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1

COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF REAL WORLD CRASHES: A BASIS FOR ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on an accident reconstruction methodology by estimating the errors introduced into reconstruction analysis as a result of assumptions made due to lack of data availability and other uncertainties. Mathematical models are used to show the sensitivity of their results, i.e., occupant kinematics, injury predictions, etc., to changes in these assumptions. For demonstration purposes, a real world crash

Vikas Hasija; Erik G. Takhounts; Stephen A. Ridella

2

National Center for Statistics and Analysis Collected Technical Studies. Volume 3. Accident Data Analysis Results and Methodology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The eight papers in this volume develop methodology for analyzing traffic accident data and study specific questions concerning traffic accident injuries. The topics addressed include the role of children in traffic accidents, underride accidents, whiplas...

D. Najjar J. Hedlund N. Bondy R. Blodgett S. Partyka

1983-01-01

3

Accident characterization methodology  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is preparing NUREG-1150 to examine the risk from a selected group of nuclear power plants. NUREG-1150 will provide technical bases for comparison of NRC research to industry results and resolution of numerous severe accident issues. In support of NUREG-1150, Sandia National Laboratories has directed the production of Level 3 Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) for the Surry, Sequoyah, Peach Bottom, and Grand Gulf nuclear power plants. The Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) at Sandia has been responsible for the Level 1 portion of the analyses, which includes estimation of core damage frequency and characterization of the dominant sequences. The ASEP analyses are being documented in NUREG/CR-4550. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe and evaluate the methodology utilized in these analyses. The methodology will soon be published in more detail as Reference 5. The results produced for NUREG/CR-4550 using this methodology are summarized in another paper to be presented at this conference.

Camp, A.L.; Harper, F.T.

1986-01-01

4

Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE nuclear facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830).1 Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, “Safety Basis Requirements,” requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to either submit by April 9, 2001 the existing safety basis which already meets the requirements of Subpart B, or to submit by April 10, 2003 an upgraded facility safety basis that meets the revised requirements.1 10 CFR 830 identifies Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.70, “Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants”2 as a safe harbor methodology for preparation of a DOE reactor documented safety analysis (DSA). The regulation also allows for use of a graded approach. This report presents the methodology that was developed for preparing the reactor accident analysis portion of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) upgraded DSA. The methodology was approved by DOE for developing the ATRC safety basis as an appropriate application of a graded approach to the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

Gregg L. Sharp; R. T. McCracken

2003-06-01

5

Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE Nuclear Facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830). Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, ''Safety Basis Requirements,'' requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to either submit by April 9, 2001 the existing safety basis which already meets the requirements of Subpart B, or to submit by April 10, 2003 an upgraded facility safety basis that meets the revised requirements. 10 CFR 830 identifies Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.70, ''Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' as a safe harbor methodology for preparation of a DOE reactor documented safety analysis (DSA). The regulation also allows for use of a graded approach. This report presents the methodology that was developed for preparing the reactor accident analysis portion of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) upgraded DSA. The methodology was approved by DOE for developing the ATRC safety basis as an appropriate application of a graded approach to the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

Sharp, G.L.; McCracken, R.T.

2003-05-13

6

Response surface methodology and improved interval analysis method--for analyzing uncertainty in accident reconstruction.  

PubMed

Methods used to calculate intervals of accident reconstruction results are research hotspot in the word. The response surface methodology-interval analysis method (RSM-IAM) is a useful method for analyzing uncertainty of simulation results in this field, but there are two problems in this method because of the interval extension problem and inaccurate response surface models. In order to tackle these two problems, based on subinterval analysis thought and response surface methodology, an improved interval analysis method (RSM-IIAM) is proposed. In RSM-IIAM, the stepwise regression technique is used to obtain a reasonable response surface mode of the simulation model; and then, intervals of uncertain parameters are divided into several subintervals; after that, intervals of simulation results in accident reconstruction are calculated according to these subintervals. Finally, four numerical cases were given. Results showed that the RSM-IIAM is simple and high accuracy, which will be useful in analyzing uncertainty of simulation results in accident reconstruction. PMID:22846464

Zou, Tiefang; Cai, Ming; Shu, Xiong

2012-07-28

7

Accident characterization methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is preparing NUREG-1150 to examine the risk from a selected group of nuclear power plants. NUREG-1150 will provide technical bases for comparison of NRC research to industry results and resolution of numerous severe accident issues. In support of NUREG-1150, Sandia National Laboratories has directed the production of Level 3 Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) for the

A. L. Camp; F. T. Harper

1986-01-01

8

SCAP: a new methodology for safety management based on feedback from credible accident-probabilistic fault tree analysis system.  

PubMed

As it is conventionally done, strategies for incorporating accident--prevention measures in any hazardous chemical process industry are developed on the basis of input from risk assessment. However, the two steps-- risk assessment and hazard reduction (or safety) measures--are not linked interactively in the existing methodologies. This prevents a quantitative assessment of the impacts of safety measures on risk control. We have made an attempt to develop a methodology in which risk assessment steps are interactively linked with implementation of safety measures. The resultant system tells us the extent of reduction of risk by each successive safety measure. It also tells based on sophisticated maximum credible accident analysis (MCAA) and probabilistic fault tree analysis (PFTA) whether a given unit can ever be made 'safe'. The application of the methodology has been illustrated with a case study. PMID:11566400

Khan, F I; Iqbal, A; Ramesh, N; Abbasi, S A

2001-10-12

9

A DOE-STD-3009 hazard and accident analysis methodology for non-reactor nuclear facilities  

SciTech Connect

This paper demonstrates the use of appropriate consequence evaluation criteria in conjunction with generic likelihood of occurrence data to produce consistent hazard analysis results for nonreactor nuclear facility Safety Analysis Reports (SAR). An additional objective is to demonstrate the use of generic likelihood of occurrence data as a means for deriving defendable accident sequence frequencies, thereby enabling the screening of potentially incredible events (<10{sup {minus}6} per year) from the design basis accident envelope. Generic likelihood of occurrence data has been used successfully in performing SAR hazard and accident analyses for two nonreactor nuclear facilities at Sandia National Laboratories. DOE-STD-3009-94 addresses and even encourages use of a qualitative binning technique for deriving and ranking nonreactor nuclear facility risks. However, qualitative techniques invariably lead to reviewer requests for more details associated with consequence or likelihood of occurrence bin assignments in the test of the SAR. Hazard analysis data displayed in simple worksheet format generally elicits questions about not only the assumptions behind the data, but also the quantitative bases for the assumptions themselves (engineering judgment may not be considered sufficient by some reviewers). This is especially true where the criteria for qualitative binning of likelihood of occurrence involves numerical ranges. Oftentimes reviewers want to see calculations or at least a discussion of event frequencies or failure probabilities to support likelihood of occurrence bin assignments. This may become a significant point of contention for events that have been binned as incredible. This paper will show how the use of readily available generic data can avoid many of the reviewer questions that will inevitably arise from strictly qualitative analyses, while not significantly increasing the overall burden on the analyst.

MAHN,JEFFREY A.; WALKER,SHARON ANN

2000-03-23

10

Review of human error analysis methodologies and case study for accident management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this research, we tried to establish the requirements for the development of a new human error analysis method. To achieve this goal, we performed a case study as following steps; 1. review of the existing HEA methods 2. selection of those methods whic...

W. D. Jung J. W. Kim Y. H. Lee J. J. Ha

1998-01-01

11

Road Safety: Accident Analysis And Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses, in this first phase, on accident analysis and reconstruction, with the purpose of devoting a second phase on the analysis of risk levels. The present paper defines synthetically the analysis of procedures and methodologies related to poor safety conditions, turning in the last part in a applicative example. Since the year 2000, a certain number of accidents

G. e Sillo

12

Methodology and computational framework used for the US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement accident analysis  

SciTech Connect

A methodology, computational framework, and integrated PC-based database have been developed to assess the risks of facility accidents in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. The methodology includes the following interrelated elements: (1) screening of storage and treatment processes and related waste inventories to determine risk-dominant facilities across the DOE complex, (2) development and frequency estimation of the risk-dominant sequences of accidents, and (3) determination of the evolution of and final compositions of radiological or chemically hazardous source terms predicted to be released as a function of the storage inventory or treatment process throughput. The computational framework automates these elements to provide source term input for the second part of the analysis which includes (1) development or integration of existing site-specific demographics and meteorological data and calculation of attendant unit-risk factors and (2) assessment of the radiological or toxicological consequences of accident releases to the general public and to the occupational work force.

Mueller, C.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Huttenga, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Jackson, R.; TenBrook, W.; Russell, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Golden, CO (United States)]|[Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

1994-02-01

13

A Methodology for Probabilistic Accident Management  

SciTech Connect

While techniques have been developed to tackle different tasks in accident management, there have been very few attempts to develop an on-line operator assistance tool for accident management and none that can be found in the literature that uses probabilistic arguments, which are important in today's licensing climate. The state/parameter estimation capability of the dynamic system doctor (DSD) approach is combined with the dynamic event-tree generation capability of the integrated safety assessment (ISA) methodology to address this issue. The DSD uses the cell-to-cell mapping technique for system representation that models the system evolution in terms of probability of transitions in time between sets of user-defined parameter/state variable magnitude intervals (cells) within a user-specified time interval (e.g., data sampling interval). The cell-to-cell transition probabilities are obtained from the given system model. The ISA follows the system dynamics in tree form and braches every time a setpoint for system/operator intervention is exceeded. The combined approach (a) can automatically account for uncertainties in the monitored system state, inputs, and modeling uncertainties through the appropriate choice of the cells, as well as providing a probabilistic measure to rank the likelihood of possible system states in view of these uncertainties; (b) allows flexibility in system representation; (c) yields the lower and upper bounds on the estimated values of state variables/parameters as well as their expected values; and (d) leads to fewer branchings in the dynamic event-tree generation. Using a simple but realistic pressurizer model, the potential use of the DSD-ISA methodology for on-line probabilistic accident management is illustrated.

Munteanu, Ion; Aldemir, Tunc [Ohio State University (United States)

2003-10-15

14

Final report of the accident phenomenology and consequence (APAC) methodology evaluation. Spills Working Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spills Working Group was one of six working groups established under the Accident Phenomenology and Consequence (APAC) methodology evaluation program. The objectives of APAC were to assess methodologies available in the accident phenomenology and consequence analysis area and to evaluate their adequacy for use in preparing DOE facility safety basis documentation, such as Basis for Interim Operation (BIO), Justification

S. Brereton; J. Shinn; D Hesse; D. Kaninich; M. Lazaro; V. Mubayi

1997-01-01

15

Methodology and computational framework used for the US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement accident analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology, computational framework, and integrated PC-based database have been developed to assess the risks of facility accidents in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. The methodology includes the following interrelated elements: (1) screening of storage and treatment processes and related waste inventories to determine risk-dominant facilities across the

C. Mueller; J. Roglans-Ribas; S. Folga; A. Huttenga; R. Jackson; W. TenBrook; J. Russell

1994-01-01

16

Metodologia de analise de acidentes radiologicos em gamagrafia industrial. (Methodology for radiological accidents analysis in industrial gamma radiography).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A critical review of 34 published severe radiological accidents in industrial gamma radiography, that happened in 15 countries, from 1960 to 1988, was performed. The most frequent causes, consequences and dose estimation methods were analysed, aiming to s...

F. C. A. Silva

1990-01-01

17

Accident cause analysis method based on traffic accident information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the characteristics of data base and data of road traffic accident in China. On the basis of specific analysis of accident cause, this article offers classification and layer for accident data of road traffic accident information system in China, provides traffic accident causes analysis method based on rough set and gives quantitative analysis for the contribution of

Xi Jianfeng; Chen Xiaodong; Wang Shuangwei; Zhurong Tao

2010-01-01

18

Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a pressurized water reactor. The specific plant analyzed is the Zion Nuclear Power Plant, which is a Westinghouse-designed system that has been decommissioned.

Hakobyan, Aram P.

19

Applying STAMP in Accident Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accident models play a critical role in accident investigation and analysis. Most traditional models are based on an underlying chain of events. These models, however, have serious limitations when used for complex, socio-technical systems. Previously, Leveson proposed a new accident model (STAMP) based on system theory where the basic concept is not an event but a constraint. This paper shows

Nancy Leveson; Mirna Daouk; Nicolas Dulac; Karen Marais

2003-01-01

20

Final report of the accident phenomenology and consequence (APAC) methodology evaluation. Spills Working Group  

SciTech Connect

The Spills Working Group was one of six working groups established under the Accident Phenomenology and Consequence (APAC) methodology evaluation program. The objectives of APAC were to assess methodologies available in the accident phenomenology and consequence analysis area and to evaluate their adequacy for use in preparing DOE facility safety basis documentation, such as Basis for Interim Operation (BIO), Justification for Continued Operation (JCO), Hazard Analysis Documents, and Safety Analysis Reports (SARs). Additional objectives of APAC were to identify development needs and to define standard practices to be followed in the analyses supporting facility safety basis documentation. The Spills Working Group focused on methodologies for estimating four types of spill source terms: liquid chemical spills and evaporation, pressurized liquid/gas releases, solid spills and resuspension/sublimation, and resuspension of particulate matter from liquid spills.

Brereton, S.; Shinn, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hesse, D [Battelle Columbus Labs., OH (United States); Kaninich, D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Lazaro, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Mubayi, V. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1997-08-01

21

Traffic Accident Analysis and Roadway Visibility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Assessment of existing general purpose data bases for highway safety analysis; Accident data as a tool for highway risk management; Generalized loglinear models of truck accidents rates; Estimation of wet pavement exposure from available weather...

K. K. Mak J. G. Viner L. I. Griffin D. S. Turner C. W. Colson

1988-01-01

22

ARAMIS project: a comprehensive methodology for the identification of reference accident scenarios in process industries.  

PubMed

In the frame of the Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries (ARAMIS) project, this paper aims at presenting the work carried out in the part of the project devoted to the definition of accident scenarios. This topic is a key-point in risk assessment and serves as basis for the whole risk quantification. The first result of the work is the building of a methodology for the identification of major accident hazards (MIMAH), which is carried out with the development of generic fault and event trees based on a typology of equipment and substances. The term "major accidents" must be understood as the worst accidents likely to occur on the equipment, assuming that no safety systems are installed. A second methodology, called methodology for the identification of reference accident scenarios (MIRAS) takes into account the influence of safety systems on both the frequencies and possible consequences of accidents. This methodology leads to identify more realistic accident scenarios. The reference accident scenarios are chosen with the help of a tool called "risk matrix", crossing the frequency and the consequences of accidents. This paper presents both methodologies and an application on an ethylene oxide storage. PMID:16126337

Delvosalle, Christian; Fievez, Cécile; Pipart, Aurore; Debray, Bruno

2005-08-26

23

MELCOR analysis of the TMI-2 accident  

SciTech Connect

The MELCOR computer code has been used to analyze the first 174 minutes of the TMI-2 accident. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of analyzing severe accidents in nuclear power plants. Comparison of the code predictions to the available data shows that MELCOR is capable of modeling the key events of the TMI-2 accident and reasonable agreement with the available data is obtained. In particular, the core degradation and hydrogen generation models agree with best-estimate information available for this phase of the accident. While the code uses simplified modeling, all important characteristics of the reactor system and the accident phenomena could be modeled. This exercise demonstrates that MELCOR is applicable to severe accident analysis. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Boucheron, E.A.; Kelly, J.E.

1988-01-01

24

MELCOR analysis of the TMI2 accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the analysis of the Three Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) standard problem that was performed with MELCOR. The MELCOR computer code is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of analyzing severe accident in nuclear power plants. The primary role of MELCOR is to provide realistic predictions of severe accident phenomena and

Boucheron

1990-01-01

25

Accident Trend Monitoring and Exploratory Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report consists of a compilation of a series of accident trend analyses. The report provides a summary of results developed in the initial tests of the accident trend analysis system, documentation of technical methods utilized in the design of the sy...

M. Stein J. Magidson M. Beauregard C. Logan

1986-01-01

26

Dosimetric Evaluation of Radiation Accident Situation. Methodology and Procedure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication contains the classification of neutron spectra from different neutron sources, a chapter on neutron absorption by the human body, a diagram for neutron and photon dose estimation and for classifying persons involved in a radiation accident...

Z. Prouza F. Spurny

1981-01-01

27

Physical data generation methodology for return-to-power steam line break analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current methodology to generate physics data for steamline break accident analysis of CE-type nuclear plant, such as Yonggwang Unit 3, is valid only if the core reactivity does not reach the criticality after shutdown. Therefore, the methodology requires ...

S. K. Zee C. C. Lee C. K. Lee

1996-01-01

28

A methodology for analyzing precursors to earthquake-initiated and fire-initiated accident sequences  

SciTech Connect

This report covers work to develop a methodology for analyzing precursors to both earthquake-initiated and fire-initiated accidents at commercial nuclear power plants. Currently, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsors a large ongoing project, the Accident Sequence Precursor project, to analyze the safety significance of other types of accident precursors, such as those arising from internally-initiated transients and pipe breaks, but earthquakes and fires are not within the current scope. The results of this project are that: (1) an overall step-by-step methodology has been developed for precursors to both fire-initiated and seismic-initiated potential accidents; (2) some stylized case-study examples are provided to demonstrate how the fully-developed methodology works in practice, and (3) a generic seismic-fragility date base for equipment is provided for use in seismic-precursors analyses. 44 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs.

Budnitz, R.J.; Lambert, H.E.; Apostolakis, G. [and others] and others

1998-04-01

29

Analyzing the uncertainty of simulation results in accident reconstruction with Response Surface Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is focused on the uncertainty of simulation results in accident reconstruction. The Upper and Lower Bound Method (ULM) and the Finite Difference Method (FDM), which can be easily applied in this field, are introduced firstly; the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is then introduced into this field as an alternative methodology. In RSM, a sample set is firstly generated

Tiefang Zou; Ming Cai; Ronghua Du; Jike Liu

30

Tank Car Accident Data Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of a study of accidents involving railroad tank cars. The study is part of an overall effort to provide improved safety of rail transportation at reduced life-cycle costs. A major goal of the study is to provide a technical...

M. E. Hazel

1991-01-01

31

Upgrading the safety toolkit: Initiatives of the accident analysis subgroup  

SciTech Connect

Since its inception, the Accident Analysis Subgroup (AAS) of the Energy Facility Contractors Group (EFCOG) has been a leading organization promoting development and application of appropriate methodologies for safety analysis of US Department of Energy (DOE) installations. The AAS, one of seven chartered by the EFCOG Safety Analysis Working Group, has performed an oversight function and provided direction to several technical groups. These efforts have been instrumental toward formal evaluation of computer models, improving the pedigree on high-use computer models, and development of the user-friendly Accident Analysis Guidebook (AAG). All of these improvements have improved the analytical toolkit for best complying with DOE orders and standards shaping safety analysis reports (SARs) and related documentation. Major support for these objectives has been through DOE/DP-45.

O'Kula, K.R.; Chung, D.Y.

1999-07-01

32

Simplified Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Methodology: Comparisons with other HRA Methods  

SciTech Connect

The 1994 Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) human reliability analysis (HRA) methodology was developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) in 1994 by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). It was decided to revise that methodology for use by the Simplified Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) program. The 1994 ASP HRA methodology was compared, by a team of analysts, on a point-by-point basis to a variety of other HRA methods and sources. This paper briefly discusses how the comparisons were made and how the 1994 ASP HRA methodology was revised to incorporate desirable aspects of other methods. The revised methodology was renamed the SPAR HRA methodology.

Byers, James Clifford; Gertman, David Ira; Hill, Susan Gardiner; Blackman, Harold Stabler; Gentillon, Cynthia Ann; Hallbert, Bruce Perry; Haney, Lon Nolan

2000-08-01

33

Simplified plant analysis risk (SPAR) human reliability analysis (HRA) methodology: Comparisons with other HRA methods  

SciTech Connect

The 1994 Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) human reliability analysis (HRA) methodology was developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) in 1994 by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). It was decided to revise that methodology for use by the Simplified Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) program. The 1994 ASP HRA methodology was compared, by a team of analysts, on a point-by-point basis to a variety of other HRA methods and sources. This paper briefly discusses how the comparisons were made and how the 1994 ASP HRA methodology was revised to incorporate desirable aspects of other methods. The revised methodology was renamed the SPAR HRA methodology.

J. C. Byers; D. I. Gertman; S. G. Hill; H. S. Blackman; C. D. Gentillon; B. P. Hallbert; L. N. Haney

2000-07-31

34

Probabilistic Approach to Analysis of Death Traffic Accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is devoted to analysis of data related to traffic accidents at one of the roads in Czech Republic. The data sets are available as discrete-valued variables providing results of traffic accident (with death or not) as well as conditions under which the accident has happened (weather, visibility, speed etc). Situation of a traffic accident is modeled within state-space

Evgenia Suzdaleva; Ivan Nagy

35

Accident analysis for US fast burst reactors  

SciTech Connect

In the US fast burst reactor (FBR) community there has been increasing emphasis and scrutiny on safety analysis and understanding of possible accident scenarios. This paper summarizes recent work in these areas that is going on at the different US FBR sites. At this time, all of the FBR facilities have or in the process of updating and refining their accident analyses. This effort is driven by two objectives: to obtain a more realistic scenario for emergency response procedures and contingency plans, and to determine compliance with changing regulatory standards.

Paternoster, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Flanders, M. [Army Nuclear Effects Directorate, White Sands, NM (United States); Kazi, H. [Army Combat Systems Test Directorate, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1994-09-01

36

Failure analysis in a vehicle accident reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A metallurgical and mechanical failure analysis was applied as part of a vehicle accident reconstruction of a multi-vehicle\\u000a collision. One of these vehicles was a coal-hauling tractor-trailer. Examination of the trailer involved in the incident revealed\\u000a a fatigue fracture to a primary lateral stiffener, along with a significant misalignment of the stiffener. Stress and fatigue\\u000a analysis indicated that the misalignment

M. E. Stevenson; J. L. McDougall; E. E. Vernon; L. McCall; R. D. Bowman

2004-01-01

37

Comparison of techniques for accident scenario analysis in hazardous systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, three accident scenario analysis techniques are presented and compared regarding their efficiency vs. the demanded resources. The complexity of modern industrial systems has prompted the development of accident analysis techniques that should thoroughly investigate accidents. The idea of criteria classification to fulfill this requirement has been proposed by other researchers and is examined here too. The comparison

Z. S. Nivolianitou; V. N. Leopoulos; M. Konstantinidou

2004-01-01

38

Recent Methodology in Ginseng Analysis  

PubMed Central

As much as the popularity of ginseng in herbal prescriptions or remedies, ginseng has become the focus of research in many scientific fields. Analytical methodologies for ginseng, referred to as ginseng analysis hereafter, have been developed for bioactive component discovery, phytochemical profiling, quality control, and pharmacokinetic studies. This review summarizes the most recent advances in ginseng analysis in the past half-decade including emerging techniques and analytical trends. Ginseng analysis includes all of the leading analytical tools and serves as a representative model for the analytical research of herbal medicines.

Baek, Seung-Hoon; Bae, Ok-Nam; Park, Jeong Hill

2012-01-01

39

Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation  

SciTech Connect

This document provided the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report''. All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

CROWE, R.D.; PIEPHO, M.G.

2000-03-23

40

Canister Storage Building (CSB) Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support ''HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety, Analysis Report, Annex A,'' ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

CROWE, R.D.

1999-09-09

41

Canister storage building design basis accident analysis documentation  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report.

KOPELIC, S.D.

1999-02-25

42

PEDESTRIAN ACCIDENT SIMULATIONS METHODOLOGY USING DETAILED VEHICLE MODELS AND AGE-DEPENDENT LEG FRACTURE LIMITS ON THE PEDESTRIAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to define a methodology to perform pedestrian accident simulations with multibody techniques using a detailed geometry and stiffness characterization in the impacting vehicles as well as age dependant fracture limits for the MADYMO human pedestrian legs. This methodology is applied to real world pedestrian accidents reconstructed by UPM-INSIA in the frame of the APROSYS project (TIP3-CT-2004-506503) to

Luis Martínez; Luis J. Guerra; G. Ferichola; A. García

43

Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).'' All assumptions, parameters and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR.

PIEPHO, M.G.

1999-10-20

44

Coupled thermal analysis applied to the study of the rod ejection accident  

SciTech Connect

An advanced methodology for the assessment of fuel-rod thermal margins under RIA conditions has been developed by AREVA NP SAS. With the emergence of RIA analytical criteria, the study of the Rod Ejection Accident (REA) would normally require the analysis of each fuel rod, slice by slice, over the whole core. Up to now the strategy used to overcome this difficulty has been to perform separate analyses of sampled fuel pins with conservative hypotheses for thermal properties and boundary conditions. In the advanced methodology, the evaluation model for the Rod Ejection Accident (REA) integrates the node average fuel and coolant properties calculation for neutron feedback purpose as well as the peak fuel and coolant time-dependent properties for criteria checking. The calculation grid for peak fuel and coolant properties can be specified from the assembly pitch down to the cell pitch. The comparative analysis of methodologies shows that coupled methodology allows reducing excessive conservatism of the uncoupled approach. (authors)

Gonnet, M. [AREVA NP, TOUR AREVA - 1 Place Jean MILLIER, 92084 Paris La Defense Cedex (France)

2012-07-01

45

Bayesian Network-Based Road Traffic Accident Causality Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic accident causality analysis is an important aspect in the traffic safety research field. Based on data survey and statistical analysis, a Bayesian network for traffic accident causality analysis was developed. The structure and parameter of the Bayesian network was learnt with K2 algorithm and Bayesian parameter estimation respectively. With the Junction Tree algorithm, the effect of road cross-section on

Xu Hongguo; Zhang Huiyong; Zong Fang

2010-01-01

46

A POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS TO DOE-STD-3009-94 ACCIDENT ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to assess proposed transuranic waste accident analysis guidance and recent software improvements in a Windows-OS version of MACCS2 that allows the inputting of parameter uncertainty. With this guidance and code capability, there is the potential to perform a quantitative uncertainty assessment of unmitigated accident releases with respect to the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline (EG) of DOE-STD-3009-94 CN3 (STD-3009). Historically, the classification of safety systems in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility's safety basis has involved how subject matter experts qualitatively view uncertainty in the STD-3009 Appendix A accident analysis methodology. Specifically, whether consequence uncertainty could be larger than previously evaluated so the site-specific accident consequences may challenge the EG. This paper assesses whether a potential uncertainty capability for MACCS2 could provide a stronger technical basis as to when the consequences from a design basis accident (DBA) truly challenges the 25 rem EG.

Palmrose, D E; Yang, J M

2007-05-10

47

An integrated safety-analysis methodology for emerging air-transport technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate an approach to integrating reliability, performance, and operational procedures modeling into a system safety analysis. Our methodology is distinguished by its ability to merge system design information with the dynamic parameterization of a system's situation in order to measure accident statistics and reliable system operation. As an application of this methodology, we have considered the problem of simultaneous,

Deborah F. Allinger; G. Rosch; J. K. Kuchar

1998-01-01

48

Categorizing accident sequences in the external radiotherapy for risk analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study identifies accident sequences from the past accidents in order to help the risk analysis application to the external radiotherapy. Materials and Methods This study reviews 59 accidental cases in two retrospective safety analyses that have collected the incidents in the external radiotherapy extensively. Two accident analysis reports that accumulated past incidents are investigated to identify accident sequences including initiating events, failure of safety measures, and consequences. This study classifies the accidents by the treatments stages and sources of errors for initiating events, types of failures in the safety measures, and types of undesirable consequences and the number of affected patients. Then, the accident sequences are grouped into several categories on the basis of similarity of progression. As a result, these cases can be categorized into 14 groups of accident sequence. Results The result indicates that risk analysis needs to pay attention to not only the planning stage, but also the calibration stage that is committed prior to the main treatment process. It also shows that human error is the largest contributor to initiating events as well as to the failure of safety measures. This study also illustrates an event tree analysis for an accident sequence initiated in the calibration. Conclusion This study is expected to provide sights into the accident sequences for the prospective risk analysis through the review of experiences.

2013-01-01

49

A methodology for generating dynamic accident progression event trees for level-2 PRA  

SciTech Connect

Currently, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. A software tool (ADAPT) is described for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. While the software tool could be applied to any systems analysis code, the MELCOR code is used for this illustration. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a pressurized water reactor. (authors)

Hakobyan, A.; Denning, R.; Aldemir, T. [Ohio State Univ., Nuclear Engineering Program, 650 Ackerman Road, Columbus, OH 43202 (United States); Dunagan, S.; Kunsman, D. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

2006-07-01

50

Hazmat transport: a methodological framework for the risk analysis of marshalling yards.  

PubMed

A methodological framework was outlined for the comprehensive risk assessment of marshalling yards in the context of quantified area risk analysis. Three accident typologies were considered for yards: (i) "in-transit-accident-induced" releases; (ii) "shunting-accident-induced" spills; and (iii) "non-accident-induced" leaks. A specific methodology was developed for the assessment of expected release frequencies and equivalent release diameters, based on the application of HazOp and Fault Tree techniques to reference schemes defined for the more common types of railcar vessels used for "hazmat" transportation. The approach was applied to the assessment of an extended case-study. The results evidenced that "non-accident-induced" leaks in marshalling yards represent an important contribution to the overall risk associated to these zones. Furthermore, the results confirmed the considerable role of these fixed installations to the overall risk associated to "hazmat" transportation. PMID:17418942

Cozzani, Valerio; Bonvicini, Sarah; Spadoni, Gigliola; Zanelli, Severino

2007-01-21

51

A VDS Based Traffic Accident Prediction Analysis and Future Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to present the prediction analysis of traffic accident and future applications by calculating\\u000a accident risks based on ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems) data via VDS (Vehicle Detecting System). Many researches have\\u000a described various traffic accident predictions and reductions. However, until recently, empirical studies considering real\\u000a traffic environments are still insufficient. Site selections in this study

Chungwon Lee; Bong Gyou Lee; Kisu Kim; Hye Sun Lee

2007-01-01

52

Study of possibility using LANL PSA-methodology for accident probability RBMK researches  

SciTech Connect

The reactor facility probabilistic safety analysis methodologies are considered which are used at U.S. LANL and RF NIKIET. The methodologies are compared in order to reveal their similarity and differences, determine possibilities of using the LANL technique for RBMK type reactor safety analysis. It is found that at the PSA-1 level the methodologies practically do not differ. At LANL the PHA, HAZOP hazards analysis methods are used for more complete specification of the accounted initial event list which can be also useful at performance of PSA for RBMK. Exchange of information regarding the methodology of detection of dependent faults and consideration of human factor impact on reactor safety is reasonable. It is accepted as useful to make a comparative study result analysis for test problems or PSA fragments using various computer programs employed at NIKIET and LANL.

Petrin, S.V.; Yuferev, V.Y.; Zlobin, A.M.

1995-12-31

53

Cognitive failure analysis for aircraft accident investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present studies were undertaken to investigate the applicability of an information processing approach to human failure in the aircraft cockpit. Using data obtained from official aircraft accident investigation reports, a database of accidents and incidents involving New Zealand civil aircraft between 1982 and 1991 was compiled. In the first study, reports were coded into one of three error stages

DAVID OHARE; MARK WIGGINS; RICHARD BATT; DIANNE MORRISON

1994-01-01

54

An analysis of causation in aerospace accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a short description of common accident models and their limitations, a new model is used to evaluate the causal factors in a mission interruption of the SOHO (SOlar Heliospheric Observatory) spacecraft. The factors in this accident are similar to common factors found in other recent software related aerospace losses

K. A. Weiss; N. Leveson; K. Lundqvist; N. Farid; M. Stringfellow

2001-01-01

55

MELCOR analysis of the TMI2 accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MELCOR computer code has been used to analyze the first 174 minutes of the TMI-2 accident. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of analyzing severe accidents in nuclear power plants. Comparison of the code predictions to the available data shows that MELCOR is capable of modeling the key

E. A. Boucheron; J. E. Kelly

1988-01-01

56

A grounded theory model for analysis of marine accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper was to design a conceptual model for analysis of marine accidents. The model is grounded on large amounts of empirical data, i.e. the Swedish Maritime Administration database, which was thoroughly studied. This database contains marine accidents organized by ship and variable. The majority of variables are non-metric and some have never been analyzed because of

Arben Mullai; Ulf Paulsson

2011-01-01

57

Sas2a Lmfbr Accident-Analysis Computer Code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SAS2A code is an integrated accident-analysis code that calculates the initial consequences of an accident, from steady-state, preaccident conditions up to the point of large-scale fuel motion or disassembly. The code starts with a steady-state therma...

F. E. Dunn G. J. Fischer T. J. Heames P. A. Pizzica N. A. McNeal

1974-01-01

58

Development of linked analysis system for PWR severe accidents utilizing RELAP5 and MAAP4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to develop a severe accident (SA) analysis method that is more reliable thorough transferring the physical status of the plant predicted by RELAP5 computer code to MAAP4 computer code. The methodology of the linkage analysis is developed and the criterion of linkage time is suggested to utilize the RELAP5 thermal–hydraulic calculation to the maximum

Chang-Hwan Park; Ji-Han Chun; Kune-Yull Suh; Goon-Cherl Park; Un-Chul Lee

2010-01-01

59

Methodology for System Safety Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This standard tailors and interprets certain requirements of MIL-STD-1574 and defines the methodology to be used to satisfy the analytical requirements imposed by that MIL Standard. The system safety analyses required by MIL-STD-1574 normally take the for...

1977-01-01

60

Methodology of independent software nuclear safety analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Independent software nuclear safety analysis provides a methodology to ensure that software does not cause or contribute to a violation of the nuclear safety standards established by the Department of Defense, and that nuclear safety-critical software is not adversely affected by interfacing software or by operator action. This methodology is a systematic approach to examine a specific aspect of software

Edward A. Addy

1994-01-01

61

A methodology for optimisation of countermeasures for animal products after a nuclear accident and its application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for the optimisation of the countermeasures associated with the contamination of animal products was designed based on cost–benefit analysis. Results are discussed for the hypothetical deposition of radionuclides on 15 August, when pastures are fully developed in Korean agricultural conditions. A dynamic food chain model, DYNACON, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the countermeasures for reducing the

Won Tae Hwang; Gyuseong Cho; Moon Hee Han

1999-01-01

62

Component Head Test Accident Reconstruction Feasibility Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Motor vehicle accidents cause about 44% of all head injuries in the U.S., and are the most common source of severe head injuries. A hybrid II dummy headform was instrumented with a nine-accelerometer array to permit the measurement of rotational accelerat...

R. A. Saul M. Farson D. A. Guenther

1986-01-01

63

Analysis of Credible Accidents for Argonaut Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Five areas of potential accidents have been evaluated for the Argonaut-UTR reactors. They are: • insertion of excess reactivity • catastrophic rearrangement of the core • explosive chemical reaction • graphite fire • fuel-handling accident. A nuclear excursion resulting from the rapid insertion of the maximum available excess reactivity would produce only 12 MWs which is insufficient to cause fuel melting even with conservative assumptions. Although precise structural rearrangement of the core would create a potential hazard, it is simply not credible to assume that such an arrangement would result from the forces of an earthquake or other catastrophic event. Even damage to the fuel from falling debris or other objects is unlikely given the normal reactor structure. An explosion from a metal-water reaction could not occur because there is no credible source of sufficient energy to initiate the reaction. A graphite fire could conceivably create some damage to the reactor but not enough to melt any fuel or initiate a metal-water reaction. The only credible accident involving offsite doses was determined to be a fuel-handling accident which, given highly conservative assumptions, would produce a whole-body dose equivalent of 2 rem from noble gas immersion and a lifetime dose equivalent commitment to the thyroid of 43 rem from radioiodines.

Hawley, S. C.; Kathern, R. L.; Robkin, M. A.

1981-04-01

64

Case for integral core-disruptive accident analysis  

SciTech Connect

Integral analysis is an approach used at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to cope with the broad multiplicity of accident paths and complex phenomena that characterize the transition phase of core-disruptive accident progression in a liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor. The approach is based on the combination of a reference calculation, which is intended to represent a band of similar accident paths, and associated system- and separate-effect studies, which are designed to determine the effect of uncertainties. Results are interpreted in the context of a probabilistic framework. The approach was applied successfully in two studies; illustrations from the Clinch River Breeder Reactor licensing assessment are included.

Luck, L.B.; Bell, C.R.

1985-01-01

65

Rat sperm motility analysis: methodologic considerations  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of these studies was to optimize conditions for computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) of rat epididymal spermatozoa. Methodologic issues addressed include sample collection technique, sampling region within the epididymis, type of diluent medium used, and sample c...

66

Clinical Application of Functional Analysis Methodology  

PubMed Central

Functional analysis (FA) methodology is a well-established standard for assessment in applied behavior analysis research. Although used less commonly in clinical (nonresearch) application, the basic components of an FA can be adapted easily in many situations to facilitate the treatment of problem behavior. This article describes practical aspects of FA methodology and suggests ways that it can be incorporated into routine clinical work.

Iwata, Brian A; Dozier, Claudia L

2008-01-01

67

Systemic accident analysis: examining the gap between research and practice.  

PubMed

The systems approach is arguably the dominant concept within accident analysis research. Viewing accidents as a result of uncontrolled system interactions, it forms the theoretical basis of various systemic accident analysis (SAA) models and methods. Despite the proposed benefits of SAA, such as an improved description of accident causation, evidence within the scientific literature suggests that these techniques are not being used in practice and that a research-practice gap exists. The aim of this study was to explore the issues stemming from research and practice which could hinder the awareness, adoption and usage of SAA. To achieve this, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 42 safety experts from ten countries and a variety of industries, including rail, aviation and maritime. This study suggests that the research-practice gap should be closed and efforts to bridge the gap should focus on ensuring that systemic methods meet the needs of practitioners and improving the communication of SAA research. PMID:23542136

Underwood, Peter; Waterson, Patrick

2013-03-13

68

[Methodological approach to countermeasure options in rural settlements in the long terms after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP].  

PubMed

A methodological approach for the justification of rational countermeasure options in agricultural production in the long term after the Chernobyl NPP accident is presented. The decrease in the scale of countermeasures in 1993-1996 in the most affected regions has resulted to a rise in internal exposure doses to the population. A need for further application of protective measures in the long term after the Chernobyl NPP accident is estimated. It has been shown that the remediation of some rural settlements should be continued till 2045. PMID:11605244

Fesenko, S V; Panov, A V; Aleksakhin, R M

69

OFFSITE RADIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS FOR THE BOUNDING FLAMMABLE GAS ACCIDENT  

SciTech Connect

This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequences of the bounding flammable gas accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a SST. The calculation applies reasonably conservative input parameters in accordance with guidance in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The purpose of this analysis is to calculate the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding flammable gas accident. DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', requires the formal quantification of a limited subset of accidents representing a complete set of bounding conditions. The results of these analyses are then evaluated to determine if they challenge the DOE-STD-3009-94, Appendix A, ''Evaluation Guideline,'' of 25 rem total effective dose equivalent in order to identify and evaluate safety-class structures, systems, and components. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a single-shell tank (SST). A detonation versus a deflagration was selected for analysis because the faster flame speed of a detonation can potentially result in a larger release of respirable material. A detonation in an SST versus a double-shell tank (DST) was selected as the bounding accident because the estimated respirable release masses are the same and because the doses per unit quantity of waste inhaled are greater for SSTs than for DSTs. Appendix A contains a DST analysis for comparison purposes.

KRIPPS, L.J.

2005-02-18

70

The Methodology of Data Envelopment Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The methodology of data envelopment analysis, (DEA) a linear programming-based method, is described. Other procedures often used for measuring relative productive efficiency are discussed in relation to DEA, including ratio analysis and multiple regression analysis. The DEA technique is graphically illustrated for only two inputs and one output.…

Sexton, Thomas R.

1986-01-01

71

Analysis of tritium mission FMEF/FAA fuel handling accidents  

SciTech Connect

The Fuels Material Examination Facility/Fuel Assembly Area is proposed to be used for fabrication of mixed oxide fuel to support the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) tritium/medical isotope mission. The plutonium isotope mix for the new mission is different than that analyzed in the FMEF safety analysis report. A reanalysis was performed of three representative accidents for the revised plutonium mix to determine the impact on the safety analysis. Current versions computer codes and meterology data files were used for the analysis. The revised accidents were a criticality, an explosion in a glovebox, and a tornado. The analysis concluded that risk guidelines were met with the revised plutonium mix.

Van Keuren, J.C.

1997-11-18

72

A STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODEL FOR ROAD ACCIDENT ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a tool for effecting road accident analysis is proposed. Specifically, a structural equation model is introduced. Structural equation modelling (SEM) is a multivariate technique combining regression, factor analysis and analysis of variance in order to estimate interrelated dependence relationships simultaneously. This approach allows the modelling of a phenomenon by considering both the unobserved \\

73

Accident Sequence Evaluation Program: Human reliability analysis procedure  

SciTech Connect

This document presents a shortened version of the procedure, models, and data for human reliability analysis (HRA) which are presented in the Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis With emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications (NUREG/CR-1278, August 1983). This shortened version was prepared and tried out as part of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and managed by Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this new HRA procedure, called the ''ASEP HRA Procedure,'' is to enable systems analysts, with minimal support from experts in human reliability analysis, to make estimates of human error probabilities and other human performance characteristics which are sufficiently accurate for many probabilistic risk assessments. The ASEP HRA Procedure consists of a Pre-Accident Screening HRA, a Pre-Accident Nominal HRA, a Post-Accident Screening HRA, and a Post-Accident Nominal HRA. The procedure in this document includes changes made after tryout and evaluation of the procedure in four nuclear power plants by four different systems analysts and related personnel, including human reliability specialists. The changes consist of some additional explanatory material (including examples), and more detailed definitions of some of the terms. 42 refs.

Swain, A.D.

1987-02-01

74

Methodology for network communication vulnerability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework for a developing network vulnerability assessment methodology is described. An original network taxonomy is used to orient the analyst to the new network and to assess the potential vulnerability issues. Four network characteristics are used, as in data link vulnerability analysis susceptibility; interceptability; accessibility; and feasibility. Susceptibility issues are pursued in terms of three perspectives: topology; communication protocols;

Marlin P. Ristenbatt

1988-01-01

75

Analysis of injury severity and vehicle occupancy in truck and non-truckinvolved accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact that large trucks have on accident severity has long been a concern in the accident analysis literature. One important measure of accident severity is the most severely injured occupant in the vehicle. Such data are routinely collected in state accident data files in the U.S. Among the many risk factors that determine the most severe level of injury

Li-Yen Chang; Fred Mannering

1999-01-01

76

Analysis of Time Distribution in Traffic Accident Based on Fuzzy Assessment Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of China's traffic accident status much; this paper focuses on the problem of reducing the occurrence of traffic accidents. Based on the traffic accident data within a year in certain section of Tianjin, this paper studies the application of fuzzy assessment method in analysis of time distribution of traffic accidents. We use fuzzy assessment method to get the

He Song-bai; Wei Ai-guo; Yu Dian-xiang; Tan Zhong; Wang Peng

2009-01-01

77

Locked Rotor Accident Analysis in a Molten Salt Breeder Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is made of locked rotor accidents in a molten salt breeder reactor (MSBR). The evaluation is performed using a point reactor model for the reactor power and a spatially lumped parameter model of primary system for fuel temperature.In a reactor with circulating fuel such as an MSBR, the reduction or the stoppage of fuel flow caused by locked

Yoichiro SHIMAZU

1978-01-01

78

Using a Cognitive Theoretical Framework to Support Accident Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current cognitive user models enable us to describe, analyze, and predict aspects of user cognition. However, none of the major cognitive models such as ICS, MHP, or CCT tackle the human error aspect of cognition explicitly. Operator performance is constrained to be error-free, expert performance. This paper argues that the analysis of human error in accidents will greatly benefit from

Daniela K. Busse; Chris W. Johnson

79

Cold Vacuum Drying facility design basis accident analysis documentation  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR. The calculations in this document address the design basis accidents (DBAs) selected for analysis in HNF-3553, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report'', Annex B, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' The objective is to determine the quantity of radioactive particulate available for release at any point during processing at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and to use that quantity to determine the amount of radioactive material released during the DBAs. The radioactive material released is used to determine dose consequences to receptors at four locations, and the dose consequences are compared with the appropriate evaluation guidelines and release limits to ascertain the need for preventive and mitigative controls.

CROWE, R.D.

2000-08-08

80

APR1400 Reactivity Insertion Accident Analysis Using KNAP  

SciTech Connect

The Korea Electric Power Research Institute had decided to develop the new safety analysis code system for the Optimized Power Reactor 1000 (OPR1000) in Korea by the fund of the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy. In this paper, some results of the Advanced Power Reactor 1400(APR1400) using the RETRAN code for some reactivity insertion accident are introduced to expand application from safety analysis experience of OPR1000. (authors)

Chang-Keun, Yang; Yo-Han, Kim; Chang-Kyung, Sung [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, 103-16 Munji-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Daejon, 305-380 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

81

RSM (Response Surface Methodology) Modelling of an ATWS Accident Simulated by the ALMOD Code: Methodological and Practical Achievement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simulation study of a PWR station black-out ATWS has been performed by applying Response Surface Methodology (RSM) on the data obtained by inspecting the ALMOD code. The case under study has shown that the a priori information which alone could be inade...

L. Olivi P. C. Cacciabue P. Parisi

1984-01-01

82

RSM (Response Surface Methodology) Modelling of an ATWS Accident Simulated by the ALMOD Code: Methodological and Practical Achievement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simulation study of a station black-out ATWS has been performed by applying Response Surface Methodology (RSM) on the data obtained by inspecting the ALMOD code. The case under study has shown that the priori information which alone could be inadequate,...

L. Olivi F. Brunelli P. C. Cacciabue P. Parisi

1984-01-01

83

Methodological approaches to comparing information about bicycle accidents internationally: a case study involving Canada and Germany.  

PubMed

The use of bicycles as a mean of healthy and eco-friendly transportation is currently actively promoted in many industrialized countries. However, the number of severe bicycle accidents rose significantly in Germany and Canada in 2011. In order to identify risk factors for bicycle accidents and possible means of prevention, a study was initiated that analyses bicycle accidents from selected regions in both countries. Due to different healthcare systems and regulations, the data must be selected in different ways in each country before it can be analyzed. Data is collected by means of questionnaires in Germany and using hybrid electronic-paper records in Canada. Using this method, all relevant data can be collected in both countries. PMID:23388262

Juhra, Christian; Wieskötter, Britta; Bellwood, Paule; von Below, Ariane; Fyfe, Murray; Salkeld, Sonia; Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre

2013-01-01

84

Older drivers and accidents: A meta analysis and data mining application on traffic accident data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teenage driving and associated accidents have been thoroughly studied. With the graying of our population in the United States, a focus on senior drivers and related accidents is needed. Unfortunately, there is not one comprehensive study that reviews the major existing studies conducted on senior drivers and accidents. In examining the literature, it also appears that data mining has rarely

Evrim Bayam; Jay Liebowitz; William W. Agresti

2005-01-01

85

Outil d’aide à la conduite des analyses approfondies des incidents et accidents liés à la prestation de soins  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an analysis tool to conduct incident\\/accident investigations in hospitals called DANAISS (Déclaration et ANalyse approfondie des Accidents et Incidents survenus dans le Système de Soins). This tool provides a structured methodology and 6 checklist sheets. Structured methodology This structured methodology helps to provide a structure for incident-accident analysis within the hospitals and to standardise data collected on

Nathalie de Marcellis-Warin

2004-01-01

86

Combining task analysis and fault tree analysis for accident and incident analysis: a case study from Bulgaria.  

PubMed

Understanding the reasons for incident and accident occurrence is important for an organization's safety. Different methods have been developed to achieve this goal. To better understand the human behaviour in incident occurrence we propose an analysis concept that combines Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Task Analysis (TA). The former method identifies the root causes of an accident/incident, while the latter analyses the way people perform the tasks in their work environment and how they interact with machines or colleagues. These methods were complemented with the use of the Human Error Identification in System Tools (HEIST) methodology and the concept of Performance Shaping Factors (PSF) to deepen the insight into the error modes of an operator's behaviour. HEIST shows the external error modes that caused the human error and the factors that prompted the human to err. To show the validity of the approach, a case study at a Bulgarian Hydro power plant was carried out. An incident - the flooding of the plant's basement - was analysed by combining the afore-mentioned methods. The case study shows that Task Analysis in combination with other methods can be applied successfully to human error analysis, revealing details about erroneous actions in a realistic situation. PMID:19819365

Doytchev, Doytchin E; Szwillus, Gerd

2008-10-10

87

Calculation notes for surface leak resulting in pool, TWRS FSAR accident analysis  

SciTech Connect

This document includes the calculations performed to quantify the risk associated with the unmitigated and mitigated accident scenarios described in the TWRS FSAR for the accident analysis titled: Surface Leaks Resulting in Pool.

Hall, B.W.

1996-09-25

88

Calculation Notes for Subsurface Leak Resulting in Pool, TWRS FSAR Accident Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This document includes the calculations performed to quantify the risk associated with the unmitigated and mitigated accident scenarios described in the TWRS FSAR for the accident analysis titled: Subsurface Leaks Resulting in Pool.

Hall, B.W.

1996-09-25

89

Basic Research on Sound Recognition of Traffic Accident using Visualization Method with Time-Frequency Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conciderable skill is needed to detect traffic accident sound which was recorded in the intersection. In this paper, we proposed detection method of accident sound data using time-frequency analysis and correlation method in a short time.

Yamagami, Noriko; Hasegawa, Shinji

90

Offsite radiological consequence analysis for the bounding flammable gas accident  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to calculate the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding flammable gas accident. DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', requires the formal quantification of a limited subset of accidents representing a complete set of bounding conditions. The results of these analyses are then evaluated to determine if they challenge the DOE-STD-3009-94, Appendix A, ''Evaluation Guideline,'' of 25 rem total effective dose equivalent in order to identify and evaluate safety class structures, systems, and components. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a single-shell tank (SST). A detonation versus a deflagration was selected for analysis because the faster flame speed of a detonation can potentially result in a larger release of respirable material. As will be shown, the consequences of a detonation in either an SST or a double-shell tank (DST) are approximately equal. A detonation in an SST was selected as the bounding condition because the estimated respirable release masses are the same and because the doses per unit quantity of waste inhaled are generally greater for SSTs than for DSTs. Appendix A contains a DST analysis for comparison purposes.

CARRO, C.A.

2003-03-19

91

Analysis of PWR RCS Injection Strategy During Severe Accident  

SciTech Connect

Reactor coolant system (RCS) injection is an important strategy for severe accident management of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Maanshan is a typical Westinghouse PWR nuclear power plant (NPP) with large, dry containment. The severe accident management guideline (SAMG) of Maanshan NPP is developed based on the Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG) SAMG.The purpose of this work is to analyze the RCS injection strategy of PWR system in an overheated core condition. Power is assumed recovered as the vessel water level drops to the bottom of active fuel. The Modular Accident Analysis Program version 4.0.4 (MAAP4) code is chosen as a tool for analysis. A postulated station blackout sequence for Maanshan NPP is cited as a reference case for this analysis. The hot leg creep rupture occurs during the mitigation action with immediate injection after power recovery according to WOG SAMG, which is not desired. This phenomenon is not considered while developing the WOG SAMG. Two other RCS injection methods are analyzed by using MAAP4. The RCS injection strategy is modified in the Maanshan SAMG. These results can be applied for typical PWR NPPs.

Wang, S.-J. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan (China); Chiang, K.-S. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan (China); Chiang, S.-C. [Taiwan Power Company, Taiwan (China)

2004-05-15

92

A grounded theory model for analysis of marine accidents.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper was to design a conceptual model for analysis of marine accidents. The model is grounded on large amounts of empirical data, i.e. the Swedish Maritime Administration database, which was thoroughly studied. This database contains marine accidents organized by ship and variable. The majority of variables are non-metric and some have never been analyzed because of the large number of values. Summary statistics were employed in the data analysis. In order to develop a conceptual model, the database variables were clustered into eleven main categories or constructs, which were organized according to their properties and connected with the path diagram of relationships. For demonstration purposes, one non-metric and five metric variables were selected, namely fatality, ship's properties (i.e. age, gross register tonnage, and length), number of people on board, and marine accidents. These were analyzed using the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. The combined prediction power of the 'ship's properties' and 'number of people on board' independent variables accounted for 65% of the variance of the fatality. The model development was largely based on the data contained in the Swedish database. However, as this database shares a number of variables in common with other databases in the region and the world, the model presented in this paper could be applied to other datasets. The model has both theoretical and practical values. Recommendations for improvements in the database are also suggested. PMID:21545894

Mullai, Arben; Paulsson, Ulf

2011-04-15

93

Requirements Analysis in the Value Methodology  

SciTech Connect

The Value Methodology (VM) study brings together a multidisciplinary team of people who own the problem and have the expertise to identify and solve it. With the varied backgrounds and experiences the team brings to the study, come different perspectives on the problem and the requirements of the project. A requirements analysis step can be added to the Information and Function Analysis Phases of a VM study to validate whether the functions being performed are required, either regulatory or customer prescribed. This paper will provide insight to the level of rigor applied to a requirements analysis step and give some examples of tools and techniques utilized to ease the management of the requirements and functions those requirements support for highly complex problems.

Conner, Alison Marie

2001-05-01

94

A DISCIPLINED APPROACH TO ACCIDENT ANALYSIS DEVELOPMENT AND CONTROL SELECTION  

SciTech Connect

The development and use of a Safety Input Review Committee (SIRC) process promotes consistent and disciplined Accident Analysis (AA) development to ensure that it accurately reflects facility design and operation; and that the credited controls are effective and implementable. Lessons learned from past efforts were reviewed and factored into the development of this new process. The implementation of the SIRC process has eliminated many of the problems previously encountered during Safety Basis (SB) document development. This process has been subsequently adopted for use by several Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities with similar results and expanded to support other analysis activities.

Ortner, T; Mukesh Gupta, M

2007-04-13

95

Methodology for Proactive Signal Warrant Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Typically, transportation agencies perform traffic studies only after conditions have deteriorated to an unacceptable level, accidents have taken place and customer complaints have mounted (reactive policy). By that time, problems have already begun to oc...

T. Ziliaskopoulos J. L. Donnally

1997-01-01

96

Three Dimensional Analysis of 3-Loop PWR RCCA Ejection Accident for High Burnup  

SciTech Connect

The Rod Control Cluster Assembly (RCCA) ejection accident is a Condition IV design basis reactivity insertion event for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The event is historically analyzed using a one-dimensional (1D) neutron kinetic code to meet the current licensing criteria for fuel rod burnup to 62,000 MWD/MTU. The Westinghouse USNRC-approved three-dimensional (3D) analysis methodology is based on the neutron kinetics version of the ANC code (SPNOVA) coupled with Westinghouse's version of the EPRI core thermal-hydraulic code VIPRE-01. The 3D methodology provides a more realistic yet conservative analysis approach to meet anticipated reduction in the licensing fuel enthalpy rise limit for high burnup fuel. A rod ejection analysis using the 3D methodology was recently performed for a Westinghouse 3-loop PWR at an up-rated core power of 3151 MWt with reload cores that allow large flexibility in assembly shuffling and a fuel hot rod burnup to 75,000 MWD/MTU. The analysis considered high enrichment fuel assemblies at the control rod locations as well as bounding rodded depletions in the end of life, zero power and full power conditions. The analysis results demonstrated that the peak fuel enthalpy rise is less than 100 cal/g for the transient initiated at the hot zero power condition. The maximum fuel enthalpy is less than 200 cal/g for the transient initiated from the full power condition. (authors)

Marciulescu, Cristian; Sung, Yixing; Beard, Charles L. [Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC (United States)

2006-07-01

97

AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (ATC) RELATED ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS: A HUMAN FACTORS ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, the nature and role of ATC personnel in aviation accidents and incidents has yet to be fully examined. To remedy this situation, a comprehensive review of ATC-related accidents and incidents that occurred between January 1985 and December 1997 was conducted using records maintained by the NTSB. Results of the analysis revealed that ATC-related accidents and incidents are infrequent

Anthony M. Pape; Douglas A. Wiegmann; Scott Shappell

2001-01-01

98

Method of Road Traffic Accidents Causes Analysis Based on Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming at the phenomenon of road traffic accident frequency, a method of road traffic accidents causes analysis based on data mining was put forward. First analyzed the related attributes and causes of road traffic accidents. Then introduced two kinds of basic theory of data mining : rough sets theory and the theory of association rules. Finally proposed the method of

Rui Tian; Zhaosheng Yang; Maolei Zhang

2010-01-01

99

Human Error Analysis of Commercial Aviation Accidents Using the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) is a general human error framework originally developed and tested within the U.S. military as a tool for investigating and analyzing the human causes of aviation accidents. Based upon Reason's ...

D. A. Wiegmann S. A. Shappell

2001-01-01

100

Simulating Unprotected Accidents for Advanced Liquid Metal Reactors Using the SAS4A Accident Analysis Code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To ensure that the public health and safety are protected during any accident in a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), many accidents are analyzed for their potential consequences. The SAS4A code system, described in this paper, provides such an an...

A. M. Tentner F. E. Dunn Kalimullah K. J. Miles

1988-01-01

101

Epidemiological analysis of serious occupational accidents in southern Finland.  

PubMed

The aims of this article were, on the one hand, to indicate the risk groups exposed to serious occupational accidents and, on the other hand, to examine what makes serious occupational accidents 'serious'. We compared the data on 99 serious occupational accidents gathered by ourselves to the information from official statistics. The results showed that the risk of a serious accident was highest for a man working in the manufacturing industry, at a construction site, or in transporting, and who was in his first year of service. Typical serious occupational accidents were falls from heights, accidents with machines, and getting run over by moving vehicles. The most general injuries were fractures, loss of extremities, and injuries to internal organs. Serious occupational accidents differ from minor accidents as regards type of accident and injured part of the body. PMID:7846482

Salminen, S T

1994-09-01

102

Cost analysis methodology: Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work done under Phase 1 of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) Project. PVMaT is a five-year project to support the translation of research and development in PV technology into the marketplace. PVMaT, conceived as a DOE/industry partnership, seeks to advanced PV manufacturing technologies, reduce PV module production costs, increase module performance, and expand US commercial production capacities. Under PVMaT, manufacturers will propose specific manufacturing process improvements that may contribute to the goals of the project, which is to lessen the cost, thus hastening entry into the larger scale, grid-connected applications. Phase 1 of the PVMaT project is to identify obstacles and problems associated with manufacturing processes. This report describes the cost analysis methodology required under Phase 1 that will allow subcontractors to be ranked and evaluated during Phase 2.

Whisnant, R.A. (Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

1992-09-01

103

Extension of ship accident analysis to multiple-package shipments  

SciTech Connect

Severe ship accidents and the probability of radioactive material release from spent reactor fuel casks were investigated previously. Other forms of RAM, e.g., plutonium oxide powder, may be shipped in large numbers of packagings rather than in one to a few casks. These smaller, more numerous packagings are typically placed in ISO containers for ease of handling, and several ISO containers may be placed in one of several holds of a cargo ship. In such cases, the size of a radioactive release resulting from a severe collision with another ship is determined not by the likelihood of compromising a single, robust package but by the probability that a certain fraction of 10`s or 100`s of individual packagings is compromised. The previous analysis involved a statistical estimation of the frequency of accidents which would result in damage to a cask located in one of seven cargo holds in a collision with another ship. The results were obtained in the form of probabilities (frequencies) of accidents of increasing severity and of release fractions for each level of severity. This paper describes an extension of the same general method in which the multiple packages are assumed to be compacted by an intruding ship`s bow until there is no free space in the hold. At such a point, the remaining energy of the colliding ship is assumed to be dissipated by progressively crushing the RAM packagings and the probability of a particular fraction of package failures is estimated by adaptation of the statistical method used previously. The parameters of a common, well characterized packaging, the 6M with 2R inner containment vessel, were employed as an illustrative example of this analysis method. However, the method is readily applicable to other packagings for which crush strengths have been measured or can be estimated with satisfactory confidence.

Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

1997-11-01

104

Radioactive Material (RAM) Transportation Accident/Incident Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the radioactive material (RAM) transportation accident/incident experience in the United States from 1971 to March 1985. RAM transportation activities that involve accidents or incidents comprise approximately 0.7% of all hazardous ...

J. D. McClure A. Tyron-Hopko

1986-01-01

105

Statistical analysis of accident severity on rural freeways.  

PubMed

The growing concern about the possible safety-related impacts of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) has focused attention on the need to develop new statistical approaches to predict accident severity. This paper presents a nested logit formulation as a means for determining accident severity given that an accident has occurred. Four levels of severity are considered: (1) property damage only, (2) possible injury, (3) evident injury, and (4) disabling injury or fatality. Using 5-year accident data from a 61 km section of rural interstate in Washington State (which has been selected as an ITS demonstration site), we estimate a nested logit model of accident severity. The estimation results provide valuable evidence on the effect that environmental conditions, highway design, accident type, driver characteristics and vehicle attributes have on accident severity. Our findings show that the nested logit formulation is a promising approach to evaluate the impact that ITS or other safety-related countermeasures may have on accident severities. PMID:8799444

Shankar, V; Mannering, F; Barfield, W

1996-05-01

106

NASA Accident Precursor Analysis Handbook, Version 1.0.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Catastrophic accidents are usually preceded by precursory events that, although observable, are not recognized as harbingers of a tragedy until after the fact. In the nuclear industry, the Three Mile Island accident was preceded by at least two events por...

A. Hall C. Everett F. Groen S. Insley

2011-01-01

107

Thermohydraulic and Safety Analysis for CARR Under Station Blackout Accident  

SciTech Connect

A thermohydraulic and safety analysis code (TSACC) has been developed using Fortran 90 language to evaluate the transient thermohydraulic behaviors and safety characteristics of the China Advanced Research Reactor(CARR) under Station Blackout Accident(SBA). For the development of TSACC, a series of corresponding mathematical and physical models were considered. Point reactor neutron kinetics model was adopted for solving reactor power. All possible flow and heat transfer conditions under station blackout accident were considered and the optional models were supplied. The usual Finite Difference Method (FDM) was abandoned and a new model was adopted to evaluate the temperature field of core plate type fuel element. A new simple and convenient equation was proposed for the resolution of the transient behaviors of the main pump instead of the complicated four-quadrant model. Gear method and Adams method were adopted alternately for a better solution to the stiff differential equations describing the dynamic behaviors of the CARR. The computational result of TSACC showed the enough safety margin of CARR under SBA. For the purpose of Verification and Validation (V and V), the simulated results of TSACC were compared with those of Relap5/Mdo3. The V and V result indicated a good agreement between the results by the two codes. Because of the adoption of modular programming techniques, this analysis code is expected to be applied to other reactors by easily modifying the corresponding function modules. (authors)

Wenxi Tian; Suizheng Qiu; Guanghui Su; Dounan Jia [Xi'an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning Road, Xi'an 710049 (China); Xingmin Liu - China Institute of Atomic Energy

2006-07-01

108

Negative Binomial Analysis of Intersection-Accident Frequencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic accidents at urban intersections result in a huge cost to society in tenns of death, injury, lost productivity, and property damage. Unfortunately, the elements that effect the frequency of intersection accidents are not well understood and, as a result, it is difficult to predict the effectiveness of specific intersection improvements that are aimed at reducing accident frequency. Using seven-yr

Mark Poch; Fred Mannering

1996-01-01

109

[Health care for aged victims of accidents and violence: analysis of SUS health services in Recife (PE, Brazil)].  

PubMed

A situational diagnosis of the health services regarding the care of aged victims of accidents and violence (AVAV) was carried out in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The National Policy for Reducing Accident and Violence Related Morbidity and Mortality and the National Policy for the Aged People Health were used as references. The methodology was based on the triangulation method, with both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Questionnaires and interviews were answered by managers and health staff of hospital, prehospital and rehabilitation services; and local aged health policy managers. In 2006, only the Family Health Program reported prehospital care for AVAV, 31 cases were due to violence and 18 to accidents. The hospital care for aged people was 7.2% of the total care, 27% from accidents and 10% from violence. In the same year, there was no record of rehabilitation care of AVAV. The directives of the policies studied are only partially followed. The health care is deficient in several aspects, such as: clinical protocols; notification devices; support to the aged, caregivers and aggressors; and also continuous training. This analysis can be such a contribution to the reorganization of the local health system, recognizing the aged person as vulnerable to accidents and violence. PMID:20922277

de Lima, Maria Luiza Carvalho; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; de Lima, Maria Luiza Lopes Timóteo; Barreira, Alice Kelly; Bezerra, Eduardo Duque; Acioli, Raquel Moura Lins

2010-09-01

110

Statistical analysis of accidents on the Middle Asia-Centre gas pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical analysis of accidental rupture of pipelines and an evaluation of the possibility of obtaining a given value for certain hazardous parameters is presented. The analysis uses the database of accidents which occurred during the period 1980–1990 for the Middle Asia-Centre pipeline. The analysis takes into account those parameters which determine the energy potential of the accident and approximate

A. M. Bartenev; B. E. Gelfand; G. M. Makhviladze; J. P. Roberts

1996-01-01

111

Decontamination analysis of the NUWAX-83 accident site using DECON  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an analysis of the site restoration options for the NUWAX-83 site, at which an exercise was conducted involving a simulated nuclear weapons accident. This analysis was performed using a computer program deveoped by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The computer program, called DECON, was designed to assist personnel engaged in the planning of decontamination activities. The many features of DECON that are used in this report demonstrate its potential usefulness as a site restoration planning tool. Strategies that are analyzed with DECON include: (1) employing a Quick-Vac option, under which selected surfaces are vacuumed before they can be rained on; (2) protecting surfaces against precipitation; (3) prohibiting specific operations on selected surfaces; (4) requiring specific methods to be used on selected surfaces; (5) evaluating the trade-off between cleanup standards and decontamination costs; and (6) varying of the cleanup standards according to expected exposure to surface.

Tawil, J.J.

1983-11-01

112

Development of severe accident analysis code - A study on the molten core-concrete interaction under severe accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to understand the phenomena of the molten core/concrete interaction during the hypothetical severe accident, and to develop the model for heat transfer and physical phenomena in MCCIs. The contents of this study are analysis o...

C. H. Jung B. C. Lee C. W. Huh D. Y. Kim J. Y. Kim

1996-01-01

113

Geographical information systems aided traffic accident analysis system case study: city of Afyonkarahisar.  

PubMed

Geographical Information System (GIS) technology has been a popular tool for visualization of accident data and analysis of hot spots in highways. Many traffic agencies have been using GIS for accident analysis. Accident analysis studies aim at the identification of high rate accident locations and safety deficient areas on the highways. So, traffic officials can implement precautionary measures and provisions for traffic safety. Since accident reports are prepared in textual format in Turkey, this situation makes it difficult to analyze accident results. In our study, we developed a system transforming these textual data to tabular form and then this tabular data were georeferenced onto the highways. Then, the hot spots in the highways in Afyonkarahisar administrative border were explored and determined with two different methods of Kernel Density analysis and repeatability analysis. Subsequently, accident conditions at these hot spots were examined. We realized that the hot spots determined with two methods reflect really problematic places such as cross roads, junction points etc. Many of previous studies introduced GIS only as a visualization tool for accident locations. The importance of this study was to use GIS as a management system for accident analysis and determination of hot spots in Turkey with statistical analysis methods. PMID:18215546

Erdogan, Saffet; Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Baybura, Tamer; Gullu, Mevlut

2007-06-15

114

Analysis of traffic accident injury severity on Spanish rural highways using Bayesian networks.  

PubMed

Several different factors contribute to injury severity in traffic accidents, such as driver characteristics, highway characteristics, vehicle characteristics, accidents characteristics, and atmospheric factors. This paper shows the possibility of using Bayesian Networks (BNs) to classify traffic accidents according to their injury severity. BNs are capable of making predictions without the need for pre assumptions and are used to make graphic representations of complex systems with interrelated components. This paper presents an analysis of 1536 accidents on rural highways in Spain, where 18 variables representing the aforementioned contributing factors were used to build 3 different BNs that classified the severity of accidents into slightly injured and killed or severely injured. The variables that best identify the factors that are associated with a killed or seriously injured accident (accident type, driver age, lighting and number of injuries) were identified by inference. PMID:21094338

de Oña, Juan; Mujalli, Randa Oqab; Calvo, Francisco J

2010-10-20

115

Potential Threats from a Likely Nuclear Power Plant Accident: a Climatological Trajectory Analysis and Tracer Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The legacy of Chernobyl is not the only nuclear accident likely to confront Turkish territory, which is not far from other\\u000a insecure power plants, especially the Metsamor. The main purpose of this study was to examine the possible impacts to Turkish\\u000a territory of a hypothetical accident at the Metsamor Nuclear Plant. The research was performed based on two different methodologies:

Tayfun Kindap; Ufuk Utku Turuncoglu; Shu-Hua Chen; Alper Unal; Mehmet Karaca

2009-01-01

116

Diepgaand Onderzoek Verkeersongevallen DOVO. Bijdrage aan een Methodologische Verkenning (Through Traffic Accident Investigation. A Contribution to a Methodological Survey).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When a severe traffic accident occurs, in which many vehicles are involved and many persons are killed, or severely injured, there should be a thorough investigation of the accident. The whole accident process not just the outcome must be studied by means...

S. Oppe

1984-01-01

117

Radionuclide analysis on bamboos following the Fukushima nuclear accident.  

PubMed

In response to contamination from the recent Fukushima nuclear accident, we conducted radionuclide analysis on bamboos sampled from six sites within a 25 to 980 km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Maximum activity concentrations of radiocesium (134)Cs and (137)Cs in samples from Fukushima city, 65 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi plant, were in excess of 71 and 79 kBq/kg, dry weight (DW), respectively. In Kashiwa city, 195 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi, the sample concentrations were in excess of 3.4 and 4.3 kBq/kg DW, respectively. In Toyohashi city, 440 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi, the concentrations were below the measurable limits of up to 4.5 Bq/kg DW. In the radiocesium contaminated samples, the radiocesium activity was higher in mature and fallen leaves than in young leaves, branches and culms. PMID:22496858

Higaki, Takumi; Higaki, Shogo; Hirota, Masahiro; Akita, Kae; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

2012-04-04

118

A Generalized Methodology for Library Systems Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Directed toward the novice in systems work, it is the purpose of this article to generalize at a very elementary level a methodology or approach which can be used in conducting a systems study. (34 references) (Author/NH)

Burns, Robert W., Jr.

1971-01-01

119

Analysis of Waste Leak and Toxic Chemical Release Accidents from Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Diluent System  

SciTech Connect

Radiological and toxicological consequences are calculated for 4 postulated accidents involving the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) diluent addition systems. Consequences for the onsite and offsite receptor are calculated. This analysis contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences for the River Protection Project (RPP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).

WILLIAMS, J.C.

2000-09-15

120

The accident analysis of mobile mine machinery in Indian opencast coal mines.  

PubMed

This paper presents the analysis of large mining machinery related accidents in Indian opencast coal mines. The trends of coal production, share of mining methods in production, machinery deployment in open cast mines, size and population of machinery, accidents due to machinery, types and causes of accidents have been analysed from the year 1995 to 2008. The scrutiny of accidents during this period reveals that most of the responsible factors are machine reversal, haul road design, human fault, operator's fault, machine fault, visibility and dump design. Considering the types of machines, namely, dumpers, excavators, dozers and loaders together the maximum number of fatal accidents has been caused by operator's faults and human faults jointly during the period from 1995 to 2008. The novel finding of this analysis is that large machines with state-of-the-art safety system did not reduce the fatal accidents in Indian opencast coal mines. PMID:23324038

Kumar, R; Ghosh, A K

2013-01-17

121

Preliminary analysis of loss-of-coolant accident in Fukushima nuclear accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) especially on Fukushima Nuclear Accident will be discussed in this paper. The Tohoku earthquake triggered the shutdown of nuclear power reactors at Fukushima Nuclear Power station. Though shutdown process has been completely performed, cooling process, at much smaller level than in normal operation, is needed to remove decay heat from the reactor core until the reactor reach cold-shutdown condition. If LOCA happen at this condition, it will cause the increase of reactor fuel and other core temperatures and can lead to reactor core meltdown and exposure of radioactive material to the environment such as in the Fukushima Dai Ichi nuclear accident case. In this study numerical simulation has been performed to calculate pressure composition, water level and temperature distribution on reactor during this accident. There are two coolant regulating system that operational on reactor unit 1 at this accident, Isolation Condensers (IC) system and Safety Relief Valves (SRV) system. Average mass flow of steam to the IC system in this event is 10 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 3,2 hours and fully uncovered in 4,7 hours later. There are two coolant regulating system at operational on reactor unit 2, Reactor Core Isolation Condenser (RCIC) System and Safety Relief Valves (SRV). Average mass flow of coolant that correspond this event is 20 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 73 hours and fully uncovered in 75 hours later. There are three coolant regulating system at operational on reactor unit 3, Reactor Core Isolation Condenser (RCIC) system, High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system and Safety Relief Valves (SRV). Average mass flow of water that correspond this event is 15 kg/s and could keep reactor core from uncovered about 37 hours and fully uncovered in 40 hours later.

Su'ud, Zaki; Anshari, Rio

2012-06-01

122

Head Injuries in Child Pedestrian Accidents—In-Depth Case Analysis and Reconstructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate head injuries, injury risks, and corresponding tolerance levels of children in car-to–child pedestrian collisions.Methods. An in-depth accident analysis was carried out based on 23 accident cases involving child pedestrians. These cases were collected with detailed information about pedestrians, cars, and road environments. All 23 accidents were reconstructed using the MADYMO program

Jianfeng Yao; Jikuang Yang; Dietmar Otte

2007-01-01

123

300-Area accident analysis for Emergency Planning Zones  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has requested SRL assistance in developing offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZs) for the Savannah River Plant, based on projected dose consequences of atmospheric releases of radioactivity from potential credible accidents in the SRP operating areas. This memorandum presents the assessment of the offsite doses via the plume exposure pathway from the 300-Area potential accidents. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

Pillinger, W.L.

1983-06-27

124

GPHS-RTG launch accident analysis for Galileo and Ulysses  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the safety program conducted to determine the response of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) to potential launch accidents of the Space Shuttle for the Galileo and Ulysses missions. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) provided definition of the Shuttle potential accidents and characterized the environments. The Launch Accident Scenario Evaluation Program (LASEP) was developed by GE to analyze the RTG response to these accidents. RTG detailed response to Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) fragment impacts, as well as to other types of impact, was obtained from an extensive series of hydrocode analyses. A comprehensive test program was conducted also to determine RTG response to the accident environments. The hydrocode response analyses coupled with the test data base provided the broad range response capability which was implemented in LASEP.

Bradshaw, C.T. (General Electric Company, Astro-Space Division, P.O. Box 8555, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19101 (US))

1991-01-01

125

Injury patterns of seniors in traffic accidents: A technical and medical analysis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the actual injury situation of seniors in traffic accidents and to evaluate the different injury patterns. METHODS: Injury data, environmental circumstances and crash circumstances of accidents were collected shortly after the accident event at the scene. With these data, a technical and medical analysis was performed, including Injury Severity Score, Abbreviated Injury Scale and Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale. The method of data collection is named the German In-Depth Accident Study and can be seen as representative. RESULTS: A total of 4430 injured seniors in traffic accidents were evaluated. The incidence of sustaining severe injuries to extremities, head and maxillofacial region was significantly higher in the group of elderly people compared to a younger age (P < 0.05). The number of accident-related injuries was higher in the group of seniors compared to other groups. CONCLUSION: Seniors are more likely to be involved in traffic injuries and to sustain serious to severe injuries compared to other groups.

Brand, Stephan; Otte, Dietmar; Mueller, Christian Walter; Petri, Maximilian; Haas, Philipp; Stuebig, Timo; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

2012-01-01

126

Swimming pool immersion accidents: an analysis from the Brisbane Drowning Study  

PubMed Central

An analysis of a consecutive series of 66 swimming pool immersion accidents is presented; 74% of these occurred in in-ground swimming pools. The estimated accident rate per pool is fives times greater for in-ground pools compared with above-ground pools, where pools are inadequately fenced. Backyard swimming pools account for 74% of pool accidents. Motel and caravan park pools account for 9% of childhood immersion accidents, but the survival rate (17%) is very low. Fifty per cent of pool accidents occur in the family's own backyard pool, and 13.6% in a neighbour's pool; in the latter the survival rate is still low at only 33%. In only one of the 66 cases was there an adequate safety fence; in 76% of cases there was no fence or barrier whatsoever. Tables of swimming pool accidents by age, season, site, and outcome are presented.

Pearn, John H; Nixon, James

1997-01-01

127

Progress in accident analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design  

SciTech Connect

The present work continues our effort to perform an integrated safety analysis for the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design. Recently we developed a base case for a severe accident scenario in order to calculate accident doses for HYLIFE-II. It consisted of a total loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in which all the liquid flibe (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) was lost at the beginning of the accident. Results showed that the off-site dose was below the limit given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for public protection in case of accident, and that his dose was dominated by the tritium released during the accident.

Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Gomez del Rio, J; Sanz, J

2000-10-11

128

PWR integrated safety analysis methodology using multi-level coupling algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupled three-dimensional (3D) neutronics/thermal-hydraulic (T-H) system codes give a unique opportunity for a realistic modeling of the plant transients and design basis accidents (DBA) occurring in light water reactors (LWR). Examples of such DBAs are the rod ejection accidents (REA) and the main steam line break (MSLB) that constitute the bounding safety problems for pressurized water reactors (PWR). These accidents involve asymmetric 3D spatial neutronic and T-H effects during the course of the transients. The thermal margins (the peak fuel temperature, and departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR)) are the measures of safety at a particular transient and need to be evaluated as accurate as possible. Modern 3D neutronics/T-H coupled codes estimate the safety margins coarsely on an assembly level, i.e. for an average fuel pin. More accurate prediction of the safety margins requires the evaluation of the transient fuel rod response involving locally coupled neutronics/T-H calculations. The proposed approach is to perform an on-line hot-channel safety analysis not for the whole core but for a selected local region, for example for the highest power loaded fuel assembly. This approach becomes feasible if an on-line algorithm capable to extract the necessary input data for a sub-channel module is available. The necessary input data include the detailed pin-power distributions and the T-H boundary conditions for each sub-channel in the considered problem. Therefore, two potential challenges are faced in the development of refined methodology for evaluation of local safety parameters. One is the development of an efficient transient pin-power reconstruction algorithm with a consistent cross-section modeling. The second is the development of a multi-level coupling algorithm for the T-H boundary and feed-back data exchange between the sub-channel module and the main 3D neutron kinetics/T-H system code, which already uses one level of coupling scheme between 3D neutronics and core thermal-hydraulics models. The major accomplishment of the thesis is the development of an integrated PWR safety analysis methodology with locally refined safety evaluations. This involved introduction of an improved method capable of efficiently restoring the fine pin-power distribution with a high degree of accuracy. In order to apply the methodology to evaluate the safety margins on a pin level, a refined on-line hot channel model was developed accounting for the cross-flow effects. Finally, this methodology was applied to best estimate safety analysis to more accurately calculate the thermal safety margins occurring during a design basis accident in PWR.

Ziabletsev, Dmitri Nickolaevich

129

Sodium fast reactor gaps analysis of computer codes and models for accident analysis and reactor safety.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of an expert-opinion elicitation activity designed to qualitatively assess the status and capabilities of currently available computer codes and models for accident analysis and reactor safety calculations of advanced sodium fast reactors, and identify important gaps. The twelve-member panel consisted of representatives from five U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, and BNL), the University of Wisconsin, the KAERI, the JAEA, and the CEA. The major portion of this elicitation activity occurred during a two-day meeting held on Aug. 10-11, 2010 at Argonne National Laboratory. There were two primary objectives of this work: (1) Identify computer codes currently available for SFR accident analysis and reactor safety calculations; and (2) Assess the status and capability of current US computer codes to adequately model the required accident scenarios and associated phenomena, and identify important gaps. During the review, panel members identified over 60 computer codes that are currently available in the international community to perform different aspects of SFR safety analysis for various event scenarios and accident categories. A brief description of each of these codes together with references (when available) is provided. An adaptation of the Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) for computational modeling and simulation is described for use in this work. The panel's assessment of the available US codes is presented in the form of nine tables, organized into groups of three for each of three risk categories considered: anticipated operational occurrences (AOOs), design basis accidents (DBA), and beyond design basis accidents (BDBA). A set of summary conclusions are drawn from the results obtained. At the highest level, the panel judged that current US code capabilities are adequate for licensing given reasonable margins, but expressed concern that US code development activities had stagnated and that the experienced user-base and the experimental validation base was decaying away quickly.

Carbajo, Juan (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Jeong, Hae-Yong (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea); Wigeland, Roald (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Corradini, Michael (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Thomas, Justin (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wei, Tom (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Sofu, Tanju (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Ludewig, Hans (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Tobita, Yoshiharu (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki-ken, Japan); Ohshima, Hiroyuki (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki-ken, Japan); Serre, Frederic (Centre d'%C3%94etudes nucl%C3%94eaires de Cadarache %3CU%2B2013%3E CEA, France)

2011-06-01

130

Major accidents in process industries and an analysis of causes and consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly recapitulates some of the major accidents in chemical process industries which occurred during 1926–1997. These case studies have been analysed with a view to understand the damage potential of various types of accidents, and the common causes or errors which have led to disasters. An analysis of different types of accidental events such as fire, explosion and

Faisal I. Khan; S. A. Abbasi

1999-01-01

131

Accident consequences analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies of the safety and environmental aspects of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design have used simplistic assumptions in order to estimate radioactivity releases under accident conditions. Conservatisms associated with these traditional analyses can mask the actual behavior of the plant and have revealed the need for more accurate modeling and analysis of accident conditions and radioactivity

S. Reyes; J. F. Latkowski; J. Gomez del Rio; J. Sanz

2001-01-01

132

Validation of the metal fuel version of the SAS4A accident analysis code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes recent work directed towards the validation of the metal fuel version of the SAS4A accident analysis code. The SAS4A code system has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory for the simulation of hypothetical severe accidents in ...

A. M. Tentner

1991-01-01

133

Fuel Relocation Modeling in the SAS4A Accident Analysis Code System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SAS4A code system has been designed for the analysis of the initial phase of Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accidents (HCDAs) up to gross melting or failure of the subassembly walls. During such postulated accident scenarios as the Loss-of-Flow (LOF) an...

A. M. Tentner K. J. Miles Kalimullah D. J. Hill

1986-01-01

134

Development of Debris Coolability Analysis Module in Severe Accident Analysis Code SAMPSON for IMPACT Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Debris coolability in the lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel is an important factor for the evaluation of in-vessel debris retention. The debris coolability analysis module has been developed to predict more mechanistically the safety margin of the present reactor vessels in a severe accident. The module calculates debris spreading and cooling through melting and solidification in combination with

Hiroshi UJITA; Masataka HIDAKA; Akira SUSUKI; Naoyuki ISHIDA

1999-01-01

135

Review of 62 risk analysis methodologies of industrial plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

For about 10 years, many methodologies have been developed to undertake a risk analysis on an industrial plant. In this paper, 62 methodologies have been identified, these are separated into three different phases (identification, evaluation and hierarchisation). In order to understand their running, it seems necessary to examine the input data, methods used, obtained output data and to rank them

J. Tixier; G. Dusserre; O. Salvi; D. Gaston

2002-01-01

136

Electric utility value analysis methodology for wind energy conversion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methodology summarized in this report was developed in support of a study of the value of augmenting conventional electric energy generation with wind energy conversion systems (WECS). A major objective of the value analysis study is the creation of an analytical methodology to assess WECS installed in a utility's generation system. The pertinent measures of value include both the

L. R. Bush; C. K. Cretcher; T. H. Davey

1981-01-01

137

Social Network Analysis in Human Resource Development: A New Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through an exhaustive review of the literature, this article looks at the applicability of social network analysis (SNA) in the field of humanresource development. The literature review revealed that a number of disciplines have adopted this unique methodology, which has assisted in the development of theory. SNA is a methodology for examining the structure among actors, groups, and organizations and

John-Paul Hatala

2006-01-01

138

Accident/Incident Data Analysis Database Summaries. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The two volume report provides a compendium of the existence, availability, limitations, and applicability of aviation accident and incident databases for use in human factors research. An aviation and data processing oriented form was used to survey 41 U...

T. P. Murphy R. J. Levendoski

1989-01-01

139

An Analysis of Pilot Error-Related Aircraft Accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A multidisciplinary team approach to pilot error-related U.S. air carrier jet aircraft accident investigation records successfully reclaimed hidden human error information not shown in statistical studies. New analytic techniques were developed and applie...

N. B. Kowalsky R. L. Masters R. B. Stone G. L. Babcock E. W. Rypka

1974-01-01

140

Risks due to beyond design base accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe—the methodology of riskmap  

Microsoft Academic Search

International treaties on liability in the case of nuclear accidents set a limit on the repair payments to be made by the operators of nuclear power plants to countries adversely affected by nuclear fall-out which is independent of the actual risk incurred by the individual countries. A map of the risk due to beyond design base accidents of nuclear power

Iouli Andreev; Markus Hittenberger; Peter Hofer; Helga Kromp-Kolb; Wolfgang Kromp; Petra Seibert; Gerhard Wotawa

1998-01-01

141

BNL severe accident sequence experiments and analysis program  

SciTech Connect

A major source of containment pressurization during severe accidents is the transfer of stored energy from the hot core material to available cooling water. One mode of thermal interaction involves the quench of superheated beds of debris which could be present in the reactor cavity following melt-through or failure of the reactor vessel. This work supports development of models of superheated bed quench phenomena which are to be incorporated into containment analysis computer codes such as MARCH, CONTAIN, and MEDICI. A program directed towards characterization of the behavior of superheated debris beds has been completed. This work addressed the quench of superheated debris which is postulated to exist in the reactor cavity of a PWR following melt ejection from the primary system. The debris is assumed to be cooled by a pool of water overlying the bed of hot debris. This work has led to the development of models to predict rate of steam generation during the quench process and, in addition, the ability to assess the coolability of the debris during the transient quench process. A final report on this work has been completed. This report presents a brief description of some relevant results and conclusions. 15 refs.

Greene, G.A.; Ginsberg, T.; Tutu, N.K.

1985-01-01

142

Use of inelastic analysis to determine the response of packages to puncture accidents  

SciTech Connect

The accurate analytical determination of the response of radioactive material transportation packages to the hypothetical puncture accident requires inelastic analysis techniques. Use of this improved analysis method recudes the reliance on empirical and approximate methods to determine the safety for puncture accidents. This paper will discuss how inelastic analysis techniques can be used to determine the stresses, strains and deformations resulting from puncture accidents for thin skin materials with different backing materials. A method will be discussed to assure safety for all of these types of packages.

Ammerman, D.J.; Ludwigsen, J.S.

1996-08-01

143

Offsite Radiological Consequence Analysis for the Bounding Flammable Gas Accident  

SciTech Connect

This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequences of the bounding flammable gas accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a single-shell tank The calculation applies reasonably conservation input parameters in accordance with DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A, guidance. Revision 1 incorporates comments received from Office of River Protection.

CARRO, C.A.

2003-07-30

144

Analysis on an electrostatic accident due to hydrogen gas ejection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article discusses a hydrogen flash explosion accident, and the mechanism of hydrogen charging and discharging; and analyses the stress condition at the anchoring points of the blowdown line. Moreover, the load-bearing capacity of the blowdown line and the maximum explosion pressure in flash explosion of hydrogen gas were calculated. It can be concluded that the electrostatic discharge of high pressure ejected hydrogen was the main reason for the accident.

Han, Zhaohui; Lou, Renjie; Shan, Juya

2013-03-01

145

Update of Part 61 Impacts Analysis Methodology. Methodology report. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Envirosphere Company has expanded and updated the impacts analysis methodology used during the development of the 10 CFR Part 61 rule to allow improved consideration of the costs and impacts of treatment and disposal of low-level waste that is close to or exceeds Class C concentrations. The modifications described in this report principally include: (1) an update of the low-level radioactive waste source term, (2) consideration of additional alternative disposal technologies, (3) expansion of the methodology used to calculate disposal costs, (4) consideration of an additional exposure pathway involving direct human contact with disposed waste due to a hypothetical drilling scenario, and (5) use of updated health physics analysis procedures (ICRP-30). Volume 1 of this report describes the calculational algorithms of the updated analysis methodology.

Oztunali, O.I.; Roles, G.W.

1986-01-01

146

Accident Characterization Methodology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is preparing NUREG-1150 to examine the risk from a selected group of nuclear power plants. NUREG-1150 will provide technical bases for comparison of NRC research to industry results and resolution of numerous severe...

A. L. Camp F. T. Harper

1986-01-01

147

Methodological Issues in the Content Analysis of Computer Conference Transcripts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the potential and the methodological challenges of analyzing computer conference transcripts using quantitative content analysis. The paper is divided into six sections, which discuss: criteria for content analysis, research designs, types of content, units of analysis, ethical issues, and software to aid analysis. The discussion is supported with a survey of 19 commonly referenced studies published during

Liam Rourke; Terry Anderson; D. R. Garrison; Walter Archer

2001-01-01

148

Risk analysis using a hybrid Bayesian-approximate reasoning methodology.  

SciTech Connect

Analysts are sometimes asked to make frequency estimates for specific accidents in which the accident frequency is determined primarily by safety controls. Under these conditions, frequency estimates use considerable expert belief in determining how the controls affect the accident frequency. To evaluate and document beliefs about control effectiveness, we have modified a traditional Bayesian approach by using approximate reasoning (AR) to develop prior distributions. Our method produces accident frequency estimates that separately express the probabilistic results produced in Bayesian analysis and possibilistic results that reflect uncertainty about the prior estimates. Based on our experience using traditional methods, we feel that the AR approach better documents beliefs about the effectiveness of controls than if the beliefs are buried in Bayesian prior distributions. We have performed numerous expert elicitations in which probabilistic information was sought from subject matter experts not trained In probability. We find it rnuch easier to elicit the linguistic variables and fuzzy set membership values used in AR than to obtain the probability distributions used in prior distributions directly from these experts because it better captures their beliefs and better expresses their uncertainties.

Bott, T. F. (Terrence F.); Eisenhawer, S. W. (Stephen W.)

2001-01-01

149

Texture analysis methodologies for magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Methods for the analysis of digital-image texture are reviewed. The functions of MaZda, a computer program for quantitative texture analysis developed within the framework of the European COST (Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research) B11 program, are introduced. Examples of texture analysis in magnetic resonance images are discussed.

Materka, Andrzej

2004-01-01

150

DOE 2009 Geothermal Risk Analysis: Methodology and Results (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation summarizes the methodology and results for a probabilistic risk analysis of research, development, and demonstration work-primarily for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS)-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program.

Young, K. R.; Augustine, C.; Anderson, A.

2010-02-01

151

Four Methodological Assumptions in Risk-Cost-Benefit Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a study of four methodological assumptions in risk-cost-benefit analysis (RCBA) are presented: (1) the aggregation assumption, (2) the linearity assumption, (3) the partial quantification assumption, and (4) the commensurability assumption....

K. S. Shrader-Frechette

1983-01-01

152

DOE 2009 Geothermal Risk Analysis: Methodology and Results (Presentation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation summarizes the methodology and results for a probabilistic risk analysis of research, development, and demonstration work-primarily for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS)-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program.

K. R. Young; C. Augustine; A. Anderson

2010-01-01

153

Systems-based accident analysis in the led outdoor activity domain: application and evaluation of a risk management framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety-compromising accidents occur regularly in the led outdoor activity domain. Formal accident analysis is an accepted means of understanding such events and improving safety. Despite this, there remains no universally accepted framework for collecting and analysing accident data in the led outdoor activity domain. This article presents an application of Rasmussen's risk management framework to the analysis of the Lyme

P. Salmon; A. Williamson; M. Lenné; E. Mitsopoulos-Rubens; C. M. Rudin-Brown

2010-01-01

154

Further Development of the LMFBR Accident Analysis Codes HOPE and KADIS: Automatic Data Transfer, New Equation of State.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To provide suitable tools for the analysis of hypothetical unprotected transient overpower accidents in LMFBR, the codes HOPE and KADIS were further developed. HOPE analyses the initiating phase of a reactivity ramp accident in an irradiated core, KADIS i...

E. A. Fischer G. Arnecke

1978-01-01

155

Reactor Safety Study. An Assessment of Accident Risks in U.S. Commercial Nuclear Power Plants. Appendix xi. Analysis of Comments on the Draft Wash-1400 Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information is presented concerning comments on reactor safety by governmental agencies and civilian organizations; reactor safety study methodology; consequence model; probability of accident sequences; and various accident conditions. (ERA citation 02:0...

1975-01-01

156

Sensitivity Analysis of a Ship Accident at a Deep-Ocean Site in the Northwest Atlantic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a sensitivity analysis for an HLW ship accident occurring in the Nares Abyssal Plain in the northwestern Atlantic. Waste form release rate, canister lifetime and sorption in the water column (partition coefficients) wer...

M. F. Kaplan

1985-01-01

157

Accident analysis for aircraft crash into hazardous facilities: A statistical primer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The DOE Standard 3014-96, Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities provides a robust statistical framework useful for assessing the release frequency for hazardous materials used in many industrial operations. The formulae and the ve...

J. C. Rock

1998-01-01

158

Action Plan for updated Chapter 15 Accident Analysis in the SRS Production Reactor SAR  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Action Plan for the upgrade of the Chapter 15 Accident Analysis in the SRS Production Reactor SAR required for K-Restart. This Action Plan will be updated periodically to reflect task accomplishments and issue resolutions.

Hightower, N.T. III; Burnett, T.W.

1989-11-15

159

Safety analysis results for cryostat ingress accidents in ITER  

SciTech Connect

Accidents involving the ingress of air or water into the cryostat of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak design have been analyzed with a modified version of the MELCOR code for the ITER Non-site Specific Safety Report (NSSR-1). The air ingress accident is the result of a postulated breach of the cryostat boundary into an adjoining room. MELCOR results for this accident demonstrate that the condensed air mass and increased heat loads are not a magnet safety concern, but that the partial vacuum in the adjoining room must be accommodated in the building design. The water ingress accident is the result of a postulated magnet arc that results in melting of a Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS) coolant pipe, discharging PHTS water and PHTS water activated corrosion products and HTO into the cryostat. MELCOR results for this accident demonstrate that the condensed water mass and increased heat loads are not a magnet safety concern, that the cryostat pressure remains below design limits, and that the corrosion product and HTO releases are well within the ITER release limits.

Merrill, B.J.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Petti, D.A.

1996-12-31

160

Nuclear accidents and epidemiology. Reports on two meetings on epidemiology related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident, Copenhagen, 13-14 May 1987 and appropriate methodologies for studying possible long-term effects of radiation on individuals exposed in a nuclear accident, Vienna, 18-22 May 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A consultation on epidemiology related to the Chernobyl accident was held in Copenhagen in May 1987 as a basis for concerted action. This was followed by a joint IAEA/WHO workshop in Vienna, which reviewed appropriate methodologies for possible long-term ...

1987-01-01

161

Fast Transient And Spatially Non-Homogenous Accident Analysis Of Two-Dimensional Cylindrical Nuclear Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The research about fast transient and spatially non-homogenous nuclear reactor accident analysis of two-dimensional nuclear reactor has been done. This research is about prediction of reactor behavior is during accident. In the present study, space-time diffusion equation is solved by using direct methods which consider spatial factor in detail during nuclear reactor accident simulation. Set of equations that obtained from full implicit finite-difference discretization method is solved by using iterative methods ADI (Alternating Direct Implicit). The indication of accident is decreasing macroscopic absorption cross-section that results large external reactivity. The power reactor has a peak value before reactor has new balance condition. Changing of temperature reactor produce a negative Doppler feedback reactivity. The reactivity will reduce excess positive reactivity. Temperature reactor during accident is still in below fuel melting point which is in secure condition.

Yulianti, Yanti [Dept. of Physics, Universitas Lampung (UNILA), Jl. Sumantri Brojonegor No.1 Bandar Lampung (Indonesia); Dept. of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Khotimah, S. N. [Dept. of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Shafii, M. Ali [Dept. of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Dept. of Physics, Universitas Andalas (UNAND), Kampus Limau Manis, Padang, Sumatera Barat (Indonesia)

2010-12-23

162

A Methodological Overview of Network Vulnerability Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating network infrastructures for potential vulnerabilities is an important component of strategic planning, particularly in the context of managing and mitigating service disruptions. Many methods have been proposed to facilitate such analysis, providing different interpretations of infrastructure vulnerability. The primary approaches that have been employed for network vulnerability analysis can be broadly classified as \\

ALAN T. MURRAY; TIMOTHY C. MATISZIW; TONY H. GRUBESIC

2008-01-01

163

Methodology in the Analysis of Classroom Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Considers the ethnography of communication, conversation analysis and systemic functional linguistics as frameworks for the analysis of classroom discourse. Discusses their basic assumptions, some of the similarities and differences between them, and their different strengths and weaknesses as resources for applied linguistic problem solving.…

Roberta, Celia; Rampton, Ben; Leung, Constant; Harris, Roxy

2002-01-01

164

An assessment methodology for in-vessel corium retention by external reactor vessel cooling during severe accidents in PWRs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consistent probabilistic approach is proposed to evaluate the feasibility of in-vessel retention of the molten corium through external reactor vessel cooling (IVR-ERVC) during severe accidents of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). By combining the results of Level-1 probabilistic safety assessment, a critical heat flux correlation, and wall heat flux distributions calculated by a severe accident code with appropriate adjustment, we

Jae Hong Park; Yong Hoon Jeong; Won-Pil Baek; Soon Heung Chang

2001-01-01

165

GAS CURTAIN EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUE AND ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES.  

SciTech Connect

The qualitative and quantitative relationship of numerical simulation to the physical phenomena being modeled is of paramount importance in computational physics. If the phenomena are dominated by irregular (i.e., nonsmooth or disordered) behavior, then pointwise comparisons cannot be made and statistical measures are required. The problem we consider is the gas curtain Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability experiments of Rightley et al. [13], which exhibit complicated, disordered motion. We examine four spectral analysis methods for quantifying the experimental data and computed results: Fourier analysis, structure functions, fractal analysis, and continuous wavelet transforms. We investigate the applicability of these methods for quantifying the details of fluid mixing.

Kamm, J. R. (James R.); Rider, William; Rightley, P. M. (Paul M.); Prestridge, K. P. (Katherine P.); Benjamin, R. F. (Robert F.); Vorobieff, P. V. (Peter V.)

2001-01-01

166

GAS CURTAIN EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUE AND ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The qualitative and quantitative relationship of numerical simulation to the physical phenomena being modeled is of paramount importance in computational physics. If the phenomena are dominated by irregular (i. e., nonsmooth or disordered) behavior, then pointwise comparisons cannot be made and statistical measures are required. The problem we consider is the gas curtain Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability experiments of Rightley et al. (13), which exhibit complicated, disordered motion. We examine four spectral analysis methods for quantifying the experimental data and computed results: Fourier analysis, structure functions, fractal analysis, and continuous wavelet transforms. We investigate the applicability of these methods for quantifying the details of fluid mixing.

J. R. KAMM; ET AL

2001-01-01

167

Methodology for ESCA Analysis of Electromigration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This preliminary investigation examines the feasibility of using Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) to monitor electromigration in thin films. Because of the requirements of both the ESCA technique and the requisite in situ electromigratio...

Y. J. Kime P. Grach

1994-01-01

168

Diversion Path Analysis Handbook. Volume I. Methodology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Diversion Path Analysis (DPA) is a procedure for analyzing internal controls of a facility in order to identify vulnerabilities to successful diversion of material by an adversary. The internal covert threat is addressed but the results are also applicabl...

M. D. K. Maltese K. E. Goodwin J. C. Schleter

1976-01-01

169

RAT SPERM MOTILITY ANALYSIS: METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of these studies was to optimize conditions for computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) of rat epididymal spermatozoa. ethodological issues addressed include sample collection technique, sampling region within the epididymis, type of diluent medium used, and sample ...

170

Evaluation Methodology for Protocol Analysis Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current day communication systems rely on protocols to provide secure communications among parties. Weaknesses in protocols, at first thought to be secure, have been found through deep analysis. There are many systems that have been designed to provide a ...

C. W. Hoffmeister

2007-01-01

171

Radiochemical Analysis Methodology for uranium Depletion Measurements  

SciTech Connect

This report provides sufficient material for a test sponsor with little or no radiochemistry background to understand and follow physics irradiation test program execution. Most irradiation test programs employ similar techniques and the general details provided here can be applied to the analysis of other irradiated sample types. Aspects of program management directly affecting analysis quality are also provided. This report is not an in-depth treatise on the vast field of radiochemical analysis techniques and related topics such as quality control. Instrumental technology is a very fast growing field and dramatic improvements are made each year, thus the instrumentation described in this report is no longer cutting edge technology. Much of the background material is still applicable and useful for the analysis of older experiments and also for subcontractors who still retain the older instrumentation.

Scatena-Wachel DE

2007-01-09

172

Finite Element Analysis Applied to Dentoalveolar Trauma: Methodology Description  

PubMed Central

Dentoalveolar traumatic injuries are among the clinical conditions most frequently treated in dental practice. However, few studies so far have addressed the biomechanical aspects of these events, probably as a result of difficulties in carrying out satisfactory experimental and clinical studies as well as the unavailability of truly scientific methodologies. The aim of this paper was to describe the use of finite element analysis applied to the biomechanical evaluation of dentoalveolar trauma. For didactic purposes, the methodological process was divided into steps that go from the creation of a geometric model to the evaluation of final results, always with a focus on methodological characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages, so as to allow the reader to customize the methodology according to specific needs. Our description shows that the finite element method can faithfully reproduce dentoalveolar trauma, provided the methodology is closely followed and thoroughly evaluated.

da Silva, B. R.; Moreira Neto, J. J. S.; da Silva, F. I.; de Aguiar, A. S. W.

2011-01-01

173

Concept analysis as a dissertation methodology.  

PubMed

This paper introduces the concept of the dissertation as an experiential method of learning about research. Undertaking a dissertation can be seen as proof of graduateness and the gold standard of undergraduate and postgraduate assessment. The skills demanded in research and concept analysis are compared. The requirements of demonstrating rigour and scholarship in dissertations, usually associated with traditional research methods, are shown to be present in concept analysis. There is a justification for concept analysis as a dissertation research method on the basis that the purpose of research is to expand a body of knowledge through a process of systematic and scientific enquiry. Institutions in which dissertation modules are studied have a responsibility to cultivate a research culture that encourages creativity. The dissertation is an opportunity for students to move away from the security associated with traditional methods of research: to engage with novel and sophisticated methods. PMID:19435647

Baldwin, Moyra A; Rose, Pat

2009-05-10

174

Analysis of Kuosheng Station Blackout Accident Using MELCOR 1.8.4  

SciTech Connect

The MELCOR code, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, is a fully integrated, relatively fast-running code that models the progression of severe accidents in commercial light water nuclear power plants (NPPs).A specific station blackout (SBO) accident for Kuosheng (BWR-6) NPP is simulated using the MELCOR 1.8.4 code. The MELCOR input deck for Kuosheng NPP is established based on Kuosheng NPP design data and the MELCOR users' guides. The initial steady-state conditions are generated with a developed self-initialization algorithm. The main severe accident phenomena and the fission product release fractions associated with the SBO accident were simulated. The predicted results are plausible and as expected in light of current understanding of severe accident phenomena. The uncertainty of this analysis is briefly discussed. The important features of the MELCOR 1.8.4 are described. The estimated results provide useful information for the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of Kuosheng NPP. This tool will be applied to the PRA, the severe accident analysis, and the severe accident management study of Kuosheng NPP in the near future.

Wang, S.-J.; Chien, C.-S.; Wang, T.-C.; Chiang, K.-S

2000-11-15

175

Traffic accident prediction using vehicle tracking and trajectory analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent visual surveillance for road vehicles is a key component for developing autonomous intelligent transportation systems. In this paper, a probabilistic model for prediction of traffic accidents using 3D model based vehicle tracking is proposed. Sample data including motion trajectories are first obtained by 3D model based vehicle tracking. A fuzzy self-organizing neural network algorithm is then applied to learn

Weiming Hu; Xuejuan Xiao; Dan Xie; Tieniu Tan

2003-01-01

176

Analysis of a fatal bungee-jumping accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sport of bungee jumping has become very popular worldwide over the past decade. The author was recently commissioned to investigate a fatal accident, which occurred during a bungee jump. As a result of this investigation, it has emerged that the equipment used for bungee jumping has evolved in an empirical way, using a mixture of braided rubber cords originally

D. R. H. Jones

2004-01-01

177

Diversion path analysis handbook. Volume I. Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diversion Path Analysis (DPA) is a procedure for analyzing internal controls of a facility in order to identify vulnerabilities to successful diversion of material by an adversary. The internal covert threat is addressed but the results are also applicable to the external overt threat. The diversion paths are identified. Complexity parameters include records alteration or falsification, multiple removals of sub-threshold

M. D. K. Maltese; K. E. Goodwin; J. C. Schleter

1976-01-01

178

Multiday driving patterns and motor carrier accident risk: a disaggregate analysis.  

PubMed

A method has been developed to estimate the relative accident risk posed by different patterns of driving over a multiday period. The procedure explicitly considers whether a driver is on duty or off duty for each half hour of each day during the period of analysis. From a data set of over 1,000 drivers, nine distinct driving patterns are identified. Membership in the patterns is determined exclusively by the pattern of duty hours for seven consecutive days; for some drivers an accident occurred on the eighth day while others had no accident, therefore each pattern can be associated with a relative accident risk. Additional statistical modeling allowed the consideration, in addition to driving pattern, of driver age, experience with the firm, hours off duty prior to the last trip and hours driving on the last trip (either until the accident or successful completion of the trip). The finding of the modeling is that driving patterns over the previous seven days significantly affect accident risk on the eighth day. In general, driving during the early and late morning (e.g., midnight to 10 A.M.) has the highest accident risk while all seven other multiday patterns had indistinguishable risk. Consecutive hours driven also has a significant effect on accident risk: the first hour through the fourth hour having the lowest risk with a fluctuating increase in risk to a maximum beyond nine hours. Driver age and hours off duty immediately prior to a trip do not appear to affect accident risk significantly. These findings quantitatively assess the relative accident risk of multiday driving patterns using data from actual truck operations. Further research is recommended in the areas of refining model structures, adding explanatory variables (such as highway type), and testing more complex models. PMID:1520429

Kaneko, T; Jovanis, P P

1992-10-01

179

SAS4A: A computer model for the analysis of hypothetical core disruptive accidents in liquid metal reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ensure that the public health and safety are protected under any accident conditions in a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), many accidents are analyzed for their potential consequences. The SAS4A code system, described in this paper, provides such an analysis capability, including the ability to analyze low probability events such as the Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accidents (HCDAs). The

A. M. Tentner; G. Birgersson; J. E. Cahalan; F. E. Dunn; Kalimullah; K. J. Miles

1987-01-01

180

A Methodological Contribution to Music Sequences Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a stepwise method for the analysis of musical sequences. The starting point is either a MIDI file\\u000a or the score of a piece of music. The result is a set of likely themes and motifs. The method relies on a pitch intervals\\u000a representation of music and an event discovery system that extracts significant and repeated

Daniele P. Radicioni; Marco Botta

2006-01-01

181

A Methodological Analysis of Chaplaincy Research: 2000–2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article presents a comprehensive review and analysis of quantitative research conducted in the United States on chaplaincy and closely related topics published between 2000 and 2009. A combined search strategy identified 49 quantitative studies in 13 journals. The analysis focuses on the methodological sophistication of the studies, compared to earlier research on chaplaincy and pastoral care. Cross-sectional surveys

Kathleen Galek; Kevin J. Flannelly; Katherine R. B. Jankowski; George F. Handzo

2011-01-01

182

Revisiting methodological issues in transcript analysis: Negotiated coding and reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcript analysis is an important methodology to study asynchronous online educational discourse. The purpose of this study is to revisit reliability and validity issues associated with transcript analysis. The goal is to provide researchers with guidance in coding transcripts. For validity reasons, it is suggested that the first step is to select a sound theoretical model and coding scheme. Particular

D. R. Garrison; M. Cleveland-Innes; Marguerite Koole; James Kappelman

2006-01-01

183

Soft computing methodologies for spectral analysis in cyclostratigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present some soft computing methodologies for time-series analysis applied to cyclostratigraphy. An application to some stratigraphic signals to detect Earth orbital (Milankovic’) periodicities which are expected to be recorded in Cretaceous shallow water carbonate sequences outcropping in Southern Apennines (Italy), is described. The results obtained with classical spectral analysis techniques, based on the modified periodogram, are

R. Tagliaferri; N Pelosi; A Ciaramella; G Longo; M Milano; F Barone

2001-01-01

184

Content and message analysis of online journalism: some methodological proposals  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the ways of researching online journalism is the analysis of the message. This is one of the first trends, especially when hypertext and journalism was studied. We will talk about the methods and the theoretical approaches used in the last decade and how to adapt some methodological tools to the study of online journalism, for example content analysis,

Javier Díaz Noci; Lluís Codina Bonilla

185

A methodology to assess possible effects of enhanced surveillance on the risk estimate from ecologic studies of thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary For two reasons quantitative post-Chernobyl assessment of the thyroid cancer risk from 131I exposure in children under age 18 at the time of accident has been carried out with spatially aggregated data. Firstly, individual data has not been available up to now. Secondly, a large number of individuals can be included in the analysis for a better statistical power.

J. Christian Kaiser; Peter Jacob; Sergey Vavilov

186

Accident Analysis for the NIST Research Reactor Before and After Fuel Conversion  

SciTech Connect

Postulated accidents have been analyzed for the 20 MW D2O-moderated research reactor (NBSR) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The analysis has been carried out for the present core, which contains high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel and for a proposed equilibrium core with low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The analyses employ state-of-the-art calculational methods. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations were performed with the MCNPX code to determine homogenized fuel compositions in the lower and upper halves of each fuel element and to determine the resulting neutronic properties of the core. The accident analysis employed a model of the primary loop with the RELAP5 code. The model includes the primary pumps, shutdown pumps outlet valves, heat exchanger, fuel elements, and flow channels for both the six inner and twenty-four outer fuel elements. Evaluations were performed for the following accidents: (1) control rod withdrawal startup accident, (2) maximum reactivity insertion accident, (3) loss-of-flow accident resulting from loss of electrical power with an assumption of failure of shutdown cooling pumps, (4) loss-of-flow accident resulting from a primary pump seizure, and (5) loss-of-flow accident resulting from inadvertent throttling of a flow control valve. In addition, natural circulation cooling at low power operation was analyzed. The analysis shows that the conversion will not lead to significant changes in the safety analysis and the calculated minimum critical heat flux ratio and maximum clad temperature assure that there is adequate margin to fuel failure.

Baek J.; Diamond D.; Cuadra, A.; Hanson, A.L.; Cheng, L-Y.; Brown, N.R.

2012-09-30

187

Smoking as a risk factor for accident death: a meta-analysis of cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This meta-analysis discusses the consistency, strength, dose-response, independence, and generalizability of published cohort data on accident death relative risks in smokers. To locate data, three authors independently searched MEDLINE, and bibliographies of the pertinent studies found, for data which allowed estimation of an appropriate cigarette smoker accident death relative risk (and 95% confidence interval). Relative risks and dose-response were summarized

Bruce N. Leistikow; Daniel C. Martin; Jeffrey Jacobs; David M. Rocke; Kyle Noderer

2000-01-01

188

3D analysis of the reactivity insertion accident in VVER-1000  

SciTech Connect

Fuel parameters such as peak enthalpy and temperature during rod ejection accident are calculated. The calculations are performed by 3D neutron kinetics code NESTLE and 3D thermal-hydraulic code VIPRE-W. Both hot zero power and hot full power cases were studied for an equilibrium cycle with Westinghouse hex fuel in VVER-1000. It is shown that the use of 3D methodology can significantly increase safety margins for current criteria and met future criteria. (authors)

Abdullayev, A. M.; Zhukov, A. I.; Slyeptsov, S. M. [NSC Kharkov Inst. for Physics and Technology, 1, Akademicheskaya Str., Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine)

2012-07-01

189

Hoof kick injuries in unmounted equestrians. Improving accident analysis and prevention by introducing an accident and emergency based relational database  

PubMed Central

Methods: Data analysis using a new kind of full electronic medical record. Results: Seventeen kicked equestrians were unmounted at the time of injury. Eight of seventeen patients sustained contusions of the extremities, the back, and the trunk. In nine patients an isolated facial injury was diagnosed. Five of nine patients needed referrals to the department of plastic surgery because of the complexity of the facial soft tissue wounds. Three underwent maxillofacial surgery. Conclusion: Clinical: the equestrian community may underestimate the risk of severe injuries attribtuable to hoof kicks, especially while handling the horse. Educational lectures and the distribution of educational literature should be promoted. The introduction of additional face shields may be protective. Software related issue: the handling of an increasing amount of medical data makes a development in computerisation of emergency units necessary. Thus the increasing utilisation of new computer technology could have a significant influence on accident analysis and prevention and the quality of research in the future.

Exadaktylos, A; Eggli, S; Inden, P; Zimmermann, H

2002-01-01

190

Advanced Power Plant Development and Analysis Methodologies  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include 'Zero Emission' power plants and the 'FutureGen' H2 co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the 'Vision 21' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

A.D. Rao; G.S. Samuelsen; F.L. Robson; B. Washom; S.G. Berenyi

2006-06-30

191

Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of chronic exposure results with the MACCS reactor accident consequence model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis are used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the chronic exposure pathways associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The primary purpose of this study is to provide guidance on the variables to be considered in future review

J. C. Helton; J. D. Johnson; J. A. Rollstin; A. W. Shiver; J. L. Sprung

1995-01-01

192

Analysis of containment performance and radiological consequences under severe accident conditions for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

A severe accident study was conducted to evaluate conservatively scoped source terms and radiological consequences to support the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Conceptual Safety Analysis Report (CSAR). Three different types of severe accident scenarios were postulated with a view of evaluating conservatively scoped source terms. The first scenario evaluates maximum possible steaming loads and associated radionuclide transport, whereas the next scenario is geared towards evaluating conservative containment loads from releases of radionuclide vapors and aerosols with associated generation of combustible gases. The third scenario follows the prescriptions given by the 10 CFR 100 guidelines. It was included in the CSAR for demonstrating site-suitability characteristics of the ANS. Various containment configurations are considered for the study of thermal-hydraulic and radiological behaviors of the ANS containment. Severe accident mitigative design features such as the use of rupture disks were accounted for. This report describes the postulated severe accident scenarios, methodology for analysis, modeling assumptions, modeling of several severe accident phenomena, and evaluation of the resulting source term and radiological consequences.

Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

1994-01-01

193

THERMAL ANALYSIS OF A 9975 PACKAGE IN A FACILITY FIRE ACCIDENT  

SciTech Connect

Surplus plutonium bearing materials in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex are stored in the 3013 containers that are designed to meet the requirements of the DOE standard DOE-STD-3013. The 3013 containers are in turn packaged inside 9975 packages that are designed to meet the NRC 10 CFR Part 71 regulatory requirements for transporting the Type B fissile materials across the DOE complex. The design requirements for the hypothetical accident conditions (HAC) involving a fire are given in 10 CFR 71.73. The 9975 packages are stored at the DOE Savannah River Site in the K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) facility for long term of up to 50 years. The design requirements for safe storage in KAMS facility containing multiple sources of combustible materials are far more challenging than the HAC requirements in 10 CFR 71.73. While the 10 CFR 71.73 postulates an HAC fire of 1475 F and 30 minutes duration, the facility fire calls for a fire of 1500 F and 86 duration. This paper describes a methodology and the analysis results that meet the design limits of the 9975 component and demonstrate the robustness of the 9975 package.

Gupta, N.

2011-02-14

194

Approaches to accident analysis in recent US Department of Energy environmental impact statements  

SciTech Connect

A review of accident analyses in recent US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) was conducted to evaluate the consistency among approaches and to compare these approaches with existing DOE guidance. The review considered several components of an accident analysis: the overall scope, which in turn should reflect the scope of the EIS; the spectrum of accidents considered; the methods and assumptions used to determine frequencies or frequency ranges for the accident sequences; and the assumption and technical bases for developing radiological and chemical atmospheric source terms and for calculating the consequences of airborne releases. The review also considered the range of results generated with respect to impacts on various worker and general populations. In this paper, the findings of these reviews are presented and methods recommended for improving consistency among EISs and bringing them more into line with existing DOE guidance.

Mueller, C.; Folga, S.; Nabelssi, B.

1996-12-31

195

A Global Sensitivity Analysis Methodology for Multi-physics Applications  

SciTech Connect

Experiments are conducted to draw inferences about an entire ensemble based on a selected number of observations. This applies to both physical experiments as well as computer experiments, the latter of which are performed by running the simulation models at different input configurations and analyzing the output responses. Computer experiments are instrumental in enabling model analyses such as uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis. This report focuses on a global sensitivity analysis methodology that relies on a divide-and-conquer strategy and uses intelligent computer experiments. The objective is to assess qualitatively and/or quantitatively how the variabilities of simulation output responses can be accounted for by input variabilities. We address global sensitivity analysis in three aspects: methodology, sampling/analysis strategies, and an implementation framework. The methodology consists of three major steps: (1) construct credible input ranges; (2) perform a parameter screening study; and (3) perform a quantitative sensitivity analysis on a reduced set of parameters. Once identified, research effort should be directed to the most sensitive parameters to reduce their uncertainty bounds. This process is repeated with tightened uncertainty bounds for the sensitive parameters until the output uncertainties become acceptable. To accommodate the needs of multi-physics application, this methodology should be recursively applied to individual physics modules. The methodology is also distinguished by an efficient technique for computing parameter interactions. Details for each step will be given using simple examples. Numerical results on large scale multi-physics applications will be available in another report. Computational techniques targeted for this methodology have been implemented in a software package called PSUADE.

Tong, C H; Graziani, F R

2007-02-02

196

New hyphenated methodologies in high-sensitivity glycoprotein analysis  

PubMed Central

High-sensitivity glycoprotein analyses are of particular interest in modern biomedical and clinical research, as well as in the development of recombinant protein products. The evolution of new hyphenated methodologies in high-sensitivity glycoprotein analysis is highlighted in this thematic review. These methodologies include, in particular, capillary LC/MALDI/TOF/TOF MS in conjunction with online permethylation platform, and silica-based lectin microcolumns interfaced to MS. The potential of these methodologies in glycomic and glycoproteomic analysis is demonstrated for model glycoproteins as well as total glycomes and glycoproteomes derived from biological samples. Additionally, the applications of CE-MS, CEC, and nanoLC with graphitized carbon in the areas of glycomics and glycoproteomics are described.

Novotny, Milos V.; Mechref, Yehia

2006-01-01

197

Microgenetic Learning Analysis: A Methodology for Studying Knowledge in Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces and exemplifies a qualitative method for studying learning, "microgenetic learning analysis" (MLA), which is aimed jointly at developing theory and at establishing useful empirical results. Among modern methodologies, the focus on theory is somewhat distinctive. We use two strategies to describe MLA. First, we develop a…

Parnafes, O.; diSessa, A. A.

2013-01-01

198

Quantitative analysis methodology in safety-critical microprocessor applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a quantitative methodology to be considered in safety-critical microprocessor applications is proposed. Some important aspects that must be considered in safety analysis work are discussed. We discuss how to evaluate the dangerous detectable and undetectable system failure rates in a single microprocessor board and the mean time to unsafe failure (MTTUF) of a critical system. The proposed

J. B Camargo; E Canzian; J. R Almeida; S. M Paz; B. A Basseto

2001-01-01

199

Interpersonal Dynamics in a Simulated Prison: A Methodological Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A critical overview is presented of the Stanford Prison Experiment, conducted by Zimbardo and his coinvestigators in which they attempted a structural analysis of the problems of imprisonment. Key assumptions are questioned, primarily on methodological grounds, which casts doubts on the plausibility of the experimenters' final causal inferences.…

Banuazizi, Ali; Movahedi, Siamak

1975-01-01

200

Microgenetic Learning Analysis: A Methodology for Studying Knowledge in Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper introduces and exemplifies a qualitative method for studying learning, "microgenetic learning analysis" (MLA), which is aimed jointly at developing theory and at establishing useful empirical results. Among modern methodologies, the focus on theory is somewhat distinctive. We use two strategies to describe MLA. First, we develop a…

Parnafes, O.; diSessa, A. A.

2013-01-01

201

[Comparative analysis of the radionuclide composition in fallout after the Chernobyl and the Fukushima accidents].  

PubMed

The nuclear accident occurred at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) (March 11, 2011) similarly to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (April 26, 1986) is related to the level 7 of the INES. It is of interest to make an analysis of the radionuclide composition of the fallout following the both accidents. The results of the spectrometric measurements were used in that comparative analysis. Two areas following the Chernobyl accident were considered: (1) the near zone of the fallout - the Belarusian part of the central spot extended up to 60 km around the Chernobyl NPS and (2) the far zone of the fallout--the "Gomel-Mogilev" spot centered 200 km to the north-northeast of the damaged reactor. In the case of Fukushima accident the near zone up to about 60 km considered. The comparative analysis has been done with respect to refractory radionuclides (95Zr, 95Nb, 141Ce, 144Ce), as well as to the intermediate and volatile radionuclides 103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 140La, 140Ba and the results of such a comparison have been discussed. With respect to exposure to the public the most important radionuclides are 131I and 137Cs. For the both accidents the ratios of 131I/137Cs in the considered soil samples are in the similar ranges: (3-50) for the Chernobyl samples and (5-70) for the Fukushima samples. Similarly to the Chernobyl accident a clear tendency that the ratio of 131I/137Cs in the fallout decreases with the increase of the ground deposition density of 137Cs within the trace related to a radioactive cloud has been identified for the Fukushima accident. It looks like this is a universal tendency for the ratio of 131I/137Cs versus the 137Cs ground deposition density in the fallout along the trace of a radioactive cloud as a result of a heavy accident at the NPP with radionuclides releases into the environment. This tendency is important for an objective reconstruction of 131I fallout based on the results of 137Cs measurements of soil samples carried out at late dates after the Fukushima accident. PMID:23210176

Kotenko, K V; Shinkarev, S M; Abramov, Iu V; Granovskaia, E O; Iatsenko, V N; Gavrilin, Iu I; Margulis, U Ia; Garetskaia, O S; Imanaka, T; Khoshi, M

2012-01-01

202

Risk analysis using a hybrid Bayesian-approximate reasoning methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysts are sometimes asked to make frequency estimates for specific accidents in which the accident frequency is determined primarily by safety controls. Under these conditions, frequency estimates use considerable expert belief in determining how the controls affect the accident frequency. To evaluate and document beliefs about control effectiveness, they have modified a traditional Bayesian approach by using approximate reasoning (AR)

T. F. Bott; S. W. Eisenhawer

2002-01-01

203

Risk analysis using a hybrid Bayesian-approximate reasoning methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysts are sometimes asked to make frequency estimates for specific accidents in which the accident frequency is determined primarily by safety controls. Under these conditions, frequency estimates use considerable expert belief in determining how the controls affect the accident frequency. To evaluate and document beliefs about control effectiveness, we have modified a traditional Bayesian approach by using approximate reasoning (AR)

T. F. Bott; S. W. Eisenhawer

2001-01-01

204

PROBLEMS AND METHODOLOGY OF THE PETROLOGIC ANALYSIS OF COAL FACIES.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This condensed synthesis gives a broad outline of the methodology of coal facies analysis, procedures for constructing sedimentation and geochemical formation curves, and micro- and macrostratigraphic analysis. The hypothetical coal bed profile has a 3-fold cycle of material characteristics. Based on studies of other similar profiles of the same coal bed, and on field studies of the sedimentary rock types and their facies interpretation, one can assume that the 3-fold subdivision is of regional significance.

Chao, Edward, C. T.

1983-01-01

205

Methodological Variability Using Electronic Nose Technology For Headspace Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Since the idea of electronic noses was published, numerous electronic nose (e-nose) developments and applications have been used in analyzing solid, liquid and gaseous samples in the food and automotive industry or for medical purposes. However, little is known about methodological pitfalls that might be associated with e-nose technology. Some of the methodological variation caused by changes in ambient temperature, using different filters and changes in mass flow rates are described. Reasons for a lack of stability and reproducibility are given, explaining why methodological variation influences sensor responses and why e-nose technology may not always be sufficiently robust for headspace analysis. However, the potential of e-nose technology is also discussed.

Knobloch, Henri; Turner, Claire; Spooner, Andrew [Cranfield University, Cranfield Health, Silsoe (United Kingdom); Chambers, Mark [Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA Weybridge) (United Kingdom)

2009-05-23

206

Analysis of core damage frequency: Internal events methodology  

SciTech Connect

NUREG-1150 examines the risk to the public from a selected group of nuclear power plants. This report describes the methodology that evolved as the internal event core damage frequencies for four plants were generated in support of NUREG-1150. The objective is to perform an analysis that closely approximates a state-of-the-art Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). Therefore, in principle, it is similar to those used in previous PRAs. However, this methodology, based upon previous studies and using analysts experienced in these techniques, allows the analysis to be focused upon selected areas. With this approach only the most important systems and failure modes are emphasized and modeled in detail, and the data and human reliability analyses are simplified. An analysis employing this methodology (exclusive of external reviews) can be completed in nine to twelve months using two or three full-time experienced systems analysts and part-time personnel in other areas, such as data analysis and human reliability analysis. This is significantly faster and less expensive than previous analyses, but even so, most of the insights that are obtained by the more expensive studies are still provided. 78 refs., 30 figs., 73 tabs.

Ericson, D.M. Jr. (ERC Environmental and Energy Services Co., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Wheeler, T.A.; Sype, T.T.; Cramond, W.R.; Camp, A.L.; Maloney, K.J.; Harper, F.T. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Drouin, M.T. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-01-01

207

Accident analysis for transuranic waste management alternatives in the U.S. Department of Energy waste management program  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary accident analyses and radiological source term evaluations have been conducted for transuranic waste (TRUW) as part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) effort to manage storage, treatment, and disposal of radioactive wastes at its various sites. The approach to assessing radiological releases from facility accidents was developed in support of the Office of Environmental Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EM PEIS). The methodology developed in this work is in accordance with the latest DOE guidelines, which consider the spectrum of possible accident scenarios in the implementation of various actions evaluated in an EIS. The radiological releases from potential risk-dominant accidents in storage and treatment facilities considered in the EM PEIS TRUW alternatives are described in this paper. The results show that significant releases can be predicted for only the most severe and extremely improbable accidents sequences.

Nabelssi, B.; Mueller, C.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Tompkins, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Jackson, R. [Scientific Applications International Corp., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-03-01

208

Fuel relocation modeling in the SAS4A accident analysis code system  

SciTech Connect

The SAS4A code system has been designed for the analysis of the initial phase of Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accidents (HCDAs) up to gross melting or failure of the subassembly walls. During such postulated accident scenarios as the Loss-of-Flow (LOF) and Transient-Overpower (TOP) events, the relocation of the fuel plays a key role in determining the sequence of events and the amount of energy produced before neutronic shutdown. This paper discusses the general strategy used in modelong the various phenomena which lead to fuel relocation and presents the key fuel relocation models used in SAS4A. The implications of these models for the whole-core accident analysis as well as recent results of fuel relocation are emphasized. 12 refs.

Tentner, A.M.; Miles, K.J.; Kalimullah; Hill, D.J.

1986-01-01

209

Hydrogen generation and thermal analysis of the hydrogen-mitigation design-basis accident  

SciTech Connect

Calculations were performed to determine core heatup and subsequent hydrogen production for a hypothetical severe accident at the US Department of Energy's N Reactor, located on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The analysis was conducted to provide confirmation that the hydrogen source term assumed for the design of a hydrogen mitigation system was indeed conservative. The postulated accident sequence is initiated by a loss-of-coolant event, followed by the extremely unlikely failure of the emergency core-cooling system (ECCS). Under these conditions, core heatup is governed by the decay-heat rate and postulated chemical interactions offset by heat dissipation to the unique graphite and shield cooling system (GSCS). The GSCS can provide recirculating or once-through cooling through the central core region of the graphite stack. The GSCS served as the ultimate heat sink for this accident simulation. This report documents the approach and results of the analysis. 27 refs., 54 figs. , 11 tabs.

Heard, F.J.; Ogden, D.M. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Lombardo, N.J.; White, M.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1987-12-01

210

Atmospheric transport analysis used in hazard screening methodology  

SciTech Connect

Simple, but conservative, atmospheric transport models are used in the initial stages of a hazard screening methodology to determine a preliminary hazard rank. The hazard rank is one indicator of the additional effort, if any, that must be applied to determine if a system is safe. Simple methods avoid prolonged calculations at this early stage when details of potential accidents may be poorly defined. The models are used to simulate the consequences resulting from accidental releases of toxic substances. Instantaneous and constant-rate releases are considered. If a release takes place within a relatively small enclosure, the close-in transport is approximated by assuming the airborne material is instantaneously mixed with the volume of air within this enclosure. For all other situations and large distances, the transport is estimated with simple atmospheric dispersion models using published values of dispersion coefficients for large distances, and values based on turbulent diffusion theory for close-in distances. Consequences are assessed by defining exposure levels that are equivalent to negligible, reversible, and irreversible health effects. The hazard rank is related to the number and location of people within each category of health effects.

Bloom, S.G.

1992-06-29

211

Risk analysis of releases from accidents during mid-loop operation at Surry  

SciTech Connect

Studies and operating experience suggest that the risk of severe accidents during low power operation and/or shutdown (LP/S) conditions could be a significant fraction of the risk at full power operation. Two studies have begun at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate the severe accident progression from a risk perspective during these conditions: One at the Brookhaven National Laboratory for the Surry plant, a pressurized water reactor (PWR), and the other at the Sandia National Laboratories for the Grand Gulf plant, a boiling water reactor (BWR). Each of the studies consists of three linked, but distinct, components: a Level I probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) of the initiating events, systems analysis, and accident sequences leading to core damage; a Level 2/3 analysis of accident progression, fuel damage, releases, containment performance, source term and consequences-off-site and on-site; and a detailed Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) of actions relevant to plant conditions during LP/S operations. This paper summarizes the approach taken for the Level 2/3 analysis at Surry and provides preliminary results on the risk of releases and consequences for one plant operating state, mid-loop operation, during shutdown.

Jo, J.; Lin, C.C.; Nimnual, S.; Mubayi, V.; Neymotin, L.

1992-11-01

212

How Root Cause Analysis Can Improve the Value Methodology  

SciTech Connect

Root cause analysis (RCA) is an important methodology that can be integrated with the VE Job Plan to generate superior results from the VE Methodology. The point at which RCA is most appropriate is after the function analysis and FAST Model have been built and functions for improvement have been chosen. These functions are then subjected to a simple, but, rigorous RCA to get to the root cause of their deficiencies, whether it is high cost/poor value, poor quality, or poor reliability. Once the most probable causes for these problems have been arrived at, better solutions for improvement can be developed in the creativity phase because the team better understands the problems associated with these functions.

Wixson, James Robert

2002-05-01

213

How Root Cause Analysis Can Improve the Value Methodology  

SciTech Connect

Root cause analysis (RCA) is an important methodology that can be integrated with the VE Job Plan to generate superior results from the VE Methodology. The point at which RCA is most appropriate is after the function analysis and FAST Model have been built and functions for improvement have been chosen. These functions are then subjected to a simple, but, rigorous RCA to get to the root cause of their deficiencies, whether it is high cost/poor value, poor quality, or poor reliability. Once the most probable causes for these problems have been arrived at, better solutions for improvement can be developed in the creativity phase because the team better understands the problems associated with these functions.

Wixson, J. R.

2002-02-05

214

Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE Nuclear Facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830). Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, ''Safety Basis Requirements,'' requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3

G. L. Sharp; R. T. McCracken

2003-01-01

215

Content Analysis—A Methodological Primer for Gender Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is intended to serve as a primer on methodological standards for gender scholars pursuing content analytic research.\\u000a The scientific underpinnings of the method are explored, including the roles of theory, past research, population definition,\\u000a objectivity\\/intersubjectivity, reliability, validity, generalizability, and replicability. Both human coding and computer\\u000a coding are considered. The typical process of human-coded content analysis is reviewed, including

Kimberly A. Neuendorf

2011-01-01

216

Methodology for modeling and analysis of supply networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis and modeling of business processes are the basis on which management methodologies, simulation models and information\\u000a systems are developed. The goal of this paper is to point out the possibility of establishing relationships between processes\\u000a in supply networks and functioning of the whole system. In this integrated system, all relevant factors for supply network\\u000a management, both at the

Dusan Stefanovic; Nenad Stefanovic

2008-01-01

217

Post-processing techniques for the joint CEC\\/USNRC uncertainty analysis of accident consequence codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary description of the Joint CEC\\/USNRC uncertainty analysis of accident consequence models for nuclear power plants is given. The problem of post processing is introduced as the problem of projecting a joint distribution over observable variables onto the parameter space of a mathematical model. A conditional sampling algorithm is presented which works in simple cases. For more complex cases,

Bernd Kraan; Roger Cooke

1997-01-01

218

Accident consequences analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies of the safety and environmental (S and E) aspects of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design have used simplistic assumptions in order to estimate radioactivity releases under accident conditions. Conservatisms associated with these traditional analyses can mask the actual behavior of the plant and have revealed the need for more accurate modeling and analysis of

S Reyes; J Gomez del Rio; J Sanz

2000-01-01

219

Posttraumatic Growth of Injured Patients after Motor Vehicle Accidents: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to explore the process of posttraumatic growth of injured patients after a motor vehicle accident in China. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six patients. Transcripts were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four main super-ordinate themes emerged: construction of meaning; perception of self; perception of connection; and perception of life philosophy. These themes describe growth and emotional distress

Yanbo Wang; Ji Wang; Xiaohong Liu

2012-01-01

220

Analysis and Application of Treatment Techniques in Horizontal Directional Drilling Borehole Accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the analysis of the borehole accidents regularly happened in horizontal directional drilling in underground coal mine, the paper contrastively introduces some treatment techniques, especially analyses the washover technology and then guides the design of the fishing tools applied to it. Eventually the washover technology and the fishing tools applied are proved to be practicable through the field trial.

Haitao Mo; Zhijun Shi; Shijun Hao; Quanxin Li

2011-01-01

221

Calculation notes in support of TWRS FSAR spray leak accident analysis  

SciTech Connect

This document includes the calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with unmitigated and mitigated pressurized spray releases from tank farm transfer equipment inside transfer enclosures. The calculations within this document support the spray leak accident analysis reported in the TWRS FSAR.

Hall, B.W., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-08-05

222

Analysis of fission product release behavior during the TMI-2 accident  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of fission product release during the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident has been initiated to provide an understanding of fission product behavior that is consistent with both the best estimate accident scenario and fission product results from the ongoing sample acquisition and examination efforts. ''First principles'' fission product release models are used to describe release from intact, disrupted, and molten fuel. Conclusions relating to fission product release, transport, and chemical form are drawn. 35 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

Petti, D. A.; Adams, J. P.; Anderson, J. L.; Hobbins, R. R.

1987-01-01

223

Analysis of dental materials as an aid to identification in aircraft accidents  

SciTech Connect

The failure to achieve positive identification of aircrew following an aircraft accident need not prevent a full autopsy and toxicological examination to ascertain possible medical factors involved in the accident. Energy-dispersive electron microprobe analysis provides morphological, qualitative, and accurate quantitative analysis of the composition of dental amalgam. Wet chemical analysis can be used to determine the elemental composition of crowns, bridges and partial dentures. Unfilled resin can be analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. Detailed analysis of filled composite restorative resins has not yet been achieved in the as-set condition to permit discrimination between manufacturers' products. Future work will involve filler studies and pyrolysis of the composite resins by thermogravimetric analysis to determine percentage weight loss when the sample examined is subjected to a controlled heating regime. With these available techniques, corroborative evidence achieved from the scientific study of materials can augment standard forensic dental results to obtain a positive identification.

Wilson, G.S.; Cruickshanks-Boyd, D.W.

1982-04-01

224

ASSESSMENT OF SEISMIC ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED NPP STRUCTURES.  

SciTech Connect

Several of the new generation nuclear power plant designs have structural configurations which are proposed to be deeply embedded. Since current seismic analysis methodologies have been applied to shallow embedded structures (e.g., ASCE 4 suggest that simple formulations may be used to model embedment effect when the depth of embedment is less than 30% of its foundation radius), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a program at the Brookhaven National Laboratory with the objective of investigating the extent to which procedures acceptable for shallow embedment depths are adequate for larger embedment depths. This paper presents the results of a study comparing the response spectra obtained from two of the more popular analysis methods for structural configurations varying from shallow embedment to complete embedment. A typical safety related structure embedded in a soil profile representative of a typical nuclear power plant site was utilized in the study and the depths of burial (DOB) considered range from 25-100% the height of the structure. Included in the paper are: (1) the description of a simplified analysis and a detailed approach for the SSI analyses of a structure with various DOB, (2) the comparison of the analysis results for the different DOBs between the two methods, and (3) the performance assessment of the analysis methodologies for SSI analyses of deeply embedded structures. The resulting assessment from this study has indicated that simplified methods may be capable of capturing the seismic response for much deeper embedded structures than would be normally allowed by the standard practice.

XU, J.; MILLER, C.; COSTANTINO, C.; HOFMAYER, C. (BNL); GRAVES, H. (US NRC).

2005-07-01

225

SOCRAT: The System of Codes for Realistic Analysis of Severe Accidents  

SciTech Connect

For a long time in the Russian Federation the computer code for analysis of severe accidents is being developed. The main peculiarity of this code from the known computer codes for analysis of severe accidents at NPP such as MELCOR and ASTEC, is a consequent realization of the mechanistic approach for modeling of the melt progression processes, including beyond design basis accidents with the severe core damage. The motivation of the development is defined by the new design requirements to the safety of nuclear power plants with the improved economic factors, by the modernization of existing NPPs, by the development of instructions to the accident management and emergency planning. The realistic assessments of Nuclear power plants safety require usage of the best estimate codes allowing description of the melt progression processes accompanying severe accident at the nuclear installation and behavior of the containment under abnormal condition (in particular, rates of the steam and hydrogen release, relocation of molten materials to the concrete cavity after failure of the reactor vessel). The developed computer codes were used for the safety justification of NPP with the new generation of VVER type reactor such as Tyanvan NPP in China and Kudamkulam NPP in India. In particular using this code system the justification of the system for hydrogen safety, analysis of core degradation and relocation of the molten core to the core catcher used for the guarantied localization of the melt and prevention of the ex-vessel melt progression. The considered system of codes got recently name SOCRAT provides the self consistent analysis of in-vessel processes and processes, running in the containment, including melt localization device. In the paper the structure of the computer code SOCRAT is presented, functionality of the separate parts of the code is described, results of verification of different models of the code are also considered. (authors)

Bolshov, Leonid; Strizhov, Valery [Nuclear Safety Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, B. Tulskaya, 52 Moscow, 115191 (Russian Federation)

2006-07-01

226

Biomass Thermogravimetric Analysis: Uncertainty Determination Methodology and Sampling Maps Generation  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to develop a methodology for the determination of the maximum sampling error and confidence intervals of thermal properties obtained from thermogravimetric analysis (TG), including moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash content. The sampling procedure of the TG analysis was of particular interest and was conducted with care. The results of the present study were compared to those of a prompt analysis, and a correlation between the mean values and maximum sampling errors of the methods were not observed. In general, low and acceptable levels of uncertainty and error were obtained, demonstrating that the properties evaluated by TG analysis were representative of the overall fuel composition. The accurate determination of the thermal properties of biomass with precise confidence intervals is of particular interest in energetic biomass applications.

Pazo, Jose A.; Granada, Enrique; Saavedra, Angeles; Eguia, Pablo; Collazo, Joaquin

2010-01-01

227

An ISP27 accident scenario for analysis of Krsko Nuclear Power Plant SBLOCA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactor safety analysis group of Jozef Stefan Institute (IJS) has participated in analyses of International Standard Problem 27 (ISP-27), which was based on test 9.1 b performed at the BETHSY experimental facility (France). In addition, we realized the ISP-27 transient scenario in the analysis of a small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) for Krsko nuclear power plant (NPP). The objective was

S. Petelin; B. Mavko; O. Gortnar; I. Parzer

1994-01-01

228

Overview of Sandia National Laboratories and Khlopin Radium Institute collaborative radiological accident consequence analysis efforts  

SciTech Connect

In January, 1995 a collaborative effort to improve radiological consequence analysis methods and tools was initiated between the V.G. Khlopin Institute (KRI) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The purpose of the collaborative effort was to transfer SNL`s consequence analysis methods to KRI and identify opportunities for collaborative efforts to solve mutual problems relating to the safety of radiochemical facilities. A second purpose was to improve SNL`s consequence analysis methods by incorporating the radiological accident field experience of KRI scientists (e.g. the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents). The initial collaborative effort focused on the identification of: safety criteria that radiochemical facilities in Russia must meet; analyses/measures required to demonstrate that safety criteria have been met; and data required to complete the analyses/measures identified to demonstrate the safety basis of a facility.

Young, M.L.; Carlson, D.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lazarev, L.N.; Petrov, B.F.; Romanovskiy, V.N. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1997-05-01

229

SYNTHESIS OF SAFETY ANALYSIS AND FIRE HAZARD ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

Successful implementation of both the nuclear safety program and fire protection program is best accomplished using a coordinated process that relies on sound technical approaches. When systematically prepared, the documented safety analysis (DSA) and fire hazard analysis (FHA) can present a consistent technical basis that streamlines implementation. If not coordinated, the DSA and FHA can present inconsistent conclusions, which can create unnecessary confusion and can promulgate a negative safety perception. This paper will compare the scope, purpose, and analysis techniques for DSAs and FHAs. It will also consolidate several lessons-learned papers on this topic, which were prepared in the 1990s.

Coutts, D

2007-04-17

230

A Posteriori Analysis for Hydrodynamic Simulations Using Adjoint Methodologies  

SciTech Connect

This report contains results of analysis done during an FY08 feasibility study investigating the use of adjoint methodologies for a posteriori error estimation for hydrodynamics simulations. We developed an approach to adjoint analysis for these systems through use of modified equations and viscosity solutions. Targeting first the 1D Burgers equation, we include a verification of the adjoint operator for the modified equation for the Lax-Friedrichs scheme, then derivations of an a posteriori error analysis for a finite difference scheme and a discontinuous Galerkin scheme applied to this problem. We include some numerical results showing the use of the error estimate. Lastly, we develop a computable a posteriori error estimate for the MAC scheme applied to stationary Navier-Stokes.

Woodward, C S; Estep, D; Sandelin, J; Wang, H

2009-02-26

231

14 CFR Appendix I to Part 417 - Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational Procedures  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational...Appendix I to Part 417âMethodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational...appendix provides methodologies for performing toxic release hazard analysis for the...

2013-01-01

232

A methodology for reliability analysis in health networks.  

PubMed

A reliability model for a health care domain based on requirement analysis at the early stage of design of regional health network (RHN) is introduced. RHNs are considered as systems supporting the services provided by health units, hospitals, and the regional authority. Reliability assessment in health care domain constitutes a field-of-quality assessment for RHN. A novel approach for predicting system reliability in the early stage of designing RHN systems is presented in this paper. The uppermost scope is to identify the critical processes of an RHN system prior to its implementation. In the methodology, Unified Modeling Language activity diagrams are used to identify megaprocesses at regional level and the customer behavior model graph (CBMG) to describe the states transitions of the processes. CBMG is annotated with: 1) the reliability of each component state and 2) the transition probabilities between states within the scope of the life cycle of the process. A stochastic reliability model (Markov model) is applied to predict the reliability of the business process as well as to identify the critical states and compare them with other processes to reveal the most critical ones. The ultimate benefit of the applied methodology is the design of more reliable components in an RHN system. The innovation of the approach of reliability modeling lies with the analysis of severity classes of failures and the application of stochastic modeling using discrete-time Markov chain in RHNs. PMID:18693505

Spyrou, Stergiani; Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Maglaveras, Nicos; Pangalos, George; Pappas, Costas

2008-05-01

233

A flammability and combustion model for integrated accident analysis. [Advanced light water reactors  

SciTech Connect

A model for flammability characteristics and combustion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixtures is presented for application to severe accident analysis of Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR's). Flammability of general mixtures for thermodynamic conditions anticipated during a severe accident is quantified with a new correlation technique applied to data for several fuel and inertant mixtures and using accepted methods for combining these data. Combustion behavior is quantified by a mechanistic model consisting of a continuity and momentum balance for the burned gases, and considering an uncertainty parameter to match the idealized process to experiment. Benchmarks against experiment demonstrate the validity of this approach for a single recommended value of the flame flux multiplier parameter. The models presented here are equally applicable to analysis of current LWR's. 21 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

Plys, M.G.; Astleford, R.D.; Epstein, M. (Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (USA))

1988-01-01

234

A methodological analysis of chaplaincy research: 2000-2009.  

PubMed

The present article presents a comprehensive review and analysis of quantitative research conducted in the United States on chaplaincy and closely related topics published between 2000 and 2009. A combined search strategy identified 49 quantitative studies in 13 journals. The analysis focuses on the methodological sophistication of the studies, compared to earlier research on chaplaincy and pastoral care. Cross-sectional surveys of convenience samples still dominate the field, but sample sizes have increased somewhat over the past three decades. Reporting of the validity and reliability of measures continues to be low, although reporting of response rates has improved. Improvements in the use of inferential statistics and statistical controls were also observed, compared to previous research. The authors conclude that more experimental research is needed on chaplaincy, along with an increased use of hypothesis testing, regardless of the research designs that are used. PMID:22029505

Galek, Kathleen; Flannelly, Kevin J; Jankowski, Katherine R B; Handzo, George F

2011-01-01

235

Human reliability data, human error and accident models—illustration through the Three Mile Island accident analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our first objective is to provide a panorama of Human Reliability data used in EDF's Safety Probabilistic Studies, and then, since these concepts are at the heart of Human Reliability and its methods, to go over the notion of human error and the understanding of accidents. We are not sure today that it is actually possible to provide in this

Pierre Le Bot

2004-01-01

236

Uncertainty Analysis of Accident Notification Time and Emergency Medical Service Response Time in Work Zone Traffic Accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking into account the uncertainty caused by exogenous factors, the accident notification time (ANT) and emergency medical service (EMS) response time are modeled as two random variables following the lognormal distribution. Their mean values and standard deviations are respectively formulated as the functions of environmental variables including crash time, road type, weekend, holiday, light condition, weather and work zone type.

Qiang Meng; Jinxian Weng

2012-01-01

237

Space Dependent Kinetics Analysis of Control Rod Withdrawal Accident in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-dimensional (in r-z geometry) space dependent kinetics program coupled with thermo-hydraulics for an accident analysis of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor was developed.Validation of the code was made by applying the code to the NEA CRP benchmark problem and comparing the result with those calculated at other institutions. Then, the code was applied to study the transient of

Naohiro HIRAKAWA; Hirohide OIKAWA; Katsumi KOBAYASHI

1984-01-01

238

Aspects of uncertainty analysis in accident consequence modeling  

SciTech Connect

Mathematical models are frequently used to determine probable dose to man from an accidental release of radionuclides by a nuclear facility. With increased emphasis on the accuracy of these models, the incorporation of uncertainty analysis has become one of the most crucial and sensitive components in evaluating the significance of model predictions. In the present paper, we address three aspects of uncertainty in models used to assess the radiological impact to humans: uncertainties resulting from the natural variability in human biological parameters; the propagation of parameter variability by mathematical models; and comparison of model predictions to observational data.

Travis, C.C.; Hoffman, F.O.

1981-01-01

239

Methodology assessment and recommendations for the Mars science laboratory launch safety analysis.  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has assigned to Sandia National Laboratories the responsibility of producing a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the plutonium-dioxide fueled Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) proposed to be used in the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. The National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) is anticipating a launch in fall of 2009, and the SAR will play a critical role in the launch approval process. As in past safety evaluations of MMRTG missions, a wide range of potential accident conditions differing widely in probability and seventy must be considered, and the resulting risk to the public will be presented in the form of probability distribution functions of health effects in terms of latent cancer fatalities. The basic descriptions of accident cases will be provided by NASA in the MSL SAR Databook for the mission, and on the basis of these descriptions, Sandia will apply a variety of sophisticated computational simulation tools to evaluate the potential release of plutonium dioxide, its transport to human populations, and the consequent health effects. The first step in carrying out this project is to evaluate the existing computational analysis tools (computer codes) for suitability to the analysis and, when appropriate, to identify areas where modifications or improvements are warranted. The overall calculation of health risks can be divided into three levels of analysis. Level A involves detailed simulations of the interactions of the MMRTG or its components with the broad range of insults (e.g., shrapnel, blast waves, fires) posed by the various accident environments. There are a number of candidate codes for this level; they are typically high resolution computational simulation tools that capture details of each type of interaction and that can predict damage and plutonium dioxide release for a range of choices of controlling parameters. Level B utilizes these detailed results to study many thousands of possible event sequences and to build up a statistical representation of the releases for each accident case. A code to carry out this process will have to be developed or adapted from previous MMRTG missions. Finally, Level C translates the release (or ''source term'') information from Level B into public risk by applying models for atmospheric transport and the health consequences of exposure to the released plutonium dioxide. A number of candidate codes for this level of analysis are available. This report surveys the range of available codes and tools for each of these levels and makes recommendations for which choices are best for the MSL mission. It also identities areas where improvements to the codes are needed. In some cases a second tier of codes may be identified to provide supporting or clarifying insight about particular issues. The main focus of the methodology assessment is to identify a suite of computational tools that can produce a high quality SAR that can be successfully reviewed by external bodies (such as the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel) on the schedule established by NASA and DOE.

Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Metzinger, Kurt Evan; Powers, Dana Auburn; Atcitty, Christopher B.; Robinson, David B; Hewson, John C.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Dodson, Brian W.; Potter, Donald L.; Kelly, John E.; MacLean, Heather J.; Bergeron, Kenneth Donald (Sala & Associates); Bessette, Gregory Carl; Lipinski, Ronald J.

2006-09-01

240

Analysis of Postulated Accidents at the Proposed Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accidents that might occur during the handling, treatment, or storage of radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes are discussed and analyzed in this report. The models and assumptions used in the analysis for determining the amount of radioactivity or ...

R. Salazar

1988-01-01

241

Analysis of loss-of-coolant and loss-of-flow accidents in the first wall cooling system of NET\\/ITER  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the thermal-hydraulic analysis of potential accidents in the first wall cooling system of the Next European Torus or the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. Three ex-vessel loss-of-coolant accidents, two in-vessel loss-of-coolant accidents, and three loss-of-flow accidents have been analyzed using the thermal-hydraulic system analysis code RELAP5\\/MOD3. The analyses deal with the transient thermal-hydraulic behavior inside the cooling systems

E. M. J. Komen; H. Koning

1994-01-01

242

Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by US Department of Energy waste management operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms evaluated. A personal-computer-based computational framework and database have been

C. Mueller; B. Nabelssi; J. Roglans-Ribas; S. Folga; A. Policastro; W. Freeman; R. Jackson; J. Mishima; S. Turner

1996-01-01

243

Review of accident analysis calculations, 232-Z seismic scenario  

SciTech Connect

The 232-Z Building houses what was previously the incinerator facility, which is no longer in service. It is constructed out of concrete blocks and is approximately 37 ft wide by 57 ft long. The building has a single story over the process areas and two stories over the service areas at the north end of the building. The respective roofs are 15 ft and 19 ft above grade and consist of concrete over a metal decking, with insulation and a built-up asphalt gravel covering. This facility is assumed to collapse in the seismic event evaluated in the safety analyses, resulting in the release of a portion of the residual plutonium inventory remaining in the building. The seismic scenario for 232-Z assumes that the block concrete walls collapse, allowing the roof to fall, crushing the contaminated duct and gloveboxes within. This paper is a review of the scenario and methods used to calculate the source term from the seismic event as presented in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Final Safety Analysis Report (WHC 1991) also referred to as the PFP FSAR. Alternate methods of estimating the source term are presented. The calculation of source terms based on the mechanisms of release expected in worst-case scenario is recommended.

Ballinger, M.Y.

1993-05-01

244

Safety culture and accident analysis--a socio-management approach based on organizational safety social capital.  

PubMed

One of the biggest challenges for organizations in today's competitive business environment is to create and preserve a self-sustaining safety culture. Typically, the key drivers of safety culture in many organizations are regulation, audits, safety training, various types of employee exhortations to comply with safety norms, etc. However, less evident factors like networking relationships and social trust amongst employees, as also extended networking relationships and social trust of organizations with external stakeholders like government, suppliers, regulators, etc., which constitute the safety social capital in the Organization--seem to also influence the sustenance of organizational safety culture. Can erosion in safety social capital cause deterioration in safety culture and contribute to accidents? If so, how does it contribute? As existing accident analysis models do not provide answers to these questions, CAMSoC (Curtailing Accidents by Managing Social Capital), an accident analysis model, is proposed. As an illustration, five accidents: Bhopal (India), Hyatt Regency (USA), Tenerife (Canary Islands), Westray (Canada) and Exxon Valdez (USA) have been analyzed using CAMSoC. This limited cross-industry analysis provides two key socio-management insights: the biggest source of motivation that causes deviant behavior leading to accidents is 'Faulty Value Systems'. The second biggest source is 'Enforceable Trust'. From a management control perspective, deterioration in safety culture and resultant accidents is more due to the 'action controls' rather than explicit 'cultural controls'. Future research directions to enhance the model's utility through layering are addressed briefly. PMID:16911855

Rao, Suman

2006-06-28

245

Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for internal dosimetry. Volume 1: Main report  

SciTech Connect

The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA internal dosimetry models.

Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harrison, J.D. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

1998-04-01

246

Speech analysis as an index of alcohol intoxication--the Exxon Valdez accident.  

PubMed

As part of its investigation of the EXXON VALDEZ tankship accident and oil spill, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) examined the master's speech for alcohol-related effects. Recorded speech samples were obtained from marine radio communications tapes. The samples were tested for four effects associated with alcohol consumption is available scientific literature: slowed speech, speech errors, misarticulation of difficult sounds ("slurring"), and audible changes in speech quality. It was found that speech immediately before and after the accident displayed large changes of the sort associated with alcohol consumption. These changes were not readily explained by fatigue, psychological stress, drug effects, or medical problems. Speech analysis appears to be a useful technique to provide secondary evidence of alcohol impairment. PMID:1930083

Brenner, M; Cash, J R

1991-09-01

247

Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Early health effects uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report  

SciTech Connect

The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA early health effects models.

Haskin, F.E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Grupa, J.B. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (Netherlands)

1997-12-01

248

Bond energy analysis revisited and designed toward a rigorous methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study theoretically revisits and numerically assesses two-body energy decomposition schemes including a newly proposed one. The new decomposition scheme is designed to make the equilibrium bond distance equivalent with the minimum point of bond energies. Although the other decomposition schemes generally predict the wrong order of the C-C bond strengths of C2H2, C2H4, and C2H6, the new decomposition scheme is capable of reproducing the C-C bond strengths. Numerical assessment on a training set of molecules demonstrates that the present scheme exhibits a stronger correlation with bond dissociation energies than the other decomposition schemes do, which suggests that the new decomposition scheme is a reliable and powerful analysis methodology.

Nakai, Hiromi; Ohashi, Hideaki; Imamura, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Yasuaki

2011-09-01

249

Development and application of proton NMR methodology to lipoprotein analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present thesis describes the development of 1H NMR spectroscopy and its applications to lipoprotein analysis in vitro, utilizing biochemical prior knowledge and advanced lineshape fitting analysis in the frequency domain. A method for absolute quantification of lipoprotein lipids and proteins directly from the terminal methyl-CH3 resonance region of 1H NMR spectra of human blood plasma is described. Then the use of NMR methodology in time course studies of the oxidation process of LDL particles is presented. The function of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) in lipoprotein mixtures was also assessed by 1H NMR, which allows for dynamic follow-up of the lipid transfer reactions between VLDL, LDL, and HDL particles. The results corroborated the suggestion that neutral lipid mass transfer among lipoproteins is not an equimolar heteroexchange. A novel method for studying lipoprotein particle fusion is also demonstrated. It is shown that the progression of proteolytically (?- chymotrypsin) induced fusion of LDL particles can be followed by 1H NMR spectroscopy and, moreover, that fusion can be distinguished from aggregation. In addition, NMR methodology was used to study the changes in HDL3 particles induced by phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) in HDL3 + PLTP mixtures. The 1H NMR study revealed a gradual production of enlarged HDL particles, which demonstrated that PLTP-mediated remodeling of HDL involves fusion of the HDL particles. These applications demonstrated that the 1H NMR approach offers several advantages both in quantification and in time course studies of lipoprotein-lipoprotein interactions and of enzyme/lipid transfer protein function.

Korhonen, Ari Juhani

1998-11-01

250

Use of Life-Test Data Analysis Methodology for Analyzing Undesirable Habitual Behavior.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report concerns statistical methodology used in the analysis of data consisting of failure times of samples of hardware operated under conditions equivalent to the intended usage of the hardware. Herein, this methodology is applied to sets of longitu...

N. R. Mann

1979-01-01

251

Calculation notes in support of TWRS FSAR spray leak accident analysis  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the detailed calculations that support the spray leak accident analysis in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The consequence analyses in this document form the basis for the selection of controls to mitigate or prevent spray leaks throughout TWRS. Pressurized spray leaks can occur due to a breach in containment barriers along transfer routes, during waste transfers. Spray leaks are of particular safety concern because, depending on leak dimensions, and waste pressure, they can be relatively efficient generators of dispersible sized aerosols that can transport downwind to onsite and offsite receptors. Waste is transferred between storage tanks and between processing facilities and storage tanks in TWRS through a system of buried transfer lines. Pumps for transferring waste and jumpers and valves for rerouting waste are located inside below grade pits and structures that are normally covered. Pressurized spray leaks can emanate to the atmosphere due to breaches in waste transfer associated equipment inside these structures should the structures be uncovered at the time of the leak. Pressurized spray leaks can develop through holes or cracks in transfer piping, valve bodies or pump casings caused by such mechanisms as corrosion, erosion, thermal stress, or water hammer. Leaks through degraded valve packing, jumper gaskets, or pump seals can also result in pressurized spray releases. Mechanisms that can degrade seals, packing and gaskets include aging, radiation hardening, thermal stress, etc. An1782other common cause for spray leaks inside transfer enclosures are misaligned jumpers caused by human error. A spray leak inside a DST valve pit during a transfer of aging waste was selected as the bounding, representative accident for detailed analysis. Sections 2 through 5 below develop this representative accident using the DOE- STD-3009 format. Sections 2 describes the unmitigated and mitigated accident scenarios evaluated to determine the need for safety class SSCs or TSR controls. Section 3 develops the source terms associated with the unmitigated and mitigated accident scenarios. Section 4 estimates the radiological and toxicological consequences for the unmitigated and mitigated scenarios. Section 5 compares the radiological and toxicological consequences against the TWRS evaluation guidelines. Section 6 extrapolates from the representative accident case to other represented spray leak sites to assess the conservatism in using the representative case to define controls for other postulated spray leak sites throughout TWRS. Section 7 discusses the sensitivities of the consequence analyses to the key parameters and assumptions used in the analyses. Conclusions are drawn in Section 8. The analyses herein pertain to spray leaks initiated due to internal mechanisms (e.g., corrosion, erosion, thermal stress, etc). External initiators of spray leaks (e.g., excavation accidents), and natural phenomena initiators (e.g., seismic events) are to be covered in separate accident analyses.

Hall, B.W.

1996-09-25

252

Contemporary Analysis of Variability in Road Traffic Accidents in Lagos State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine the spatial and temporal pattern of road traffic accidents in Lagos State, Nigeria, and to suggest preventive and corrective safety measures for reducing road traffic accidents in the study area. Road traffic accidents exert a huge burden on Nigeria's economy and health care services and current accident prevention interventions are sporadic, uncoordinated

Augustus O. Atubi; Patience C. Onokala

2009-01-01

253

SAS4A: A computer model for the analysis of hypothetical core disruptive accidents in liquid metal reactors  

SciTech Connect

To ensure that the public health and safety are protected under any accident conditions in a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), many accidents are analyzed for their potential consequences. The SAS4A code system, described in this paper, provides such an analysis capability, including the ability to analyze low probability events such as the Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accidents (HCDAs). The SAS4A code system has been designed to simulate all the events that occur in a LMFBR core during the initiating phase of a Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident. During such postulated accident scenarios as the Loss-of-Flow and Transient Overpower events, a large number of interrelated physical phenomena occur during a relatively short time. These phenomena include transient heat transfer and hydrodynamic events, coolant boiling and fuel and cladding melting and relocation. During to the strong neutronic feedback present in a nuclear reactor, these events can significantly influence the reactor power. The SAS4A code system is used in the safety analysis of nuclear reactors, in order to estimate the energetic potential of very low probability accidents. The results of SAS4A simulations are also used by reactor designers in order to build safer reactors and eliminate the possibility of any accident which could endanger the public safety.

Tentner, A.M.; Birgersson, G.; Cahalan, J.E.; Dunn, F.E.; Kalimullah; Miles, K.J.

1987-01-01

254

Verification of fire and explosion accident analysis codes (facility design and preliminary results)  

SciTech Connect

For several years, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has sponsored the development of methods for improving capabilities to analyze the effects of postulated accidents in nuclear facilities; the accidents of interest are those that could occur during nuclear materials handling. At the Los Alamos National Laboratory, this program has resulted in three computer codes: FIRAC, EXPAC, and TORAC. These codes are designed to predict the effects of fires, explosions, and tornadoes in nuclear facilities. Particular emphasis is placed on the movement of airborne radioactive material through the gaseous effluent treatment system of a nuclear installation. The design, construction, and calibration of an experimental ventilation system to verify the fire and explosion accident analysis codes are described. The facility features a large industrial heater and several aerosol smoke generators that are used to simulate fires. Both injected thermal energy and aerosol mass can be controlled using this equipment. Explosions are simulated with H/sub 2//O/sub 2/ balloons and small explosive charges. Experimental measurements of temperature, energy, aerosol release rates, smoke concentration, and mass accumulation on HEPA filters can be made. Volumetric flow rate and differential pressures also are monitored. The initial experiments involve varying parameters such as thermal and aerosol rate and ventilation flow rate. FIRAC prediction results are presented. 10 figs.

Gregory, W.S.; Nichols, B.D.; Talbott, D.V.; Smith, P.R.; Fenton, D.L.

1985-01-01

255

Independent assessment of MELCOR as a severe accident thermal-hydraulic/source term analysis tool  

SciTech Connect

MELCOR is a fully integrated computer code that models all phases of the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants, and is being developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has a program with the NRC called ``MELCOR Verification, Benchmarking, and Applications,`` whose aim is to provide independent assessment of MELCOR as a severe accident thermal-hydraulic/source term analysis tool. The scope of this program is to perform quality control verification on all released versions of MELCOR, to benchmark MELCOR against more mechanistic codes and experimental data from severe fuel damage tests, and to evaluate the ability of MELCOR to simulate long-term severe accident transients in commercial LWRs, by applying the code to model both BWRs and PWRs. Under this program, BNL provided input to the NRC-sponsored MELCOR Peer Review, and is currently contributing to the MELCOR Cooperative Assessment Program (MCAP). This paper presents a summary of MELCOR assessment efforts at BNL and their contribution to NRC goals with respect to MELCOR.

Madni, I.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Eltawila, F. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-01-01

256

Analysis on the Density Driven Air-Ingress Accident in VHTRs  

SciTech Connect

Air-ingress following the pipe rupture is considered to be the most serious accident in the VHTRs due to its potential problems such as core heat-up, structural integrity and toxic gas release. Previously, it has been believed that the main air-ingress mechanism of this accident is the molecular diffusion process between the reactor core and the cavity. However, according to some recent studies, there is another fast air-ingress process that has not been considered before. It is called density-driven stratified flow. The potential for density-driven stratified air ingress into the VHTR following a large-break LOCA was first described in the NGNP Methods Technical Program based on stratified flow studies performed with liquid. Studies on densitygradient driven stratified flow in advanced reactor systems has been the subject of active research for well over a decade since density-gradient dominated stratified flow is an inherent characteristic of passive systems used in advanced reactors. Recently, Oh et al. performed a CFD analysis on the stratified flow in the VHTR, and showed that this effect can significantly accelerate the air-ingress process in the VHTRs. They also proposed to replace the original air-ingress scenario based on the molecular diffusion with the one based on the stratified flow. This paper is focusing on the effect of stratified flow on the results of the air-ingress accident in VHTR

Eung Soo Kim; Chang Oh; Richard Schultz; David Petti

2008-11-01

257

Accident consequences analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies of the safety and environmental aspects of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design have used simplistic assumptions in order to estimate radioactivity releases under accident conditions. Conservatisms associated with these traditional analyses can mask the actual behavior of the plant and have revealed the need for more accurate modeling and analysis of accident conditions and radioactivity mobilization mechanisms. In the present work, computer codes traditionally used for magnetic fusion safety analyses (CHEMCON, MELCOR) have been applied for simulating accident conditions in a simple model of the HYLIFE-II IFE design. Here we consider a severe loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in conjunction with simultaneous failures of the beam tubes (providing a pathway for radioactivity release from the vacuum vessel towards the confinement) and of the two barriers surrounding the chamber (inner shielding and confinement building itself). Even though confinement failure would be a very unlikely event it would be needed in order to produce significant off-site doses. CHEMCON code allows calculation of long-term temperature transients in fusion reactor first wall, blanket, and shield structures resulting from decay heating. MELCOR is used to simulate a wide range of physical phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, heat transfer, aerosol physics and fusion product transport and release. The results of these calculations show that the estimated off-site dose is less than 5mSv (0.5rem), which is well below the value of 10mSv (1rem) given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for protection of the public from exposure to radiation during off-normal conditions.

Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J. F.; Gomez del Rio, J.; Sanz, J.

2001-05-01

258

Development of the quantitative generalized information network analysis (GINA) methodology for satellite systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generalized analysis methodology for satellite systems has been developed, and it can be used for the analysis of any space system architecture addressing any mission in communications, sensing or navigation. The generalized information network analysis (GINA) methodology is a hybrid of information network flow analysis, signal and antenna theory, space systems engineering and econometrics, and specifies measurable, unambiguous metrics

Graeme B. Shaw; D. Miller; D. E. Hastingsf

1999-01-01

259

Analysis of Computer-Mediated Communication: Using Formal Concept Analysis as a Visualizing Methodology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces the use of Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) as a methodology to visualize the data in computer-mediated communication. Bases FCA on a mathematical lattice theory and offers visual maps (graphs) with conceptual hierarchies, and proposes use of FCA combined with content analysis to analyze computer-mediated communication. (Author/LRW)|

Hara, Noriko

2002-01-01

260

Radiation protection: an analysis of thyroid blocking. [Effectiveness of KI in reducing radioactive uptake following potential reactor accident  

SciTech Connect

An analysis was performed to provide guidance to policymakers concerning the effectiveness of potassium iodide (KI) as a thyroid blocking agent in potential reactor accident situations, the distance to which (or area within which) it should be distributed, and its relative effectiveness compared to other available protective measures. The analysis was performed using the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) consequence model. Four categories of accidents were addressed: gap activity release accident (GAP), GAP without containment isolation, core melt with a melt-through release, and core melt with an atmospheric release. Cost-benefit ratios (US $/thyroid nodule prevented) are given assuming that no other protective measures are taken. Uncertainties due to health effects parameters, accident probabilities, and costs are assessed. The effects of other potential protective measures, such as evacuation and sheltering, and the impact on children (critical population) are evaluated. Finally, risk-benefit considerations are briefly discussed.

Aldrich, D.C.; Blond, R.M.

1980-01-01

261

Methods for Detector Placement and Analysis of Criticality Accident Alarm Systems  

SciTech Connect

Determining the optimum placement to minimize the number of detectors for a criticality accident alarm system (CAAS) in a large manufacturing facility is a complex problem. There is typically a target for the number of detectors that can be used over a given zone of the facility. A study to optimize detector placement typically begins with some initial guess at the placement of the detectors and is followed by either predictive calculations of accidents at specific locations or adjoint calculations based on preferred detector locations. Within an area of a facility, there may be a large number of potential criticality accident sites. For any given placement of the detectors, the list of accident sites can be reduced to a smaller number of locations at which accidents may be difficult for detectors to detect. Developing the initial detector placement and determining the list of difficult accident locations are both based on the practitioner's experience. Simulations following fission particles released from an accident location are called 'forward calculations.' These calculations can be used to answer the question 'where would an alarm be triggered?' by an accident at a specified location. Conversely, 'adjoint calculations' start at a detector site using the detector response function as a source and essentially run in reverse. These calculations can be used to answer the question 'where would an accident be detected?' by a specified detector location. If the number of accidents, P, is much less than the number of detectors, Q, then forward simulations may be more convenient and less time-consuming. If Q is large or the detectors are not placed yet, then a mesh tally of dose observed by a detector at any location must be computed over the entire zone. If Q is much less than P, then adjoint calculations may be more efficient. Adjoint calculations employing a mesh tally can be even more advantageous because they do not rely on a list of specific difficult-to-detect accident sites, which may not have included every possible accident location. Analog calculations (no biasing) simply follow particles naturally. For sparse buildings and line-of-sight calculations, analog Monte Carlo (MC) may be adequate. For buildings with internal walls or large amounts of heavy equipment (dense geometry), variance reduction may be required. Calculations employing the CADIS method use a deterministic calculation to create an importance map and a matching biased source distribution that optimize the final MC to quickly calculate one specific tally. Calculations employing the FW-CADIS method use two deterministic calculations (one forward and one adjoint) to create an importance map and a matching biased source distribution that are designed to make the MC calculate a mesh tally with more uniform uncertainties in both high-dose and low-dose areas. Depending on the geometry of the problem, the number of detectors, and the number of accident sites, different approaches to CAAS placement studies can be taken. These are summarized in Table I. SCALE 6.1 contains the MAVRIC sequence, which can be used to perform any of the forward-based approaches outlined in Table I. For analog calculations, MAVRIC simply calls the Monaco MC code. For CADIS and FW-CADIS, MAVRIC uses the Denovo discrete ordinates (SN) deterministic code to generate the importance map and biased source used by Monaco. An adjoint capability is currently being added to Monaco and should be available in the next release of SCALE. An adjoint-based approach could be performed with Denovo alone - although fine meshes, large amounts of memory, and long computation times may be required to obtain accurate solutions. Coarse-mesh SN simulations could be employed for adjoint-based scoping studies until the adjoint capability in Monaco is complete. CAAS placement studies, especially those dealing with mesh tallies, require some extra utilities to aid in the analysis. Detectors must receive a minimum dose rate in order to alarm; therefore, a simple yes/no plot could be more useful to the analyst t

Peplow, Douglas E. [ORNL; Wetzel, Larry [Babcock & Wilcox Nuclear Operations Group Inc.

2012-01-01

262

Adult-child interaction analysis: methodology and case application.  

PubMed

A revised methodology for analyzing adult-child interactions incorporating the use of videotape is presented. Results obtained from the application of this methodology to a successfully treated case of prolonged subsistence on pureed foods demonstrate that it is valid and useful. Objective confirmation of previous subjective clinical impressions and judgments was provided, and previously unnoted behavioral characteristics of mother, child and therapist were revealed. The clinical, research, and training potential of this comprehensive yet unobtrusive methodology is discussed. PMID:1001069

Thompson, R J; Linscheid, T R

1976-01-01

263

Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit Safety Analysis Report (LWRHU-SAR). Volume II. Accident model document  

SciTech Connect

Purposes of this volume (AMD), are to: Identify all malfunctions, both singular and multiple, which can occur during the complete mission profile that could lead to release outside the clad of the radioisotopic material contained therein; provide estimates of occurrence probabilities associated with these various accidents; evaluate the response of the LWRHU (or its components) to the resultant accident environments; and associate the potential event history with test data or analysis to determine the potential interaction of the released radionuclides with the biosphere.

Johnson, E.W.

1985-10-01

264

Analysis of dose distribution for heavily exposed workers in the first criticality accident in Japan.  

PubMed

The first criticality accident in Japan occurred in a uranium processing plant in Tokai-mura on September 30, 1999. The accident, which occurred while a large amount of enriched uranyl nitrate solution was being loaded into a tank, led to a chain reaction that continued for 20 h. Two workers who were pouring the uranium solution into the tank at the time were heterogeneously exposed to neutrons and gamma rays produced by nuclear fission. Analysis of dose distributions was essential for the understanding of the clinical course observed in the skin and organs of these workers. We developed a numerical simulation system, which consists of mathematical human models and Monte Carlo radiation transport programs, for analyzing dose distributions in various postures and applied the system to the dose analysis for the two workers. This analysis revealed the extreme heterogeneity of the doses from neutrons and gamma rays in the skin and body, which depended on the positions and postures of the workers. The detailed dose analysis presented here using color maps is indispensable for an understanding of the biological effects of high-dose exposure to a mixed field of neutrons and gamma rays as well as for the development of emergency treatments for victims of radiation exposure. PMID:12643798

Endo, Akira; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

2003-04-01

265

Impact of the demerit point system on road traffic accident mortality in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTo assess the effect of the Demerit Point System (DPS), introduced in Spain on 1 July 2006, on the number of fatalities due to road traffic accidents, using a methodology that controls for the seasonal variation and trend in the data series.MethodsTime-series analysis by ARIMA models of 29 113 fatalities in road traffic accidents (at the accident scene or within

José Pulido; Pablo Lardelli; Luis de la Fuente; Víctor M Flores; Fernando Vallejo; Enrique Regidor

2010-01-01

266

A new differential quadrature methodology for beam analysis and the associated differential quadrature element method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a computationally efficient and an accurate new methodology in differential quadrature analysis of beam elements. The methodology would overcome the difficulties in boundary conditions implementations of fourth-order differential equations encountered in such problems. The methodology benefited from defining the second-order derivatives along the boundaries as independent degrees of freedom would enable the differential quadrature method to exactly

G. Karami; P Malekzadeh

2002-01-01

267

Hypothetical accident condition thermal analysis and testing of a Type B drum package  

SciTech Connect

A thermophysical property model developed to analytically determine the thermal response of cane fiberboard when exposed to temperatures and heat fluxes associated with the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident condition (HAC) has been benchmarked against two Type B drum package fire test results. The model 9973 package was fire tested after a 30 ft. top down drop and puncture, and an undamaged model 9975 package containing a heater (21W) was fire tested to determine content heat source effects. Analysis results using a refined version of a previously developed HAC fiberboard model compared well against the test data from both the 9973 and 9975 packages.

Hensel, S.J.; Alstine, M.N. Van; Gromada, R.J.

1995-07-01

268

An Analysis of "HCR"'s Theoretical and Methodological Evolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces theoretical and methodological contributions this journal has made to the field of communication. Finds that the journal has matured both theoretically and methodologically: 59% of the articles in the first 24 years had a theory or model driving the research; the journal remains almost exclusively quantitative; and no single theory or…

Violanti, Michelle T.

1999-01-01

269

A Novel Methodology for Credit Portfolio Analysis : Numerical Approximation Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel numerical methodology for quantifying credit port- folio risk, based on the multi-factor Merton model. This methodology consists of two steps. The first step is a numerical algorithm for computing moment generat- ing function very quickly. The second one is a fast Laplace inversion algorithm first introduced by de Hoog et al. The moment generating function

Yasushi Takano; Jiro Hashiba

270

Modeling methodology for supply chain synthesis and disruption analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of an integrated or synthesized supply chain is a strategy for managing today's globalized and customer driven supply chains in order to better meet customer demands. Synthesizing individual entities into an integrated supply chain can be a challenging task due to a variety of factors including conflicting objectives, mismatched incentives and constraints of the individual entities. Furthermore, understanding the effects of disruptions occurring at any point in the system is difficult when working toward synthesizing supply chain operations. Therefore, the goal of this research is to present a modeling methodology to manage the synthesis of a supply chain by linking hierarchical levels of the system and to model and analyze disruptions in the integrated supply chain. The contribution of this research is threefold: (1) supply chain systems can be modeled hierarchically (2) the performance of synthesized supply chain system can be evaluated quantitatively (3) reachability analysis is used to evaluate the system performance and verify whether a specific state is reachable, allowing the user to understand the extent of effects of a disruption.

Wu, Teresa; Blackhurst, Jennifer

2004-11-01

271

A systemic approach to accident analysis: a case study of the Stockwell shooting.  

PubMed

This paper uses a systemic approach to accident investigation, based upon AcciMaps, to model the events leading up to the shooting of Jean Charles de Menezes at Stockwell Underground station in July 2005. The model captures many of the findings of the Independent Police Complaints Commission's report in a single representation, modelling their interdependencies and the causal flow. Furthermore, by taking a systemic approach, the analysis identifies further considerations related to the suitability of the Metropolitan Police Service's organisational structure to support rapid-paced operations, where reliable identification of a suspect is not possible. Based upon the analysis, the paper questions the division of functions between teams and the suitability of an organisational structure that relies upon the complex flow of information between separate teams for surveillance and for controlling the suspect. A dynamic organisational structure is proposed that changes in response to operation type and unfolding events. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper provides much needed and called for validation for a systemic approach to accident analysis. A widely reported case study is used to illustrate the process. The paper shows how such an approach can consolidate the key findings of much larger reports as well as draw out additional recommendations. PMID:20069477

Jenkins, Daniel P; Salmon, Paul M; Stanton, Neville A; Walker, Guy H

2010-01-01

272

Fire risk analysis for nuclear power plants: Methodological developments and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology to quantify the risk from fires in nuclear power plants is described. This methodology combines engineering judgment, statistical evidence, fire phenomenology, and plant system analysis. It can be divided into two major parts: (1) fire scenario identification and quantification, and (2) analysis of the impact on plant safety. This article primarily concentrates on the first part. Statistical analysis

Mardyros Kazarians; G. Apostolakis; N. O. Siv

1985-01-01

273

Bayesian data analysis of severe fatal accident risk in the oil chain.  

PubMed

We analyze the risk of severe fatal accidents causing five or more fatalities and for nine different activities covering the entire oil chain. Included are exploration and extraction, transport by different modes, refining and final end use in power plants, heating or gas stations. The risks are quantified separately for OECD and non-OECD countries and trends are calculated. Risk is analyzed by employing a Bayesian hierarchical model yielding analytical functions for both frequency (Poisson) and severity distributions (Generalized Pareto) as well as frequency trends. This approach addresses a key problem in risk estimation-namely the scarcity of data resulting in high uncertainties in particular for the risk of extreme events, where the risk is extrapolated beyond the historically most severe accidents. Bayesian data analysis allows the pooling of information from different data sets covering, for example, the different stages of the energy chains or different modes of transportation. In addition, it also inherently delivers a measure of uncertainty. This approach provides a framework, which comprehensively covers risk throughout the oil chain, allowing the allocation of risk in sustainability assessments. It also permits the progressive addition of new data to refine the risk estimates. Frequency, severity, and trends show substantial differences between the activities, emphasizing the need for detailed risk analysis. PMID:22642363

Eckle, Petrissa; Burgherr, Peter

2012-05-29

274

Quantification method analysis of the relationship between occupant injury and environmental factors in traffic accidents.  

PubMed

Injury analysis following a vehicle crash is one of the most important research areas. However, most injury analyses have focused on one-dimensional injury variables, such as the AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale) or the IIS (Injury Impairment Scale), at a time in relation to various traffic accident factors. However, these studies cannot reflect the various injury phenomena that appear simultaneously. In this paper, we apply quantification method II to the NASS (National Automotive Sampling System) CDS (Crashworthiness Data System) to find the relationship between the categorical injury phenomena, such as the injury scale, injury position, and injury type, and the various traffic accident condition factors, such as speed, collision direction, vehicle type, and seat position. Our empirical analysis indicated the importance of safety devices, such as restraint equipment and airbags. In addition, we found that narrow impact, ejection, air bag deployment, and higher speed are associated with more severe than minor injury to the thigh, ankle, and leg in terms of dislocation, abrasion, or laceration. PMID:21094332

Ju, Yong Han; Sohn, So Young

2010-10-16

275

Worldwide Husbanding Process Improvement: Comparative Analysis of Contracting Methodologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is designed to support one of three major focus areas in the Naval Supply Systems Command (NAVSUP) Worldwide Husbanding Improvement Process initiative. Existing contracting methodologies were analyzed using the following methods: characteristic...

J. Pitel M. Gundemir P. Metzger R. Manalang

2007-01-01

276

Process hazards analysis (PrHA) program, bridging accident analyses and operational safety  

SciTech Connect

Recently the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Area 55 (TA-55) was revised and submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE). As a part of this effort, over seventy Process Hazards Analyses (PrHAs) were written and/or revised over the six years prior to the FSAR revision. TA-55 is a research, development, and production nuclear facility that primarily supports US. defense and space programs. Nuclear fuels and material research; material recovery, refining and analyses; and the casting, machining and fabrication of plutonium components are some of the activities conducted at TA-35. These operations involve a wide variety of industrial, chemical and nuclear hazards. Operational personnel along with safety analysts work as a team to prepare the PrHA. PrHAs describe the process; identi fy the hazards; and analyze hazards including determining hazard scenarios, their likelihood, and consequences. In addition, the interaction of the process to facility systems, structures and operational specific protective features are part of the PrHA. This information is rolled-up to determine bounding accidents and mitigating systems and structures. Further detailed accident analysis is performed for the bounding accidents and included in the FSAR. The FSAR is part of the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) that defines the safety envelope for all facility operations in order to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. The DSA is in compliance with the US. Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management and is approved by DOE. The DSA sets forth the bounding conditions necessary for the safe operation for the facility and is essentially a 'license to operate.' Safely of day-to-day operations is based on Hazard Control Plans (HCPs). Hazards are initially identified in the PrI-IA for the specific operation and act as input to the HCP. Specific protective features important to worker safety are incorporated so the worker can readily identify the safety parameters of the their work. System safety tools such as Preliminary Hazard Analysis, What-If Analysis, Hazard and Operability Analysis as well as other techniques as necessary provide the groundwork for both determining bounding conditions for facility safety, operational safety, and day-to-clay worker safety.

Richardson, J. A. (Jeanne A.); McKernan, S. A. (Stuart A.); Vigil, M. J. (Michael J.)

2003-01-01

277

Analysis of 139 spinal cord injuries due to accidents in water sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1967 and 1978, a total of 2587 patients received primary treatment in the Spinal Cord Injury Centre at the University of Heidelberg. In 212 cases the paralysis was caused by sports or diving accidents. Injuries resulting from accidents in water sports totalled 139, 131 (61.7 per cent) of which could be classified as actual diving accidents. These 131 cases

K Steinbrück; V Paeslack

1980-01-01

278

A Content Analysis of News Media Coverage of the Accident at Three Mile Island.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study was conducted for the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island to analyze coverage of the accident by ten news organizations: two wire services, three commercial television networks, and five daily newspapers. Copies of all stories and transcripts of news programs during the first week of the accident were examined from…

Stephens, Mitchell; Edison, Nadyne G.

279

Spontaneous abortions after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident: a life table analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected.

M. K. Goldhaber; S. L. Staub; G. K. Tokuhata

1983-01-01

280

The software tool storybuilder and the analysis of the horrible stories of occupational accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

To construct models for quantifying occupational risk for the Workgroup Occupational Risk Model (WORM) project for the Ministry SZW in the Netherlands, scenarios had to be built from accident histories. For this purpose the storybuilder has been developed, tailor-made software that provides a totally new way of analysing and presenting accident data. It enables details of hundreds of accidents to

L. J. Bellamy; B. J. M. Ale; J. Y. Whiston; M. L. Mud; H. Baksteen; A. R. Hale; I. A. Papazoglou; A. Bloemhoff; M. Damen; J. I. H. Oh

2008-01-01

281

A Content Analysis of News Media Coverage of the Accident at Three Mile Island.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted for the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island to analyze coverage of the accident by ten news organizations: two wire services, three commercial television networks, and five daily newspapers. Copies of all stories and transcripts of news programs during the first week of the accident were examined from…

Stephens, Mitchell; Edison, Nadyne G.

282

A Comparative Analysis of Accident Risks in Fossil, Hydro, and Nuclear Energy Chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a comparative assessment of severe accident risks in the energy sector, based on the historical experience of fossil (coal, oil, natural gas, and LPG [Liquefied Petroleum Gas]) and hydro chains contained in the comprehensive Energy-related Severe Accident Database (ENSAD), as well as Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for the nuclear chain. Full energy chains were considered because accidents

Peter Burgherr; Stefan Hirschberg

2008-01-01

283

Natural phenomena risk analysis - an approach for the tritium facilities 5480.23 SAR natural phenomena hazards accident analysis  

SciTech Connect

A Tritium Facilities (TF) Safety Analysis Report (SAR) has been developed which is compliant with DOE Order 5480.23. The 5480.23 SAR upgrades and integrates the safety documentation for the TF into a single SAR for all of the tritium processing buildings. As part of the TF SAR effort, natural phenomena hazards (NPH) were analyzed. A cost effective strategy was developed using a team approach to take advantage of limited resources and budgets. During development of the Hazard and Accident Analysis for the 5480.23 SAR, a strategy was required to allow maximum use of existing analysis and to develop a cost effective graded approach for any new analysis in identifying and analyzing the bounding accidents for the TF. This approach was used to effectively identify and analyze NPH for the TF. The first part of the strategy consisted of evaluating the current SAR for the RTF to determine what NPH analysis could be used in the new combined 5480.23 SAR. The second part was to develop a method for identifying and analyzing NPH events for the older facilities which took advantage of engineering judgment, was cost effective, and followed a graded approach. The second part was especially challenging because of the lack of documented existing analysis considered adequate for the 5480.23 SAR and a limited budget for SAR development and preparation. This paper addresses the strategy for the older facilities.

Cappucci, A.J. Jr.; Joshi, J.R.; Long, T.A.; Taylor, R.P.

1997-07-01

284

Analysis of station blackout accidents for the Bellefonte pressurized water reactor  

SciTech Connect

An analysis has been performed for the Bellefonte PWR Unit 1 to determine the containment loading and the radiological releases into the environment from a station blackout accident. A number of issues have been addressed in this analysis which include the effects of direct heating on containment loading, and the effects of fission product heating and natural convection on releases from the primary system. The results indicate that direct heating which involves more than about 50% of the core can fail the Bellefonte containment, but natural convection in the RCS may lead to overheating and failure of the primary system piping before core slump, thus, eliminating or mitigating direct heating. Releases from the primary system are significantly increased before vessel breach due to natural circulation and after vessel breach due to reevolution of retained fission products by fission product heating of RCS structures.

Gasser, R.D.; Bieniarz, P.P.; Tills, J.L.

1986-09-01

285

Analysis of the SL-1 Accident Using RELAPS5-3D  

SciTech Connect

On January 3, 1961, at the National Reactor Testing Station, in Idaho Falls, Idaho, the Stationary Low Power Reactor No. 1 (SL-1) experienced a major nuclear excursion, killing three people, and destroying the reactor core. The SL-1 reactor, a 3 MW{sub t} boiling water reactor, was shut down and undergoing routine maintenance work at the time. This paper presents an analysis of the SL-1 reactor excursion using the RELAP5-3D thermal-hydraulic and nuclear analysis code, with the intent of simulating the accident from the point of reactivity insertion to destruction and vaporization of the fuel. Results are presented, along with a discussion of sensitivity to some reactor and transient parameters (many of the details are only known with a high level of uncertainty).

Francisco, A.D. and Tomlinson, E. T.

2007-11-08

286

Goal-oriented requirements analysis and reasoning in the Tropos methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropos is an agent-oriented software methodology proposed in (1, 2). The methodology is founded on the notions of agent and goal, and goal analysis is used extensively to support software development during different phases. This paper adopts a formal goal model defined and analyzed in (9, 15) to make the goal analysis process concrete through the use of forward and

Paolo Giorgini; John Mylopoulos; Roberto Sebastiani

2005-01-01

287

Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Late health effects uncertain assessment. Volume 2: Appendices  

SciTech Connect

The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA late health effects models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the expert panel on late health effects, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

1997-12-01

288

[Analysis of hospital clinical services to elderly victims of accidents and violence].  

PubMed

The increase of elderly population and more active life allow a greater exposure to accidents and violence in this population. A diagnostic analysis of hospital services for emergency and urgent care to victims of accidents and violence in the elderly population was carried out in five capitals of Brazil. The research was based on the principles of triangulation of methods, including quantitative approaches, through the application of questionnaires to managers and pre-hospital, hospital and rehabilitation service professionals, as well as qualitative, in which interviews were made with managers and professionals and with those in charge of elderly health. Based on the guidelines of the policies studied, it was realized that none of the capitals has met all requirements, with a poor attendance characterized by lack of structure to keep a companion for the elderly, referrals to reference services, specific clinical protocols, reporting sheets, support to the elderly, job training and definition of the flow for this population. The outcome showed that the selected health services do not have the appropriate and integral profile to look after the elderly population, demonstrating the need for adequacy of these services aiming the accomplishment of the guidelines of the policies reviewed. PMID:20922278

de Lima, Maria Luiza Carvalho; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Acioli, Raquel Moura Lins; Bezerra, Eduardo Duque

2010-09-01

289

Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for deposited material and external doses. Volume 2: Appendices  

SciTech Connect

The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA deposited material and external dose models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on deposited material and external doses, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Boardman, J. [AEA Technology (United Kingdom); Jones, J.A. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

1997-12-01

290

Analysis of accidents during the mid-loop operating state at a PWR  

SciTech Connect

Studies suggest that the risk of severe accidents during low power operation and/or shutdown conditions could be a significant fraction of the risk at full power operation. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has begun two risk studies to evaluate the progression of severe accidents during these conditions: one for the Surry plant, a pressurized water reactor (PWR), and the other for the Grand Gulf plant, a boiling water reactor (BWR). This paper summarizes the approach taken for the Level 2/3 analysis at Surry for one plant operating state (POS) during shutdown. The current efforts are focussed on evaluating the risk when the reactor is at mid-loop; this particular POS was selected because of the reduced water inventory and the possible isolation of the loops. The Level 2/3 analyses are conditional on core damage having occurred. Initial results indicate that the conditional consequences can indeed be significant; the defense-in-depth philosophy governing the safety of nuclear power plants is to some extent circumvented because the containment provides only a vapor barrier with no capability for pressure holding, during this POS at Surry. However, the natural decay of the radionuclide inventory provides some mitigation. There are essentially no predicted offsite prompt fatalities even for the most severe releases.

Jo, J.; Lin, C.C.; Mufayi, V.; Neymotin, L.; Nimnual, S.

1992-01-01

291

Analysis of accidents during the mid-loop operating state at a PWR  

SciTech Connect

Studies suggest that the risk of severe accidents during low power operation and/or shutdown conditions could be a significant fraction of the risk at full power operation. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has begun two risk studies to evaluate the progression of severe accidents during these conditions: one for the Surry plant, a pressurized water reactor (PWR), and the other for the Grand Gulf plant, a boiling water reactor (BWR). This paper summarizes the approach taken for the Level 2/3 analysis at Surry for one plant operating state (POS) during shutdown. The current efforts are focussed on evaluating the risk when the reactor is at mid-loop; this particular POS was selected because of the reduced water inventory and the possible isolation of the loops. The Level 2/3 analyses are conditional on core damage having occurred. Initial results indicate that the conditional consequences can indeed be significant; the defense-in-depth philosophy governing the safety of nuclear power plants is to some extent circumvented because the containment provides only a vapor barrier with no capability for pressure holding, during this POS at Surry. However, the natural decay of the radionuclide inventory provides some mitigation. There are essentially no predicted offsite prompt fatalities even for the most severe releases.

Jo, J.; Lin, C.C.; Mufayi, V.; Neymotin, L.; Nimnual, S.

1992-12-31

292

DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF HANFORD UNIRRADIATED FUEL PACKAGE SUBJECTED TO SEQUENTIAL LATERAL LOADS IN HYPOTHETICAL ACCIDENT CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect

Large fuel casks present challenges when evaluating their performance in the Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) specified in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 10 part 71 (10CFR71). Testing is often limited by cost, difficulty in preparing test units and the limited availability of facilities which can carry out such tests. In the past, many casks were evaluated without testing by using simplified analytical methods. This paper presents a numerical technique for evaluating the dynamic responses of large fuel casks subjected to sequential HAC loading. A nonlinear dynamic analysis was performed for a Hanford Unirradiated Fuel Package (HUFP) [1] to evaluate the cumulative damage after the hypothetical accident Conditions of a 30-foot lateral drop followed by a 40-inch lateral puncture as specified in 10CFR71. The structural integrity of the containment vessel is justified based on the analytical results in comparison with the stress criteria, specified in the ASME Code, Section III, Appendix F [2], for Level D service loads. The analyzed cumulative damages caused by the sequential loading of a 30-foot lateral drop and a 40-inch lateral puncture are compared with the package test data. The analytical results are in good agreement with the test results.

Wu, T

2008-04-30

293

Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Early health effects uncertainty assessment. Volume 2: Appendices  

SciTech Connect

The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA early health effects models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on early health effects, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

Haskin, F.E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

1997-12-01

294

Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for internal dosimetry. Volume 2: Appendices  

SciTech Connect

The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA internal dosimetry models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on internal dosimetry, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harrison, J.D. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

1998-04-01

295

Learning from the Piper Alpha accident: A postmortem analysis of technical and organizational factors  

SciTech Connect

The accident that occurred on board the offshore platform Piper Alpha in July 1988 killed 167 people and cost billions of dollars in property damage. It was caused by a massive fire, which was not the result of an unpredictable act of God' but of an accumulation of errors and questionable decisions. Most of them were rooted in the organization, its structure, procedures, and culture. This paper analyzes the accident scenario using the risk analysis framework, determines which human decision and actions influenced the occurrence of the basic events, and then identifies the organizational roots of these decisions and actions. These organizational factors are generalizable to other industries and engineering systems. They include flaws in the design guidelines and design practices (e.g., tight physical couplings or insufficient redundancies), misguided priorities in the management of the tradeoff between productivity and safety, mistakes in the management of the personnel on board, and errors of judgement in the process by which financial pressures are applied on the production sector (i.e., the oil companies' definition of profit centers) resulting in deficiencies in inspection and maintenance operations. This analytical approach allows identification of risk management measures that go beyond the purely technical (e.g., add redundancies to a safety system) and also include improvements of management practices. 18 refs., 4 figs.

Pate-Cornell, M.E. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1993-04-01

296

Attack Methodology Analysis: Emerging Trends in Computer-Based Attack Methodologies and Their Applicability to Control System Networks  

SciTech Connect

Threat characterization is a key component in evaluating the threat faced by control systems. Without a thorough understanding of the threat faced by critical infrastructure networks, adequate resources cannot be allocated or directed effectively to the defense of these systems. Traditional methods of threat analysis focus on identifying the capabilities and motivations of a specific attacker, assessing the value the adversary would place on targeted systems, and deploying defenses according to the threat posed by the potential adversary. Too many effective exploits and tools exist and are easily accessible to anyone with access to an Internet connection, minimal technical skills, and a significantly reduced motivational threshold to be able to narrow the field of potential adversaries effectively. Understanding how hackers evaluate new IT security research and incorporate significant new ideas into their own tools provides a means of anticipating how IT systems are most likely to be attacked in the future. This research, Attack Methodology Analysis (AMA), could supply pertinent information on how to detect and stop new types of attacks. Since the exploit methodologies and attack vectors developed in the general Information Technology (IT) arena can be converted for use against control system environments, assessing areas in which cutting edge exploit development and remediation techniques are occurring can provide significance intelligence for control system network exploitation, defense, and a means of assessing threat without identifying specific capabilities of individual opponents. Attack Methodology Analysis begins with the study of what exploit technology and attack methodologies are being developed in the Information Technology (IT) security research community within the black and white hat community. Once a solid understanding of the cutting edge security research is established, emerging trends in attack methodology can be identified and the gap between those threats and the defensive capabilities of control systems can be analyzed. The results of the gap analysis drive changes in the cyber security of critical infrastructure networks to close the gap between current exploits and existing defenses. The analysis also provides defenders with an idea of how threat technology is evolving and how defenses will need to be modified to address these emerging trends.

Bri Rolston

2005-06-01

297

Investigating accident causation through information network modelling.  

PubMed

Management of risk in complex domains such as aviation relies heavily on post-event investigations, requiring complex approaches to fully understand the integration of multi-causal, multi-agent and multi-linear accident sequences. The Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork methodology (EAST; Stanton et al. 2008) offers such an approach based on network models. In this paper, we apply EAST to a well-known aviation accident case study, highlighting communication between agents as a central theme and investigating the potential for finding agents who were key to the accident. Ultimately, this work aims to develop a new model based on distributed situation awareness (DSA) to demonstrate that the risk inherent in a complex system is dependent on the information flowing within it. By identifying key agents and information elements, we can propose proactive design strategies to optimize the flow of information and help work towards avoiding aviation accidents. Statement of Relevance: This paper introduces a novel application of an holistic methodology for understanding aviation accidents. Furthermore, it introduces an ongoing project developing a nonlinear and prospective method that centralises distributed situation awareness and communication as themes. The relevance of findings are discussed in the context of current ergonomic and aviation issues of design, training and human-system interaction. PMID:20099174

Griffin, T G C; Young, M S; Stanton, N A

2010-02-01

298

RELAP5\\/MOD3.3 analysis of coolant depletion tests after safety injection failure during a large-break loss-of-coolant accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is concerned with development of a coupled calculation methodology with which to continually and consistently analyze progression of an accident from the design-basis phase via core uncovery to core melting and relocation. Experiments were performed to investigate the core coolant inventory depletion after safety injection failure during a large-break loss-of-coolant accident in a cold leg utilizing the Seoul

Yong-Soo Kim; Byoung-Uhn Bae; Chang-Hwan Park; Goon-Cherl Park; Kune-Yull Suh; Un-Chul Lee

2005-01-01

299

Accident management information needs  

SciTech Connect

In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1990-04-01

300

Measurement of sexual aggression in college men: A methodological analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have devoted increased attention in recent years to the measurement of sexual aggression in college populations. This review describes and critically examines current methods of measuring sexual aggression which rely on a self-reported history of such behavior. We suggest that the construct validity of these approaches can be enhanced through a systematic consideration of instrumentation and methodological issues. Twenty-six

James F. Porter; Joseph W. Critelli

1992-01-01

301

Development of a heat exchanger root-cause analysis methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to determine a generic methodology for approaching the accurate identification of the root cause of component failure. Root-cause determinations are an everyday challenge to plant personnel, but they are handled with widely differing degrees of success due to the approaches, levels of diagnostic expertise, and documentation. The criterion for success is simple: If the

D. B. Jarrell; R. C. Stratton

1989-01-01

302

A systematic heuristic rules analysis methodology for routing problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heuristic constructive algorithms have been widely and successfully applied to the solution of routing problems. Since they generally consist of an iterative insertion of nodes to construction routes, prioritization rules for assignments is critic for algorithm's performance. Developing these rules is time consuming and relies much on researcher skills and knowledge on problem features. This paper proposes a systematic methodology

D. Crespo-Pereira; D. del Rio-Vilas; J. L. Crespo-Marino; A. Garcia-del-Valle

2009-01-01

303

Methodology for the survival analysis of urban building stocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new methodology is presented for estimating age distribution and survival functions of an urban building stock. This allows for a random sample of the undemolished stock together with a complete inventory count of the demolished part to create a Kaplan–Meier estimator for the survival function. This method can be applied to any building stock with difficult access to data.

Patrick Erik Bradley; Niklaus Kohler

2007-01-01

304

A Methodology for Architecture-Level Reliability Risk Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract?isk assessment is an essential process of every software risk management plan. Several risk assessment techniques are based on the subjective judgement of domain experts. Subjective risk assessment techniques are human intensive and error-prone. Risk assessment should be based on product attributes that we can quantitatively measure using product metrics. This paper presents a methodology for reliability risk assessment at

Sherif M. Yacoub; Hany H. Ammar

2002-01-01

305

Déclaration des incidents et des accidents dans les centres hospitaliers - Analyse critique du rapport d'incident\\/accident AH223 et évaluation de la structure de gestion des rapports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reporting incidents and accidents is part of a continuous quality improvement process. The data collected through that process must be genuine and usable in order to understand what has really happened and to put forward adapted corrective measures. In the first part of this report, we will define the methodology of our critical analysis of the incidents and accidents report

Nathalie de Marcellis-Warin; Geneviève Dufour

2003-01-01

306

Multifractal analysis of the 137Cs fallout pattern in Austria resulting from the Chernobyl accident.  

PubMed

The cumulative deposition of the 137Cs fallout in Austria resulting from the passage of the Chernobyl cloud has been investigated by applying correlation dimension and hyperbolic frequency distribution methods. For the analysis, a total of 1,881 deposition values were used, which were collected by the Federal Environmental Agency of Austria and the Federal Ministry of Health, representing all available measurements of 137Cs in soil made in Austria after the Chernobyl accident. From these data a hyperbolic exponent for the frequency distribution of 4.0 and a set of fractal correlation dimensions, which decrease from 1.426 +/- 0.022 (for the whole network) to 0.706 +/- 0.047 (for 137Cs values > or = 100 kBq m(-2)), were derived, thus confirming that the fallout pattern can be described as a multifractal. PMID:9600299

Pausch, G; Bossew, P; Hofmann, W; Steger, F

1998-06-01

307

Modeling & analysis of core debris recriticality during hypothetical severe accidents in the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses salient aspects of severe-accident-related recriticality modeling and analysis in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor. The development of an analytical capability using the KEN05A-SCALE system is described including evaluation of suitable nuclear cross-section sets to account for the effects of system geometry, mixture temperature, material dispersion and other thermal-hydraulic conditions. Benchmarking and validation efforts conducted with KEN05-SCALE and other neutronic codes against critical experiment data are described. Potential deviations and biases resulting from use of the 16-group Hansen-Roach library are shown. A comprehensive test matrix of calculations to evaluate the threat of a criticality event in the ANS is described. Strong dependencies on geometry, material constituents, and thermal-hydraulic conditions are described. The introduction of designed mitigative features are described.

Kim, S.H.; Georgevich, V.; Simpson, D.B.; Slater, C.O.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

1992-10-01

308

Chiropractic treatment of patients in motor vehicle accidents: a statistical analysis  

PubMed Central

Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) are a major cause of spinal injuries treated by chiropractors. In this study the files of one chiropractor were reviewed retrospectively to generate a data base on the MVA cases (n = 149). The effect of age, sex, vehicle damage, symptoms and concurrent physiotherapy on the dependent variables of number of treatments, improvement and requirement for ongoing treatment was computed using an analysis of variance. Overall the average number of treatments given was 14.2. Patients who complained of headache or low back pain required more treatments than average. Improvement level was lowered by delay in seeking treatment, the presence of uncomplicated nausea and advancing age. Ongoing treatment to relieve persistent pain was required in 40.2 percent of the cases. None of the factors studied had a significant effect on this variable. The results of this study are comparable to those reported in the medical literature.

Dies, Stephen; Strapp, J Walter

1992-01-01

309

The development and demonstration of integrated models for the evaluation of severe accident management strategies—SAMEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is concerned with the further development of integrated models for the assessment of existing and potential severe accident management (SAM) measures. This paper provides a brief summary of these models, based on Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) methods and the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM) approach, and their application to a number of case studies spanning both preventive

M. L Ang; K Peers; E Kersting; W Fassmann; H Tuomisto; P Lundström; M Helle; V Gustavsson; P Jacobsson

2001-01-01

310

A comparative analysis of accident risks in fossil, hydro, and nuclear energy chains  

SciTech Connect

This study presents a comparative assessment of severe accident risks in the energy sector, based on the historical experience of fossil (coal, oil, natural gas, and LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)) and hydro chains contained in the comprehensive Energy-related Severe Accident Database (ENSAD), as well as Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for the nuclear chain. Full energy chains were considered because accidents can take place at every stage of the chain. Comparative analyses for the years 1969-2000 included a total of 1870 severe ({>=} 5 fatalities) accidents, amounting to 81,258 fatalities. Although 79.1% of all accidents and 88.9% of associated fatalities occurred in less developed, non-OECD countries, industrialized OECD countries dominated insured losses (78.0%), reflecting their substantially higher insurance density and stricter safety regulations. Aggregated indicators and frequency-consequence (F-N) curves showed that energy-related accident risks in non-OECD countries are distinctly higher than in OECD countries. Hydropower in non-OECD countries and upstream stages within fossil energy chains are most accident-prone. Expected fatality rates are lowest for Western hydropower and nuclear power plants; however, the maximum credible consequences can be very large. Total economic damages due to severe accidents are substantial, but small when compared with natural disasters. Similarly, external costs associated with severe accidents are generally much smaller than monetized damages caused by air pollution.

Burgherr, P.; Hirschberg, S. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

2008-07-01

311

Defense In-Depth Accident Analysis Evaluation of Tritium Facility Bldgs. 232-H, 233-H, and 234-H  

SciTech Connect

'The primary purpose of this report is to document a Defense-in-Depth (DID) accident analysis evaluation for Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facility Buildings 232-H, 233-H, and 234-H. The purpose of a DID evaluation is to provide a more realistic view of facility radiological risks to the offsite public than the bounding deterministic analysis documented in the Safety Analysis Report, which credits only Safety Class items in the offsite dose evaluation.'

Blanchard, A.

1999-05-10

312

Analysis of loss-of-coolant accident for MURR 30MW power-upgrade project using RELAP5\\/MOD2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is part of the preliminary safety analysis for the new power expansion project on the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR). The loss of coolant accident (LOCA), which is initiated by hypothetical pipe ruptures at the most adverse positions (V507 A B) in both the hot and cold legs of the primary coolant loop, is analyzed with the

1987-01-01

313

DEFORM-4: Fuel Pin Characterization and Transient Response in the SAS4A Accident Analysis Code System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The DEFORM-4 module is the segment of the SAS4A Accident Analysis Code System that calculates the fuel pin characterization in response to a steady state irradiation history, thereby providing the initial conditions for the transient calculation. The vari...

K. J. Miles D. J. Hill

1986-01-01

314

Statistical Analysis of U.S. Navy Major Aircraft Accident Rates, Pilot and Aircraft Time-Dependent Variables.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aircraft accident rates by month were analyzed for randomness, cyclic pattern or increasing/decreasing trends for all attack, fighter and propeller type aircrafts. The technique of Runs test was employed to the runs above and below the median. The analysi...

A. Rashid

1977-01-01

315

Injuries to New Zealanders participating in adventure tourism and adventure sports: an analysis of Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) claims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of adventure tourism and adventure sports activity in injury claims made to the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC). Methods Epidemiological analysis of ACC claims for the period, July 2004 to June 2005, where adventure activities were involved in the injury. Results 18,697 adventure tourism and adventure sports injury claims were

Tim Bentley; Keith Mack; Jo Edwards

316

A rational design change methodology based on experimental and analytical modal analysis  

SciTech Connect

A design methodology that integrates analytical modeling and experimental characterization is presented. This methodology represents a powerful tool for making rational design decisions and changes. An example of its implementation in the design, analysis, and testing of a precisions machine tool support structure is given.

Weinacht, D.J.; Bennett, J.G.

1993-08-01

317

Object shape-based methodology for optical analysis of contaminated engine lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction of gasoline, water, coolant and other contaminants into the engine lubricant as well as the normal aging process affects the optical properties of liquid medium, such as transparency, absorption, and refractive index. A new methodology for optical analysis of contaminated engine lubricants is proposed and described in details in this paper. Novelty of the proposed methodology consists of obtaining

Hamid R. Aghayan; Jun Yang; Evgueni V. Bordatchev

2010-01-01

318

Multi-criteria analysis weighting methodology to incorporate stakeholders' preferences in energy and climate policy interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Evaluation of energy and climate policy interactions is a complex issue, whereas stakeholders' preferences incorporation has not been addressed systematically. The purpose of this paper is to present an integrated weighting methodology that has been developed in order to incorporate weighting preferences into an ex ante evaluation of climate and energy policy interactions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A multi-criteria analysis

Stelios Grafakos; Alexandros Flamos; Vlasis Oikonomou; Dimitrios Zevgolis

2010-01-01

319

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Prenatal Diagnosis: Methodological Issues and Concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increasing concerns regarding rapidly expanding health care costs, cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) provides a methodology to assess whether marginal gains from new technology are worth the increased costs. In the arena of prenatal diagnosis, particular methodological and ethical concerns include whether the effects of such testing on individuals other than the patient are included, how termination of pregnancy is included

Aaron B. Caughey

2005-01-01

320

Verification for Flow Analysis Capability in the Model of Three-Dimensional Natural Convection with Simultaneous Spreading, Melting and Solidification for the Debris Coolability Analysis Module in the Severe Accident Analysis Code ‘SAMPSON’, (I)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debris coolability analysis module in the severe accident analysis code ‘SAMPSON’ has been enhanced to predict more mechanistically the safety margin of present reactor pressure vessels in a severe accident. The module calculates debris three-dimensional natural convection with simultaneous spreading, melting and solidification using the ‘debris spreading-cooling model’ in combination with the temperature distribution of the vessel wall and

Masataka HIDAKA; Hiroshi UJITA

2001-01-01

321

Conjoint analysis as a new methodology for Korean typography guideline in Web environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical significance approach such as the analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been commonly used to analyze the legibility elements of on-line and printed texts. However, few researches have been done with conjoint analysis. Therefore, a new methodology of Korean typography guidelines for Web pages using conjoint analysis is introduced because conjoint analysis has a great merit of its representation of

Rohae Myung

2003-01-01

322

Consequence analysis of a hypothetical contained criticality accident in the Hanford Critical Mass Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The original hazards summary report (i.e., SAR) for the CML addressed the consequences of a hypothetical accidential critical excursion occurring with the experimental assembly room open. That report indicated that the public would receive insignificant radiation exposure regardless of the type of atmospheric condition, while plant personnel could possibly receive exposures greater than the annual exposure limits for radiation workers, when a strong inversion existed. This analysis investigates the consequencs of a hypothetical accident criticality occurring with the experimental assembly room sealed. Due to the containment capabilities designed and built into the critical assembly room, the consequences are greatly reduced below those presented in HW-66266. Despite the incorporation of many extremely conservative assumptions to simplify the analysis, the radiation doses predicted for personnel 100 meters or more distant from the CML are found to be smaller than the annual radiation dose limit for members of the public in uncontrolled areas during routine, nonaccident operations. Therefore, the results of this analysis demonstrate that the occurrence of a hypothetical critical excursion within the sealed experimental assembly room at the Hanford Critical Mass Laboratory presents only a small, acceptable risk to personnel and facilities in the area and no additional safety systems or controls are needed for the continued safe operation of the CML. 11 references, 4 tables. (ACR)

Gore, B.F.; Strenge, D.L.; Mishima, J.

1984-12-01

323

Analysis of the Loss of Forced Reactor Coolant Flow Accident in SMART using RETRAN-03/INT  

SciTech Connect

Small and medium integral type nuclear reactors are getting much attention for the peaceful use of nuclear energy in non-electric area such as district heating, seawater desalination and ship propulsion. An integral type nuclear co-generation reactor, SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor, 330 MWt), has been developed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) since 1996. In this study, the safety analysis for SMART using modified RETRAN-03 code whose name is RETRAN-03/INT is performed to examine the applicability of RETRAN-03/INT code. For the safety analysis of integral reactor with helical-coiled steam generators, RETRAN-03 code has been modified and verified using experimental results. New heat transfer coefficients are added for helical-coiled steam generator. And, the heat transfer model for steam generator is modified due to the different primary and secondary side heat flow from U-tube type steam generator. The loss of forced reactor coolant flow accident is selected for safety analysis in this study. Also it is considered as a single failure that one of three trains of passive residual heat removal system is failed. The results from MARS/SMR code and RETRAN-03/INT code are compared. (authors)

Kim, Tae-Wan; Suh, Kune-Yull; Lee, Un-Chul; Park, Goon-Cherl [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hak [Future and Challenge Co., LTD., 130-202, San 56-1, Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2002-07-01

324

Analysis of fission product revaporization in a BWR Reactor Coolant System during a station blackout accident  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an analysis of fission product revaporization from the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) following the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) failure. The station blackout accident in a BWR Mark I Power Plant was considered. The TRAPMELT3 models for vaporization, chemisorption, and the decay heating of RCS structures and gases were used and extended beyond the RPV failure in the analysis. The RCS flow models based on the density-difference or pressure-difference between the RCS and containment pedestal region were developed to estimate the RCS outflow which carries the revaporized fission product to the containment. A computer code called REVAP was developed for the analysis. The REVAP code was incorporated with the MARCH, TRAPMELT3 and NAUA codes from the Source Term Code Package (STCP) to estimate the impact of revaporization on environmental release. The results show that the thermal-hydraulic conditions between the RCS and the pedestal region are important factors in determining the magnitude of revaporization and subsequent release of the volatile fission product into the environment. 6 refs., 8 figs.

Yang, J.W.; Schmidt, E.; Cazzoli, E.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.

1988-01-01

325

Analysis of External Cooling of the Reactor Vessel During Severe Accidents  

SciTech Connect

An analysis is presented of the integral behavior of the external cooling of a reactor vessel by natural circulation during a severe accident to investigate the feasibility of the in-vessel retention strategy for a high-power reactor by using the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code. It is shown that two-phase flow instability phenomena, including natural-circulation oscillation and density wave oscillations, affect the local thermal margin at the reactor vessel wall. The heat load on the reactor vessel is simplified as a uniform heat flux load of 600 kW/m{sup 2} in the base case. A sensitivity study for the effect of the inlet K factor, nonuniform heat flux distribution, inlet flow area, and subcooling of the pool water is performed to evaluate the local thermal margin. The results of the analysis show that natural-circulation cooling is marginal at this level of heat flux. It also clearly indicates that a system level of analysis for two-phase natural circulation, including the sensitivity study on the design parameters, is necessary to ensure successful implementation of the external cooling.

Song, Jin Ho; Kim, Sang Baik; Kim, Hee Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

2002-04-15

326

An Analysis on the Characteristics of Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion Accidents in Marine Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BLEVE is a kind of disaster that may cause serious consequences in the process of maritime transportation of liquefied petroleum gas, liquefied natural gas. To analyze the accident characteristics of both the external environment and the internal causes is the basic to prevent, control and research this accident. This paper analyzes the BLEVE happening overall process under the interaction of

Chen Sining; Duo Yinquan; Wei Lijun

2010-01-01

327

Fuel Relocation Modeling in the SAS4A Accident Analysis Code System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

SAS4A is a new code system which has been designed for analyzing the initial phase of Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accidents (HCDAs) up to gross melting or failure of the subassembly walls. During such postulated accident scenarios as the Loss-of-Flow (LO...

A. M. Tentner K. J. Miles

1985-01-01

328

Debris interactions in reactor vessel lower plena during a severe accident II. Integral analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integral physico-numerical model for the reactor vessel lower head response has been exercised for the TMI-2 accident and possible severe accident scenarios in PWR and BWR designs. The proposed inherent cooling mechanism of the reactor material creep and subsequent water ingression implemented in this predictive model provides a consistent representation of how the debris was finally cooled in the

Kune Y. Suh; Robert E. Henry

1996-01-01

329

Analysis of accidents during the mid-loop operating state at a PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies suggest that the risk of severe accidents during low power operation and\\/or shutdown conditions could be a significant fraction of the risk at full power operation. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has begun two risk studies to evaluate the progression of severe accidents during these conditions: one for the Surry plant, a pressurized water reactor (PWR), and the other for

J. Jo; C. C. Lin; V. Mufayi; L. Neymotin; S. Nimnual

1992-01-01

330

Analysis of hydrogen mitigation for degraded core accidents in the Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report presents the results of a scoping investigation to ascertain the effectiveness and practicability of three hydrogen control measures for the Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant--deliberate ignition, water fogging, and Halon addition after accident initiation. The authors conclude that no one of these hydrogen control measures alone is clearly superior to the other under all accident conditions. Advantages and disadvantages

M. Berman; M. P. Sherman; J. C. Cummings; M. R. Baer; S. K. Griffiths

1981-01-01

331

Vehicle crash accident reconstruction based on the analysis 3D deformation of the auto-body  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of vehicle crash accident reconstruction is to investigate the pre-impact velocity. Elastic–plastic deformation of the vehicle and the collision objects are the important information produced during vehicle crash accidents, and the information can be fully utilized based on the finite element method (FEM), which has been widely used as simulation tools for crashworthiness analyses and structural optimization design.

Xiao-yun Zhang; Xian-long Jin; Wen-guo Qi; Yi-zhi Guo

2008-01-01

332

Two non-probabilistic methods for uncertainty analysis in accident reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many uncertain factors in traffic accidents, it is necessary to study the influence of these uncertain factors to improve the accuracy and confidence of accident reconstruction results. It is difficult to evaluate the uncertainty of calculation results if the expression of the reconstruction model is implicit and\\/or the distributions of the independent variables are unknown. Based on interval

Tiefang Zou; Zhi Yu; Ming Cai; Jike Liu

2010-01-01

333

An exploratory multinomial logit analysis of single-vehicle motorcycle accident severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most previous research on motorcycle accident severity has focused on univariate relationships between severity and an explanatory variable of interest (e.g., helmet use). The potential ambiguity and bias that univariate analyses create in identifying the causality of severity has generated the need for multivariate analyses in which the effects of all factors that influence accident severity are considered. This paper

Venkataraman Shankar; Fred Mannering

1996-01-01

334

Current situation analysis and safety countermeasure study on road traffic accidents in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of economy and continuous improvement of people's purchase ability in China, the motor vehicles ownership is increasing rapidly, so as the traffic accidents and traffic death toll, which make the road traffic situation in China worse and worse. According to data on the national road traffic accidents from 1990 to 2007, the characteristics of road traffic

Weigao Qiao; Bo Shang

2011-01-01

335

Stream habitat analysis using the instream flow incremental methodology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This document describes the Instream Flow Methodology in its entirety. This also is to serve as a comprehensive introductory textbook on IFIM for training courses as it contains the most complete and comprehensive description of IFIM in existence today. This should also serve as an official guide to IFIM in publication to counteract the misconceptions about the methodology that have pervaded the professional literature since the mid-1980's as this describes IFIM as it is envisioned by its developers. The document is aimed at the decisionmakers of management and allocation of natural resources in providing them an overview; and to those who design and implement studies to inform the decisionmakers. There should be enough background on model concepts, data requirements, calibration techniques, and quality assurance to help the technical user design and implement a cost-effective application of IFIM that will provide policy-relevant information. Some of the chapters deal with basic organization of IFIM, procedural sequence of applying IFIM starting with problem identification, study planning and implementation, and problem resolution.

Bovee, Ken D.; Lamb, Berton L.; Bartholow, John M.; Stalnaker, Clair B.; Taylor, Jonathan; Henriksen, Jim

1998-01-01

336

Tri-Level Accident Investigation Study. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volume 1 is the final technical report of a program that describes accident investigation studies, which incorporate varying levels of accident detail, and accompanying analysis of accident data. In-depth multidisciplinary accident case studies are discus...

P. Cooley J. Beaumont T. Gates J. O'Day D. E. Cleveland

1973-01-01

337

Emergency drinking water treatment during source water pollution accidents in China: origin analysis, framework and technologies.  

PubMed

China has suffered frequent source water contamination accidents in the past decade, which has resulted in severe consequences to the water supply of millions of residents. The origins of typical cases of contamination are discussed in this paper as well as the emergency response to these accidents. In general, excessive pursuit of rapid industrialization and the unreasonable location of factories are responsible for the increasing frequency of accidental pollution events. Moreover, insufficient attention to environmental protection and rudimentary emergency response capability has exacerbated the consequences of such accidents. These environmental accidents triggered or accelerated the promulgation of stricter environmental protection policy and the shift from economic development mode to a more sustainable direction, which should be regarded as the turning point of environmental protection in China. To guarantee water security, China is trying to establish a rapid and effective emergency response framework, build up the capability of early accident detection, and develop efficient technologies to remove contaminants from water. PMID:21133359

Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Chen, Chao; Lin, Peng-Fei; Hou, Ai-Xin; Niu, Zhang-Bin; Wang, Jun

2010-12-06

338

Multidisciplinary Accident Investigation. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the methodology, results, discussions, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to the investigation of 50 fatal and non-fatal vehicular accidents occurring in the Greater Baltimore metropolitan area from June 28, 1974 to June 30, 1...

R. S. Fisher

1976-01-01

339

Methodology for Computer-Aided Fault Tree Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault tree analysis is a systematic, deductive and probabilistic risk assessment tool which elucidates the causal relations leading to a given undesired event. Quantitative fault tree (failure) analysis requires a fault tree and failure data of basic events. Development of a fault tree and subsequent analysis require a great deal of expertise, which may not be available all the time.

R. Ferdous; F. I. Khan; B. Veitch; P. R. Amyotte

2007-01-01

340

Summary Report of Laboratory Critical Experiment Analyses Performed for the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology  

SciTech Connect

This report, ''Summary Report of Laboratory Critical Experiment Analyses Performed for the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology'', contains a summary of the laboratory critical experiment (LCE) analyses used to support the validation of the disposal criticality analysis methodology. The objective of this report is to present a summary of the LCE analyses' results. These results demonstrate the ability of MCNP to accurately predict the critical multiplication factor (keff) for fuel with different configurations. Results from the LCE evaluations will support the development and validation of the criticality models used in the disposal criticality analysis methodology. These models and their validation have been discussed in the ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (CRWMS M&O 1998a).

J. Scaglione

1999-09-09

341

Differences in rural and urban driver-injury severities in accidents involving large-trucks: an exploratory analysis.  

PubMed

This study explores the differences between urban and rural driver injuries (both passenger-vehicle and large-truck driver injuries) in accidents that involve large trucks (in excess of 10,000 pounds). Using 4 years of California accident data, and considering four driver-injury severity categories (no injury, complaint of pain, visible injury, and severe/fatal injury), a multinomial logit analysis of the data was conducted. Significant differences with respect to various risk factors including driver, vehicle, environmental, road geometry and traffic characteristics were found to exist between urban and rural models. For example, in rural accidents involving tractor-trailer combinations, the probability of drivers' injuries being severe/fatal increased about 26% relative to accidents involving single-unit trucks. In urban areas, this same probability increased nearly 700%. In accidents where alcohol or drug use was identified as being the primary cause of the accident, the probability of severe/fatal injury increased roughly 250% percent in rural areas and nearly 800% in urban areas. While many of the same variables were found to be significant in both rural and urban models (although often with quite different impact), there were 13 variables that significantly influenced driver-injury severity in rural but not urban areas, and 17 variables that significantly influenced driver-injury severity in urban but not rural areas. We speculate that the significant differences between rural and urban injury severities may be at least partially attributable to the different perceptual, cognitive and response demands placed on drivers in rural versus urban areas. PMID:15935320

Khorashadi, Ahmad; Niemeier, Debbie; Shankar, Venky; Mannering, Fred

2005-09-01

342

A strategic partnering framework analysis methodology for public-private partnerships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to view and analyse public-private partnerships (PPPs) under a strategic partnering approach between the key parties involved, i.e. public sector, private sector and lenders, and their business environment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A strategic partnering framework analysis methodology has been devised based on existing and well-known business strategic analysis tools (the political-economic-social-technological (PEST) and

Athena Roumboutsos; Nicola Chiara

2010-01-01

343

Accident Reviews: M113 Accident, AMV Accident, Environmental Injuries, Field Training Accident, Tactical Parachuting Accident, Physical Training Accident, Weapons-Handling Accident.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains reviews on various kinds of accidents: armored personnel carriers, environmental injuries, field training accidents, tactical parachuting accidents, physical training accidents and weapon-handing accidents.

1985-01-01

344

Assessment of ISLOCA risk-methodology and application to a combustion engineering plant  

SciTech Connect

Inter-system loss-of-coolant accidents (ISLOCAs) have been identified as important contributors to offsite risk for some nuclear power plants. A methodology has been developed for identifying and evaluating plant-specific hardware designs, human factors issues, and accident consequence factors relevant to the estimation of ISOLOCA core damage frequency and risk. This report presents a detailed of description of the application of this analysis methodology to a Combustion Engineering plant.

Kelly, D.L.; Auflick, J.L.; Haney, L.N. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1992-04-01

345

Methodology for computer aided fuzzy fault tree analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is a comprehensive, structured and logical analysis method aimed at identifying and assessing risks of complex process systems. PRA uses fault tree analysis (FTA) as a tool to identify basic causes leading to an undesired event, to represent logical dependency of these basic causes in leading to the event, and finally to calculate the probability of

Refaul Ferdous; Faisal Khan; Brian Veitch; Paul R. Amyotte

2009-01-01

346

Performance analysis methodology for passive heating systems in the NSDN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented is the approach to the performance analysis of passive solar heating systems used by the National Solar Data Network (NSDN). This analysis method has been standardized for all passive systems in the NDSN to insure consistency in reporting the performance of various systems. The basic method used is the energy balance method where energy delivered to the structure equals

Spears

1981-01-01

347

A Generic Four-step Methodology For Institutional Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central hypothesis of this paper is that there may be situations in which the traditional approach to institutional analysis is of limited applicability. Such an approach, which has been called 'comparative institutional analysis', consists of comparing institutional environments and institutional arrangements in terms of specific economic or other efficiency criteria to see which one performs better. However, because of

Paul A. Herrera; Guido Van Huylenbroeck; Ramon L. Espinel

2005-01-01

348

Fault Tree Analysis: An Emerging Methodology for Instructional Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes Fault Tree Analysis, a tool for systems analysis which attempts to identify possible modes of failure in systems to increase the probability of success. The article defines the technique and presents the steps of FTA construction, focusing on its application to education. (RAO)|

Wood, R. Kent; And Others

1979-01-01

349

Successful Indicators Study (SIS) Methodology Report: Deviant Case Analysis Pilot.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A deviant case analysis pilot study analyzed California local education agency data to determine the usefulness of regression analysis in predicting change in achievement from 1984 to 1989 and identified outliers or districts that show greater achievement changes than would be expected given changed demographic conditions. This report on the…

Bailey, Jerry; Hafner, Anne

350

CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE ANALYSIS: A METHODOLOGY FOR INTEGRATED MODELING AND SIMULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integral to efiective critical infrastructure analysis is the assessment of infrastructure vulnerabilities, which seeks to provide insights into po- tential disruptions, insights that may increase the e-cacy of protection plans as well as operations for response and recovery. Efiective criti- cal infrastructures analysis, however, must account for both the multi- dimensional, highly complex characteristics within each infrastructure as well as

William J. Tolone; Seok-Won Lee; Wei-Ning Xiang; Joshua Blackwell; Cody Yeager; Andrew Schumpert; E. Wray Johnson

351

Aircraft accident construction set: performance engineering applied to accident reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

For some time aircraft accident investigation has been a reverse engineering procedure. Failure analysis has taken a strict engineering approach, disregarding many of the alternatives relating to cause. As aircraft become automated, many relating factors will need to be considered in order to build an accurate reconstruction of an accident. The Aircraft Accident Construction Set will provide the investigator with

James W. Blanchard

1992-01-01

352

Lower head creep rupture failure analysis associated with alternative accident sequences of the Three Mile Island Unit 2  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this lower head creep rupture analysis is to assess the current version of MELCOR 1.8.5-RG against SCDAP/RELAP5 MOD 3.3kz. The purpose of this assessment is to investigate the current MELCOR in-vessel core damage progression phenomena including the model for the formation of a molten pool. The model for stratified molten pool natural heat transfer will be included in the next MELCOR release. Presently, MELCOR excludes the gap heat-transfer model for the cooling associated with the narrow gap between the debris and the lower head vessel wall. All these phenomenological models are already treated in SCDAP/RELAP5 using the COUPLE code to model the heat transfer of the relocated debris with the lower head based on a two-dimensional finite-element-method. The assessment should determine if current MELCOR capabilities adequately cover core degradation phenomena appropriate for the consolidated MELCOR code. Inclusion of these features should bring MELCOR much closer to a state of parity with SCDAP/RELAP5 and is a currently underway element in the MELCOR code consolidation effort. This assessment deals with the following analysis of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) alternative accident sequences. The TMI-2 alternative accident sequence-1 includes the continuation of the base case of the TMI-2 accident with the Reactor Coolant Pumps (RCP) tripped, and the High Pressure Injection System (HPIS) throttled after approximately 6000 s accident time, while in the TMI-2 alternative accident sequence-2, the reactor coolant pumps is tripped after 6000 s and the HPIS is activated after 12,012 s. The lower head temperature distributions calculated with SCDAP/RELAP5 are visualized and animated with open source visualization freeware 'OpenDX'. (author)

Sang Lung, Chan [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich and Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate, Zurich, Switzerland, 8001 (Switzerland)

2004-07-01

353

Optimizing methodologies for PCR-based DNA methylation analysis.  

PubMed

Comprehensive analysis of DNA methylation patterns is critical for understanding the molecular basis of many human diseases. While hundreds of PCR-based DNA methylation studies are published every year, the selection and implementation of appropriate methods for these studies can be challenging for molecular genetics researchers not yet familiar with methylation analysis. Here we review the most commonly used PCR-based DNA methylation analysis techniques: bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP), methylation specific PCR (MSP), MethyLight, and methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM). We provide critical analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of each approach as well as a series of guidelines to assist in selecting and implementing an appropriate method. PMID:24107250

Hernández, Hernán G; Tse, M Yat; Pang, Stephen C; Arboleda, Humberto; Forero, Diego A

2013-10-01

354

A Methodology for Funds Flow Analysis: A Revision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The State Health Planning and Development Agency initially developed a funds flow study in 1979. An update and revision of this study was recently completed. A funds flow analysis provides a state description of past health care expenditures according to ...

D. Palm

1981-01-01

355

Supply Analysis Model (SAM): A Minerals Availability System Methodology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Growing domestic and global demands for mineral resources have established an imperative need for developing comprehensive, versatile mineral supply analysis evaluation tools. The Minerals Availability System (MAS) of the Bureau of Mines is meeting this n...

R. L. Davidoff

1980-01-01

356

Comparative analysis of EPA cost-benefit methodologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years, reforming the regulatory process has received much attention from diverse groups such as environmentalists, the government, and industry. A cost-benefit analysis can be a useful way to organize and compare the favorable and unfavorable im...

L. Poch J. Gillette J. Veil

1998-01-01

357

Methodologies and techniques for analysis of network flow data  

SciTech Connect

Network flow data gathered at the border routers and core switches is used at Fermilab for statistical analysis of traffic patterns, passive network monitoring, and estimation of network performance characteristics. Flow data is also a critical tool in the investigation of computer security incidents. Development and enhancement of flow based tools is an on-going effort. This paper describes the most recent developments in flow analysis at Fermilab.

Bobyshev, A.; Grigoriev, M.; /Fermilab

2004-12-01

358

Health effects models for off-site radiological consequence analysis of nuclear reactor accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A first version of models has been developed for predicting the number of occurrences of health effects induced by radiation exposure in nuclear reactor accidents. The models are based on the health effects models developed originally by Harvard Universit...

O. Togawa T. Homma H. Matsuzuru S. Kobayashi

1991-01-01

359

Event Tree Analysis of Core Disruptive Accident Consequences Safety R and D Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These results provide a basis for planning research and development to support breeder reactor safety Line-of-Assurance 3. Consequences were calculated for different combinations of reactor containment design features and accident events assumed to occur ...

C. B. Peck K. G. Feller

1979-01-01

360

Analysis of NASA's Post-Challenger Response and Relationship to the Columbia Accident and Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The investigatory findings of the Space Shuttle 'Challenger' and 'Columbia' accident investigation boards are analyzed and evaluated relative to one another, with the goal of determining if there are lessons applicable to organizations that manage technic...

R. G. Gregory S. J. Marcellino S. A. Moyer

2006-01-01

361

Workshop on Development of the Interactive Highway Safety Design Model Accident Analysis Module.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Highway Administration is developing an Interactive Highway Safety Design Model (IHSDM) to assist highway geometric design engineers in considering the safety consequences of their design decisions. One element of the IHSDM will be an accident...

D. W. Harwood K. M. Bauer J. M. Mason W. A. Stimpson

1997-01-01

362

Longitudinal Study of California Driver Accident Frequencies I: An Exploratory Multivariate Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The longitudinal study attempts to develop an optimum accident prediction system using nine year driving history records of a large sample of California drivers and biographical and mileage exposure data collected through a questionnaire survey. An explor...

K. W. Kwong J. Kuan R. C. Peck

1976-01-01

363

Hypothetical accident condition thermal analysis and testing of a Type B drum package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A thermophysical property model developed to analytically determine the thermal response of cane fiberboard when exposed to temperatures and heat fluxes associated with the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident condition (HAC) has been benchmarked against two T...

S. J. Hensel M. N. Alstine R. J. Gromada

1995-01-01

364

Sensitivity analysis of a ship accident at a deep-ocean site in the northwest Atlantic  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a sensitivity analysis for an HLW ship accident occurring in the Nares Abyssal Plain in the northwestern Atlantic. Waste form release rate, canister lifetime and sorption in the water column (partition coefficients) were varied. Also investigated were the relative importance of the dose from the food chain and from seaweed in the diet. Peak individual doses and integrated collective doses for populations were the units of comparison. In accordance with international guidelines on radiological protection, the comparisons of different options were carried out over ''all time''; the study uses a million-year time frame. Partition coefficients have the most pronounced effect on collective dose of the parameters studied. Variations in partition coefficients affect the shape of the collective dose curve over the entire time frame. Peak individual doses decrease markedly when the value for the sorption of americium is increased, but show no increase when less sorption is assumed. Waste form release rates and canister lifetimes affect collective doses only in periods prior to 20,000 years. Hence, comparisons of these options need not be carried out beyond 20,000 years. Waste from release rates below 10/sup -3//yr (nominal value) affect individual doses in a linear manner, i.e., an order-of-magnitude reduction in release rate leads to an order-of-magnitude reduction in peak individual dose. Little reduction in peak individual doses is seen with canister lifetimes extended beyond the nominal 100 years. 32 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.

Kaplan, M.F.

1985-04-01

365

[The Polish helicopter crash in Belarus--an analysis of the accident].  

PubMed

The subject of analysis was the crash of a helicopter of the Polish Border Guards, which happened on October 31, 2009, in the Byelorussian territory about two hundred meters from the Polish border. In the accident, three crew members perished: the pilot, navigator and operator. Based on the accounts obtained directly after the crash on the site of the tragedy, it was established that the pilot tried to land, but the impact was so strong that the aircraft sank about one meter into the ground. On November 3, 2009, a committee consisting of two prosecutors from the County Prosecutor Office in Bialystok, a forensic science expert and a representative from the Border Guards, went to Department of Forensic Medicine in Brzesc. The prosecutors and forensic science expert took part in recovering the bodies. During the process of internal and external examination, severe body injuries were noted, without any surviving tissue and intestines. Samples of blood, urine and fragments of internal organs were collected for chemical, biochemical, toxicological and histopathological examinations. Muscle DNA was also taken. PMID:21520535

Ptaszy?ska-Sarosiek, Iwona; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Ok?ota, Magdalena; Wardaszka, Zofia; Szeremeta, Micha?; Filimoniuk, Marcin; Janica, Jerzy

366

Value-impact analysis of severe-accident prevention and mitigation systems. [PWR; BWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of Sandia's Severe Accident Risk Reduction (SARR) Program for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the cost-benefit tradeoffs of filtered-vented containment (FVC) systems, hydrogen control systems, alternate decay heat removal systems, and a variety of other reactor modifications designed to reduce the risk from severe accidents have been studied. Some of the preliminary results to data indicate that (1)

A. S. Benjamin; S. W. Hatch; D. R. Strip; P. R. Bennett; Drayer; V. L. D. D. Behr

1982-01-01

367

Biomechanical analysis of occupant kinematics in rollover motor vehicle accidents: dynamic spit test.  

PubMed

A better understanding of occupant kinematics in rollover accidents helps to advance biomechanical knowledge and to enhance the safety features of motor vehicles. While many rollover accident simulation studies have adopted the static approach to delineate the occupant kinematics in rollover accidents, very few studies have attempted the dynamic approach. The present work was designed to study the biomechanics of restrained occupants during rollover accidents using the steady-state dynamic spit test and to address the importance of keeping the lap belt fastened. Experimental tests were conducted using an anthropometric 50% Hybrid III dummy in a vehicle. The vehicle was rotated at 180 degrees/second and the dummy was restrained using a standard three-point restraint system. The lap belt of the dummy was fastened either by using the cinching latch plate or by locking the retractor. Three configurations of shoulder belt harness were simulated: shoulder belt loose on chest with cinch plate, shoulder belt under the left arm and shoulder belt behind the chest. In all tests, the dummy stayed within the confinement of the vehicle indicating that the securely fastened lap belt holds the dummy with dynamic movement of 3 1/2" to 4". The results show that occupant movement in rollover accidents is least affected by various shoulder harness positions with a securely fastened lap belt. The present study forms a first step in delineating the biomechanics of occupants in rollover accidents. PMID:15850090

Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Clarke, Richard; Herbst, Brian; Meyer, Steve

2005-01-01

368

Dynamic OSoS analysis using structure reorganization methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operation System of Systems (OSoS) as a new form of modern warfare is proposed, aiming at designing the military organization as a whole to implement the mission. This paper puts forward the organization model of OSoS which including organization task, organization entity and organization relationship. As for the uncertainty of battlefield, this paper makes the structure reorganization analysis and proposes

Guoli Yang; Baoxin Xiu; Weiming Zhang; Yong Zhang

2011-01-01

369

Fault Tree Analysis: An emerging methodology for instructional science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault Tree Analysis is a systematic approach to improving the probability of succes in any system. FTA was first developed as part of the U.S. Space Industry and was applied to such programs as the Minute Man Missile evaluations. Kent G. Stephens has successfully applied the technique to instructional and administrative programs, the latest program being the development of an

R. Kent Wood; Kent G. Stephens; Bruce O. Barker

1979-01-01

370

A methodology for stock market analysis utilizing rough set theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quants are aiding brokers and investment managers for stock market analysis and prediction. The Quant's black magic stems from many of the evolving artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. Extensive literature exists describing attempts to use AI techniques, and in particular neural networks, for analyzing stock market variations. The main problem with neural networks, however is the tremendous difficulty in interpreting the

Robert H. Golan; W. Ziarko

1995-01-01

371

EXPLANATORY METHODS OF MARKETING DATA ANALYSIS – THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explanatory methods of data analysis – also named by some authors supervised learning methods - enable researchers to identify and analyse configurations of relations between two or several variables, most of them with a high accuracy, as there is possibility of testing statistic significance by calculating the confidence level associated with validation of relation concerned across the entire population and

Manuela Rozalia GABOR

2010-01-01

372

Methodology for interference analysis using electromagnetic topology techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

For simulation codes based on the electromagnetic topology theory, a method to characterize electromagnetic interference and interactions between an external source and internal circuitry of a semi-shielded system is described. Simulation results based on this technique compare well with previously measured data. Analysis also shows that the high-frequency resonances on the cable voltage and current depend on the length of

Phumin Kirawanich; Rahul Gunda; Nakka S. Kranthi; Jeffery C. Kroenung; N. E. Islam

2004-01-01

373

An analysis of equipment-related fatal accidents in U.S. mining operations: 1995–2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite significant reductions in mining fatalities, the number of these accidents remains high. Based on the number of fatalities per year, a persistent area of concern in mine safety continues to be equipment-related. The study was undertaken in order to more thoroughly characterize equipment-related mining fatalities and to perform an analysis of those that occurred over the last 11-years, from

Vladislav Kecojevic; Dragan Komljenovic; William Groves; Mark Radomsky

2007-01-01

374

Analysis and application of relationship between post-braking-distance and throw distance in vehicle–pedestrian accident reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through theoretical analysis and introduction of some empirical parameters, the relationship between post-braking-distance and throw distance was studied concentratedly. Here, the post-braking-distance is the distance a vehicle will travel from the impact position to when it comes to a complete stop. Two useful formulas which are meaningful in vehicle–pedestrian accident reconstruction were finally obtained. The first one can be used

Tiefang Zou; Zhi Yu; Ming Cai; Jike Liu

2011-01-01

375

Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part 1, Introduction, integration, and summary: Revision 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a revision of NUREG\\/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 1 (1990), Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis. This revision has been made to incorporate changes to the Health Effects Models recommended in two addenda to the NUREG\\/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 11, 1989 report. The first of these addenda provided recommended changes to the health effects

J. S. Evans; S. Abrahmson; M. A. Bender; B. B. Boecker; B. R. Scott; E. S. Gilbert

1993-01-01

376

Angular VGA and Cellular VGA An exploratory study for spatial analysis methodology based on human movement behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Space Syntax field, moving distance and turning angle are the two main factors of human movement behavior which have been taken notice of. Several spatial analysis methodologies which apply those issues to existing graph-based methodologies have been published during the recent ten years. One of the most remarkable models is the Angular Segment Analysis (ASA) methodology for successfully

Minseok Kim; Jaepil Choi

2009-01-01

377

Partition-Recomposition Methodology for Accurate Electromagnetic Analysis of SiP Passive Circuitry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partition-recomposition methodology based on internal port concept associated to auxiliary sources, is proposed for electromagnetic (EM) analysis of SiP (system-in-package) off-chip and on-chip passive circuitry towards optimized passive and active frequency and time domain co-simulation. Attributes of internal ports and associated de-embedding procedures for local ground references are discussed. Application of the proposed methodology to off-chip SiP multi-conductors and

Sidina Wane; Damienne Bajon

2007-01-01

378

A methodology for obtaining and using toxic potency data for fire hazard analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive methodology has been developed for obtaining and using smoke toxicity data for fire hazard analysis. This description of the methodology comprises (1) determination that the post-flashover fire is the proper focus of smoke inhalation deaths; criteria for a useful bench-scale toxic potency (LC50) measurement method; (2) a method which meets these criteria, especially validation against real-scale fires; (3)

Vytenis Babrauskas; Richard G. Gann; Barbara C. Levin; Maya Paabo; Richard H. Harris; Richard D. Peacock; Shyuitsu Yusa

1998-01-01

379

Thermoluminescence Dose Response: Experimental Methodology, Data Analysis, Theoretical Interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The parameters, Dth, Dc, Dm, f(D) and f(D)max., describing the characteristics of TL dose response are defined and a short survey of the literature concerning the dose response of the major TL glow peaks in LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100), peaks 5, 7 and 8 is presented. The experimental parameters and details of the analysis affecting the dose response are outlined. The importance of theoretical interpretation of the dose response in the determination of the dose response parameters is demonstrated and an in-depth introduction to the Unified Interaction Model is described. The dose response as a function of photon energy is analysed for peaks 5, 7 and 8 and the impact of the method of data analysis on the description of f(D) and especially the determination of Dc is emphasized.

Horowitz, Yigal S.; Datz, Hanan

2011-05-01

380

A sustainability root cause analysis methodology and its application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the design of chemical\\/energy production systems, a major challenge is to identify the bottleneck issues and improve its sustainability effectively. Due to the multi-dimensional feature of sustainability, how to account for the impacts of various design factors and the cause-and-effect relationships can be very difficult. This paper will present a sustainability root cause analysis method based on the combination

Abhishek Jayswal; Xiang Li; Anand Zanwar; Helen H. Lou; Yinlun Huang

2011-01-01

381

Occupational vehicular accident claims: a workers' compensation analysis of Oregon truck drivers 1990-1997.  

PubMed

This study used workers' compensation data from Oregon from 1990 to 1997 to examine workers' compensation claims from vehicular accidents by truck drivers, and to calculate claim rate estimates using baseline data derived from the US Bureau of Census' Current Population Surveys. During this period, 1168 valid injury claims due to vehicular accidents were filed representing an accident claim rate of 50.3 (95% CI: 45.1-55.5) per 10,000 truck drivers annually. There were 19 work-related vehicular accident fatalities recorded in the data over the 8-year period. Of all claimants, males constituted the majority (80.7%), most were 35 years of age or younger (51.4%) and had less than 1 year of job tenure (51.0%). Truck driver claim rates due to vehicular accidents were lowest during the 6 a.m. to 12 p.m. period. The average amount of compensable lost work days per injury claim was 57.8 days (S.D.=124.7) and the median claim time was 16.0 days with the inter-quartile range being 53.5 days. The amount of lost work reported increased with the claimant's age. A total of US$ 11,642,635 was paid in claims for vehicular accidents of truck drivers in Oregon over the time examined, which averaged US$ 9966 per claim, with a median claim amount of US$ 2590 and inter-quartile range of US$ 7670. Claims citing sprains were the most frequently recorded injury experienced from vehicular accidents. PMID:15878413

McCall, Brian P; Horwitz, Irwin B

2005-07-01

382

Physician Flight Accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis of physician flight accidents during the period 1964-1965 is presented. More than thirty physicians sustained fatal injuries while piloting light aircraft: a fatality record four times the ratio of physician pilots in the general aviation pilo...

S. R. Mohler S. F. Freud J. E. Veregge E. L. Umberger

1966-01-01

383

A Systematic Review of Brief Functional Analysis Methodology with Typically Developing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Brief functional analysis (BFA) is an abbreviated assessment methodology derived from traditional extended functional analysis methods. BFAs are often conducted when time constraints in clinics, schools or homes are of concern. While BFAs have been used extensively to identify the function of problem behavior for children with disabilities, their…

Gardner, Andrew W.; Spencer, Trina D.; Boelter, Eric W.; DuBard, Melanie; Jennett, Heather K.

2012-01-01

384

A Systematic Review of Brief Functional Analysis Methodology with Typically Developing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief functional analysis (BFA) is an abbreviated assessment methodology derived from traditional extended functional analysis methods. BFAs are often conducted when time constraints in clinics, schools or homes are of concern. While BFAs have been used extensively to identify the function of problem behavior for children with disabilities, their…

Gardner, Andrew W.; Spencer, Trina D.; Boelter, Eric W.; DuBard, Melanie; Jennett, Heather K.

2012-01-01

385

Unified Methodology for Airport Pavement Analysis and Design. Volume 1: State of the ART.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An assessment of the state of the art of airport pavement analysis and design is presented. The objective is to identify those areas in current airport pavement analysis methodology that need to be substantially improved from the perspective of airport pa...

J. P. Zaniewski

1991-01-01

386

Unified Methodology for Airport Pavement Analysis and Design. Volume 1. State of the Art.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents an assessment of the state of the art of airport pavement analysis and design. The objective is to identify those areas in current airport pavement analysis methodology that need to be substantially improved from the perspective of ai...

J. P. Zaniewski

1991-01-01

387

Seismic damage hazard analysis for requalification of nuclear power plant structures: methodology and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for the evaluation of the annual probability of occurrence of post-elastic seismic damage in realistic structures is presented. The seismic damage hazard analysis (SDHA) is carried out here by coupling conventional seismic hazard analysis (SHA) for the site and the structural response to earthquakes of different intensities. The structural performance is statistically investigated by conducting appropriate non-linear dynamic

P. Bazzurro; C. A. Cornell; D. Diamantidis; G. M. Manfredini

1996-01-01

388

Consensus conferences as participatory policy analysis, a methodological contribution to the social management of technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of consensus conferences arranges a high-quality analytic debate between a panel of lay people and a panel of experts in the presence of an audience. The attention for consensus conferences matches a more general revival of interest for the concept of participatory policy analysis. However, no comprehensive methodology for participatory policy analysis exists. A preliminary framework on which

I. S. Mayer; J. L. Geurts

1996-01-01

389

A methodology for the structural and functional analysis of signaling and regulatory networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Structural analysis of cellular interaction networks contributes to a deeper understanding of network-wide interdependencies, causal relationships, and basic functional capabilities. While the structural analysis of metabolic networks is a well-established field, similar methodologies have been scarcely developed and applied to signaling and regulatory networks. Results: We propose formalisms and methods, relying on adapted and partially newly introduced approaches, which

Steffen Klamt; Julio Saez-rodriguez; Jonathan A. Lindquist; Luca Simeoni; Ernst Dieter Gilles

2006-01-01

390

Retrospection of Chernobyl nuclear accident for decision analysis concerning remedial actions in Ukraine  

SciTech Connect

It is considered the efficacy of decisions concerning remedial actions when of-site radiological monitoring in the early and (or) in the intermediate phases was absent or was not informative. There are examples of such situations in the former Soviet Union where many people have been exposed: releases of radioactive materials from 'Krasnoyarsk-26' into Enisey River, releases of radioactive materials from 'Chelabinsk-65' (the Kishtim accident), nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Test Site, the Chernobyl nuclear accident etc. If monitoring in the early and (or) in the intermediate phases is absent the decisions concerning remedial actions are usually developed on the base of permanent monitoring. However decisions of this kind may be essentially erroneous. For these cases it is proposed to make retrospection of radiological data of the early and intermediate phases of nuclear accident and to project decisions concerning remedial actions on the base of both retrospective data and permanent monitoring data. In this Report the indicated problem is considered by the example of the Chernobyl accident for Ukraine. Their of-site radiological monitoring in the early and intermediate phases was unsatisfactory. In particular, the pasture-cow-milk monitoring had not been made. All official decisions concerning dose estimations had been made on the base of measurements of {sup 137}Cs in body (40 measurements in 135 days and 55 measurements in 229 days after the Chernobyl accident). For the retrospection of radiological data of the Chernobyl accident dynamic model has been developed. This model has structure similar to the structure of Pathway model and Farmland model. Parameters of the developed model have been identified for agricultural conditions of Russia and Ukraine. By means of this model dynamics of 20 radionuclides in pathways and dynamics of doses have been estimated for the early, intermediate and late phases of the Chernobyl accident. The main results are following: - During the first year after the Chernobyl accident 75-93% of Commitment Effective Dose had been formed; - During the first year after the Chernobyl accident 85-90% of damage from radiation exposure had been formed. During the next 50 years (the late phase of accident) only 10-15% of damage from radiation exposure will have been formed; - Remedial actions (agricultural remedial actions as most effective) in Ukraine are intended for reduction of the damage from consumption of production which is contaminated in the late phase of accident. I.e. agricultural remedial actions have been intended for minimization only 10 % of the total damage from radiation exposure; - Medical countermeasures can minimize radiation exposure damage by an order of magnitude greater than agricultural countermeasures. - Thus, retrospection of nuclear accident has essentially changed type of remedial actions and has given a chance to increase effectiveness of spending by an order of magnitude. This example illustrates that in order to optimize remedial actions it is required to use data of retrospection of nuclear accidents in all cases when monitoring in the early and (or) intermediate phases is unsatisfactory. (author)

Georgievskiy, Vladimir [Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Insitute', Kurchatov Sq., 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01

391

APT Blanket System Loss-of-Flow Accident (LOFA) Analysis Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Case 1: with Beam Shutdown and Active RHR  

SciTech Connect

This report is one of a series of reports that document normal operation and accident simulations for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) blanket heat removal system. These simulations were performed for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report.

Hamm, L.L.

1998-10-07

392

WASTE-ACC: A computer model for analysis of waste management accidents  

SciTech Connect

In support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Argonne National Laboratory has developed WASTE-ACC, a computational framework and integrated PC-based database system, to assess atmospheric releases from facility accidents. WASTE-ACC facilitates the many calculations for the accident analyses necessitated by the numerous combinations of waste types, waste management process technologies, facility locations, and site consolidation strategies in the waste management alternatives across the DOE complex. WASTE-ACC is a comprehensive tool that can effectively test future DOE waste management alternatives and assumptions. The computational framework can access several relational databases to calculate atmospheric releases. The databases contain throughput volumes, waste profiles, treatment process parameters, and accident data such as frequencies of initiators, conditional probabilities of subsequent events, and source term release parameters of the various waste forms under accident stresses. This report describes the computational framework and supporting databases used to conduct accident analyses and to develop source terms to assess potential health impacts that may affect on-site workers and off-site members of the public under various DOE waste management alternatives.

Nabelssi, B.K.; Folga, S.; Kohout, E.J.; Mueller, C.J.; Roglans-Ribas, J.

1996-12-01

393

Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at waste treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations, Volume 1: Sections 1-9  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies are assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms are evaluated. A personal computer-based computational framework and

C. Mueller; B. Nabelssi; J. Roglans-Ribas

1995-01-01

394

Analysis methodology and recent results of the IGS network combination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A working group of the International GPS Service (IGS) was created to look after Reference Frame (RF) issues and contribute to the densification and improvement of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). One important objective of the Reference Frame Working Group is to generate consistent IGS station coordinates and velocities, Earth Rotation Parameters (ERP) and geocenter estimates along with the appropriate covariance information. These parameters have a direct impact on other IGS products such as the estimation of GPS satellite ephemerides, as well as satellite and station clocks. The information required is available weekly from the Analysis Centers (AC) (cod, emr, esa, gfz, jpl, ngs, sio) and from the Global Network Associate Analysis Centers (GNAAC) (JPL, mit, ncl) using a "Software Independent Exchange Format" (SINEX). The AC are also contributing daily ERPs as part of their weekly submission. The procedure in place simultaneously combines the weekly station coordinates, geocenter and daily ERP estimates. A cumulative solution containing station coordinates and velocity is also updated with each weekly combination. This provides a convenient way to closely monitor the quality of the estimated station coordinates and to have an up to date cumulative solution available at all times. To provide some necessary redundancy, the weekly station coordinates solution is compared against the GNAAC solutions. Each of the 3 GNAAC uses its own software, allowing independent verification of the combination process. The RMS of the coordinate differences in the north, east and up components between the AC/GNAAC and the ITRF97 Reference Frame Stations are 4-10 mm, 5-20 mm and 6-25 mm. The station velocities within continental plates are compared to the NNR-NUVEL1A plate motion model (DeMets et al., 1994). The north, east and up velocity RMS are 2 mm/y, 3 mm/y and 8 mm/y. Note that NNR-NUVEL1A assumes a zero vertical velocity.

Ferland, R.; Kouba, J.; Hutchison, D.

2000-11-01

395

Methodological Study of the Driving Reliability and error Analysis Method (DREAM) (En metodologisk Studie av Ullykesgransking med Driving Reliability an Error Analysis Methods (DREAM)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method (DREAM) was used for further analyses of possible causes of 15 fatal road accidents that had been investigated by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration. It is concluded that DREAM is a useful supplemen...

F. Sagberg

2007-01-01

396

Estimating Loss-of-Coolant Accident Frequencies for the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk Models  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission maintains a set of risk models covering the U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. These standardized plant analysis risk (SPAR) models include several loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) initiating events such as small (SLOCA), medium (MLOCA), and large (LLOCA). All of these events involve a loss of coolant inventory from the reactor coolant system. In order to maintain a level of consistency across these models, initiating event frequencies generally are based on plant-type average performance, where the plant types are boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors. For certain risk analyses, these plant-type initiating event frequencies may be replaced by plant-specific estimates. Frequencies for SPAR LOCA initiating events previously were based on results presented in NUREG/CR-5750, but the newest models use results documented in NUREG/CR-6928. The estimates in NUREG/CR-6928 are based on historical data from the initiating events database for pressurized water reactor SLOCA or an interpretation of results presented in the draft version of NUREG-1829. The information in NUREG-1829 can be used several ways, resulting in different estimates for the various LOCA frequencies. Various ways NUREG-1829 information can be used to estimate LOCA frequencies were investigated and this paper presents two methods for the SPAR model standard inputs, which differ from the method used in NUREG/CR-6928. In addition, results obtained from NUREG-1829 are compared with actual operating experience as contained in the initiating events database.

S. A. Eide; D. M. Rasmuson; C. L. Atwood

2008-09-01

397

Analysis of main steam isolation valve leakage in design basis accidents using MELCOR 1.8.6 and RADTRAD.  

SciTech Connect

Analyses were performed using MELCOR and RADTRAD to investigate main steam isolation valve (MSIV) leakage behavior under design basis accident (DBA) loss-of-coolant (LOCA) conditions that are presumed to have led to a significant core melt accident. Dose to the control room, site boundary and LPZ are examined using both approaches described in current regulatory guidelines as well as analyses based on best estimate source term and system response. At issue is the current practice of using containment airborne aerosol concentrations as a surrogate for the in-vessel aerosol concentration that exists in the near vicinity of the MSIVs. This study finds current practice using the AST-based containment aerosol concentrations for assessing MSIV leakage is non-conservative and conceptually in error. A methodology is proposed that scales the containment aerosol concentration to the expected vessel concentration in order to preserve the simplified use of the AST in assessing containment performance under assumed DBA conditions. This correction is required during the first two hours of the accident while the gap and early in-vessel source terms are present. It is general practice to assume that at {approx}2hrs, recovery actions to reflood the core will have been successful and that further core damage can be avoided. The analyses performed in this study determine that, after two hours, assuming vessel reflooding has taken place, the containment aerosol concentration can then conservatively be used as the effective source to the leaking MSIV's. Recommendations are provided concerning typical aerosol removal coefficients that can be used in the RADTRAD code to predict source attenuation in the steam lines, and on robust methods of predicting MSIV leakage flows based on measured MSIV leakage performance.

Salay, Michael (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C.); Kalinich, Donald A.; Gauntt, Randall O.; Radel, Tracy E.

2008-10-01

398

Developing a methodology for carbon isotope analysis of lacustrine diatoms.  

PubMed

Stable isotope analysis of sedimentary carbon in lakes can help reveal changes in terrestrial and aquatic carbon cycles. A method based on a single, photosynthetic organism, where host effects are minimised, should offer more precision than carbon isotope studies of bulk lake sediments. Here we report the development of a systematic method for use on fossil lacustrine diatom frustules, adapted from previous studies in marine environments. A step-wise cleaning experiment on diatomaceous lake sediments from Lake Challa, near Mount Kilimanjaro, was made to demonstrate the necessary treatment stages to remove external sedimentary carbon. Changes in soluble carbon compounds during these cleaning experiments were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The mass spectrometry methods were refined to measure the small percentage of carbon in these samples and details of these methods are presented. Samples of cleaned diatoms containing <1% carbon yielded robust results. Carbon isotope analyses of diatom samples containing different species mixtures were performed and suggested that differences existed, although the effects lay within current experimental error and require further work. Unlike what was found in work on oxygen and silicon isotopes from diatom frustules, mineral contamination had no discernible impact on the diatom carbon isotope ratios from these sediments. The range of values found in the lakes investigated thus far can be interpreted with reference to the supply and nature of carbon from the catchment as well as to the demand generated from lake primary productivity. PMID:21594931

Hurrell, Elizabeth R; Barker, Philip A; Leng, Melanie J; Vane, Christopher H; Wynn, Peter; Kendrick, Chris P; Verschuren, Dirk; Street-Perrott, F Alayne

2011-06-15

399

A fast reactor transient analysis methodology for personal computers  

SciTech Connect

A simplified model for a liquid-metal-cooled reactor (LMR) transient analysis, in which point kinetics as well as lumped descriptions of the heat transfer equations in all components are applied, is converted from a differential into an integral formulation. All 30 differential balance equations are implicitly solved in terms of convolution integrals. The prompt jump approximation is applied as the strong negative feedback effectively keeps the net reactivity well below prompt critical. After implicit finite differencing of the convolution integrals, the kinetics equation assumes a new form, i.e., the quadratic dynamics equation. In this integral formulation, the initial value problem of typical LMR transients can be solved with large item steps (initially 1 s, later up to 256 s). This then makes transient problems amenable to a treatment on personal computer. The resulting mathematical model forms the basis for the GW-BASIC program LMR transient calculation (LTC) program. The LTC program has also been converted to QuickBASIC. The running time for a 10-h transient overpower transient is then [approximately]40 to 10 s, depending on the hardware version (286, 386, or 486 with math coprocessors).

Ott, K.O. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States))

1993-02-01

400

Mathematical modelling methodologies in predictive food microbiology: a SWOT analysis.  

PubMed

Predictive microbiology is the area of food microbiology that attempts to forecast the quantitative evolution of microbial populations over time. This is achieved to a great extent through models that include the mechanisms governing population dynamics. Traditionally, the models used in predictive microbiology are whole-system continuous models that describe population dynamics by means of equations applied to extensive or averaged variables of the whole system. Many existing models can be classified by specific criteria. We can distinguish between survival and growth models by seeing whether they tackle mortality or cell duplication. We can distinguish between empirical (phenomenological) models, which mathematically describe specific behaviour, and theoretical (mechanistic) models with a biological basis, which search for the underlying mechanisms driving already observed phenomena. We can also distinguish between primary, secondary and tertiary models, by examining their treatment of the effects of external factors and constraints on the microbial community. Recently, the use of spatially explicit Individual-based Models (IbMs) has spread through predictive microbiology, due to the current technological capacity of performing measurements on single individual cells and thanks to the consolidation of computational modelling. Spatially explicit IbMs are bottom-up approaches to microbial communities that build bridges between the description of micro-organisms at the cell level and macroscopic observations at the population level. They provide greater insight into the mesoscale phenomena that link unicellular and population levels. Every model is built in response to a particular question and with different aims. Even so, in this research we conducted a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis of the different approaches (population continuous modelling and Individual-based Modelling), which we hope will be helpful for current and future researchers. PMID:19217180

Ferrer, Jordi; Prats, Clara; López, Daniel; Vives-Rego, Josep

2009-01-24

401

Cost analysis and financial risk profile for severe reactor accidents at Waterford-3  

SciTech Connect

To support Louisiana Power and Light Company (LP and L) in determining an appropriate level of nuclear property insurance for Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit 3 (Waterford-3), ABZ, Incorporated, performed a series of cost analyses and developed a financial risk profile. This five-month study, conducted in 1991, identified the potential Waterford-3 severe reactor accidents and described each from a cleanup perspective, estimated the cost and schedule to cleanup from each accident, developed a probability distribution of associated financial exposure, and developed a profile of financial risk as a function of insurance coverage.

Cutbush, J.D.; Abbott, E.C. (ABZ, Inc., Chantilly, VA (United States)); Carpenter, W.L. Jr. (Louisiana Power and Light Co., New Orleans (United States))

1992-01-01

402

Radiotherapy Accidents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major benefit of a Quality Assurance system in a radiotherapy centre is that it reduces the likelihood of an accident. For over 20 years I have been the interface in the UK between the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine and the media — newspapers, radio and TV — and so I have learned about radiotherapy accidents from personal experience. In some cases, these accidents did not become public and so the hospital cannot be identified. Nevertheless, lessons are still being learned.

Mckenzie, Alan

403

Analysis of metal fuel transient overpower experiments with the SAS4A accident analysis code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of the SAS4A analysis of the M7 TREAT Metal fuel experiment are presented. New models incorporated in the metal fuel version of SAS4A are described. The computational results are compared with the experimental observations and this comparison ...

A. M. Tentner Kalimullah K. J. Miles

1990-01-01

404

Immunoassay Methods and their Applications in Pharmaceutical Analysis: Basic Methodology and Recent Advances  

PubMed Central

Immunoassays are bioanalytical methods in which the quantitation of the analyte depends on the reaction of an antigen (analyte) and an antibody. Immunoassays have been widely used in many important areas of pharmaceutical analysis such as diagnosis of diseases, therapeutic drug monitoring, clinical pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies in drug discovery and pharmaceutical industries. The importance and widespread of immunoassay methods in pharmaceutical analysis are attributed to their inherent specificity, high-throughput, and high sensitivity for the analysis of wide range of analytes in biological samples. Recently, marked improvements were achieved in the field of immunoassay development for the purposes of pharmaceutical analysis. These improvements involved the preparation of the unique immunoanalytical reagents, analysis of new categories of compounds, methodology, and instrumentation. The basic methodologies and recent advances in immunoassay methods applied in different fields of pharmaceutical analysis have been reviewed.

Darwish, Ibrahim A.

2006-01-01

405

The 'Wheel of Misfortune': a taxonomic approach to human factors in accident investigation and analysis in aviation and other complex systems.  

PubMed

The analysis and reporting of the human factors aspects of accidents in aviation and other complex systems continues to present difficulties for investigators and analysts alike. Reason's 'latent conditions' model has had a major impact on the way accidents are conceptualized but it has proven difficult to apply as a practical tool. Recent attempts to overcome these difficulties are discussed and an alternative conceptualization is proposed. This conceptualization is based on a blend of several well-supported theoretical models in cognitive engineering and can be used to formulate a parsimonious analysis system for the investigation and reporting of the human factors aspects of accidents. Two well-known examples of transportation disasters are briefly described and related to the proposed conceptual framework. The proposed framework serves three important functions in accident investigation and analysis: a heuristic function, an investigative function, and an integrative function. PMID:11191782

O'Hare, D

2000-12-01

406

Bullet identification: a case of a fatal hunting accident resolved by comparison of lead shot using instrumental neutron activation analysis.  

PubMed

Bullet identification by chemical analysis often provides a powerful clue in forensic science. A case is reported in which a hunting accident was resolved by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for direct comparison of the trace element content in lead shot. Different preparation batches of lead shot appear to have a high within-group composition homogeneity, and good differentiation is achieved between different batches. Determination of the nickel and antimony content on a bush branch demonstrated that the branch had been perforated by one of the shot pellets, and this helped the detectives in reconstruction of the crime scene. PMID:1500906

Capannesi, G; Sedda, A F

1992-03-01

407

Analysis of minor head injuries treated in an Accident & Emergency Department  

Microsoft Academic Search

O bjetive: To observe the characteristics of minor head injuries (HI) receiving treatment at our Accident and Emergency De- partment and their evolution in the short term. Methods: Study included patients over the age of 14 who had sustai- ned a minor HI, had a cranial CT scan and had been admitted for ob- servation in the Short Stay Unit

I. Cubián González; J. A. Franco Hernández; A. Barona Ruiz; A. García Hernández

408

A systemic approach to accident analysis: A case study of the Stockwell shooting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a systemic approach to accident investigation, based upon AcciMaps, to model the events leading up to the shooting of Jean Charles de Menezes at Stockwell Underground station in July 2005. The model captures many of the findings of the Independent Police Complaints Commission's report in a single representation, modelling their interdependencies and the causal flow. Furthermore, by

Daniel P. Jenkins; Paul M. Salmon; Neville A. Stanton; Guy H. Walker

2010-01-01

409

An economic analysis of murder and accident risks for police in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that US police are at great risk in their jobs is examined. It is found that their risk of being murdered is actually less than for other people of the same age and sex. US police are, however, at modestly higher risk of accidental death than are other workers. A four equation model, including supply, demand, accident risk,

Lawrence Southwick

1998-01-01

410

Determinants of within-country variation in traffic accident mortality in Italy: a geographical analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify determinants of regional differences in traffic accident mortality in Italy. Data and methods Multiple linear regression models were conducted assessing the associations between regional differences in traffic mortality, case fatality and accident rates (dependent variables) with socio-demographic factors, and variables describing road behaviour, vehicles, infrastructure and medical care (independent variables). Data were derived from the National Institute of Statistics, the National Institute of Health and the Italian Automobile Club. In addition to analyses for the whole country of Italy, separate models were conducted for Northern and southern regions. Results In Italy large regional differences in traffic mortality rates can be observed, ranging from 5.5 to 20 per 100.000 person-years. There is a North-South gradient with higher mortality rates in the Northern part of Italy. Strong predictors of regional differences in both traffic mortality and accident rates are the employment rate (directly associated) and alcohol use (directly associated). This is observed in the whole of Italy, and separately in Northern and southern regions. Conclusion Our study has shown the need for regional policies to improve road behaviour to reduce traffic accident and mortality rates in identified high-risk areas.

La Torre, Giuseppe; Van Beeck, Ed; Quaranta, Gianluigi; Mannocci, Alice; Ricciardi, Walter

2007-01-01

411

Analysis of the TMI2 source range monitor during the TMI (Three Mile Island) accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

The source range monitor (SRM) data recorded during the first 4 hours of the Three Mile Island Unit No. 2 (TMI-2) accident following reactor shutdown were analyzed. An effort to simulate the actual SRM response was made by performing a series of neutron transport calculations. Primary emphasis was placed on simulating the changes in SRM response to various system events

Horng-Yu Wu; A. J. Baratta; Ming-Yuan Hsiao; B. R. Bandini

1987-01-01

412

Spontaneous abortions after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident: a life table analysis  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss.

Goldhaber, M.K.; Staub, S.L.; Tokuhata, G.K.

1983-07-01

413

Time analysis of fatal traffic accidents in Fars Province of Iran.  

PubMed

Objective: To analyze the time factor in road traffic accidents (RTAs) in Fars Province of Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in Fars Province, Iran from November 22, 2009 to November 21, 2011. Victims'information consisted of age, sex, death toll involving dri- vers or passengers of cars, motorcycles and pedestrians, and site of injury etc. Accidents were analyzed in relation to hour of the day, season of the year, lighting condition including sunrise, sunset, daytime and nighttime. Results: A total of 3 642 deaths (78.3% were males, and the ratio of males to females was about 3.6:1) were studied regarding their autopsy records. There was a steady increase in fatal accidents occurring at midnight to 15:59. The risk of being involved in a fatal traffic accident was higher for those injured between 4:00 to 7:59 than at other times (OR equal to 2.13, 95% CI 1.85-2.44). The greatest number of fatal RTAs took place in summer. Mortalities due to RTA during spring and summer were more pronounced at 20:00 to 23:59 and midnight to 3:59, whereas mortalities in fall and winter were more pronounced from 12:00 to 15:59. Conclusion: The high mortality rate of RTA is a major public health problem in Fars Province. Our results indicate that the time is an important factor which contributes to road traffic deaths. PMID:23540895

Heydari, Seyed-Taghi; Hoseinzadeh, Amin; Sarikhani, Yaser; Hedjazi, Arya; Zarenezhad, Mohammad; Moafian, Ghasem; Aghabeigi, Mohammad-Reza; Mahmoodi, Mojtaba; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz; Riasati, Ali; Peymani, Payam; Ahmadi, Seyed-Mehdi; Lankarani, Kamran-B

2013-04-01

414

Status and Validation of the SAS4A Accident-Analysis Code System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SAS4A code system is a new tool for analyzing the initial phase of Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accidents (HCDAs) up to gross melting or failures of the subassembly walls. The objective in the development of SAS4A is to provide improved analytical mod...

H. U. Wider G. L. Bordner L. L. Briggs J. E. Cahalan F. E. Dunn

1982-01-01

415

PPCS thermal analysis of bounding accident scenarios using improved computational modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of the European Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS), evaluation of activation inventories and temperature excursions in structures following hypothetical worst-case accident scenarios was performed for the four plant models considered. An improved, three-dimensional computational tool was developed and extensively used to assist in the safety and environmental assessment of the PPCS power plant models. The tool allows

R. Pampin; P. J. Karditsas; M. J. Loughlin; N. P. Taylor

2006-01-01

416

Analysis code for large rupture accidents in ATR. SENHOR/FLOOD/HEATUP.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the evaluation of thermo-hydraulic transient change, the behavior of core reflooding and the transient change of fuel temperature in the events which are classified in large rupture accidents of reactor coolant loss, that is the safety evaluation event...

1997-01-01

417

CFD Analysis of Full-Scale Steam Generator Inlet Plenum Mixing During a PWR Severe Accident.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to predict steam generator inlet plenum mixing during a particular phase of a severe accident in a pressurized-water reactor. Boundary conditions are obtained from SCDAP/RELAP5 predictions of a TMLB station black...

2003-01-01

418

Risk Analysis for Public Consumption: Media Coverage of the Ginna Nuclear Reactor Accident.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have determined that the lay public makes risk judgments in ways that are very different from those advocated by scientists. Noting that these differences have caused considerable concern among those who promote and regulate health and safety, a study examined media coverage of the accident at the Robert E. Ginna nuclear power plant…

Dunwoody, Sharon; And Others

419

Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Low LET radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes dose-response models intended to be used in estimating the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents. Models of early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects are provided. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and

1990-01-01

420

Assessment of Accident Risks in the CRBRP. Volume 2. Appendices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Appendices to Volume I include core-related accident-sequence definition, CRBRP risk-assessment sequence-probability determinations, failure-probability data, accident scenario evaluation, radioactive material release analysis, ex-core accident analysis, ...

1977-01-01

421

A Longitudinal Analysis of the Causal Factors in Major Maritime Accidents in the USA and Canada (1996-2006)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accident reports provide important insights into the causes and contributory factors leading to particular adverse events. In contrast, this paper provides an analysis that extends across the findings presented over ten years investigations into maritime accidents by both the US National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) and Canadian Transportation Safety Board (TSB). The purpose of the study was to assess the comparative frequency of a range of causal factors in the reporting of adverse events. In order to communicate our findings, we introduce J-H graphs as a means of representing the proportion of causes and contributory factors associated with human error, equipment failure and other high level classifications in longitudinal studies of accident reports. Our results suggest the proportion of causal and contributory factors attributable to direct human error may be very much smaller than has been suggested elsewhere in the human factors literature. In contrast, more attention should be paid to wider systemic issues, including the managerial and regulatory context of maritime operations.

Johnson, C. W.; Holloway, C. M.

422

Nuclear accidents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Accidents at nuclear power plants can be especially devastating to people and the environment. This article, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to nuclear accidents at Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and Tokaimura. Students explore the incidents by examining possible causes, environmental impacts, and effects on life.

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

423

Development of a new methodology for stability analysis in BWR NPP  

SciTech Connect

In this work, a new methodology to reproduce power oscillations in BWR NPP is presented. This methodology comprises the modal analysis techniques, the signal analysis techniques and the simulation with the coupled code RELAP5/PARCSv2.7. Macroscopic cross sections are obtained by using the SIMTAB methodology, which is fed up with CASMO-4/SIMULATE-3 data. The input files for the neutronic and thermohydraulic codes are obtained automatically and the thermalhydraulic-to-neutronic representation (mapping) used is based on the fundamental, first and second harmonics shapes of the reactor power, calculated with the VALKIN code (developed in UPV). This mapping was chosen in order not to condition the oscillation pattern. To introduce power oscillations in the simulation a new capability in the coupled code, for generate density perturbations (both for the whole core and for chosen axial levels) according with the power modes shapes, has been implemented. The purpose of the methodology is to reproduce the driving mechanism of the out of phase oscillations appeared in BWR type reactors. In this work, the methodology is applied to the Record 9 point, collected in the NEA benchmark of Ringhals 1 NPP. A set of different perturbations are induced in the first active axial level and the LPRM signals resulting are analyzed. (authors)

Garcia-Fenoll, M.; Abarca, A.; Barrachina, T.; Miro, R.; Verdu, G. [Inst. for Industrial, Radiophysical and Environmental Safety ISIRYM, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n, 46021 Valencia (Spain)

2012-07-01

424

HPLC analysis of plant DNA methylation: a study of critical methodological factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

HPLC analysis of nucleosides is important for determining total DNA methylation in plants and can be used to help characterise epigenetic changes during stress, growth and development. This is of particular interest for in vitro plant cultures as they are highly susceptible to genetic change. HPLC methodologies have been optimised for mammalian and microbial DNA, but not for plants. This

Jason W. Johnston; Keith Harding; David H. Bremner; Graham Souch; Jon Green; Paul T. Lynch; Brian Grout; Erica E. Benson

2005-01-01

425

A methodology and tool for performance analysis of distributed server systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a methodology and tool for performance analysis of distributed server systems, which allows high-level specification of the system, and generates and solves the underlying queueing network model. Our approach is different from the existing ones in that the specification captures the natural manner in which application servers are deployed on machines and machines are deployed on networks. The

Rukma V. Prabhu Verlekar; Varsha Apte

2006-01-01

426

Interpersonal Relationships and Relationship Dominance: An Analysis Based on Methodological Relationism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The author argues that a mature Asian social psychology is marked by the characteristic ways in which it generates knowledge about social behavior in general, rather than by the body of knowledge it obtains about Asians. Methodological relationalism, grounded in dialectics, is explicated as a conceptual framework,for the analysis of human thought and action; it is informed by Asian

David Y. F. Ho

1998-01-01

427

Methodology for State and Transitional Analysis of the M1A2 Abrams Driver's Instrument Panel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis is an independent study to conduct a detailed problem analysis to determine if a methodology can be derived to map the states of the M1A2 simulator to specific doctrinal tasks Specifically, what are Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTP); Cr...

B. J. Chase K. R. Corpening

2002-01-01

428

State-of-the-art sustainability analysis methodologies for efficient decision support in green production operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last three decades, new concepts, strategies, frameworks and systems have been developed to tackle the sustainable development issue. This paper reviews the challenges, perspectives and recent advances in support of sustainable production operations decision-making. The aim of this review is to provide a holistic understanding of advanced scientific analysis methodologies for the evaluation of sustainability, to provide efficient

Shaofeng Liu; Mike Leat; Melanie Hudson Smith

2011-01-01

429

Measuring Team Shared Understanding Using the Analysis-Constructed Shared Mental Model Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teams are an essential part of successful performance in learning and work environments. Analysis-constructed shared mental model (ACSMM) methodology is a set of techniques where individual mental models are elicited and sharedness is determined not by the individuals who provided their mental models but by an analytical procedure. This method…

Johnson, Tristan E.; O'Connor, Debra L.

2008-01-01

430

A methodology for the life cycle and sustainability analysis of manufacturing processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life cycle assessment is emerging as a powerful tool in the evaluation of the environmental impact of manufacturing processes. This paper describes a general methodology for the life cycle analysis of manufacturing processes taking into account the flexibility and decision-making potential of knowledge base systems. Emphasis is placed on on-site waste minimisation and associated sustainability characteristics in relation to environmental

A. B. Culaba; M. R. I. Purvis

1999-01-01

431

Teaching systems analysis to software engineering students: experience with a structured methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

An undergraduate degree programme in software engineering was designed to include a systems analysis module, in which the teaching was based on a particular structured methodology. Experience is described of the conflicts that this caused within the curriculum of the degree, and of the way in which these were solved. This involved the development of a structure for the topics

A. J. Cowling

1998-01-01

432

On Fuzzy Inference System Based Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) is a popular problem prevention methodology. It utilizes a Risk Priority Number (RPN) model to evaluate the risk associated to each failure mode. The conventional RPN model is simple, but, its accuracy is argued. A fuzzy RPN model is proposed as an alternative to the conventional RPN. The fuzzy RPN model allows the relation

Kai Meng Tay

2009-01-01

433

Statistical Test of the Rule Assessment Methodology by Latent Class Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A problem of Siegler's (1981) rule assessment methodology is that the assignment of subjects to rules takes place by an arbitrary criterion. This problem can be solved by latent class analysis by which we can test statistically how many rules are needed to fit the data and which these rules are. Two data sets of the balance scale test are

Brenda R. J. Jansen

1997-01-01

434

Cost and Benefit Analysis of an Automated Nursing Administration System: A Methodology*  

PubMed Central

In order for a nursing service administration to select the appropriate automated system for its requirements, a systematic process of evaluating alternative approaches must be completed. This paper describes a methodology for evaluating and comparing alternative automated systems based upon an economic analysis which includes two major categories of criteria: costs and benefits.

Rieder, Karen A.

1984-01-01

435

Risk of road accident associated with the use of drugs: A systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence from epidemiological studies.  

PubMed

This paper is a corrigendum to a previously published paper where errors were detected. The errors have been corrected in this paper. The paper is otherwise identical to the previously published paper. A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that have assessed the risk of accident associated with the use of drugs when driving is presented. The meta-analysis included 66 studies containing a total of 264 estimates of the effects on accident risk of using illicit or prescribed drugs when driving. Summary estimates of the odds ratio of accident involvement are presented for amphetamines, analgesics, anti-asthmatics, anti-depressives, anti-histamines, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine, opiates, penicillin and zopiclone (a sleeping pill). For most of the drugs, small or moderate increases in accident risk associated with the use of the drugs were found. Information about whether the drugs were actually used while driving and about the doses used was often imprecise. Most studies that have evaluated the presence of a dose-response relationship between the dose of drugs taken and the effects on accident risk confirm the existence of a dose-response relationship. Use of drugs while driving tends to have a larger effect on the risk of fatal and serious injury accidents than on the risk of less serious accidents (usually property-damage-only accidents). The quality of the studies that have assessed risk varied greatly. There was a tendency for the estimated effects of drug use on accident risk to be smaller in well-controlled studies than in poorly controlled studies. Evidence of publication bias was found for some drugs. The associations found cannot be interpreted as causal relationships, principally because most studies do not control very well for potentially confounding factors. PMID:22785089

Elvik, Rune

2012-07-09

436

Rail Highway Crossing Accident Causation Study. Volume II: Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examines the contributing factors of rail highway crossing accidents at crossings with flashing light and crossbuck warning devices. Included are a literature review, review of data sources, study plan, methodology for the accident analyses and...

K. Knoblauch W. Hucke W. Berg

1982-01-01

437

A Discrepancy-Based Methodology for Nuclear Training Program Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A three-phase comprehensive process for commercial nuclear power training program evaluation is presented. The discrepancy-based methodology was developed after the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident. It facilitates analysis of program components to identify discrepancies among program specifications, actual outcomes, and industry…

Cantor, Jeffrey A.

1991-01-01

438

A Discrepancy-Based Methodology for Nuclear Training Program Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A three-phase comprehensive process for commercial nuclear power training program evaluation is presented. The discrepancy-based methodology was developed after the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident. It facilitates analysis of program components to identify discrepancies among program specifications, actual outcomes, and industry…

Cantor, Jeffrey A.

1991-01-01

439

Analytical simulation and PROFAT II: a new methodology and a computer automated tool for fault tree analysis in chemical process industries.  

PubMed

Fault tree analysis (FTA) is based on constructing a hypothetical tree of base events (initiating events) branching into numerous other sub-events, propagating the fault and eventually leading to the top event (accident). It has been a powerful technique used traditionally in identifying hazards in nuclear installations and power industries. As the systematic articulation of the fault tree is associated with assigning probabilities to each fault, the exercise is also sometimes called probabilistic risk assessment. But powerful as this technique is, it is also very cumbersome and costly, limiting its area of application. We have developed a new algorithm based on analytical simulation (named as AS-II), which makes the application of FTA simpler, quicker, and cheaper; thus opening up the possibility of its wider use in risk assessment in chemical process industries. Based on the methodology we have developed a computer-automated tool. The details are presented in this paper. PMID:10828384

Khan, F I; Abbasi, S A

2000-07-10

440

Risk-oriented analysis of the German prototype fast breeder reactor SNR300: off-site accident consequence model and results of the study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accident off-site consequence calculations and risk assessments performed for the ''risk oriented analysis'' of the German prototype fast breeder reactor SNR-300 were performed with a modified version of the off-site accident consequence model UFOMOD. The modifications mainly relate to the deposition and resuspension processes, the ingestion model, and the dose factors. Consequence calculations at the site of Kalkar on the

A. Bayer; J. Ehrhardt

1984-01-01

441

Methodology of a combined ground based testing and numerical modelling analysis of supersonic combustion flow paths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the European Commission co-funded LAPCAT (Long-Term Advanced Propulsion Concepts and Technologies) project, the methodology of a combined ground-based testing and numerical modelling analysis of supersonic combustion flow paths was established. The approach is based on free jet testing of complete supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) configurations consisting of intake, combustor and nozzle in the High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel Göttingen (HEG) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and computational fluid dynamics studies utilising the DLR TAU code. The capability of the established methodology is demonstrated by applying it to the flow path of the generic HyShot II scramjet flight experiment configuration.

Hannemann, Klaus; Karl, Sebastian; Martinez Schramm, Jan; Steelant, Johan

2010-10-01

442

Analysis of potential for jet-impingement erosion from leaking steam generator tubes during severe accidents.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes analytical evaluation of crack-opening areas and leak rates of superheated steam through flaws in steam generator tubes and erosion of neighboring tubes due to jet impingement of superheated steam with entrained particles from core debris created during severe accidents. An analytical model for calculating crack-opening area as a function of time and temperature was validated with tests on tubes with machined flaws. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code was used to calculate the jet velocity impinging on neighboring tubes as a function of tube spacing and crack-opening area. Erosion tests were conducted in a high-temperature, high-velocity erosion rig at the University of Cincinnati, using micrometer-sized nickel particles mixed in with high-temperature gas from a burner. The erosion results, together with analytical models, were used to estimate the erosive effects of superheated steam with entrained aerosols from the core during severe accidents.

Majumdar, S.; Diercks, D. R.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

2002-05-01

443

Severe Accident Analysis for PHEBUS FPT0 Experiment with Code ICARE2  

SciTech Connect

The PHEBUS Fission Product (FP) program was initiated to understand the phenomena involved in LWR severe accidents and validation of severe accident physical models. The code ICARE2 was developed at IRSN and validation program of this code against several tests has been carried out over the years. In continuation to the validation exercises for further improvement of the code understanding and predictions, a series of sensitivity study has been carried out for FPT0 test. The study has been carried out with an ICARE2 specific reference model. With the understanding gained from this study, a best estimate model has been developed for a better code prediction. The best estimate model predicts well the key parameters and degradation in the upper part is predicted well than the reference model. (authors)

Mukhopadhyay, D. [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Engg. Hall-7, Mumbai 400085 (India); Repetto, G.; Luez, O. De.; Chatelard, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire, 13115 Saint Paul Les Durance, Cadarache (France)

2006-07-01

444

Value-impact analysis of severe-accident prevention and mitigation systems. [PWR; BWR  

SciTech Connect

As part of Sandia's Severe Accident Risk Reduction (SARR) Program for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the cost-benefit tradeoffs of filtered-vented containment (FVC) systems, hydrogen control systems, alternate decay heat removal systems, and a variety of other reactor modifications designed to reduce the risk from severe accidents have been studied. Some of the preliminary results to data indicate that (1) FVC systems are potentially cost-effective for many BWRs, but apparently not cost-effective for most PWRs; (2) the opposite is true for hydrogen control systems; and (3) the most effective safety approaches include combinations of both preventive and mitigative features. Further analyses are being performed to fully investigate the sensitivity of these results to uncertainties.

Benjamin, A.S.; Hatch, S.W.; Strip, D.R.; Bennett, P.R.; Drayer, D.D. Behr, V.L.

1982-01-01

445

CORMLT code for the analysis of degraded core accidents. Computer code manual. [PWR  

SciTech Connect

A computer code (CORMLT) has been developed to predict the effects of bouyancy-driven convection on the progression of core-degrading accidents in PWR vessels. Thermal/hydraulics modeling includes the downcomer/bottom-head regions, as well as the upper vessel and adjacent hot-leg portions of the primary coolant system for which gas communication is limited to the intervening discharge nozzles (so-called dead-end volumes). CORMLT requires flow rates and temperatures of any water feed (to the downcomer) versus time. CORMLT provides composition, enthalpy, temperature, and flow rate of steam/hydrogen mixtures within the vessel above the (receding) water surface, as well as estimates of these quantities for interaction between the plenum and the rest of the PCS. CORMLT also provides graphical representations for the morphological behavior of the progression of core meltdown accidents.

Denny, V.E.

1984-12-01

446

Third annual Warren K. Sinclair keynote address: retrospective analysis of impacts of the Chernobyl accident.  

PubMed

The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986 was the most severe in the history of the nuclear industry, causing a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. The recently completed Chernobyl Forum concluded that after a number of years, along with reduction of radiation levels and accumulation of humanitarian consequences, severe social and economic depression of the affected regions and associated psychological problems of the general public and the workers had become the most significant problem to be addressed by the authorities. The majority of the >600,000 emergency and recovery operation workers and five million residents of the contaminated areas in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine received relatively minor radiation doses which are comparable with the natural background levels. An exception is a cohort of several hundred emergency workers who received high radiation doses and of whom 28 persons died in 1986 due to acute radiation sickness. Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed to radioiodine at a young age and some increase of leukemia in the most exposed workers, there is no clearly demonstrated increase in the somatic diseases due to radiation. There was, however, an increase in psychological problems among the affected population, compounded by the social disruption that followed the break-up of the Soviet Union. Despite the unprecedented scale of the Chernobyl accident, its consequences on the health of people are far less severe than those of the atomic bombings of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Studying the consequences of the Chernobyl accident has made an invaluable scientific contribution to the development of nuclear safety, radioecology, radiation medicine and protection, and also the social sciences. The Chernobyl accident initiated the global nuclear and radiation safety regime. PMID:18049216

Balonov, Mikhail

2007-11-01

447

Analysis of Severe Accident Management Strategy for a BWR-4 Nuclear Power Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Chinshan nuclear power plant (NPP) is a Mark-I boiling water reactor (BWR) NPP located in northern Taiwan. The Chinshan NPP severe accident management guidelines (SAMGs) were developed based on the BWR Owners Group Emergency Procedure Guidelines/Severe Accident Guidelines and were developed at the end of 2003. The MAAP4 code has been used as a tool to validate the SAMG strategies. The development process and characteristics of the Chinshan SAMGs are described. The T{sub 5}U{sub t}X{sub C} sequence, the highest core damage frequency in the probabilistic risk assessment insight of the Chinshan NPP, is cited as a reference case for SAMG validation. Not all safety injection systems are operated in the T{sub 5}U{sub t}X{sub C} sequence. The severe accident progression is simulated, and the entry condition of the SAMGs is described. Then, the T{sub 5}U{sub t}X{sub C} sequence is simulated with reactor pressure vessel (RPV) depressurization. Mitigation actions based on the Chinshan NPP SAMGs are then applied to demonstrate the effectiveness of the SAMGs. Sensitivity studies on RPV depressurization with the reactor water level and minimum RPV injection flow rate are also investigated in this study. Based on MAAP4 calculation and the default values of the parameters calculating the severe accident phenomena, the result shows that RPV depressurization before the reactor water level reaches one-fourth of the core water level can prevent the core from damage in the T{sub 5}U{sub t}X{sub C} sequence. The flow rate of two control rod drive pumps is enough to maintain the reactor water level above the top of active fuel and cool down the core in the T{sub 5}U{sub t}X{sub C} sequence without operator action.

Wang, T.-C.; Wang, S.-J.; Teng, J.-T

2005-12-15

448

Accident simulation and consequence analysis in support of MHTGR safety evaluations  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes research performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in preliminary determinations of licensability of the US Department of Energy (DOE) reference design of a standard modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR). The work described includes independent analyses of core heatup and steam ingress accidents, and the reviews and analyses of fuel performance and fission product transport technology.

Ball, S.J.; Wichner, R.P.; Smith, O.L.; Conklin, J.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Barthold, W.P. (Barthold Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States))

1991-01-01

449

Acute facial trauma in falling accidents: MDCT analysis of 500 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to assess multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings of facial trauma due to a falling accident.\\u000a Using picture-archiving and communications system, we retrieved all MDCT requests for suspected facial injury during a 62-month\\u000a period. Images were interpreted by two researchers. Five hundred patients met the inclusion criteria and 329 (66%) had a total\\u000a of 515

Elina M. Salonen; Mika P. Koivikko; Seppo K. Koskinen

2008-01-01

450

Heat Transfer Issues in Finite Element Analysis of Bounding Accidents in PPCS Models  

SciTech Connect

Modelling of temperature excursions in structures of conceptual power plants during hypothetical worst-case accidents has been performed within the European Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS). A new, 3D finite elements (FE) based tool, coupling the different calculations to the same tokamak geometry, has been extensively used to conduct the neutron transport, activation and thermal analyses for all PPCS plant models. During a total loss of cooling, the usual assumption for the bounding accident, passive removal of the decay heat from activated materials depends on conduction and radiation heat exchange between components. This paper presents and discusses results obtained during the PPCS bounding accident thermal analyses, examining the following issues: (a) radiation heat exchange between the inner surfaces of the tokamak, (b) the presence of air within the cryostat volume, and the heat flow arising from the circulation pattern provided by temperature differences between various parts, and (c) the thermal conductivity of pebble beds, and its degradation due to exposure to neutron irradiation, affecting the heat transfer capability and thermal response of a blanket based on these components.

Pampin, R.; Karditsas, P.J. [Culham Science Centre (United Kingdom)

2005-05-15

451

Analysis of Radionuclide Releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Part II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present part of the publication (Part II) deals with long range dispersion of radionuclides emitted into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident that occurred after the March 11, 2011 tsunami. The first part (Part I) is dedicated to the accident features relying on radionuclide detections performed by monitoring stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization network. In this study, the emissions of the three fission products Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133 are investigated. Regarding Xe-133, the total release is estimated to be of the order of 6 × 1018 Bq emitted during the explosions of units 1, 2 and 3. The total source term estimated gives a fraction of core inventory of about 8 × 1018 Bq at the time of reactors shutdown. This result suggests that at least 80 % of the core inventory has been released into the atmosphere and indicates a broad meltdown of reactor cores. Total atmospheric releases of Cs-137 and I-131 aerosols are estimated to be 1016 and 1017 Bq, respectively. By neglecting gas/particulate conversion phenomena, the total release of I-131 (gas + aerosol) could be estimated to be 4 × 1017 Bq. Atmospheric transport simulations suggest that the main air emissions have occurred during the events of March 14, 2011 (UTC) and that no major release occurred after March 23. The radioactivity emitted into the atmosphere could represent 10 % of the Chernobyl accident releases for I-131 and Cs-137.

Achim, Pascal; Monfort, Marguerite; Le Petit, Gilbert; Gross, Philippe; Douysset, Guilhem; Taffary, Thomas; Blanchard, Xavier; Moulin, Christophe

2012-09-01

452

Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report  

SciTech Connect

This volume is the first of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the European Commission to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This document reports on an ongoing project to assess uncertainty in the MACCS and COSYMA calculations for the offsite consequences of radionuclide releases by hypothetical nuclear power plant accidents. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain variables that affect calculations of offsite consequences. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. Other panels were formed to consider uncertainty in other aspects of the codes. Their results are described in companion reports. Volume 1 contains background information and a complete description of the joint consequence uncertainty study. Volume 2 contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures for both panels, (3) the rationales and results for the panels on soil and plant transfer and animal transfer, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

Brown, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)] [and others

1997-06-01

453

Methodological Insights: Impression management: Developing and illustrating a scheme of analysis for narrative disclosures – a methodological note  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to develop a holistic measure for analysing impression management and for detecting bias introduced into corporate narratives as a result of impression management. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Prior research on the seven impression management methods in the literature is summarised. Four of the less-researched methods are described in detail, and are illustrated with examples from UK annual

Niamh M. Brennan; Encarna Guillamon-Saorin; Aileen Pierce

2009-01-01

454

Data development technical support document for the aircraft crash risk analysis methodology (ACRAM) standard  

SciTech Connect

The Aircraft Crash Risk Analysis Methodology (ACRAM) Panel has been formed by the US Department of Energy Office of Defense Programs (DOE/DP) for the purpose of developing a standard methodology for determining the risk from aircraft crashes onto DOE ground facilities. In order to accomplish this goal, the ACRAM panel has been divided into four teams, the data development team, the model evaluation team, the structural analysis team, and the consequence team. Each team, consisting of at least one member of the ACRAM plus additional DOE and DOE contractor personnel, specializes in the development of the methodology assigned to that team. This report documents the work performed by the data development team and provides the technical basis for the data used by the ACRAM Standard for determining the aircraft crash frequency. This report should be used to provide the generic data needed to calculate the aircraft crash frequency into the facility under consideration as part of the process for determining the aircraft crash risk to ground facilities as given by the DOE Standard Aircraft Crash Risk Assessment Methodology (ACRAM). Some broad guidance is presented on how to obtain the needed site-specific and facility specific data but this data is not provided by this document.

Kimura, C.Y.; Glaser, R.E.; Mensing, R.W.; Lin, T.; Haley, T.A.; Barto, A.B.; Stutzke, M.A.

1996-08-01

455

A first approach to the safety analysis of a tokamak test reactor by a system study methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety analysis and risk assessment of a Tokamak Test Reactor is approached by an iterative, probabilistic, system study methodology, jointly developed by ENEA and CEA. The first part of this methodology consists of a safety related functional analysis of the plant. That is developed in a quite systematic and exhaustive way, aiming at the identification of all the process

A. Boschi; T. Palma; S. Sarto; G. Cambi; G. Zappellini; H. Djerassi; J. Rouillard

1989-01-01

456

Analysis of Main Steam Isolation Valve Leakage in Design Basis Accidents Using MELCOR 1.8.6. and RADTRAD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analyses were performed using MELCOR and RADTRAD to investigate main steam isolation valve (MSIV) leakage behavior under design basis accident (DBA) loss-of-coolant (LOCA) conditions that are presumed to have led to a significant core melt accident. Dose ...

D. A. Kalinich M. A. Salay R. O. Gauntt T. Radel

2008-01-01

457

Pipeline industry: Pipeline accident consequences for natural gas and hazardous liquids pipelines. Pipeline accident consequences analysis using gis for natural gas and hazardous liquids pipelines. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The development of a consequences database requires a description of the damages that occur in the incidents-accident that result in fires and/or explosions. In order to determine the consequences of an incident-accident, the records of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) were examined for relevant information (such as description of the damage) since that type of data does not exist in the OPS database. The consequences database was then used in conjunction with a sample Geographic Information System (GIS) developed by the project team. The damage area found in the consequences database was analyzed using a GIS to determine the damages that would result if an incident were to occur at various locations along the simulated pipeline in the GIS.

Greenfeld, J.; Golub, E.; Dresnack, R.; Griffis, F.H.; Pignataro, L.J.

1996-08-01

458

An analysis of the rates of injury and fatal accidents in Michigan State police pursuits: a Michigan emergency response study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compares accident injuries and fatalities occurring during a one-year Michigan emergency response study (MERS) with figures for the state’s general population accidents over three and five years. Finds that significantly higher rates of accidents occur in pursuits than in the general population or in police non-pursuit experience but that the MERS fatal accident rate was not significantly higher than in

Dennis M. Payne; John Charles Fenske

1996-01-01

459

Traffic accident segmentation by means of latent class clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic accident data are often heterogeneous, which can cause certain relationships to remain hidden. Therefore, traffic accident analysis is often performed on a small subset of traffic accidents or several models are built for various traffic accident types. In this paper, we examine the effectiveness of a clustering technique, i.e. latent class clustering, for identifying homogenous traffic accident types. Firstly,

Benoît Depaire; Geert Wets; Koen Vanhoof

2008-01-01

460

Strategies and techniques for sample collection and analysis: experience from the Swedish PCB accidents.  

PubMed Central

A series of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) fires and explosion in PCB-filled capacitors and transformers is discussed. A sampling program followed by isomer specific determination of trace levels of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) is described. Data from a series of Swedish PCB accidents are given. In addition to PCDFs and PCDDs, we have also found a series of polychlorinated biphenylenes (PCBPs). Cleaning of contaminated areas was done by vacuum cleaning followed by high pressure washing. Images FIGURE 14.

Rappe, C; Marklund, S; Kjeller, L O; Bergqvist, P A; Hansson, M

1985-01-01

461

Resolve! Version 2.5: Flammable Gas Accident Analysis Tool Acceptance Test Plan and Test Results  

SciTech Connect

RESOLVE! Version 2 .5 is designed to quantify the risk and uncertainty of combustion accidents in double-shell tanks (DSTs) and single-shell tanks (SSTs). The purpose of the acceptance testing is to ensure that all of the options and features of the computer code run; to verify that the calculated results are consistent with each other; and to evaluate the effects of the changes to the parameter values on the frequency and consequence trends associated with flammable gas deflagrations or detonations.

LAVENDER, J.C.

2000-10-17

462

[FISH analysis in verification of recorded doses in liquidators of Chernobyl accident].  

PubMed

With the help of the FISH technique the Official Dose Records (ODR) in 40 liquidators from the National (18 persons) and Military (22 persons) Registers were verified. In the civil liquidators the cases with the overestimated individual ODR were predominated while in the liquidators from the Military Register the cases with underestimation of the ODR in comparison with biological irradiation doses were prevailed. The both groups were considered as true "high-dose" ones with radiation exposure that exceed permissible levels for an accident. PMID:12442542

Pilins'ka, M A; Dybs'ky?, S S; Skalets'ky?, Iu M

463

A methodology for global-sensitivity analysis of time-dependent outputs in systems biology modelling  

PubMed Central

One of the main challenges in the development of mathematical and computational models of biological systems is the precise estimation of parameter values. Understanding the effects of uncertainties in parameter values on model behaviour is crucial to the successful use of these models. Global sensitivity analysis (SA) can be used to quantify the variability in model predictions resulting from the uncertainty in multiple parameters and to shed light on the biological mechanisms driving system behaviour. We present a new methodology for global SA in systems biology which is computationally efficient and can be used to identify the key parameters and their interactions which drive the dynamic behaviour of a complex biological model. The approach combines functional principal component analysis with established global SA techniques. The methodology is applied to a model of the insulin signalling pathway, defects of which are a major cause of type 2 diabetes and a number of key features of the system are identified.

Sumner, T.; Shephard, E.; Bogle, I. D. L.

2012-01-01

464

Social representations, correspondence factor analysis and characterization questionnaire: a methodological contribution.  

PubMed

The characterization questionnaire is inspired by Q-sort methodologies (i.e. qualitative sorting). It consists in asking participants to give their opinion on a list of items by sorting them into categories depending on their level of characterization of the object. This technique allows us to obtain distributions for each item and each response modality (i.e. characteristic vs. not chosen vs. not characteristic). This contribution intends to analyze these frequencies by means of correspondence factor analysis. The originality of this contribution lies in the fact that this kind of analysis has never been used to process data collected by means of this questionnaire. The procedure will be detailed and exemplified by means of two empirical studies on social representations of the good wine and the good supermarket. The interests of such a contribution will be discussed from both methodological points of view and an applications perspective. PMID:23156928

Lo Monaco, Grégory; Piermattéo, Anthony; Guimelli, Christian; Abric, Jean-Claude

2012-11-01

465

Heterogenic Solid Biofuel Sampling Methodology and Uncertainty Associated with Prompt Analysis  

PubMed Central

Accurate determination of the properties of biomass is of particular interest in studies on biomass combustion or cofiring. The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology for prompt analysis of heterogeneous solid fuels with an acceptable degree of accuracy. Special care must be taken with the sampling procedure to achieve an acceptable degree of error and low statistical uncertainty. A sampling and error determination methodology for prompt analysis is presented and validated. Two approaches for the propagation of errors are also given and some comparisons are made in order to determine which may be better in this context. Results show in general low, acceptable levels of uncertainty, demonstrating that the samples obtained in the process are representative of the overall fuel composition.

Pazo, Jose A.; Granada, Enrique; Saavedra, Angeles; Patino, David; Collazo, Joaquin

2010-01-01

466

Heterogenic solid biofuel sampling methodology and uncertainty associated with prompt analysis.  

PubMed

Accurate determination of the properties of biomass is of particular interest in studies on biomass combustion or cofiring. The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology for prompt analysis of heterogeneous solid fuels with an acceptable degree of accuracy. Special care must be taken with the sampling procedure to achieve an acceptable degree of error and low statistical uncertainty. A sampling and error determination methodology for prompt analysis is presented and validated. Two approaches for the propagation of errors are also given and some comparisons are made in order to determine which may be better in this context. Results show in general low, acceptable levels of uncertainty, demonstrating that the samples obtained in the process are representative of the overall fuel composition. PMID:20559506

Pazó, Jose A; Granada, Enrique; Saavedra, Angeles; Patiño, David; Collazo, Joaquín

2010-05-11

467

A simulation methodology for reliability analysis in multi-core SoCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability has become a signican t challenge for system de- sign in new process technologies. Higher integration levels dramatically increase power densities, which leads to higher temperature and adverse eects on reliability. In this paper, we introduce a simulation methodology to analyze reliability of multi-core SoCs. The proposed simulator is the rst to provide system-on-chip level ne-grained reliability analysis. We

Ayse Kivilcim Coskun; Tajana Simunic Rosing; Yusuf Leblebici; Giovanni De Micheli

2006-01-01

468

Novel data-mining methodologies for adverse drug event discovery and analysis.  

PubMed

An important goal of the health system is to identify new adverse drug events (ADEs) in the postapproval period. Datamining methods that can transform data into meaningful knowledge to inform patient safety have proven essential for this purpose. New opportunities have emerged to harness data sources that have not been used within the traditional framework. This article provides an overview of recent methodological innovations and data sources used to support ADE discovery and analysis. PMID:22549283

Harpaz, R; DuMouchel, W; Shah, N H; Madigan, D; Ryan, P; Friedman, C

2012-06-01

469

Analysis of radiocaesium in the Lebanese soil one decade after the Chernobyl accident.  

PubMed

Fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident due to the transport of a radioactive cloud over Lebanon in the beginning of May 1986 was studied 12 years after the accident for determining the level of (137)Cs concentration in soil. Gamma spectroscopy measurements were performed by using coaxial high sensitivity HPGe detectors. More than 90 soil samples were collected from points uniformly distributed throughout the land of Lebanon in order to evaluate their radioactivity. The data obtained showed a relatively high (137)Cs activity per surface area contamination, up to 6545Bqm(-2) in the top soil layer 0-3cm. The average activity of (137)Cs in the top soil layer 0-3cm in depth was 59.7Bqkg(-1) dry soil ranging from 15 to 119Bqkg(-1) dry soil. The horizontal variability was found to be about 45% between the sampling sites. The depth distribution of total (137)Cs activity in soil showed an exponential decrease. Estimation of the annual effective dose due to external radiation from (137)Cs contaminated soil for selected sites gave values ranging from 19.3 to 91.6 micro Svy(-1). PMID:17097775

El Samad, O; Zahraman, K; Baydoun, R; Nasreddine, M

2006-11-09

470

LeRoy Meisinger, Part II: Analysis of the Scientific Ballooning Accident of 2 June 1924.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the spring of 1924, U.S. Weather Bureau meteorologist LeRoy Meisinger conducted a series of experiments with a free balloon to determine the trajectories of air around extratropical cyclones. The 10th flight in the series ended with a crash of the balloon over central Illinois. Both Meisinger and the pilot, Army Air Services Lt. James Neely, were killed.An effort has been made to reconstruct this accident using information from a review article by early twentieth-century meteorologist Vincent Jakl and newspaper accounts of the accident. The principal results of the study follow.1) Meisinger's balloon was caught in the downdraft of a newly developed thunderstorm over the Bement, Illinois, area on the evening of 2 June;2) a hard landing took place in a cornfield just north of Bement, and loss of ballast at the hard-landing site was sufficient to cause the balloon to rise again; and3) after rebounding from the ground, the balloon with the two aeronauts aboard was struck by lightning. A fire resulted that burned through the netting and led to a crash four miles northeast of the hard-landing site.

Lewis, John M.; Moore, Charles B.

1995-02-01

471

Stress analysis, code evaluation, and design modification of a plate resulting from seismic loads and hypothetical core disruptive accident loads  

SciTech Connect

This study addresses the structural analysis and evaluation of a design modification for a plate in the Fast Flux Test Facility heat temperature control system. The plate being considered is near a fuel transfer port system. The plate is flat and is supported by six long studs, five of which are along one side of the plate. Their location makes the plate act as a cantilever.The plate itself provides support to three vertical neutron shields on its free edges. During service, a uranium shield ring under the fuel transfer port nozzle oxidized and expanded. To prevent this expansion from causing damage to the surrounding components, this ring was removed and replaced with lead blocks. Approximately one-fourth of the lead blocks rest on a free edge of the plate. This new configuration of