolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Louati, Hanen; Krayem, Najeh; Fendri, Ahmed; Aissa, Imen; Sellami, Mohamed; Bezzine, Sofiane; Gargouri, Youssef

    2013-09-01

    A lipolytic activity was located in the scorpion venom glands (telsons), from which a phospholipase A? (Sm-PLVG) was purified. Like known phospholipases A? from scorpion venom, which are 14-18 kDa proteins, the purified Scorpio maurus-Phospholipase from Venom Glands (Sm-PLVG) has a molecular mass of 17 kDa containing long and short chains linked by disulfide bridge. It has a specific activity of 5500 U/mg measured at 47 °C and pH 8.5 using phosphatidylcholine as a substrate in presence of 8 mM NaTDC and 12 mM CaCl?. The NH?-terminal amino acid sequences of the purified Sm-PLVG showed similarities with those of long and short chains of some previously purified phospholipases from venom scorpions. Moreover, the Sm-PLVG exhibits hemolytic activity toward human, rabbit or rat erythrocytes. This hemolytic activity was related to its ability to interact with phospholipids' monolayer at high surface pressure. These properties are similar to those of phospholipases isolated from snake venoms. PMID:23831286

  17. Activation of the Prothoracic Glands of Antheraea polyphemus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl N. McDaniel; Spencer J. Berry

    1967-01-01

    EVIDENCE has accumulated that the moulting cycle in insects follows a basic pattern involving the activation of the prothoracic glands by a hormone from the brain. The active prothoracic glands then secrete into the blood the moulting hormone, ecdysone. Secretion of the brain hormone has therefore been thought critical in the induction of moulting. The central role of the brain

  18. Biological Roles of Uterine Glands in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, uterine receptivity, and stromal cell decidualization in humans and animal models. The infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss observed in the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model unequivocally supports a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid in survival and development of the conceptus. Further, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation as well as stromal cell decidualization. Similarly in humans, uterine glands and their secretory products are likely critical regulators of blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus growth and development during the first trimester. Circumstantial evidence suggests that deficient glandular activity may be a causative factor in pregnancy failure and complications in humans. Thus, an increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of fertility and pregnancy problems in mammals. PMID:24959816

  19. Microscopy of the echidna sublingual glands.

    PubMed

    Krause, William J

    2011-10-01

    The secretory units and duct system of the echidna sublingual glands exhibit subtle architectural modifications to accommodate the viscous secretion produced by these glands. The glands are compound tubular glands, the secretory units of which are elongate with open lumina and consist only of mucous cells. Closely packed spindle-shaped myoepithelial cells invest the secretory units, but are absent around the ducts. The branched secretory tubules open into an abbreviated duct system characterized by wide lumina. Striated ducts normally associated with the second portion of the intralobular duct system are absent. The duct system shows the most obvious modification of general salivary gland architecture presumably to accommodate the viscous secretion propelled from the secretory units by surrounding myoepithelial cells. PMID:21671992

  20. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the pancreas, ovaries and testes. The endocrine and nervous systems work very closely together. The brain continuously sends ... endocrine glands. Because of this intimate relationship, the nervous and endocrine systems are referred to as the neuroendocrine system. The ...

  1. Anatomy, biogenesis, and regeneration of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Kyle V.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients per year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients’ quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland (SMG), which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of three general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy, and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph. PMID:24862590

  2. Anatomy and Histology of Rodent and Human Major Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Major salivary glands of both humans and rodents consist of three pairs of macroscopic glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638–1686), Thomas Wharton (1614–1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655–1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands. The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands. PMID:23209333

  3. 14 CFR 33.25 - Accessory attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...accessory drive and mounting attachments loaded. Each engine accessory drive and mounting attachment must include provisions...A drive and mounting attachment requiring lubrication...to prevent unacceptable loss of oil and to...

  4. Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins in adrenal disease and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, David S.; Ramachandrappa, Shwetha; Clark, Adrian J.; Chan, Li F.

    2015-01-01

    Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAPs) are regulators of the melanocortin receptor family. MRAP is an essential accessory factor for the functional expression of the MC2R/ACTH receptor. The importance of MRAP in adrenal gland physiology is demonstrated by the clinical condition familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 2. The role of its paralog melanocortin-2-receptor accessory protein 2 (MRAP2), which is predominantly expressed in the hypothalamus including the paraventricular nucleus, has recently been linked to mammalian obesity. Whole body deletion and targeted brain specific deletion of the Mrap2 gene result in severe obesity in mice. Interestingly, Mrap2 complete knockout (KO) mice have increased body weight without detectable changes to food intake or energy expenditure. Rare heterozygous variants of MRAP2 have been found in humans with severe, early-onset obesity. In vitro data have shown that Mrap2 interaction with the melanocortin-4-receptor (Mc4r) affects receptor signaling. However, the mechanism by which Mrap2 regulates body weight in vivo is not fully understood and differences between the phenotypes of Mrap2 and Mc4r KO mice may point toward Mc4r independent mechanisms.

  5. BA (Hons) Fashion Accessory Design Course content

    E-print Network

    Evans, Paul

    BA (Hons) Fashion Accessory Design Course content Year One During the first year you will be introduced to the fundamentals of the fashion accessory design process. Year One modules Design Principles and an understanding of the design process. Lectures during this module will introduce key ideas in fashion accessory

  6. news update Fashion Accessory Design

    E-print Network

    Evans, Paul

    news update let's talk Fashion Accessory Design Fashion Design Fashion Knitwear Design and Knitted-year Fashion Knitwear Design and Knitted Textiles student Thea Sanders won the top knitwear prize at the event) Fashion Design student Adnan Ebo, whose bold prints were a hot topic during the event. Adnan's work even

  7. New exocrine glands in ants: the hypostomal gland and basitarsal gland in the genus Melissotarsus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölldobler, Bert; Obermayer, Malu; Plowes, Nicola J. R.; Fisher, Brian L.

    2014-07-01

    Fisher and Robertson (Insect Soc 46: 78-83, 1999) discovered the production of silk-like secretions emerging from slit-shaped openings along the anterior margin of the ventral hypostoma of Melissotarsus ant workers. The current histological study describes a hitherto unknown hypostomal gland from which this silk-like substance originates. In addition, this study describes a new basitarsal gland in the three pairs of legs of Melissotarsus workers.

  8. Involvement of melatonin in the seasonal changes of the gonadal function and prolactin secretion

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , prolactin secretion is enhanced. Experiments were conducted to investigate the role of the pineal gland months, were bilaterally superior cervical ganglionectomized (SCGX) to denervate their pineal gland. One is converted by the pineal gland into the endocrine signal as a daily pattern of melatonin secretion, which

  9. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. [Department of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Coppes, Rob P. [Department of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Vissink, Arjan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells, but is also caused by damage to the extracellular environment, preventing proper cell functioning.

  10. External radiation of the parotid glands significantly reduces drooling in patients with motor neurone disease with bulbar paresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Munch Andersen; Henrik Grönberg; Lars Franzen; Ulrika Funegård

    2001-01-01

    The parotid glands and part of the submandibular glands were irradiated in 18 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients with very advanced disease and severe drooling problems. In a prospective study, a single dosage of 7.0–7.5 Gy was administered bilateral to the larger part of the parotid glands and the posterior parts of the submandibular glands. Salivary secretion rate was assayed before

  11. Ultrastructure of the Intramandibular Gland of Workers and Queens of the Stingless Bee, Melipona quadrifasciata

    PubMed Central

    Da Cruz-Landim, Carminda; Gracioli-Vitti, Luciana F.; Abdalla, Fábio C.

    2011-01-01

    The intramandibular glands of workers and queens of Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae), at different ages and from different functional groups, were studied using light and transmission electron microscopy. The results demonstrated that these glands are composed of two types of secretory structures: 1.A hypertrophied epidermis on the dorsal side of the mandible that is an epithelial gland. 2. Free secretory cells filling the inner spaces of the appendices that constitute a unicellular gland. The epithelial gland is larger in the young (1-2-day-old workers), and the gland becomes involuted during the nurse worker stage. The unicellular glands of the workers posses some secretion during all of the studied phases, but secretory activity is more intensive in the foraging workers. Vesicles of secretion are absent in the unicellular glands of queens. These results demonstrate that these glands show functional adaptations in different castes corresponding to the functions of each caste. PMID:22220493

  12. Pituitary Gland Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martina Montinari; Franco Rongioletti

    \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Excessive secretion of pituitary hormones, as well as their deficiency, may cause a constellation of clinical and pathological\\u000a manifestations involving major organ systems of the body, including the skin.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a There are no specific cutaneous signs or symptoms that are pathognomonic for the main manifestations of pituitary gland diseases\\u000a such as acromegaly, hyperprolactinemia, Cushing’s disease, or hypopituitarism.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In

  13. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  14. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification. A...

  15. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification....

  16. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification....

  17. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910 Wheelchair accessory. (a) Identification....

  18. Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Marlino, L.D.

    2010-06-15

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power. Two studies were conducted at ORNL. One was to put an additional winding in the motor slots to magnetically link with the high frequency of the controllable zero-sequence stator currents that do not produce any zero-sequence harmonic torques. The second approach was to utilize the corners of the square stator punching for the high-frequency transformers of the dc/dc inverter. Both approaches were successful. This CRADA validated the feasibility of GM’s desire to use the motor’s magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply. Three joint U.S. patents with GM were issued to ORNL and GM by the U.S. Patent Office for the research results produced by this CRADA.

  19. 19 CFR 10.920 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.920 Section 10.920 Customs...10.920 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and...

  20. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.537 Section 10.537 Customs Duties... § 10.537 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that...

  1. 19 CFR 10.920 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.920 Section 10.920 Customs...10.920 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and...

  2. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.537 Section 10.537 Customs Duties... § 10.537 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that...

  3. 19 CFR 10.1020 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.1020 Section 10.1020 Customs...10.1020 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and...

  4. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.537 Section 10.537 Customs Duties... § 10.537 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that...

  5. 19 CFR 10.1020 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.1020 Section 10.1020 Customs...10.1020 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and...

  6. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.537 Section 10.537 Customs Duties... § 10.537 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and that...

  7. 19 CFR 10.920 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Accessories, spare parts, or tools. 10.920 Section 10.920 Customs...10.920 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a) General. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are delivered with a good and...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23.1192...Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For...from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm that...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23.1192...Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For...from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm that...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23.1192...Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For...from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm that...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23.1192...Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For...from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm that...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23.1192...Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For...from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm that...

  13. Characterization of a Lolium multiflorum Accessory Chromosome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accessory chromosomes, also called B-chromosomes, have been reported in more than 1300 species of plants. Accessory chromosomes show numerical polymorphism and when present in high number, are known to negatively affect the growth and vigor of the plants, while in low numbers they may be beneficial...

  14. Volatile Compounds from Anal Glands of the Wolverine, Gulo gulo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William F. Wood; Miranda N. Terwilliger; Jeffrey P. Copeland

    2005-01-01

    Dichloromethane extracts of wolverine (Gulo gulo, Mustelinae, Mustelidae) anal gland secretion were examined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The secretion composition was complex and variable for the six samples examined: 123 compounds were detected in total, with the number per animal ranging from 45 to 71 compounds. Only six compounds were common to all extracts: 3-methylbutanoic acid, 2-methylbutanoic acid, phenylacetic acid,

  15. Adenocarcinoma of the ampullary glands of the ductus deferens in a sprague-dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Masaya; Wakui, Shin; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Ayaka; Mutou, Tomoko; Ikegami, Masahiro; Asari, Masao; Inomata, Tomo

    2015-06-01

    Spontaneously occurring proliferative lesions of the male accessory sex glands are infrequent in various strains of rats. In rodents, the ampullary glands are embedded in the prostate. Although 2 spontaneous cases of atypical hyperplastic lesions at the ampullary gland were previously described in Wistar rats, adenocarcinoma and/or adenoma in this gland have not been reported. This study describes adenocarcinomas in the bilateral ampullary glands in a 52-week-old intact male Sprague-Dawley rat housed as part of a control group in a toxicological experiment. At necropsy, the body weight (644.4 g) and the weight of the prostate with ampullary gland (2.75 g) were similar to others of the same control group, and it had a normal gross appearance. Histopathologically, both ampullary glands revealed microinvasive adenocarcinoma without vascular invasion. The morphological characteristics of the neoplasm varied in different regions of the gland. Other parts of the male accessory sex glands did not show proliferative lesions. PMID:25361752

  16. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3600 Microscopes and accessories. (a)...

  20. Interactions between developing nerves and salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, João N; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    Our aim is to provide a summary of the field of salivary gland development and regeneration from the perspective of what is known about the function of nerves during these processes. The primary function of adult salivary glands is to produce and secrete saliva. Neuronal control of adult salivary gland function has been a focus of research ever since Pavlov's seminal experiments on salivation in dogs. Less is known about salivary gland innervation during development and how the developing nerves influence gland organogenesis and regeneration. Here, we will review what is known about the communication between the autonomic nervous system and the epithelium of the salivary glands during organogenesis. An important emerging theme is the instructive role of the nervous system on the epithelial stem/progenitor cells during development as well as regeneration after damage. We will provide a brief overview of the neuroanatomy of the salivary glands and discuss recent literature that begins to integrate neurobiology with epithelial organogenesis, which may provide paradigms for exploring these interactions in other organ systems. PMID:23974175

  1. Accessory tragus: a dentist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Vishal; Banda, Naveen Reddy; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Banda, Vanaja Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Accessory tragus (AT) also referred as preauricular tag is a rudimentary tag of ear tissue This paper presents two specific cases: one hereditary and another sporadic case of AT. A general clinical description of AT, its associated syndromes, embryology aetiopathogenesis and management is discussed. A dentist can play an important role in spotting the AT during their head and neck examination. The presence of this defect can be correlated to other congenital defects of first branchial arch. On recognising its occurrence, the dentist can refer to a specialist for thorough investigation management. A dentist can play a vital role in encouraging and counselling the parents for the correction of such defects as it improves the aesthetics of the face. Usually, children with these defects are often targets of teasing by peers. PMID:23761605

  2. The pineal gland: its physiological and pharmacological role.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, V

    1989-01-01

    Our perception of pineal gland function has attained new dimensions during the last decade. The gland is active throughout the life of an individual and secretes melatonin, the major pineal hormone, and many indoles and polypeptides. The secretion of pineal gland is regulated not only by sympathetic nerve fibers but by other central pinealopetal projections also. Many neurotransmitter-receptor sites have been identified recently in the pineal gland. The gland plays an established role in controlling reproduction and is involved in the control of sexual maturation. It has a major influence on the circadian organization of vertebrates including human beings. The hormone melatonin has a potential therapeutic valve in treating disorders that are associated with biological rhythm disturbances like sleep disorders, "jet lag" phenomena and affective disorders. The gland is actively involved in the mechanisms controlling sleep-wakefulness cycle and human mood disorders. It actively participates in the neuroendocrine mechanism controlling stress and acts even as an oncostatic gland. The pineal gland may be considered an "equilibrating-tranquilizing gland" contributing to longevity. PMID:2695464

  3. [Gap junctions and secretion].

    PubMed

    Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine; Allagnat, Florent; Krattinger, Nathalie; Martin, David; Waeber, Gérard; Nicod, Pascal; Meda, Paolo

    2005-04-27

    The emergence of multicellular organisms has necessitated the development of mechanisms for interactions between adjacent and distant cells. A consistent feature of this network is the expression of gap junction channels between the secretory cells of all glands so far investigated in vertebrates. Here, we reviewed the distribution of the gap junctions proteins, named connexins, in a few mammalian glands, and discussed the recent evidence pointing to the participation of these proteins in the functioning of endocrine and exocrine cells. Specifically, available data indicate the importance of gap junctions for the proper control of glucose-induced insulin secretion. Understanding the functions of beta-cell connexins are crucial for the engineering of surrogate cells, which is necessary for implementation of a replacement cell therapy in diabetic patients. PMID:15943000

  4. Ca2+-dependent K+ Channels in Exocrine Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Catalán, Marcelo A.; Peña-Munzenmayer, Gaspar; Melvin, James E.

    2014-01-01

    In the last 15 years, remarkable progress has been realized in identifying the genes that encode the ion-transporting proteins involved in exocrine gland function, including salivary glands. Among these proteins, Ca2+-dependent K+ channels take part in key functions including membrane potential regulation, fluid movement and K+ secretion in exocrine glands. Two K+ channels have been identified in exocrine salivary glands: 1) a Ca2+-activated K+ channel of intermediate single channel conductance encoded by the KCNN4 gene; and, 2) a voltage- and Ca2+-dependent K+ channel of large single channel conductance encoded by the KCNMA1 gene. This review focuses on the physiological roles of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels in exocrine salivary glands. We also discuss interesting recent findings on the regulation of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels by protein-protein interactions that may significantly impact exocrine gland physiology. PMID:24559652

  5. Computed tomographic imaging characteristics of the normal canine lacrimal glands

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The canine lacrimal gland (LG) and accessory lacrimal gland of the third eyelid (TEG) are responsible for production of the aqueous portion of the precorneal tear film. Immune-mediated, toxic, neoplastic, or infectious processes can affect the glands directly or can involve adjacent tissues, with secondary gland involvement. Disease affecting these glands can cause keratoconjunctivitis sicca, corneal ulcers, and loss of vision. Due to their location in the orbit, these small structures are difficult to evaluate and measure, making cross-sectional imaging an important diagnostic tool. The detailed cross-sectional imaging appearance of the LG and TEG in dogs using computed tomography (CT) has not been reported to date. Results Forty-two dogs were imaged, and the length, width, and height were measured and the volume calculated for the LGs & TEGs. The glands were best visualized in contrast-enhanced CT images. The mean volume of the LG was 0.14 cm3 and the TEG was 0.1 cm3. The mean height, width, and length of the LG were, 9.36 mm, 4.29 mm, and 9.35 mm, respectively; the corresponding values for the TEG was 2.02 mm, 9.34 mm, and 7.90 mm. LG and TEG volume were positively correlated with body weight (p?glands. PMID:24886364

  6. The Salivary Secretome of the Tsetse Fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) Infected by Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry M. Kariithi; Ikbal A. Ince; Sjef Boeren; Adly M. M. Abd-Alla; Andrew G. Parker; Serap Aksoy; Just M. Vlak; Monique M. van Oers

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundThe competence of the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera; Glossinidae) to acquire salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV), to support virus replication and successfully transmit the virus depends on complex interactions between Glossina and SGHV macromolecules. Critical requisites to SGHV transmission are its replication and secretion of mature virions into the fly's salivary gland (SG) lumen. However, secretion of host proteins

  7. Cross-talk of phosphoinositide- and cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling pathways in differentiating avian nasal gland cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Krohn; J.-P. Hildebrandt

    2004-01-01

    In many bird species, the nasal glands secrete excess salt ingested with drinking water or food. In ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos), osmotic stress results in adaptive cell proliferation and differentiation in the gland. Using ‘naive’ nasal gland cells isolated from animals that had never ingested excess salt or ‘differentiated’ cells from animals fed with a 1% NaCl solution for 48 h,

  8. Keratin-like components of gland thread cells modulate the properties of mucus from hagfish ( Eptatretus stouti )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Koch; Robert H. Spitzer; Ron B. Pithawalla; Stephen W. Downing

    1991-01-01

    The hagfishes (cyclostomes) are known to secrete copious amounts of mucus mainly by the holocrine mode from the slime glands. Stressed animals release two types of cells (gland thread cells, GTCs; gland mucous cells, GMCs) which rupture on contact with water and rapidly form a mass of viscous mucus. Herein we report some key sequential events of this process and

  9. The Aging Lacrimal Gland: Changes in Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Eduardo M.; Alves, Monica; Rios, J. David; Dartt, Darlene A.

    2014-01-01

    The afferent nerves of the cornea and conjunctiva, efferent nerves of the lacrimal gland, and the lacrimal gland are a functional unit that works cooperatively to produce the aqueous component of tears. A decrease in the lacrimal gland secretory function can lead to dry eye disease. Because aging is a risk factor for dry eye disease, study of the changes in the function of the lacrimal gland functional unit with age is important for developing treatments to prevent dry eye disease. No one mechanism is known to induce the changes that occur with aging, although multiple different mechanisms have been associated with aging. These fall into two theoretical categories: programmed theories of aging (immunological, genetic, apoptotic, and neuroendocrine) and error theories of aging (protein alteration, somatic mutation, etc). Lacrimal glands undergo structural and functional alteration with increasing age. In mouse models of aging, it has been shown that neural stimulation of protein secretion is an early target of aging, accompanied by an increase in mast cells and lipofuscin accumulation. Hyperglycemia and increased lymphocytic infiltration can contribute to this loss of function at older ages. These findings suggest that an increase in oxidative stress may play a role in the loss of lacrimal gland function with age. For the afferent and efferent neural components of the lacrimal gland functional unit, immune or inflammatory mediated decrease in nerve function could contribute to loss of lacrimal gland secretion with age. More research in this area is critically needed. PMID:18827949

  10. Physiology of Epithelial Chloride and Fluid Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Frizzell, Raymond A.; Hanrahan, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial salt and water secretion serves a variety of functions in different organ systems, such as the airways, intestines, pancreas, and salivary glands. In cystic fibrosis (CF), the volume and/or composition of secreted luminal fluids are compromised owing to mutations in the gene encoding CFTR, the apical membrane anion channel that is responsible for salt secretion in response to cAMP/PKA stimulation. This article examines CFTR and related cellular transport processes that underlie epithelial anion and fluid secretion, their regulation, and how these processes are altered in CF disease to account for organ-specific secretory phenotypes. PMID:22675668

  11. Dissection of Calcium Signaling Events in Exocrine Secretion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Indu S. Ambudkar

    2011-01-01

    The secretion of fluid and electrolytes by salivary gland acinar cells requires the coordinated regulation of multiple ion\\u000a channel and transporter proteins, signaling components, and water transport. Importantly, neurotransmitter stimulated increase\\u000a in the cytosolic free [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) is critical for the regulation of salivary gland secretion as it regulates several major ion fluxes that together establish\\u000a the sustained osmotic gradient

  12. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1989-05-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. The clinical signs are usually the result of an overproduction of hormones that are normally biosynthesized by the neoplastic endocrine gland (orthoendocrine syndromes), as opposed to those that are the result of hormones that are not normally biosynthesized and secreted by those cells that have undergone neoplastic transformation (paraendocrine syndromes, also known as endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes or ectopic hormone syndromes). The biological effects produced by a neoplasm may be out of proportion to the actual size of the tumor. This report focuses on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal glands and pancreas. Discussion will focus on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis. 2 tabs.

  13. Pregnanes from defensive glands of a belostomatid bug.

    PubMed

    Lokensgard, J; Smith, R L; Eisner, T; Meinwald, J

    1993-02-15

    The aquatic bug Abedus herberti (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae) secretes a mixture containing four pregnanes (desoxycorticosterone (I), pregnenolone (II), progesterone (III), and 3 alpha-hydroxy-pregn-5-en-20-one (IV)) from its cephalic glands. Pregnanes had previously been characterized from the defensive glands of aquatic beetles (Dytiscidae) and shown to be deterrent to fish. It may be specifically under predation pressure from fish that A. herberti and Dytiscidae evolved their comparable defenses. PMID:8440354

  14. Functional lacrimal gland regeneration by transplantation of a bioengineered organ germ

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Masatoshi; Ogawa, Miho; Oshima, Masamitsu; Sekine, Yurie; Ishida, Kentaro; Yamashita, Kentaro; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Shimmura, Shigeto; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Tsubota, Kazuo; Tsuji, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The lacrimal gland has a multifaceted role in maintaining a homeostatic microenvironment for a healthy ocular surface via tear secretion. Dry-eye disease, which is caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction, is one of the most prevalent eye diseases that cause corneal epithelial damage and results in significant loss of vision and a reduction in the quality of life. Here we demonstrate orthotopic transplantation of bioengineered lacrimal gland germs into adult mice with an extra-orbital lacrimal gland defect, a mouse model that mimics the corneal epithelial damage caused by lacrimal gland dysfunction. The bioengineered lacrimal gland germs and harderian gland germs both develop in vivo and achieve sufficient physiological functionality, including tear production in response to nervous stimulation and ocular surface protection. This study demonstrates the potential for bioengineered organ replacement to functionally restore the lacrimal gland. PMID:24084941

  15. Larval salivary glands are a source of primer and releaser pheromone in honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Yves Le; Bécard, Jean-Marc; Costagliola, Guy; de Vaublanc, Gérard; Maâtaoui, Mohamed El; Crauser, Didier; Plettner, Erika; Slessor, Keith N.

    2006-05-01

    A brood pheromone identified in honeybee larvae has primer and releaser pheromone effects on adult bees. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate fatty acid esters—the pheromonal compounds—in different parts of the larvae, we have localized the source of the esters as the larval salivary glands. A histochemical study describes the glands and confirms the presence of lipids in the glands. Epithelial cells of the gland likely secrete the fatty acids into the lumen of the gland. These results demonstrate the salivary glands to be a reservoir of esters, components of brood pheromone, in honeybee larvae.

  16. Cellular and molecular specificity of pituitary gland physiology.

    PubMed

    Perez-Castro, Carolina; Renner, Ulrich; Haedo, Mariana R; Stalla, Gunter K; Arzt, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The anterior pituitary gland has the ability to respond to complex signals derived from central and peripheral systems. Perception of these signals and their integration are mediated by cell interactions and cross-talk of multiple signaling transduction pathways and transcriptional regulatory networks that cooperate for hormone secretion, cell plasticity, and ultimately specific pituitary responses that are essential for an appropriate physiological response. We discuss the physiopathological and molecular mechanisms related to this integrative regulatory system of the anterior pituitary gland and how it contributes to modulate the gland functions and impacts on body homeostasis. PMID:22298650

  17. Fractionated irradiation and early changes in salivary glands. Different effects on potassium efflux, exocytotic amylase release and gland morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Franzen, L.; Funegard, U.S.; Sundstroem, S.G.; Gustafsson, H.; Danielsson, A.; Henriksson, R. (University Hospital, Umea (Sweden))

    1991-02-01

    Irradiation is a potent treatment modality of head and neck cancer. However, the irradiation is usually associated with an influence on salivary glands with ensuing dryness and discomfort for the patients. In the present study we used different in vitro secretory models and morphologic characterization of rat parotid gland. Radiation was given to one gland on a 5-day schedule with 6 MV photons (total dose 20, 30, 35, 40, 45 Gy). The contralateral gland served as control, and the analysis of glands were performed 10 days after the last irradiation treatment. The noradrenaline stimulated electrolyte secretion (86rubidium tracer for potassium) was decreased in relation to the irradiation dose and in comparison to contralateral control glands. Noradrenaline stimulated exocytotic amylase release was not affected by irradiation and, there were no signs of obvious quantitative morphologic alterations after irradiation compared with controls. The results suggest that there are differences in the sensitivity to radiation for the two different secretory processes in salivary glands, and, thus, the structures regulating electrolyte and fluid secretion seem to be more vulnerable to irradiation than the process of exocytosis. The results, however, do not allow discrimination between temporary cellular impairment and irreversible damage leading to cell death.

  18. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories....

  19. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a)...

  20. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a)...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a)...

  4. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories....

  7. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories....

  8. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a)...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a)...

  10. 21 CFR 872.4200 - Dental handpiece and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental handpiece and accessories. 872.4200...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4200 Dental handpiece and accessories. (a)...

  11. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories....

  13. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a)...

  15. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories....

  16. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

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  18. 19 CFR 10.537 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.537 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. Accessories, spare parts, or tools that are...

  19. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts or tools that form part of the...

  20. Skin glands, poison and mimicry in dendrobatid and leptodactylid amphibians.

    PubMed

    Prates, Ivan; Antoniazzi, Marta M; Sciani, Juliana M; Pimenta, Daniel C; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Haddad, Célio F B; Jared, Carlos

    2012-03-01

    In amphibians, secretions of toxins from specialized skin poison glands play a central role in defense against predators. The production of toxic secretions is often associated with conspicuous color patterns that warn potential predators, as it is the case of many dendrobatid frogs, including Ameerega picta. This species resembles the presumably nontoxic Leptodactylus lineatus. This study tests for mimicry by studying the morphology and distribution of skin glands, components of skin secretion, and defensive behavior. Dorsal skin was studied histologically and histochemically, and skin secretions were submitted to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and assays for proteolytic activity. We found that poison glands in A. picta are filled with nonprotein granules that are rich in carbohydrates, while L. lineatus glands present protein granules. Accordingly, great amounts of proteins, at least some of them enzymes, were found in the poison of L. lineatus but not in that of A. picta. Both species differ greatly on profiles of gland distribution: In L. lineatus, poison glands are organized in clusters whose position coincides with colored elements of the dorsum. These regions are evidenced through a set of displays, suggesting that poison location is announced to predators through skin colors. In contrast, A. picta presents lower densities of glands, distributed homogeneously. This simpler profile suggests a rather qualitative than quantitative investment in chemical defense, in agreement with the high toxicity attributed to dendrobatids in general. Our data suggest that both species are toxic or unpalatable and transmit common warning signals to predators, which represents a case of Müllerian mimicry. PMID:22025347

  1. Discrimination of Oribotritia species by oil gland chemistry (Acari, Oribatida)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Günther Raspotnig; Verena Leutgeb; Günther Krisper; Hans-Jörg Leis

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition of secretions from opisthonotal (oil) glands in four species of the oribatid mite genus Oribotritia (Mixonomata, Euphthiracaroidea, Oribotritiidae) was compared by means of gas chromatography—mass spectrometry. The secretions\\u000a of all, O. banksi (from North America) and three Austrian oribotritiids (O. berlesei, O. hermanni, O. storkani), are shown to be based on certain unusual compounds, the iridoid monoterpenes

  2. [Histochemical characteristics of the secretory cells of gastric glands compared].

    PubMed

    Shubich, M G; Mogil'naia, G M; Dudetski?, V I; Bogatyr', L Ia

    1978-02-01

    The work is dedicated to complex histological studies of the secreting cells in the gastric fundal glands, in their comparative aspect. In the representatives of Amphibia, Reptilians and birds, histochemical differentiation of oxyntopeptic cells was demonstrated to be independent on the peculiarities of the animal nutrition. In mammals, histochemical characteristic of the carbohydrate component in the glandular secreting cells depends on the type of nutrition. PMID:646638

  3. Opisthonotal gland chemistry of a middle-derivative oribatid mite, Archegozetes longisetosus (Acari: Trhypochthoniidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoyo Sakata; Roy A. Norton

    2003-01-01

    Opisthonotal glands of sarcoptiform mites secrete a variety of compounds known to have defensive and pheromonal functions. We studied the gland chemistry of cultured individuals of the desmonomatan oribatid mite Archegozetes longisetosus Aoki (Trhypochthoniidae), to compare it with that of other oribatid mites and to examine in a preliminary way how the molting process may affect it. GC-MS analysis of

  4. The Effects of an Incisal Bite Plane on Rat Sublingual Glands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hioki; K. Niwa; T. Kishimoto; T. Kawazoe; Y. Yokota; K. Abe; C. Dawes

    1983-01-01

    Application of an incisal bite plane for as little as three d caused a significant increase in the size of the sublingual glands of rats, with some evidence of hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the acinar cells. The enlargement had few effeets on salivary secretion, and the gland changes were reversible.

  5. Macro-microscopical aspects of the buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Linnaeus, 1758) pineal gland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Flávia de Carvalho; Carlos Eduardo Ambrósio; Maria Angélica Miglino; Francisco Javier Hernandez Blazquez

    Gross and microscopical aspects of the buffalo pineal gland were described in seasonal parturition animals, since this gland is responsible for melatonin secretion which acts upon the hypothalamus-hypophysis reproductive axis feedback system. (Hafez, 1995). For the present study, 11 cross-bred buffaloes, predominantly of the Mediterranean breed, from the Pirassununga Campus - USP (University of São Paulo), were killed in different

  6. The Electron Microscopy of the Left Colleterial Gland of the Cockroach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H. Mercer; P. C. J. BRUNET; D. Phil

    1959-01-01

    A study has been made of the cells of the left colleterial gland o f the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.), using the electron microscope, and the results com- pared with previous histological and histochemical studies. The colleterial gland consists of an arborescent bunch of long tubules composed mainly of the cells which secrete the structural protein of the egg case

  7. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section 10.456 Customs Duties...Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts or tools that form part of the good's standard...

  8. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section 10.456 Customs Duties...Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts or tools that form part of the good's standard...

  9. 19 CFR 10.456 - Accessories, spare parts or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Accessories, spare parts or tools. 10.456 Section 10.456 Customs Duties...Origin § 10.456 Accessories, spare parts or tools. Accessories, spare parts or tools that form part of the good's standard...

  10. Detection of accessory spleens with indium 111-labeled autologous platelets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harmon H. Davis; Ajit Varki; W. A. Heaton; B. A. Siegel

    1980-01-01

    In two patients with recurrent immune thrombocytopenia, accessory splenic tissue was demonstrated by radionuclide imaging following administration of indium 111-labeled autologous platelets. In one of these patients, no accessory splenic tissue was seen on images obtained with technetium 99m sulfur colloid. This new technique provides a simple means for demonstrating accessory spleens and simultaneously evaluating the life-span of autologous platelets.

  11. Multiple ancient schwannoma of the accessory nerve: a case report.

    PubMed

    George, N A; Balagopal, P G; Somanath, T; Sebastian, P

    2012-01-01

    We are reporting a case of multiple ancient schwannoma of the accessory nerve in a 57 year old male. Accessory schwannomas are rare with only 19 cases reported in literature so far. Ancient schwannoma is even rarer in the head and neck region with no other cases associated with the accessory nerve being reported in literature so far. PMID:22227549

  12. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    MedlinePLUS

    Search SEER Training: SEER Training Modules Print Home Glossary Citation Help Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Endocrine System » Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Cancer ...

  13. Important Information ................................... 2 ~ 3 Supplied Accessories ......................................... 3

    E-print Network

    Kleinfeld, David

    Accessories ......................................... 3 · Before Operating Your Television includes basic operating instructions in Spanish and French. SPANISH is on page 6, 27. FRENCH is on page 7 TELEVISION MODELS 13N-M100 13N-M150 B #12;2 Welcome to the SHARP Family.We are pleased that you are now

  14. Electronic Position Sensor for Power Operated Accessory

    DOEpatents

    Haag, Ronald H.; Chia, Michael I.

    2005-05-31

    An electronic position sensor for use with a power operated vehicle accessory, such as a power liftgate. The position sensor includes an elongated resistive circuit that is mounted such that it is stationary and extends along the path of a track portion of the power operated accessory. The position sensor further includes a contact nub mounted to a link member that moves within the track portion such that the contact nub is slidingly biased against the elongated circuit. As the link member moves under the force of a motor-driven output gear, the contact nub slides along the surface of the resistive circuit, thereby affecting the overall resistance of the circuit. The position sensor uses the overall resistance to provide an electronic position signal to an ECU, wherein the signal is indicative of the absolute position of the power operated accessory. Accordingly, the electronic position sensor is capable of providing an electronic signal that enables the ECU to track the absolute position of the power operated accessory.

  15. GAS SECRETION IN FISHES LACKING RETE MIRABILE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. SUNDNES; T. ENNS; P. F. SCHOLANDER

    (With Plate 11) In most fishes with a closed swimbladder the gas secretion is confined to a special organ, the so-called red gland, which consists of a secretory epithelium supported by a counter-current capillary system, the rete mirabile. All the fishes in- vestigated which possess this structure are capable of accumulating oxygen, and most of them also nitrogen, in the

  16. Silks produced by insect labial glands

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Tara

    2008-01-01

    Insect silks are secreted from diverse gland types; this chapter deals with the silks produced by labial glands of Holometabola (insects with pupa in their life cycle). Labial silk glands are composed of a few tens or hundreds of large polyploid cells that secrete polymerizing proteins which are stored in the gland lumen as a semi-liquid gel. Polymerization is based on weak molecular interactions between repetitive amino acid motifs present in one or more silk proteins; cross-linking by disulfide bonds may be important in the silks spun under water. The mechanism of long-term storage of the silk dope inside the glands and its conversion into the silk fiber during spinning is not fully understood. The conversion occurs within seconds at ambient temperature and pressure, under minimal drawing force and in some cases under water. The silk filament is largely built of proteins called fibroins and in Lepidoptera and Trichoptera coated by glue-type proteins known as sericins. Silks often contain small amounts of additional proteins of poorly known function. The silk components controlling dope storage and filament formation seem to be conserved at the level of orders, while the nature of polymerizing motifs in the fibroins, which determine the physical properties of silk, differ at the level of family and even genus. Most silks are based on fibroin ?-sheets interrupted with other structures such as ?-helices but the silk proteins of certain sawflies have predominantly a collagen-like or polyglycine II arrangement and the silks of social Hymenoptera are formed from proteins in a coiled coil arrangement. PMID:19221523

  17. Accessories to the crime: Recent advances in HIV accessory protein biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Gramberg; Nicole Sunseri; Nathaniel R. Landau

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding the roles of the lentiviral accessory proteins have provided fascinating insight into the\\u000a molecular biology of the virus and uncovered previously unappreciated innate immune mechanisms by which the host defends itself.\\u000a HIV-1 and other lentiviruses have developed accessory proteins that counterattack the antiviral defenses in a sort of evolutionary\\u000a battle. The virus is remarkably adept at

  18. Aqueous solvents for extracting glanded cottonseed protein without gland rupture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Muller; T. J. Jacks; T. P. Hensarling

    1976-01-01

    The presence of pigment glands has thwarted attempts to extract edible cottonseed protein aqueously from glanded seeds or\\u000a gland-rich meals, probably because of the widely held belief that glands rupture on contact with aqueous media. We found several\\u000a aqueous salt solutions in which glands did not rupture. Glands remained intact in saturated (2m) sodium sulfate, but not in saturated 2m

  19. Evaluation of the Effects of Quercetin on Damaged Salivary Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Ayako; Inoue, Hiroko; Mishima, Kenji; Ide, Fumio; Nakayama, Ryoko; Hasaka, Ayaka; Ryo, Koufuchi; Ito, Yumi; Sakurai, Takashi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Saito, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of discovering an effective method to treat dry mouth, we analyzed the effects of quercetin on salivary secretion and its mechanism of action. We created a mouse model with impaired salivary secretion by exposure to radiation and found that impaired secretion is suppressed by quercetin intake. Moreover, secretion levels were enhanced in quercetin-fed normal mice. To elucidate the mechanisms of these effects on salivary secretion, we conducted an analysis using mouse submandibular gland tissues, a human salivary gland epithelial cell line (HSY), and mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs). The results showed that quercetin augments aquaporin 5 (AQP5) expression and calcium uptake, and suppresses oxidative stress and inflammatory responses induced by radiation exposure, suggesting that quercetin intake may be an effective method to treat impaired salivary secretion. PMID:25629520

  20. Mode of action of Duvernoy's gland extracts from the colubrid Dryadophis bifossatus in the chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Fontana; M. G. Heleno; O. Vital Brazil

    1996-01-01

    Extracts and secretion of the Duvernoy's gland are venomous, inducing in several cases motor paralysis in experimental animals. The extracts of the Duvernoy's gland from the aglyphous colubrid Dryadophis bifossatus are very toxic, eliciting flaccid paralysis in pigeons, rabbits and Hylae (Brazil and Vellard, 1926). In the present study, the neuromuscular action of the extracts of Duvernoy's gland from this

  1. Atrioventricular accessory pathway with anterograde decremental conduction property

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Satoshi; Fujii, Eitaro; Sugiura, Shinya; Ito, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of atrioventricular (AV) accessory pathway with anterograde decremental conduction property. The ? wave polarity suggested the presence of a right posteroseptal accessory AV pathway. During atrial pacing, Wenckebach-type AV block over the accessory pathway was observed with prolongation of the local AV conduction time without the change in QRS morphology. No retrograde ventriculoatrial conduction was observed. During mapping of the right midseptal area, mechanical conduction block at the level of the proximal input to the accessory pathway was induced repeatedly by catheter manipulation. Radiofrequency energy delivery eliminated the accessory pathway. In this case only the bump phenomenon was the best marker of successful ablation. PMID:23780770

  2. Parotid gland sparing radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Braam

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Radiotherapy is a common form of treatment for head-and-neck malignancies. One of the most prominent complaints after radiotherapy is a dry mouth, which is caused by irradiation of the salivary glands. The main contributors of saliva during stimulation are the parotid glands, which are positioned near the neck nodes and in most cases in the vicinity of the primary

  3. Ectopic cervical salivary glands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ph. Greant; M. Pipeleers-Marichal; P. Wylockt

    1987-01-01

    Ectopic salivary glands in the neck are very unusual lesions. Generally they are localized to the oropharyngeal region, near the mandible and para-parotid lymph nodes. They occur occasionally on the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle in the soft tissues of the neck. We wish to report on a singular association of ectopic salivary glands with partial hearing loss, preauricular

  4. Gland cells and encystment of Philophthalmus burrili cercariae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Howell

    1983-01-01

    Six types of gland cells have been characterised histochemically in developing cercariae ofPhilophthalmus burrili: basic protein cells; acid mucopolysaccharide cells; mucoprotein cells; ventrolateral and tail sucker cells, which contain mucoprotein; tail parenchyma cells, which contain acid mucopolysaccharide. Before cercariae leave the redia, the basic protein and acid mucopolysaccharide cells (apart from those surrounding the suckers) secrete their contents to form

  5. Harderian gland pheromone in the Mongolian gerbil Meriones unguiculatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Delbert D. Thiessen; Andrew Clency; Michael Goodwin

    1976-01-01

    The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) secretes an attractant pheromone from the Harderian gland during a facial groom. The material exits at the external nares and is spread over select areas of the face. Its presence stimulates investigation by conspecifics, as seen by video observations. The half-life of the fluorescence of the material on the face following a groom parallels the

  6. THE EFFECT OF PROSTAGLANDIN E2 ON THYROIDAL SECRETION OF HORMONAL IODINE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    THE EFFECT OF PROSTAGLANDIN E2 ON THYROIDAL SECRETION OF HORMONAL IODINE IN THE PIG G. CABELLO A. D a significant dose-dependent reduction in hormonal iodine secretion rate was observed. These results confirm secretion of hormonal iodine in the pig.. METHODS AND RESULTS The thyroid gland in 4 pigs was isolated

  7. Synergy Versus Potency in the Defensive Secretions from Nymphs of two Pentatomomorphan Families

    E-print Network

    Becerra, Judith X.

    Synergy Versus Potency in the Defensive Secretions from Nymphs of two Pentatomomorphan Families. Within the infraorder Pentatomomorpha, the known secretions of nymphs of Pentatomidae tend to contain. In the Coreidae, the dorsal abdominal gland secretions of nymphs often contain little or no hydro- carbon

  8. Identity and transfer of male reproductive gland proteins of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti: potential tools for control of female feeding and reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Sirot, Laura K.; Poulson, Rebecca L.; McKenna, M. Caitlin; Girnary, Hussein; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Harrington, Laura C.

    2009-01-01

    Male reproductive gland proteins (mRGPs) impact the physiology and/or behavior of mated females in a broad range of organisms. We sought to identify mRGPs of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses. Earlier studies with Ae. aegypti demonstrated that “matrone” (a partially purified male reproductive accessory gland substance) or male accessory gland fluid injected into virgin female Ae. aegypti affect female sexual refractoriness, blood feeding and digestion, flight, ovarian development, and oviposition. Using bioinformatic comparisons to Drosophila melanogaster accessory gland proteins and mass spectrometry of proteins from Ae. aegypti male accessory glands and ejaculatory ducts (AG/ED) and female reproductive tracts, we identified 63 new putative Ae. aegypti mRGPs. Twenty-one of these proteins were found in the reproductive tract of mated females, but not of virgin females, suggesting that they are transferred from males to females during mating. Most of the putative mRGPs fall into the same protein classes as mRGPs in other organisms, although some appear to be evolving rapidly and lack identifiable homologs in Culex pipiens, Anopheles gambiae, and D. melanogaster. Our results identify candidate male-derived molecules that may have an important influence on behavior, survival and reproduction of female mosquitoes. PMID:18207079

  9. HIV Accessory Proteins versus Host Restriction Factors

    PubMed Central

    Strebel, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Primate immunodeficiency viruses, including HIV-1, are characterized by the presence of accessory genes such as vif, vpr, vpx, vpu, and nef. Current knowledge indicates that none of the primate lentiviral accessory proteins has enzymatic activity. Instead, these proteins interact with cellular ligands to either act as adapter molecules to redirect the normal function of host factors for virus-specific purposes or to inhibit a normal host function by mediating degradation or causing intracellular mislocalization/sequestration of the factors involved. This review aims at providing an update of our current understanding of how Vif, Vpu, and Vpx control the cellular restriction factors APOBEC3G, BST-2, and SAMHD1, respectively. PMID:24246762

  10. [Accessory renal arteries in human fetuses].

    PubMed

    Go?cicka, D; Szpinda, M; Kochan, J

    1996-12-01

    Using conventional anatomical methods, renal arteries of 140 human fetuses were studied. It was found (21.1%) that the accessory renal arteries occurred in a three-fold manner: 1. as single arteries (19.2%), 2. as double arteries (2.1%) and 3. as triplex arteries (0.7%). More often they originated from the right part of the circumference of the abdominal aorta, mainly in the female fetuses. These arteries penetrated the following segments of the kidney: the inferior (12.9%), the superior (2.3%), the anterior inferior (2.8%), the posterior (2.1%) and the anterior superior (1.5%). They crossed the renal pelvis more often in front (12.2%) than from behind of it (5%). The frequency of the occurrence of the accessory arteries depends not from the age of the fetus. PMID:9082875

  11. Bacteriophage P22 accessory recombination function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony R. Poteete; Anita C. Fenton; Arlene Semerjian

    1991-01-01

    The accessory recombination function (arf) gene of bacteriophage P22 is located immediately upstream of the essential recombination function (erf) gene. Three mutant alleles of arf were constructed and installed in P22 in place of the wild-type allele: an out-of-frame internal deletion, an in-frame internal deletion, and an amber mutation. The deletion mutant phages are partially defective in homologous recombination and

  12. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is encased within the prostate gland. As a man ages, the prostate typically enlarges in size in ... urinate, and incontinence. Less than half of all men with BPH have symptoms of the disease, or ...

  13. Pineal and Pituitary Glands

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CNS Tumors » Anatomy » Pineal and Pituitary Glands Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Site-specific Modules Brain & Other Nervous ... malignant Brain Tumors History of CNS Tumor Surveillance & Registration BTWG Recommendations Public Law 107-260 Reportable Cases ...

  14. Adrenal glands (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. They produce hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, steroids, cortisol, and cortisone, and chemicals such as adrenalin (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and dopamine.

  15. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  16. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

  20. 21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

  1. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  3. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

  5. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

  8. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

  13. 21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  15. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1500 Endoscope and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  16. 21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

  19. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

  20. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

  1. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

  2. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5090 Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5980 Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5630 Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

  8. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130 Urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification....

  9. 21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

  10. 21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4300 Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a)...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5820 Hemodialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification....

  12. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 890.3025 - Prosthetic and orthotic accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3025 Prosthetic and orthotic accessory. (a)...

  15. Non-Azygos Accessory Fissure in Right Upper Lobe Associated with Superior and Inferior Accessory Fissures in Right Lower Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Muttikkal, Thomas Jose Eluvathingal; Deng, Chunli

    2012-01-01

    Accessory fissures in the lungs are common congenital variations, usually detected as incidental findings in radiographs or CT scan. Accessory fissures can act as an anatomic barrier to the spread of inflammatory or neoplastic disease, as well as due to the variant anatomy, mimic lesions. It is important to recognize the presence of accessory fissures, as they affect surgical planning of pulmonary lobectomy and segmentectomy. Accessory fissure in the right upper lobe other than due to the anomalous course of azygos vein is very rare. We report a case of non-azygos accessory fissure, between the apical and the anterior segments of right upper lobe, along with superior and inferior accessory fissures in the right lower lobe. PMID:23393635

  16. A new type of exocrine gland and its function in mass recruitment in the ant Cylindromyrmex whymperi (Formicidae, Cerapachyinae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Bruno; Rüppell, Olav; Hartmann, Annegret; Jungnickel, Harald; Morgan, David; Billen, Johan

    2001-08-01

    Workers of the ant Cylindromyrmex whymperi display mass trail recruitment. Bioassays show that the trail pheromone originates from a unique gland between abdominal sternites 6 and 7. The gland has a hitherto unknown structural organization. Upon leaving the secretory cell, the duct cell widens to form a sclerotized pear-shaped reservoir chamber, lined with multiple duct cells. Each duct thus forms a miniature reservoir for the secretions of each single secretory cell, a novel structural arrangement in exocrine glands of social Hymenoptera.

  17. The action of physalaemin on electrolyte excretion by the mandibular and sublingual salivary glands of the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. T. Coroneo; A. R. Denniss; J. A. Young

    1979-01-01

    The effect of physalaemin, an undecapeptide belonging to a family known collectively as the tachykinins, on water and electrolyte excretion of the mandibular and sublingual salivary glands of the rat has been investigated and compared to that of acetylcholine. Drugs were administered intravenously or by close-arterial infusion. Physalaemin is a powerful stimulant of fluid secretion by both glands although less

  18. The mammary gland produces and delivers milk from mother to newborn. The only organ after which an entire

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Celeste M.

    The mammary gland produces and delivers milk from mother to newborn. The only organ after which, primarily owing to milk's nutritional and antimicrobial content1 . Lactation, the synthesis and secretion of milk, is made possible by the architecture of the gland. Like other organs used for fluid transport

  19. Longitudinal, 3D in vivo imaging of sebaceous glands by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy –normal function and response to cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yookyung; Tam, Joshua; Jalian, H. Ray; Anderson, R. Rox; Evans, Conor L.

    2014-01-01

    Sebaceous glands perform complex functions, and are centrally involved in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Current techniques for studying sebaceous glands are mostly static in nature, whereas the gland’s main function – excretion of sebum via the holocrine mechanism – can only be evaluated over time. We present a longitudinal, real-time alternative – the in vivo, label-free imaging of sebaceous glands using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy, which is used to selectively visualize lipids. In mouse ears, CARS microscopy revealed dynamic changes in sebaceous glands during the holocrine secretion process, as well as in response to damage to the glands caused by cooling. Detailed gland structure, plus the active migration of individual sebocytes and cohorts of sebocytes were measured. Cooling produced characteristic changes in sebocyte structure and migration. This study demonstrates that CARS microscopy is a promising tool for studying the sebaceous gland and its associated disorders in three-dimensions in vivo. PMID:25026458

  20. Functional differences in the acinar cells of the murine major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Y; Nakamoto, T; Jaramillo, Y; Choi, S; Catalan, M A; Melvin, J E

    2015-05-01

    In humans, approximately 90% of saliva is secreted by the 3 major salivary glands: the parotid (PG), the submandibular (SMG), and the sublingual glands (SLG). Even though it is known that all 3 major salivary glands secrete saliva by a Cl(-)-dependent mechanism, salivary secretion rates differ greatly among these glands. The goal of this study was to gain insight into the properties of the ion-transporting pathways in acinar cells that might account for the differences among the major salivary glands. Pilocarpine-induced saliva was simultaneously collected in vivo from the 3 major salivary glands of mice. When normalized by gland weight, the amount of saliva secreted by the PG was more than 2-fold larger than that obtained from the SMG and SLG. At the cellular level, carbachol induced an increase in the intracellular [Ca(2+)] that was more than 2-fold larger in PG and SMG than in SLG acinar cells. Carbachol-stimulated Cl(-) efflux and the protein levels of the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel TMEM16A, the major apical Cl(-) efflux pathway in salivary acinar cells, were significantly greater in PG compared with SMG and SLG. In addition, we evaluated the transporter activity of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters (NKCC1) and anion exchangers (AE), the 2 primary basolateral Cl(-) uptake mechanisms in acinar cells. The SMG NKCC1 activity was about twice that of the PG and more than 12-fold greater than that of the SLG. AE activity was similar in PG and SLG, and both PG and SLG AE activity was about 2-fold larger than that of SMG. In summary, the salivation kinetics of the 3 major glands are distinct, and these differences can be explained by the unique functional properties of each gland related to Cl(-) movement, including the transporter activities of the Cl(-) uptake and efflux pathways, and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. PMID:25680367

  1. Elements of the granular gland peptidome and transcriptome persist in air-dried skin of the South American orange-legged leaf frog, Phyllomedusa hypocondrialis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tianbao Chen; Mei Zhou; Ron Gagliardo; Brian Walker; Chris Shaw

    2006-01-01

    The defensive strategy of amphibians against predator attack relies heavily on the secretion of noxious\\/toxic chemical cocktails from specialized skin granular glands. Bioactive peptides constitute a major component of secretions in many species and the most complex are produced by neotropical leaf frogs of the sub-family Phyllomedusinae. We recently reported that these skin secretions contain elements of both the granular

  2. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. 878.4400...4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a...

  3. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. 878.4400...4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. 878.4400...4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. 878.4400...4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a...

  6. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. 878.4400...4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a...

  7. Rostral floor plate (flexural organ) secretes glycoproteins immunologically similar to subcommissural organ glycoproteins in dogfish ( Scyliorhinus canicula) embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D López-Avalos; M Cifuentes; J. M Grondona; E Miranda; J Pérez; P Fernández-Llebrez

    1997-01-01

    The subcommissural organ of vertebrates secretes glycoproteins into the cerebrospinal fluid of the third cerebral ventricle. This material polymerizes in Reissner's fiber. During ontogenetic development, besides the subcommissural organ, the ependyma lining the pontine flexure constitutes an additional Reissner's fiber-secreting gland named flexural organ. We have studied the secretion of the flexural organ and the subcommissural organ in dogfish (Scyliorhinus

  8. Mobile Proactive secret sharing

    E-print Network

    Schultz, David Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes mobile proactive secret sharing (MPSS), an extension of proactive secret sharing. Mobile proactive secret sharing is much more flexible than proactive secret sharing in terms of group membership: ...

  9. Mucosubstances in Brunner's glands of the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Obuoforibo, A A

    1975-01-01

    The mucins of Brunner's glands in the mouse have been studied by histochemical methods. The secretion droplets in both acinar cells and the cells lining the ducts are PAS-positive and diazyme-resistant. The latter cells are alcianophilic at pH 2.5, react positively with Hale's colloidal iron method and exhibit metachromasia with azure A. The reaction to Hale's colloidal iron method is lost after digestion with neuraminidase. These results suggest that an acid as well as a neutral mucopolysaccharide is present in the secretion of Brunner's glands of the mouse, the acid mucosubstance being a sialomucin. The possible significance of this finding is discussed. This work was performed in partial fulfilment of work for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy of the University of Sheffield. It was supported by a Research Fellowship from the World Health Organisation (W.H.O.) during a study leave granted by the University of Lagos, Nigeria. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:48511

  10. Functioning Oxyphil Adenoma of Parathyroid Gland

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Douglas H.; Lotuaco, Luisa G.; Rao, M. S.; Chu, Luke L. H.

    1978-01-01

    Oxyphil cells and oxyphil cell adenomas of parathyroid glands are, in most instances, regarded to be nonfunctioning. Although 21 cases of hyperparathyroidism associated with parathyroid oxyphil cell adenoma have been reported, secretion of hormone by these tumors has not been conclusively demonstrated. A parathyroid adenoma, diagnosed by light microscopy as oxyphil type, together with the results from ultrastructural and biochemical studies of the patient's adenomatous tissue, are reported here. The patient, a 64-year-old male, was found to have elevated serum calcium, low serum phosphorus, and elevated serum immunoreactive parathormone: findings consistent with hyperparathyroidism. After excision of two small normal-appearing glands and one greatly enlarged (1.9 g) parathyroid gland, those laboratory values returned to normal. Light microscopy of the enlarged parathyroid indicated that it consisted almost entirely of an oxyphil adenoma. Electron microscopy revealed that the adenoma was composed mainly of mitochondria-rich oxyphil cells but also of interspersed transitional oxyphil cells and rare scattered chief cells. Golgi zones, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and prosecretory and secretory-like granules were observed in some oxyphil cells, in most transitional oxyphil cells, and in the infrequent chief cells. Thus, many of these cells appear to contribute to the production and secretion of parathormone. Biochemical studies performed directly on the adenomatous tissue demonstrated that it was able to synthesize proparathormone and parathormone, although the proportion of hormonal peptide synthesis relative to that of the total protein synthesis in this tissue was much smaller (0.9%) than that found in normal parathyroid tissue (5.7%). There was a small increase in immunoreactive parathormone when the adenoma tissue was incubated in a low-calcium medium. These findings indicate that this oxyphil adenoma of the parathyroid gland synthesized and secreted parathormone, apparently to some extent autonomously, but suggest that its capacity to do so was largely dependent on its component of cells other than fully developed oxyphil cells, such as transitional oxyphil cells. ImagesFigure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 9Figure 5Figure 10 PMID:686153

  11. Simon Effect with and without Awareness of the Accessory Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treccani, Barbara; Umilta, Carlo; Tagliabue, Mariaelena

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated whether a Simon effect could be observed in an accessory-stimulus Simon task when participants were unaware of the task-irrelevant accessory cue. In Experiment 1A a central visual target was accompanied by a suprathreshold visual lateral cue. A regular Simon effect (i.e., faster cue-response corresponding reaction times…

  12. Accessory bronchus in a patient with chronic cough.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Fuentes, Raúl; Esparza, Edgar A; Macías, Marco P; Quiroz-Castro, Oscar

    2013-04-01

    The accessory bronchus involving the trachea or main bronchi is very rare. In this report, we present images of an accessory bronchus, detected by computed tomography scan and flexible bronchoscopy. Our patient was suffering from persistent productive cough and had normal chest x-ray. We review the literature to establish relationship between our patient's symptoms and this congenital anomaly. PMID:23609250

  13. What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a slightly better outcome. Other cancers that can affect the salivary glands These types of cancer are ... Most lymphomas that start in the salivary glands affect people with Sjogren (Sjögren) syndrome (a disorder that ...

  14. Male accessory gland protein reduces egg laying in a simultaneous hermaphrodite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joris M. Koene; Wiebe Sloot; Kora Montagne-Wajer; Scott F. Cummins; Bernard M. Degnan; John S. Smith; Gregg T. Nagle; Andries ter Maat

    2010-01-01

    Seminal fluid is an important part of the ejaculate of internally fertilizing animals. This fluid contains substances that nourish and activate sperm for successful fertilization. Additionally, it contains components that influence female physiology to further enhance fertilization success of the sperm donor, possibly beyond the recipient's optimum. Although evidence for such substances abounds, few studies have unraveled their identities, and

  15. Male Accessory Gland Protein Reduces Egg Laying in a Simultaneous Hermaphrodite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joris M. Koene; Wiebe Sloot; Kora Montagne-Wajer; Scott F. Cummins; Bernard M. Degnan; John S. Smith; Gregg T. Nagle; Andries Ter Maat; Laszlo Orban

    2010-01-01

    Seminal fluid is an important part of the ejaculate of internally fertilizing animals. This fluid contains substances that nourish and activate sperm for successful fertilization. Additionally, it contains components that influence female physiology to further enhance fertilization success of the sperm donor, possibly beyond the recipient's optimum. Although evidence for such substances abounds, few studies have unraveled their identities, and

  16. EST analysis of male accessory glands from Heliconius butterflies with divergent mating systems

    E-print Network

    Walters, James R.; Harrison, Richard G.

    2008-12-08

    the same locus (within species) or orthologous loci (between species). However, we fully recognize that such questions of identity and orthology can only be conclusively determined in the context of complete genome sequences and that the modest number... diversity in the context of well- characterized ecological and phenotypic diversity. The two species studied here are also the focal taxa for research examining the genetic basis of wing pattern diversity in Heliconius. Our results comprise the first major...

  17. Tokens of love: Functions and regulation of drosophila male accessory gland products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariana F. Wolfner

    1997-01-01

    A male fruit fly influences the behavior and physiology of his mate via molecules that he transmits to her'in his semen. The mated female fly has an elevated rate of egg laying, a decreased receptivity to mating and a shorter life span; she also stores sperm from the mating. Molecular genetic analyses possible in this insect model system permit the

  18. RESEARCH ARTICLES Comparative Genomics of Accessory Gland Protein Genes in Drosophila

    E-print Network

    Begun, David

    they are D. melanogaster orphans. The weighted average of interspecific amino acid identity for alignable generalunderstandingofgenelossislikelyplaguedbyascer- tainment bias. For example, genes that are prone to loss over relativelyshortertimescalesmaytendtoevolvequicklyand, therefore, are more likely to be unannotated in model system genomes. Gain and loss of genes

  19. Recent methods for the investigation of the accessory glands of the human male genital tract

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    . Such a study alerted us to an unsuspected and unexplained defect in the bladder neck mechanism, and patients of the bladder neck and external sphincter function which are not readily apparent by other methods and to avoid of contrast into the prostatic urethra and bladder. Buck, Sherwood and Pryor (1977) reviewed 96 vasograms

  20. Treatment of parotid glands cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magdalena Jozefowicz-Korczynska; Elzbieta Debniak; Marek Lukomski

    2003-01-01

    Parotid glands tumors are relatively uncommon but they diverse and range from less to highly aggressive. Surgery is the primary treatment of choice for most neoplasm of salivary glands.We evaluated the results of parotid gland cancer treatment dependent on clinical data and treatment modality on survival. Results of treatment, clinical stage, types of surgical management and recurrences in 105 patients

  1. Hair follicle sebaceous gland (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Each pore on the surface of the skin is an opening to a canal called a follicle. The follicle also contains a hair and an oil gland (sebaceous gland). The oil gland helps remove old skin cells, keeps the skin lubricated, and prevents ...

  2. Biomacromolecule conjugated nanofiber scaffold for salivary gland tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayarathanam, Kavitha

    Xerostomia or dry mouth, resulting from loss of salivary gland secretion can be alleviated by tissue engineering approaches to restore glandular cell function. Engineering an artificial salivary gland structure requires closely mimicking the natural environment, both physically and functionally, to promote epithelial cell proliferation, monolayer formation and apico-basal polarization. While the physical structure of the salivary gland extracellular matrix (ECM) can be reconstructed using biocompatible nanofiber scaffolds, the chemical signals from ECM macromolecules are equally involved in the gland morphogenesis. In these glands, Hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomacromolecule that is a major component of the ECM, plays a crucial role in recruiting growth factors to improve cell viability and growth in these glands. Another molecule of interest that improved salivary epithelial cell viability and apico-basal differentiation is laminin, a major protein found in the basement membrane. We hypothesize that these biomacromolecules, when conjugated nanofiber scaffolds, will provide the essential chemical signals that promote cell viability, proliferation, polarity in the salivary cell line of interest. These morphological changes will in turn promote the secretory function (salivary production). The nanofiber scaffold consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid is conjugated with HA using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamine crosslinker. This conjugation was confirmed using fluorescence spectrometry, water contact angle test and immunocytochemistry analysis using confocal microscopy. The effect of HA in promoting cell survival in-vitro was established with MTT assay using SIMS (mouse submandibular immortalized ductal SIMS cells) cells. The effect of HA in improving the apico - basal polarity of SIMS cells will be assessed. Chemical modification of synthetic nanopolymeric scaffolds with ECM molecules e.g., HA, laminin are the next step towards developing "smart scaffolds", that can be used to specifically induce proper salivary gland function. These scaffolds can potentially be used to provide a viable approach for creating future artificial tissue engineered glands.

  3. Streaming submandibular gland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Zajicek; C. Yagil; Y. Michaeli

    1985-01-01

    Twenty female young adult rats were injected with tritiated thymidine (³HTdR). The animals were then killed in groups of five, at the following times: 1 hour, and 4, 16, and 23 days. Autoradiograms of sections through the submandibular gland were prepared, and the location of labelled cells in relationship to tubuli and acini was recorded. The different tubular and acinar

  4. Hunting for eruption ages in accessory minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    A primary goal in geochronology is to provide precise and accurate ages for tephras that serve as chronostratigraphic markers for constraining the timing and rates of volcanism, sedimentation, climate change, and catastrophic events in Earth history. Zircon remains the most versatile accessory mineral for dating silicic tephras due to its common preservation in distal pyroclastic deposits, as well as the robustness of its U-Pb and U-series systems even after host materials have been hydrothermally altered or weathered. Countless studies document that zircon may be complexly zoned in age due to inheritance, contamination, recycling of antecrysts, protracted crystallization in long-lived magma reservoirs, or any combination of these. Other accessory minerals such as allanite or chevkinite can retain similar records of protracted crystallization. If the goal is to date the durations of magmatic crystallization, differentiation, and/or magma residence, then these protracted chronologies within and between accessory minerals are a blessing. However, if the goal is to date the timing of eruption with high precision, i.e., absolute ages with millennial-scale uncertainties, then this age zoning is a curse. Observations from ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of Pleistocene zircon and allanite provide insight into the record of near-eruption crystallization in accessory minerals and serve as a guide for high-precision whole-crystal dating. Although imprecise relative to conventional techniques, ion probe analysis allows high-spatial resolution 238U-230Th dating that can document multi-millennial age distributions at the crystal scale. Analysis of unpolished rims and continuous depth profiling of zircon from small and large volume eruptions (e.g., Coso, Mono Craters, Yellowstone) reveals that the final several micrometers of crystallization often yield ages that are indistinguishable from associated eruption ages from the 40Ar/39Ar or (U-Th)/He methods. Using this approach, we have derived relatively precise (± ~ 5%, 2?) U-Th isochron ages from the unpolished rims of pumice-derived allanite and zircon from late Pleistocene Wilson Creek Formation tephras in eastern California, whose ages are controversial and have been difficult to resolve via 40Ar/39Ar and radiocarbon dating. Allanite and zircon rims from Ashes 7-19 in the lower portion of Wilson Creek sediments yield stratigraphically consistent ages of ca. 27 ka to ca. 62 ka, with a minority of crystals identifiable as xenocrysts from early Mono Craters rhyolites. Model ages for the interiors of allanite crystals are mostly < 10 k.y. older than their rims. Tephra deposited during the geomagnetic excursion debated to be either the Mono Lake or Laschamp event yields a rim isochron age of ca. 41 ka. This age is indistinguishable from an independent age of 41 ka derived at the latter excursion's type locality in France (Singer et al., 2009) as well as from age-models for deep-sea sediments. The results are in excellent agreement with a previously determined chronology derived from magnetostratigraphy (Zimmerman et al., 2006). Refs: Singer et al., 2009, EPSL 286: 80-88; Zimmerman et al., 2006, EPSL 252: 94-106

  5. Salivation induced better lacrimal gland function in dry eyes.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, T; Ghising, R

    2009-12-01

    The dry eye syndrome is a common eye symptom causing blurry vision. To meet the demand of the modem world students and professionals are compelled to expose themselves to the computer screen for long stretch of time, which is one of the causes of dry eye. It is not always feasible to instil eyes with artificial tears time to time to protect them from dryness. Rather to adopt any simple physiological process associated with optimum lacrimation is a better option to keep eyes moist during computer works. Volunteers (n = 22) having mild dry eyes participated in this study. Tear production was assessed by Schirmer test by keeping Schirmer strip on ocular surface for 5 minutes and recording the length of the moistened area. Then the subject was allowed to keep a piece of lopsy candy (a sour fruit pulp mixed with sugar that is sweet and sour in taste) in mouth for 5 minutes that caused salivation. During salivation, again tear production was assessed. [It was standardized in such a way that, the length of the moistened strip will be 25 - 30 mm for normal eyes, 15 - 10 mm for dry eye, 06 - 10 mm for mild dry eye, 02 - 05 mm for moderate dryness and 00 - 01 mm for severe dry eye.] Tear production was found to be increased significantly (supported by increased length of moistened area of Schirmer strip) during salivation especially in dry eye in all volunteers. The lacrimal gland is the major contributor to the aqueous layer of the tear film which consists of water, electrolytes and proteins; secretion of which are under tight neural control. Anticholinergic agents play an important role in ocular dryness because of hypo-secretion. The sensory root of facial nucleus contains efferent preganglionic parasympathetic fibers for submandibular and sublingual salivary gland and lacrimal gland. The sensory root conveys gustatory fibers from the presulcul area (anterior two-third) of the tongue via the chorda tympani and via the palatine and greater petrosal nerve, taste fibers from the soft palate; it also carries preganglionic (secretomotor) innervations of the submandibular and sublingual salivary gland, lacrimal gland and gland of nasal and palatine mucosa. The taste sensation from the anterior two-third of the tongue, carried by the seventh cranial nerve, a nerve, parasympathetic in nature that contains efferent preganglionic fibers to lacrimal gland. Being stimulated, seventh cranial nerve helps in secretion of tear from the lacrimal glands and gives a sense of relief to the persons facing the problem of mild dryness of eyes. PMID:20635605

  6. Angiotensin II Receptors in Paraventricular Nucleus, Subfornical Organ, and Pituitary Gland of Hypophysectomized, Adrenalectomized, and Vasopressin-Deficient Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eero Castren; Juan M. Saavedra

    1989-01-01

    Angiotensin II has been implicated in the regulation of adrenocorticotropin and vasopressin secretion. Angiotensin II may influence the secretion of these hormones either directly at the pituitary gland or by increasing corticotropin-releasing hormone or vasopressin release from cells that are located in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Pituitary hormone release may also be influenced by circulating angiotensin II through receptors outside

  7. Structure of the secretory cells of male and female adult guinea pigs Harderian gland.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Ola A; Elgamal, Dalia A; Elgayar, Sanaa A M

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the structure of the Harderian gland (HG) in male and female guinea pigs. A total number of sixteen animals of 4 months age were divided according to sex into two groups; eight animals each. Unfixed glands were weighed and their length and width were measured. Specimens from fixed glands were processed and examined using light, transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry for the detection of the presence of chromogranin A (CgA). The gland consisted of a well-developed duct system which included both intra and extra parenchymal ducts and secretory end pieces lined by many types of cells of variable morphological features and modes of secretion. However, the holocrine mode of secretion was rare as mitotic figures were occasionally present. The interstitial cells included fibroblasts and immune cells (mast cells, lymphocyte, plasma cells and macrophages). The secretion produced by the gland included lipid, protein, neutral mucin and CgA which may be a newly identified constituent of biologically potent proteins stored in the cells of the guinea pig HG. Neutral mucin and CgA may function in photoprotection. The gland revealed sexual dimorphism in mast cells and blood capillaries number and chromogranin secretory activity. PMID:25960413

  8. Perlecan domain IV peptide stimulates salivary gland cell assembly in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Swati; Zhang, Chu; Jia, Xinqiao; Carson, Daniel D; Witt, Robert; Farach-Carson, Mary C

    2009-11-01

    Treatment of xerostomia would benefit from development of a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. Salivary gland tissue from surgical patients was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Ductal and acinar cells were identified in tissue and cultured cells from dispersed tissue. High levels of laminin and perlecan/HSPG2 (heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2) were noted in basement membranes, and perlecan also was secreted and organized by cultured acinar populations, which formed lobular structures that mimicked intact glands when cultured on Matrigel or a bioactive peptide derived from domain IV of perlecan. On either matrix, large acini-like lobular structures grew and formed connections between the lobes. alpha-Amylase secretion was confirmed by staining and activity assay. Biomarkers, including tight junction protein E-cadherin and water channel protein aquaporin 5 found in tissue, were expressed in cultured acinar cells. Cells cultured on Matrigel or domain IV of perlecan peptide organized stress fibers and activated focal adhesion kinase. We report a novel technique to isolate acinar cells from human salivary gland and identify a human peptide sequence in perlecan that triggers differentiation of salivary gland cells into self-assembling acini-like structures that express essential biomarkers and which secrete alpha-amylase. PMID:19382872

  9. Intracellular concentrations of the salt gland of the herring gull Larus argentatus.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Nielsen, B

    1976-02-01

    Attempts were made to measure intra- and extracellular concentrations in secreting and inactive salt gland tissue of the herring gull. 14C-labeled polyethylene glycol (mol wt 4,000) was used as a marker for extracellular fluid. Fluid separated by centrifugation at 36,000 g appeared by three independent criteria to represent primarily extracellular fluid. It could not, however, be fully ascertained if this fluid was mixed with a small amount of intracellular fluid. Therefore, intracellular concentrations were calculated from the concentrations in centrifuged fluid as well as from plasma concentrations. By either method it was found that secreting and inactive glands showed no difference in extracellular and intracellular fluid concentrations of Na, K, Cl and Ca. Secreting glands had lower intracellular water content and a higher intracellular Mg concentration than inactive glands. The absence of evidence for intracellular accumulation of Na and Cl ions in secreting glands suggests that active ion transport takes place across the apical rather than the basal and lateral membranes in spite of the fact that Na-K-activated ATPase is associated with the extensive infoldings of these plasma membranes. PMID:1259030

  10. Effects of hormones and gonadal status on the midventral gland of the grasshopper mouse Onychomys leucogaster.

    PubMed

    Pinter, A J

    1985-03-01

    A midventrally located fusiform sebaceous gland is found in the northern grasshopper mouse Onychomys leucogaster. Microscopically, the gland consists of numerous multilobular units. Copious secretory material collects in the central duct of each unit and is extruded to the outside. The gland is larger in the male than in the female. Castration causes an involution of the gland in both sexes. Testosterone propionate (1.0 mg/0.1 cc olive oil, subcutaneously every other day for 4 weeks) restores the gland to full activity in castrates of both sexes. Estradiol benzoate (0.1 mg/0.1 cc olive oil, subcutaneously every other day for 4 weeks) has no effect on the midventral gland of ovariectomized females. A long photoperiod (18 L/6 D) leads to the development of testes, ovaries, and uteri that are significantly heavier than those of animals from a short photoperiod (6 L/18 D) regime. Midventral glands in animals of both sexes from the long photoperiod are larger and more active than glands from animals from the short photoperiod. The secretions of the midventral gland of Onychomys are probably used for communications such as territorial marking, advertisement of gonadal status, or pup identification. PMID:3887990

  11. Multiple KCNQ Potassium Channel Subtypes Mediate Basal Anion Secretion from the Human Airway Epithelial Cell Line

    E-print Network

    Dellaire, Graham

    Multiple KCNQ Potassium Channel Subtypes Mediate Basal Anion Secretion from the Human Airway Science+Business Media, LLC 2008 Abstract Potassium channels play an important role in providing a driving in mediating rates of basal anion secretion across the human airway submucosal gland serous cell model

  12. Pitx1 and Pitx2c are required for ectopic cement gland formation in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Schweickert, A; Deissler, K; Blum, M; Steinbeisser, H

    2001-07-01

    The mucus secreting cement gland is the anterior-most ectodermal organ of the Xenopus embryo. The homeobox genes Pltx1 and Pitx2c are expressed in the cement gland primordium. Misexpression of both genes induced ectopic cement gland tissue in whole embryos and transcription of the marker genes Xag1 and Xag2 in animal cap explant cultures. Antisense morpholino oligonucleotides against Pitx1 and Pitx2c inhibited ectopic cement gland formation induced by otx2. Gene knock downs generated by morpholino oligonucleotides were specific and could be rescued by coinjection of Pitx mRNAs. These data demonstrate for the first time the requirement of specific genes for cement gland formation by loss-of-function experiments. genesis 30:144--148, 2001. PMID:11477694

  13. Effects of Repeated Administration of Pilocarpine and Isoproterenol on Aquaporin-5 Expression in Rat Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Susa, Taketo; Sawai, Nobuhiko; Aoki, Takeo; Iizuka-Kogo, Akiko; Kogo, Hiroshi; Negishi, Akihide; Yokoo, Satoshi; Takata, Kuniaki; Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Aquaporins are water channel proteins which enable rapid water movement across the plasma membrane. Aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is the major aquaporin and is expressed on the apical membrane of salivary gland acinar cells. We examined the effects of repeated administration of pilocarpine, a clinically useful stimulant for salivary fluid secretion, and isoproterenol (IPR), a stimulant for salivary protein secretion, on the abundance of AQP5 protein in rat salivary glands by immunofluorescence microscopy and semi-quantitative immunoblotting. Unexpectedly AQP5 was decreased in pilocarpine-administered salivary glands, in which fluid secretion must be highly stimulated, implying that AQP5 might not be required for fluid secretion at least in pilocarpine-administered state. The abundance of AQP5, on the other hand, was found to be significantly increased in IPR-administered submandibular and parotid glands. To address the possible mechanism of the elevation of AQP5 abundance in IPR-administered animals, changes of AQP5 level in fasting animals, in which the exocytotic events are reduced, were examined. AQP5 was found to be decreased in fasting animals as expected. These results suggested that the elevation of cAMP and/or frequent exocytotic events could increase AQP5 protein. AQP5 expression seems to be easily changed by salivary stimulants, although these changes do not always reflect the ability in salivary fluid secretion. PMID:24610966

  14. Human CLC-K Channels Require Palmitoylation of Their Accessory Subunit Barttin to Be Functional.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Kim Vanessa; Gorinski, Nataliya; Wojciechowski, Daniel; Todorov, Vladimir; Guseva, Daria; Ponimaskin, Evgeni; Fahlke, Christoph; Fischer, Martin

    2015-07-10

    CLC-K/barttin chloride channels are essential for NaCl re-absorption in Henle's loop and for potassium secretion by the stria vascularis in the inner ear. Here, we studied the posttranslational modification of such channels by palmitoylation of their accessory subunit barttin. We found that barttin is palmitoylated in vivo and in vitro and identified two conserved cysteine residues at positions 54 and 56 as palmitoylation sites. Point mutations at these two residues reduce the macroscopic current amplitudes in cells expressing CLC-K/barttin channels proportionally to the relative reduction in palmitoylated barttin. CLC-K/barttin expression, plasma membrane insertion, and single channel properties remain unaffected, indicating that these mutations decrease the number of active channels. R8W and G47R, two naturally occurring barttin mutations identified in patients with Bartter syndrome type IV, reduce barttin palmitoylation and CLC-K/barttin channel activity. Palmitoylation of the accessory subunit barttin might thus play a role in chloride channel dysfunction in certain variants of Bartter syndrome. We did not observe pronounced alteration of barttin palmitoylation upon increased salt and water intake or water deprivation, indicating that this posttranslational modification does not contribute to long term adaptation to variable water intake. Our results identify barttin palmitoylation as a novel posttranslational modification of CLC-K/barttin chloride channels. PMID:26013830

  15. Endocrine glands in anencephaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samir C. Mitra; G. Venkataraman

    1973-01-01

    Summary  Geographic and ethnic differences influence the incidence of anencephaly. This study was undertaken to assess the influence\\u000a of such differences on the endocrine defects associated with anencephaly. All endocrine and exo-endocrine glands of ten human\\u000a anencephalic monsters, conceived and born of South Indian parents in South India, and control specimens were subjected to\\u000a microanatomical examination. The gonads were not found

  16. Milk lipid secretion: recent biomolecular aspects

    PubMed Central

    McManaman, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Neonates of most species depend on milk lipids for calories, fat-soluble vitamins, and bioactive lipid components for growth and development during the postnatal period. To meet neonatal nutrition and development needs, the mammary gland has evolved efficient mechanisms for synthesizing and secreting large quantities of lipid during lactation. Although the biochemical steps involved in milk lipid synthesis are understood, the identities of the genes mediating these steps and the molecular physiology of milk lipid production and secretion have only recently begun to be understood in detail through advances in mouse genetics, gene expression analysis, protein structural properties, and the cell biology of lipid metabolism. This review discusses emerging data about the molecular, cellular, and structural determinants of milk lipid synthesis and secretion within the context of physiological functions. PMID:24605173

  17. 46 CFR 98.25-40 - Valves, fittings, and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...inches. Nonferrous materials, such as copper, copper alloys and aluminum alloys, shall not be used in the construction of valves, fittings or accessory equipment. Brazed joints are prohibited. (b) Each tank shall be provided...

  18. 21 CFR 884.4100 - Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Sterility Review Guidance 2/12/90 (K-90),” and (iii) “Guidance (‘Guidelines’) for Evaluation of Laproscopic Bipolar and Thermal Coagulators (and Accessories),” (2) International Electrotechnical Commission's IEC 60601-1-AM2...

  19. 21 CFR 884.4100 - Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Sterility Review Guidance 2/12/90 (K-90),” and (iii) “Guidance (‘Guidelines’) for Evaluation of Laproscopic Bipolar and Thermal Coagulators (and Accessories),” (2) International Electrotechnical Commission's IEC 60601-1-AM2...

  20. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...6010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories. (a)...

  1. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and...

  2. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and...

  3. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and...

  4. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and...

  5. 21 CFR 872.4920 - Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental electrosurgical unit and accessories...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4920 Dental electrosurgical unit and...

  6. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...6010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010 Abrasive device and accessories. (a)...

  7. 19 CFR 10.2020 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.2020 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a)...

  8. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010 Section 872.6010...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010...

  9. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872.6010 Section 872.6010...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6010...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  14. 21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  15. 21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

  19. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

  20. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

  1. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

  2. 21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  3. 21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5900 Ostomy pouch and accessories. (a) Identification. An...

  7. 21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  8. 21 CFR 876.5540 - Blood access device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5540 Blood access device and accessories. (a) Identification....

  9. 21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table and accessories. (a) Identification. A...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm that complies with the firewall requirements of § 25.1191. [Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5678, Apr. 8,...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1192 - Engine accessory section diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...and all portions of the exhaust system must be isolated from the engine accessory compartment by a diaphragm that complies with the firewall requirements of § 25.1191. [Amdt. 25-23, 35 FR 5678, Apr. 8,...

  12. 21 CFR 884.1600 - Transabdominal amnioscope (fetoscope) and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...system via abdominal entry. The device is used to ascertain fetal abnormalities, to obtain fetal blood samples, or to obtain fetal tissue. This generic type of device may include the following accessories: trocar and cannula, instruments used...

  13. 19 CFR 10.3020 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.3020 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a)...

  14. 19 CFR 10.3020 - Accessories, spare parts, or tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.3020 Accessories, spare parts, or tools. (a)...

  15. 21 CFR 886.1930 - Tonometer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...flat disk to the cornea). Accessories for the device may include a tonometer calibrator or a tonograph recording system. The device is intended for use in the diagnosis of glaucoma. (b) Classification. Class...

  16. 21 CFR 886.1930 - Tonometer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...flat disk to the cornea). Accessories for the device may include a tonometer calibrator or a tonograph recording system. The device is intended for use in the diagnosis of glaucoma. (b) Classification. Class...

  17. 21 CFR 886.1930 - Tonometer and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...flat disk to the cornea). Accessories for the device may include a tonometer calibrator or a tonograph recording system. The device is intended for use in the diagnosis of glaucoma. (b) Classification. Class...

  18. The Rapalogue, CCI-779, Improves Salivary Gland Function following Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Bathke, Maria; Harris, Zoey I.; Arnett, Deborah G.; Klein, Rob R.; Burd, Randy; Ann, David K.; Limesand, Kirsten H.

    2014-01-01

    The standard of care for head and neck cancer typically includes surgical resection of the tumor followed by targeted head and neck radiation. However depending on tumor location and stage, some cases may not require surgical resection while others may be treated with chemoradiation. Unfortunately, these radiation treatments cause chronic negative side effects for patients. These side effects are associated with damage to surrounding normal salivary gland tissue and include xerostomia, changes in taste and malnutrition. The underlying mechanisms of chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction are unknown, however, in rodent models persistently elevated proliferation is correlated with reduced stimulated salivary flow. The rapalogue, CCI-779, has been used in other cell systems to induce autophagy and reduce proliferation, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if CCI-779 could be utilized to ameliorate chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Four to six week old Atg5f/f; Aqp5-Cre, Atg5+/+; Aqp5-Cre and FVB mice were treated with targeted head and neck radiation. FVB mice were treated with CCI-779, chloroquine, or DMSO post-radiation. Stimulated salivary flow rates were determined and parotid and submandibular salivary gland tissues were collected for analyses. Mice with a defect in autophagy, via a conditional knockout of Atg5 in the salivary glands, display increased compensatory proliferation in the acinar cell compartment and hypertrophy at 24-72 hours following radiation. FVB mice treated with post-therapy CCI-779 have significant improvements in salivary gland physiology as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates, proliferation indices and amylase production and secretion. Consequently, post-radiation use of CCI-779 allows for improvement of salivary gland function and reestablishment of glandular homeostasis. As CCI-779 is already FDA approved for other uses, it could have a secondary use to alleviate the chronic side effects in head and neck cancer patients who have completed anti-tumor therapy. PMID:25437438

  19. An evolutionarily conserved family of accessory subunits of K + channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shi-Qing Cai; Ki Ho Park; Federico Sesti

    2006-01-01

    Accessory subunits are an essential feature of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels. They determine trafficking to the plasma\\u000a membrane, surface expression, gating, permeation, and pharmacology. At least three distinct classes of accessory subunits\\u000a including the KCNE family can regulate Kv channel function. KCNE genes encode integral membrane proteins with a single transmembrane\\u000a domain. KCNE genes span the eukaryotic kingdom and, in

  20. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of septal accessory atrioventricular pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Xie, B; Heald, S C; Bashir, Y; Camm, A J; Ward, D E

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--Septal accessory atrioventricular pathways are recognised as being more difficult to ablate than pathways in other locations. This paper describes an experience of 48 consecutive patients with septal accessory pathways who had catheter ablation with radiofrequency current. PATIENTS AND METHODS--There were 28 male and 20 female patients, mean (SD) age 35 (17). 43 patients had a single accessory pathway and 5 patients had multiple accessory pathways. Pre-excitation was present in 37 patients, and 11 patients had concealed accessory pathways. 21 patients had had a previous electrophysiological study. Catheter ablation was undertaken with radiofrequency current delivered by a standard unipolar technique or by delivery of current across the septum (the bipolar technique). RESULTS--The median total procedure time was 167 (83) minutes including a 30-40 minute observation period after the abolition of conduction by the accessory pathway. The median total fluoroscopic time was 56 (30) minutes. 42 (88%) out of 48 patients had successful ablation of the pathway during the first session. In the six patients in whom the procedure failed, five had a midseptal pathway and one had a right anteroseptal pathway. A second attempt at ablation was made in two patients and succeeded in both. In total, 49 accessory pathways were successfully ablated in 44 (92%) out of 48 patients. The bipolar technique was used in 11 patients and succeeded in 10 patients. Standard unipolar current delivery had previously failed in seven of the 11 patients. Complications developed in two patients with a mid septal pathway (one with complete atrioventricular block and the other with a small pericardial effusion). CONCLUSION--Radiofrequency catheter ablation of septal accessory pathways is efficacious and safe. The procedure time can be shortened and success rate can be increased after improvement of the technique--that is, consideration of a bipolar approach for energy delivery in difficult cases. PMID:7946782

  1. Seminal vesicle production and secretion of growth hormone into seminal fluid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael K. Dyck; Dominic Gagné; Mariette Ouellet; Jean-François Sénéchal; Edith Bélanger; Dan Lacroix; Marc-André Sirard; François Pothier

    1999-01-01

    Production of foreign proteins in the tissues of transgenic animals represents an efficient and economical method of producing therapeutic and pharmaceutical proteins. In this study, we demonstrate that the mouse P12 gene promoter specific to the male accessory sex gland can be used to generate transgenic mice that express human growth hormone (hGH) in their seminal vesicle epithelium. The hGH

  2. Alveolar macrophage accessory cell function in bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Gant, V; Cluzel, M; Shakoor, Z; Rees, P J; Lee, T H; Hamblin, A S

    1992-10-01

    The capacity of peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages (AM) obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) to present recall antigens, namely, tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) or streptokinase-streptodornase (SKSD), to highly purified autologous T-cells has been studied in 11 asthmatic and 11 healthy, nonatopic normal subjects. In the asthmatic group, AM accessory cell function was variable, and most subjects were unable to present either recall antigen as effectively as blood monocytes, although one asthmatic subject demonstrated larger proliferative responses than blood monocytes for both antigens. AM accessory cell activity was not antigen-specific, and there was a correlation between accessory cell efficacy for the two antigens (r = 0.92; confidence interval, 0.53 to 0.98). Furthermore, a correlation existed between the percentage lymphocyte count in the BAL fluid and the ratio of macrophage to monocyte antigen-presenting capability for both PPD (r = 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 0.99) and SKSD (r = 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.45 to 0.98). In the normal subjects, AM were also unable to act effectively as accessory cells for the presentation of PPD and SKSD in the majority of subjects. No correlation existed between the percentage lymphocytes in BAL fluid and the ratio of AM to monocyte accessory cell function. These results suggest an association between AM accessory function and the presence of BAL lymphocytes in bronchial asthma. PMID:1416417

  3. A histochemical study of the secretory gland cells of Cercaria shikokuensis and their role during development from cercaria to metacercaria.

    PubMed

    Harada, M; Suguri, S

    2001-07-01

    The roles of secretory glands during the developmental process from an immature cercaria to a metacercaria in Cercaria shikokuensis were studied. Four types of secretory cells were identified in this species. On maturation of the cercaria in redia, the products of ventral gland cells and mucoid gland cells formed a thick surface coat on the mature cercaria, and the products of cephalic gland cells also formed a thin cover on the surface coat. In the process leading to the formation of a metacercaria, the surface coat constituted the outer layer of the cyst, mucoid gland cells secreted mucous substances inside the wall, and then cystogenous gland cells discharged their products to the inner wall. The cyst wall was composed of four layers, and it was thought that the outermost surface layer helped the cyst wall to adhere to the matrix and the intermediate layers helped to put together outer and inner walls. PMID:11438439

  4. [Cysts of the hepatoid glands].

    PubMed

    Shabadash, S A; Zelikina, T I

    1995-01-01

    Cysts are specific rounded closed structures characteristic of some hepatoid glands. They never occur in other cutaneous glands of mammals. The cysts of the circumanal hepatoid glands of the dog and polar fox, the violet gland of the polar and common red fox, and the groin pouches of three species of gazelles were studied. The cyst is enclosed in a cellular wall saturated with glycogen. The amorphous content of the cyst is rich in hydrophobic lipids and it also contains protein. The cysts of the dog and gazelle contain also carboxylated mucopolysaccharides. The amorphous masses of the cyst are surrounded by concentric fibers rich in sulfated mucopolysaccharides. It was shown, using the circumanal glands of adult male dogs, that cysts are permanently formed from single secretory cells capable of synthesizing hydrophobic lipids before their destruction. During the involution of the hepatoid cysts (circumanal glands of an old female dog), whole acini and glandular lobes transform into cysts. PMID:7894314

  5. Age-dependent changes in ultrastructure of the defensive glands of Neocapritermes taracua workers (Isoptera, Termitidae).

    PubMed

    Sobotník, Jan; Kutalová, Kate?ina; Vytisková, Blahoslava; Roisin, Yves; Bourguignon, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Protection against predators and competitors is one of the main concerns of termite colonies, which developed a specialised defensive caste, the soldiers. However, soldiers are rare or even missing in several lineages of termites, while workers often develop new defence strategies especially in soil-feeding species. Here, we describe the morphology and ultrastructure of the autothysis-associated glands of Neocapritermes taracua workers and report their age-related changes in structure. The defensive glands of N. taracua workers consist of a pair of labial and a pair of crystal glands, whose secretions mix together through autothysis. Autothysis always occurs at the line of weakness connecting the anterior parts of the crystal-bearing pouches. The crystal glands consist of groups of bicellular secretory units (secretory and corresponding canal cells) which secrete the blue crystal material into external pouches. Their secretory activity is maximal in the middle of worker life, and is considerably lower in very young and old workers. The labial glands are composed of two types of secretory cells: the central and the parietal cells. While the central cells are developed similarly to other termites and secrete proteinaceous secretion into labial gland ducts, the parietal cells develop proteinaceous granules which may eventually bud off the cells. The secretory function of parietal cells is so far unique to N. taracua and differs from other termite species in which they are only responsible of water uptake by acini. The defensive device of N. taracua is truly exceptional as it involves a new gland and a previously undescribed function for parietal cells, being a remarkable example of evolution of morphological innovation. PMID:24631892

  6. Aspirin prevents diabetic oxidative changes in rat lacrimal gland structure and function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angélica Gobbi Jorge; Carolina Maria Módulo; Ana Carolina Dias; Alexandre Martins Braz; Rubens Bertazolli Filho; Alceu A. Jordão; Jayter Silva de Paula; Eduardo Melani Rocha

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether aspirin reduces Diabetis Mellitus (DM) oxidative damage in the lacrimal gland\\u000a (LG), and ocular surface (OS). Ten weeks after streptozotocin induced DM and aspirin treatment, LG and OS of rats were compared\\u000a for tear secretion, hidtology, peroxidase activity, and expression of uncoupling proteins (UCPs). DM reduction of tear secretion\\u000a was prevented

  7. Current knowledge on exocrine glands in carabid beetles: structure, function and chemical compounds

    PubMed Central

    Giglio, Anita; Brandmayr, Pietro; Talarico, Federica; Brandmayr, Tullia Zetto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Many exocrine products used by ground beetles are pheromones and allomones that regulate intra- and interspecific interactions and contribute to their success in terrestrial ecosystems. This mini-review attempts to unify major themes related to the exocrine glands of carabid beetles. Here we report on both glandular structures and the role of secretions in carabid adults, and that little information is available on the ecological significance of glandular secretions in pre-imaginal stages. PMID:21738412

  8. Differentiation of immortalized epithelial cells derived from cystic fibrosis airway submucosal glands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P. CHOPRA; L. Reddy; S. K. Gupta; L. Wan; P. A. Mathieu; R. L. Shoemaker; J. S. Rhim

    1994-01-01

    Summary  Cystic fibrosis (CF) involves abnormalities in mucus production and secretion of the airway. Studies of the regulation of\\u000a airway mucin production and secretion has been difficult due to the lack of in vitro models of the airway epithelial cells\\u000a which express functional differentiation. Because the majority of the mucin in the airway is apparently produced by the submucosal\\u000a glands, we

  9. Endometrial glands as a source of nutrients, growth factors and cytokines during the first trimester of human pregnancy: A morphological and immunohistochemical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanne Hempstock; Tereza Cindrova-Davies; Eric Jauniaux; Graham J Burton

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The maternal circulation to the human placenta is not fully established until 10–12 weeks of pregnancy. During the first trimester the intervillous space is filled by a clear fluid, in part derived from secretions from the endometrial glands via openings in the basal plate. The aim was to determine the activity of the glands throughout the first trimester, and

  10. Transvenous Catheter Ablation of a Posteroseptal Accessory Pathway in a Patient with Coexistent Posteroseptal and Right-Sided Accessory Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ding-Jiu, Huang; Run-Fen, Chen; Dao-Sheng, Zheng; Ming-Xin, Huang; Morady, Fred

    1988-01-01

    Transvenous catheter ablation techniques have recently been used successfully in blocking posteroseptal accessory pathways in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPWS). We report the case of a patient in the People's Republic of China who had WPWS and posteroseptal and right anterolateral accessory pathways, and who had failed to respond to conventional antiarrhythmic drug therapy. The posteroseptal accessory pathway was ablated successfully. During 23 months of follow-up there were no complications; this led us to conclude that this technique can be used to achieve successful long-term ablation of this accessory pathway. This technique obviates the need for drug therapy and direct surgical ablation; it offers, as well, the advantages of shorter hospitalization, lower cost, a much shorter convalescence, and less discomfort to the patient. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1988;15:61-64) PMID:15227283

  11. Peculiar salivary glands in a silk-producing mite Bakericheyla chanayi (Cheyletidae).

    PubMed

    Filimonova, Svetlana A; Amosova, Ludmila I

    2015-07-01

    This is the first ultrastructural investigation of salivary glands in the family Cheyletidae. In both sexes of Bakericheyla chanayi, paired acinous salivary glands and tubular coxal glands were shown to be united into the common podocephalic system. The secretory portion of the salivary gland includes medial and lateral lobes composed of the five and two cells, respectively, with clearly distinct ultrastructure. The cytoplasm of the cells is occupied by the secretory granules containing fine fibrous material. The fine structure of both cell types suggest a proteinaceous nature of their secretions. A single central process extending from the apical face of each secretory cell passes through the common acinar cavity to enter the conducting duct. A pair of intercalary cells at the base of the conducting duct links it with the secretory portion of the gland. Extending towards the acinar cavity, protrusions of intercalary cells alternate the apical regions of the secretory cells and form with them highly-specialized contacts characterized by the apical network of microtubules and microfilaments. Two possible ways of secretion are suggested: 1) exocytosis into the acinar cavity and 2) direct passage via the central processes. The detection of axon profiles in the gland body suggests a neural control for the glandular cell function. In tritonymphs, neither secretion nor large lateral lobe cells were observed up to the pharate stage when the lateral lobe undergoes rapid differentiation. The arrangement of the acinous gland is compared to that of other arthropods. Its composition appears to be close to the class three of insect glands. The involvement of the lateral lobe cells in silk production is discussed. J. Morphol. 276:772-786, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25704005

  12. Comparative transcriptome analysis of developmental stages of the Limonium bicolor leaf generates insights into salt gland differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fang; Lyu, Ming-Ju Amy; Leng, Bing-Ying; Zheng, Guang-Yong; Feng, Zhong-Tao; Li, Ping-Hua; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Wang, Bao-Shan

    2015-08-01

    With the expansion of saline land worldwide, it is essential to establish a model halophyte to study the salt-tolerance mechanism. The salt glands in the epidermis of Limonium bicolor (a recretohalophyte) play a pivotal role in salt tolerance by secreting excess salts from tissues. Despite the importance of salt secretion, nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms of salt gland development. In this study, we applied RNA sequencing to profile early leaf development using five distinct developmental stages, which were quantified by successive collections of the first true leaves of L.?bicolor with precise spatial and temporal resolution. Specific gene expression patterns were identified for each developmental stage. In particular, we found that genes controlling salt gland differentiation in L.?bicolor may evolve in a trichome formation, which was also confirmed by mutants with increased salt gland densities. Genes involved in the special ultrastructure of salt glands were also elucidated. Twenty-six genes were proposed to participate in salt gland differentiation. Our dataset sheds light on the molecular processes underpinning salt gland development and thus represents a first step towards the bioengineering of active salt-secretion capacity in crops. PMID:25651944

  13. The fine structure of colleterial glands in two cockroaches and three termites, including a detailed study of Cryptocercus punctulatus (Blattaria, Cryptocercidae) and Mastotermes darwiniensis (Isoptera, Mastotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Courrent, Annie; Quennedey, André; Nalepa, Christine A; Robert, Alain; Lenz, Michael; Bordereau, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The colleterial glands of insects are organs associated with the female genital apparatus. In cockroaches, these glands produce secretions that cover two parallel rows of eggs during oviposition, and in oviparous species, these secretions become the tanned, sculpted, rigid outer casing of the ootheca. The goal of this study was to compare the gross anatomy of the colleterial glands and the ultrastructure of their component tubules in the phylogenetically significant genera Cryptocercus (Blattaria) and Mastotermes (Isoptera). Recent studies indicate that cockroaches in the genus Cryptocercus are the sister group of termites, and Mastotermes is the only termite known to produce a cockroach-like ootheca. One additional oviparous cockroach, Therea, and two additional termites, Zootermopsis and Pseudacanthotermes, were also examined. As in other cockroaches, the colleterial glands of Cryptocercus and Therea are asymmetrical, with a well developed bipartite left gland and a smaller right gland. In the termites Mastotermes, Zootermopsis, and Pseudacanthotermes, the colleterial glands are composed of a well-developed, paired, anterior gland and a small posterior gland; histological staining and cytological evidence suggest that these are homologues of the left and the right colleterial glands of cockroaches, respectively. At the ultrastructural level, colleterial gland tubules are made of cells belonging to a modified class 1 type cell in the cockroaches, in Mastotermes, and in Zootermopsis; the latter lays its eggs singly, without a surrounding ootheca-like structure. In the advanced termite Pseudacanthotermes, the tubules are made of secretory units belonging to the class 3 cell type. This study demonstrates that the cytological characteristics of colleterial glands in basal termites are similar to those of cockroaches, whether the termite secretes an oothecal casing that covers two parallel rows of eggs, as in Mastotermes, or lays its eggs singly, as in Zootermopsis. The function of colleterial glands in non-mastotermitid termites is unknown. PMID:18089127

  14. Renaissance Secrets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Developed as part of a partnership between the Open University and the BBC, the Renaissance Secrets (based in part on a television series) addresses four different historical questions dealing with various aspects of the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance, along with providing helpful material on the practice and art of writing about and understanding history. The four topics include a discussion of the many faces of Venice during the Renaissance, medical care and hospitals during the Renaissance, the conspiracy to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I, and Johannes Gutenberg. Within each of these four topic areas, visitors can read short thematic essays about related topics and find out more about the evidence and historical knowledge that informs each related topic. By doing so, visitors (particularly students) will be able to better understand how historians "do" history. Finally, from the site's home page, visitors can also read essays from practicing historians about their own work and how they begin to collect evidence and interpret the past.

  15. MiR-486 Regulates Lactation and Targets the PTEN Gene in Cow Mammary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Xie, Xuejiao; Wang, Jie; Bian, Yanjie; Li, Qingzhang; Gao, Xuejun; Wang, Chunmei

    2015-01-01

    Mammary gland development is controlled by several genes. Although miRNAs have been implicated in mammary gland function, the mechanism by which miR-486 regulates mammary gland development and lactation remains unclear. We investigated miR-486 expression in cow mammary gland using qRT-PCR and ISH and show that miR-486 expression was higher during the high-quality lactation period. We found that miR-486 targets phosphoinositide signaling in the cow mammary gland by directly downregulating PTEN gene expression and by altering the expression of downstream genes that are important for the function of the mammary gland, such as AKT, mTOR. We analyzed the effect of ?-casein, lactose and triglyceride secretion in bovine mammary gland epithelial cells (BMECs) transfected by an inhibitor and by mimics of miR-486. Our results identify miR-486 as a downstream regulator of PTEN that is required for the development of the cow mammary gland. PMID:25738494

  16. Intervention of D-glucose ameliorates the toxicity of streptozotocin in accessory sex organs of rat

    SciTech Connect

    Vikram, A.; Tripathi, D.N.; Ramarao, P. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab-160062 (India); Jena, G.B. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab-160062 (India)], E-mail: gbjena@gmail.com

    2008-01-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ) is a naturally occurring compound isolated from Streptomyces achromogens. It is used extensively for inducing diabetes in experimental animals. Diabetes mellitus is known to have proven adverse effects on male sexual organs and their reproductive functions. The atrophy of prostate gland and other organs of the genitourinary tract were observed in experimental diabetic animals. STZ exhibits a structural resemblance to D-glucose due to the presence of sugar moiety in its structure. Pancreatic {beta}-cells mainly contain GLUT1 and GLUT2 glucose transporters. Possibly due to structural resemblance, STZ and D-glucose, share a common recognition site for entry into the {beta}-cells. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of D-glucose on STZ-induced toxicity in accessory sex organs of male rats. Animals were kept on overnight fasting. One group received vehicle and served as negative control, while all other groups were given STZ (45 mg/kg). Animals that received only STZ served as positive control. The effect of D-glucose was studied on STZ treated animals with different dosage of D-glucose (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg). Restoration of body weight, plasma glucose and plasma insulin was evident only at 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of D-glucose. The protective effect of D-glucose is evident only when it is administered simultaneously with STZ. In the present investigation, we report that simultaneous administration of D-glucose along with STZ ameliorates STZ-induced toxicity. This is evident from the restoration of accessory sex organ's weight, cellular morphology as well as insulin level.

  17. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  18. Submucosal Glands and Airway Defense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey J. Wine; Nam Soo Joo

    2004-01-01

    Most airway mucus is produced by submucosal glands in response to neural signals. Gland mucus traps microbes, inhibits their replica- tion, and clears them from the airways. In cystic fibrosis mucus clearance is compromised, allowing pathogens to persist in static mucus. These trigger an influx of inflammatory cells, but optimal effectiveness of inflammation, and especially its resolution, also requires effective

  19. THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE WAX GLAND OF THE HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.)

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE WAX GLAND OF THE HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA L.) Malcolin T. SANFORD Alfred wax secreting worker honey bee. The investigation showed that the cuticle is penetrated by bundles is a common phenomenon in insects. The honey bee, in addition to this protec- tive layer, also produces wax

  20. Virilizing lipoadenoma of the adrenal gland in a pre-pubertal girl: A rare case

    PubMed Central

    Mylarappa, Prasad; Pathade, Amey; Javali, Tarun; Ramesh, D.

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 12-year-old girl who presented with the history of hirsutism. On evaluation, she was found to have testosterone secreting adrenal gland tumor. Histopathological examination of the adrenalectomy specimen revealed a lipoadenoma. PMID:24744524

  1. Innervation and Vasculature of Human Sweat Glands: An lmmunohistochemistry-Laser Scanning Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Ft; Gwen Wendelschafer-Crabb; T. Clark Brelje

    Secreting tubules, nerves fibers, and blood vessels in human sweat glands (SGs) were fluorescently stained by immu- nohistochemical and lectin methods for examination with a laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM). Using these techniques, the three-dimensional distribution of up to three substances within a single specimen was investigated by collecting a series of optical sections for each of three fluo- rophores.

  2. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Swati Pradhan

    2010-01-01

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal

  3. X-ray microanalysis of exocrine glands in animal models for cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, R.M.R.; Roomans, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Elemental distribution and ultrastructure of the submandibular gland, the parotid gland and the pancreas were investigated in three suggested animal models of the disease cystic fibrosis: the chronically reserpinized rat, the chronically isoproterenol-treated rat, and the chronically pilocarpine-treated rat. To elucidate the cellular mechanism underlying the effects of these treatments, chronic effects of specific alpha - and beta -adrenergic agonists, as well as acute effects of reserpine and various agonists were also investigated. Reserpine, isoproterenol, and pilocarpine cause an increase in the calcium concentration in submandibular gland acinar cells, due to an increased calcium content of the intracellular mucus. In the parotid gland, reserpine and isoproterenol cause a decrease of the calcium concentration in acinar cells, due to a lower calcium content of the zymogen granules. In the submandibular gland, a decreased cellular Na concentration was noted after chronic treatment with isoproterenol or pilocarpine, and after a single dose of reserpine or isoproterenol. Ultrastructural changes in the exocrine glands investigated included excessive accumulation of intracellular secretory material and formation of abnormal uncondensed secretion granules. A common pattern in the animal models appears to be (1) inhibition of secretion resulting in intracellular accumulation of secretory material, (2) synthesis of secretory macromolecules with altered cation-binding properties.

  4. Dynamic Interaction between the CpxA Sensor Kinase and the Periplasmic Accessory Protein CpxP Mediates Signal Recognition in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Tschauner, Karolin; Hörnschemeyer, Patrick; Müller, Volker Steffen; Hunke, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Two-component systems, consisting of an inner membrane sensor kinase and a cytosolic response regulator, allow bacteria to respond to changes in the environment. Some two-component systems are additionally orchestrated by an accessory protein that integrates additional signals. It is assumed that spatial and temporal interaction between an accessory protein and a sensor kinase modifies the activity of a two-component system. However, for most accessory proteins located in the bacterial envelope the mechanistic details remain unclear. Here, we analyzed the interaction between the periplasmic accessory protein CpxP and the sensor kinase CpxA in Escherichia coli in dependency of three specific stimuli. The Cpx two-component system responds to envelope stress and plays a pivotal role for the quality control of multisubunit envelope structures, including type three secretion systems and pili of different pathogens. In unstressed cells, CpxP shuts off the Cpx response by a yet unknown mechanism. We show for the first time the physical interaction between CpxP and CpxA in unstressed cells using bacterial two-hybrid system and membrane-Strep-tagged protein interaction experiments. In addition, we demonstrate that a high salt concentration and the misfolded pilus subunit PapE displace CpxP from the sensor kinase CpxA in vivo. Overall, this study provides clear evidence that CpxP modulates the activity of the Cpx system by dynamic interaction with CpxA in response to specific stresses. PMID:25207645

  5. Virgin queen mandibular gland signals of Apis mellifera capensis change with age and affect honeybee worker responses.

    PubMed

    Wossler, Theresa C; Jones, Georgina E; Allsopp, Michael H; Hepburn, Randall

    2006-05-01

    The mandibular gland secretions of Apis mellifera capensis virgin queens were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Changes in the patterns of the mandibular gland volatiles of A. m. capensis virgin queens were followed from emergence until 14-d old. Ontogenetic changes in the mandibular gland secretions were largely quantitative in nature, delineating the age categories (global R = 0.612, P = 0.001), except for 7- and 14-d-old queens, which cannot be separated on their mandibular gland profiles (P = 0.2). (E)-9-Oxodec-2-enoic acid (9ODA) contributes most and most consistently to the dissimilarity between groups as well as the similarity within groups. Worker reactions to introduced virgin queens of various ages were recorded. Workers showed a significant increase in hostile reactions as queens aged (r = 0.615, N = 20, P < 0.05). Consequently, worker reactions and relative 9ODA production exhibit a positive queen age-dependent response. PMID:16739022

  6. Establishment of functional acinar-like cultures from human salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Jang, S I; Ong, H L; Gallo, A; Liu, X; Illei, G; Alevizos, I

    2015-02-01

    Disorders of human salivary glands resulting from therapeutic radiation treatment for head and neck cancers or from the autoimmune disease Sjögren syndrome (SS) frequently result in the reduction or complete loss of saliva secretion. Such irreversible dysfunction of the salivary glands is due to the impairment of acinar cells, the major glandular cells of protein, salt secretion, and fluid movement. Availability of primary epithelial cells from human salivary gland tissue is critical for studying the underlying mechanisms of these irreversible disorders. We applied 2 culture system techniques on human minor salivary gland epithelial cells (phmSG) and optimized the growth conditions to achieve the maintenance of phmSG in an acinar-like phenotype. These phmSG cells exhibited progenitor cell markers (keratin 5 and nanog) as well as acinar-specific markers-namely, ?-amylase, cystatin C, TMEM16A, and NKCC1. Importantly, with an increase of the calcium concentration in the growth medium, these phmSG cells were further promoted to acinar-like cells in vitro, as indicated by an increase in AQP5 expression. In addition, these phmSG cells also demonstrated functional calcium mobilization, formation of epithelial monolayer with high transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), and polarized secretion of ?-amylase secretion after ?-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Taken together, suitable growth conditions have been established to isolate and support culture of acinar-like cells from the human salivary gland. These primary epithelial cells can be useful for study of molecular mechanisms involved in regulating the function of acinar cells and in the loss of salivary gland function in patients. PMID:25416669

  7. Continuous Intraoperative Neuromonitoring (C-IONM) Technique with the Automatic Periodic Stimulating (APS) Accessory for Conventional and Endoscopic Thyroid Surgery.

    PubMed

    Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Hui, Sun; Wu, Chei-Wei; Xiaoli, Liu; Ferrari, Cesare Carlo; Mangano, Alberto; Lianos, Georgios D; Leotta, Andrea; Lavazza, Matteo; Frattini, Francesco; Annoni, Matteo; Rausei, Stefano; Boni, Luigi; Kim, Hoon Yub

    2015-05-01

    One of the most important trends in intraoperative neural monitoring (IONM) in thyroid surgery is currently the real-time monitoring of the vagus nerve (VN) in order to prevent recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) iatrogenic damages. Notably, continuous intraoperative neuromonitoring (C-IONM) seems to be superior to intermitted intraoperative neural monitoring (I-IONM) because it enhances standardization by permanent vagus nerve (VN) stimulation, and it provides entire and constant RLN function monitoring as the surgeon dissects and removes the thyroid gland. It also has to be highlighted that the surgical maneuvers for the automatic periodic stimulating (APS) placement must be accurate and standardized in order to avoid a potential iatrogenic morbidity on the VN function. We recommend the experienced surgeon be very careful in each step, with cautious dissection. With this review article we provide a comprehensive analyses of C-IONM technique with the APS accessory for conventional and endoscopic thyroid surgery. PMID:26054997

  8. Pathophysiology of rhinitis. Lactoferrin and lysozyme in nasal secretions.

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, G D; Jeney, E V; Baraniuk, J N; Kim, I; Meredith, S D; Kaliner, M A

    1989-01-01

    The antimicrobial proteins lactoferrin (Lf) and lysozyme (Ly) are invariably found in nasal secretions. To investigate the cellular sources and the secretory control of these nasal proteins in vivo, 34 adult subjects underwent nasal provocation tests with methacholine (MC), histamine (H), and gustatory stimuli. Nasal lavages were collected and analyzed for total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), Lf, and Ly. MC (25 mg), H (1 mg), and gustatory stimuli (spicy foods) all increased the concentrations of TP, Alb, Lf, and Ly. However, when each protein was assessed as a percentage of TP (i.e., Alb% = Alb/TP; Lf% = Lf/TP; Ly% = Ly/TP), MC and gustatory stimuli, which both induce glandular secretion, selectively augmented Lf% and Ly% without changing Alb%, while H, which primarily increases vascular permeability, increased Alb% without significantly affecting Lf% or Ly%. Gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis of nasal secretions demonstrated both Lf and Ly in cholinergically induced secretions. Furthermore, histochemical analyses of nasal turbinate tissue revealed Lf and Ly colocalization within the serous cells of submucosal glands, providing evidence that both proteins are strictly glandular products within the nasal mucosa. Therefore, both Lf and Ly are produced and secreted from the glands, and their secretion may be pharmacologically regulated in attempts to improve host defenses. Images PMID:2681268

  9. A gastric acid secretion model.

    PubMed Central

    de Beus, A M; Fabry, T L; Lacker, H M

    1993-01-01

    A theory of gastric acid production and self-protection is formulated mathematically and examined for clinical and experimental correlations, implications, and predictions using analytic and numerical techniques. In our model, gastric acid secretion in the stomach, as represented by an archetypal gastron, consists of two chambers, circulatory and luminal, connected by two different regions of ion exchange. The capillary circulation of the gastric mucosa is arranged in arterial-venous arcades which pass from the gastric glands up to the surface epithelial lining of the lumen; therefore the upstream region of the capillary chamber communicates with oxyntic cells, while the downstream region communicates with epithelial cells. Both cell types abut the gastric lumen. Ion currents across the upstream region are calculated from a steady-state oxyntic cell model with active ion transport, while the downstream ion fluxes are (facilitated) diffusion driven or secondarily active. Water transport is considered iso-osmotic. The steady-state model is solved in closed form for low gastric lumen pH. A wide variety of previously performed static and dynamic experiments on ion and CO2 transport in the gastric lumen and gastric blood supply are for the first time correlated with each other for an (at least) semiquantitative test of current concepts of gastric acid secretion and for the purpose of model verification. Agreement with the data is reported with a few outstanding and instructive exceptions. Model predictions and implications are also discussed. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8396457

  10. Immunolocalization and distribution of functional temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Sobhan, Ubaidus; Sato, Masaki; Shinomiya, Takashi; Okubo, Migiwa; Tsumura, Maki; Muramatsu, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Mitsuru; Tazaki, Masakazu; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki

    2013-11-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels are unique cellular sensors involved in multiple cellular functions. Their role in salivary secretion remains to be elucidated. The expression and localization of temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary (submandibular, sublingual and parotid) glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The effects of various TRP channel agonists on carbachol (CCh)-induced salivary secretion in the submandibular gland and on the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in a submandibular epithelial cell line were also investigated. Immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of TRP-melastatin subfamily member 8 (TRPM8) and TRP-ankyrin subfamily member 1 (TRPA1) in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in the sublingual, submandibular and parotid glands. In addition, TRP-vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), TRPV3 and TRPV4 were also expressed in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in all three types of gland. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR results demonstrated the mRNA expression of TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPM8 and TRPA1 in acinar and ductal cells in these salivary glands. Perfusion of the entire submandibular gland with the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (1 ?M) via the submandibular artery significantly increased CCh-induced salivation, whereas perfusion with TRPM8 and TRPA1 agonists (0.5 ?M WS12 and 100 ?M allyl isothiocyanate) decreased it. Application of agonists for each of the thermosensitive TRP channels increased [Ca(2+)]i in a submandibular epithelial cell line. These results indicate that temperature-sensitive TRP channels are localized and distributed in acinar, ductal and myoepithelial cells in salivary glands and that they play a functional role in the regulation and/or modulation of salivary secretion. PMID:23942896

  11. Sweat gland function of the donkey (Equus asinus)

    PubMed Central

    Robertshaw, D.; Taylor, C. R.

    1969-01-01

    1. Donkeys sweat on exposure to heat and in response to intravenous adrenaline infusion. 2. Thermal sweating was abolished by the adrenergic-neurone blocking agent bethanidine but not by atropine. 3. Sympathetic decentralization (by preganglionic sympathectomy) abolished thermal sweating but adreno-medullary denervation had no effect. 4. Exercise resulted in sweating from both sympathetically innervated and decentralized skin and from the innervated skin of animals which had previously undergone adreno-medullary denervation. 5. Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia resulted in sweating from sympathetically decentralized skin and from innervated skin in two out of four animals. Adreno-medullary denervation abolished the sweat gland response to insulin administration. 6. Cold exposure inhibited the response of innervated sweat glands but not that of decentralized glands to adrenaline infusion. 7. It was concluded that heat-induced and exercise-induced sweating of the donkey is controlled by adrenergic nerves; adreno-medullary secretion may contribute to sweating during exercise, and that cutaneous blood flow is important in the response of the glands to humoral stimulation. PMID:5347721

  12. Tuft calcium spikes in accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells.

    PubMed

    Urban, Nathaniel N; Castro, Jason B

    2005-05-18

    The mammalian accessory olfactory system is critical for the detection and identification of pheromones and the representation of complex stimuli including sex, genetic relatedness, and individual identity. Mitral cells, the principal cells of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), receive monosynaptic input from the sensory periphery and already show highly specific response properties, firing selectively for combinations of genetic markers and gender-specific cues. Vomeronasal sensory neuron axons form synapses onto distal tuft-like branches of mitral cell primary dendrites. We have studied dendritic excitability and synaptic integration in AOB mitral cell dendrites, and we show that dendrites of accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells support action potential propagation and can fire regenerative spike-like events that are likely to contribute to the integration of inputs to these cells. These tuft spikes may be important for the specificity of AOB mitral cell responses. PMID:15901783

  13. Tuft Calcium Spikes in Accessory Olfactory Bulb Mitral Cells

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Nathaniel N.; Castro, Jason B.

    2005-01-01

    The mammalian accessory olfactory system is critical for the detection and identification of pheromones and the representation of complex stimuli including sex, genetic relatedness, and individual identity. Mitral cells, the principal cells of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), receive monosynaptic input from the sensory periphery and already show highly specific response properties, firing selectively for combinations of genetic markers and gender-specific cues. Vomeronasal sensory neuron axons form synapses onto distal tuft-like branches of mitral cell primary dendrites. We have studied dendritic excitability and synaptic integration in AOB mitral cell dendrites, and we show that dendrites of accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells support action potential propagation and can fire regenerative spike-like events that are likely to contribute to the integration of inputs to these cells. These tuft spikes may be important for the specificity of AOB mitral cell responses. PMID:15901783

  14. Experimental evidence that oral secretions of northwestern ring-necked snakes ( Diadophis punctatus occidentalis) are toxic to their prey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan P. O’Donnell; Kevin Staniland; Robert T. Mason

    2007-01-01

    Ring-necked snakes (Diadophis punctatus) are suspected of being venomous because their Duvernoy's gland secretions have high levels of phospholipase activity, which is characteristic of many viperid and elapid venoms, and because anecdotal reports of feeding behavior are consistent with the use of a venom. We tested the toxicity of northwestern ring-necked snake oral secretions to a natural prey species, northwestern

  15. A giant serous cystadenoma developing in an accessory ovary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhyittin Temiz; Ahmet Aslan; Arif Gungoren; Güvenç Diner; Sinem Karazincir

    2008-01-01

    Background  Accessory ovaries are rare anomalies and cysts arising from accessory ovaries are extremely rare. Their reported incidence\\u000a is 1\\/29,000–1\\/700,000. Establishing the diagnosis preoperatively is difficult. Radiologic methods are usually inadequate in\\u000a recognizing the origin of these tumors. Thus, they are usually confused with other intraabdominal tumors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case  A 22-year-old nulliparous girl presented with abdominal pain and tumoral growth for 1.5 years. Abdominal

  16. Osteochondrosis of the accessory ossification centre of the medial malleolus.

    PubMed

    Farsetti, Pasquale; Dragoni, Massimiliano; Potenza, Vito; Caterini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a painful accessory ossification centre of the medial malleolus in an 11-year-old girl who was not involved in sports activities. The patient was treated conservatively, with complete clinical and radiographic healing of the medial malleolus 6 months after the first presentation. We ruled out the uncommon pathological conditions causing chronic pain in the medial malleolus during skeletal growth, such as traction apophysitis of the medial malleolus, osteochondrosis, osteochondritis or avascular necrosis of the distal tibial epiphysis. We speculate that this painful condition may be classified as an osteochondrosis of the accessory ossification centre of the medial malleolus. PMID:25438106

  17. Irradiation induced salivary gland neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Sener, S.F.; Scanlon, E.F.

    1980-03-01

    Twenty-six patients with a prior history of irradiation for benign conditions of the head and neck and salivary gland abnormalities are reported. All the patients had preoperative physical findings suggestive of tumor, not glandular infection. Forty-six per cent of the patients had one carcinoma and 11% had two carcinomas within the irradiated field. Eight of the 11 malignant tumors in these 26 patients were in the parotid gland. The nonmalignant salivary changes were similar to those previously reported in glands receiving therapeutic irradiation for carcinoma.

  18. 6035 Hg(Ar) Lamp in 6058 Fiber Optic Accessory. Pencil Style Calibration Lamps

    E-print Network

    Woodall, Jerry M.

    6035 Hg(Ar) Lamp in 6058 Fiber Optic Accessory. Pencil Style Calibration Lamps Compact and simple, and spectral radiometers. We also offer a full range of accessories, from mounts and holders, to fiber optic

  19. 41 CFR 101-39.304 - Modification or installation of accessory equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles § 101-39...installation of accessory equipment. The modification of a GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicle...installation of accessory equipment on these...

  20. 41 CFR 101-39.304 - Modification or installation of accessory equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles § 101-39...installation of accessory equipment. The modification of a GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicle...installation of accessory equipment on these...

  1. 41 CFR 101-39.304 - Modification or installation of accessory equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles § 101-39...installation of accessory equipment. The modification of a GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicle...installation of accessory equipment on these...

  2. 41 CFR 101-39.304 - Modification or installation of accessory equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles § 101-39...installation of accessory equipment. The modification of a GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicle...installation of accessory equipment on these...

  3. 41 CFR 101-39.304 - Modification or installation of accessory equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...GSA Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles § 101-39...installation of accessory equipment. The modification of a GSA Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicle...installation of accessory equipment on these...

  4. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of gametes or embryos. Variations of microscopes and accessories used for these purposes would include phase contrast microscopes, dissecting...

  5. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of gametes or embryos. Variations of microscopes and accessories used for these purposes would include phase contrast microscopes, dissecting...

  6. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of gametes or embryos. Variations of microscopes and accessories used for these purposes would include phase contrast microscopes, dissecting...

  7. 21 CFR 884.4150 - Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories...Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4150 Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories. (a) Identification. A bipolar endoscopic...

  8. 21 CFR 884.4150 - Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories...Gynecological Surgical Devices § 884.4150 Bipolar endoscopic coagulator-cutter and accessories. (a) Identification. A bipolar endoscopic...

  9. 77 FR 67261 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Forward Crosstube...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ...Directives; Aeronautical Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Forward Crosstube...directive (AD) for Aeronautical Accessories, Inc. (AAI) high landing gear forward crosstube...AB412EP; and Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. (Bell) Model 205A, 205A-1,...

  10. 77 FR 37768 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ...Directives; Aeronautical Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly...AD) for the Aeronautical Accessories, Inc. (AAI), High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube...installed on certain Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. (Bell) and Agusta S.p.A....

  11. The innervation of salivary glands as revealed by morphological methods.

    PubMed

    Garrett, J R; Kidd, A

    1993-09-01

    Salivary secretion is nerve mediated. The salivary glands are supplied by parasympathetic and sympathetic efferent nerves which travel to the glands by separate routes. Once in the glands the axons from each type of nerve intermingle and travel together in association with Schwann cells, forming Schwann-axon bundles. Two types of neuro-effector relationships exist with salivary parenchymal and myoepithelial cells: epilemmal (outside the parenchymal basement membrane) and hypolemmal (within the parenchymal basement membrane). Their relative frequencies with either type of nerve differ greatly between glands and species. Salivary blood vessels receive epilemmal innervations by both sympathetic and parasympathetic axons. The classical transmitters--acetylcholine in parasympathetic and noradrenaline in sympathetic axons--are stored in small vesicles. A variety of non-conventional neuropeptide transmitters have also been found in salivary nerves by immunohistochemistry, and they occur in large dense-cored vesicles. Prolonged high frequency stimulation has been found to cause depletion of large dense-cored vesicles from glandular nerves. In recent years afferent nerves have started to be identified and are found in greatest numbers around the main salivary ducts, where they may form a hypolemmal association with the epithelial cells. Functional studies demonstrate complex interactions between parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves. Morphological assessments of changes in the parenchymal cells after nerve stimulations or denervations add greatly to our understanding of the nerve functions. At least four types of influence can be exerted on salivary parenchymal cells by the nerves: hydrokinetic (water mobilizing), proteokinetic (protein secreting), synthetic (inducing synthesis), and trophic (maintaining normal functional size and state). In respect to each role, wide glandular and species differences exist between the relative contributions made by each type of nerve. PMID:8219376

  12. Dopaminergic neurons in the brain and dopaminergic innervation of the albumen gland in mated and virgin helisoma duryi (mollusca: pulmonata)

    PubMed Central

    Kiehn, Lana; Saleuddin, Saber; Lange, Angela

    2001-01-01

    Background Dopamine was shown to stimulate the perivitelline fluid secretion by the albumen gland. Even though the albumen gland has been shown to contain catecholaminergic fibers and its innervation has been studied, the type of catecholamines, distribution of fibers and the precise source of this neural innervation has not yet been deduced. This study was designed to address these issues and examine the correlation between dopamine concentration and the sexual status of snails. Results Dopaminergic neurons were found in all ganglia except the pleural and right parietal, and their axons in all ganglia and major nerves of the brain. In the albumen gland dopaminergic axons formed a nerve tract in the central region, and a uniform net in other areas. Neuronal cell bodies were present in the vicinity of the axons. Dopamine was a major catecholamine in the brain and the albumen gland. No significant difference in dopamine quantity was found when the brain and the albumen gland of randomly mating, virgin and first time mated snails were compared. Conclusions Our results represent the first detailed studies regarding the catecholamine innervation and quantitation of neurotransmitters in the albumen gland. In this study we localized catecholaminergic neurons and axons in the albumen gland and the brain, identified these neurons and axons as dopaminergic, reported monoamines present in the albumen gland and the brain, and compared the dopamine content in the brain and the albumen gland of randomly mating, virgin and first time mated snails. PMID:11513757

  13. Analysis of milk gland structure and function in Glossina morsitans: Milk protein production, symbiont populations and fecundity

    PubMed Central

    Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Lohs, Claudia; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Alam, Uzma H.; Yildirim, Suleyman; Aksoy, Serap

    2008-01-01

    A key process in the tsetse reproductive cycle is the transfer of essential nutrients and bacterial symbionts from mother to intrauterine offspring. The tissue mediating this transfer is the milk gland. This work focuses upon the localization and function of two milk proteins (milk gland protein (GmmMGP) and transferrin (GmmTsf)) and the tsetse endosymbionts (Sodalis and Wigglesworthia), in the context of milk gland physiology. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemical analysis confirm that the milk gland secretory cells synthesize and secrete milk gland protein and transferrin. Knockdown of gmmmgp by double stranded RNA (dsRNA) mediated RNA interference results in reduction of tsetse fecundity, demonstrating its functional importance in larval nutrition and development. Bacterial species-specific in situ hybridizations of milk gland sections reveal large numbers of Sodalis and Wigglesworthia within the lumen of the milk gland. Sodalis is also localized within the cytoplasm of the secretory cells. Within the lumen, Wigglesworthia localize close to the channels leading to the milk storage reservoir of the milk gland secretory cells. We discuss the significance of the milk gland in larval nutrition and in transmission of symbiotic bacteria to developing offspring. PMID:18647605

  14. Analysis of milk gland structure and function in Glossina morsitans: milk protein production, symbiont populations and fecundity.

    PubMed

    Attardo, Geoffrey M; Lohs, Claudia; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Alam, Uzma H; Yildirim, Suleyman; Aksoy, Serap

    2008-08-01

    A key process in the tsetse reproductive cycle is the transfer of essential nutrients and bacterial symbionts from mother to intrauterine offspring. The tissue mediating this transfer is the milk gland. This work focuses upon the localization and function of two milk proteins (milk gland protein (GmmMGP) and transferrin (GmmTsf)) and the tsetse endosymbionts (Sodalis and Wigglesworthia), in the context of milk gland physiology. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemical analysis confirm that the milk gland secretory cells synthesize and secrete milk gland protein and transferrin. Knockdown of gmmmgp by double stranded RNA (dsRNA) mediated RNA interference results in reduction of tsetse fecundity, demonstrating its functional importance in larval nutrition and development. Bacterial species-specific in situ hybridizations of milk gland sections reveal large numbers of Sodalis and Wigglesworthia within the lumen of the milk gland. Sodalis is also localized within the cytoplasm of the secretory cells. Within the lumen, Wigglesworthia localize close to the channels leading to the milk storage reservoir of the milk gland secretory cells. We discuss the significance of the milk gland in larval nutrition and in transmission of symbiotic bacteria to developing offspring. PMID:18647605

  15. Stages of Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treat some salivary gland tumors . These include: Fast neutron radiation therapy : Fast neutron radiation therapy is a type of high-energy ... radiation therapy machine aims tiny, invisible particles, called neutrons, at the cancer cells to kill them. Fast ...

  16. Sweat Gland Adenocarcinoma of Scalp

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Pragya A; Rathod, Kirti M; Chaudhary, Arvind H; Pilani, Abhishek P

    2013-01-01

    Sweat gland adenocarcinoma is a rare tumor particularly over scalp. They have potential to be benign as well as distant metastasis. Usually presents with papules or nodules. Ulcerative morphology is uncommon. Wide surigical excision with regional lymph not dissection is the treatment of choice. A 42-year-old female with sweat gland adenocarcinoma of scalp is reported with cervical lymph node involvement. PMID:24778534

  17. Liouville theory, {N} = 2 gauge theories and accessory parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Franco; Piatek, Marcin

    2012-05-01

    The correspondence between the semiclassical limit of the DOZZ quantum Liouville theory and the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the {N} = 2 (?-deformed) U(2) super-Yang-Mills theories is used to calculate the unknown accessory parameter of the Fuchsian uniformization of the 4-punctured sphere. The computation is based on the saddle point method. This allows to find an analytic expression for the N f = 4, U(2) instanton twisted superpotential and, in turn, to sum up the 4-point classical block. It is well known that the critical value of the Liouville action functional is the generating function of the accessory parameters. This statement and the factorization property of the 4-point action allow to express the unknown accessory parameter as the derivative of the 4-point classical block with respect to the modular parameter of the 4-punctured sphere. It has been found that this accessory parameter is related to the sum of all rescaled column lengths of the so-called 'critical' Young diagram extremizing the instanton 'free energy'. It is shown that the sum over the 'critical' column lengths can be rewritten in terms of a contour integral in which the integrand is built out of certain special functions closely related to the ordinary Gamma function.

  18. The accessory middle cerebral artery (AMCA). Diagnostic and therapeutic consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abanou; P. Lasjaunias; C. Manelfe; L. Lopez-Ibor

    1984-01-01

    Summary The existence of the accessory middle cerebral artery (AMCA) is a rare anatomical variation with an estimated incidence of 0.31%. The embryological development of this artery is unknown. Three anatomical subtypes are described: in the type 1 variety the AMCA arises from the internal carotid artery; in the type 2, the AMCA originates from the proximal part of the

  19. 21 CFR 872.6010 - Abrasive device and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Abrasive device and accessories. 872...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous...in § 872.9. If the device is not labeled or otherwise...of the quality system regulation in part 820 of this...

  20. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for use in reconstructive oral surgery to drill or cut into the upper or lower jaw and may be used to prepare bone to insert a wire, pin, or screw....

  1. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for use in reconstructive oral surgery to drill or cut into the upper or lower jaw and may be used to prepare bone to insert a wire, pin, or screw....

  2. 21 CFR 872.4120 - Bone cutting instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Identification. A bone cutting instrument and accessories is a metal device intended for use in reconstructive oral surgery to drill or cut into the upper or lower jaw and may be used to prepare bone to insert a wire, pin, or screw....

  3. Conservative management of accessory spleen torsion in children.

    PubMed

    Scirè, G; Zampieri, N; El-Dalati, G; Camoglio, F S

    2013-08-01

    Accessory spleen torsion is very rare condition especially in children. The aim of this study is to report the conservative treatment option. In April 2009 we observed a 10-year-old child affected by hereditary spherocytosis who reported acute abdominal pain without fever or vomiting. At hospitalization all blood tests were within normal value. Abdominal ultrasounds showed an increase in spleen volume and a solid round-shaped hypoechogenic formation with hyperechogenic areas in the lower pole without vascolarisation on color-Doppler scan. These findings suggested torsion of the accessory spleen. We opted for a conservative approach: analgesics on demand and antibiotics. After a week symptoms resolved spontaneously and patient was discharged in good health conditions. Follow-up ultrasound scans were performed at one week, three-six months and one year after hospitalization and showed a progressive reduction of the dimensions of the solid round-shaped formation. Accessory spleen torsion needs to be added to the differential diagnosis of cases of acute abdomen in children. Ultrasounds with eco-color-Doppler scans seem to be the best option for the diagnosis of such condition in the pediatric age since other diagnostic methods are more invasive and require sedation of patients. Once accessory spleen torsion is correctly diagnosed it is possible to opt for its conservative treatment. PMID:24051978

  4. Evolutionary Dynamics of the Accessory Genome of Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    den Bakker, Henk C.; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Griggs, Allison D.; Peters, Joseph E.; Zeng, Qiandong; Young, Sarah K.; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Yandava, Chandri; Hepburn, Theresa A.; Haas, Brian J.; Birren, Bruce W.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne bacterial pathogen, is comprised of four phylogenetic lineages that vary with regard to their serotypes and distribution among sources. In order to characterize lineage-specific genomic diversity within L. monocytogenes, we sequenced the genomes of eight strains from several lineages and serotypes, and characterized the accessory genome, which was hypothesized to contribute to phenotypic differences across lineages. The eight L. monocytogenes genomes sequenced range in size from 2.85–3.14 Mb, encode 2,822–3,187 genes, and include the first publicly available sequenced representatives of serotypes 1/2c, 3a and 4c. Mapping of the distribution of accessory genes revealed two distinct regions of the L. monocytogenes chromosome: an accessory-rich region in the first 65° adjacent to the origin of replication and a more stable region in the remaining 295°. This pattern of genome organization is distinct from that of related bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The accessory genome of all lineages is enriched for cell surface-related genes and phosphotransferase systems, and transcriptional regulators, highlighting the selective pressures faced by contemporary strains from their hosts, other microbes, and their environment. Phylogenetic analysis of O-antigen genes and gene clusters predicts that serotype 4 was ancestral in L. monocytogenes and serotype 1/2 associated gene clusters were putatively introduced through horizontal gene transfer in the ancestral population of L. monocytogenes lineage I and II. PMID:23825666

  5. 49 CFR 192.147 - Flanges and flange accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...a) Each flange or flange accessory (other than cast iron) must meet the minimum requirements of ASME/ANSI B16.5, MSS SP-44, or the equivalent. (b) Each flange assembly must be able to withstand the maximum pressure at which the...

  6. Mesangial cell accessory functions: Mediation by intercellular adhesion molecule-1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel C Brennan; Anthony M Jevnikar; Fumio Takei; Vicki E Reubin-Kelley

    1990-01-01

    Mesangial cell accessory functions: Mediation by intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Mesangial cell (MC) proliferation is an early pathologic alteration characteristic of many forms of immune mediated glomerulonephritis. The intracapillary position, contractile capacity, and production of cytokines and other inflammatory molecules place MC in a pivotal position to initiate, mediate, and direct glomerular damage. We as well as others have noted increased

  7. Interleukin-11 promotes accessory cell-dependent B-cell differentiation in humans.

    PubMed

    Anderson, K C; Morimoto, C; Paul, S R; Chauhan, D; Williams, D; Cochran, M; Barut, B A

    1992-12-01

    Interleukin-11 (IL-11) is a recently described stromal-derived cytokine that supports the growth of an IL-6-dependent murine plasmacytoma line in the presence of antibody to IL-6 and appears to act in a manner similar to IL-6 on hematopoietic stem cells. Because IL-6 is known to promote differentiation of normal human B cells, the role of IL-11 on B-cell differentiation in vitro was characterized. IL-11 does not result in significantly increased DNA synthesis or Ig secretion by purified B cells alone or B cells cultured with Staphylococcus Cowan I, a T-cell-independent B-cell mitogen. In contrast, purified B cells cultured in the presence of pokeweed mitogen (PWM), irradiated T cells, and monocytes show increased DNA synthesis at day 3 and increased IgG and IgM secretion at day 7 of culture; addition of IL-11 further augments Ig secretion without change in DNA synthesis, an effect that can only be partially blocked by monoclonal antibody to IL-6. Similar experiments confirmed that increased IgG secretion was demonstrable when either IL-11 or IL-6 was added to B cells + CD4+/45RA- T cells + monocytes + PWM; in contrast, Ig secretion was low and equivalent when CD4+/45RA+ T cells were cultured with B cells+monocytes+PWM with or without IL-6 or IL-11. Neither IL-6 nor IL-11 could significantly increase phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced DNA synthesis by CD4+/45RA- or CD4+/45RA+ T cells. Although PWM or IL-11 induced IL-6 mRNA expression in both CD4+/45RA- T cells and monocytes, in neither cell did IL-11 increase IL-6 mRNA expression over that noted to PWM alone. These observations support the view that IL-11 promotes differentiation of human B lymphocytes only in the presence of accessory T cells and monocytes and that a minor component of this effect may be through stimulation of IL-6 production by CD4+/45RA- T cells and monocytes. PMID:1450406

  8. Chemical defense in harvestmen (arachnida, opiliones): do benzoquinone secretions deter invertebrate and vertebrate predators?

    PubMed

    Machado, Glauco; Carrera, Patricia C; Pomini, Armando M; Marsaioli, Anita J

    2005-11-01

    Two alkylated 1,4-benzoquinones were identified from the defensive secretion produced by the neotropical harvestman Goniosoma longipes (Gonyleptidae). They were characterized as 2,3-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone and 2-ethyl-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone. We tested the effectiveness of these benzoquinone secretions against several predator types, including invertebrates and vertebrates. Different predators were exposed to the harvestmen's gland secretion or to distilled water in laboratory bioassays. Our results indicate that secretions containing the 1,4-benzoquinones released by G. longipes can be an effective defense against predation, and that the effectiveness of the secretion is dependent on the predator type. The scent gland secretion repelled seven ant species, two species of large wandering spiders, and one frog species, but was not an effective defense against an opossum. Our study also demonstrates that the scent gland secretion of G. longipes can work as a chemical shield preventing the approach of three large predatory ants for at least 10 min. The chemical shield may protect the harvestman against successive attacks of the same ant worker and also allow the harvestman to flee before massive ant recruitment. Our data support the suggestion that chemical defenses may increase survival with some but not all potential predators. This variation in defense effectiveness may result from many interacting factors, including the attack strategy, size, learning ability, and physiology of the predators, as well as the chemical nature of the defensive compounds, type of emission, and amount of effluent released by the prey. PMID:16273426

  9. Precocious Mammary Gland Development in P-Cadherin–deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Radice, Glenn L.; Ferreira-Cornwell, M. Celeste; Robinson, Stephen D.; Rayburn, Helen; Chodosh, Lewis A.; Takeichi, Masatoshi; Hynes, Richard O.

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the functions of P-cadherin in vivo, we have mutated the gene encoding this cell adhesion receptor in mice. In contrast to E- and N-cadherin– deficient mice, mice homozygous for the P-cadherin mutation are viable. Although P-cadherin is expressed at high levels in the placenta, P-cadherin–null females are fertile. P-cadherin expression is localized to the myoepithelial cells surrounding the lumenal epithelial cells of the mammary gland. The role of the myoepithelium as a contractile tissue necessary for milk secretion is clear, but its function in the nonpregnant animal is unknown. The ability of the P-cadherin mutant female to nurse and maintain her litter indicates that the contractile function of the myoepithelium is not dependent on the cell adhesion molecule P-cadherin. The virgin P-cadherin–null females display precocious differentiation of the mammary gland. The alveolar-like buds in virgins resemble the glands of an early pregnant animal morphologically and biochemically (i.e., milk protein synthesis). The P-cadherin mutant mice develop hyperplasia and dysplasia of the mammary epithelium with age. In addition, abnormal lymphocyte infiltration was observed in the mammary glands of the mutant animals. These results indicate that P-cadherin–mediated adhesion and/or signals derived from cell–cell interactions are important determinants in negative growth control in the mammary gland. Furthermore, the loss of P-cadherin from the myoepithelium has uncovered a novel function for this tissue in maintaining the undifferentiated state of the underlying secretory epithelium. PMID:9362520

  10. Localization of the cystogenous glands of Opisthorchis viverrini cercariae.

    PubMed

    Arunsan, Patpicha; Donthaisong, Chalermlap; Suwannatrai, Kulwadee; Prasopdee, Sattrachai; Kulsantiwong, Jutharat; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Boonmars, Thidarut; Welbat, Jariya Umka; Oopachitakul, Songpol; Tesana, Smarn

    2014-03-01

    Opisthorchiasis in northeastern Thailand is an important etiology of cholangiocarcinoma. To form the infectious stage, free swimming cercariae penetrate cyprinid fish, shed their tails, and then secret a cystic substance to cover their larval stage to form metacercariae in the fish body. We determined the location of the cystogenous glands in Opisthorchis viverrini cercariae. The cercariae and metacercariae were obtained from the naturally infected snail host, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos and from cyprinid fish, respectively. The cyst walls of the metacercariae were separated and used to immunize inbred male BALB/c mice to obtain cyst wall antibodies. The general characteristics of the O. viverrini cercariae and metacercariae were studied by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of sections. The location and ultrastructure of the cystogenous glands of cercariae were studied by immunoperoxidase, immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. The structures and organelles of cercariae and metacercariae could be identified, but the cystogenous glands could not be detected in H&E sections. The immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescence sections revealed positive reactions for cystogenous glands predominanted in the lateral part of the cercariae and were clearly seen in the cyst wall of the metacercariae. The ultrastructure of the cystogenous glands contained semitranslucent electron dense oval shaped granules. If interference occurs during the formation of the cysts by fish immune response, the metacercariae may not develop to maturity. It may be easily digested or degraded by human stomach acid and pepsin. This may be an efficient method for control of O. viverrini infection which requires further detailed study. PMID:24968667

  11. In Vitro Growth of Mastitis Associated Streptococci in Bovine Mammary Secretions[1] and [2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Todhunter; K. Larry Smith; P. S. Schoenberger

    1985-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cell-free, fat-free mammary secretions were,tested in vitro for ability to support growth,of,streptococci,associated,with mastitis. Secretions were,obtained,prior to drying off, during the dry period, at calving, and during lactation from four cow,treatment,groups. Treatment,groups were 1) dry cow therapy, 2) dry cow therapy,and,mammary,glands,subjected to induced,inflammation,7 d postdrying- off, 3) no dry cow therapy and no induced inflammation, 4) no dry cow therapy,but,mammary,glands,subjected

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Pure Human Airway Gland Mucus Reveals a Large Component of Protective Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Nam Soo; Evans, Idil Apak T.; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Park, Il-Ho; Engelhardt, John F.; Wine, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Airway submucosal glands contribute to innate immunity and protect the lungs by secreting mucus, which is required for mucociliary clearance and which also contains antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-proteolytic and anti-oxidant proteins. We stimulated glands in tracheal trimmings from three lung donors and collected droplets of uncontaminated mucus as they formed at the gland orifices under an oil layer. We analyzed the mucus using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Analysis identified 5486 peptides and 441 proteins from across the 3 samples (269–319 proteins per subject). We focused on 269 proteins common to at least 2 0f 3 subjects, of which 102 (38%) had protective or innate immunity functions. While many of these have long been known to play such roles, for many others their cellular protective functions have only recently been appreciated in addition to their well-studied biologic functions (e.g. annexins, apolipoproteins, gelsolin, hemoglobin, histones, keratins, and lumican). A minority of the identified proteins are known to be secreted via conventional exocytosis, suggesting that glandular secretion occurs via multiple mechanisms. Two of the observed protective proteins, major vault protein and prohibitin, have not been observed in fluid from human epithelial cultures or in fluid from nasal or bronchoalveolar lavage. Further proteomic analysis of pure gland mucus may help clarify how healthy airways maintain a sterile environment. PMID:25706550

  13. Beta endorphin selectively stimulates aldosterone secretion in hypophysectomized, nephrectomized dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Güllner, H G; Gill, J R

    1983-01-01

    We examined the effects of synthetic human beta-endorphin (beta END) and a stable methionine (Met)-enkephalin analogue on aldosterone and cortisol secretion rates in anesthetized, hypophysectomized, and nephrectomized dogs and compared them to those of (1-39) ACTH. The circulation of the adrenal glands was completely isolated on the arterial and venous sides (Hilton Pouch). The peptides were infused to deliver 3 pmol/min into the aortic "pouch." Blood was collected from the vena caval pouch, which received blood only from the adrenal gland. Secretion rates of aldosterone and cortisol were calculated as the product of adrenal blood flow and venous steroid concentration. Duplicate steroid measurements were obtained during a control period, at 10, 30, and 50 min of peptide infusion and during a postcontrol period. BetaEND increased aldosterone secretion rate from 2.4 +/- 0.5 ng/min (mean +/- SEM) to 3.2 +/- 0.9 ng/ min at 10 min (N.S.), 8.2 +/- 2.5 ng/min (P less than 0.05) at 30 min and 11.0 +/- 3.7 ng/ min (P less than 0.05) at 50 min of infusion. Cortisol secretion rate was not affected by infusion of betaEND. Infusion of the stable Met-enkephalin analogue D-alanine2; Metphenylalanine4, Met(O)-enkephalin-ol or saline alone had no effect on aldosterone or cortisol secretion rates. ACTH infusion increased mean aldosterone secretion rate by approximately 215% and significantly stimulated cortisol secretion rate. These results indicate that beta END selectively stimulates aldosterone secretion with a potency similar to that of an equimolar dose of ACTH. PMID:6294140

  14. Neurotoxin localization to ectodermal gland cells uncovers an alternative mechanism of venom delivery in sea anemones

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Yehu; Genikhovich, Grigory; Gordon, Dalia; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Zenkert, Claudia; Özbek, Suat; Technau, Ulrich; Gurevitz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Jellyfish, hydras, corals and sea anemones (phylum Cnidaria) are known for their venomous stinging cells, nematocytes, used for prey and defence. Here we show, however, that the potent Type I neurotoxin of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, Nv1, is confined to ectodermal gland cells rather than nematocytes. We demonstrate massive Nv1 secretion upon encounter with a crustacean prey. Concomitant discharge of nematocysts probably pierces the prey, expediting toxin penetration. Toxin efficiency in sea water is further demonstrated by the rapid paralysis of fish or crustacean larvae upon application of recombinant Nv1 into their medium. Analysis of other anemone species reveals that in Anthopleura elegantissima, Type I neurotoxins also appear in gland cells, whereas in the common species Anemonia viridis, Type I toxins are localized to both nematocytes and ectodermal gland cells. The nematocyte-based and gland cell-based envenomation mechanisms may reflect substantial differences in the ecology and feeding habits of sea anemone species. Overall, the immunolocalization of neurotoxins to gland cells changes the common view in the literature that sea anemone neurotoxins are produced and delivered only by stinging nematocytes, and raises the possibility that this toxin-secretion mechanism is an ancestral evolutionary state of the venom delivery machinery in sea anemones. PMID:22048953

  15. Chloride secretagogues stimulate inositol phosphate formation in shark rectal gland tubules cultured in suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Ecay, T.W.; Valentich, J.D. (Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Neuroendocrine activation of transepithelial chloride secretion by shark rectal gland cells is associated with increases in cellular cAMP, cGMP, and free calcium concentrations. We report here on the effects of several chloride secretagogues on inositol phosphate formation in cultured rectal gland tubules. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), atriopeptin (AP), and ionomycin increase the total inositol phosphate levels of cultured tubules, as measured by ion exchange chromatography. Forskolin, a potent chloride secretagogue, has no effect on inositol phosphate formation. The uptake of {sup 3}H-myo-inositol into phospholipids is very slow, preventing the detection of increased levels of inositol trisphosphate. However, significant increases in inositol monophosphate (IP1) and inositol biphosphate (IP2) were measured. The time course of VIP- and AP-stimulated IP1 and IP2 formation is similar to the effects of these agents on the short-circuit current responses of rectal gland monolayer cultures. In addition, aluminum fluoride, an artificial activator of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, stimulates IP1 and IP2 formation. We conclude that rectal gland cells contain VIP and AP receptors coupled to the activation of phospholipase C. Coupling may be mediated by G-proteins. Receptor-stimulated increases in inositol phospholipid metabolism is one mechanism leading to increased intracellular free calcium concentrations, an important regulatory event in the activation of transepithelial chloride secretion by shark rectal gland epithelial cells.

  16. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-02

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Anaplastic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

  17. Modulation of Sodium/Iodide Symporter Expression in the Salivary Gland

    PubMed Central

    La Perle, Krista M.D.; Kim, Dong Chul; Hall, Nathan C.; Bobbey, Adam; Shen, Daniel H.; Nagy, Rebecca S.; Wakely, Paul E.; Lehman, Amy; Jarjoura, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Physiologic iodide-uptake, mediated by the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), in the salivary gland confers its susceptibility to radioactive iodine–induced damage following 131I treatment of thyroid cancer. Subsequent quality of life for thyroid cancer survivors can be decreased due to recurrent sialoadenitis and persistent xerostomia. NIS expression at the three principal salivary duct components in various pathological conditions was examined to better our understanding of NIS modulation in the salivary gland. Methods NIS expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in human salivary gland tissue microarrays constructed of normal, inflamed, and neoplastic salivary tissue cores. Cumulative 123I radioactivity reflecting the combination of NIS activity with clearance of saliva secretion in submandibular and parotid salivary glands was evaluated by single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging 24 hours after 123I administration in 50 thyroid cancer patients. Results NIS is highly expressed in the basolateral membranes of the majority of striated ducts, yet weakly expressed in few intercalated and excretory duct cells. The ratio of 123I accumulation between parotid and submandibular glands is 2.38±0.19. However, the corresponding ratio of 123I accumulation normalized by volume of interest is 1.19±0.06. The percentage of NIS-positive striated duct cells in submandibular salivary glands was statistically greater than in parotid salivary glands, suggesting a higher clearance rate of saliva secretion in submandibular salivary glands. NIS expression in striated ducts was heterogeneously decreased or absent in sialoadenitis. Most ductal salivary gland tumors did not express NIS. However, Warthin's tumors of striated duct origin exhibited consistent and intense NIS staining, corresponding with radioactive iodine uptake. Conclusions NIS expression is tightly modulated during the transition of intercalated to striated ducts and striated to excretory ducts in salivary ductal cells. NIS expression in salivary glands is decreased during inflammation and tumor formation. Further investigation may identify molecular targets and/or pharmacologic agents that allow selective inhibition of NIS expression/activity in salivary glands during radioactive iodine treatment. PMID:23441638

  18. Neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotropin secretion in seasonally breeding birds

    PubMed Central

    Ubuka, Takayoshi; Bentley, George E.; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Seasonally breeding birds detect environmental signals, such as light, temperature, food availability, and presence of mates to time reproduction. Hypothalamic neurons integrate external and internal signals, and regulate reproduction by releasing neurohormones to the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland synthesizes and releases gonadotropins which in turn act on the gonads to stimulate gametogenesis and sex steroid secretion. Accordingly, how gonadotropin secretion is controlled by the hypothalamus is key to our understanding of the mechanisms of seasonal reproduction. A hypothalamic neuropeptide, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), activates reproduction by stimulating gonadotropin synthesis and release. Another hypothalamic neuropeptide, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release directly by acting on the pituitary gland or indirectly by decreasing the activity of GnRH neurons. Therefore, the next step to understand seasonal reproduction is to investigate how the activities of GnRH and GnIH neurons in the hypothalamus and their receptors in the pituitary gland are regulated by external and internal signals. It is possible that locally-produced triiodothyronine resulting from the action of type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase on thyroxine stimulates the release of gonadotropins, perhaps by action on GnRH neurons. The function of GnRH neurons is also regulated by transcription of the GnRH gene. Melatonin, a nocturnal hormone, stimulates the synthesis and release of GnIH and GnIH may therefore regulate a daily rhythm of gonadotropin secretion. GnIH may also temporally suppress gonadotropin secretion when environmental conditions are unfavorable. Environmental and social milieus fluctuate seasonally in the wild. Accordingly, complex interactions of various neuronal and hormonal systems need to be considered if we are to understand the mechanisms underlying seasonal reproduction. PMID:23531789

  19. The buccal gland of Lampetra japonica is a source of diverse bioactive proteins.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rong; Pang, Yue; Li, Qing Wei

    2012-05-01

    The parasitic phase lampreys (Lampetra japonica) are bloodsuckers in the marine, and their buccal gland secretion (lamphredin) contains various regulators such as anticoagulants, ion channel blockers, and immune suppressors like those from leeches, insects, ticks, vampire bats, and snakes. This review focuses on the functions and characteristics of the active proteins from the buccal gland of L. japonica for the first time, and provides new insights into the parasitic mechanisms of lampreys and the possibilities of developing drugs such as novel anticoagulants, thrombolytic agents, local anesthetics, and immunosuppressants. PMID:22586701

  20. Polyunsaturated monoglycerides and a pregnadiene in defensive glands of the water beetle Agabus affinis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otmar Schaaf; Konrad Dettner

    2000-01-01

    In addition to the C21 steroid 15?-hydroxypregna-4,6-dien-3,20-dione, four 1- or 2-acylated polyunsaturated monoglycerides, 1- or 2-(cis-5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoyl)-glycerol and 1- or 2-(cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoyl)glycerol were identified as constituents of the prothoracic defensive gland secretion of the\\u000a dytiscid beetle Agabus affinis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of trimethylsilylated gland extracts. In a feeding assay with minnows, synthetic\\u000a samples of the two 2-acylated monoglycerides showed only a

  1. Castor sacs and anal glands of the north american beaver (Castor canadensis): their histology, development, and relationship to scent communication.

    PubMed

    Walro, J M; Svendsen, G E

    1982-05-01

    Both sexes of beavers possess a pair of castor sacs and a pair of anal glands located in paired subcutaneous cavities between the pelvis and the base of the tail. The castor sacs are not glandular in the histological sense, hence references to these structures as preputial glands or castor glands are misnomers. The wall of the castor sacs is plicate and comprised of three distinct zones: an outer layer of vascular connective tissue, a two-to five-cell-thick layer of mitotic epithelial cells, and several densely packed layers of cornified epithelium which grade into more widely separated sheets toward the lumen. Monocultures of a gram-positive facultatively anaerobic bacterium were present in the lumen of all castor sac preparations. Differences in the frequency of castoreum deposition were not attributable to differences in the structure of the castor sacs. The anal glands of beavers are holocrine sebaceous glands. These glands develop more rapidly than the castor sacs. Anal gland tissue from embryos exhibited cellular characteristics associated with the production of sebum. Secretory activity was evident in all preparations. The relationship of castoreum and anal gland secretion to scent communication among beavers is discussed. PMID:24415179

  2. Pharmacological stimulation of Edar signaling in the adult enhances sebaceous gland size and function.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk-Quintas, Christine; Schuepbach-Mallepell, Sonia; Willen, Laure; Smith, Terry K; Huttner, Kenneth; Kirby, Neil; Headon, Denis J; Schneider, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    Impaired ectodysplasin A (EDA) receptor (EDAR) signaling affects ectodermally derived structures including teeth, hair follicles, and cutaneous glands. The X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED), resulting from EDA deficiency, can be rescued with lifelong benefits in animal models by stimulation of ectodermal appendage development with EDAR agonists. Treatments initiated later in the developmental period restore progressively fewer of the affected structures. It is unknown whether EDAR stimulation in adults with XLHED might have beneficial effects. In adult Eda mutant mice treated for several weeks with agonist anti-EDAR antibodies, we find that sebaceous gland size and function can be restored to wild-type levels. This effect is maintained upon chronic treatment but reverses slowly upon cessation of treatment. Sebaceous glands in all skin regions respond to treatment, although to varying degrees, and this is accompanied in both Eda mutant and wild-type mice by sebum secretion to levels higher than those observed in untreated controls. Edar is expressed at the periphery of the glands, suggesting a direct homeostatic effect of Edar stimulation on the sebaceous gland. Sebaceous gland size and sebum production may serve as biomarkers for EDAR stimulation, and EDAR agonists may improve skin dryness and eczema frequently observed in XLHED. PMID:25207818

  3. THE FINE STRUCTURE OF VON EBNER'S GLAND OF THE RAT

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Arthur R.

    1970-01-01

    The fine structure of von Ebner's gland was studied in untreated rats and rats stimulated to secrete by fasting-refeeding or injection of pilocarpine. Cytological features were similar to those reported for pancreas and parotid gland. Abundant granular endoplasmic reticulum filled the basal portion of the cell, a well-developed Golgi complex was located in the vicinity of the nucleus, and the apical portion of the cell was filled with dense secretory granules. Dense heterogeneous bodies resembling lysosomes were closely associated with the Golgi complex. Coated vesicles were seen in the Golgi region and also in continuity with the cell membrane. Granule discharge occurred by fusion of the granule membrane with the cell membrane at the secretory surface. Successive fusion of adjacent granules to the previously fused granule formed a connected string of granules in the apical cytoplasm. Myoepithelial cells were present within the basement membrane, and nerve processes were seen adjacent to acinar and myoepithelial cells. Duct cells resembled the intercalated duct cells of the major salivary glands. PMID:5411078

  4. Perioperative Identification of an Accessory Fissure of the Right Lung

    PubMed Central

    Taverne, Yannick; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan; de Rooij, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Anatomical variations of lungs are common in clinical practice; however, they are sometimes overlooked in routine imaging. Surgical anatomy of the lung is complex and many variations are known to occur. A defective pulmonary development gives rise to variations in lobes and fissures. Morphological presentation is of clinical importance and profound knowledge of the organogenesis and functional anatomy is imperative for the interpretation and evaluation of lung pathophysiology and subsequent surgical intervention. However, appreciating them on radiographs and CT scans is difficult and they are therefore often either not identified or completely misinterpreted. As presented in this case report, an accessory fissure separating the superior segment of the right lower lobe from its native lobe was seen perioperatively and could only retrospectively be defined on X-rays and CT scan. It is imperative to keep in mind that accessory fissures can be missed on imaging studies and thus can make the surgical procedure more challenging. PMID:26185701

  5. Spinal accessory nerve schwannomas masquerading as a fourth ventricular lesion

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Shyam Sundar; Bojja, Sivaram; Vasudevan, Madabhushi Chakravarthy

    2015-01-01

    Schwannomas are benign lesions that arise from the nerve sheath of cranial nerves. The most common schwannomas arise from the 8th cranial nerve (the vestibulo-cochlear nerve) followed by trigeminal and facial nerves and then from glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves. Schwannomas involving the oculomotor, trochlear, abducens and hypoglossal nerves are very rare. We report a very unusual spinal accessory nerve schwannoma which occupied the fourth ventricle and extended inferiorly to the upper cervical canal. The radiological features have been detailed. The diagnostic dilemma was due to its midline posterior location mimicking a fourth ventricular lesion like medulloblastoma and ependymoma. Total excision is the ideal treatment for these tumors. A brief review of literature with tabulations of the variants has been listed. PMID:25552867

  6. The consistent presence of the human accessory deep peroneal nerve.

    PubMed

    Kudoh, H; Sakai, T; Horiguchi, M

    1999-01-01

    Twenty-four human legs were dissected macroscopically to study the morphological details of the accessory deep peroneal nerve. This nerve arose from the superficial peroneal nerve and descended in the lateral compartment of the leg, deep to peroneus longus along the posterior border of peroneus brevis. Approaching the ankle joint, this nerve passed through the peroneal tunnels to wind around the lateral malleolus; it then crossed beneath the peroneus brevis tendon anteriorly to reach the dorsum of the foot. The accessory deep peroneal nerve was found in every case examined and constantly gave off muscular branches to peroneus brevis and sensory branches to the ankle region. In addition, this nerve occasionally had muscular branches to peroneus longus and extensor digitorum brevis, and sensory branches to the fibula and the foot. The anomalous muscles around the lateral malleolus were also innervated by this nerve. Neither cutaneous branches nor communicating branches with other nerves were found. The present study reveals that the accessory deep peroneal nerve is consistently present and possesses a proper motor and sensory distribution in the lateral region of the leg and ankle. It is not an anomalous nerve as has previously been suggested. PMID:10227671

  7. What Does the Thyroid Gland Do?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... it helps other cells do their job. hypothyroidism (hi-poh-THY-royd-izm): when your thyroid gland ... thyroid hormone (“hypo” means ‘under’ or ‘below’). hyperthyroidism (hi-purr-THY-royd-izm): when your thyroid gland ...

  8. Oncocytic Sialolipoma of the Submandibular Gland

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Dongbin; Park, Tae In; Park, Junesik

    2014-01-01

    Sialolipoma, a rare tumor of the salivary gland, is a recently described variant of salivary gland lipoma. Oncocytic sialolipoma was first described by Pusiol et al. in 2009. We report the case of an oncocytic sialolipoma of the submandibular gland in a 43-year-old female. Excision of the tumor was performed with preservation of the submandibular gland. The tumor had a thin, fibrous capsule and consisted of abundant adipose tissue, an oncocytic nodule, and scattered normal glandular structures surrounded by adipose tissue. Four cases of sialolipoma of the submandibular gland, including the present case, were reviewed. All 4 tumors were developed on the right submandibular glands, with a composition of adipose tissue as high as that of sialolipoma of the parotid gland; in contrast to previous reports, three cases were in females. As newly described tumor type, care should be taken to distinguish oncocytic sialolipoma from other salivary gland neoplasms such as simple lipoma, pleomorphic adenoma, or oncocytoma. PMID:24917915

  9. Pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal salivary gland

    PubMed Central

    Khandekar, Shubhangi; Dive, Alka; Munde, Prashant; Wankhede, Neena Dongre

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland swellings can result from tumors, an inflammatory process or cysts. It can sometimes be difficult to establish; whether pathology arises from the salivary gland itself or adjacent structures. Neoplasms of the salivary glands account for less than 1% of all tumors, 3–5% of all head and neck tumors and benign pleomorphic adenoma (PA) of minor salivary glands arising de novo is very rare. PA is the most common tumor of the salivary gland. While the majority arises from the parotid gland, only a small percentage arises from the buccal minor salivary gland. A case of PA of minor salivary glands in the buccal mucosa in a 70-year-old female is discussed. It includes review of literature, clinical features, histopathology, radiological findings and treatment of the tumor; with emphasis on diagnosis.

  10. Effects of double ligation of Stensen's duct on the rabbit parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Maria, O M; Maria, S M; Redman, R S; Maria, A M; Saad El-Din, T A; Soussa, E F; Tran, S D

    2014-04-01

    Salivary gland duct ligation is an alternative to gland excision for treating sialorrhea or reducing salivary gland size prior to tumor excision. Duct ligation also is used as an approach to study salivary gland aging, regeneration, radiotherapy, sialolithiasis and sialadenitis. Reports conflict about the contribution of each salivary cell population to gland size reduction after ductal ligation. Certain cell populations, especially acini, reportedly undergo atrophy, apoptosis and proliferation during reduction of gland size. Acini also have been reported to de-differentiate into ducts. These contradictory results have been attributed to different animal or salivary gland models, or to methods of ligation. We report here a bilateral double ligature technique for rabbit parotid glands with histologic observations at 1, 7, 14, 30, 60 days after ligation. A large battery of special stains and immunohistochemical procedures was employed to define the cell populations. Four stages with overlapping features were observed that led to progressive shutdown of gland activities: 1) marked atrophy of the acinar cells occurred by 14 days, 2) response to and removal of the secretory material trapped in the acinar and ductal lumens mainly between 30 and 60 days, 3) reduction in the number of parenchymal (mostly acinar) cells by apoptosis that occurred mainly between 14-30 days, and 4) maintenance of steady-state at 60 days with a low rate of fluid, protein, and glycoprotein secretion, which greatly decreased the number of leukocytes engaged in the removal of the luminal contents. The main post- ligation characteristics were dilation of ductal and acinar lumens, massive transient infiltration of mostly heterophils (rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes), acinar atrophy, and apoptosis of both acinar and ductal cells. Proliferation was uncommon except in the larger ducts. By 30 days, the distribution of myoepithelial cells had spread from exclusively investing the intercalated ducts pre-ligation to surrounding a majority of the residual duct-like structures, many of which clearly were atrophic acini. Thus, both atrophy and apoptosis made major contributions to the post-ligation reduction in gland size. Structures also occurred with both ductal and acinar markers that suggested acini differentiating into ducts. Overall, the reaction to duct ligation proceeded at a considerably slower pace in the rabbit parotid glands than has been reported for the salivary glands of the rat. PMID:24053197

  11. Sensitivity of Salivary Glands to Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Grundmann, O.; Mitchell, G.C.; Limesand, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation therapy for head and neck cancer causes significant secondary side-effects in normal salivary glands, resulting in diminished quality of life for these individuals. Salivary glands are exquisitely sensitive to radiation and display acute and chronic responses to radiotherapy. This review will discuss clinical implications of radiosensitivity in normal salivary glands, compare animal models used to investigate radiation-induced salivary gland damage, address therapeutic advances, and project future directions in the field. PMID:19783796

  12. The secrets of dermcidin action.

    PubMed

    Burian, Marc; Schittek, Birgit

    2015-02-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important effector molecules of the innate immune defense of diverse species. The majority of known AMPs are cationic therefore facilitating the initial binding of the positively charged peptides to the negatively charged bacterial membrane. Dermcidin (DCD) is constitutively expressed in eccrine sweat glands, secreted into sweat and transported to the epidermal surface where it is proteolytically processed giving rise to several truncated DCD peptides. Its processed forms such as the anionic 48mer DCD-1L and the 47mer DCD-1 possess antimicrobial activity against numerous bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus. Here, the latest knowledge regarding the mode of action of the anionic DCD-1(L) and the functional consequences of their interaction with bacterial membranes is reviewed. There is evidence that the interaction of DCD-1(L) with negatively charged bacterial phospholipids leads to Zn(2+) dependent formation of oligomeric complexes in the bacterial membrane, which subsequently leads to ion channel formation resulting in membrane depolarization and bacterial cell death. PMID:25596890

  13. An Accessory Agonist Binding Site Promotes Activation of ?4?2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyi; Kuryatov, Alexander; Sriram, Aarati; Jin, Zhuang; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Kenny, Paul J; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-05-29

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing ?4, ?2, and sometimes other subunits (?4?2* nAChRs) regulate addictive and other behavioral effects of nicotine. These nAChRs exist in several stoichiometries, typically with two high affinity acetylcholine (ACh) binding sites at the interface of ?4 and ?2 subunits and a fifth accessory subunit. A third low affinity ACh binding site is formed when this accessory subunit is ?4 but not if it is ?2. Agonists selective for the accessory ACh site, such as 3-[3-(3-pyridyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]benzonitrile (NS9283), cannot alone activate a nAChR but can facilitate more efficient activation in combination with agonists at the canonical ?4?2 sites. We therefore suggest categorizing agonists according to their site selectivity. NS9283 binds to the accessory ACh binding site; thus it is termed an accessory site-selective agonist. We expressed (?4?2)2 concatamers in Xenopus oocytes with free accessory subunits to obtain defined nAChR stoichiometries and ?4/accessory subunit interfaces. We show that ?2, ?3, ?4, and ?6 accessory subunits can form binding sites for ACh and NS9283 at interfaces with ?4 subunits, but ?2 and ?4 accessory subunits cannot. To permit selective blockage of the accessory site, ?4 threonine 126 located on the minus side of ?4 that contributes to the accessory site, but not the ?4?2 sites, was mutated to cysteine. Alkylation of this cysteine with a thioreactive reagent blocked activity of ACh and NS9283 at the accessory site. Accessory agonist binding sites are promising drug targets. PMID:25869137

  14. Induction of rainbow trout MH class I and accessory proteins by viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.

    PubMed

    Sever, Lital; Vo, Nguyen T K; Lumsden, John; Bols, Niels C; Dixon, Brian

    2014-06-01

    Major histocompatibility (MH) class I receptors are glycoproteins which play a critical role during responses to intracellular pathogens by presenting endogenous peptides to cytotoxic T cell lymphocytes (CD8+). To date, little is known about MH class I regulation at the protein level during viral infections in fish. In this study, we characterised the MH class I pathway response to polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) and upon infection with viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVa using the rainbow trout monocyte/macrophage cell line RTS11. A 14-day challenge with VHSV IVa at 14°C demonstrated enhanced expression of the class I heavy chain, ?2 microglobulin (?2M) and tapasin, while the expression of other accessory molecules ERp57 and calreticulin remained unchanged. However, when infection occurred at 2°C no change in expression levels of any of these molecules was observed. ?2M accumulated in the media of RTS11 over time, however the ?2M concentrations were 2 fold higher in cultures infected with VHSV 14 days post infection. Strikingly, when cells were maintained at 2°C the secretion of ?2M was significantly reduced in both infected and non-infected cultures. These results indicate that VHSV infection alters the kinetics of ?2M release as well as the expression of MH class I and suggests that cellular immunity against VHSV can be compromised at low temperatures which may increase host susceptibility to this virus during the winter. PMID:24607971

  15. New insight into the mechanism underlying fibroin secretion in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Long, Dingpei; Lu, Weijian; Zhang, Yang; Guo, Qing; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhao, Aichun

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of different parts of the fibroin heavy chain (H-chain) in the secretion of fibroin in the silk gland of the silkworm (Bombyx mori) in vivo, two enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)/H-chain fusion genes with deduced protein sequences containing an identical N-terminal region and different C-terminal regions of the H-chain were introduced into the B. mori genome using a piggyBac-mediated germline transformation. EGFP fluorescence and molecular analysis showed the products of two different EGFP/H-chain fusion proteins were secreted into the posterior silk gland lumen and aggregated in the middle silk gland and spun into cocoons. The results revealed that only the non-repetitive N terminus of the H-chain is essential for secretion of the H-chain into the posterior silk gland lumen. In addition, our results also indicated that the most likely post-translational modification of the H-chain is at the C-terminal domain. Here, our results not only provide a theoretical basis for the genetic modification of silk fiber as a functional biomaterial but also are of great significance to establishing a new silk gland bioreactor to mass-produce exogenous proteins in an active form. PMID:25302556

  16. The Harderian gland, its secretory duct and porphyrin content in the mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, H S; McGadey, J; Thompson, G G; Moore, M R; Payne, A P

    1983-01-01

    The Harderian gland, its secretory duct and porphyrin content were examined in the mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). The gland consisted of tubules lined by a single layer of epithelial cells and a myoepithelial network. The tubule cells were often binucleate and possessed lipid vacuoles in the apical half of the cell, a corona of granular endoplasmic reticulum surrounding the nucleus, and cytoplasmic 'slashes'. The latter are probably derived from dense membranous couplets and may be precursors of the lipid vacuoles. Holocrine and merocrine secretion was observed. Interstitial cells included plasma cells, mast cells and (predominantly) melanocytes which render the gland black. The gland was surrounded by a collagen capsule and an outer layer of highly attenuated (possibly endothelioid) cells. Within the gland, the secretory duct was lined by a single layer of normal tubule cells. Outside the gland, the duct enlarged to form an ampulla, from which clefts led off to deep crypts. The ampulla and clefts were lined by cells with small dense apical granules and stubby microvilli; some possessed lipid vacuoles. The crypts were lined by serous cells with active Golgi regions. At the duct opening, ampullary cells became squamous and goblet cells occurred. Geometric crystalloid deposits (with a layered structure of 7.6 nm periodicity) occurred at cleft-crypt junctions. Islets of extra-glandular ductal tissue were occasionally found within the gland. Porphyrins were detectable both by chemical assay and fluorescence microscopy. There was a trend for female glands to have a higher content than males. Solid intraluminal accretions of porphyrin and/or lipid were present. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:6654750

  17. Anopheles salivary gland proteomes from major malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Antibody responses against Anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. The extent to which these salivary proteins are species-specific is not entirely resolved. Thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary to select relevant genus-, subgenus- and/or species-specific salivary antigens. Such antigens could be used for quantitative (mosquito density) and qualitative (mosquito species) immunological evaluation of malaria vectors/host contact. In this study, salivary gland protein repertoires (sialomes) from several Anopheles species were compared using in silico analysis and proteomics. The antigenic diversity of salivary gland proteins among different Anopheles species was also examined. Results In silico analysis of secreted salivary gland protein sequences retrieved from an NCBInr database of six Anopheles species belonging to the Cellia subgenus (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. funestus) and Nyssorhynchus subgenus (An. albimanus and An. darlingi) displayed a higher degree of similarity compared to salivary proteins from closely related Anopheles species. Additionally, computational hierarchical clustering allowed identification of genus-, subgenus- and species-specific salivary proteins. Proteomic and immunoblot analyses performed on salivary gland extracts from four Anopheles species (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. albimanus) indicated that heterogeneity of the salivary proteome and antigenic proteins was lower among closely related anopheline species and increased with phylogenetic distance. Conclusion This is the first report on the diversity of the salivary protein repertoire among species from the Anopheles genus at the protein level. This work demonstrates that a molecular diversity is exhibited among salivary proteins from closely related species despite their common pharmacological activities. The involvement of these proteins as antigenic candidates for genus-, subgenus- or species-specific immunological evaluation of individual exposure to Anopheles bites is discussed. PMID:23148599

  18. Parotid gland function after radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Maria Roesink

    2005-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a common treatment for head and neck cancer patients. Unfortunately, it produces serious acute and long-term side effects to the oral cavity. One severe complication is the loss of salivary gland function, which can persists for many years. Saliva has multiple functions relating to speech, taste perception, mastication, and swallowing and bolus formation. Cleansing and dental and mucosal

  19. Clinical results of stereotactic hellium-ion radiosurgery of the pituitary gland at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, R.P.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Lyman, J.T.; Frankel, K.A.; Phillips, M.H.; Lawrence, J.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1989-12-01

    The first therapeutic clinical trial using accelerated heavy-charged particles in humans was performed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for the treatment of various endocrine and metabolic disorders of the pituitary gland, and as suppressive therapy for adenohypophyseal hormone-responsive carcinomas and diabetic retinopathy. In acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome and prolactin-secreting tumors, the therapeutic goal in the 433 patients treated has been to destroy or inhibit the growth of the pituitary tumor and control hormonal hypersecretion, while preserving a functional rim of tissue with normal hormone-secreting capacity, and minimizing neurologic injury. An additional group of 34 patients was treated for nonsecreting chromophobe adenomas. This paper discusses the methods and results of stereotactic helium-ion radiosurgery of the pituitary gland at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. 11 refs.

  20. Dual Roles of Gastric Gland Mucin-specific O-glycans in Prevention of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Gastric gland mucin is secreted from gland mucous cells, including pyloric gland cells and mucous neck cells located in the lower layer of the gastric mucosa. These mucins typically contain O-glycans carrying terminal ?1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues (?GlcNAc) attached to the scaffold protein MUC6, and biosynthesis of the O-glycans is catalyzed by the glycosyltransferase, ?1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (?4GnT). We previously used expression cloning to isolate cDNA encoding ?4GnT, and then demonstrated that ?GlcNAc functions as natural antibiotic against Helicobacter pylori, a microbe causing various gastric diseases including gastric cancer. More recently, it was shown that ?GlcNAc serves as a tumor suppressor for differentiated-type adenocarcinoma. This review summarizes these findings and identifies dual roles for ?GlcNAc in gastric cancer. PMID:24761044

  1. Optical Coherence Tomography Identifies Lower Labial Salivary Gland Surface Density in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Jan K.; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Karnowski, Karol; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw

    2015-01-01

    The labial minor salivary glands (LSGs) are easily accessible mucus-secreting structures of the alimentary tract that may provide new information on the basis of gastrointestinal complications of cystic fibrosis (CF). It was shown that they are destructed in the course of cystic fibrosis. We employed wide-field, micrometer resolution in vivo optical coherence tomography to assess the surface density of LSGs in 18 patients with CF and 18 healthy subjects. The median LSGs’ surface densities in CF patients, and in the control group were 4.32 glands/cm2 and 6.58 glands/cm2, respectively (p = 0.006; Mann-Whitney U test). A lower LSG surface density is a previously unrecognized CF-related pathology of the alimentary tract. PMID:25622042

  2. Identification of Novel Proteases and Immunomodulators in the Secretions of Schistosome Cercariae That Facilitate Host Entry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel S. Curwen; Peter D. Ashton; Shobana Sundaralingam; R. Alan Wilson

    2006-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, caused by parasitic helminths, remains a serious human disease in the tropics. Cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni infect their hosts by direct skin penetration, aided by secretions from acetabular and head glands. Both proteolytic and immunomodulatory properties have been ascribed to the released material, but to date only five isoforms of elastase and one putative anti-inflammatory protein (Sm16) have been

  3. We investigated the protein composition of the spermathecal fluid and the secretion of

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    dimensional SDS-gel electrophoresis. No differences were found within the protein patterns of spermathecalWe investigated the protein composition of the spermathecal fluid and the secretion of the spermathecal glands from three different types of queens: mated and egg laying queens (n = 93), drone

  4. Production and transmission of honey bee queen ( Apis mellifera L.) mandibular gland pheromone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Naumann; Mark L. Winston; Keith N. Slessor; Glenn D. Prestwich; Francis X. Webster

    1991-01-01

    The social cohesiveness of eusocial insect colonies is maintained primarily through the utilization of pheromones. In this study we quantitatively elucidated the production, secretion, and transmission of 9-keto2(E)-decenoic acid (9-ODA), one of the components of the mandibular gland pheromone of the honey bee queen Apis mellifera; this is the only identified primer pheromone complex in the eusocial insects. Mated queens

  5. The hagfish slime gland: a model system for studying the biology of mucus.

    PubMed

    Downing, S W; Salo, W L; Spitzer, R H; Koch, E A

    1981-12-01

    The hagfish slime gland may provide a model system for studying certain aspects of the biology of mucus. Mucus is obtained in nonhydrated form by electrically stimulating the anesthetized hagfish and the secretions are stirred into ammonium sulfate. Centrifugation and filtration are than used to isolate the two major secretory products, mucous vesicles and threads. Specific advantages of the model and potential applications for research are discussed. PMID:7302586

  6. Bone marrow-derived cells rescue salivary gland function in mice with head and neck irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshinori Sumita; Younan Liu; Saeed Khalili; Ola M. Maria; Dengsheng Xia; Sharon Key; Ana P. Cotrim; Eva Mezey; Simon D. Tran

    2011-01-01

    Treatment for most patients with head and neck cancers includes ionizing radiation. A consequence of this treatment is irreversible damage to salivary glands (SGs), which is accompanied by a loss of fluid-secreting acinar-cells and a considerable decrease of saliva output. While there are currently no adequate conventional treatments for this condition, cell-based therapies are receiving increasing attention to regenerate SGs.

  7. Laser microspectrofluorometry for measuring dynamic changes of intracellular free Ca2+ in human airway gland cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Marc Millot; M. Merten; S. Sharonov; C. Figarella; J. Jacquot; Michel Manfait

    1996-01-01

    Intracellular Ca2+ is a ubiquitous second messenger that regulates a wide variety of cellular functions including secretion, transepithelial solute and fluid transport. Laser confocal microspectrofluorometry (DILOR, Lille, France) was applied to visualize fluorescence emission spectra of the Indo-1 for measuring the intracellular free Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i) in a human tracheal gland immortalized cell line (MM39 cell line). Under a 351

  8. Neuroendocrine and Reproductive Functions in Transgenic Mice with Altered Growth Hormone Secretion and in Growth Hormone Receptor Gene Disrupted Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Varadaraj Chandrashekar; Karen T. Coschigano; Andrzej Bartke; John J. Kopchick

    \\u000a It has been established that growth hormone (GH) exerts a profound anabolic effect in mammals. GH secretion by the pituitary\\u000a gland is regulated by a complex control system. Two hypothalamic peptide hormones, GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and GH-release\\u000a inhibiting hormone (somatostatin), exert stimulatory and inhibitory influences, respectively, on the somatotropes of the pituitary\\u000a gland. These two hypothalamic hormones are subjected to

  9. Skunk Defensive Secretion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wood, William F.

    1999-01-01

    Skunk Defensive Secretion is a interesting site maintained by William F. Wood from the Department of Chemistry at Humboldt State University. He explains how to remove skunk odor, the chemistry of skunk spray, the history of skunk defensive secretion research, skunk pictures, and even how to happily coexist with skunks. This is a fun, informative, and potentially olfactory friendly site.

  10. Consuming viscous prey: a novel protein-secreting delivery system in neotropical snail-eating snakes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Efficient venom delivery systems are known to occur only in varanoid lizards and advanced colubroidean snakes among squamate reptiles. Although components of these venomous systems might have been present in a common ancestor, the two lineages independently evolved strikingly different venom gland systems. In snakes, venom is produced exclusively by serous glands in the upper jaw. Within the colubroidean radiation, lower jaw seromucous infralabial glands are known only in two distinct lineages–the basal pareatids and the more advanced Neotropical dipsadines known as “goo-eating snakes”. Goo-eaters are a highly diversified, ecologically specialized clade that feeds exclusively on invertebrates (e.g., gastropod molluscs and annelids). Their evolutionary success has been attributed to their peculiar feeding strategies, which remain surprisingly poorly understood. More specifically, it has long been thought that the more derived Dipsadini genera Dipsas and Sibynomorphus use glandular toxins secreted by their infralabial glands to extract snails from their shells. Results Here, we report the presence in the tribe Dipsadini of a novel lower jaw protein-secreting delivery system effected by a gland that is not functionally related to adjacent teeth, but rather opens loosely on the oral epithelium near the tip of the mandible, suggesting that its secretion is not injected into the prey as a form of envenomation but rather helps control the mucus and assists in the ingestion of their highly viscous preys. A similar protein-secreting system is also present in the goo-eating genus Geophis and may share the same adaptive purpose as that hypothesized for Dipsadini. Our phylogenetic hypothesis suggests that the acquisition of a seromucous infralabial gland represents a uniquely derived trait of the goo-eating clade that evolved independently twice within the group as a functionally complex protein-secreting delivery system. Conclusions The acquisition by snail-eating snakes of such a complex protein-secreting system suggests that the secretion from the hypertrophied infralabial glands of goo-eating snakes may have a fundamental role in mucus control and prey transport rather than envenomation of prey. Evolution of a functional secretory system that combines a solution for mucus control and transport of viscous preys is here thought to underlie the successful radiation of goo-eating snakes. PMID:24661572

  11. Loss of CD147 results in impaired epithelial cell differentiation and malformation of the meibomian gland.

    PubMed

    Mauris, J; Dieckow, J; Schob, S; Pulli, B; Hatton, M P; Jeong, S; Bauskar, A; Gabison, E; Nowak, R; Argüeso, P

    2015-01-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction is a leading cause of ocular surface disease. However, little is known about the regulatory processes that control the development and maintenance of this sebaceous gland. Here, we identify a novel function for CD147, a transmembrane protein that promotes tissue remodeling through induction of matrix metalloproteinases, in regulating meibocyte differentiation and activity. We found that CD147 localized along basal cells and within discrete membrane domains of differentiated meibocytes in glandular acini containing gelatinolytic activity. Induction of meibocyte differentiation in vitro promoted CD147 clustering and MMP9 secretion, whereas RNAi-mediated abrogation of CD147 impaired MMP9 secretion, concomitant with a reduction in the number of proliferative cells and cytoplasmic lipids. Meibomian glands of CD147 knockout mice had a lower number of acini in both the superior and inferior tarsal plates of the eyelids, and were characterized by loss of lipid-filled meibocytes compared with control mice. Together, our data provide evidence showing that gelatinolytic activity in meibocytes is dependent on CD147, and supports a role for CD147 in maintaining the normal development and function of the meibomian gland. PMID:25880093

  12. Inclusion\\/host relations involving accessory minerals in high-grade metamorphic and anatectic rocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Bruce Watson; Edward P. Vicenzi; Robert P. Rapp

    1989-01-01

    In general, accessory minerals are expected to participate in partial fusion of their host rocks to a degree determined simply\\u000a by their solubilities in the melt. The possibility must be recognized, however, that a given accessory grain may be physically\\u000a isolated from the melt by inclusion within a residual major mineral. Because of the importance of accessory minerals to crustal-rock

  13. Role of Orai1 and store-operated calcium entry in mouse lacrimal gland signalling and function

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Juan; Petranka, John G; Davis, Felicity M; Desai, Pooja N; Putney, James W; Bird, Gary S

    2014-01-01

    Lacrimal glands function to produce an aqueous layer, or tear film, that helps to nourish and protect the ocular surface. Lacrimal glands secrete proteins, electrolytes and water, and loss of gland function can result in tear film disorders such as dry eye syndrome, a widely encountered and debilitating disease in ageing populations. To combat these disorders, understanding the underlying molecular signalling processes that control lacrimal gland function will give insight into corrective therapeutic approaches. Previously, in single lacrimal cells isolated from lacrimal glands, we demonstrated that muscarinic receptor activation stimulates a phospholipase C-coupled signalling cascade involving the inositol trisphosphate-dependent mobilization of intracellular calcium and the subsequent activation of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). Since intracellular calcium stores are finite and readily exhausted, the SOCE pathway is a critical process for sustaining and maintaining receptor-activated signalling. Recent studies have identified the Orai family proteins as critical components of the SOCE channel activity in a wide variety of cell types. In this study we characterize the role of Orai1 in the function of lacrimal glands using a mouse model in which the gene for the calcium entry channel protein, Orai1, has been deleted. Our data demonstrate that lacrimal acinar cells lacking Orai1 do not exhibit SOCE following activation of the muscarinic receptor. In comparison with wild-type and heterozygous littermates, Orai1 knockout mice showed a significant reduction in the stimulated tear production following injection of pilocarpine, a muscarinic receptor agonist. In addition, calcium-dependent, but not calcium-independent exocytotic secretion of peroxidase was eliminated in glands from knockout mice. These studies indicate a critical role for Orai1-mediated SOCE in lacrimal gland signalling and function. PMID:24297846

  14. Secrets in "The Day of Ahmed's Secret."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckett, Peter; Knox, Marjorie

    2001-01-01

    Examines images and the written text in the picture book, "The Day of Ahmed's Secret," by Florence Parry Heide and Judith Heide Gilliland. Examines the book in greater detail by looking for issues of authenticity as well as social issues within the book's pictures and written texts. (SG)

  15. 21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and...

  16. 21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and...

  17. 21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and...

  18. 21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and...

  19. 21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories...MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and...

  20. Calcium detection in secretion granules of avian oviduct by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX)

    SciTech Connect

    Makita, T.; Hatsuoka, M.; Sugi, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Secretion granules in the shell gland, isthmus, and albumin-secreting region of the hen oviduct were analyzed with WET-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDX, a combination of wide-angle backscattered electron detector (BED) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyzer (EDX). Glutaraldehyde-fixed but unhydrated, unstained, and uncoated samples were analyzed; Ca was localized in all secretion granules in all three sections of the hen oviduct studied.