Science.gov

Sample records for accident diagrams

  1. Use of an influence diagram and fuzzy probability for evaluating accident management in a boiling water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, D.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Okrent, D. . Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering Dept.)

    1994-06-01

    A new approach is presented for evaluating the uncertainties inherent in severe accident management strategies. At first, this analysis considers accident management as a decision problem (i.e., applying a strategy compared with do nothing) and uses an influence diagram. To evaluate imprecise node probabilities in the influence diagram, the analysis introduces the concept of a fuzzy probability. When fuzzy logic is applied, fuzzy probabilities are easily propagated to obtain results. In addition, the results obtained provide not only information similar to the classical approach, which uses point-estimate values, but also additional information regarding the impact of using imprecise input data. As an illustrative example, the proposed methodology is applied to the evaluation of the drywell flooding strategy for a long-term station blackout sequence at the Peach Bottom nuclear power plant. The results show that the drywell flooding strategy is beneficial for preventing reactor vessel breach. It is also effective for reducing the probability of containment failure for both liner melt-through and late overpressurization. Even though uncertainty exists in the results, flooding is preferred to do nothing when evaluated in terms of two risk measures: early and late fatalities.

  2. Contribution to the description of the absorber rod behavior in severe accident conditions: An experimental investigation of the Ag-Zr phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decreton, A.; Benigni, P.; Rogez, J.; Mikaelian, G.; Barrachin, M.; Lomello-Tafin, M.; Antion, C.; Janghorban, A.; Fischer, E.

    2015-10-01

    Most pressurized water reactor (PWR) absorber rods are composed of an Ag-In-Cd (SIC) alloy inside a stainless steel (SS) cladding, themselves inserted into a Zircaloy tube. During a severe accident, the SIC alloy which melts at 800 °C does not practically interact with SS. However, the cladding failure results from its internal pressurization and its eutectic interaction with Zircaloy and occurs at temperatures greater than 1200 °C. The subsequent interaction between the SIC melt and the Zircaloy has a strong impact on the quantities of aerosols released into the primary circuit and finally on the iodine chemistry. Accurate knowledge of the Ag-Zr system is a prerequisite to address this issue. Within this concern, our experimental work is focused both on the investigation of the Ag-Zr phase diagram and on the determination of the thermodynamic properties of the intermetallic compounds in the system. Two intermetallic compounds (AgZr and AgZr2) were identified. Ag-Zr cast alloys with a Ag/Zr ratio of 1:1 elaborated using an arc-melting furnace, once annealed, contained only a single phase AgZr. From metallographic observations, it appears that AgZr2 likely forms by the peritectic reaction from liquid and the bcc (βZr) phase. The partial enthalpies of solution of silver and zirconium in aluminum were experimentally determined at 723 °C in order to determine the enthalpies of formation of the intermetallic compounds. For silver solution calorimetry in aluminum bath, our measurements were successful and in agreement with the previous data. Yet, this study shows that liquid aluminum should not be used as a solvent for zirconium below 1000 °C.

  3. Thermodynamic Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaston, Scot

    1999-02-01

    Thermodynamic data such as equilibrium constants, standard cell potentials, molar enthalpies of formation, and standard entropies of substances can be a very useful basis for an organized presentation of knowledge in diverse areas of applied chemistry. Thermodynamic data can become particularly useful when incorporated into thermodynamic diagrams that are designed to be easy to recall, to serve as a basis for reconstructing previous knowledge, and to determine whether reactions can occur exergonically or only with the help of an external energy source. Few students in our chemistry-based courses would want to acquire the depth of knowledge or rigor of professional thermodynamicists. But they should nevertheless learn how to make good use of thermodynamic data in their professional occupations that span the chemical, biological, environmental, and medical laboratory fields. This article discusses examples of three thermodynamic diagrams that have been developed for this purpose. They are the thermodynamic energy account (TEA), the total entropy scale, and the thermodynamic scale diagrams. These diagrams help in the teaching and learning of thermodynamics by bringing the imagination into the process of developing a better understanding of abstract thermodynamic functions, and by allowing the reader to keep track of specialist thermodynamic discourses in the literature.

  4. Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 31 NIST/ACerS Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database (PC database for purchase)   The Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database contains commentaries and more than 21,000 diagrams for non-organic systems, including those published in all 21 hard-copy volumes produced as part of the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Program (formerly titled Phase Diagrams for Ceramists): Volumes I through XIV (blue books); Annuals 91, 92, 93; High Tc Superconductors I & II; Zirconium & Zirconia Systems; and Electronic Ceramics I. Materials covered include oxides as well as non-oxide systems such as chalcogenides and pnictides, phosphates, salt systems, and mixed systems of these classes.

  5. Gravity wave transmission diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomikawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    A possibility of gravity wave propagation from a source region to the airglow layer around the mesopause has been discussed based on the gravity wave blocking diagram taking into account the critical level filtering alone. This paper proposes a new gravity wave transmission diagram in which both the critical level filtering and turning level reflection of gravity waves are considered. It shows a significantly different distribution of gravity wave transmissivity from the blocking diagram.

  6. Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiosi, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HR-diagram), pioneered independently by EJNAR HERTZSPRUNG and HENRY NORRIS RUSSELL, is a plot of the star luminosity versus the surface temperature. It stems from the basic relation for an object emitting thermal radiation as a black body: ...

  7. Accident investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laynor, William G. Bud

    1987-01-01

    The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has attributed wind shear as a cause or contributing factor in 15 accidents involving transport-categroy airplanes since 1970. Nine of these were nonfatal; but the other six accounted for 440 lives. Five of the fatal accidents and seven of the nonfatal accidents involved encounters with convective downbursts or microbursts. Of other accidents, two which were nonfatal were encounters with a frontal system shear, and one which was fatal was the result of a terrain induced wind shear. These accidents are discussed with reference to helping the aircraft to avoid the wind shear or if impossible to help the pilot to get through the wind shear.

  8. Square Source Type Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aso, N.; Ohta, K.; Ide, S.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation in a small volume of earth interior is expressed by a symmetric moment tensor located on a point source. The tensor contains information of characteristic directions, source amplitude, and source types such as isotropic, double-couple, or compensated-linear-vector-dipole (CLVD). Although we often assume a double couple as the source type of an earthquake, significant non-double-couple component including isotropic component is often reported for induced earthquakes and volcanic earthquakes. For discussions on source types including double-couple and non-double-couple components, it is helpful to display them using some visual diagrams. Since the information of source type has two degrees of freedom, it can be displayed onto a two-dimensional flat plane. Although the diagram developed by Hudson et al. [1989] is popular, the trace corresponding to the mechanism combined by two mechanisms is not always a smooth line. To overcome this problem, Chapman and Leaney [2012] developed a new diagram. This diagram has an advantage that a straight line passing through the center corresponds to the mechanism obtained by a combination of an arbitrary mechanism and a double-couple [Tape and Tape, 2012], but this diagram has some difficulties in use. First, it is slightly difficult to produce the diagram because of its curved shape. Second, it is also difficult to read out the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components, which we want to obtain from the estimated moment tensors, because they do not appear directly on the horizontal or vertical axes. In the present study, we developed another new square diagram that overcomes the difficulties of previous diagrams. This diagram is an orthogonal system of isotropic and deviatoric axes, so it is easy to get the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components. Our diagram has another advantage that the probability density is obtained simply from the area within the diagram if the probability density

  9. Upgrading Diagnostic Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proxauf, B.; Kimeswenger, S.; Öttl, S.

    2014-04-01

    Diagnostic diagrams of forbidden lines have been a useful tool for observers in astrophysics for many decades now. They are used to obtain information on the basic physical properties of thin gaseous nebulae. Moreover they are also the initial tool to derive thermodynamic properties of the plasma from observations to get ionization correction factors and thus to obtain proper abundances of the nebulae. Some diagnostic diagrams are in wavelengths domains which were difficult to take either due to missing wavelength coverage or low resolution of older spectrographs. Thus they were hardly used in the past. An upgrade of this useful tool is necessary because most of the diagrams were calculated using only the species involved as a single atom gas, although several are affected by well-known fluorescence mechanisms as well. Additionally the atomic data have improved up to the present time. The new diagnostic diagrams are calculated by using large grids of parameter space in the photoionization code CLOUDY. For a given basic parameter the input radiation field is varied to find the solutions with cooling-heating-equilibrium. Empirical numerical functions are fitted to provide formulas usable in e.g. data reduction pipelines. The resulting diagrams differ significantly from those used up to now and will improve the thermodynamic calculations.

  10. Trace element indiscrimination diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chusi; Arndt, Nicholas T.; Tang, Qingyan; Ripley, Edward M.

    2015-09-01

    We tested the accuracy of trace element discrimination diagrams for basalts using new datasets from two petrological databases, PetDB and GEOROC. Both binary and ternary diagrams using Zr, Ti, V, Y, Th, Hf, Nb, Ta, Sm, and Sc do a poor job of discriminating between basalts generated in various tectonic environments (continental flood basalt, mid-ocean ridge basalt, ocean island basalt, oceanic plateau basalt, back-arc basin basalt, and various types of arc basalt). The overlaps between the different types of basalt are too large for the confident application of such diagrams when used in the absence of geological and petrological constraints. None of the diagrams we tested can clearly discriminate between back-arc basin basalt and mid-ocean ridge basalt, between continental flood basalt and oceanic plateau basalt, and between different types of arc basalt (intra-oceanic, island and continental arcs). Only ocean island basalt and some mid-ocean ridge basalt are generally distinguishable in the diagrams, and even in this case, mantle-normalized trace element patterns offer a better solution for discriminating between the two types of basalt.

  11. Weyl card diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Gregory; Wang, John E.

    2005-06-15

    To capture important physical properties of a spacetime we construct a new diagram, the card diagram, which accurately draws generalized Weyl spacetimes in arbitrary dimensions by encoding their global spacetime structure, singularities, horizons, and some aspects of causal structure including null infinity. Card diagrams draw only nontrivial directions providing a clearer picture of the geometric features of spacetimes as compared to Penrose diagrams, and can change continuously as a function of the geometric parameters. One of our main results is to describe how Weyl rods are traversable horizons and the entirety of the spacetime can be mapped out. We review Weyl techniques and as examples we systematically discuss properties of a variety of solutions including Kerr-Newman black holes, black rings, expanding bubbles, and recent spacelike-brane solutions. Families of solutions will share qualitatively similar cards. In addition we show how card diagrams not only capture information about a geometry but also its analytic continuations by providing a geometric picture of analytic continuation. Weyl techniques are generalized to higher dimensional charged solutions and applied to generate perturbations of bubble and S-brane solutions by Israel-Khan rods.

  12. Weyl card diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Gregory; Wang, John E.

    2005-06-01

    To capture important physical properties of a spacetime we construct a new diagram, the card diagram, which accurately draws generalized Weyl spacetimes in arbitrary dimensions by encoding their global spacetime structure, singularities, horizons, and some aspects of causal structure including null infinity. Card diagrams draw only nontrivial directions providing a clearer picture of the geometric features of spacetimes as compared to Penrose diagrams, and can change continuously as a function of the geometric parameters. One of our main results is to describe how Weyl rods are traversable horizons and the entirety of the spacetime can be mapped out. We review Weyl techniques and as examples we systematically discuss properties of a variety of solutions including Kerr-Newman black holes, black rings, expanding bubbles, and recent spacelike-brane solutions. Families of solutions will share qualitatively similar cards. In addition we show how card diagrams not only capture information about a geometry but also its analytic continuations by providing a geometric picture of analytic continuation. Weyl techniques are generalized to higher dimensional charged solutions and applied to generate perturbations of bubble and S-brane solutions by Israel-Khan rods.

  13. Impulse-Momentum Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengrant, David

    2011-01-01

    Multiple representations are a valuable tool to help students learn and understand physics concepts. Furthermore, representations help students learn how to think and act like real scientists. These representations include: pictures, free-body diagrams, energy bar charts, electrical circuits, and, more recently, computer simulations and…

  14. Tectonic discrimination diagrams revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, Pieter

    2006-06-01

    The decision boundaries of most tectonic discrimination diagrams are drawn by eye. Discriminant analysis is a statistically more rigorous way to determine the tectonic affinity of oceanic basalts based on their bulk-rock chemistry. This method was applied to a database of 756 oceanic basalts of known tectonic affinity (ocean island, mid-ocean ridge, or island arc). For each of these training data, up to 45 major, minor, and trace elements were measured. Discriminant analysis assumes multivariate normality. If the same covariance structure is shared by all the classes (i.e., tectonic affinities), the decision boundaries are linear, hence the term linear discriminant analysis (LDA). In contrast with this, quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) allows the classes to have different covariance structures. To solve the statistical problems associated with the constant-sum constraint of geochemical data, the training data must be transformed to log-ratio space before performing a discriminant analysis. The results can be mapped back to the compositional data space using the inverse log-ratio transformation. An exhaustive exploration of 14,190 possible ternary discrimination diagrams yields the Ti-Si-Sr system as the best linear discrimination diagram and the Na-Nb-Sr system as the best quadratic discrimination diagram. The best linear and quadratic discrimination diagrams using only immobile elements are Ti-V-Sc and Ti-V-Sm, respectively. As little as 5% of the training data are misclassified by these discrimination diagrams. Testing them on a second database of 182 samples that were not part of the training data yields a more reliable estimate of future performance. Although QDA misclassifies fewer training data than LDA, the opposite is generally true for the test data. Therefore LDA is a cruder but more robust classifier than QDA. Another advantage of LDA is that it provides a powerful way to reduce the dimensionality of the multivariate geochemical data in a similar

  15. Impulse-Momentum Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosengrant, David

    2011-01-01

    Multiple representations are a valuable tool to help students learn and understand physics concepts. Furthermore, representations help students learn how to think and act like real scientists.2 These representations include: pictures, free-body diagrams,3 energy bar charts,4 electrical circuits, and, more recently, computer simulations and animations.5 However, instructors have limited choices when they want to help their students understand impulse and momentum. One of the only available options is the impulse-momentum bar chart.6 The bar charts can effectively show the magnitude of the momentum as well as help students understand conservation of momentum, but they do not easily show the actual direction. This paper highlights a new representation instructors can use to help their students with momentum and impulse—the impulse-momentum diagram (IMD).

  16. TEP process flow diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Wilms, R Scott; Carlson, Bryan; Coons, James; Kubic, William

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

  17. Wilson Loop Diagrams and Positroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwala, Susama; Marin-Amat, Eloi

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we study a new application of the positive Grassmannian to Wilson loop diagrams (or MHV diagrams) for scattering amplitudes in N= 4 Super Yang-Mill theory (N = 4 SYM). There has been much interest in studying this theory via the positive Grassmannians using BCFW recursion. This is the first attempt to study MHV diagrams for planar Wilson loop calculations (or planar amplitudes) in terms of positive Grassmannians. We codify Wilson loop diagrams completely in terms of matroids. This allows us to apply the combinatorial tools in matroid theory used to identify positroids (non-negative Grassmannians) to Wilson loop diagrams. In doing so, we find that certain non-planar Wilson loop diagrams define positive Grassmannians. While non-planar diagrams do not have physical meaning, this finding suggests that they may have value as an algebraic tool, and deserve further investigation.

  18. Warped penguin diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Csaki, Csaba; Grossman, Yuval; Tanedo, Philip; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2011-04-01

    We present an analysis of the loop-induced magnetic dipole operator in the Randall-Sundrum model of a warped extra dimension with anarchic bulk fermions and an IR brane-localized Higgs. These operators are finite at one-loop order and we explicitly calculate the branching ratio for {mu}{yields}e{gamma} using the mixed position/momentum space formalism. The particular bound on the anarchic Yukawa and Kaluza-Klein (KK) scales can depend on the flavor structure of the anarchic matrices. It is possible for a generic model to either be ruled out or unaffected by these bounds without any fine-tuning. We quantify how these models realize this surprising behavior. We also review tree-level lepton flavor bounds in these models and show that these are on the verge of tension with the {mu}{yields}e{gamma} bounds from typical models with a 3 TeV Kaluza-Klein scale. Further, we illuminate the nature of the one-loop finiteness of these diagrams and show how to accurately determine the degree of divergence of a five-dimensional loop diagram using both the five-dimensional and KK formalism. This power counting can be obfuscated in the four-dimensional Kaluza-Klein formalism and we explicitly point out subtleties that ensure that the two formalisms agree. Finally, we remark on the existence of a perturbative regime in which these one-loop results give the dominant contribution.

  19. Argument Diagramming: The Araucaria Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Glenn; Reed, Chris

    Formal arguments, such as those used in science, medicine and law to establish a conclusion by providing supporting evidence, are frequently represented by diagrams such as trees and graphs. We describe the software package Araucaria which allows textual arguments to be marked up and represented as standard, Toulmin or Wigmore diagrams. Since each of these diagramming techniques was devised for a particular domain or argumentation, we discuss some of the issues involved in translating between diagrams. The exercise of translating between different diagramming types illustrates that any one diagramming system often cannot capture all of the nuances inherent in an argument. Finally, we describe some areas, such as critical thinking courses in colleges and universities and the analysis of evidence in court cases, where Araucaria has been put to practical use.

  20. Program Synthesizes UML Sequence Diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    A computer program called "Rational Sequence" generates Universal Modeling Language (UML) sequence diagrams of a target Java program running on a Java virtual machine (JVM). Rational Sequence thereby performs a reverse engineering function that aids in the design documentation of the target Java program. Whereas previously, the construction of sequence diagrams was a tedious manual process, Rational Sequence generates UML sequence diagrams automatically from the running Java code.

  1. Preliminary Master Logic Diagram for ITER operation

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Taylor, N.P.; Poucet, A.E.

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes the work performed to develop a Master Logic Diagram (MLD) for the operations phase of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The MLD is a probabilistic risk assessment tool used to identify the broad set of potential initiating events that could lead to an offsite radioactive or toxic chemical release from the facility under study. The MLD described here is complementary to the failure modes and effects analyses (FMEAs) that have been performed for ITER`s major plant systems in the engineering evaluation of the facility design. While the FMEAs are a bottom-up or component level approach, the MLD is a top-down or facility level approach to identifying the broad spectrum of potential events. Strengths of the MLD are that it analyzes the entire plant, depicts completeness in the accident initiator process, provides an independent method for identification, and can also identify potential system interactions. MLDs have been used successfully as a hazard analysis tool. This paper describes the process used for the ITER MLD to treat the variety of radiological and toxicological source terms present in the ITER design. One subtree of the nineteen page MLD is shown to illustrate the levels of the diagram.

  2. Contingency diagrams as teaching tools

    PubMed Central

    Mattaini, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    Contingency diagrams are particularly effective teaching tools, because they provide a means for students to view the complexities of contingency networks present in natural and laboratory settings while displaying the elementary processes that constitute those networks. This paper sketches recent developments in this visualization technology and illustrates approaches for using contingency diagrams in teaching. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:22478208

  3. Potential-pH Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnum, Dennis W.

    1982-01-01

    Potential-pH diagrams show the domains of redoxpotential and pH in which major species are most stable. Constructing such diagrams provides students with opportunities to decide what species must be considered, search literature for equilibrium constants and free energies of formation, and practice in using the Nernst equation. (Author/JN)

  4. Concrete and abstract Voronoi diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R. )

    1989-01-01

    The Voronoi diagram of a set of sites is a partition of the plane into regions, one to each site, such that the region of each site contains all points of the plane that are closer to this site than to the other ones. Such partitions are of great importance to computer science and many other fields. The challenge is to compute Voronoi diagrams quickly. The problem is that their structure depends on the notion of distance and the sort of site. In this book the author proposes a unifying approach by introducing abstract Voronoi diagrams. These are based on the concept of bisecting curves which are required to have some simple properties that are actually possessed by most bisectors of concrete Voronoi diagrams. Abstract Voronoi diagrams can be computed efficiently and there exists a worst-case efficient algorithm of divide-and-conquer type that applies to all abstract Voronoi diagrams satisfying a certain constraint. The author shows that this constraint is fulfilled by the concrete diagrams based no large classes of metrics in the plane.

  5. Radiation accidents.

    PubMed

    Saenger, E L

    1986-09-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity. PMID:3526994

  6. Radiation accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Saenger, E.L.

    1986-09-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity.

  7. The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Janice

    1991-01-01

    Describes a classroom use of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to infer not only the properties of a star but also the star's probable stage in evolution, life span, and age of the cluster in which it is located. (ZWH)

  8. Atemporal diagrams for quantum circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, Robert B.; Wu Shengjun; Yu Li; Cohen, Scott M.

    2006-05-15

    A system of diagrams is introduced that allows the representation of various elements of a quantum circuit, including measurements, in a form which makes no reference to time (hence 'atemporal'). It can be used to relate quantum dynamical properties to those of entangled states (map-state duality), and suggests useful analogies, such as the inverse of an entangled ket. Diagrams clarify the role of channel kets, transition operators, dynamical operators (matrices), and Kraus rank for noisy quantum channels. Positive (semidefinite) operators are represented by diagrams with a symmetry that aids in understanding their connection with completely positive maps. The diagrams are used to analyze standard teleportation and dense coding, and for a careful study of unambiguous (conclusive) teleportation. A simple diagrammatic argument shows that a Kraus rank of 3 is impossible for a one-qubit channel modeled using a one-qubit environment in a mixed state.

  9. Particles, Feynman Diagrams and All That

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Quantum fields are introduced in order to give students an accurate qualitative understanding of the origin of Feynman diagrams as representations of particle interactions. Elementary diagrams are combined to produce diagrams representing the main features of the Standard Model.

  10. A framework for the assessment of severe accident management strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Apostolakis, G.; Dhir, V.K.

    1993-09-01

    Severe accident management can be defined as the use of existing and/or altemative resources, systems and actors to prevent or mitigate a core-melt accident. For each accident sequence and each combination of severe accident management strategies, there may be several options available to the operator, and each involves phenomenological and operational considerations regarding uncertainty. Operational uncertainties include operator, system and instrumentation behavior during an accident. A framework based on decision trees and influence diagrams has been developed which incorporates such criteria as feasibility, effectiveness, and adverse effects, for evaluating potential severe accident management strategies. The framework is also capable of propagating both data and model uncertainty. It is applied to several potential strategies including PWR cavity flooding, BWR drywell flooding, PWR depressurization and PWR feed and bleed.

  11. A case study of electrostatic accidents in the process of oil-gas storage and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuqin; Wang, Diansheng; Liu, Jinyu; Gao, Jianshen

    2013-03-01

    Ninety nine electrostatic accidents were reviewed, based on information collected from published literature. All the accidents over the last 30 years occurred during the process of oil-gas storage and transportation. Statistical analysis of these accidents was performed based on the type of complex conditions where accidents occurred, type of tanks and contents, and type of accidents. It is shown that about 85% of the accidents occurred in tank farms, gas stations or petroleum refineries, and 96% of the accidents included fire or explosion. The fishbone diagram was used to summarize the effects and the causes of the effects. The results show that three major reasons were responsible for accidents, including improper operation during loading and unloading oil, poor grounding and static electricity on human bodies, which accounted for 29%, 24% and 13% of the accidents, respectively. Safety actions are suggested to help operating engineers to handle similar situations in the future.

  12. Automatically Assessing Graph-Based Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Pete; Smith, Neil; Waugh, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    To date there has been very little work on the machine understanding of imprecise diagrams, such as diagrams drawn by students in response to assessment questions. Imprecise diagrams exhibit faults such as missing, extraneous and incorrectly formed elements. The semantics of imprecise diagrams are difficult to determine. While there have been…

  13. Pseudohaptic interaction with knot diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Jianguang; Zhang, Hui

    2012-07-01

    To make progress in understanding knot theory, we need to interact with the projected representations of mathematical knots, which are continuous in three dimensions (3-D) but significantly interrupted in the projective images. One way to achieve such a goal is to design an interactive system that allows us to sketch two-dimensional (2-D) knot diagrams by taking advantage of a collision-sensing controller and explore their underlying smooth structures through a continuous motion. Recent advances of interaction techniques have been made that allow progress in this direction. Pseudohaptics that simulate haptic effects using pure visual feedback can be used to develop such an interactive system. We outline one such pseudohaptic knot diagram interface. Our interface derives from the familiar pencil-and-paper process of drawing 2-D knot diagrams and provides haptic-like sensations to facilitate the creation and exploration of knot diagrams. A centerpiece of the interaction model simulates a physically reactive mouse cursor, which is exploited to resolve the apparent conflict between the continuous structure of the actual smooth knot and the visual discontinuities in the knot diagram representation. Another value in exploiting pseudohaptics is that an acceleration (or deceleration) of the mouse cursor (or surface locator) can be used to indicate the slope of the curve (or surface) of which the projective image is being explored. By exploiting these additional visual cues, we proceed to a full-featured extension to a pseudohaptic four-dimensional (4-D) visualization system that simulates the continuous navigation on 4-D objects and allows us to sense the bumps and holes in the fourth dimension. Preliminary tests of the software show that main features of the interface overcome some expected perceptual limitations in our interaction with 2-D knot diagrams of 3-D knots and 3-D projective images of 4-D mathematical objects.

  14. Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…

  15. Spectral Determinants on Mandelstam Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillairet, Luc; Kalvin, Victor; Kokotov, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    We study the regularized determinant of the Laplacian as a functional on the space of Mandelstam diagrams (noncompact translation surfaces glued from finite and semi-infinite cylinders). A Mandelstam diagram can be considered as a compact Riemann surface equipped with a conformal flat singular metric {|ω|^2}, where {ω} is a meromorphic one-form with simple poles such that all its periods are pure imaginary and all its residues are real. The main result is an explicit formula for the determinant of the Laplacian in terms of the basic objects on the underlying Riemann surface (the prime form, theta-functions, the canonical meromorphic bidifferential) and the divisor of the meromorphic form {ω}. As an important intermediate result we prove a decomposition formula of the type of Burghelea-Friedlander-Kappeler for the determinant of the Laplacian for flat surfaces with cylindrical ends and conical singularities.

  16. Hero's journey in bifurcation diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, L. H. A.; Mustaro, P. N.

    2012-06-01

    The hero's journey is a narrative structure identified by several authors in comparative studies on folklore and mythology. This storytelling template presents the stages of inner metamorphosis undergone by the protagonist after being called to an adventure. In a simplified version, this journey is divided into three acts separated by two crucial moments. Here we propose a discrete-time dynamical system for representing the protagonist's evolution. The suffering along the journey is taken as the control parameter of this system. The bifurcation diagram exhibits stationary, periodic and chaotic behaviors. In this diagram, there are transition from fixed point to chaos and transition from limit cycle to fixed point. We found that the values of the control parameter corresponding to these two transitions are in quantitative agreement with the two critical moments of the three-act hero's journey identified in 10 movies appearing in the list of the 200 worldwide highest-grossing films.

  17. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  18. Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback. PMID:22429606

  19. Looking inside the butterfly diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternullo, M.

    2007-12-01

    The suitability of Maunder's butterfly diagram to give a realistic picture of the photospheric magnetic flux large scale distribution is discussed. The evolution of the sunspot zone in cycle 20 through 23 is described. To reduce the noise which covers any structure in the diagram, a smoothing algorithm has been applied to the sunspot data. This operation has eliminated any short period fluctuation, and given visibility to long duration phenomena. One of these phenomena is the fact that the equatorward drift of the spot zone center of mass results from the alternation of several prograde (namely, equatorward) segments with other stationary or poleward segments. The long duration of the stationary/retrograde phases as well as the similarities among the spot zone alternating paths in the cycles under examination prevent us from considering these features as meaningless fluctuations, randomly superimposed on the continuous equatorward migration. On the contrary, these features should be considered physically meaningful phenomena, requiring adequate explanations. Moreover, even the smoothed spotted area markedly oscillates. The compared examination of area and spot zone evolution allows us to infer details about the spotted area distribution inside the butterfly diagram. Links between the changing structure of the spot zone and the tachocline rotation rate oscillations are proposed.

  20. Designing an Experimental "Accident"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picker, Lester

    1974-01-01

    Describes an experimental "accident" that resulted in much student learning, seeks help in the identification of nematodes, and suggests biology teachers introduce similar accidents into their teaching to stimulate student interest. (PEB)

  1. Twistor Diagrams and Quantum Field Theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donald, Lewis

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis uses twistor diagram theory, as developed by Penrose (1975) and Hodges (1990c), to try to approach some of the difficulties inherent in the standard quantum field theoretic description of particle interactions. The resolution of these issues is the eventual goal of the twistor diagram program. First twistor diagram theory is introduced from a physical view-point, with the aim of studying larger diagrams than have been typically explored. Methods are evolved to tackle the double box and triple box diagrams. These lead to three methods of constructing an amplitude for the double box, and two ways for the triple box. Next this theory is applied to translate the channels of a Yukawa Feynman diagram, which has more than four external states, into various twistor diagrams. This provides a test of the skeleton hypothesis (of Hodges, 1990c) in these cases, and also shows that conformal breaking must enter into twistor diagrams before the translation of loop level Feynman diagrams. The issue of divergent Feynman diagrams is then considered. By using a twistor equivalent of the sum-over -states idea of quantum field theory, twistor translations of loop diagrams are conjectured. The various massless propagator corrections and vacuum diagrams calculated give results consistent with Feynman theory. Two diagrams are also found that give agreement with the finite parts of the Feynman "fish" diagrams of phi^4 -theory. However it is found that a more rigorous translation for the time-like fish requires new boundaries to be added to the twistor sum-over-states. The twistor diagram obtained is found to give the finite part of the relevant Feynman diagram.

  2. Arrows in Comprehending and Producing Mechanical Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiser, Julie; Tversky, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical systems have structural organizations--parts, and their relations--and functional organizations--temporal, dynamic, and causal processes--which can be explained using text or diagrams. Two experiments illustrate the role of arrows in diagrams of mechanical systems. In Experiment 1, people described diagrams with or without arrows,…

  3. Differential Effectiveness of Two Science Diagram Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, William G.

    Reported is an Aptitude Treatment Instruction (ATI) Study designed to evaluate the aptitude of verbal comprehension in terms of two unitary complex science diagram types: a single complex block word diagram and a single complex picture word diagram.. ATI theory and research indicate that different effective instructional treatments tend to help…

  4. Understanding machines from text and diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegarty, Mary; Just, Marcel A.

    1987-12-01

    Instructional materials typically use both text and diagrams to explain how machines work. In this paper we give an account of what information is involved in understanding a mechanical device and the role that diagrams might play in communicating this information. We propose a model of how people read a text and inspect an accompanying diagram which states that people inspect diagrams for three reasons: (1) to form a representation of information read in the text, (2) to reactivate information that has already been represented, and (3) to encode information that is absent from the text. Using data from subjects' eye fixations while they read a text and inspected an accompanying diagram, we find that low-ability subjects need to inspect diagrams more often than high-ability text. The data also suggest that knowledge of what is relevant in a diagram might be a prerequisite for encoding new information from a diagram. Instructional materials typically use both text and diagrams to explain how machines work. In this paper we give an account of what information is involved in understanding a mechanical device and the role that diagrams might play in communicating this information. We propose a model of how people read a text and inspect an accompanying diagram which states that people inspect diagrams for three reasons: (1) to form a representation of information read in the text; (2) to reactivate information that was alsready represented, and *3) to encode information that is absent from the text. Uinsg data from subjects' eye fixations while they read a text and inspected an accompanying diagram, we find that low-ability subjects need to inspect diagrmas more often than high-ability tesxt. The data also suggest that knowledge of what is relevant in a diagram might be a prerequisite and encoding information on a diagram.

  5. Diagram, a Learning Environment for Initiation to Object-Oriented Modeling with UML Class Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Py, Dominique; Auxepaules, Ludovic; Alonso, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents Diagram, a learning environment for object-oriented modelling (OOM) with UML class diagrams. Diagram an open environment, in which the teacher can add new exercises without constraints on the vocabulary or the size of the diagram. The interface includes methodological help, encourages self-correcting and self-monitoring, and…

  6. A Hubble Diagram for Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risaliti, Guido; Lusso, Elisabeta

    2015-09-01

    We present a new method to test the cosmological model at high z, and measure the cosmological parameters, based on the non-linear correlation between UV and X-ray luminosity in quasars. While the method can be successfully tested with the data available today, a deep X-ray survey matching the future LSST and Euclid quasar catalogs is needed to achieve a high precision. Athena could provide a Hubble diagram for quasar analogous to that available today for supernovae, but extending up to z>6.

  7. Optical generation of Voronoi diagram.

    PubMed

    Giavazzi, F; Cerbino, R; Mazzoni, S; Giglio, M; Vailati, A

    2008-03-31

    We present results of experiments of diffraction by an amplitude screen, made of randomly distributed circular holes. By careful selection of the experimental parameters we obtain an intensity pattern strongly connected to the Voronoi diagram (VD) generated by the centers of the apertures. With the help of simulations we give a description of the observed phenomenon and elucidate the optimal parameters for its observation. Finally, we also suggest how it can be used for a fast, all-optical generation of VDs. PMID:18542580

  8. Cell flipping in permutation diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golumbic, Martin Charles; Kaplang, Haim

    Permutation diagrams have been used in circuit design to model a set of single point nets crossing a channel, where the minimum number of layers needed to realize the diagram equals the clique number ω(G) of its permutation graph, the value of which can be calculated in O(n log n) time. We consider a generalization of this model motivated by "standard cell" technology in which the numbers on each side of the channel are partitioned into consecutive subsequences, or cells, each of which can be left unchanged or flipped (i.e., reversed). We ask, for what choice of fiippings will the resulting clique number be minimum or maximum. We show that when one side of the channel is fixed (no flipping), an optimal flipping for the other side can be found in O(n log n) time for the maximum clique number. We prove that the general problem is NP-complete for the minimum clique number and O(n 2) for the maximum clique number. Moreover, since the complement of a permutation graph is also a permutation graph, the same complexity results hold for the independence number.

  9. Phase Diagrams of Nuclear Pasta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Matthew; Horowitz, Chuck; Berry, Don; da Silva Schneider, Andre

    2016-03-01

    In the inner crust of neutrons stars, where matter is near the saturation density, protons and neutrons arrange themselves into complex structures called nuclear pasta. Early theoretical work predicted a simple graduated hierarchy of pasta phases, consisting of spheres, cylinders, slabs, and uniform matter with voids. Previous work has simulated these phases with a simple classical model and has shown that the formation of these structures is dependent on the temperature, density, and proton fraction. However, previous work only studied a limited range of these parameters due to computational limitations. Thanks to recent advances in computing it is now possible to survey the structure of nuclear pasta for a larger range of parameters. By simulating nuclear pasta with constant temperature and proton fraction in an expanding simulation volume we are able to study the phase transitions in nuclear pasta, and thus produce a set of phase diagrams. We report on these phase diagrams as well as newly identified phases of nuclear pasta and discuss their implications for neutron star observables.

  10. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion

    PubMed Central

    Kirshner, Robert P.

    2004-01-01

    Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168–173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velocities come chiefly from Vesto Melvin Slipher, and the interpretation in terms of the de Sitter effect is out of the mainstream of modern cosmology, this article opened the way to investigation of the expanding, evolving, and accelerating universe that engages today's burgeoning field of cosmology. PMID:14695886

  12. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, M.; Yoo, C. S.

    2014-05-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood -resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 17 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400 °C.

  13. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  14. The neptunium-iron phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. K.; Haire, R. G.; Beahm, E. C.; Gensini, M. M.; Maeda, A.; Ogawa, T.

    1994-08-01

    The phase relations in the Np-Fe alloy system have been elucidated using differential thermal analysis. A phase diagram for this system is postulated based upon the experimental results, regular-solution model calculations, and an expected correspondence to the U-Fe and Pu-Fe diagrams. The postulated Np-Fe diagram is characterized by limited terminal solid solubilities, two intermetallic solid phases, NpFe 2 and Np 6Fe, and two eutectics.

  15. Accident mortality among children

    PubMed Central

    Swaroop, S.; Albrecht, R. M.; Grab, B.

    1956-01-01

    The authors present statistics on mortality from accidents, with special reference to those relating to the age-group 1-19 years. For a number of countries figures are given for the proportional mortality from accidents (the number of accident deaths expressed as a percentage of the number of deaths from all causes) and for the specific death-rates, per 100 000 population, from all causes of death, from selected causes, from all causes of accidents, and from various types of accident. From these figures it appears that, in most countries, accidents are becoming relatively increasingly prominent as a cause of death in childhood, primarily because of the conquest of other causes of death—such as infectious and parasitic diseases, which formerly took a heavy toll of children and adolescents—but also to some extent because the death-rate from motor-vehicle accidents is rising and cancelling out the reduction in the rate for other causes of accidental death. In the authors' opinion, further epidemiological investigations into accident causation are required for the purpose of devising quicker and more effective methods of accident prevention. PMID:13383361

  16. Traffic dynamics around weaving section influenced by accident: Cellular automata approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lin-Peng; Li, Xin-Gang; Lam, William H. K.

    2015-07-01

    The weaving section, as a typical bottleneck, is one source of vehicle conflicts and an accident-prone area. Traffic accident will block lanes and the road capacity will be reduced. Several models have been established to study the dynamics around traffic bottlenecks. However, little attention has been paid to study the complex traffic dynamics influenced by the combined effects of bottleneck and accident. This paper presents a cellular automaton model to characterize accident-induced traffic behavior around the weaving section. Some effective control measures are proposed and verified for traffic management under accident condition. The total flux as a function of inflow rates, the phase diagrams, the spatial-temporal diagrams, and the density and velocity profiles are presented to analyze the impact of accident. It was shown that the proposed control measures for weaving traffic can improve the capacity of weaving section under both normal and accident conditions; the accidents occurring on median lane in the weaving section are more inclined to cause traffic jam and reduce road capacity; the capacity of weaving section will be greatly reduced when the accident happens downstream the weaving section.

  17. Ion potential diagrams for electrochromic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Varsano, F. |; Cahen, D.; Decker, F.; Guillemoles, J.F. |; Masetti, E.

    1998-12-01

    Ion potential diagrams can facilitate the description of systems in which ionic species are mobile. They depict qualitatively the spatial dependence of the potential energy for mobile ions, somewhat akin to band diagrams for electrons. The authors construct ion potential diagrams for the mixed conducting (oxide), optically active electrodes of five-layer electrochromic devices, based on reversible Li{sup +} intercalation. These serve to analyze stability problems that arise in these systems. The authors then use them as building blocks to arrive at ion diagrams for complete devices. This allows analyses of (dis)coloration kinetics.

  18. Airline accident response.

    PubMed

    Bettes, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This article outlines government regulations affecting accident response and offers guidelines for airline contingency plans in the face of major air disasters, such as those encountered on September 11, 2001. The author also touches upon the role of the corporate medical department in accident investigation and victim identification. PMID:11872433

  19. Civil aircraft accident investigation.

    PubMed

    Haines, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309

  20. Anatomy of an Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobley, Michael

    1984-01-01

    The findings of industrial safety engineers in the areas of accident causation and prevention are wholly applicable to adventure programs. Adventure education instructors can use safety engineering concepts to assess the risk in a particular activity, understand factors that cause accidents, and intervene to minimize injuries and damages if…

  1. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-12-07

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO–AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV{sup ′} transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  2. Phase Diagram of Ammonium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-06-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often been subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood - resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety, in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN, in different chemical environments, at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 15 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 673 K. The present study has been supported by the U.S. DHS under Award Number 2008-ST-061-ED0001.

  3. Reading fitness landscape diagrams through HSAB concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneresse, Jean-Louis

    2014-10-01

    Fitness landscapes are conceived as range of mountains, with local peaks and valleys. In terms of potential, such topographic variations indicate places of local instability or stability. The chemical potential, or electronegativity, its value changed of sign, carries similar information. In addition to chemical descriptors defined through hard-soft acid-base (HSAB) concepts and computed through density functional theory (DFT), the principles that rule chemical reactions allow the design of such landscape diagrams. The simplest diagram uses electrophilicity and hardness as coordinates. It allows examining the influence of maximum hardness or minimum electrophilicity principles. A third dimension is introduced within such a diagram by mapping the topography of electronegativity, polarizability or charge exchange. Introducing charge exchange during chemical reactions, or mapping a third parameter (f.i. polarizability) reinforces the information carried by a simple binary diagram. Examples of such diagrams are provided, using data from Earth Sciences, simple oxides or ligands.

  4. Faceting diagram for sticky steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akutsu, Noriko

    2016-03-01

    Faceting diagrams for the step-faceting zone, the step droplet zone, and the Gruber-Mullins-Pokrovsky-Talapov (GMPT) zone for a crystal surface are obtained by using the density matrix renormalization group method to calculate the surface tension. The model based on these calculations is the restricted solid-on-solid (RSOS) model with a point-contact-type step-step attraction (p-RSOS model) on a square lattice. The point-contact-type step-step attraction represents the energy gain obtained by forming a bonding state with orbital overlap at the meeting point of the neighboring steps. In the step-faceting zone, disconnectedness in the surface tension leads to the formation of a faceted macrostep on a vicinal surface at equilibrium. The disconnectedness in the surface tension also causes the first-order shape transition for the equilibrium shape of a crystal droplet. The lower zone boundary line (ZBL), which separates the step-faceting zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition γ 1 = lim n → ∞ γ n / n , where γn is the step tension of the n-th merged step. The upper ZBL, which separates the GMPT zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition Aq,eff = 0 and Bq,eff = 0, where Aq,eff and Bq,eff represent the coefficients for the | q → | 2 term and the | q → | 3 term, respectively, in the | q → | -expanded form of the surface free energy f eff ( q → ) . Here, q → is the surface gradient relative to the (111) surface. The reason why the vicinal surface inclined in the <101> direction does not exhibit step-faceting is explained in terms of the one-dimensional spinless quasi-impenetrable attractive bosons at absolute zero.

  5. Persistence of airline accidents.

    PubMed

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. PMID:20618386

  6. Sleep related vehicle accidents.

    PubMed Central

    Horne, J. A.; Reyner, L. A.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess the incidence, time of day, and driver morbidity associated with vehicle accidents where the most likely cause was the driver falling asleep at the wheel. DESIGN--Two surveys were undertaken, in southwest England and the midlands, by using police databases or on the spot interviews. SUBJECTS--Drivers involved in 679 sleep related vehicle accidents. RESULTS--Of all vehicle accidents to which the police were summoned, sleep related vehicle accidents comprised 16% on major roads in southwest England, and over 20% on midland motorways. During the 24 hour period there were three major peaks: at around 0200, 0600, and 1600. About half these drivers were men under 30 years; few such accidents involved women. CONCLUSIONS--Sleep related vehicle accidents are largely dependent on the time of day and account for a considerable proportion of vehicle accidents, especially those on motorways and other monotonous roads. As there are no norms for the United Kingdom on road use by age and sex for time of day with which to compare these data, we cannot determine what the hourly exposure v risk factors are for these subgroups. The findings are in close agreement with those from other countries. PMID:7888930

  7. Algorithmic Identification for Wings in Butterfly Diagrams.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illarionov, E. A.; Sokolov, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate to what extent the wings of solar butterfly diagrams can be separated without an explicit usage of Hale's polarity law as well as the location of the solar equator. Two algorithms of cluster analysis, namely DBSCAN and C-means, have demonstrated their ability to separate the wings of contemporary butterfly diagrams based on the sunspot group density in the diagram only. Here we generalize the method for continuous tracers, give results concerning the migration velocities and presented clusters for 12 - 20 cycles.

  8. A Hubble Diagram for Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risaliti, G.; Lusso, E.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new method to test the ΛCDM cosmological model and to estimate cosmological parameters based on the nonlinear relation between the ultraviolet and X-ray luminosities of quasars. We built a data set of 1138 quasars by merging several samples from the literature with X-ray measurements at 2 keV and SDSS photometry, which was used to estimate the extinction-corrected 2500 Å flux. We obtained three main results: (1) we checked the nonlinear relation between X-ray and UV luminosities in small redshift bins up to z˜ 6, confirming that the relation holds at all redshifts with the same slope; (2) we built a Hubble diagram for quasars up to z˜ 6, which is well matched to that of supernovae in the common z = 0-1.4 redshift interval and extends the test of the cosmological model up to z˜ 6; and (3) we showed that this nonlinear relation is a powerful tool for estimating cosmological parameters. Using the present data and assuming a ΛCDM model, we obtain {{{Ω }}}M = 0.22{}-0.08+0.10 and {{{Ω }}}{{Λ }} = 0.92{}-0.30+0.18 ({{{Ω }}}M = 0.28 ± 0.04 and {{{Ω }}}{{Λ }} = 0.73 +/- 0.08 from a joint quasar-SNe fit). Much more precise measurements will be achieved with future surveys. A few thousand SDSS quasars already have serendipitous X-ray observations from Chandra or XMM-Newton, and at least 100,000 quasars with UV and X-ray data will be made available by the extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array all-sky survey in a few years. The Euclid, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, and Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics surveys will further increase the sample size to at least several hundred thousand. Our simulations show that these samples will provide tight constraints on the cosmological parameters and will allow us to test for possible deviations from the standard model with higher precision than is possible today.

  9. Safety Is No Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Monty L.

    1985-01-01

    Liability suits involving accidents in park and recreation areas are expensive and intangible costs are incalculable. Risk management practices related to park planning, personnel, and administrative practices are discussed. (MT)

  10. Accident resistant transport container

    DOEpatents

    Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  11. Accident resistant transport container

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  12. FATAL ACCIDENT REPORTING SYSTEM (FARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) database consist of three relational tables, containing data on automobile accidents on public U.S. roads that resulted in the death of one or more people within 30 days of the accident. Truck and trailer accidents are also included.

  13. Accident management information needs

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R. )

    1990-04-01

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. A Smart Thermal Block Diagram Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn; Miyake, Robert; Dodge, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    The presentation describes a Smart Thermal Block Diagram Tool. It is used by JPL's Team X in studying missions during the Pre-Phase A. It helps generate cost and mass estimates using proprietary data bases.

  15. The Art of Free-Body Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puri, Avinash

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of drawing free-body diagrams which only show forces exerted on a body from its neighbors. Presents three ways a body may be modeled: a particle, rigid extended, and nonrigid extended. (MKR)

  16. Phase diagram for passive electromagnetic scatterers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeng Yi; Lee, Ray-Kuang

    2016-03-21

    With the conservation of power, a phase diagram defined by amplitude square and phase of scattering coefficients for each spherical harmonic channel is introduced as a universal map for any passive electromagnetic scatterers. Physically allowable solutions for scattering coefficients in this diagram clearly show power competitions among scattering and absorption. It also illustrates a variety of exotic scattering or absorption phenomena, from resonant scattering, invisible cloaking, to coherent perfect absorber. With electrically small core-shell scatterers as an example, we demonstrate a systematic method to design field-controllable structures based on the allowed trajectories in this diagram. The proposed phase diagram and inverse design can provide tools to design functional electromagnetic devices. PMID:27136839

  17. An Improved Mnemonic Diagram for Thermodynamic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Joaquin; Brainard, Alan J.

    1989-01-01

    Considers pressure, volume, entropy, temperature, Helmholtz free energy, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and internal energy. Suggests the mnemonic diagram is for use with simple systems that are defined as macroscopically homogeneous, isotropic, uncharged, and chemically inert. (MVL)

  18. Elementary diagrams in nuclear and neutron matter

    SciTech Connect

    Wiringa, R.B.

    1995-08-01

    Variational calculations of nuclear and neutron matter are currently performed using a diagrammatic cluster expansion with the aid of nonlinear integral equations for evaluating expectation values. These are the Fermi hypernetted chain (FHNC) and single-operator chain (SOC) equations, which are a way of doing partial diagram summations to infinite order. A more complete summation can be made by adding elementary diagrams to the procedure. The simplest elementary diagrams appear at the four-body cluster level; there is one such E{sub 4} diagram in Bose systems, but 35 diagrams in Fermi systems, which gives a level of approximation called FHNC/4. We developed a novel technique for evaluating these diagrams, by computing and storing 6 three-point functions, S{sub xyz}(r{sub 12}, r{sub 13}, r{sub 23}), where xyz (= ccd, cce, ddd, dde, dee, or eee) denotes the exchange character at the vertices 1, 2, and 3. All 35 Fermi E{sub 4} diagrams can be constructed from these 6 functions and other two-point functions that are already calculated. The elementary diagrams are known to be important in some systems like liquid {sup 3}He. We expect them to be small in nuclear matter at normal density, but they might become significant at higher densities appropriate for neutron star calculations. This year we programmed the FHNC/4 contributions to the energy and tested them in a number of simple model cases, including liquid {sup 3}He and Bethe`s homework problem. We get reasonable, but not exact agreement with earlier published work. In nuclear and neutron matter with the Argonne v{sub 14} interaction these contributions are indeed small corrections at normal density and grow to only 5-10 MeV/nucleon at 5 times normal density.

  19. Lattice and Phase Diagram in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, Maria Paola

    2008-10-13

    Model calculations have produced a number of very interesting expectations for the QCD Phase Diagram, and the task of a lattice calculations is to put these studies on a quantitative grounds. I will give an overview of the current status of the lattice analysis of the QCD phase diagram, from the quantitative results of mature calculations at zero and small baryochemical potential, to the exploratory studies of the colder, denser phase.

  20. Reliability computation from reliability block diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelson, P. O.; Eckstein, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    A method and a computer program are presented to calculate probability of system success from an arbitrary reliability block diagram. The class of reliability block diagrams that can be handled include any active/standby combination of redundancy, and the computations include the effects of dormancy and switching in any standby redundancy. The mechanics of the program are based on an extension of the probability tree method of computing system probabilities.

  1. Fluctuations and the QCD phase diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, B.-J.

    2012-06-15

    In this contribution the role of quantum fluctuations for the QCD phase diagram is discussed. This concerns in particular the importance of the matter back-reaction to the gluonic sector. The impact of these fluctuations on the location of the confinement/deconfinement and the chiral transition lines as well as their interrelation are investigated. Consequences of our findings for the size of a possible quarkyonic phase and location of a critical endpoint in the phase diagram are drawn.

  2. A universal structured-design diagramer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Program (FLOWCHARTER) generates standardized flowcharts and concordances for development and debugging of programs in any language. User describes programming-language grammar, providing syntax rules in Backus-Naur form (BNF), list of semantic rules, and set of concordance rules. Once grammar is described, user supplies only source code of program to be diagrammed. FLOWCHARTER automatically produces flow diagram and concordance. Source code for program is written for PASCAL Release 2 compiler, as distributed by University of Minnesota.

  3. ISS EPS Orbital Replacement Unit Block Diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Gregory V.

    2001-01-01

    The attached documents are being provided to Switching Power Magazine for information purposes. This magazine is writing a feature article on the International Space Station Electrical Power System, focusing on the switching power processors. These units include the DC-DC Converter Unit (DDCU), the Bi-directional Charge/Discharge Unit (BCDU), and the Sequential Shunt Unit (SSU). These diagrams are high-level schematics/block diagrams depicting the overall functionality of each unit.

  4. Class diagram based evaluation of software performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Huong V.; Nguyen, Binh N.

    2013-03-01

    The evaluation of software performance in the early stages of the software life cycle is important and it has been widely studied. In the software model specification, class diagram is the important object-oriented software specification model. The measures based on a class diagram have been widely studied to evaluate quality of software such as complexity, maintainability, reuse capability, etc. However the software performance evaluation based on Class model has not been widely studied, especially for object-oriented design of embedded software. Therefore, in this paper we propose a new approach to directly evaluate the software performance based on class diagrams. From a class diagram, we determine the parameters which are used to evaluate and build formula of the measures such as Size of Class Variables, Size of Class Methods, Size of Instance Variables, Size of Instance Methods, etc. Then, we do analysis of the dependence of performance on these measures and build the performance evaluation function from class diagram. Thereby we can choose the best class diagram based on this evaluation function.

  5. Pressure-enthalpy diagrams for alternative refrigerants

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Kruse, H.

    1996-10-01

    Thermodynamic diagrams, particularly log(p)-h diagrams, have become very convenient tools for refrigeration and air-conditioning industries. To promote alternative refrigerants-related development and application, it is urgently required to provide the industries with reliable engineering diagrams for the most promising candidate refrigerants. A computer program has been developed for automatically producing log(p)-h diagrams for alternative refrigerants. The Lee Kesler Ploecker (LKP) equation of state has been used to calculate thermodynamic data. Some modifications have been made to the LKP to improve the calculation convergency. In this paper three sample diagrams for R134a, a binary R410A and a ternary R407B which have been enclosed and analyzed. To investigate the LKP calculation accuracy details, an extensive deviation analysis has been made for R134a. For mixed refrigerants, good calculation accuracy was achieved by optimizing the binary interactive parameters. The system can produce log(p)-h diagrams with reliable accuracy, high quality, and flexibility to meet any size and color requirements.

  6. [Psychogenesis of accidents].

    PubMed

    Giannattasio, E; Nencini, R; Nicolosi, N

    1988-01-01

    After having carried out a historical review of industrial psychology with specific attention to the evolution of the concept of causality in accidents, the Authors formulate their work hypothesis from that research which take into highest consideration the executives' attitudes in the genesis of the accidents. As dogmatism appears to be one of the most negative of executives' attitudes, the Authors administered Rockeach's Scale to 130 intermediate executives from 6 industries in Latium and observed the frequency index for accidents and the morbidity index (absenteeism) of the 2149 workhand. The Authors assumed that to high degree of dogmatism on the executives' side should correspond o a higher level of accidents and absenteeism among the staff. The data processing revealed that, due to the type of machinery employed, three of the industries examined should be considered as High Risk Industrie (HRI), while the remaining three could be considered as Low Risk Industries (LRI): in fact, due to the different working conditions, a significant lower number of accidents occurred in last the three. A statistically significant correlation between the executives' dogmatism and the number of accidents among their workhand in the HRI has been noticed, while this has not been observed in the LRI. This confirms, as had already been pointed out by Gemelli in 1944, that some "objective conditions" are requested so that the accident may actually take place. On the other hand the morbidity index has not shown any difference related to the different kind of industries (HRI, LRI): in both cases statistically significant correlations were obtained between the executives' dogmatism and the staff's absenteeism. absenteeism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3154344

  7. Injuries are not accidents

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Injuries are the result of an acute exposure to exhort of energy or a consequence of a deficiency in a vital element that exceeds physiological thresholds resulting threatens life. They are classified as intentional or unintentional. Injuries are considered a global health issue because they cause more than 5 million deaths per year worldwide and they are an important contributor to the burden of disease, especially affecting people of low socioeconomic status in low- and middle-income countries. A common misconception exists where injuries are thought to be the same as accidents; however, accidents are largely used as chance events, without taken in consideration that all these are preventable. This review discusses injuries and accidents in the context of road traffic and emphasizes injuries as preventable events. An understanding of the essence of injuries enables the standardization of terminology in public use and facilitates the development of a culture of prevention among all of us. PMID:25386040

  8. Accidents in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Keddy, J. Arthur

    1964-01-01

    The causes of injury to 17,141 children brought to the emergency department of a large pediatric hospital in one year were studied. The leading causes of injury were: falls, 5682; cuts or piercings, 1902; poisonings, 1597; and transportation accidents, 1368. Included in these are 587 falls on or down stairs, 401 cuts due to glass, 630 poisonings from household or workshop substances, 510 poisonings from salicylate tablets, and 449 accidents involving bicycles or tricycles. Other findings included 333 injuries to fingers or hands in doors, usually car doors; 122 instances of pulled arms; 384 ingestions and 53 inhalations of foreign bodies; 60 alleged sexual assaults, 58 chemical burns, 127 wringer injuries, and four attempted suicides. A rewarding opportunity in accident prevention exists for hospitals that undertake to compile and distribute pertinent source data. PMID:14201260

  9. Non-planar on-shell diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Sebastián; Galloni, Daniele; Penante, Brenda; Wen, Congkao

    2015-06-01

    We initiate a systematic study of non-planar on-shell diagrams in SYM and develop powerful technology for doing so. We introduce canonical variables generalizing face variables, which make the d log form of the on-shell form explicit. We make significant progress towards a general classification of arbitrary on-shell diagrams by means of two classes of combinatorial objects: generalized matching and matroid polytopes. We propose a boundary measurement that connects general on-shell diagrams to the Grassmannian. Our proposal exhibits two important and non-trivial properties: positivity in the planar case and it matches the combinatorial description of the diagrams in terms of generalized matroid polytopes. Interestingly, non-planar diagrams exhibit novel phenomena, such as the emergence of constraints on Plücker coordinates beyond Plücker relations when deleting edges, which are neatly captured by the generalized matching and matroid polytopes. This behavior is tied to the existence of a new type of poles in the on-shell form at which combinations of Plücker coordinates vanish. Finally, we introduce a prescription, applicable beyond the MHV case, for writing the on-shell form as a function of minors directly from the graph.

  10. The Fukushima radiation accident: consequences for radiation accident medical management.

    PubMed

    Meineke, Viktor; Dörr, Harald

    2012-08-01

    The March 2011 radiation accident in Fukushima, Japan, is a textbook example of a radiation accident of global significance. In view of the global dimensions of the accident, it is important to consider the lessons learned. In this context, emphasis must be placed on consequences for planning appropriate medical management for radiation accidents including, for example, estimates of necessary human and material resources. The specific characteristics of the radiation accident in Fukushima are thematically divided into five groups: the exceptional environmental influences on the Fukushima radiation accident, particular circumstances of the accident, differences in risk perception, changed psychosocial factors in the age of the Internet and globalization, and the ignorance of the effects of ionizing radiation both among the general public and health care professionals. Conclusions like the need for reviewing international communication, interfacing, and interface definitions will be drawn from the Fukushima radiation accident. PMID:22951483

  11. Students' Understanding of Diagrams for Solving Word Problems: A Framework for Assessing Diagram Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poch, Apryl L.; van Garderen, Delinda; Scheuermann, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    A visual representation, such as a diagram, can be a powerful strategy for solving mathematical word problems. However, using a representation to solve mathematical word problems is not as simple as it seems! Many students with learning disabilities struggle to use a diagram effectively and efficiently. This article provides a framework for…

  12. The Semiotic Structure of Geometry Diagrams: How Textbook Diagrams Convey Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmel, Justin K.; Herbst, Patricio G.

    2015-01-01

    Geometry diagrams use the visual features of specific drawn objects to convey meaning about generic mathematical entities. We examine the semiotic structure of these visual features in two parts. One, we conduct a semiotic inquiry to conceptualize geometry diagrams as mathematical texts that comprise choices from different semiotic systems. Two,…

  13. Mort User's Manual: For use with the Management Oversight and Risk Tree analytical logic diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, N.W.; Eicher, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains the User's Manual for MORT (Management Oversight and Risk Tree), a logic diagram in the form of a work sheet'' that illustrates a long series of interrelated questions. MORT is a comprehensive analytical procedure that provides a disciplined method for determining the causes and contributing factors of major accidents. Alternatively, it serves as a tool to evaluate the quality of an existing system. While similar in many respects to fault tree analysis, MORT is more generalized and presents over 1500 specific elements of an ideal universal'' management program for optimizing environment, safety and health, and other programs. This User's Manual is intended to be used with the MORT diagram dated February 1992.

  14. The Use of Computational Diagrams and Nomograms in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandenburg, Richard K.; Simpson, William A.

    1984-01-01

    The use of computational diagrams and nomographs for the calculations that frequently occur in college administration is examined. Steps in constructing a nomograph and a four-dimensional computational diagram are detailed, and uses of three- and four-dimensional diagrams are covered. Diagrams and nomographs are useful in the following cases: (1)…

  15. 49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false System diagram map. 1152.10 Section 1152.10... TRANSPORTATION UNDER 49 U.S.C. 10903 System Diagram § 1152.10 System diagram map. (a) Each carrier shall prepare a diagram of its rail system on a map, designating all lines in its system by the...

  16. Fishbone Diagrams: Organize Reading Content with a "Bare Bones" Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    Fishbone diagrams, also known as Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams, are one of the many problem-solving tools created by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a University of Tokyo professor. Part of the brilliance of Ishikawa's idea resides in the simplicity and practicality of the diagram's basic model--a fish's skeleton. This article describes how…

  17. 49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System diagram map. 1152.10 Section 1152.10... TRANSPORTATION UNDER 49 U.S.C. 10903 System Diagram § 1152.10 System diagram map. (a) Each carrier shall prepare a diagram of its rail system on a map, designating all lines in its system by the...

  18. 49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false System diagram map. 1152.10 Section 1152.10... TRANSPORTATION UNDER 49 U.S.C. 10903 System Diagram § 1152.10 System diagram map. (a) Each carrier shall prepare a diagram of its rail system on a map, designating all lines in its system by the...

  19. 49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false System diagram map. 1152.10 Section 1152.10... TRANSPORTATION UNDER 49 U.S.C. 10903 System Diagram § 1152.10 System diagram map. (a) Each carrier shall prepare a diagram of its rail system on a map, designating all lines in its system by the...

  20. 49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false System diagram map. 1152.10 Section 1152.10... TRANSPORTATION UNDER 49 U.S.C. 10903 System Diagram § 1152.10 System diagram map. (a) Each carrier shall prepare a diagram of its rail system on a map, designating all lines in its system by the...

  1. Computationally useful bridge diagram series. II. Diagrams in h-bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkyns, John S.; Dyer, Kippi M.; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2002-06-01

    Equations for calculating accurate 4-point and 5-point bridge diagrams in terms of h-bonds have been presented and solved for various phase points of the Lennard-Jones fluid. A method of finding a self-consistent solution for the bridge function and the radial distribution function is demonstrated. The significance of this result over bridge diagrams expressed as f-bonds, in terms of its applicability to charged and dipolar models is discussed. Two very simple phenomenological bridge diagram forms for the bridge function for this model are examined and found to give results almost as accurate and in some cases more accurate than previous forms in the literature. This work represents the first use of directly calculated 5-point bridge diagrams in terms of h-bonds, and the many extra orders of f-bond diagrams which they include, in an integral equation result.

  2. Computationally Useful Bridge Diagram Series. II. Diagrams in H-Bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Perkyns, John S.; Dyer, Kippi M.; Pettitt, Bernard M.

    2002-06-01

    Equations for calculating accurate 4-point and 5-point bridge diagrams in terms of h-bonds have been presented and solved for various phase points of the Lennard-Jones fluid. A method of finding a self-consistent solution for the bridge function and the radial distribution function is demonstrated. The significance of this result over bridge diagrams expressed as f-bonds, in terms of its applicability to charged and dipolar models is discussed. Two very simple phenomenological bridge diagram forms for the bridge function for this model are examined and found to give results almost as accurate and in some cases more accurate than previous forms in the literature. This work represents the first use of directly calculated 5-point bridge diagrams in terms of h-bonds, and the many extra orders of f-bond diagrams which they include, in an integral equation result.

  3. A new method for diagramming pacemaker electrocardiograms.

    PubMed

    Hesselson, A B; Parsonnet, V

    1994-08-01

    Advancements in technology have made paced ECG interpretation increasingly difficult. A new method for depicting the complex pacemaker/heart interactions that eliminates the extensive use of symbols and repetitious use of refractory period and rate limit information of previous methods has been devised. The method uses a framework of parallel horizontal lines drawn on grid paper underneath the ECG. The lines are spaced apart by the actual programmed values (lower rate, AV, VA intervals) of the pacemaker in question. This framework allows the simultaneous use of the horizontal and vertical directions for the diagram of pacemaker timing intervals. Also, a single representation of refractory periods, upper rate intervals, and other variables can be labeled vertically and extrapolated horizontally across the entire diagram. Single chamber, dual chamber, and rate-modulated ECGs are readily represented. The diagram is easily plotted on standard ECG paper and flexible enough to represent complex ECGs. PMID:7526348

  4. The renormalon diagram in gauge theories on

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anber, Mohamed M.; Sulejmanpasic, Tin

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the renormalon diagram of gauge theories on . In particular, we perform exact one loop calculations for the vacuum polarization in QCD with adjoint matter and observe that all infrared logarithms, as functions of the external momentum, cancel between the vacuum part and finite volume part, which eliminates the IR renormalon problem. We argue that the singularities in the Borel plane, arising from the topological neutral bions, are not associated with the renormalon diagram, but with the proliferation of the Feynman diagrams. As a byproduct, we obtain, for the first time, an exact one-loop result of the vacuum polarization which can be adapted to the case of thermal compactification of QCD.

  5. The Butterfly diagram leopard skin pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternullo, Maurizio

    2011-08-01

    A time-latitude diagram where spotgroups are given proportional relevance to their area is presented. The diagram reveals that the spotted area distribution is higly dishomogeneous, most of it being concentrated in few, small portions (``knots'') of the Butterfly Diagram; because of this structure, the BD may be properly described as a cluster of knots. The description, assuming that spots scatter around the ``spot mean latitude'' steadily drifting equatorward, is challenged. Indeed, spots cluster around at as many latitudes as knots; a knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones, in a seemingly random way; accordingly, the spot mean latitude abruptly drifts equatorward or even poleward at any knot activation, in spite of any smoothing procedure. Preliminary analyses suggest that the activity splits, in any hemisphere, into two or more distinct ``activity waves'', drifting equatorward at a rate higher than the spot zone as a whole.

  6. Phase diagram of a truncated tetrahedral model.

    PubMed

    Krcmar, Roman; Gendiar, Andrej; Nishino, Tomotoshi

    2016-08-01

    Phase diagram of a discrete counterpart of the classical Heisenberg model, the truncated tetrahedral model, is analyzed on the square lattice, when the interaction is ferromagnetic. Each spin is represented by a unit vector that can point to one of the 12 vertices of the truncated tetrahedron, which is a continuous interpolation between the tetrahedron and the octahedron. Phase diagram of the model is determined by means of the statistical analog of the entanglement entropy, which is numerically calculated by the corner transfer matrix renormalization group method. The obtained phase diagram consists of four different phases, which are separated by five transition lines. In the parameter region, where the octahedral anisotropy is dominant, a weak first-order phase transition is observed. PMID:27627273

  7. A pseudo-haptic knot diagram interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Weng, Jianguang; Hanson, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    To make progress in understanding knot theory, we will need to interact with the projected representations of mathematical knots which are of course continuous in 3D but significantly interrupted in the projective images. One way to achieve such a goal would be to design an interactive system that allows us to sketch 2D knot diagrams by taking advantage of a collision-sensing controller and explore their underlying smooth structures through a continuous motion. Recent advances of interaction techniques have been made that allow progress to be made in this direction. Pseudo-haptics that simulates haptic effects using pure visual feedback can be used to develop such an interactive system. This paper outlines one such pseudo-haptic knot diagram interface. Our interface derives from the familiar pencil-and-paper process of drawing 2D knot diagrams and provides haptic-like sensations to facilitate the creation and exploration of knot diagrams. A centerpiece of the interaction model simulates a "physically" reactive mouse cursor, which is exploited to resolve the apparent conflict between the continuous structure of the actual smooth knot and the visual discontinuities in the knot diagram representation. Another value in exploiting pseudo-haptics is that an acceleration (or deceleration) of the mouse cursor (or surface locator) can be used to indicate the slope of the curve (or surface) of whom the projective image is being explored. By exploiting these additional visual cues, we proceed to a full-featured extension to a pseudo-haptic 4D visualization system that simulates the continuous navigation on 4D objects and allows us to sense the bumps and holes in the fourth dimension. Preliminary tests of the software show that main features of the interface overcome some expected perceptual limitations in our interaction with 2D knot diagrams of 3D knots and 3D projective images of 4D mathematical objects.

  8. Minkowski diagram in relativity and holography.

    PubMed

    Abramson, N

    1988-05-01

    Now that ultrashort laser pulses can be used in holography, the temporal and spatial resolution approach the same order of magnitude. In that case the limited speed of light sometimes causes large measuring errors if correction methods are not introduced. Therefore, we want to revive the Minkowski diagram, which was invented in 1908 to visualize relativistic relations between time and space. We show how this diagram in a modified form can be used to derive both the static holodiagram, used for conventional holography, including ultrahigh-speed recordings of wavefronts, and a dynamic holodiagram used for studying the apparent distortions of objects recorded at relativistic speeds. PMID:20531662

  9. B-Fe-U Phase Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Marta; Carvalho, Patrícia Almeida; Mardolcar, Umesh Vinaica; Tougait, Olivier; Noël, Henri; Gonçalves, António Pereira

    2014-04-01

    The liquidus projection of the U-rich corner of the B-Fe-U phase diagram is proposed based on X-ray powder diffraction measurements, differential thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy observations complemented with energy- and wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopies. Two ternary reactions in this U-rich region were observed and their approximate temperatures were established. In addition, an overview of the complete phase diagram is given, including the liquidus projection; isothermal sections at 1053 K, 1223 K, and 1373 K (780 °C, 950 °C, and 1100 °C); and a U:(Fe,B) = 1:5 isopleth.

  10. Physics in Accident Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brake, Mary L.

    1981-01-01

    Describes physics formulas which can be used by law enforcement officials to determine the possible velocity of vehicles involved in traffic accidents. These include, among others, the slide to stop-level road, slide to stop-sloping roadway, and slide to stop-two different surfaces formulas. (JN)

  11. NFHS Court and Field Diagram Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, John, Ed.

    This guide contains a comprehensive collection of diagrams and specifications of playing fields and courts used in interscholastic and recreational sports, along with information on how to set up various formats of tournament drawings, how to compute golf handicaps, and how to convert metric-to-English distances. Lists are provided of national…

  12. Journeys on the H-R diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Kaler, J.B.

    1988-05-01

    The evolution of various types of stars along the H-R diagram is discussed. Star birth and youth is addressed, and the events that occur due to core contraction, shell burning, and double-shell burning are described. The evolutionary courses of planetary nebulae, white dwarfs, and supernovas are examined.

  13. On phase diagrams of magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Cassak, P. A.; Drake, J. F.

    2013-06-15

    Recently, “phase diagrams” of magnetic reconnection were developed to graphically organize the present knowledge of what type, or phase, of reconnection is dominant in systems with given characteristic plasma parameters. Here, a number of considerations that require caution in using the diagrams are pointed out. First, two known properties of reconnection are omitted from the diagrams: the history dependence of reconnection and the absence of reconnection for small Lundquist number. Second, the phase diagrams mask a number of features. For one, the predicted transition to Hall reconnection should be thought of as an upper bound on the Lundquist number, and it may happen for considerably smaller values. Second, reconnection is never “slow,” it is always “fast” in the sense that the normalized reconnection rate is always at least 0.01. This has important implications for reconnection onset models. Finally, the definition of the relevant Lundquist number is nuanced and may differ greatly from the value based on characteristic scales. These considerations are important for applications of the phase diagrams. This is demonstrated by example for solar flares, where it is argued that it is unlikely that collisional reconnection can occur in the corona.

  14. Fog Machines, Vapors, and Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitz, Ed

    2008-01-01

    A series of demonstrations is described that elucidate the operation of commercial fog machines by using common laboratory equipment and supplies. The formation of fogs, or "mixing clouds", is discussed in terms of the phase diagram for water and other chemical principles. The demonstrations can be adapted for presentation suitable for elementary…

  15. Spin wave Feynman diagram vertex computation package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Alexander; Javernick, Philip; Datta, Trinanjan

    Spin wave theory is a well-established theoretical technique that can correctly predict the physical behavior of ordered magnetic states. However, computing the effects of an interacting spin wave theory incorporating magnons involve a laborious by hand derivation of Feynman diagram vertices. The process is tedious and time consuming. Hence, to improve productivity and have another means to check the analytical calculations, we have devised a Feynman Diagram Vertex Computation package. In this talk, we will describe our research group's effort to implement a Mathematica based symbolic Feynman diagram vertex computation package that computes spin wave vertices. Utilizing the non-commutative algebra package NCAlgebra as an add-on to Mathematica, symbolic expressions for the Feynman diagram vertices of a Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet are obtained. Our existing code reproduces the well-known expressions of a nearest neighbor square lattice Heisenberg model. We also discuss the case of a triangular lattice Heisenberg model where non collinear terms contribute to the vertex interactions.

  16. Dynamic Tactile Diagram Simplification on Refreshable Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T. V.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of visual diagrams in educational and work environments, and even our daily lives, has created obstacles for individuals who are blind or visually impaired to "independently" access the information they represent. Although physical tactile pictures can be created to convey the visual information, it is typically a slow,…

  17. Computer-Generated Diagrams for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carle, Mark A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Describes 10 computer programs used to draw diagrams usually drawn on chalkboards, such as addition of three vectors, vector components, range of a projectile, lissajous figures, beats, isotherms, Snell's law, waves passing through a lens, magnetic field due to Helmholtz coils, and three curves. Several programming tips are included. (JN)

  18. The Binary Temperature-Composition Phase Diagram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Philip C.; Reeves, James H.; Messina, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The equations for the liquid and gas lines in the binary temperature-composition phase diagram are derived by approximating that delta(H)[subscript vap] of the two liquids are equal. It is shown that within this approximation, the resulting equations are not too difficult to present in an undergraduate physical chemistry lecture.

  19. Image Attributes: A Study of Scientific Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunskill, Jeff; Jorgensen, Corinne

    2002-01-01

    Discusses advancements in imaging technology and increased user access to digital images, as well as efforts to develop adequate indexing and retrieval methods for image databases. Describes preliminary results of a study of undergraduates that explored the attributes naive subjects use to describe scientific diagrams. (Author/LRW)

  20. Constructing Causal Diagrams to Learn Deliberation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterday, Matthew W.; Aleven, Vincent; Scheines, Richard; Carver, Sharon M.

    2009-01-01

    Policy problems like "What should we do about global warming?" are ill-defined in large part because we do not agree on a system to represent them the way we agree Algebra problems should be represented by equations. As a first step toward building a policy deliberation tutor, we investigated: (a) whether causal diagrams help students learn to…

  1. Fine structure of the butterfly diagram revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, Balázs

    The latitudinal time distribution of sunspots (butterfly diagram) was studied by Becker (1959) and Antalová & Gnevyshev (1985). Our goal is to revisit these studies. In the first case we check whether there is a poleward migration in sunspot activity. In the second case we confirm the results, and make more quantitative statements concerning their significance and the position of the activity peaks.

  2. Phase diagram of spiking neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Seyed-allaei, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    In computer simulations of spiking neural networks, often it is assumed that every two neurons of the network are connected by a probability of 2%, 20% of neurons are inhibitory and 80% are excitatory. These common values are based on experiments, observations, and trials and errors, but here, I take a different perspective, inspired by evolution, I systematically simulate many networks, each with a different set of parameters, and then I try to figure out what makes the common values desirable. I stimulate networks with pulses and then measure their: dynamic range, dominant frequency of population activities, total duration of activities, maximum rate of population and the occurrence time of maximum rate. The results are organized in phase diagram. This phase diagram gives an insight into the space of parameters – excitatory to inhibitory ratio, sparseness of connections and synaptic weights. This phase diagram can be used to decide the parameters of a model. The phase diagrams show that networks which are configured according to the common values, have a good dynamic range in response to an impulse and their dynamic range is robust in respect to synaptic weights, and for some synaptic weights they oscillates in α or β frequencies, independent of external stimuli. PMID:25788885

  3. Complexities of One-Component Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciccioli, Andrea; Glasser, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    For most materials, the solid at and near the triple-point temperature is denser than the liquid with which it is in equilibrium. However, for water and certain other materials, the densities of the phases are reversed, with the solid being less dense. The profound consequences for the appearance of the "pVT" diagram of one-component materials…

  4. Impersonal parameters from Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. E.; Hurley, Jarrod R.

    2003-10-01

    An objective process for estimation of star cluster parameters from Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagrams is introduced, with direct inclusion of multiple stars, a least-squares fitting criterion, and standard error estimates. No role is played by conventional isochrones. Instead the quantity compared between observation and theory is the density of points (areal ) as it varies over the diagram. With as the effective observable quantity, standard parameter adjustment theory can be brought to bear on HR diagram analysis. Here we use the method of differential corrections with a least-squares fitting criterion, but any of the many known fitting methods should be applicable to comparison of observed and theoretical distributions. Diverse numerical schemes were developed to make the overall algorithm workable, including two that improve differentiability of by rendering point distributions effectively equivalent to continuous distributions in certain respects. Statistics of distributions are handled not via Monte Carlo methods but by the Functional Statistics Algorithm (hereafter FSA), a statistical algorithm that has been developed for HR diagram fitting but should serve as an alternative to Monte Carlo in many other applications. FSA accomplishes the aims of Monte Carlo with orders of magnitude less computation. Analysis of luminosity functions is included within the HR diagram algorithm as a special case. Areal density analysis of HR diagrams is acceptably fast because we handle stellar evolution via approximation functions, whose output also is more precisely differentiable than that of a full stellar evolution program. Evolution by approximation functions is roughly a million times as fast as full evolution and has virtually no numerical noise. The algorithmic ideas that lead to objective solutions can be applied to many kinds of HR diagram analysis that are now done subjectively. The present solution program is limited by speed considerations to use of one evolution

  5. Students' different understandings of class diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boustedt, Jonas

    2012-03-01

    The software industry needs well-trained software designers and one important aspect of software design is the ability to model software designs visually and understand what visual models represent. However, previous research indicates that software design is a difficult task to many students. This article reports empirical findings from a phenomenographic investigation on how students understand class diagrams, Unified Modeling Language (UML) symbols, and relations to object-oriented (OO) concepts. The informants were 20 Computer Science students from four different universities in Sweden. The results show qualitatively different ways to understand and describe UML class diagrams and the "diamond symbols" representing aggregation and composition. The purpose of class diagrams was understood in a varied way, from describing it as a documentation to a more advanced view related to communication. The descriptions of class diagrams varied from seeing them as a specification of classes to a more advanced view, where they were described to show hierarchic structures of classes and relations. The diamond symbols were seen as "relations" and a more advanced way was seeing the white and the black diamonds as different symbols for aggregation and composition. As a consequence of the results, it is recommended that UML should be adopted in courses. It is briefly indicated how the phenomenographic results in combination with variation theory can be used by teachers to enhance students' possibilities to reach advanced understanding of phenomena related to UML class diagrams. Moreover, it is recommended that teachers should put more effort in assessing skills in proper usage of the basic symbols and models and students should be provided with opportunities to practise collaborative design, e.g. using whiteboards.

  6. Applying STAMP in Accident Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy; Daouk, Mirna; Dulac, Nicolas; Marais, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Accident models play a critical role in accident investigation and analysis. Most traditional models are based on an underlying chain of events. These models, however, have serious limitations when used for complex, socio-technical systems. Previously, Leveson proposed a new accident model (STAMP) based on system theory. In STAMP, the basic concept is not an event but a constraint. This paper shows how STAMP can be applied to accident analysis using three different views or models of the accident process and proposes a notation for describing this process.

  7. [Equestrian accidents in children].

    PubMed

    Giebel, G; Braun, K; Mittelmeier, W

    1993-11-01

    In a retrospective study we reviewed 262 horse riding related injuries in children younger than 16 which were treated between 1975 and 1989 at the Section of Traumatology in the Department of Surgery, University Hospital Homburg/Saar. In 155 of these accidents, detailed information was gained via a questionnaire. The typical patient profile was that of young female equestrians with little experience and little weekly riding practice, without practicing falling-exercises and warming up often using different horses. At the time of the accident only 59% were wearing a head protection. Most accidents happened in the summer months in the afternoon during leisure riding on a large familiar horse in the riding hall. Apart from the typical accidents like falling of the horse (64.9%) and falling with the horse (5.7%) accidents in handling the horse were of special significance: Kick by horse's hoof (11.8%), being stepped by horse (3.8%), horsebite (7.3%) and injuries of horse's bridle had their own pattern of injuries. Injuries of the distal parts of the upper extremity are preeminent in falling of the horse, whilst in falling with the horse head injuries and shoulder injuries are preeminent. Remarkably often injuries of kick by horse's hoof were causing sometimes even dangerous head injuries (41.6%). Overall in horse riding related injuries in childhood superficial soft tissue injuries (48.6%) and fractures (30.6%) were predominant. Fractures of the clavicle which are well known as a riding injury proved to be typical for a fall with the horse, whilst a fractured vertebra was only seen once amongst the 262 children treated. The severity of the injuries was lower than expected: In 85.1% of all the injuries only one body region was injured, 90.1% could be assigned to an injury severity score (ISS) of 1-3. Ponyriders had less severe injuries than riders of large horses. One fatal accident happened in handling a horse, in these situations preventive measures are often

  8. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

  9. 49 CFR 835.11 - Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining Board accident reports, factual accident... Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and supporting information. It is the responsibility... obtain Board accident reports, factual accident reports, and accompanying accident docket files....

  10. Accident Flying Squad

    PubMed Central

    Snook, Roger

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes the organization, evaluation, and costing of an independently financed and operated accident flying squad. 132 accidents involving 302 casualties were attended, six deaths were prevented, medical treatment contributed to the survival of a further four, and the condition or comfort of many other casualties was improved. The calls in which survival was influenced were evenly distributed throughout the three-and-a-half-year survey and seven of the 10 so aided were over 16 and under 30 years of age, all 10 being in the working age group. The time taken to provide the service was not excessive and the expense when compared with the overall saving was very small. The scheme was seen to be equally suitable for basing on hospital or general practice or both, and working as an integrated team with the ambulance service. The use of specialized transport was found to be unnecessary. Other benefits of the scheme included use of the experience of attending accidents to ensure relevant and realistic training for emergency service personnel, and an appreciation of the effect of ambulance design on the patient. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 4 PMID:5069642

  11. Phase diagram of a single lane roundabout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-03-01

    Using the cellular automata model, we numerically study the traffic dynamic in a single lane roundabout system of four entry/exit points. The boundaries are controlled by the injecting rates α1, α2 and the extracting rate β. Both the system with and without Splitter Islands of width Lsp are considered. The phase diagram in the (α1 , β) space and its variation with the roundabout size, Pagg (i.e. the probability of aggressive entry), and Pexit (i.e. the probability of preferential exit) are constructed. The results show that the phase diagram in both cases consists of three phases: free flow, congested and jammed. However, as Lsp increases the free flow phase enlarges while the congested and jammed ones shrink. On the other hand, the short sized roundabout shows better performance in the free flow phase while the large one is more optimal in the congested phase. The density profiles are also investigated.

  12. Prediction of boron carbon nitrogen phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Sanxi; Zhang, Hantao; Widom, Michael

    We studied the phase diagram of boron, carbon and nitrogen, including the boron-carbon and boron-nitrogen binaries and the boron-carbon-nitrogen ternary. Based on the idea of electron counting and using a technique of mixing similar primitive cells, we constructed many ''electron precise'' structures. First principles calculation is performed on these structures, with either zero or high pressures. For the BN binary, our calculation confirms that a rhmobohedral phase can be stablized at high pressure, consistent with some experimental results. For the BCN ternary, a new ground state structure is discovered and an Ising-like phase transition is suggested. Moreover, we modeled BCN ternary phase diagram and show continuous solubility from boron carbide to the boron subnitride phase.

  13. Penguin diagrams for improved staggered fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Weonjong

    2005-01-01

    We calculate, at the one-loop level, penguin diagrams for improved staggered fermion operators constructed using various fat links. The main result is that diagonal mixing coefficients with penguin operators are identical between the unimproved operators and the improved operators using such fat links as Fat7, Fat7+Lepage, Fat7, HYP (I) and HYP (II). In addition, it turns out that the off-diagonal mixing vanishes for those constructed using fat links of Fat7, Fat7 and HYP (II). This is a consequence of the fact that the improvement by various fat links changes only the mixing with higher dimension operators and off-diagonal operators. The results of this paper, combined with those for current-current diagrams, provide complete matching at the one-loop level with all corrections of O(g{sup 2}) included.

  14. Direct Measurement of the Fluid Phase Diagram.

    PubMed

    Bao, Bo; Riordon, Jason; Xu, Yi; Li, Huawei; Sinton, David

    2016-07-19

    The thermodynamic phase of a fluid (liquid, vapor or supercritical) is fundamental to all chemical processes, and the critical point is particularly important for supercritical chemical extraction. Conventional phase measurement methods require hours to obtain a single datum on the pressure and temperature diagram. Here, we present the direct measurement of the full pressure-temperature phase diagram, with 10 000 microwells. Orthogonal, linear, pressure and temperature gradients are obtained with 100 parallel microchannels (spanning the pressure range), each with 100 microwells (spanning the temperature range). The phase-mapping approach is demonstrated with both a pure substance (CO2) and a mixture (95% CO2 + 5% N2). Liquid, vapor, and supercritical regions are clearly differentiated, and the critical pressure is measured at 1.2% error with respect to the NIST standard. This approach provides over 100-fold improvement in measurement speed over conventional methods. PMID:27331613

  15. Krajewski diagrams and the standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Christoph A.

    2009-04-15

    This paper provides a complete list of Krajewski diagrams representing the standard model of particle physics. We will give the possible representations of the algebra and the anomaly free lifts which provide the representation of the standard model gauge group on the fermionic Hilbert space. The algebra representations following from the Krajewski diagrams are not complete in the sense that the corresponding spectral triples do not necessarily obey to the axiom of Poincare duality. This defect may be repaired by adding new particles to the model, i.e., by building models beyond the standard model. The aim of this list of finite spectral triples (up to Poincare duality) is therefore to provide a basis for model building beyond the standard model.

  16. MHV diagrams in momentum twistor space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullimore, Mathew; Mason, Lionel; Skinner, David

    2010-12-01

    We show that there are remarkable simplifications when the MHV diagram formalism for mathcal{N} = 4 super Yang-Mills is reformulated in momentum twistor space. The vertices are replaced by unity while each propagator becomes a dual superconformal `R-invariant' whose arguments may be read off from the diagram, and include an arbitrarily chosen reference twistor. The momentum twistor MHV rules generate a formula for the full, all-loop planar integrand for the super Yang-Mills S-matrix that is manifestly dual superconformally invariant up to the choice of a reference twistor. We give a general proof of this reformulation and illustrate its use by computing the momentum twistor NMHV and N2MHV tree amplitudes and the integrands of the MHV and NMHV 1-loop and the MHV 2-loop planar amplitudes.

  17. Band diagram of strained graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakar, Sanjay; Melnik, Roderick; Bonilla, Luis

    2016-04-01

    The influence of ripple waves on the band diagram of zigzag strained graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) is analyzed by utilizing the finite element method. Such waves have their origin in electromechanical effects. With a novel model, we demonstrate that electron-hole band diagrams of GNRs are highly influenced (i.e. level crossing of the bands are possible) by two combined effects: pseudo-magnetic fields originating from electroelasticity theory and external magnetic fields. In particular, we show that the level crossing point can be observed at large external magnetic fields (B ≈ 100T ) in strained GNRs, when the externally applied tensile edge stress is on the order of -100 eV/nm and the amplitude of the out-of-plane ripple waves is on the order of 1nm.

  18. Ring-Diagram Analysis: Status and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, F.

    Ring diagram analysis is now more than a decade old. While the details of the technique are still evolving, the application of the method to MDI, TON, Mt. Wilson, HLH, and GONG data is providing intriguing results. Thanks to the work of many people, it is now becoming possible to observationally infer the complicated dynamics in the outer 15 Mm of the solar convection zone, investigate the depth dependence of meridional flow, and get a closer look at zonal jet-stream structures in the mid-latitudes. We may soon be able to similarly investigate the spatio-temporal distribution of scalar fields. As ring diagrams and other local helioseismology methods such as time-distance and acoustic imaging continue to mature, the comparison of results from different techniques on common data sets will provide a useful reality check.

  19. Persistence diagrams of cortical surface data.

    PubMed

    Chung, Moo K; Bubenik, Peter; Kim, Peter T

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel framework for characterizing signals in images using techniques from computational algebraic topology. This technique is general enough for dealing with noisy multivariate data including geometric noise. The main tool is persistent homology which can be encoded in persistence diagrams. These diagrams visually show how the number of connected components of the sublevel sets of the signal changes. The use of local critical values of a function differs from the usual statistical parametric mapping framework, which mainly uses the mean signal in quantifying imaging data. Our proposed method uses all the local critical values in characterizing the signal and by doing so offers a completely new data reduction and analysis framework for quantifying the signal. As an illustration, we apply this method to a 1D simulated signal and 2D cortical thickness data. In case of the latter, extra homological structures are evident in an control group over the autistic group. PMID:19694279

  20. Extracting parameters from colour-magnitude diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonatto, C.; Campos, F.; Kepler, S. O.; Bica, E.

    2015-07-01

    We present a simple approach for obtaining robust values of astrophysical parameters from the observed colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of star clusters. The basic inputs are the Hess diagram built with the photometric measurements of a star cluster and a set of isochrones covering wide ranges of age and metallicity. In short, each isochrone is shifted in apparent distance modulus and colour excess until it crosses over the maximum possible Hess density. Repeating this step for all available isochrones leads to the construction of the solution map, in which the optimum values of age and metallicity - as well as foreground/background reddening and distance from the Sun - can be searched for. Controlled tests with simulated CMDs show that the approach is efficient in recovering the input values. We apply the approach to the open clusters M 67, NGC 6791 and NGC 2635, which are characterized by different ages, metallicities and distances from the Sun.

  1. Phase Coexistence in a Dynamic Phase Diagram.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Luigi; Coppola, Luigi; Balog, Sandor; Mortensen, Kell; Ranieri, Giuseppe A; Olsson, Ulf

    2015-08-01

    Metastability and phase coexistence are important concepts in colloidal science. Typically, the phase diagram of colloidal systems is considered at the equilibrium without the presence of an external field. However, several studies have reported phase transition under mechanical deformation. The reason behind phase coexistence under shear flow is not fully understood. Here, multilamellar vesicle (MLV)-to-sponge (L3 ) and MLV-to-Lα transitions upon increasing temperature are detected using flow small-angle neutron scattering techniques. Coexistence of Lα and MLV phases at 40 °C under shear flow is detected by using flow NMR spectroscopy. The unusual rheological behavior observed by studying the lamellar phase of a non-ionic surfactant is explained using (2) H NMR and diffusion flow NMR spectroscopy with the coexistence of planar lamellar-multilamellar vesicles. Moreover, a dynamic phase diagram over a wide range of temperatures is proposed. PMID:26083451

  2. Phase diagram of superconductor-ferromagnet superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Radovic, Z.; Dobrosavljevic-Grujic, L.

    1994-12-31

    Recent progress in the proximity effect theory of superconductor-ferromagnet superlattices is reviewed. The phase diagram calculations, transition temperature {Tc} and upper critical fields H{sub c2}, are presented. Characteristic features in {Tc} and H{sub c2}(T) dependence on layers thicknesses, including the predicted unusual oscillatory variations and new inhomogeneous superconducting state with nontrivial phase difference between neighboring superconducting layers, are discussed and compared with experimental data for V/Fe and Nb/Gd superlattices.

  3. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S.; O`Brien, M.; Rudin, M.; Ferguson, J.; McFee, J.

    1994-11-30

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR).

  4. Displaying multimedia environmental partitioning by triangular diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.C.; Mackay, D.

    1995-11-01

    It is suggested that equilateral triangular diagrams are a useful method of depicting the equilibrium partitioning of organic chemicals among the three primary environmental media of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the organosphere (natural organic matter and biotic lipids and waxes). The technique is useful for grouping chemicals into classes according to their partitioning tendencies, for depicting the incremental effects of substituents such as alkyl groups and chlorine, and for showing how partitioning changes in response to changes in temperature.

  5. Nonthermal Radio Emission and the HR Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Perhaps the most reliable indicator of non-radiative heating/momentum in a stellar atmosphere is the presence of nonthermal radio emission. To date, 77 normal stellar objects have been detected and identified as nonthermal sources. These stellar objects are tabulated herein. It is apparent that non-thermal radio emission is not ubiquitous across the HR diagram. This is clearly the case for the single stars; it is not as clear for the binaries unless the radio emission is associated with their late-type components. Choosing to make this association, the single stars and the late-type components are plotted together. The following picture emerges: (1) there are four locations on the HR diagram where non-thermal radio stars are found; (2) the peak incoherent 5 GHz luminosities show a suprisingly small range for stars within each class; (3) the fraction of stellar energy that escapes as radio emission can be estimated by comparing the integrated maximum radio luminosity to the bolometric luminosity; (4) there are no apparent differences in L sub R between binaries with two cool components, binaries with one hot and one cool component, and single stars for classes C and D; and (5) The late-type stars (classes B, C, and D) are located in parts of the HR diagram where there is reason to suspect that the surfaces of the stars are being braked with respect to their interiors.

  6. Regime Diagrams for K-Theory Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ronald B.

    2011-06-01

    In atmospheric dispersion, the "non-Gaussian" effects of gravitational settling, the vertical gradient in diffusivity and the surface deposition do not enter uniformly but rather break up parameter space into several discrete regimes. Here, we describe regime diagrams that are constructed for K-theory dispersion of effluent from a surface line source in unsheared inhomogeneous turbulence, using a previously derived Fourier-Hankel method. This K-theory formulation differs from the traditional one by keeping a non-zero diffusivity at the ground. This change allows for turbulent exchange between the canopy and the atmosphere and allows new natural length scales to emerge. The axes on the regime diagrams are non-dimensional distance defined as the ratio of downwind distance to the characteristic length scale for each effect. For each value of the ratio of settling speed to the K gradient, two to four regimes are found. Concentration formulae are given for each regime. The regime diagrams allow real dispersion problems to be categorized and the validity of end-state concentration formulae to be judged.

  7. Phase diagram and dynamics of Yukawa systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, Mark. O.; Kremer, Kurt; Grest, Gary S.

    1988-03-01

    The phase diagram and dynamical properties of systems of particles interacting through a repulsive screened Coulomb (Yukawa) potential have been calculated using molecular and lattice dynamics techniques. The phase diagram contains both a melting transition and a transition from fcc to bcc crystalline phases. These phase transitions have been studied as a function of potential shape (screening length) and compared to phenomenological criteria for transition temperatures such as those of Lindemann and of Hansen and Verlet. The transition from fcc to bcc with increasing temperature is shown to result from a higher entropy in the bcc phase because of its softer shear modes. Even when the stable solid phase below the melting temperature is fcc, bcc-like local order is found in the liquid phase. This may substantially slow crystallization. The calculated phase diagram and shear modulus are in good agreement with experiments on colloidal suspensions of polystyrene spheres. The single particle dynamics of Yukawa systems show several unusual features. There is a pronounced subdiffusive regime in liquids near and below the melting temperature. This regime reflects the existence of two time scales: a typical phonon period, and the time for a particle to feel a new environment. The second time scale becomes longer as the temperature is lowered or the range of interaction (screening length) increases.

  8. Recognition and processing of logic diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwish, Ahmed M.; Bashandy, Ahmed R.

    1996-03-01

    In this paper we present a vision system that is capable of interpreting schematic logic diagrams, i.e. determine the output as a logic function of the inputs. The system is composed of a number of modules each designed to perform a specific subtask. Each module bears a minor contribution in the form of a new mixture of known algorithms or extensions to handle actual real life image imperfections which researchers tend to ignore when they develop their theoretical foundations. The main contribution, thus, is not in any individual module, it is rather in their integration to achieve the target job. The system is organized more or less in a classical fashion. Aside from the image acquisition and preprocessing modules, interesting modules include: the segmenter, the identifier, the connector and the grapher. A good segmentation output is one reason for the success of the presented system. Several novelties exist in the presented approach. Following segmentation the type of each logic gate is determined and its topological connectivity. The logic diagram is then transformed to a directed acyclic graph in which the final node is the output logic gate. The logic function is then determined by backtracking techniques. The system is not only aimed at recognition applications. In fact its main usage may be to target other processing applications such as storage compression and graphics modification and manipulation of the diagram as is explained.

  9. The Critical Importance of Russell's Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.

    2013-04-01

    The idea of dwarf and giants stars, but not the nomenclature, was first established by Eijnar Hertzsprung in 1905; his first diagrams in support appeared in 1911. In 1913 Henry Norris Russell could demonstrate the effect far more strikingly because he measured the parallaxes of many stars at Cambridge, and could plot absolute magnitude against spectral type for many points. The general concept of dwarf and giant stars was essential in the galactic structure work of Harlow Shapley, Russell's first graduate student. In order to calibrate the period-luminosity relation of Cepheid variables, he was obliged to fall back on statistical parallax using only 11 Cepheids, a very sparse sample. Here the insight provided by the Russell diagram became critical. The presence of yellow K giant stars in globular clusters credentialed his calibration of the period-luminosity relation by showing that the calibrated luminosity of the Cepheids was comparable to the luminosity of the K giants. It is well known that in 1920 Shapley did not believe in the cosmological distances of Heber Curtis' spiral nebulae. It is not so well known that in 1920 Curtis' plot of the period-luminosity relation suggests that he didn't believe it was a physical relation and also he failed to appreciate the significance of the Russell diagram for understanding the large size of the Milky Way.

  10. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    PubMed

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power. PMID:22514916

  11. Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, D. S.

    1991-01-01

    Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramics are calculated from available fracture mechanics data. It is shown that the environment has a large effect on minimum time-to-failure as predicted by proof test diagrams.

  12. 75 FR 61512 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official... Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams (OPDs) located within Atlantic Ocean areas, with... informational purposes only. Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams in the North Atlantic,...

  13. Placing the Forces on Free-Body Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Willard

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the problem of drawing free-body diagrams to analyze the conditions of static equilibrium. Presents a method based on the correct placement of the normal force on the body. Includes diagrams. (MVL)

  14. Teaching Verbal Chains Using Flow Diagrams and Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, William G.

    1976-01-01

    A discussion of the recent diagram and attention theory and research surprisingly suggests that a single flow diagram with instructive questions constitutes an effective learning medium in terms of verbal chaining. (Author)

  15. Massive basketball diagram for a thermal scalar field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael

    2000-08-01

    The ``basketball diagram'' is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar field theory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculate this diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it to expressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluated numerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massive scalar field with a φ4 interaction to three-loop order.

  16. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-30

    This executive summary contains a description of the logic diagram format; some examples from the diagram (Vol. 2) and associated technology evaluation data sheets (Vol. 3); a complete (albeit condensed) listing of the RA, D&D, and WM problems at ORNL; and a complete listing of the technology rankings for all the areas covered by the diagram.

  17. The Classroom as Rhizome: New Strategies for Diagramming Knotted Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article calls attention to the unexamined role of diagrams in educational research and offers examples of alternative diagramming practices or tools that shed light on classroom interaction as a rhizomatic process. Drawing extensively on the work of Latour, Deleuze and Guattari, and Chatelet, this article explores the power of diagramming as…

  18. Differential Cognitive and Affective Responses to Flow Diagrams in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, William G.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Describes a study in which tenth-grade biology students who were low verbal performers scored significantly higher on achievement tests when provided with picture-word diagrams of biological concepts than when provided with block-word diagrams. Students and teachers also preferred picture-word diagrams as indicated by a questionnaire. (MLH)

  19. 30 CFR 256.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 256.8 Section 256.8..., General § 256.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a) Any area of the OCS which has been appropriately platted as... 12(d) of the Act. (b) The MMS shall prepare leasing maps and official protraction diagrams of...

  20. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal…

  1. Science Visual Literacy: Learners' Perceptions and Knowledge of Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTigue, Erin M.; Flowers, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    Constructing meaning from science texts relies not only on comprehending the words but also the diagrams and other graphics. The goal of this study was to explore elementary students' perceptions of science diagrams and their skills related to diagram interpretation. 30 students, ranging from second grade through middle school, completed a diagram…

  2. The Problem of Labels in E-Assessment of Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayal, Ambikesh; Shepperd, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this article we explore a problematic aspect of automated assessment of diagrams. Diagrams have partial and sometimes inconsistent semantics. Typically much of the meaning of a diagram resides in the labels; however, the choice of labeling is largely unrestricted. This means a correct solution may utilize differing yet semantically equivalent…

  3. Rear-end accident victims. Importance of understanding the accident.

    PubMed Central

    Sehmer, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Family physicians regularly treat victims of rear-end vehicle accidents. This article describes how taking a detailed history of the accident and understanding the significance of the physical events is helpful in understanding and anticipating patients' morbidity and clinical course. Eight questions to ask patients are suggested to help physicians understand the severity of injury. PMID:8495140

  4. Reactor Accident Consequence Code

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-02

    MACCS1.5 performs probabilistic calculations of potential off site consequences of the atmospheric releases of radioactive material in reactor accidents. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, environmental contamination, emergency response, long term mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. MACCS can be used for a variety of applications including probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and cost benefit analysis. The time scale after the accident is divided into three phases: emergency, intermediate, and long term. The region surrounding the reactor is divided into a polar-coordinate grid, with the reactor located at the center, for the calculations. Two preprocessors, MAXGC and DOSFAC, are included. MAXGC generates the maximum allowable ground concentrations based on protective action guide (PAG) dose levels. DOSFAC generates the dose conversion data used by MACCS.

  5. Reactor Accident Consequence Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-11-02

    MACCS1.5 performs probabilistic calculations of potential off site consequences of the atmospheric releases of radioactive material in reactor accidents. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, environmental contamination, emergency response, long term mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. MACCS can be used for a variety of applications including probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) ofmore » nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and cost benefit analysis. The time scale after the accident is divided into three phases: emergency, intermediate, and long term. The region surrounding the reactor is divided into a polar-coordinate grid, with the reactor located at the center, for the calculations. Two preprocessors, MAXGC and DOSFAC, are included. MAXGC generates the maximum allowable ground concentrations based on protective action guide (PAG) dose levels. DOSFAC generates the dose conversion data used by MACCS.« less

  6. Cellular automata model simulating traffic car accidents in the on-ramp system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, using Nagel-Schreckenberg model we study the on-ramp system under the expanded open boundary condition. The phase diagram of the two-lane on-ramp system is computed. It is found that the expanded left boundary insertion strategy enhances the flow in the on-ramp lane. Furthermore, we have studied the probability of the occurrence of car accidents. We distinguish two types of car accidents: the accident at the on-ramp site (Prc) and the rear-end accident in the main road (Pac). It is shown that car accidents at the on-ramp site are more likely to occur when traffic is free on road A. However, the rear-end accidents begin to occur above a critical injecting rate αc1. The influence of the on-ramp length (LB) and position (xC0) on the car accidents probabilities is studied. We found that large LB or xC0 causes an important decrease of the probability Prc. However, only large xC0 provokes an increase of the probability Pac. The effect of the stochastic randomization is also computed.

  7. Generic Phase Diagram of Binary Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, Alexei

    Emergence of a large variety of self-assembled superlattices is a dramatic recent trend in the fields of nanoparticle and colloidal sciences. Motivated by this development, we propose a model that combines simplicity with a remarkably rich phase behavior, applicable to a wide range of such self-assembled systems. Those include nanoparticle and colloidal assemblies driven by DNA-mediated interactions, electrostatics, and possibly, by controlled drying. In our model, a binary system of Large and Small hard sphere (L and S)interact via selective short-range (''sticky'') attraction. In its simplest version, this Binary Sticky Sphere model features attraction only between 'S' and 'L' particles, respectively. We demonstrate that in the limit when this attraction is sufficiently strong compared to kT, the problem becomes purely geometrical: the thermodynamically preferred state should maximize the number of S-L contacts. A general procedure for constructing the phase diagram as a function of system composition f, and particle size ratio r, is outlined. In this way, the global phase behavior can be calculated very efficiently, for a given set of plausible candidate phases. Furthermore, the geometric nature of the problem enables us to generate those candidate phases through a well defined and intuitive construction. We calculate the phase diagrams both for 2D and 3D systems, and compare the results with existing experiments. Most of the 3D superlattices observed to date are featured in our phase diagram, while several more are yet to be discovered. The research was carried out at the CFN, DOE Office of Science Facility, at BNL, under Contract No. DE-SC0012704.

  8. State-transition diagrams for biologists.

    PubMed

    Bersini, Hugues; Klatzmann, David; Six, Adrien; Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    It is clearly in the tradition of biologists to conceptualize the dynamical evolution of biological systems in terms of state-transitions of biological objects. This paper is mainly concerned with (but obviously not limited too) the immunological branch of biology and shows how the adoption of UML (Unified Modeling Language) state-transition diagrams can ease the modeling, the understanding, the coding, the manipulation or the documentation of population-based immune software model generally defined as a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE), describing the evolution in time of populations of various biological objects. Moreover, that same UML adoption naturally entails a far from negligible representational economy since one graphical item of the diagram might have to be repeated in various places of the mathematical model. First, the main graphical elements of the UML state-transition diagram and how they can be mapped onto a corresponding ODE mathematical model are presented. Then, two already published immune models of thymocyte behavior and time evolution in the thymus, the first one originally conceived as an ODE population-based model whereas the second one as an agent-based one, are refactored and expressed in a state-transition form so as to make them much easier to understand and their respective code easier to access, to modify and run. As an illustrative proof, for any immunologist, it should be possible to understand faithfully enough what the two software models are supposed to reproduce and how they execute with no need to plunge into the Java or Fortran lines. PMID:22844438

  9. State-Transition Diagrams for Biologists

    PubMed Central

    Bersini, Hugues; Klatzmann, David; Six, Adrien; Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    It is clearly in the tradition of biologists to conceptualize the dynamical evolution of biological systems in terms of state-transitions of biological objects. This paper is mainly concerned with (but obviously not limited too) the immunological branch of biology and shows how the adoption of UML (Unified Modeling Language) state-transition diagrams can ease the modeling, the understanding, the coding, the manipulation or the documentation of population-based immune software model generally defined as a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE), describing the evolution in time of populations of various biological objects. Moreover, that same UML adoption naturally entails a far from negligible representational economy since one graphical item of the diagram might have to be repeated in various places of the mathematical model. First, the main graphical elements of the UML state-transition diagram and how they can be mapped onto a corresponding ODE mathematical model are presented. Then, two already published immune models of thymocyte behavior and time evolution in the thymus, the first one originally conceived as an ODE population-based model whereas the second one as an agent-based one, are refactored and expressed in a state-transition form so as to make them much easier to understand and their respective code easier to access, to modify and run. As an illustrative proof, for any immunologist, it should be possible to understand faithfully enough what the two software models are supposed to reproduce and how they execute with no need to plunge into the Java or Fortran lines. PMID:22844438

  10. Massless sunset diagrams in finite asymmetric volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermayer, F.; Weisz, P.

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses the methods and the results used in an accompanying paper describing the matching of effective chiral Lagrangians in dimensional and lattice regularizations. We present methods to compute 2-loop massless sunset diagrams in finite asymmetric volumes in the framework of these regularizations. We also consider 1-loop sums in both regularizations, extending the results of Hasenfratz and Leutwyler for the case of dimensional regularization and we introduce a new method to calculate precisely the expansion coefficients of the 1-loop lattice sums.

  11. Failure Assessment Diagram for Titanium Brazed Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yury; Jones, Justin S.; Powell, Mollie M.; Puckett, David F.

    2011-01-01

    The interaction equation was used to predict failure in Ti-4V-6Al joints brazed with Al 1100 filler metal. The joints used in this study were geometrically similar to the joints in the brazed beryllium metering structure considered for the ATLAS telescope. This study confirmed that the interaction equation R(sub sigma) + R(sub Tau) = 1, where R(sub sigma) and R(sub Tau)are normal and shear stress ratios, can be used as conservative lower bound estimate of the failure criterion in ATLAS brazed joints as well as for construction of the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD).

  12. Toward a phase diagram for stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, K.

    1999-08-01

    A display of the tentatively basic parameters of stocks, i.e. the daily closing price and the daily transaction volume is presented eliminating the time variable between them. The “phase diagram” looks like a triangular region similar to the two-phase region of traffic diagrams. The data is taken for two companies (SGP and OXHP) which present different long-range correlations in the closing price value as examined by the linearly Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) statistical method. Substructures are observed in the “phase diagram” as due to changes in management policy, e.g. stock splits.

  13. German aircraft accident statistics, 1930

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitzmann, Ludwig

    1932-01-01

    The investigation of all serious accidents, involving technical defects in the airplane or engine, is undertaken by the D.V.L. in conjunction with the imperial traffic minister and other interested parties. All accidents not clearly explained in the reports are subsequently cleared up.

  14. Weather types and traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Klaić, Z B

    2001-06-01

    Traffic accident data for the Zagreb area for the 1981-1982 period were analyzed to investigate possible relationships between the daily number of accidents and the weather conditions that occurred for the 5 consecutive days, starting two days before the particular day. In the statistical analysis of low accident days weather type classification developed by Poje was used. For the high accident days a detailed analyses of surface and radiosonde data were performed in order to identify possible front passages. A test for independence by contingency table confirmed that conditional probability of the day with small number of accidents is the highest, provided that one day after it "N" or "NW" weather types occur, while it is the smallest for "N1" and "Bc" types. For the remaining 4 days of the examined periods dependence was not statistically confirmed. However, northern ("N", "NE" and "NW") and anticyclonic ("Vc", "V4", "V3", "V2" and "mv") weather types predominated during 5-days intervals related to the days with small number of accidents. On the contrary, the weather types with cyclonic characteristics ("N1", "N2", "N3", "Bc", "Dol1" and "Dol"), that are generally accompanied by fronts, were the rarest. For 85% days with large number of accidents, which had not been caused by objective circumstances (such as poor visibility, damaged or slippery road etc.), at least one front passage was recorded during the 3-days period, starting one day before the day with large number of accidents. PMID:11787547

  15. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  16. 49 CFR 195.50 - Reporting accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.50 Reporting accidents. An accident...) Explosion or fire not intentionally set by the operator. (b) Release of 5 gallons (19 liters) or more...

  17. 49 CFR 195.50 - Reporting accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.50 Reporting accidents. An accident...) Explosion or fire not intentionally set by the operator. (b) Release of 5 gallons (19 liters) or more...

  18. 49 CFR 195.50 - Reporting accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.50 Reporting accidents. An accident...) Explosion or fire not intentionally set by the operator. (b) Release of 5 gallons (19 liters) or more...

  19. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    PubMed

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents. PMID:20817399

  20. Instability Regions in the Upper HR Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deJager, Cornelis; Lobel, Alex; Nieuwenhuijzen, Hans; Stothers, Richard; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The following instability regions for blueward evolving supergiants are outlined and compared: (1) Areas in the Hertzsprung-Russell(HR) diagram where stars are dynamically unstable. (2) Areas where the effective acceleration in the upper part of the photospheres is negative, hence directed outward. (3) Areas where the sonic points of the stellar wind (Where wind velocity = sound velocity) are situated inside the photospheres, at a level deeper than tau(sub Ross) = 0.01. We compare the results with the positions of actual stars in the HR diagram and we find evidence that the recent strong contraction of the yellow hypergiant HR8752 was initiated in a period during which (g(sub eff)) is less than 0, whereupon the star became dynamically unstable. The instability and extreme shells around IRC+10420 are suggested to be related to three factors: (g(sub eff)) is less than 0; the sonic point is situated inside the photosphere; and the star is dynamically unstable.

  1. Non-equilibrium phases and phase diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Massalski, T.B.; Rizzo, H.F.

    1988-03-01

    In this paper we consider the degree of usefulness of the phase diagram and the related thermodynamics in predicting and understanding the formation of metastable phases during quenching, or during low-temperature solid-state interdiffusion, or during co-deposition. Recent research has demonstrated that many of such metastable phases are formed because the more stable intermediate phases that are favored thermodynamically are nevertheless bypassed kinetically. The kinetic elimination of intermediate phases provides conditions where a metastable equilibrium can be established at low temperatures between the supercooled liquid and the terminal solid solutions, leading to metastable partitioned two-phase regions. Alternatively, the range of the metastable phases may be governed by the T/sub 0/ principle related to the crossover of the respective free energy curves, or may be controlled mainly by kinetic considerations. Which particular thermodynamic conditions apply appears to depend on the initial form of the phase diagram and the specific technique used. The occurrence of massive transformations also is discussed. 34 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Phase diagrams of disordered Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapourian, Hassan; Hughes, Taylor L.

    2016-02-01

    Weyl semimetals are gapless quasitopological materials with a set of isolated nodal points forming their Fermi surface. They manifest their quasitopological character in a series of topological electromagnetic responses including the anomalous Hall effect. Here, we study the effect of disorder on Weyl semimetals while monitoring both their nodal/semimetallic and topological properties through computations of the localization length and the Hall conductivity. We examine three different lattice tight-binding models which realize the Weyl semimetal in part of their phase diagram and look for universal features that are common to all of the models, and interesting distinguishing features of each model. We present detailed phase diagrams of these models for large system sizes and we find that weak disorder preserves the nodal points up to the diffusive limit, but does affect the Hall conductivity. We show that the trend of the Hall conductivity is consistent with an effective picture in which disorder causes the Weyl nodes move within the Brillouin zone along a specific direction that depends deterministically on the properties of the model and the neighboring phases to the Weyl semimetal phase. We also uncover an unusual (nonquantized) anomalous Hall insulator phase which can only exist in the presence of disorder.

  3. Isolated pulsar spin evolution on the diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, J. P.; Lorimer, D. R.

    2010-05-01

    We look at two contrasting spin-down models for isolated radio pulsars and, accounting for selection effects, synthesize observable populations. While our goal is to reproduce all of the observable characteristics, in this paper we pay particular attention to the form of the spin period versus period derivative () diagram and its dependence on various pulsar properties. We analyse the initial spin period, the braking index, the magnetic field, various beaming models as well as the pulsar's luminosity. In addition to considering the standard magnetic dipole model for pulsar spin-down, we also consider the recent hybrid model proposed by Contopoulos and Spitkovsky. The magnetic dipole model, however, does a better job of reproducing the observed pulsar population. We conclude that random alignment angles and period-dependent luminosity distributions are essential to reproduce the observed diagram. We also consider the time decay of alignment angles and attempt to reconcile various models currently being studied. We conclude that in order to account for recent evidence for the alignment found by Weltevrede and Johnston, the braking torque on a neutron star should not depend strongly on the inclination. Our simulation code is publicly available and includes a web-based interface to examine the results and make predictions for yields of current and future surveys.

  4. Revisiting the phase diagram of hard ellipsoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odriozola, Gerardo

    2012-04-01

    In this work, the well-known Frenkel-Mulder phase diagram of hard ellipsoids of revolution [D. Frenkel and B. M. Mulder, Mol. Phys. 55, 1171 (1985), 10.1080/00268978500101971] is revisited by means of replica exchange Monte Carlo simulations. The method provides good sampling of dense systems and so, solid phases can be accessed without the need of imposing a given structure. At high densities, we found plastic solids and fcc-like crystals for semi-spherical ellipsoids (prolates and oblates), and SM2 structures [P. Pfleiderer and T. Schilling, Phys. Rev. E 75, 020402 (2007)] for x : 1-prolates and 1 : x-oblates with x ≥ 3. The revised fluid-crystal and isotropic-nematic transitions reasonably agree with those presented in the Frenkel-Mulder diagram. An interesting result is that, for small system sizes (100 particles), we obtained 2:1- and 1.5:1-prolate equations of state without transitions, while some order is developed at large densities. Furthermore, the symmetric oblate cases are also reluctant to form ordered phases.

  5. Revisiting the phase diagram of hard ellipsoids.

    PubMed

    Odriozola, Gerardo

    2012-04-01

    In this work, the well-known Frenkel-Mulder phase diagram of hard ellipsoids of revolution [D. Frenkel and B. M. Mulder, Mol. Phys. 55, 1171 (1985)] is revisited by means of replica exchange Monte Carlo simulations. The method provides good sampling of dense systems and so, solid phases can be accessed without the need of imposing a given structure. At high densities, we found plastic solids and fcc-like crystals for semi-spherical ellipsoids (prolates and oblates), and SM2 structures [P. Pfleiderer and T. Schilling, Phys. Rev. E 75, 020402 (2007)] for x : 1-prolates and 1 : x-oblates with x ≥ 3. The revised fluid-crystal and isotropic-nematic transitions reasonably agree with those presented in the Frenkel-Mulder diagram. An interesting result is that, for small system sizes (100 particles), we obtained 2:1- and 1.5:1-prolate equations of state without transitions, while some order is developed at large densities. Furthermore, the symmetric oblate cases are also reluctant to form ordered phases. PMID:22482570

  6. Automated D/3 to Visio Analog Diagrams

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-08-10

    ADVAD1 reads an ASCII file containing the D/3 DCS MDL input for analog points for a D/3 continuous database. It uses the information in the files to create a series of Visio files representing the structure of each analog chain, one drawing per Visio file. The actual drawing function is performed by Visio (requires Visio version 4.5+). The user can configure the program to select which fields in the database are shown on the diagrammore » and how the information is to be presented. This gives a visual representation of the structure of the analog chains, showing selected fields in a consistent manner. Updating documentation can be done easily and the automated approach eliminates human error in the cadding process. The program can also create the drawings far faster than a human operator is capable, able to create approximately 270 typical diagrams in about 8 minutes on a Pentium II 400 MHz PC. The program allows for multiple option sets to be saved to provide different settings (i.e., different fields, different field presentations, and /or different diagram layouts) for various scenarios or facilities on one workstation. Option sets may be exported from the Windows registry to allow duplication of settings on another workstation.« less

  7. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Kusdiantara, Rudy Puspita, Dila Sidarto, Kuntjoro A. Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.

    2014-03-24

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

  8. Recent Results in Ring-Diagram Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabello-Soares, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    The ring-diagram technique was developed by Frank Hill 25 years ago and matured quickly during the late 1990s. It is nowadays one of the most commonly used techniques in local helioseismology. The method consists in the power spectral analysis of solar acoustic oscillations on small regions (2° to 30°) of the solar surface. The power spectrum resembles a set of trumpets nested inside each other and for a given frequency, it looks like a ring, hence the technique's name. It provides information on the horizontal flow field and thermodynamic structure in the layers immediately below the photosphere. With data regularly provided by MDI, GONG, and more recently HMI, many important results have been achieved. In recently years, these results include estimations of the meridional circulation and its evolution with solar cycle; flows associated with active regions, as well as, flow divergence and vorticity, and thermal structure beneath and around active regions. Much progress is expected with data now provided by HMI's high spatial resolution observations and high duty cycle. There are two data processing pipelines (GONG and HMI) providing free access to the data and the results of the ring-diagram analysis. Here we will discuss the most recent results and improvements in the technique, as well as, the many challenges that still remain.

  9. Phase diagram of quantum square ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Louis-Paul; Holdsworth, Peter; Mila, Frederic; Roscilde, Tommaso

    2013-03-01

    We have investigated the ground-state and finite-temperature phase diagram of quantum square ice - realized by the transverse-field Ising model on a checkerboard lattice - using both linear spin-wave (LSW) theory and quantum Monte Carlo (QMC). We generalize the model with different couplings between nearest (J1) and next-to-nearest (J2) neighbors on the checkerboard lattice. Our QMC approach generalizes the loop algorithm - very efficient in the study of constrained classical systems - to a ``brane algorithm'' for quantum systems. At the LSW level the vast degeneracy of the ground-state for J1 =J2 and J2 >J1 remains intact; moreover LSW theory breaks down in extended regions of the phase diagram, pointing at non-classical states. Our QMC study goes beyond perturbative schemes and addresses directly the nature of the low-temperature phases. We have critically examined the possibility of a resonating-plaquette state for J1 =J2 , suggested by degenerate perturbation theory on the ice-rule manifold for weak fields. Our QMC results for finite fields confirm the absence of Néel or collinear order, but they do not confirm the presence of resonating-plaquette order, pointing at a possibly more complex non-classical state.

  10. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Kusdiantara, Rudy; Puspita, Dila; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A.; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.

    2014-03-01

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

  11. Columbia Accident Investigation Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board gathers for a second day for its third public hearing, held in Cape Canaveral, Florida. The CAIB was set up to examine STS-107 and analyze exploratory tests. Navy Admiral Harold W. 'Hal' Gehman Jr. was designated as the Chairman of the Board. From left to right in this photo sit Board Members Steven B. Wallace, Scott Hubbard, Dr. John Logsdon, Rear Admiral Stephen Turcotte, Hal Gehman, General Duane Deal, Dr. Douglas Osheroff, and Maj. General Kenneth W. Hess. Not shown are Maj. General John Barry, Dr. James N. Hallock, Roger Tetrault, Dr. Sheila Widnall, and Dr. Sally Ride. For more information on STS-107, please see GRIN Columbia General Explanation

  12. [The radiation accident].

    PubMed

    Stögmann, W

    1988-08-26

    The reactor accident of Chernobyl in April 1986 has shown us all the dangers which are inherent ever in the peaceful use of atomic energy. The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation are dependent on biological effectiveness, on dose, on duration of exposure and on the age of the exposed person (the younger the graver). Acute ionizing radiation of the whole body leads to radiation disease or radiation syndrome of different stages of severity according to dosage. If the patient survives other consequences of ionizing radiation may arise: non-stochastic effects such as cataracts, keloid formation, fibrosis of the lungs and infertility) and stochastic effects (oncogenesis and mutagenesis). The sensitivity to ionizing radiation is especially high in childhood because of the high velocity of cell metabolism and cell growth, the large body-surface area and because their repair mechanism following radiation damage is not yet. PMID:3188527

  13. Transport aircraft accident dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was carried out of 112 impact survivable jet transport aircraft accidents (world wide) of 27,700 kg (60,000 lb.) aircraft and up extending over the last 20 years. This study centered on the effect of impact and the follow-on events on aircraft structures and was confined to the approach, landing and takeoff segments of the flight. The significant characteristics, frequency of occurrence and the effect on the occupants of the above data base were studied and categorized with a view to establishing typical impact scenarios for use as a basis of verifying the effectiveness of potential safety concepts. Studies were also carried out of related subjects such as: (1) assessment of advanced materials; (2) human tolerance to impact; (3) merit functions for safety concepts; and (4) impact analysis and test methods.

  14. The Diagram as Story: Unfolding the Event-Structure of the Mathematical Diagram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the role of narrative in decoding diagrams. I focus on two fundamental facets of narrative: (1) the recounting of causally related sequences of events, and (2) the positioning of the narrator through point-of-view and voice. In the first two sections of the paper I discuss philosophical and semiotic frameworks for making sense…

  15. Diagrams: A Visual Survey of Graphs, Maps, Charts and Diagrams for the Graphic Designer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Arthur

    Since the ultimate success of any diagram rests in its clarity, it is important that the designer select a method of presentation which will achieve this aim. He should be aware of the various ways in which statistics can be shown diagrammatically, how information can be incorporated in maps, and how events can be plotted in chart or graph form.…

  16. The McConnell missile accident: clinical spectrum of nitrogen dioxide exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Yockey, C.C.; Eden, B.M.; Byrd, R.B.

    1980-09-12

    Technical report:Twenty-four men were refueling a missile when a large spill of oxidizer occurred. Three men were exposed to very high concentrations of nitrogen oxides; one died within minutes, and severe respiratory distress symptoms developed in the other two. The rest of the crew members were exposed to moderate concentrations. Persisting headaches and visual disturbances were some prevalent disorders resulting from the accident. (1 diagram, 7 references, 1 table)

  17. [Hidden statistics of traffic accidents].

    PubMed

    Nordentoft, E L; Larsen, C F; Jørgensen, H R

    1989-10-23

    Only 19% of the 3,071 injured persons who were treated in the casualty department of Odense Hospital following traffic accidents in 1987 could be found again in the police registers of traffic accidents from the same region. All of the registrations from the police registers from the central region could be found again in the casualty department. In 1971, the corresponding coverage was 36%. The degree of coverage is particularly low for single bicycle accidents, other bicycle accidents, other single accidents and the hours immediately after midnight. Considerable disagreement exists concerning registration of the use of safety belts and crash helmets. In Odense, the municipal road authorities utilize the localization of the accidents reported by the casualty department. The decrease in the degree of coverage is due mainly to an increasing proportion of bicycle accidents. Where casualties require admission to hospital, the coverage is approximately 75%. This has remained unchanged throughout the years and it is therefore suggested that this proportion should be employed as indicator of the effect of the majority of prophylactic measures. In addition, proposals are made for simplification of the police registration forms. PMID:2588362

  18. Global Phase Diagram in Layered Organic Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Guo, Yaowu

    2014-03-01

    Layered organic superconductors serve as model systems for Mott physics with geometrical frustration. The global phase diagram of such system is obtained by using Gutzwiller variational method to study a Hubbard model including a spin exchange coupling term. Five possible candidates of ground state are obtained respectively, including a spin liquid insulating state at large on-site Coulomb repulsion U and large lattice frustration t'/t, an antiferromagnetic state at large U and small t'/t , two Gossamer superconducting states at medium U with either gapless dx 2 - y 2-wave (small t'/t) or gapped d +id-wave symmetry (large t'/t) , and a metallic Fermi liquid state at small U. Moreover, we study the evolution of double occupancy number d in terms of different U and t'/t parameters mimicking the pressure effect. Our results are qualitatively consistent with main experimental results in organic superconductors. -/abstract- Billing ID: 814549 Member I

  19. Phase diagrams of bosonic ABn chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, G. J.; Franco, R.; Silva-Valencia, J.

    2016-04-01

    The A B N - 1 chain is a system that consists of repeating a unit cell with N sites where between the A and B sites there is an energy difference of λ. We considered bosons in these special lattices and took into account the kinetic energy, the local two-body interaction, and the inhomogenous local energy in the Hamiltonian. We found the charge density wave (CDW) and superfluid and Mott insulator phases, and constructed the phase diagram for N = 2 and 3 at the thermodynamic limit. The system exhibited insulator phases for densities ρ = α/ N, with α being an integer. We obtained that superfluid regions separate the insulator phases for densities larger than one. For any N value, we found that for integer densities ρ, the system exhibits ρ + 1 insulator phases, a Mott insulator phase, and ρ CDW phases. For non-integer densities larger than one, several CDW phases appear.

  20. The Phase Diagram of Superionic Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiming; Clark, Bryan; Car, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    Using the variable cell Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics method, we study the phase diagram of superionic ice from 200GPa to 2.5TPa. We present evidence that at very high pressure the FCC structure of the oxygen sublattice may become unstable allowing for a new superionic ice phase, in which the oxygen sublattice takes the P21 structure found in zero-temperature total energy calculations. We also report on how the melting temperature of the hydrogen sublattice is affected by this new crystalline structure of the oxygen sublattice. This work was supported by the NSF under grant DMS-1065894(J.S. and R.C.) and PHY11-25915(B.C.).

  1. Phase diagram of a Schelling segregation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauvin, L.; Vannimenus, J.; Nadal, J.-P.

    2009-07-01

    The collective behavior in a variant of Schelling’s segregation model is characterized with methods borrowed from statistical physics, in a context where their relevance was not conspicuous. A measure of segregation based on cluster geometry is defined and several quantities analogous to those used to describe physical lattice models at equilibrium are introduced. This physical approach allows to distinguish quantitatively several regimes and to characterize the transitions between them, leading to the building of a phase diagram. Some of the transitions evoke empirical sudden ethnic turnovers. We also establish links with ‘spin-1’ models in physics. Our approach provides generic tools to analyze the dynamics of other socio-economic systems.

  2. Analysis of Japanese banks’ historical tree diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Hiromichi; Mizuno, Takayuki; Takayasu, Misako

    2007-09-01

    By using the historical data from the Japanese banks’ database at “The Bankers Library” of Japanese Banker Association, we analyze the historical network of banks from 1868 to 2006. Firstly, we define a bank every year by a particle and draw a space-time evolution process of merger, division, establishment, and failure by a tree diagram structure. We found that the distribution of the tree basin size of real data and simulation result are mostly fitting well. Secondly, we analyze the raw data of financial statements of banks collected by the National Diet library. We confirm that the distributions of the amount of deposits have fat-tail every year, however, small deviations are observed relating to governmental policy.

  3. Reentrant Phase Diagram of Network Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, J.; Tavares, J. M.; Teixeira, P. I. C.; Telo da Gama, M. M.; Sciortino, F.

    2011-02-01

    We introduce a microscopic model for particles with dissimilar patches which displays an unconventional “pinched” phase diagram, similar to the one predicted by Tlusty and Safran in the context of dipolar fluids [Science 290, 1328 (2000)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.290.5495.1328]. The model—based on two types of patch interactions, which account, respectively, for chaining and branching of the self-assembled networks—is studied both numerically via Monte Carlo simulations and theoretically via first-order perturbation theory. The dense phase is rich in junctions, while the less-dense phase is rich in chain ends. The model provides a reference system for a deep understanding of the competition between condensation and self-assembly into equilibrium-polymer chains.

  4. Phase diagram in the entanglement PNJL model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, A.; Kalinovsky, Y.; Toneev, V.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of the vector interaction in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with Polyakov loop are studied in combination with the entanglement interaction between the quark and pure gauge sectors. We investigate the QCD phase diagram and find that the first order chiral phase transition at finite baryon chemical potentials and its critical endpoint disappear for sufficiently large values of the vector interaction constant Gv. The presence of an entanglement interaction between quark and pure gauge sectors leads to an increase of the value Gv for which the first order transition disappears. The influence of a nonzero Gv on the curvature of the crossover boundary in the T - μ plane nearby μ= 0 is also examined for both cases.

  5. A review of criticality accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, W R; Smith, D R

    1989-03-01

    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Forty-one accidental power transients are reviewed. In each case where available, enough detail is given to help visualize the physical situation, the cause or causes of the accident, the history and characteristics of the transient, the energy release, and the consequences, if any, to personnel and property. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this study, except that some information on the major accident at the Chernobyl reactor in April 1986 is provided in the Appendix. 67 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Expression of Superparamagnetic Particles on FORC Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirt, A. M.; Kumari, M.; Crippa, F.; Petri-Fink, A.

    2015-12-01

    Identification of superparamagnetic (SP) particles in natural materials provides information on processes that lead to the new formation or dissolution of iron oxides. SP particles express themselves on first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams as a distribution centered near the origin of the diagram. Pike et al. (2001, GJI, 145, 721) demonstrated that thermal relaxation produces an upward shift in the FORC distribution, and attributed this to a pause encountered at each reversal field. In this study we examine the relationship between this upward shift and particles size on two sets of synthetic iron oxide nanoparticles. One set of coated magnetite particles have well-constrained particles size with 9, 16 and 20 nm as their diameter. A second set from the FeraSpin™ Series, consisting of FeraSpinXS, M and XL, were evaluated. Rock magnetic experiments indicate that the first set of samples is exclusively magnetite, whereas the FeraSpin samples contain predominantly magnetite with some degree of oxidation. Samples from both sets show that the upward shift of the FORC distribution at the origin increases with decreasing particle size. The amount of shift in the FeraSpin series is less when compared to the samples from the first set. This is attributed to the effect of interaction that counteracts the effect of thermal relaxation behavior of the SP particles. The FeraSpin series also shows a broader FORC distribution on the vertical axis that appears to be related to non-saturation of the hysteresis curve at maximum applied field. This non-saturation behavior can be due to spins of very fine particles or oxidation to hematite. AC susceptibility at low temperature indicates that particle interaction may affect the effective magnetic particle size. Our results suggest that the FORC distribution in pure SP particle systems provides information on the particle size distribution or oxidation, which can be further evaluated with low temperature techniques.

  7. Using Eye Tracking to Investigate Semantic and Spatial Representations of Scientific Diagrams During Text-Diagram Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Yu-Cin; Wu, Chao-Jung

    2015-02-01

    We investigated strategies used by readers when reading a science article with a diagram and assessed whether semantic and spatial representations were constructed while reading the diagram. Seventy-one undergraduate participants read a scientific article while tracking their eye movements and then completed a reading comprehension test. Our results showed that the text-diagram referencing strategy was commonly used. However, some readers adopted other reading strategies, such as reading the diagram or text first. We found all readers who had referred to the diagram spent roughly the same amount of time reading and performed equally well. However, some participants who ignored the diagram performed more poorly on questions that tested understanding of basic facts. This result indicates that dual coding theory may be a possible theory to explain the phenomenon. Eye movement patterns indicated that at least some readers had extracted semantic information of the scientific terms when first looking at the diagram. Readers who read the scientific terms on the diagram first tended to spend less time looking at the same terms in the text, which they read after. Besides, presented clear diagrams can help readers process both semantic and spatial information, thereby facilitating an overall understanding of the article. In addition, although text-first and diagram-first readers spent similar total reading time on the text and diagram parts of the article, respectively, text-first readers had significantly less number of saccades of text and diagram than diagram-first readers. This result might be explained as text-directed reading.

  8. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    PubMed

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  9. Underreporting of maritime accidents to vessel accident databases.

    PubMed

    Hassel, Martin; Asbjørnslett, Bjørn Egil; Hole, Lars Petter

    2011-11-01

    Underreporting of maritime accidents is a problem not only for authorities trying to improve maritime safety through legislation, but also to risk management companies and other entities using maritime casualty statistics in risk and accident analysis. This study collected and compared casualty data from 01.01.2005 to 31.12.2009, from IHS Fairplay and the maritime authorities from a set of nations. The data was compared to find common records, and estimation of the true number of occurred accidents was performed using conditional probability given positive dependency between data sources, several variations of the capture-recapture method, calculation of best case scenario assuming perfect reporting, and scaling up a subset of casualty information from a marine insurance statistics database. The estimated upper limit reporting performance for the selected flag states ranged from 14% to 74%, while the corresponding estimated coverage of IHS Fairplay ranges from 4% to 62%. On average the study results document that the number of unreported accidents makes up roughly 50% of all occurred accidents. Even in a best case scenario, only a few flag states come close to perfect reporting (94%). The considerable scope of underreporting uncovered in the study, indicates that users of statistical vessel accident data should assume a certain degree of underreporting, and adjust their analyses accordingly. Whether to use correction factors, a safety margin, or rely on expert judgment, should be decided on a case by case basis. PMID:21819835

  10. Columbia Accident Probe Widens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covault, Craig

    2003-01-01

    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board has identified about a dozen shuttle program safety concerns it will address in its final report, in addition to foam shedding from the Lockheed Martin external tank-believed by many board members to be the direct cause for the loss of Columbia and her crew. As new evidence narrows the location of Columbia's left-wing breach to a lower corner of reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) Panel 8 and its adjoining T-seal, the board is broadening its penetration of other shuttle safety issues. As the board works in Houston, United Space Alliance technicians here at Kennedy last week sent the first six of 22 RCC panels from the orbiter Atlantis left wing to Vought Aircraft Industries Inc. in Dallas for extensive testing to assess their integrity. The move is a key step toward both returning the shuttle to flight with Atlantis and obtaining more data on RCC panels subjected to fewer flights, and less exposure to the weather, than the older panels used on Columbia.

  11. Thermodynamic Venn diagrams: Sorting out forces, fluxes, and Legendre transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, W. C.; Macosko, J. C.

    2011-09-01

    We show how to use a Venn diagram to illuminate the relations among the different thermodynamic potentials, forces, and fluxes of a simple system. A single diagram shows all of the thermodynamic potentials obtainable by Legendre transformations starting from the internal energy as the fundamental potential. From the diagram, we can also read off the Maxwell relations deduced from each of these potentials. We construct a second Venn diagram that shows the analogous information for the Massieu functions, obtained by Legendre transformations starting from the entropy as the fundamental thermodynamic function.

  12. 54. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ONE COMPLETE CYCLE - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  13. 55. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ONE COMPLETE CYCLE - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  14. 53. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ONE COMPLETE CYCLE - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  15. Massive basketball diagram for a thermal scalar field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael

    2000-08-15

    The ''basketball diagram'' is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar field theory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculate this diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it to expressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluated numerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massive scalar field with a {phi}{sup 4} interaction to three-loop order. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  16. Integrated 3-parameter diagram for determining thermodynamic properties of fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guochang; Deng, Xiaoxue; Zhu, Mingshan

    1987-04-01

    The importance of thermodynamic properties of fluids has motivated recent studies in developing methods of calculating thermodynamic properties. Among the various methods, the use of computational diagrams is a commonly used engineering method. Conventional diagrams do not take into consideration the internal relationships among the various thermodynamic properties. The internal relationships of various thermodynamic properties are considered. The Lee-Kessler three-parameter equations were used to construct an integrated three-parameter diagram for determining the thermodynamic properties of fluids; the curves were generated using an ai-M/6 microcomputer with an attached Sr 6602 plotter. The diagram is considered sufficiently accurate for engineering calculations.

  17. An evaluation of spindle-shaft seizure accident sequences for the Schenck Dynamic Balancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, T.F.; Fischer, S.R.

    1998-11-01

    This study was conducted at the request of the USDOE/AL Dynamic Balancer Project Team to develop a set of representative accident sequences initiated by rapid seizure of the spindle shaft of the Schenck dynamic balancing machine used in the mass properties testing activities in Bay 12-60 at the Pantex Plant. This Balancer is used for balancing reentry vehicles. In addition, the study identified potential causes of possible spindle-shaft seizure leading to a rapid deceleration of the rotating assembly. These accident sequences extend to the point that the reentry vehicle either remains in stable condition on the balancing machine or leaves the machine with some translational and rotational motion. Fault-tree analysis was used to identify possible causes of spindle-shaft seizure, and failure modes and effects analysis identified the results of shearing of different machine components. Cause-consequence diagrams were used to help develop accident sequences resulting from the possible effects of spindle-shaft seizure. To make these accident sequences physically reasonable, the analysts used idealized models of the dynamics of rotating masses. Idealized physical modeling also was used to provide approximate values of accident parameters that lead to branching down different accident progression paths. The exacerbating conditions of balancing machine over-speed and improper assembly of the fixture to the face plate are also addressed.

  18. Aircraft accidents : method of analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    This report on a method of analysis of aircraft accidents has been prepared by a special committee on the nomenclature, subdivision, and classification of aircraft accidents organized by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in response to a request dated February 18, 1928, from the Air Coordination Committee consisting of the Assistant Secretaries for Aeronautics in the Departments of War, Navy, and Commerce. The work was undertaken in recognition of the difficulty of drawing correct conclusions from efforts to analyze and compare reports of aircraft accidents prepared by different organizations using different classifications and definitions. The air coordination committee's request was made "in order that practices used may henceforth conform to a standard and be universally comparable." the purpose of the special committee therefore was to prepare a basis for the classification and comparison of aircraft accidents, both civil and military. (author)

  19. 49 CFR 801.32 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident reports. 801.32 Section 801.32... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Accident Investigation Records § 801.32 Accident reports. (a) The NTSB....S. civil transportation accidents, in accordance with 49 U.S.C. 1131(e). (b) These reports may...

  20. 29 CFR 1960.29 - Accident investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accident investigation. 1960.29 Section 1960.29 Labor... MATTERS Inspection and Abatement § 1960.29 Accident investigation. (a) While all accidents should be investigated, including accidents involving property damage only, the extent of such investigation shall...

  1. 49 CFR 195.54 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident reports. 195.54 Section 195.54... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.54 Accident reports. (a) Each operator that experiences an accident that is required to be reported under § 195.50 must, as soon...

  2. 49 CFR 230.22 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident reports. 230.22 Section 230.22... Requirements § 230.22 Accident reports. In the case of an accident due to failure, from any cause, of a steam... persons, the railroad on whose line the accident occurred shall immediately make a telephone report of...

  3. 49 CFR 845.40 - Accident report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident report. 845.40 Section 845.40... RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRANSPORTATION; ACCIDENT/INCIDENT HEARINGS AND REPORTS Board Reports § 845.40 Accident report. (a) The Board will issue a detailed narrative accident report in connection with...

  4. 29 CFR 1960.29 - Accident investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accident investigation. 1960.29 Section 1960.29 Labor... MATTERS Inspection and Abatement § 1960.29 Accident investigation. (a) While all accidents should be investigated, including accidents involving property damage only, the extent of such investigation shall...

  5. 49 CFR 230.22 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 230.22 Section 230.22... Requirements § 230.22 Accident reports. In the case of an accident due to failure, from any cause, of a steam... persons, the railroad on whose line the accident occurred shall immediately make a telephone report of...

  6. 49 CFR 195.54 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 195.54 Section 195.54... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.54 Accident reports. (a) Each operator that experiences an accident that is required to be reported under § 195.50 shall as soon...

  7. 49 CFR 845.40 - Accident report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident report. 845.40 Section 845.40... RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRANSPORTATION; ACCIDENT/INCIDENT HEARINGS AND REPORTS Board Reports § 845.40 Accident report. (a) The Board will issue a detailed narrative accident report in connection with...

  8. 49 CFR 801.32 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 801.32 Section 801.32... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Accident Investigation Records § 801.32 Accident reports. (a) The NTSB....S. civil transportation accidents, in accordance with 49 U.S.C. 1131(e). (b) These reports may...

  9. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, R.L.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates envirorunental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. This volume, Volume 2, contains logic diagrams with an index. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use.

  10. Object-Oriented Bayesian Networks (OOBN) for Aviation Accident Modeling and Technology Portfolio Impact Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Ann T.; Ancel, Ersin; Jones, Sharon M.

    2012-01-01

    The concern for reducing aviation safety risk is rising as the National Airspace System in the United States transforms to the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The NASA Aviation Safety Program is committed to developing an effective aviation safety technology portfolio to meet the challenges of this transformation and to mitigate relevant safety risks. The paper focuses on the reasoning of selecting Object-Oriented Bayesian Networks (OOBN) as the technique and commercial software for the accident modeling and portfolio assessment. To illustrate the benefits of OOBN in a large and complex aviation accident model, the in-flight Loss-of-Control Accident Framework (LOCAF) constructed as an influence diagram is presented. An OOBN approach not only simplifies construction and maintenance of complex causal networks for the modelers, but also offers a well-organized hierarchical network that is easier for decision makers to exploit the model examining the effectiveness of risk mitigation strategies through technology insertions.

  11. Spine Immobilizer for Accident Victims

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C.; Lampson, K.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed conformal bladder filled with tiny spheres called "microballoons," enables spine of accident victim to be rapidly immobilized and restrained and permit victim to be safely removed from accident scene in extremely short time after help arrives. Microballoons expand to form rigid mass when pressure within bladder is less than ambient. Bladder strapped to victim is also strapped to rescue chair. Void between bladder and chair is filled with cloth wedges.

  12. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ayer, J E; Clark, A T; Loysen, P; Ballinger, M Y; Mishima, J; Owczarski, P C; Gregory, W S; Nichols, B D

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH.

  13. Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakobyan, Aram P.

    In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a

  14. Accident Tolerant Fuel Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith; Heather Chichester; Jesse Johns; Melissa Teague; Michael Tonks; Robert Youngblood

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional “accident-tolerant” (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  15. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Curtis; Chichester, Heather; Johns, Jesse; Teague, Melissa; Tonks, Michael Idaho National Laboratory; Youngblood, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant decision makers should propose and

  16. Diagram of Cell to Cell Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Diagram depicts the importance of cell-cell communication as central to the understanding of cancer growth and progression, the focus of the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05) investigation. Microgravity studies will allow us to unravel the signaling and communication between these cells with the host and potential development of therapies for the treatment of cancer metastasis. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  17. Phase diagram for inertial granular flows.

    PubMed

    DeGiuli, E; McElwaine, J N; Wyart, M

    2016-07-01

    Flows of hard granular materials depend strongly on the interparticle friction coefficient μ_{p} and on the inertial number I, which characterizes proximity to the jamming transition where flow stops. Guided by numerical simulations, we derive the phase diagram of dense inertial flow of spherical particles, finding three regimes for 10^{-4}≲I≲10^{-1}: frictionless, frictional sliding, and rolling. These are distinguished by the dominant means of energy dissipation, changing from collisional to sliding friction, and back to collisional, as μ_{p} increases from zero at constant I. The three regimes differ in their kinetics and rheology; in particular, the velocity fluctuations and the stress ratio both display nonmonotonic behavior with μ_{p}, corresponding to transitions between the three regimes of flow. We rationalize the phase boundaries between these regimes, show that energy balance yields scaling relations between microscopic properties in each of them, and derive the strain scale at which particles lose memory of their velocity. For the frictional sliding regime most relevant experimentally, we find for I≥10^{-2.5} that the growth of the macroscopic friction μ(I) with I is induced by an increase of collisional dissipation. This implies in that range that μ(I)-μ(0)∼I^{1-2b}, where b≈0.2 is an exponent that characterizes both the dimensionless velocity fluctuations L∼I^{-b} and the density of sliding contacts χ∼I^{b}. PMID:27575203

  18. Phase diagram for inertial granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGiuli, E.; McElwaine, J. N.; Wyart, M.

    2016-07-01

    Flows of hard granular materials depend strongly on the interparticle friction coefficient μp and on the inertial number I , which characterizes proximity to the jamming transition where flow stops. Guided by numerical simulations, we derive the phase diagram of dense inertial flow of spherical particles, finding three regimes for 10-4≲I ≲10-1 : frictionless, frictional sliding, and rolling. These are distinguished by the dominant means of energy dissipation, changing from collisional to sliding friction, and back to collisional, as μp increases from zero at constant I . The three regimes differ in their kinetics and rheology; in particular, the velocity fluctuations and the stress ratio both display nonmonotonic behavior with μp, corresponding to transitions between the three regimes of flow. We rationalize the phase boundaries between these regimes, show that energy balance yields scaling relations between microscopic properties in each of them, and derive the strain scale at which particles lose memory of their velocity. For the frictional sliding regime most relevant experimentally, we find for I ≥10-2.5 that the growth of the macroscopic friction μ (I ) with I is induced by an increase of collisional dissipation. This implies in that range that μ (I ) -μ (0 ) ˜I1 -2 b , where b ≈0.2 is an exponent that characterizes both the dimensionless velocity fluctuations L ˜I-b and the density of sliding contacts χ ˜Ib .

  19. Improving Students' Diagram Comprehension with Classroom Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Perez, Tony C.; Fitzhugh, Shannon L.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Wills, Theodore W.; Tanaka, Jacqueline C.

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested whether students can be taught to better understand conventional representations in diagrams, photographs, and other visual representations in science textbooks. The authors developed a teacher-delivered, workbook-and-discussion-based classroom instructional method called Conventions of Diagrams (COD). The authors trained 1…

  20. Symbol-and-Arrow Diagrams in Teaching Pharmacokinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayton, William L.

    1990-01-01

    Symbol-and-arrow diagrams are helpful adjuncts to equations derived from pharmacokinetic models. Both show relationships among dependent and independent variables. Diagrams show only qualitative relationships, but clearly show which variables are dependent and which are independent, helping students understand complex but important functional…

  1. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 230 - Diagrams and Drawings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diagrams and Drawings B Appendix B to Part 230 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... to Part 230—Diagrams and Drawings ER17No99.015 ER17No99.016 ER17No99.017 ER17No99.018...

  2. Pourbaix ("E"-pH-M) Diagrams in Three Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesterfield, Lester L.; Maddox, Jeremy B.; Crocker, Michael S.; Schweitzer, George K.

    2012-01-01

    "E"-pH (Pourbaix) diagrams provide an important graphical link between the thermodynamic calculations of potential, pH, equilibrium constant, concentration, and changes in Gibbs energy and the experimentally observed behavior of species in aqueous solutions. The utility of "E"-pH diagrams is extended with the introduction of an additional…

  3. Water, Water Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, L.

    2004-01-01

    The full phase diagram of water in the form of a graphical representation of the three-dimensional (3D) PVT diagram using authentic data is presented. An interesting controversy regarding the phase behavior of water was the much-touted proposal of a solid phase of water, polywater, supposedly stable under atmospheric conditions.

  4. Argument Diagramming and Critical Thinking in Introductory Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Maralee

    2011-01-01

    In a multi-study naturalistic quasi-experiment involving 269 students in a semester-long introductory philosophy course, we investigated the effect of teaching argument diagramming (AD) on students' scores on argument analysis tasks. An argument diagram is a visual representation of the content and structure of an argument. In each study, all of…

  5. 30 CFR 556.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 556.8 Section 556.8... Management, General § 556.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a) Any area of the OCS which has been appropriately... operation under section 12(d) of the Act. (b) BOEM shall prepare leasing maps and official...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 230 - Diagrams and Drawings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diagrams and Drawings B Appendix B to Part 230 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... to Part 230—Diagrams and Drawings ER17No99.015 ER17No99.016 ER17No99.017 ER17No99.018...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 230 - Diagrams and Drawings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diagrams and Drawings B Appendix B to Part 230 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... to Part 230—Diagrams and Drawings ER17No99.015 ER17No99.016 ER17No99.017 ER17No99.018...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 230 - Diagrams and Drawings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diagrams and Drawings B Appendix B to Part 230 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... to Part 230—Diagrams and Drawings ER17No99.015 ER17No99.016 ER17No99.017 ER17No99.018...

  9. Diagram, Gesture, Agency: Theorizing Embodiment in the Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Elizabeth; Sinclair, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we use the work of philosopher Gilles Chatelet to rethink the gesture/diagram relationship and to explore the ways mathematical agency is constituted through it. We argue for a fundamental philosophical shift to better conceptualize the relationship between gesture and diagram, and suggest that such an approach might open up new…

  10. Diagramming Word Problems: A Strategic Approach for Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Garderen, Delinda; Scheuermann, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    While often recommended as a strategy to use in order to solve word problems, drawing a diagram is a complex process that requires a good depth of understanding. Many middle school students with learning disabilities (LD) often struggle to use diagrams in an effective and efficient manner. This article presents information for teaching middle…

  11. Adding Value to Force Diagrams: Representing Relative Force Magnitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendel, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all physics instructors recognize the instructional value of force diagrams, and this journal has published several collections of exercises to improve student skill in this area. Yet some instructors worry that too few students perceive the conceptual and problem-solving utility of force diagrams, and over recent years a rich variety of…

  12. Using a Spreadsheet To Explore Melting, Dissolving and Phase Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Compares phase diagrams relating to the solubilities and melting points of various substances in textbooks with those generated by a spreadsheet using data from the literature. Argues that differences between the diagrams give rise to new chemical insights. (Author/MM)

  13. 30 CFR 556.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 556.8 Section 556.8... Management, General § 556.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a) Any area of the OCS which has been appropriately... operation under section 12(d) of the Act. (b) BOEM shall prepare leasing maps and official...

  14. 30 CFR 556.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 556.8 Section 556.8... Management, General § 556.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a) Any area of the OCS which has been appropriately... operation under section 12(d) of the Act. (b) BOEM shall prepare leasing maps and official...

  15. 30 CFR 256.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 256.8 Section 256.8... Oil, Gas, and Sulphur Management, General § 256.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a) Any area of the OCS... restricted from operation under section 12(d) of the Act. (b) The MMS shall prepare leasing maps and...

  16. Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamizo, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The…

  17. Using Cabri3D Diagrams for Teaching Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Accascina, Giuseppe; Rogora, Enrico

    2006-01-01

    Cabri3D is a potentially very useful software for learning and teaching 3D geometry. The dynamic nature of the digital diagrams produced with it provides a useful aid for helping students to better develop concept images of geometric concepts. However, since any Cabri3D diagram represents three-dimensional objects on the two dimensional screen of…

  18. Diagram This Headline in One Minute, if You Can

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landecker, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Say "sentence diagramming" to people of a certain age, and one gets different reactions. Say it to most college students, and one gets a blank look. But not from the 24 students in Lucy Ferriss's "Constructing Thought," a half-credit course in the English department at Trinity College. They know how to diagram a sentence--and they are passionate…

  19. Diversions: Spatial Thinking Tasks--Cube Diagrams and Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, John

    2009-01-01

    This article illustrates spatial thinking tasks through cube diagrams and drawings. The author talks about the pentacube diagram that is based on the principle that a vertical cube-edge is shown "vertically". The author describes how to extend isometric drawing to include triangular wedges that are made by slicing single cubes, bi-cubes,…

  20. An Introductory Idea for Teaching Two-Component Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of two-component phase diagrams has attracted little attention in this "Journal," and it is hoped that this article will make a useful contribution. Current physical chemistry textbooks describe two-component phase diagrams adequately, but do so in a piecemeal fashion one section at a time; first solid-liquid equilibria, then…

  1. Persistence Diagrams of High-Resolution Temporal Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Méndez, F.; Carsteanu, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study applies Topological Data Analysis (TDA), by generating persistence diagrams to uncover patterns in the data of high-resolution temporal rainfall intensities from Iowa City (IIHR, U of Iowa). Persistence diagrams are a way to identify essential cycles in state-space representations of the data.

  2. Updating the Nomographical Diagrams for Dimensioning the Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Maria T.

    2015-12-01

    In order to reduce the time period needed for structures design it is strongly recommended to use nomographical diagrams. The base for formation and updating the nomographical diagrams, stands on the charts presented by different technical publications. The updated charts use the same algorithm and calculation elements as the former diagrams in accordance to the latest prescriptions and European standards. The result consists in a chart, having the same properties, similar with the nomogragraphical diagrams already in us. As a general conclusion, even in our days, the nomographical diagrams are very easy to use. Taking into consideration the value of the moment it's easy to find out the necessary reinforcement area and vice-verse, having the reinforcement area you can find out the capable moment. It still remains a useful opportunity for pre-sizing and designs the reinforced concrete sections.

  3. An Automated Approach to Transform Use Cases into Activity Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Tao; Briand, Lionel C.; Labiche, Yvan

    Use cases are commonly used to structure and document requirements while UML activity diagrams are often used to visualize and formalize use cases, for example to support automated test case generation. Therefore the automated support for the transition from use cases to activity diagrams would provide significant, practical help. Additionally, traceability could be established through automated transformation, which could then be used for instance to relate requirements to design decisions and test cases. In this paper, we propose an approach to automatically generate activity diagrams from use cases while establishing traceability links. Data flow information can also be generated and added to these activity diagrams. Our approach is implemented in a tool, which we used to perform five case studies. The results show that high quality activity diagrams can be generated. Our analysis also shows that our approach outperforms existing academic approaches and commercial tools.

  4. Calculation of Gallium-metal-Arsenic phase diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scofield, J. D.; Davison, J. E.; Ray, A. E.; Smith, S. R.

    1991-01-01

    Electrical contacts and metallization to GaAs solar cells must survive at high temperatures for several minutes under specific mission scenarios. The determination of which metallizations or alloy systems that are able to withstand extreme thermal excursions with minimum degradation to solar cell performance can be predicted by properly calculated temperature constitution phase diagrams. A method for calculating a ternary diagram and its three constituent binary phase diagrams is briefly outlined and ternary phase diagrams for three Ga-As-X alloy systems are presented. Free energy functions of the liquid and solid phase are approximated by the regular solution theory. Phase diagrams calculated using this method are presented for the Ga-As-Ge and Ga-As-Ag systems.

  5. [Venomous animal accidents in childhood

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J S; Campos, J A; Costa, D M

    1999-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: To highlight the importance of venomous animal accidents in childhood. The conducts are based on the proposals of the Ministério da Saúde do Brasil [Ministry of Health of Brazil] to standardize medical care in this kind of accident. This article shows the importance of early clinical diagnosis and assistance.METHODS: Review of international and national literature that includes original articles, official standards and books.RESULTS: Pediatricians may always feel insecure when they have to attend children who had venomous animal accidents because this kind of pathology is not very common. This article tries to offer easy guidelines and describes the main steps to be followed. Besides, peculiar or unusual aspects of these accidents are to be found in the literature referred to in the end of this article. Venomous animal accidents are always more severe in children, therefore resulting in higher mortality and sequelae. We assert that the early antivenom sera is extremely helpful.CONCLUSIONS: The systematization of the assistance may guarantee that the essential steps are followed thus making the assistance itself more effective. This is the purpose of the guidelines presented in this article. PMID:14685472

  6. Accident Prevention in the Cowshed*

    PubMed Central

    Mainzer, W.

    1966-01-01

    Work accidents were studied at two agricultural settlements in the Haifa area. Most of the accidents were caused by farm animals, particularly by cattle, a fact which is in agreement with a general statistical survey conducted by the Department for Occupational Health of the General Federation of Labour in Israel. However, in the present investigation it was found that the accident rate in cowsheds was more than 10 times higher among the members of a co-operative smallholders' village (Moshav Ovdim) than it was at a collective settlement (Moshav Shetufi) of the same numerical size. Searching for the basic factors involved, it was discovered that the main reason for this striking difference in accident frequency was the faulty design of the small cowshed at the individual farms of the co-operative settlement, which, lacking adequate protective measures, exposes the farmer to close contact with the animals throughout almost all stages of dealing with them. It is concluded that accidents from handling cattle can be prevented by adhering strictly to the principle of eliminating direct contact between man and animals in the construction of the cowshed and its annexes. Images PMID:5948271

  7. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies.

    PubMed

    Sims, C S

    1989-09-01

    Twenty-two nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast-pulse Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a total of 62 different organizations a forum for discussion of criticality accident dosimetry, an opportunity to test their neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry systems under a variety of simulated criticality accident conditions, and the experience of comparing results with reference dose values as well as with the measured results obtained by others making measurements under identical conditions. Sixty-nine nuclear accidents (27 with unmoderated neutron energy spectra and 42 with eight different shielded spectra) have been simulated in the studies. Neutron doses were in the 0.2-8.5 Gy range and gamma doses in the 0.1-2.0 Gy range. A total of 2,289 dose measurements (1,311 neutron, 978 gamma) were made during the intercomparisons. The primary methods of neutron dosimetry were activation foils, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and blood sodium activation. The main methods of gamma dose measurement were thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiophotoluminescent glass, and film. About 68% of the neutron measurements met the accuracy guidelines (+/- 25%) and about 52% of the gamma measurements met the accuracy criterion (+/- 20%) for accident dosimetry. PMID:2777549

  8. Using Eye Tracking to Investigate Semantic and Spatial Representations of Scientific Diagrams during Text-Diagram Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian, Yu-Cin; Wu, Chao-Jung

    2015-01-01

    We investigated strategies used by readers when reading a science article with a diagram and assessed whether semantic and spatial representations were constructed while reading the diagram. Seventy-one undergraduate participants read a scientific article while tracking their eye movements and then completed a reading comprehension test. Our…

  9. Effects of Three Diagram Instruction Methods on Transfer of Diagram Comprehension Skills: The Critical Role of Inference While Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Bergey, Bradley W.; Fitzhugh, Shannon; Newcombe, Nora; Wills, Theodore W.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Tanaka, Jacqueline C.

    2013-01-01

    Can students be taught to better comprehend the diagrams in their textbooks? Can such teaching transfer to uninstructed diagrams in the same domain or even in a new domain? What methods work best for these goals? Building on previous research showing positive results compared to control groups in both laboratory studies and short-term…

  10. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagram: Part B, Remedial Action

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Part A of Vols. 1. and 2 focuses on D&D. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the RA of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. Remedial action is the focus of Vol. 2, Pt. B, which has been divided into the three necessary subelements of the RA: characterization, RA, and robotics and automation. Each of these sections address general ORNL problems, which are then broken down by problem area/constituents and linked to potential remedial technologies. The diagrams also contain summary information about a technology`s status, its science and technology needs, and its implementation needs.

  11. The high-z quasar Hubble Diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Melia, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Two recent discoveries have made it possible for us to begin using high-z quasars as standard candles to construct a Hubble Diagram (HD) at z > 6. These are (1) the recognition from reverberation mapping that a relationship exists between the optical/UV luminosity and the distance of line-emitting gas from the central ionizing source. Thus, together with a measurement of the velocity of the line-emitting gas, e.g., via the width of BLR lines, such as Mg II, a single observation can therefore in principle provide a determination of the black hole's mass; and (2) the identification of quasar ULAS J1120+0641 at z = 7.085, which has significantly extended the redshift range of these sources, providing essential leverage when fitting theoretical luminosity distances to the data. In this paper, we use the observed fluxes and Mg II line-widths of these sources to show that one may reasonably test the predicted high-z distance versus redshift relationship, and we assemble a sample of 20 currently available high-z quasars for this exercise. We find a good match between theory and observations, suggesting that a more complete, high-quality survey may indeed eventually produce an HD to complement the highly-detailed study already underway (e.g., with Type Ia SNe, GRBs, and cosmic chronometers) at lower redshifts. With the modest sample we have here, we show that the R{sub h} = ct Universe and ΛCDM both fit the data quite well, though the smaller number of free parameters in the former produces a more favorable outcome when we calculate likelihoods using the Akaike, Kullback, and Bayes Information Criteria. These three statistical tools result in similar probabilities, indicating that the R{sub h} = ct Universe is more likely than ΛCDM to be correct, by a ratio of about 85% to 15%.

  12. Dynamic phase diagram of soft nanocolloids.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sudipta; Camargo, Manuel; Stellbrink, Jörg; Allgaier, Jürgen; Radulescu, Aurel; Lindner, Peter; Zaccarelli, Emanuela; Likos, Christos N; Richter, Dieter

    2015-09-01

    We present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study covering micro-, meso- and macroscopic length and time scales, which enables us to establish a generalized view in terms of structure-property relationship and equilibrium dynamics of soft colloids. We introduce a new, tunable block copolymer model system, which allows us to vary the aggregation number, and consequently its softness, by changing the solvophobic-to-solvophilic block ratio (m : n) over two orders of magnitude. Based on a simple and general coarse-grained model of the colloidal interaction potential, we verify the significance of interaction length σint governing both structural and dynamic properties. We put forward a quantitative comparison between theory and experiment without adjustable parameters, covering a broad range of experimental polymer volume fractions (0.001 ≤ϕ≤ 0.5) and regimes from ultra-soft star-like to hard sphere-like particles, that finally results in the dynamic phase diagram of soft colloids. In particular, we find throughout the concentration domain a strong correlation between mesoscopic diffusion and macroscopic viscosity, irrespective of softness, manifested in data collapse on master curves using the interaction length σint as the only relevant parameter. A clear reentrance in the glass transition at high aggregation numbers is found, recovering the predicted hard-sphere (HS) value in the hard-sphere like limit. Finally, the excellent agreement between our new experimental systems with different but already established model systems shows the relevance of block copolymer micelles as a versatile realization of soft colloids and the general validity of a coarse-grained approach for the description of the structure and dynamics of soft colloids. PMID:26219628

  13. Superconducting phase diagram of itinerant antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rømer, A. T.; Eremin, I.; Hirschfeld, P. J.; Andersen, B. M.

    2016-05-01

    We study the phase diagram of the Hubbard model in the weak-coupling limit for coexisting spin-density-wave order and spin-fluctuation-mediated superconductivity. Both longitudinal and transverse spin fluctuations contribute significantly to the effective interaction potential, which creates Cooper pairs of the quasiparticles of the antiferromagnetic metallic state. We find a dominant dx2-y2-wave solution in both electron- and hole-doped cases. In the quasi-spin-triplet channel, the longitudinal fluctuations give rise to an effective attraction supporting a p -wave gap, but are overcome by repulsive contributions from the transverse fluctuations which disfavor p -wave pairing compared to dx2-y2. The subleading pair instability is found to be in the g -wave channel, but complex admixtures of d and g are not energetically favored since their nodal structures coincide. Inclusion of interband pairing, in which each fermion in the Cooper pair belongs to a different spin-density-wave band, is considered for a range of electron dopings in the regime of well-developed magnetic order. We demonstrate that these interband pairing gaps, which are nonzero in the magnetic state, must have the same parity under inversion as the normal intraband gaps. The self-consistent solution to the full system of five coupled gap equations gives intraband and interband pairing gaps of dx2-y2 structure and similar gap magnitude. In conclusion, the dx2-y2 gap dominates for both hole and electron doping inside the spin-density-wave phase.

  14. Severe accident simulation at Olkiuoto

    SciTech Connect

    Tirkkonen, H.; Saarenpaeae, T.; Cliff Po, L.C.

    1995-09-01

    A personal computer-based simulator was developed for the Olkiluoto nuclear plant in Finland for training in severe accident management. The generic software PCTRAN was expanded to model the plant-specific features of the ABB Atom designed BWR including its containment over-pressure protection and filtered vent systems. Scenarios including core heat-up, hydrogen generation, core melt and vessel penetration were developed in this work. Radiation leakage paths and dose rate distribution are presented graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an 486 DX2-66, PCTRAN-TVO achieves a speed about 15 times faster than real-time. A convenient and user-friendly graphic interface allows full interactive control. In this paper a review of the component models and verification runs are presented.

  15. Penguin-like diagrams from the standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Chia Swee

    2015-04-01

    The Standard Model is highly successful in describing the interactions of leptons and quarks. There are, however, rare processes that involve higher order effects in electroweak interactions. One specific class of processes is the penguin-like diagram. Such class of diagrams involves the neutral change of quark flavours accompanied by the emission of a gluon (gluon penguin), a photon (photon penguin), a gluon and a photon (gluon-photon penguin), a Z-boson (Z penguin), or a Higgs-boson (Higgs penguin). Such diagrams do not arise at the tree level in the Standard Model. They are, however, induced by one-loop effects. In this paper, we present an exact calculation of the penguin diagram vertices in the `tHooft-Feynman gauge. Renormalization of the vertex is effected by a prescription by Chia and Chong which gives an expression for the counter term identical to that obtained by employing Ward-Takahashi identity. The on-shell vertex functions for the penguin diagram vertices are obtained. The various penguin diagram vertex functions are related to one another via Ward-Takahashi identity. From these, a set of relations is obtained connecting the vertex form factors of various penguin diagrams. Explicit expressions for the gluon-photon penguin vertex form factors are obtained, and their contributions to the flavor changing processes estimated.

  16. Penguin-like diagrams from the standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Ping, Chia Swee

    2015-04-24

    The Standard Model is highly successful in describing the interactions of leptons and quarks. There are, however, rare processes that involve higher order effects in electroweak interactions. One specific class of processes is the penguin-like diagram. Such class of diagrams involves the neutral change of quark flavours accompanied by the emission of a gluon (gluon penguin), a photon (photon penguin), a gluon and a photon (gluon-photon penguin), a Z-boson (Z penguin), or a Higgs-boson (Higgs penguin). Such diagrams do not arise at the tree level in the Standard Model. They are, however, induced by one-loop effects. In this paper, we present an exact calculation of the penguin diagram vertices in the ‘tHooft-Feynman gauge. Renormalization of the vertex is effected by a prescription by Chia and Chong which gives an expression for the counter term identical to that obtained by employing Ward-Takahashi identity. The on-shell vertex functions for the penguin diagram vertices are obtained. The various penguin diagram vertex functions are related to one another via Ward-Takahashi identity. From these, a set of relations is obtained connecting the vertex form factors of various penguin diagrams. Explicit expressions for the gluon-photon penguin vertex form factors are obtained, and their contributions to the flavor changing processes estimated.

  17. Plotting and Analyzing Data Trends in Ternary Diagrams Made Easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Cédric M.

    2004-04-01

    Ternary plots are used in many fields of science to characterize a system based on three components. Triangular plotting is thus useful to a broad audience in the Earth sciences and beyond. Unfortunately, it is typically the most expensive commercial software packages that offer the option to plot data in ternary diagrams, and they lack features that are paramount to the geosciences, such as the ability to plot data directly into a standardized diagram and the possibility to analyze temporal and stratigraphic trends within this diagram. To address these issues, δPlot was developed with a strong emphasis on ease of use, community orientation, and availability free of charges. This ``freeware'' supports a fully graphical user interface where data can be imported as text files, or by copying and pasting. A plot is automatically generated, and any standard diagram can be selected for plotting in the background using a simple pull-down menu. Standard diagrams are stored in an external database of PDF files that currently holds some 30 diagrams that deal with different fields of the Earth sciences. Using any drawing software supporting PDF, one can easily produce new standard diagrams to be used with δPlot by simply adding them to the library folder. An independent column of values, commonly stratigraphic depths or ages, can be used to sort the data sets.

  18. [Diving accidents. Emergency treatment of serious diving accidents].

    PubMed

    Schröder, S; Lier, H; Wiese, S

    2004-11-01

    Decompression injuries are potentially life-threatening incidents mainly due to a rapid decline in ambient pressure. Decompression illness (DCI) results from the presence of gas bubbles in the blood and tissue. DCI may be classified as decompression sickness (DCS) generated from the liberation of gas bubbles following an oversaturation of tissues with inert gas and arterial gas embolism (AGE) mainly due to pulmonary barotrauma. People working under hyperbaric pressure, e.g. in a caisson for general construction under water, and scuba divers are exposed to certain risks. Diving accidents can be fatal and are often characterized by organ dysfunction, especially neurological deficits. They have become comparatively rare among professional divers and workers. However, since recreational scuba diving is gaining more and more popularity there is an increasing likelihood of severe diving accidents. Thus, emergency staff working close to areas with a high scuba diving activity, e.g. lakes or rivers, may be called more frequently to a scuba diving accident. The correct and professional emergency treatment on site, especially the immediate and continuous administration of normobaric oxygen, is decisive for the outcome of the accident victim. The definitive treatment includes rapid recompression with hyperbaric oxygen. The value of adjunctive medication, however, remains controversial. PMID:15565421

  19. Traffic accidents on a single-lane road with multi-slowdown sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingli; Kuang, Hua; Fan, Yanhong; Zhang, Guoxin

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, an extended cellular automaton model is proposed to simulate the complex characteristics of traffic flow and the probability of the occurrence of traffic accidents by considering the modified conditions for determining whether traffic accidents happen and the effect of multi-slowdown sections on a highway. The simulation results show that the multi-slowdown sections can lead to multiphase coexistences (i.e. free flow phase, congestion phase and saturation phase) in traffic system. The fundamental diagram shows that the number of slowdown section does not influence the mean velocity and the mean flow under the periodic boundary condition, but the existence of slowdown sections can effectively reduce the occurrence of traffic accident. In particular, it is found that the probability of car accidents to occur is the largest at the joint of the normal-speed section and slowdown section, and the underlying mechanism is analyzed. In addition, to design the appropriate limited speed and reduce the differences between the normal speed and limited speed will alleviate traffic congestion and reduce the occurrence of traffic accidents obviously.

  20. Cu-Zn binary phase diagram and diffusion couples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to learn: (1) what information a binary phase diagram can yield; (2) how to construct and heat treat a simple diffusion couple; (3) how to prepare a metallographic sample; (4) how to operate a metallograph; (5) how to correlate phases found in the diffusion couple with phases predicted by the phase diagram; (6) how diffusion couples held at various temperatures could be used to construct a phase diagram; (7) the relation between the thickness of an intermetallic phase layer and the diffusion time; and (8) the effect of one species of atoms diffusing faster than another species in a diffusion couple.

  1. Cosmological test with the QSO Hubble diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Corredoira, M.; Melia, F.; Lusso, E.; Risaliti, G.

    2016-03-01

    A Hubble diagram (HD) has recently been constructed in the redshift range 0 ≲ z ≲ 6.5 using a nonlinear relation between the ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray luminosities of quasi stellar objects (QSOs). The Type Ia Supernovae (SN) HD has already provided a high-precision test of cosmological models, but the fact that the QSO distribution extends well beyond the supernova range (z ≲ 1.8), in principle provides us with an important complementary diagnostic whose significantly greater leverage in z can impose tighter constraints on the distance versus redshift relationship. In this paper, we therefore perform an independent test of nine different cosmological models, among which six are expanding, while three are static. Many of these are disfavored by other kinds of observations (including the aforementioned Type Ia SNe). We wish to examine whether the QSO HD confirms or rejects these earlier conclusions. We find that four of these models (Einstein-de Sitter, the Milne universe, the static universe with simple tired light and the static universe with plasma tired light) are excluded at the > 99% C.L. The quasi-steady state model is excluded at > 95% C.L. The remaining four models (ΛCDM/wCDM, the Rh = ct universe, the Friedmann open universe and a static universe with a linear Hubble law) all pass the test. However, only ΛCDM/wCDM and Rh = ct also pass the Alcock-Paczyński (AP) test. The optimized parameters in ΛCDM/wCDM are Ωm = 0.20-0.20+0.24 and wde = -1.2-∞+1.6 (the dark energy equation-of-state). Combined with the AP test, these values become Ωm = 0.38-0.19+0.20 and wde = -0.28-0.40+0.52. But whereas this optimization of parameters in ΛCDM/wCDM creates some tension with their concordance values, the Rh = ct universe has the advantage of fitting the QSO and AP data without any free parameters.

  2. 49 CFR 229.17 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR part 225. ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident reports. 229.17 Section 229.17..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS General § 229.17 Accident reports. (a)...

  3. 49 CFR 229.17 - Accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 225. ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident reports. 229.17 Section 229.17..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS General § 229.17 Accident reports. (a)...

  4. The Physics of Traffic Accidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Shows how physics can be used to analyze and prevent traffic accidents by determining critical speeds on curves, the behavior of motor cycles and stability of articulated vehicles, and the visibility that is needed to make a minor road junction safe. (MLH)

  5. Delta launch vehicle accident investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-03-01

    The text of the testimony given by several witnesses during the House hearings on the Delta launch vehicle accident of May 3, 1986 is given. Pre-launch procedures, failure analysis, the possibility of sabotage, and design and testing are among the topics discussed.

  6. Updating outdated predictive accident models.

    PubMed

    Wood, A G; Mountain, L J; Connors, R D; Maher, M J; Ropkins, K

    2013-06-01

    Reliable predictive accident models (PAMs) (also referred to as safety performance functions (SPFs)) are essential to design and maintain safe road networks however, ongoing changes in road and vehicle design coupled with road safety initiatives, mean that these models can quickly become dated. Unfortunately, because the fitting of sophisticated PAMs including a wide range of explanatory variables is not a trivial task, available models tend to be based on data collected many years ago and seem unlikely to give reliable estimates of current accidents. Large, expensive studies to produce new models are likely to be, at best, only a temporary solution. This paper thus seeks to develop a practical and efficient methodology to allow currently available PAMs to be updated to give unbiased estimates of accident frequencies at any point in time. Two principal issues are examined: the extent to which the temporal transferability of predictive accident models varies with model complexity; and the practicality and efficiency of two alternative updating strategies. The models used to illustrate these issues are the suites of models developed for rural dual and single carriageway roads in the UK. These are widely used in several software packages in spite of being based on data collected during the 1980s and early 1990s. It was found that increased model complexity by no means ensures better temporal transferability and that calibration of the models using a scale factor can be a practical alternative to fitting new models. PMID:23510788

  7. Time Slows Down during Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Arstila, Valtteri

    2012-01-01

    The experienced speed of the passage of time is not constant as time can seem to fly or slow down depending on the circumstances we are in. Anecdotally accidents and other frightening events are extreme examples of the latter; people who have survived accidents often report altered phenomenology including how everything appeared to happen in slow motion. While the experienced phenomenology has been investigated, there are no explanations about how one can have these experiences. Instead, the only recently discussed explanation suggests that the anecdotal phenomenology is due to memory effects and hence not really experienced during the accidents. The purpose of this article is (i) to reintroduce the currently forgotten comprehensively altered phenomenology that some people experience during the accidents, (ii) to explain why the recent experiments fail to address the issue at hand, and (iii) to suggest a new framework to explain what happens when people report having experiences of time slowing down in these cases. According to the suggested framework, our cognitive processes become rapidly enhanced. As a result, the relation between the temporal properties of events in the external world and in internal states becomes distorted with the consequence of external world appearing to slow down. That is, the presented solution is a realist one in a sense that it maintains that sometimes people really do have experiences of time slowing down. PMID:22754544

  8. Time Slows Down during Accidents.

    PubMed

    Arstila, Valtteri

    2012-01-01

    The experienced speed of the passage of time is not constant as time can seem to fly or slow down depending on the circumstances we are in. Anecdotally accidents and other frightening events are extreme examples of the latter; people who have survived accidents often report altered phenomenology including how everything appeared to happen in slow motion. While the experienced phenomenology has been investigated, there are no explanations about how one can have these experiences. Instead, the only recently discussed explanation suggests that the anecdotal phenomenology is due to memory effects and hence not really experienced during the accidents. The purpose of this article is (i) to reintroduce the currently forgotten comprehensively altered phenomenology that some people experience during the accidents, (ii) to explain why the recent experiments fail to address the issue at hand, and (iii) to suggest a new framework to explain what happens when people report having experiences of time slowing down in these cases. According to the suggested framework, our cognitive processes become rapidly enhanced. As a result, the relation between the temporal properties of events in the external world and in internal states becomes distorted with the consequence of external world appearing to slow down. That is, the presented solution is a realist one in a sense that it maintains that sometimes people really do have experiences of time slowing down. PMID:22754544

  9. Determinants of injuries in passenger vessel accidents.

    PubMed

    Yip, Tsz Leung; Jin, Di; Talley, Wayne K

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates determinants of crew and passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. Crew and passenger injury equations are estimated for ferry, ocean cruise, and river cruise vessel accidents, utilizing detailed data of individual vessel accidents that were investigated by the U.S. Coast Guard during the time period 2001-2008. The estimation results provide empirical evidence (for the first time in the literature) that crew injuries are determinants of passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. PMID:26070017

  10. 61. THREE LINE WIRING DIAGRAM, 33 KV & NO. 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. THREE LINE WIRING DIAGRAM, 33 KV & NO. 1 TRANS BANK, SANTA ANA NO. 1 HYDRO PLANT, OCTOBER 27, 1958. SCE drawing no. 428058-1. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  11. Penguin diagram dominance in radiative weak decays of bottom baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Kohara, Yoji

    2005-05-01

    Radiative weak decays of antitriplet bottom baryons are studied under the assumption of penguin diagram dominance and flavor-SU(3) (or SU(2)) symmetry. Relations among decay rates of various decay modes are derived.

  12. Exercises in Drawing and Utilizing Free-Body Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kurt

    1999-01-01

    Finds that students taking algebra-based introductory physics have difficulty with one- and two-body problems in particle mechanics. Provides graded exercises for drawing and utilizing free-body diagrams. (CCM)

  13. Flame Deflector Section, Elevation, Water Supply Flow Diagram, Exploded ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Flame Deflector - Section, Elevation, Water Supply Flow Diagram, Exploded Deflector Manifolds, and Interior Perspective - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  14. 22. Power plant engine pipingcompressed air piping diagram and sections, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Power plant engine piping-compressed air piping diagram and sections, sheet 81 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  15. 21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  16. Search the Foot and Ankle: Interactive Foot Diagram

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search by GPS Please enter a city or last name. Use your current position? {{ps.position.alert.message}} ... digit zip code. Please enter a city or last name. Search Where do you hurt? Interactive Foot Diagram ...

  17. Ground water quality assessment using multi-rectangular diagrams.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Niaz; Sen, Zekai; Ahmad, Manzoor

    2003-01-01

    A new graphical technique is proposed here for classifying chemical analyses of ground water. In this technique, a diagram is constructed using rectangular coordinates. The new diagram, called a multi-rectangular diagram (MRD), uses adjacent multi-rectangles in which each rectangle represents a specific ground water type. This new diagram has the capability to accommodate a large number of data sets. MRDs have been used to classify chemical analyses of ground water in the Chaj Doab area of Pakistan to illustrate this new approach. Using this graphical method, the differentiated ground water types are calcium bicarbonate, magnesium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, and sodium sulfate. Sodium bicarbonate emerges as the most abundant ground water type. MRDs also offer a visual display of the Chebotarev sequence of ground water quality evolution. PMID:14649865

  18. Influence diagrams as oil spill decision science tools

    EPA Science Inventory

    Making inferences on risks to ecosystem services (ES) from ecological crises can be more reliably handled using decision science tools. Influence diagrams (IDs) are probabilistic networks that explicitly represent the decisions related to a problem and evidence of their influence...

  19. Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamizo, José A.

    2012-05-01

    The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The left side originally related in Gowin's Vee with philosophies, theories, models, laws or regularities now agrees with Toulmin's concepts (language, models as representation techniques and application procedures). Mexican science teachers without experience in science education research used the heuristic diagram to learn about the history of chemistry considering also in the left side two different historical times: past and present. Through a semantic differential scale teachers' attitude to the heuristic diagram was evaluated and its usefulness was demonstrated.

  20. 8. Photocopy of top half of an 1855 organizational diagram ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of top half of an 1855 organizational diagram of the New York and Erie Railroad. Original in the collections of the Library of Congress. - Erie Railway, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Deposit, Broome County, NY

  1. 9. Photocopy of bottom half of an 1855 organizational diagram ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of bottom half of an 1855 organizational diagram of the New York and Erie Railroad. Original in the collections of the Library of Congress. - Erie Railway, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Deposit, Broome County, NY

  2. 129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. Sheet lO of 11 (#3283) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  3. Adding Value to Force Diagrams: Representing Relative Force Magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, Paul

    2011-05-01

    Nearly all physics instructors recognize the instructional value of force diagrams, and this journal has published several collections of exercises to improve student skill in this area.1-4 Yet some instructors worry that too few students perceive the conceptual and problem-solving utility of force diagrams,4-6 and over recent years a rich variety of approaches has been proposed to add value to force diagrams. Suggestions include strategies for identifying candidate forces,6,7 emphasizing the distinction between "contact" and "noncontact" forces,5,8 and the use of computer-based tutorials.9,10 Instructors have suggested a variety of conventions for constructing force diagrams, including approaches to arrow placement and orientation2,11-13 and proposed notations for locating forces or marking action-reaction force pairs.8,11,14,15

  4. 76 FR 54787 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams AGENCY... revised North American Datum of 1927 (NAD 27) Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram,...

  5. 76 FR 2919 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean... American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and...

  6. Phase diagram calculation of AIIIBV binary solutions of the eutectic type in the generalized lattice model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, G. A.; Zakharov, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    The present work is devoted to the phase diagrams calculation of AIIIBV systems within the framework of the generalized lattice model taking account of volume effects. The theoretically calculated phase diagram is compared with the corresponding experimental diagrams.

  7. School Bus Accidents and Driver Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMichael, Judith

    The study examines the rates and types of school bus accidents according to the age of the school bus driver. Accident rates in North Carolina for the school year 1971-72 were analyzed using three sources of data: accident reports, driver and mileage data, and questionnaires administered to a sample of school bus drivers. Data were obtained on…

  8. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention,...

  9. 49 CFR 195.50 - Reporting accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting accidents. 195.50 Section 195.50 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.50 Reporting accidents. An...

  10. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  11. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.513 Accident prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention,...

  12. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause...

  13. 22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS CIVIL AVIATION United States Aircraft Accidents Abroad § 102.8 Reporting accidents. (a) To airline and Civil Aeronautics Administration... accident to the Foreign Service post, to the nearest Civil Aeronautics Administration office, and to...

  14. 22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS CIVIL AVIATION United States Aircraft Accidents Abroad § 102.8 Reporting accidents. (a) To airline and Civil Aeronautics Administration... accident to the Foreign Service post, to the nearest Civil Aeronautics Administration office, and to...

  15. 22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reporting accidents. 102.8 Section 102.8... Accidents Abroad § 102.8 Reporting accidents. (a) To airline and Civil Aeronautics Administration... and the supervisory Foreign Service office whenever considered appropriate. A final report, after...

  16. 28 CFR 301.106 - Repetitious accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Repetitious accidents. 301.106 Section 301.106 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION General § 301.106 Repetitious accidents. If an inmate worker is involved in successive...

  17. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention....

  18. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  19. NASA Medical Response to Human Spacecraft Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patlach, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Manned space flight is risky business. Accidents have occurred and may occur in the future. NASA's manned space flight programs, with all their successes, have had three fatal accidents, one at the launch pad and two in flight. The Apollo fire and the Challenger and Columbia accidents resulted in a loss of seventeen crewmembers. Russia's manned space flight programs have had three fatal accidents, one ground-based and two in flight. These accidents resulted in the loss of five crewmembers. Additionally, manned spacecraft have encountered numerous close calls with potential for disaster. The NASA Johnson Space Center Flight Safety Office has documented more than 70 spacecraft incidents, many of which could have become serious accidents. At the Johnson Space Center (JSC), medical contingency personnel are assigned to a Mishap Investigation Team. The team deploys to the accident site to gather and preserve evidence for the Accident Investigation Board. The JSC Medical Operations Branch has developed a flight surgeon accident response training class to capture the lessons learned from the Columbia accident. This presentation will address the NASA Mishap Investigation Team's medical objectives, planned response, and potential issues that could arise subsequent to a manned spacecraft accident. Educational Objectives are to understand the medical objectives and issues confronting the Mishap Investigation Team medical personnel subsequent to a human space flight accident.

  20. 49 CFR 195.50 - Reporting accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting accidents. 195.50 Section 195.50 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.50 Reporting accidents. An...

  1. 28 CFR 301.106 - Repetitious accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Repetitious accidents. 301.106 Section 301.106 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION General § 301.106 Repetitious accidents. If an inmate worker is involved in successive...

  2. CUEMAP: A tool for generating hierarchical charts and dataflow diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.W.

    1987-12-01

    CUEMAP is a preprocessor to the MAPPER program, which generates report quality visual aids. CUEMAP uses text blocks, symbols, and line connectors to lay out hierarchical charts and dataflow diagrams. A grid is specified as a reference point on which the labels and symbols can be placed. Connectors are added to complete the diagram. Modifications and enhancements require knowledge of the MAPPER syntax. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  3. Construction of Penrose Diagrams for Dynamic Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Beth A.; Lindesay, James

    2008-01-01

    A set of Penrose diagrams is constructed in order to examine the large-scale causal structure of black holes with dynamic horizons. Coordinate dependencies of significant features, such as the event horizon and radial mass scale, are demonstrated on the diagrams. Unlike in static Schwarzschild geometries, the radial mass scale is clearly seen to differ from the horizon. Trajectories for photons near the horizon are briefly discussed.

  4. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-08-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal data and eye-tracking data were collected as indications of students' learning activities. For the verbal data, we applied a fine-grained coding scheme to optimally describe students' learning activities. For the eye-tracking data, we used fixation time and transitions between areas of interest in the process diagrams as indices of learning activities. Various learning activities while studying process diagrams were found that distinguished between more and less successful students. Results showed that between-student variance in comprehension score was highly predicted by meaning making of the process arrows (80%) and fixation time in the main area (65%). Students employed successful learning activities consistently across learning tasks. Furthermore, compared to unsuccessful students, successful students used a more coherent approach of interrelated learning activities for comprehending process diagrams.

  5. CALCULATING ASTEROSEISMIC DIAGRAMS FOR SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    White, Timothy R.; Bedding, Timothy R.; Stello, Dennis; Huber, Daniel; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen; Kjeldsen, Hans

    2011-12-20

    With the success of the Kepler and CoRoT missions, the number of stars with detected solar-like oscillations has increased by several orders of magnitude; for the first time we are able to perform large-scale ensemble asteroseismology of these stars. In preparation for this golden age of asteroseismology we have computed expected values of various asteroseismic observables from models of varying mass and metallicity. The relationships between these asteroseismic observables, such as the separations between mode frequencies, are able to significantly constrain estimates of the ages and masses of these stars. We investigate the scaling relation between the large frequency separation, {Delta}{nu}, and mean stellar density. Furthermore we present model evolutionary tracks for several asteroseismic diagrams. We have extended the so-called C-D diagram beyond the main sequence to the subgiants and the red giant branch. We also consider another asteroseismic diagram, the {epsilon} diagram, which is more sensitive to variations in stellar properties at the subgiant stages and can aid in determining the correct mode identification. The recent discovery of gravity-mode period spacings in red giants forms the basis for a third asteroseismic diagram. We compare the evolutionary model tracks in these asteroseismic diagrams with results from pre-Kepler studies of solar-like oscillations and early results from Kepler.

  6. TIME-TEMPERATURE-TRANSFORMATION DIAGRAMS FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 3 - FRIT 418 GLASS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Billings, A; Tommy Edwards, T

    2009-03-03

    transition temperature measurement and TTT diagram development. The glass transition temperature (Tg) was measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and was recorded to be 443 {+-} 3 C. Using the previous TTT diagrams as guidance, subsamples of the glass were isothermally heat treated for 0.5 to 768 hours at temperatures between 400 C to 1100 C. Each of the 56 heat treated samples, along with quenched and centerline canister cooled (CCC) treated samples, were analyzed using Xray diffraction (XRD) and the PCT. Crystallization was detected only in samples treated at 600 C for more than 192 hours, and 700, 800, and 900 C for more than 48 hours. Phases crystallized were similar in composition if not the same as those found in the previous TTT studies. Six different crystalline phases were detected, including nepheline, acmite, lithium silicate, trevorite, krinovite, and albite. Overall, phases were spinel (iron) based, lithium metasilicate, sodium aluminosilicate or sodium transition metal silicate in composition. No new crystalline families were detected. Durability, as measured by the PCT, decreased when lithium silicate or nepheline crystals were present. Only one heat treated sample had a measured PCT response exceeding the benchmark EA glass, which was a sample treated at 600 C for 768 hours. During normal processing at the DWPF these conditions would be highly unlikely to occur, even in an extreme accident scenario. In order to continue to meet the requirements of the WCP, a simplified strategy is suggested for the generation of future TTT diagrams. A strategy has been developed that would require completing two more TTT diagrams for two averaged, future, predicted waste types. By creating diagrams for the resulting glass compositions of encompassing waste types, it will give insight to the crystallization regions possible for those averages. As discussed in the report, 'Initial MAR Assessments to Access the Impact of Al-Dissolution on DWPF Operating Windows

  7. [Case report: fatal diving-accident. Or: accident while diving?].

    PubMed

    Böttcher, F; Jüttner, B; Krause, A; Rocha, M; Koppert, W

    2012-02-01

    This example of a fatal diving accident shows how challenging such cases can be in pre-hospital and clinical care. There is no common mechanism in diving fatalities and more than one group of disorders coming along with decompression sickness. Diving medicine is not an element of medical education, which results in insecurity and hampers adequate therapy of diving incidents. This is aggravated by an insufficient availability of hyperbaric chambers in Germany. PMID:22354401

  8. The Chornobyl Accident: A Comprehensive Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Poyarkov, Victor A.; Vargo, George J.; George J. Vargo

    2000-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive of the April 1986 Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident and its short and long-term effects in the fourteen years since the accident. Chapters include: cause and description of the accident; the Shelter constructed to contain the remains the destroyed reactor, radioactive wastes arising from the accident, environmental contamination, individual and collective radiation doses, societal aspects, economic impact and conclusions. Appendices on radiological units, the medical consequences of the accident, and a list of acronym and abbreviations are included.

  9. Single pilot IFR accident data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. F.

    1983-01-01

    The aircraft accident data recorded by the National Transportation and Safety Board (NTSR) for 1964-1979 were analyzed to determine what problems exist in the general aviation (GA) single pilot instrument flight rule (SPIFR) environment. A previous study conducted in 1978 for the years 1964-1975 provided a basis for comparison. This effort was generally limited to SPIFR pilot error landing phase accidents but includes some SPIFR takeoff and enroute accident analysis as well as some dual pilot IFR accident analysis for comparison. Analysis was performed for 554 accidents of which 39% (216) occurred during the years 1976-1979.

  10. Accidents in the aluminium smelting industry.

    PubMed

    Das, B C; Chaudhury, S

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of the accident records of an aluminium smelting industry, covering about 2,100 employees, over a period of three years, showed a total of 465 accidents of male employees. Out of these, 5 were fatal, 40.86% were from contacts with extreme temperatures, causing burn injury to 42.58%. Hot materials were the agents causing 44.52% of the burn injuries. Molten aluminium constituted 43.96% amongst hot materials. Injury to lower limbs constituted 38.71% and that to upper limbs 36.99%. The accidents occurring to the employees, in the age group of 26-33 years, amounted to 61.72% of the total accidents. The average number of man-days lost per year was 11,153. Average frequency rate of accidents was 30.75 accidents per million man-hours worked. Severity rate of accidents was 2.196 per million man-hours worked. Incident rate per thousand employees was 73.81. Average number of days lost per accidents was 71.95 days and average duration of man-hours between accidents was 32,516. Mean age of the employees, who met with the accidents were 29.53 years. Share of accidents in the second half of each shift was always more than that in the first half, and this average was 66.66%. PMID:8557540

  11. The Concept of Accident Proneness: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Froggatt, Peter; Smiley, James A.

    1964-01-01

    The term accident proneness was coined by psychological research workers in 1926. Since then its concept—that certain individuals are always more likely than others to sustain accidents, even though exposed to equal risk—has been questioned but seldom seriously challenged. This article describes much of the work and theory on which this concept is based, details the difficulties encountered in obtaining valid information and the interpretative errors that can arise from the examination of imperfect data, and explains why accident proneness became so readily accepted as an explanation of the facts. A recent hypothesis of accident causation, namely that a person's accident liability may vary from time to time, is outlined, and the respective abilities of this and of accident proneness to accord with data from the more reliable literature are examined. The authors conclude that the hypothesis of individual variation in liability is more realistic and in better agreement with the data than is accident proneness. PMID:14106130

  12. Electrochemical phase diagrams for Ti oxides from density functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liang-Feng; Rondinelli, James M.

    2015-12-01

    Developing an accurate simulation method for the electrochemical stability of solids, as well as understanding the physics related with its accuracy, is critically important for improving the performance of compounds and predicting the stability of new materials in aqueous environments. Herein we propose a workflow for the accurate calculation of first-principles electrochemical phase (Pourbaix) diagrams. With this scheme, we study the electrochemical stabilities of Ti and Ti oxides using density-functional theory. First, we find the accuracy of an exchange-correlation functional in predicting formation energies and electrochemical stabilities is closely related with the electronic exchange interaction therein. Second, the metaGGA and hybrid functionals with a more precise description of the electronic exchange interaction lead to a systematic improvement in the accuracy of the Pourbaix diagrams. Furthermore, we show that accurate Ti Pourbaix diagrams also require that thermal effects are included through vibrational contributions to the free energy. We then use these diagrams to explain various experimental electrochemical phenomena for the Ti-O system, and show that if experimental formation energies for Ti oxides, which contain contributions from defects owing to their generation at high (combustion) temperatures, are directly used to predict room temperature Pourbaix diagrams then significant inaccuracies result. In contrast, the formation energies from accurate first-principles calculations, e.g., using metaGGA and hybrid functionals, are found to be more reliable. Finally, to facilitate the future application of our accurate electrochemical phase equilibria diagrams, the variation of the Ti Pourbaix diagrams with aqueous ion concentration is also provided.

  13. Development of processing diagrams for polymeric die attach adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiung, Jen-Chou

    With a processing diagram, one can reduce the effort required to customize curing process conditions for polymeric die attach adhesives. Polymeric die attach adhesives are often cured per the manufacturer's recommendations during initial screening evaluations. In most cases, the recommended cure schedules have to be modified so as to fit differences in process equipment. Unfortunately, the modified cure schedule is usually determined by a trial-and-error method. An aim of our experiments is to understand the curing process of a wide range of polymeric die attach adhesives (conventional, fast, and snap cure adhesives) and to construct a processing diagram, i.e., "Bondability Diagram", so as to define the processing window. Such diagrams should be helpful in determining both the time and cure temperature required to produce high quality bonds. The bondability diagram can be constructed based on fundamental understandings of the phenomena involved in the curing process using a wide variety of tools. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is utilized to study the cure kinetics and the extent of reaction. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) is used to determine gelation times and melt viscosity under a shear mode. A modified Rheovibron is employed to perform cure characterizations under a tensile mode so that cure stresses could be determined. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) is used to evaluate the outgassing phenomena. Optical Microscopy (OM) is used to detect voids. Results indicate that the cure behaviors of conventional, fast, and snap cure adhesives are different in several respects. The combination of DSC, DMA, TGA, OM, and lap shear test leads to a frame work of developing the bondability diagram concept. The bondability diagram concept provides a foundation for an understanding of the recommended cure schedule and allows one to design their own cure schedule.

  14. Accident/Mishap Investigation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard; Wolfe, Shawn; Gawdiak, Yuri; Carvalho, Robert; Panontin, Tina; Williams, James; Sturken, Ian

    2007-01-01

    InvestigationOrganizer (IO) is a Web-based collaborative information system that integrates the generic functionality of a database, a document repository, a semantic hypermedia browser, and a rule-based inference system with specialized modeling and visualization functionality to support accident/mishap investigation teams. This accessible, online structure is designed to support investigators by allowing them to make explicit, shared, and meaningful links among evidence, causal models, findings, and recommendations.

  15. Phase diagrams: a graphical representation of linkage relations.

    PubMed

    Rösgen, Jörg; Hinz, Hans-Jürgen

    2003-04-18

    It is shown here that phase diagrams of ligand-binding biological macromolecules provide a powerful tool for the analysis of reaction mechanisms. The present study provides simple rules for the construction and interpretation of such phase diagrams. We give examples for the derivation of reaction schemes for macromolecules that can bind two different kinds of ligands. By sampling one dimension of a phase diagram it is possible to reconstruct the second dimension, including the correct stoichiometry, positive and negative linkage between the ligands and equilibrium binding constants for the complete series of reactions. The discussion is generalised to temperature and pressure-dependent phase diagrams. To exemplify the new diagram method we analyse the pH-dependent binding of trans-beta-indole acrylic acid to apo-Trp repressor, the pH-dependent thermal denaturation of alpha-chymotrypsinogen A, calcium binding and denaturation of annexin I, high affinity zinc binding to a metallo-beta-lactamase and high-pressure and temperature denaturation of RNase A and staphylococcal nuclease. PMID:12684012

  16. A Community Based Systems Diagram of Obesity Causes

    PubMed Central

    Allender, Steven; Owen, Brynle; Kuhlberg, Jill; Lowe, Janette; Nagorcka-Smith, Phoebe; Whelan, Jill; Bell, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Application of system thinking to the development, implementation and evaluation of childhood obesity prevention efforts represents the cutting edge of community-based prevention. We report on an approach to developing a system oriented community perspective on the causes of obesity. Methods Group model building sessions were conducted in a rural Australian community to address increasing childhood obesity. Stakeholders (n = 12) built a community model that progressed from connection circles to causal loop diagrams using scripts from the system dynamics literature. Participants began this work in identifying change over time in causes and effects of childhood obesity within their community. The initial causal loop diagram was then reviewed and elaborated by 50 community leaders over a full day session. Results The process created a causal loop diagram representing community perceptions of determinants and causes of obesity. The causal loop diagram can be broken down into four separate domains; social influences; fast food and junk food; participation in sport; and general physical activity. Discussion This causal loop diagram can provide the basis for community led planning of a prevention response that engages with multiple levels of existing settings and systems. PMID:26153893

  17. Hidden and Nonstandard Bifurcation Diagram of an Alternate Quadratic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, G.; Romera, M.; Danca, M.-F.; Martin, A.; Orue, A. B.; Montoya, F.; Encinas, L. Hernández

    Alternate quadratic systems A : xn+1 = 1 - axn2,if n is even 1 - a∗xn2,if n is odd andB : xn+1 = 1 - a∗xn2,if n is even 1 - axn2, if n is odd, where a and a∗ are different parameters, seem to be interval maps in a range of the parameter values. However, after a careful graphical analysis of their bifurcation diagrams we conclude that this is true only for system B, but not for system A. In system A we find a hidden and nonstandard bifurcation diagram (“hidden” because it is not visible at normal resolution and “nonstandard” because the bifurcation diagram is empty for some ranges of the parameter values). The different behavior of the underlying critical polynomial in the range of parameter values in both alternate quadratic systems explains why the hidden and nonstandard bifurcation diagram is present in system A and not in system B. The analysis of the Lyapunov exponent also shows both the existence and the different behavior of the hidden bifurcation diagram of system A.

  18. The effect of traffic light on accident probability in open and periodic boundaries system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhirech, Abdelaziz; Alaoui-Ismaili, Assia

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we numerically study the dependence of car accident probability Pac, per site and per time step on cycle time T of traffic light, both in open and periodic boundaries system. In this study one traffic light is placed in the middle of the system. This work is based on Nagel and Schreckenberg (NaSch) model (Nagel and Schreckenberg (1992)) in parallel dynamics. The Pac dependence on T and the (α, β) phase diagrams are established. α and β are the injecting and extracting rates of cars in the traffic lane respectively. The increase of the cycle time light T causes an important decrease of the accident probability Pac both in the open and periodic cases.

  19. Temporal Statistic of Traffic Accidents in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, S.; Yalcin, M.; Yilmaz, M.; Korkmaz Takim, A.

    2015-10-01

    Traffic accidents form clusters in terms of geographic space and over time which themselves exhibit distinct spatial and temporal patterns. There is an imperative need to understand how, where and when traffic accidents occur in order to develop appropriate accident reduction strategies. An improved understanding of the location, time and reasons for traffic accidents makes a significant contribution to preventing them. Traffic accident occurrences have been extensively studied from different spatial and temporal points of view using a variety of methodological approaches. In literature, less research has been dedicated to the temporal patterns of traffic accidents. In this paper, the numbers of traffic accidents are normalized according to the traffic volume and the distribution and fluctuation of these accidents is examined in terms of Islamic time intervals. The daily activities and worship of Muslims are arranged according to these time intervals that are spaced fairly throughout the day according to the position of the sun. The Islamic time intervals are never been used before to identify the critical hour for traffic accidents in the world. The results show that the sunrise is the critical time that acts as a threshold in the rate of traffic accidents throughout Turkey in Islamic time intervals.

  20. Risk and protection factors in fatal accidents.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Emmanuelle; Martensen, Heike; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2010-03-01

    This paper aims at addressing the interest and appropriateness of performing accident severity analyses that are limited to fatal accident data. Two methodological issues are specifically discussed, namely the accident-size factors (the number of vehicles in the accident and their level of occupancy) and the comparability of the baseline risk. It is argued that - although these two issues are generally at play in accident severity analyses - their effects on, e.g., the estimation of survival probability, are exacerbated if the analysis is limited to fatal accident data. As a solution, it is recommended to control for these effects by (1) including accident-size indicators in the model, (2) focusing on different sub-groups of road-users while specifying the type of opponent in the model, so as to ensure that comparable baseline risks are worked with. These recommendations are applied in order to investigate risk and protection factors of car occupants involved in fatal accidents using data from a recently set up European Fatal Accident Investigation database (Reed and Morris, 2009). The results confirm that the estimated survival probability is affected by accident-size factors and by type of opponent. The car occupants' survival chances are negatively associated with their own age and that of their vehicle. The survival chances are also lower when seatbelt is not used. Front damage, as compared to other damaged car areas, appears to be associated with increased survival probability, but mostly in the case in which the accident opponent was another car. The interest of further investigating accident-size factors and opponent effects in fatal accidents is discussed. PMID:20159090

  1. MORT User's Manual for use with the Management Oversight and Risk Tree analytical logic diagram. [Contains a list of System Safety Development Center publications

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, N.W.; Eicher, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains the User's Manual for MORT (Management Oversight and Risk Tree), a logic diagram in the form of a work sheet'' that illustrates a long series of interrelated questions. MORT is a comprehensive analytical procedure that provides a disciplined method for determining the causes and contributing factors of major accidents. Alternatively, it serves as a tool to evaluate the quality of an existing system. While similar in many respects to fault tree analysis, MORT is more generalized and presents over 1,500 specific elements of an ideal universal'' management program for optimizing environment, safety and health, and other programs. This User's Manual is intended to be used with the MORT diagram dated February 1992.

  2. A Theoretical Framework for Diagrams and Information Graphics in Research and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Pris

    Information graphics or diagrams are two-dimensional maps of relationships that present information. Creators and interpreters of diagrams need to know what makes some diagrams more effective in communicating information. This paper suggests a theoretical framework for diagram classification to make this possible. This framework consists of two…

  3. A redetermination of the succinonitrile-water phase diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. E., Jr.; Frazier, D. O.; Kaukler, W. F.

    1984-01-01

    The phase diagram of the water/succinonitrile system often used in modeling binary metallic alloys is determined experimentally using a laser scattering method. Triply distilled and zone-refined succinonitrile is placed in a jacketed water-cooled vessel with a magnetic mixer and a copper-constantan thermocouple, and the melting point is determined under vacuum and under Ar by observing the response of a photodiode placed opposite a laser source as the chamber is cooled and reheated. Then water is added, and the eutectic and monotectic temperatures and the entire phase diagram are determined under Ar. The results are presented in a table and graph and compared to those of Schreinemakers (1897): significant discrepancies are noted and attributed to impurities in the succinonitrile used by Schreinemakers. The importance of accurate phase diagrams for modeling binary alloys is stressed.

  4. Project Management Plan for the INEL technology logic diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Rudin, M.J.

    1992-10-01

    This Project Management Plan (PjMP) describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to activities outlined in Technical Task Plan (TTP) ID-121117, ``Technology Logic Diagrams For The INEL.`` The work on this project will be conducted by personnel in EG&G Idaho, Inc.`s Waste Technology Development Program. Technology logic diagrams represent a formal methodology to identify technology gaps or needs within Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Operations, which will focus on Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM-50) research and development, demonstration, test, and evaluation efforts throughout the US Department of Energy complex. This PjMP describes the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, workscope and processes for implementing and managing the technology logic diagram for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory project.

  5. Project Management Plan for the INEL technology logic diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Rudin, M.J.

    1992-10-01

    This Project Management Plan (PjMP) describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to activities outlined in Technical Task Plan (TTP) ID-121117, Technology Logic Diagrams For The INEL.'' The work on this project will be conducted by personnel in EG G Idaho, Inc.'s Waste Technology Development Program. Technology logic diagrams represent a formal methodology to identify technology gaps or needs within Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Operations, which will focus on Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM-50) research and development, demonstration, test, and evaluation efforts throughout the US Department of Energy complex. This PjMP describes the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, workscope and processes for implementing and managing the technology logic diagram for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory project.

  6. Generation of Finite Life Distributional Goodman Diagrams for Reliability Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kececioglu, D.; Guerrieri, W. N.

    1971-01-01

    The methodology of developing finite life distributional Goodman diagrams and surfaces is described for presenting allowable combinations of alternating stress and mean stress to the design engineer. The combined stress condition is that of an alternating bending stress and a constant shear stress. The finite life Goodman diagrams and surfaces are created from strength distributions developed at various ratios of alternating to mean stress at particular cycle life values. The conclusions indicate that the Von Mises-Hencky ellipse, for cycle life values above 1000 cycles, is an adequate model of the finite life Goodman diagram. In addition, suggestions are made which reduce the number of experimental data points required in a fatigue data acquisition program.

  7. Interpretation of the Hubble diagram in a nonhomogeneous universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Pierre; Dupuy, Hélène; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2013-06-01

    In the standard cosmological framework, the Hubble diagram is interpreted by assuming that the light emitted by standard candles propagates in a spatially homogeneous and isotropic spacetime. However, the light from “point sources”—such as supernovae—probes the Universe on scales where the homogeneity principle is no longer valid. Inhomogeneities are expected to induce a bias and a dispersion of the Hubble diagram. This is investigated by considering a Swiss-cheese cosmological model, which (1) is an exact solution of the Einstein field equations, (2) is strongly inhomogeneous on small scales, but (3) has the same expansion history as a strictly homogeneous and isotropic universe. By simulating Hubble diagrams in such models, we quantify the influence of inhomogeneities on the measurement of the cosmological parameters. Though significant in general, the effects reduce drastically for a universe dominated by the cosmological constant.

  8. Phase diagram studies on the Na-Mo-O system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanasekaran, T.; Mahendran, K. H.; Kutty, K. V. G.; Mathews, C. K.

    1989-06-01

    The phase diagram of the Na-Mo-O ternary system is of interest in interpreting the behaviour of structural materials in the sodium circuits of fast breeder reactors and sodium-filled heat pipes. Experiments involving heating of sodium oxide with molybdenum metal under vacuum, selective removal of oxygen from polymolybdates by reducing them under hydrogen and confirmation of the coexistence of various phase mixtures were conducted in the temperature range of 673 to 923 K. Phase fields involving molybdenum metal, dioxide of molybdenum and ternary compounds were derived from these results. The ternary phase diagram of the Na-Mo-O system was constructed and isothermal cross sections of the phase diagram are presented.

  9. Fast Formal Analysis of Requirements via "Topoi Diagrams"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, Tim; Powell, John; Houle, Michael E.; Kelly, John C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Early testing of requirements can decrease the cost of removing errors in software projects. However, unless done carefully, that testing process can significantly add to the cost of requirements analysis. We show here that requirements expressed as topoi diagrams can be built and tested cheaply using our SP2 algorithm, the formal temporal properties of a large class of topoi can be proven very quickly, in time nearly linear in the number of nodes and edges in the diagram. There are two limitations to our approach. Firstly, topoi diagrams cannot express certain complex concepts such as iteration and sub-routine calls. Hence, our approach is more useful for requirements engineering than for traditional model checking domains. Secondly, out approach is better for exploring the temporal occurrence of properties than the temporal ordering of properties. Within these restrictions, we can express a useful range of concepts currently seen in requirements engineering, and a wide range of interesting temporal properties.

  10. UML activity diagrams in requirements specification of logic controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grobelna, Iwona; Grobelny, Michał

    2015-12-01

    Logic controller specification can be prepared using various techniques. One of them is the wide understandable and user-friendly UML language and its activity diagrams. Using formal methods during the design phase increases the assurance that implemented system meets the project requirements. In the approach we use the model checking technique to formally verify a specification against user-defined behavioral requirements. The properties are usually defined as temporal logic formulas. In the paper we propose to use UML activity diagrams in requirements definition and then to formalize them as temporal logic formulas. As a result, UML activity diagrams can be used both for logic controller specification and for requirements definition, what simplifies the specification and verification process.

  11. On the Disposition of Maunders' Origninal Butterfly Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdan, T. J.

    2000-05-01

    On 21 May 1940, Annie S. D. Maunder mailed the original drawing of the celebrated ``Maunder Butterfly Diagram" to Stephen A., and his daughter Margaret L., Ionides. Later that same year Stephen and Margaret gave the diagram ``on indefinite loan" to Walter Orr Roberts, then the Superintendent of Fremont Pass Station of the Harvard College Observatory. The framed diagram remains on display today at the scion of that organization, the High Altitude Observatory of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, in Boulder Colorado. Drawing upon the original correspondences, this contribution recounts the story behind the travels of the ``Maunder Butterfly" during the second World War. The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

  12. Influence Diagram Use With Respect to Technology Planning and Investment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.; DeHoff, Bryan; Rhodes, Russel E.

    2009-01-01

    Influence diagrams are relatively simple, but powerful, tools for assessing the impact of choices or resource allocations on goals or requirements. They are very general and can be used on a wide range of problems. They can be used for any problem that has defined goals, a set of factors that influence the goals or the other factors, and a set of inputs. Influence diagrams show the relationship among a set of results and the attributes that influence them and the inputs that influence the attributes. If the results are goals or requirements of a program, then the influence diagram can be used to examine how the requirements are affected by changes to technology investment. This paper uses an example to show how to construct and interpret influence diagrams, how to assign weights to the inputs and attributes, how to assign weights to the transfer functions (influences), and how to calculate the resulting influences of the inputs on the results. A study is also presented as an example of how using influence diagrams can help in technology planning and investment. The Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) used this technique to examine the impact of R&D spending on the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of a space transportation system. The question addressed was the effect on the recurring and the non-recurring portions of LCC of the proportion of R&D resources spent to impact technology objectives versus the proportion spent to impact operational dependability objectives. The goals, attributes, and the inputs were established. All of the linkages (influences) were determined. The weighting of each of the attributes and each of the linkages was determined. Finally the inputs were varied and the impacts on the LCC determined and are presented. The paper discusses how each of these was accomplished both for credibility and as an example for future studies using influence diagrams for technology planning and investment planning.

  13. BLOCKER: A block diagram editing utility, release notes

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.

    1986-10-09

    The BLOCKER block diagram utility was written in the interest of promoting better software documentation. It allows the user to easily create block diagrams which can be stored within software source text files and printed out with standard line printing devices. In this way, sketches which are often drawn on paper during software coding can be kept in an organized manner for later reference. BLOCKER is written in the PRAXIS programming language; it runs on VT-100-compatible terminals under version 4.3 of the VMS operating system on VAX computers. 9 refs.

  14. Using Dynamic Master Logic Diagram for component partial failure analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, T.; Modarres, M.

    1996-12-01

    A methodology using the Dynamic Master Logic Diagram (DMLD) for the evaluation of component partial failure is presented. Since past PRAs have not focused on partial failure effects, the reliability of components are only based on the binary state assumption, i.e. defining a component as fully failed or functioning. This paper is to develop an approach to predict and estimate the component partial failure on the basis of the fuzzy state assumption. One example of the application of this methodology with the reliability function diagram of a centrifugal pump is presented.

  15. Protein phase diagrams: The physics behind their elliptic shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesch, Harald; Hecht, Christoph; Friedrich, Josef

    2004-12-01

    We relate the condition for the elliptic shape of the phase diagram of proteins to the degree of correlation in the fluctuations of the changes of enthalpy and volume at the denaturing-refolding transition. Since this degree cannot be larger than 1, hyperbolically shaped diagrams are not likely to exist. Experiments show that the correlation factor is actually quite low for proteins implying that one-order parameter is not enough to describe the folding-denaturing transition. These findings seem to be the thermodynamic manifestation of the glasslike properties of proteins despite the fact that the transition itself is of first order.

  16. Pocket extraction on proteins via the Voronoi diagram of spheres.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donguk; Cho, Cheol-Hyung; Cho, Youngsong; Ryu, Joonghyun; Bhak, Jonghwa; Kim, Deok-Soo

    2008-04-01

    Proteins consist of atoms. Given a protein, the automatic recognition of depressed regions, called pockets, on the surface of proteins is important for protein-ligand docking and facilitates fast development of new drugs. Recently, computational approaches have emerged for recognizing pockets from the geometrical point of view. Presented in this paper is a geometric method for the pocket recognition which is based on the Voronoi diagram for atoms. Given a Voronoi diagram, the proposed algorithm transforms the atomic structure to meshes which contain the information of the proximity among atoms, and then recognizes depressions on the surface of a protein using the meshes. PMID:18023220

  17. A preliminary ferritic-martensitic stainless steel constitution diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Balmforth, M.C.; Lippold, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes preliminary research to develop a constitution diagram that will more accurately predict the microstructure of ferritic and martensitic stainless steel weld deposits. A button melting technique was used to produce a wide range of compositions using mixtures of conventional ferritic and martensitic stainless steels, including types 403, 409, 410, 430, 439 and 444. These samples were prepared metallographically, and the vol-% ferrite and martensite was determined quantitatively. In addition, the hardness and ferrite number (FN) were measured. Using this data, a preliminary constitution diagram is proposed that provides a more accurate method for predicting the microstructures of arc welds in ferritic and martensitic stainless steels.

  18. Size Dependent Phase Diagrams of Nickel-Carbon Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnin, Y.; Zappelli, A.; Amara, H.; Ducastelle, F.; Bichara, C.

    2015-11-01

    The carbon rich phase diagrams of nickel-carbon nanoparticles, relevant to catalysis and catalytic chemical vapor deposition synthesis of carbon nanotubes, are calculated for system sizes up to about 3 nm (807 Ni atoms). A tight binding model for interatomic interactions drives the grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations used to locate solid, core shell and liquid stability domains, as a function of size, temperature, and carbon chemical potential or concentration. Melting is favored by carbon incorporation from the nanoparticle surface, resulting in a strong relative lowering of the eutectic temperature and a phase diagram topology different from the bulk one. This should lead to a better understanding of the nanotube growth mechanisms.

  19. MSHA releases data on CM crushing accidents

    SciTech Connect

    2007-02-15

    The US Mine Safety and Health Administration (MHSA) recently formed a committee to identify norms and trends in remote control continuous miner crushing accidents. The final report found that these types of accidents commonly happen to experienced miners during routine mining activities, with the majority occurring while moving the miner from one face to another, place changing. Another common aspect of the accidents is that many of the victims are experienced miners who are newly employed at the mine where the accident occurred. Training all employees to stay outside the turning radius of an energized remote control continuous miner, establishing this as a safe operating procedure, and consistently enforcing this practice among miners will reduce these types of accidents. This article was excerpted from the 'Remote Control Continuous Mining Machine Crushing Accident Data Study' published in May 2006. The report may be found from the website: www.msha.gov. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Organisational accidents investigation methodology and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Dien, Yves; Llory, Michel; Montmayeul, René

    2004-07-26

    The purpose of this paper is to reflect on accident analysis methods. As the understanding of industrial accidents and incidents has evolved, they are no longer considered as the sole product of human and/or technical failures but also as originating in an unfavourable organisational context. After presenting some theoretical developments which are responsible for this evolution, we will propose two examples of organisational accidents and incidents. We will then present some properties of organisational accidents, and we will focus on some "accident-generating" organisational factors. The definition of these factors comes from an empirical approach to event analysis. Finally, we will briefly present their implications for accident and incident analysis. PMID:15231360

  1. Transportation accident scenarios for commercial spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmot, E L

    1981-02-01

    A spectrum of high severity, low probability, transportation accident scenarios involving commercial spent fuel is presented together with mechanisms, pathways and quantities of material that might be released from spent fuel to the environment. These scenarios are based on conclusions from a workshop, conducted in May 1980 to discuss transportation accident scenarios, in which a group of experts reviewed and critiqued available literature relating to spent fuel behavior and cask response in accidents.

  2. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    S.O. Bader

    1999-10-18

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  3. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the subsurface leak remaining subsurface accident

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Subsurface Leak Remaining Subsurface. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  4. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the subsurface leak remaining subsurface accident

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-19

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Subsurface Leak Remaining Subsurface. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  5. Industrial Safety and Accidents Prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Sajjad Akbar

    2006-07-01

    Accident Hazards, dangers, losses and risk are what we would to like to eliminate, minimize or avoid in industry. Modern industries have created many opportunities for these against which man's primitive instincts offer no protection. In today's complex industrial environment safety has become major preoccupation, especially after the realization that there is a clear economic incentive to do so. Industrial hazards may cause by human error or by physical or mechanical malfunction, it is very often possible to eliminate the worst consequences of human error by engineering modification. But the modification also needs checking very thoroughly to ensue that it has not introduced some new and unsuspected hazard. (author)

  6. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

  7. The determinants of fishing vessel accident severity.

    PubMed

    Jin, Di

    2014-05-01

    The study examines the determinants of fishing vessel accident severity in the Northeastern United States using vessel accident data from the U.S. Coast Guard for 2001-2008. Vessel damage and crew injury severity equations were estimated separately utilizing the ordered probit model. The results suggest that fishing vessel accident severity is significantly affected by several types of accidents. Vessel damage severity is positively associated with loss of stability, sinking, daytime wind speed, vessel age, and distance to shore. Vessel damage severity is negatively associated with vessel size and daytime sea level pressure. Crew injury severity is also positively related to the loss of vessel stability and sinking. PMID:24473412

  8. Accidents in family forestry's firewood production.

    PubMed

    Lindroos, Ola; Aspman, Emma Wilhelmson; Lidestav, Gun; Neely, Gregory

    2008-05-01

    Firewood is commonly used around the world, but little is known about the work involved in its production and associated accidents. The objectives were to identify relationships between accidents and time exposure, workers' age and sex, equipment used and work activities in family forestry's firewood production. Data from a postal survey in Northern Sweden were compared to a database of injuries in the same region. Most accidents occurred to 50-69 year old men, who also worked most hours. No significant differences in sex and age were found between expected and recorded accident frequencies when calculated from total work hours; however, when calculated using numbers of active persons significant differences were found for both age and sex. Frequency of accidents per unit worked time was higher for machine involving activities than for other activities. Accidents that occurred when using wedge splitter machines were responsible for most of this overrepresentation. Fingers were the most commonly injured body parts. Mean accident rate for the equipment used was 87 accidents per million work hours, and the rate was highest for wedge splitters (122 accidents per million work hours). Exposure to elevated risks due to violation of safety procedures is discussed, as well as possible preventative measures. PMID:18460354

  9. Thermal hydraulic features of the TMI accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolman, B.

    1985-10-01

    The Three Mile island (TMI)-2 accident resulted in extensive core damage and recent data confirms that the reactor vessel was challenged from molten core materials. A hypothesized TMI accident scenario is presented that consistently explains the TMI data and is also consistent with research findings from independent severe fuel damage experiments. The TMI data will prove useful in confirming our understanding of severe core damage accidents under realistic reactor systems conditions. This understanding will aid in addressing safety and regulatory issues related to severe core damage accidents in light water reactors.

  10. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    PubMed

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction. PMID:26479843

  11. 41 CFR 101-39.407 - Accident records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Accident records. 101-39...-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.4-Accidents and Claims § 101-39.407 Accident records. If GSA's records of vehicle accidents indicate that a particular activity has had an unusually high accident...

  12. 22 CFR 102.17 - Reports on accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reports on accident. 102.17 Section 102.17... Accidents Abroad Foreign Aircraft Accidents Involving United States Persons Or Property § 102.17 Reports on accident. When an accident occurs to a foreign aircraft in the district of a Foreign Service post...

  13. 22 CFR 102.17 - Reports on accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports on accident. 102.17 Section 102.17... Accidents Abroad Foreign Aircraft Accidents Involving United States Persons Or Property § 102.17 Reports on accident. When an accident occurs to a foreign aircraft in the district of a Foreign Service post...

  14. 41 CFR 101-39.407 - Accident records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Accident records. 101-39...-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.4-Accidents and Claims § 101-39.407 Accident records. If GSA's records of vehicle accidents indicate that a particular activity has had an unusually high accident...

  15. 33. Historic photo of section diagram of Building 202, April ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Historic photo of section diagram of Building 202, April 30, 1958. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA photo number C-47807. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  16. 62. Historic propellant piping diagram of oxidant pit at Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Historic propellant piping diagram of oxidant pit at Building 202, January 6, 1956. NASA GRC drawing no. CF-101644. (On file at NASA Glenn Research Center). - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  17. Equilibrium phase diagrams of alloys using nested sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Noam; Baldock, Robert J. N.; Bartók-Partáy, Livia; Csányi, Gábor

    Temperature-pressure-composition phase diagrams describe the structures of materials in thermal equilibrium, and are an essential tool in understanding material properties. Predicting phase diagrams is challenging, even given a description of the interatomic interactions, because of the need to sample a very large configuration space. Nested sampling (NS) has been shown to be an efficient tool for calculating the partition function, and therefore all thermodynamic properties and ensemble averages, by systematically sampling the configuration space of isolated and periodic systems. Its effectiveness comes from sampling starting from high energy, where barriers are relatively low and equilibration is relatively fast, and iteratively eliminating a fixed fraction of the remaining configuration space. We present an application of NS at constant pressure to the phase diagram of a model binary alloy, CuAu, using an embedded atom method potential. We identify phase transitions indicated by peaks in the calculated specific heat, and the dominant phase at each temperature from ensemble-averaged structural ordering, as represented by quantities such as the radial distribution function. These results demonstrate the power of NS as a method for calculating complete phase diagrams.

  18. Verification of bifurcation diagrams for polynomial-like equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, Philip; Li, Yi; Ouyang, Tiancheng

    2008-03-01

    The results of our recent paper [P. Korman, Y. Li, T. Ouyang, Computing the location and the direction of bifurcation, Math. Res. Lett. 12 (2005) 933-944] appear to be sufficient to justify computer-generated bifurcation diagram for any autonomous two-point Dirichlet problem. Here we apply our results to polynomial-like nonlinearities.

  19. Sun Shading Diagrams for School Buildings. Educational Building Report 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooij, D.

    This publication provides data on the angles governing the design of sunshading devices for educational buildings in the countries of the Asian region and gives examples of the ways in which these data can be used. Different methods of excluding direct sunlight from teaching spaces are illustrated in a series of diagrams that show exclusion by…

  20. Bi-phase transition diagrams of metallic thin multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.C.; Liu, W.; Jiang, Q. . E-mail: jiangq@jlu.edu.cn

    2005-02-01

    Phase transitions of metallic multilayers induced by differences in interface energy are considered thermodynamically, based on a thermodynamic model for interface energy and the Goldschmidt premise for lattice contraction. Bi-phase transition diagrams of Co/Cr, Zr/Nb, Ti/Nb and Ti/Al multilayers are constructed, which are in agreement with experimental results.

  1. 54. Photocopy of diagram (from Station 'L' office files, Portland, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Photocopy of diagram (from Station 'L' office files, Portland, Oregon) General Electric Company pamphlet, c.1930 SECTIONAL ELEVATION OF THE 35,000 KW GENERATOR BUILDING L5 - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  2. 55. Photocopy of scale diagram (from Station 'L' office files, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Photocopy of scale diagram (from Station 'L' office files, Portland, Oregon) Portland General Electric in house drawing, 1926 PLAN DEPICTING THE LOCATION OF THE CONDENSATE UNITS BUILDING L1 - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  3. 51. Photocopy of diagram (from Station 'L' office files, Portland, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photocopy of diagram (from Station 'L' office files, Portland, Oregon) General Electric Company pamphlet, c.1923 SECTIONAL ARRANGEMENT OF THE 6,000 KW TURBINE GENERATOR BUILDING L1 - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  4. 53. Photocopy of diagram (from Station 'L' office files, Portland, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photocopy of diagram (from Station 'L' office files, Portland, Oregon) General Electric Company pamphlet, c.1925 SECTIONAL ELEVATION OF THE 20,000 KW GENERATOR BUILDING L1 - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  5. Expanding Application of the Wiggers Diagram to Teach Cardiovascular Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jamie R.; Wang, Jiun-Jr

    2014-01-01

    Dr. Carl Wiggers' careful observations have provided a meaningful resource for students to learn how the heart works. Throughout the many years from his initial reports, the Wiggers diagram has been used, in various degrees of complexity, as a fundamental tool for cardiovascular instruction. Often, the various electrical and mechanical plots…

  6. Phase diagram of compressively strained nickelate thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Disa, Ankit S; Kumah, D.; Ngai, J H; Specht, Eliot D; Arena, D.A.; Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    The complex phase diagrams of strongly correlated oxides arise from the coupling between physical and electronic structure. This can lead to a renormalization of the phase boundaries when considering thin films rather than bulk crystals due to reduced dimensionality and epitaxial strain. The well-established bulk RNiO3 phase diagram shows a systematic dependence between the metal-insulator transition and the perovskite A-site rare-earth ion, R. Here, we explore the equivalent phase diagram for nickelate thin films under compressive epitaxial strain. We determine the metalinsulator phase diagram for the solid solution of Nd1-yLayNiO3 thin films within the range 0 y 1. We find qualitative similarity between the films and their bulk analogs, but with an overall renormalization in the metal-insulator transition to lower temperature. A combination of x-ray diffraction measurements and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy indicates that the renormalization is due to increased Ni O bond hybridization for coherently strained thin films.

  7. English Pyramids: Using Hierarchical Diagrams for Communication Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tia; Sheetz-Brunetti, Judy

    The pyramid, or hierarchical diagram, is used in teaching writing English as a second language (ESL) as a visual representation of the way English speakers and writers organize ideas, for comparison with discourse organization in other cultures. A common problem of ESL students is an inability to organize ideas hierarchically. One class activity…

  8. Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Measuring Ternary Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodworth, Jennifer K.; Terrance, Jacob C.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is presented for the upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry curriculum in which the ternary phase diagram of water, 1-propanol and n-heptane is measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The experiment builds upon basic concepts of NMR spectral analysis, typically taught in the undergraduate…

  9. Phase diagram of the disordered Bose-Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect

    Gurarie, V.; Pollet, L.; Prokof'ev, N. V.; Svistunov, B. V.; Troyer, M.

    2009-12-01

    We establish the phase diagram of the disordered three-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model at unity filling which has been controversial for many years. The theorem of inclusions, proven by Pollet et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 140402 (2009)] states that the Bose-glass phase always intervenes between the Mott insulating and superfluid phases. Here, we note that assumptions on which the theorem is based exclude phase transitions between gapped (Mott insulator) and gapless phases (Bose glass). The apparent paradox is resolved through a unique mechanism: such transitions have to be of the Griffiths type when the vanishing of the gap at the critical point is due to a zero concentration of rare regions where extreme fluctuations of disorder mimic a regular gapless system. An exactly solvable random transverse field Ising model in one dimension is used to illustrate the point. A highly nontrivial overall shape of the phase diagram is revealed with the worm algorithm. The phase diagram features a long superfluid finger at strong disorder and on-site interaction. Moreover, bosonic superfluidity is extremely robust against disorder in a broad range of interaction parameters; it persists in random potentials nearly 50 ({exclamation_point}) times larger than the particle half-bandwidth. Finally, we comment on the feasibility of obtaining this phase diagram in cold-atom experiments, which work with trapped systems at finite temperature.

  10. Phase stabilities at a glance: Stability diagrams of nickel dipnictides

    SciTech Connect

    Bachhuber, F.; Rothballer, J.; Weihrich, R.; Söhnel, T.

    2013-12-07

    In the course of the recent advances in chemical structure prediction, a straightforward type of diagram to evaluate phase stabilities is presented based on an expedient example. Crystal structures and energetic stabilities of dipnictides NiPn{sub 2} (Pn = N, P, As, Sb, Bi) are systematically investigated by first principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory using the generalized gradient approximation to treat exchange and correlation. These dipnictides show remarkable polymorphism that is not yet understood systematically and offers room for the discovery of new phases. Relationships between the concerned structures including the marcasite, the pyrite, the arsenopyrite/CoSb{sub 2}, and the NiAs{sub 2} types are highlighted by means of common structural fragments. Electronic stabilities of experimentally known and related AB{sub 2} structure types are presented graphically in so-called stability diagrams. Additionally, competing binary phases are taken into consideration in the diagrams to evaluate the stabilities of the title compounds with respect to decomposition. The main purpose of the stability diagrams is the introduction of an image that enables the estimation of phase stabilities at a single glance. Beyond that, some of the energetically favored structure types can be identified as potential new phases.

  11. Interpreting Evolutionary Diagrams: When Topology and Process Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catley, Kefyn M.; Novick, Laura R.; Shade, Courtney K.

    2010-01-01

    The authors argue that some diagrams in biology textbooks and the popular press presented as depicting evolutionary relationships suggest an inappropriate (anagenic) conception of evolutionary history. The goal of this research was to provide baseline data that begin to document how college students conceptualize the evolutionary relationships…

  12. Structure-retention diagrams of ceramides established for their identification.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, Karen; Chaminade, Pierre; Baillet, Arlette

    2002-10-11

    Molecular species analysis of ceramides was carried out using porous graphitic carbon with gradient elution: chloroform-methanol from 45:55 to 85:15 with a slope at 2.7%/min. These conditions gave a linear relationship between retention data and structure of ceramides. It was demonstrated that linearity occurred when a high slope value of linear gradient elution was used. Thereby the linear diagram was evolved by plotting the adjusted retention time against the total number of carbon atoms of ceramide molecules. Each line represents one ceramide class. Such a Structure-Retention Diagram describes ceramide retention and thus constitutes an identification method using only retention data. This Structure-Retention Diagram was assessed and compared to another obtained from octadesyl-grafted silica in terms of their reproducibility, precision and ability to provide ceramide identification. Better identification was obtained using the results from both Structure-Retention Diagrams. This approach with a two-dimensional separation system allowed to take advantage of the specificity of both identification models. PMID:12437165

  13. Riparian Sediment Delivery Ratio: Stiff Diagrams and Artifical Neural Networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various methods are used to estimate sediment transport through riparian buffers and grass jilters with the sediment delivery ratio having been the most widely applied. The U.S. Forest Service developed a sediment delivery ratio using the stiff diagram and a logistic curve to int...

  14. Energy Diagrams for Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions: Concepts and Misconcepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aledo, J. Carlos; Lobo, Carolina; del Valle, Alicia Esteban

    2003-01-01

    Despite the utility that energy diagrams have as a teaching and learning tool, a survey of their use, in seven popular Biochemistry textbooks, reveals that there is certain confusion around this topic. In our opinion, this confusion arises from the reluctance of authors to consider and indicate the conditions under which the reaction being…

  15. Learning about Posterior Probability: Do Diagrams and Elaborative Interrogation Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Virginia; Alibali, Martha W.; Nathan, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    To learn from a text, students must make meaningful connections among related ideas in that text. This study examined the effectiveness of two methods of improving connections--elaborative interrogation and diagrams--in written lessons about posterior probability. Undergraduate students (N = 198) read a lesson in one of three questioning…

  16. Guitar Scales in Music Notation and Tablature Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Petra

    This study guide was designed to help high school students learn the basic skills in classical guitar playing, technique, fingerboard knowledge, and musicianship. The introduction describes how to read the music notation that is presented in traditional music form and also in tablature diagrams showing finger positioning in the guitar neck.…

  17. The Use of Kruskal-Newton Diagrams for Differential Equations

    SciTech Connect

    T. Fishaleck and R.B. White

    2008-02-19

    The method of Kruskal-Newton diagrams for the solution of differential equations with boundary layers is shown to provide rapid intuitive understanding of layer scaling and can result in the conceptual simplification of some problems. The method is illustrated using equations arising in the theory of pattern formation and in plasma physics.

  18. Penrose-Carter Diagram for a Uniformly Accelerated Observer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semay, Claude

    2007-01-01

    A uniformly accelerated observer can build his proper system of coordinates in a delimited sector of the flat Minkowski spacetime. The properties of the position and time coordinate lines for such an observer are studied and compared with the coordinate lines for an inertial observer in a Penrose-Carter diagram for this spacetime.

  19. Integrating Mathematics and Science: Ecology and Venn Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leszczynski, Eliza; Munakata, Mika; Evans, Jessica M.; Pizzigoni, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to integrate mathematics and science have been widely recognized by mathematics and science educators. However, successful integration of these two important school disciplines remains a challenge. In this article, a mathematics and science activity extends the use of Venn diagrams to a life science context and then circles back to a…

  20. Using Tree Diagrams as an Assessment Tool in Statistics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Yue

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the potential of the tree diagram, a type of graphic organizer, as an assessment tool to measure students' knowledge structures in statistics education. Students' knowledge structures in statistics have not been sufficiently assessed in statistics, despite their importance. This article first presents the rationale and method…

  1. Ternary and Quaternary Composition Diagrams: An Overview of the Subject.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCarthy, Patrick

    1983-01-01

    Reviews graphical methods for representing ternary and quaternary systems, focusing on use of triangular composition diagrams. Examines some of the relevant geometry of triangles in general, showing that right isosceles triangles possess some very advantageous features for representing ternary systems. (JN)

  2. Application of Analytic Geometry to Ternary and Quaternary Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCarthy, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    Advantages of representing ternary and quaternary composition diagrams by means of rectangular coordinates were pointed out in a previous paper (EJ 288 693). A further advantage of that approach is that analytic geometry, based on rectangular coordinates, is directly applicable as demonstrated by the examples presented. (JN)

  3. Cognitive Activities in Complex Science Text and Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Snyder-Hogan, Lindsey E.; Luciw-Dubas, Ulana A.

    2010-01-01

    Ainsworth's (2006) DeFT framework posits that different representations may lead learners to use different strategies. We wanted to investigate whether students use different strategies, and more broadly, different cognitive activities in diagrams vs. in running text. In order to do so, we collected think-aloud protocol and other measures from 91…

  4. Analysing Collisions Using Minkowski Diagrams in Momentum Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokor, Nandor

    2011-01-01

    Momentum space and Minkowski diagrams are powerful tools for interpreting and analysing relativistic collisions in one or two spatial dimensions. All relevant quantities that characterize a collision, including the mass, velocity, momentum and energy of the interacting particles, both before and after collision, can be directly seen from a single…

  5. Maxima and O-C Diagrams for 489 Mira Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, T.

    2013-11-01

    Maxima for 489 Mira stars have been compiled. They were computed with data from AAVSO, AFOEV, VSOLJ, and BAA-VSS and collected from published maxima. The result is presented in a mysql database and on web pages with O-C diagrams, periods and some statistical information for each star.

  6. Software Tool Integrating Data Flow Diagrams and Petri Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronesbery, Carroll; Tavana, Madjid

    2010-01-01

    Data Flow Diagram - Petri Net (DFPN) is a software tool for analyzing other software to be developed. The full name of this program reflects its design, which combines the benefit of data-flow diagrams (which are typically favored by software analysts) with the power and precision of Petri-net models, without requiring specialized Petri-net training. (A Petri net is a particular type of directed graph, a description of which would exceed the scope of this article.) DFPN assists a software analyst in drawing and specifying a data-flow diagram, then translates the diagram into a Petri net, then enables graphical tracing of execution paths through the Petri net for verification, by the end user, of the properties of the software to be developed. In comparison with prior means of verifying the properties of software to be developed, DFPN makes verification by the end user more nearly certain, thereby making it easier to identify and correct misconceptions earlier in the development process, when correction is less expensive. After the verification by the end user, DFPN generates a printable system specification in the form of descriptions of processes and data.

  7. Introducing the Circular Flow Diagram to Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daraban, Bogdan

    2010-01-01

    The circular flow of income diagram is a simplified representation of the functioning of a free-market economic system. It illustrates how businesses interact with the other economic participants within the key macroeconomic markets that coordinate the flow of income through the national economy. Therefore, it can provide students of business with…

  8. Energy Diagram for the Catalytic Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuoka, Tomoyuki; Koga, Nobuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Drawing a schematic energy diagram for the decomposition of H[subscript 2]O[subscript 2] catalyzed by MnO[subscript 2] through a simple thermometric measurement outlined in this study is intended to integrate students' understanding of thermochemistry and kinetics of chemical reactions. The reaction enthalpy, delta[subscript r]H, is…

  9. Computer-Generated Phase Diagrams for Binary Mixtures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolls, Kenneth R.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Computer programs that generate projections of thermodynamic phase surfaces through computer graphics were used to produce diagrams representing properties of water and steam and the pressure-volume-temperature behavior of most of the common equations of state. The program, program options emphasizing thermodynamic features of interest, and…

  10. Equations of State and Phase Diagrams of Ammonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    We present equations of state relating the phases and a three-dimensional phase diagram for ammonia with its solid, liquid, and vapor phases, based on fitted authentic experimental data and including recent information on the high-pressure solid phases. This presentation follows similar articles on carbon dioxide and water published in this…

  11. On the phase diagram of 2d Lorentzian Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, Jan; Anagnostopoulos, K. N.; Loll, R.

    The phase diagram of 2d Lorentzian quantum gravity (LQG) coupled to conformal matter is studied. A phase transition is observed at c = c crit ( {1}/{2} < c crit < 4) which can be thought of as the analogue of the c = 1 barrier of Euclidean quantum gravity (EQG). The non-trivial properties of the quantum geometry are discussed.

  12. Phase stabilities at a glance: Stability diagrams of nickel dipnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachhuber, F.; Rothballer, J.; Söhnel, T.; Weihrich, R.

    2013-12-01

    In the course of the recent advances in chemical structure prediction, a straightforward type of diagram to evaluate phase stabilities is presented based on an expedient example. Crystal structures and energetic stabilities of dipnictides NiPn2 (Pn = N, P, As, Sb, Bi) are systematically investigated by first principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory using the generalized gradient approximation to treat exchange and correlation. These dipnictides show remarkable polymorphism that is not yet understood systematically and offers room for the discovery of new phases. Relationships between the concerned structures including the marcasite, the pyrite, the arsenopyrite/CoSb2, and the NiAs2 types are highlighted by means of common structural fragments. Electronic stabilities of experimentally known and related AB2 structure types are presented graphically in so-called stability diagrams. Additionally, competing binary phases are taken into consideration in the diagrams to evaluate the stabilities of the title compounds with respect to decomposition. The main purpose of the stability diagrams is the introduction of an image that enables the estimation of phase stabilities at a single glance. Beyond that, some of the energetically favored structure types can be identified as potential new phases.

  13. Phase stabilities at a glance: stability diagrams of nickel dipnictides.

    PubMed

    Bachhuber, F; Rothballer, J; Söhnel, T; Weihrich, R

    2013-12-01

    In the course of the recent advances in chemical structure prediction, a straightforward type of diagram to evaluate phase stabilities is presented based on an expedient example. Crystal structures and energetic stabilities of dipnictides NiPn2 (Pn = N, P, As, Sb, Bi) are systematically investigated by first principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory using the generalized gradient approximation to treat exchange and correlation. These dipnictides show remarkable polymorphism that is not yet understood systematically and offers room for the discovery of new phases. Relationships between the concerned structures including the marcasite, the pyrite, the arsenopyrite/CoSb2, and the NiAs2 types are highlighted by means of common structural fragments. Electronic stabilities of experimentally known and related AB2 structure types are presented graphically in so-called stability diagrams. Additionally, competing binary phases are taken into consideration in the diagrams to evaluate the stabilities of the title compounds with respect to decomposition. The main purpose of the stability diagrams is the introduction of an image that enables the estimation of phase stabilities at a single glance. Beyond that, some of the energetically favored structure types can be identified as potential new phases. PMID:24320392

  14. Phase diagram of a model of the protein amelogenin.

    PubMed

    Haaga, Jason; Pemberton, Elizabeth; Gunton, J D; Rickman, J M

    2016-08-28

    There has been considerable recent interest in the self-assembly and phase behavior of models of colloidal and protein particles with anisotropic interactions. One example of particular interest is amelogenin, an important protein involved in the formation of dental enamel. Amelogenin is primarily hydrophobic with a 25-residue charged C-terminus tail. This protein undergoes a hierarchical assembly process that is crucial to mineral deposition, and experimental work has demonstrated that the deletion of the C-terminus tail prevents this self-assembly. A simplified model of amelogenin has been proposed in which the protein is treated as a hydrophobic sphere, interacting via the Asakura-Oosawa (AO) potential, with a tethered point charge on its surface. In this paper, we examine the effect of the Coulomb interaction between the point charges in altering the phase diagram of the AO model. For the parameter case specific to amelogenin, we find that the previous in vitro experimental and model conditions correspond to the system being near the low-density edge of the metastable region of the phase diagram. Our study illustrates more generally the importance of understanding the phase diagram for proteins, in that the kinetic pathway for self-assembly and the resulting aggregate morphology depends on the location of the initial state in the phase diagram. PMID:27586954

  15. Phase diagram and thermal properties of strong-interaction matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Chen, Jing; Liu, Yu-Xin; Qin, Si-Xue; Roberts, Craig D.; Schmidt, Sebastian M.

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a novel method for computing the (μ , T )-dependent pressure in continuum QCD, from which we obtain a complex phase diagram and predictions for thermal properties of the dressed-quark component of the system, providing the in-medium behavior of the related trace anomaly, speed of sound, latent heat, and heat capacity.

  16. Visualising Knowledge from Chat Debates in Argument Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salminen, T.; Marttunen, M.; Laurinen, L.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates whether combining chat discussion and construction of an argument diagram stimulates students to formulate new ideas in practising argumentation. In this study, 16 secondary school students discussed vivisection and gender equality in pairs using both free and structured chat tools. In structured chat, the students selected…

  17. 40. Photograph of a line drawing. 'FLOW DIAGRAM FOR BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Photograph of a line drawing. 'FLOW DIAGRAM FOR BUILDING G-1.' Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Holston Defense Corporation. December 1, 1965. Delineator: V. N.J. Drawing # 7651-1007-528. - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  18. The Effect of Diagrams on Online Reading Processes and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrudden, Matthew T.; Magliano, Joseph P.; Schraw, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    This work examined how adjunct displays influence college readers' moment-by-moment processing of text and the products of reading, using reading time (Experiments 1 & 2), and think-aloud methodologies (Experiment 3). Participants did or did not study a diagram before reading a text. Overall, the reading time data, think-aloud data, and recall…

  19. USING THE HASSE DIAGRAM TECHNIQUE TO PRIORITIZE POTENTIAL PBTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The identification of chemicals with PBT (Persistence, Bioaccumulation,Toxicity) potential is of major interest to many organizations. In the present study about 2800 commercially important chemicals are included.

    Initially Hasse Diagram Technique (HDT) has been applied to...

  20. Phase shifts of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke-Jun; Liang, Hong-Fei; Feng, Wen

    2010-11-01

    Sunspot groups observed by the Royal Greenwich Observatory/US Air Force/NOAA from 1874 May to 2008 November and the Carte Synoptique solar filaments from 1919 March to 1989 December are used to investigate the relative phase shift of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams of sunspot and filament activities. Latitudinal migration of sunspot groups (or filaments) does asynchronously occur in the northern and southern hemispheres, and there is a relative phase shift between the paired wings of their butterfly diagrams in a cycle, making the paired wings spatially asymmetrical on the solar equator. It is inferred that hemispherical solar activity strength should evolve in a similar way within the paired wings of a butterfly diagram in a cycle, demonstrating the paired wings phenomenon and showing the phase relationship between the northern and southern hemispherical solar activity strengths, as well as a relative phase shift between the paired wings of a butterfly diagram, which should bring about almost the same relative phase shift of hemispheric solar activity strength.

  1. Failure Assessment Diagram for Brazed 304 Stainless Steel Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yory

    2011-01-01

    Interaction equations were proposed earlier to predict failure in Albemet 162 brazed joints. Present study demonstrates that the same interaction equations can be used for lower bound estimate of the failure criterion in 304 stainless steel joints brazed with silver-based filler metals as well as for construction of the Failure Assessment Diagrams (FAD).

  2. Y-12 Plant decontamination and decommissioning technology logic diagram for Building 9201-4: Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagram

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) problems at 9201-4 to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD uses information from the Strategic Roadmap for the Oak Ridge Reservation, the Oak K-25 Site technology Logic Diagram, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram, and a previous Hanford logic diagram. This TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to D&D and waste management activities. It is essential that follow-on engineering studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in the TLD and by finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between the cost and risk. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 presents an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among the environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets.

  3. 49 CFR 659.33 - Accident notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accident notification. 659.33 Section 659.33 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION... Agency § 659.33 Accident notification. (a) The oversight agency must require the rail transit agency...

  4. A Serious Game for Traffic Accident Investigators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binsubaih, Ahmed; Maddock, Steve; Romano, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    In Dubai, traffic accidents kill one person every 37 hours and injure one person every 3 hours. Novice traffic accident investigators in the Dubai police force are expected to "learn by doing" in this intense environment. Currently, they use no alternative to the real world in order to practice. This paper argues for the use of an alternative…

  5. 22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Accidents Abroad § 102.8 Reporting accidents. (a) To airline and Civil Aeronautics Administration representatives. If a scheduled United States air carrier is involved the airline representatives concerned will... promptly to the nearest office of the airline concerned and to the nearest office of the Civil...

  6. Traffic accidents, facial injuries, and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Berger, J C

    1975-01-01

    The extent to which emotional factors play a direct or indirect role in the causation of traffic accidents has been presented along with the early and late emotional response of individuals to facial injuries as a result of traffic accidents. Illustrated case histories are presented. PMID:1116323

  7. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36.513 Section 36.513 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention,...

  8. 76 FR 55079 - Recreational Vessel Accident Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ...The Coast Guard has received recommendations from the National Boating Safety Advisory Council (NBSAC) regarding potential ways to improve the recreational boating accident reporting process. NBSAC recommended that the Coast Guard: (1) Use a two-tiered reporting system for boating accidents; and (2) take steps to clarify what, how, and when information is reported. This notice solicits public......

  9. 49 CFR 659.33 - Accident notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident notification. 659.33 Section 659.33 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION... Agency § 659.33 Accident notification. (a) The oversight agency must require the rail transit agency...

  10. Normal Accident at Three Mile Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrow, Charles

    1981-01-01

    Discusses some aspects of the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. Explains a number of factors involved including the type of accident, warnings, design and equipment failure, operator error, and negative synergy. Presents alternatives to systems with catastrophic potential. (MK)

  11. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  12. Road accidents caused by drivers falling asleep.

    PubMed

    Sagberg, F

    1999-11-01

    About 29600 Norwegian accident-involved drivers received a questionnaire about the last accident reported to their insurance company. About 9200 drivers (31%) returned the questionnaire. The questionnaire contained questions about sleep or fatigue as contributing factors to the accident. In addition, the drivers reported whether or not they had fallen asleep some time whilst driving. and what the consequences had been. Sleep or drowsiness was a contributing factor in 3.9% of all accidents, as reported by drivers who were at fault for the accident. This factor was strongly over-represented in night-time accidents (18.6%), in running-off-the-road accidents (8.3%), accidents after driving more than 150 km on one trip (8.1%), and personal injury accidents (7.3%). A logistic regression analysis showed that the following additional factors made significant and independent contributions to increasing the odds of sleep involvement in an accident: dry road, high speed limit, driving one's own car, not driving the car daily, high education, and few years of driving experience. More male than female drivers were involved in sleep-related accidents, but this seems largely to be explained by males driving relatively more than females on roads with high speed limits. A total of 10% of male drivers and 4% of females reported to have fallen asleep while driving during the last 12 months. A total of 4% of these events resulted in an accident. The most frequent consequence of falling asleep--amounting to more than 40% of the reported incidents--was crossing of the right edge-line before awaking, whereas crossing of the centreline was reported by 16%. Drivers' lack of awareness of important precursors of falling asleep--like highway hypnosis, driving without awareness, and similar phenomena--as well as a reluctance to discontinue driving despite feeling tired are pointed out as likely contributors to sleep-related accidents. More knowledge about the drivers' experiences immediately

  13. Human Factors in Cabin Accident Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chute, Rebecca D.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Human factors has become an integral part of the accident investigation protocol. However, much of the investigative process remains focussed on the flight deck, airframe, and power plant systems. As a consequence, little data has been collected regarding the human factors issues within and involving the cabin during an accident. Therefore, the possibility exists that contributing factors that lie within that domain may be overlooked. The FAA Office of Accident Investigation is sponsoring a two-day workshop on cabin safety accident investigation. This course, within the workshop, will be of two hours duration and will explore relevant areas of human factors research. Specifically, the three areas of discussion are: Information transfer and resource management, fatigue and other physical stressors, and the human/machine interface. Integration of these areas will be accomplished by providing a suggested checklist of specific cabin-related human factors questions for investigators to probe following an accident.

  14. Catalog of PRA dominant accident sequence information

    SciTech Connect

    Cathey, N.G.; Krantz, E.A.; Poloski, J.P.; Shapiro, B.J.

    1985-07-01

    Information concerning the dominant accident sequences from twelve published probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) is cataloged in this report, which is published as a part of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP). The purpose of this report is to provide users of PRA information a single reference document. The cataloged results include plant operation information, core-melt frequency, event tree models, dominant factors affecting core-melt and sequence frequencies, and a description of each dominant accident sequence. The report provides a consistent set of insights on the factors that drive the dominant accident sequences. ASEP has reconstructed the PRA fault tree models at the system or train level of detail and requantified the sequence likelihoods to provide the consistent insights. This work provides the information for the other ASEP activities on accident likelihood assessment for the operating and near-term operating plants.

  15. Ethnic differences in accident rates at work.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, C C

    1987-01-01

    The accidents at work of 4482 employees in a car engine machining and assembly plant in south east England were studied retrospectively over a 12 month period. The study population was composed of Asian (22%), white (66%), and West Indian employees (12%). The crude accident rates differed among the groups, the means being Asians 1.58, white 1.23, and West Indians 1.28. There was, however, no consistent ethnic difference after adjustment for other factors such as age, type of job, and duration of service. Accident rates were higher in those employees who were younger, newly employed, and in production jobs. The findings of this research imply that accident prevention programmes should be directed to those factors known to relate to accidents and not to any specific ethnic group. PMID:3828246

  16. Pilot-error accidents: male vs female.

    PubMed

    Vail, G J; Ekman, L G

    1986-12-01

    In this study, general aviation accident records from the files of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), have been analysed by gender to observe the number and rate of pilot-error related accidents from 1972 to 1981 inclusive. If both females and males have no difference in performance, then data would have indicated similarities of accident rates and types of injuries. Males had a higher rate of accidents than females, and a higher portion of the male accidents resulted in fatalities or serious injuries than for females. Type of certificate, age, total flight time, flight time in type of aircraft, phase of operation, category of flying, degree of injury, specific cause factors, cause factor miscellaneous acts/conditions were analysed, taking the total number of United States Active Civilian General Aviation Pilots into consideration. The data did indicate a difference in all variables. PMID:15676598

  17. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident Study Information Portal

    SciTech Connect

    Shawn St. Germain; Curtis Smith; David Schwieder; Cherie Phelan

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents a description of The Fukushima Daiichi Accident Study Information Portal. The Information Portal was created by the Idaho National Laboratory as part of joint NRC and DOE project to assess the severe accident modeling capability of the MELCOR analysis code. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident Study Information Portal was created to collect, store, retrieve and validate information and data for use in reconstructing the Fukushima Daiichi accident. In addition to supporting the MELCOR simulations, the Portal will be the main DOE repository for all data, studies and reports related to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station. The data is stored in a secured (password protected and encrypted) repository that is searchable and accessible to researchers at diverse locations.

  18. National registration of accidents in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Olafsson, O; Axelsson, J

    1992-01-01

    Community based registration of accidents has been employed in Iceland from 1987. A form developed in the emergency ward at the city Hospital of Reykjavik has been used for the registration. The following issues have been registered: the type and the seriousness of the injury, treatment, place of accident and time of accident. Health centres in Iceland have been computerized from 1976. At the time being about half of the health centres participate in the registration with the information included in the form as the source. Every health center has its well defined district. The accidents among the inhabitants in each district is registered, while accidents among other people, e.g. tourists, is registered separately. At this moment 183,000 out of a total number of 259,000 inhabitants are covered by the registration, i.e. 71% of the population. In 1989 the frequency of accidents was 198 per 100,000 inhabitants. 26% of the accidents occurred at home, 11% at work, 9% during physical activity, 6% was traffic accidents, whereas the same proportion occurred at school. This registration system has been created as a result of annual conferences on accidents arranged by the Director General of public health since 1984. Representatives for the following parties have been invited; medical doctors working in hospitals and health centres, clinical nurses, physiotherapists, the National Insurance Service, other insurance companies, rescue and ambulance personal, fire departments, the Automobile Association, the communication Council. Local communities members of the parliament, voluntary organizations, e.g. Red Cross, the Sea Rescue Service and the Aviation Board. This activity has stimulated measures aiming at preventing accidents in several local communities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1285816

  19. The Fukushima accident was preventable.

    PubMed

    Synolakis, Costas; Kânoğlu, Utku

    2015-10-28

    The 11 March 2011 tsunami was probably the fourth largest in the past 100 years and killed over 15 000 people. The magnitude of the design tsunami triggering earthquake affecting this region of Japan had been grossly underestimated, and the tsunami hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP), causing the third most severe accident in an NPP ever. Interestingly, while the Onagawa NPP was also hit by a tsunami of approximately the same height as Dai-ichi, it survived the event 'remarkably undamaged'. We explain what has been referred to as the cascade of engineering and regulatory failures that led to the Fukushima disaster. One, insufficient attention had been given to evidence of large tsunamis inundating the region earlier, to Japanese research suggestive that large earthquakes could occur anywhere along a subduction zone, and to new research on mega-thrusts since Boxing Day 2004. Two, there were unexplainably different design conditions for NPPs at close distances from each other. Three, the hazard analysis to calculate the maximum probable tsunami at Dai-ichi appeared to have had methodological mistakes, which almost nobody experienced in tsunami engineering would have made. Four, there were substantial inadequacies in the Japan nuclear regulatory structure. The Fukushima accident was preventable, if international best practices and standards had been followed, if there had been international reviews, and had common sense prevailed in the interpretation of pre-existing geological and hydrodynamic findings. Formal standards are needed for evaluating the tsunami vulnerability of NPPs, for specific training of engineers and scientists who perform tsunami computations for emergency preparedness or critical facilities, as well as for regulators who review safety studies. PMID:26392611

  20. TIME-TEMPERATURE-TRANSFORMATION (TTT) DIAGRAMS FOR FUTURE WASTE COMPOSITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Billings, A.; Edwards, T.

    2010-07-08

    As a part of the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms defined by the Department of Energy - Office of Environmental Management, the waste form stability must be determined for each of the projected high-level waste (HLW) types at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, WAPS 1.4.1 requires the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) to be defined and time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams to be developed. The T{sub g} of a glass is an indicator of the approximate temperature where the supercooled liquid converts to a solid on cooling or conversely, where the solid begins to behave as a viscoelastic solid on heating. A TTT diagram identifies the crystalline phases that can form as a function of time and temperature for a given waste type or more specifically, the borosilicate glass waste form. In order to assess durability, the Product Consistency Test (PCT) was used and the durability results compared to the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. The measurement of glass transition temperature and the development of TTT diagrams have already been performed for the seven Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) projected compositions as defined in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and in SRNL-STI-2009-00025. Additional phase transformation information exists for other projected compositions, but overall these compositions did not cover composition regions estimated for future waste processing. To develop TTT diagrams for future waste types, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) fabricated two caches of glass from reagent grade oxides to simulate glass compositions which would be likely processed with and without Al dissolution. These were used for glass transition temperature measurement and TTT diagram development. The glass transition temperatures of both glasses were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and were recorded to be 448 C and 452 C. Using the previous TTT diagrams as

  1. Phase diagram of the two-dimensional extended Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onari, Seiichiro; Arita, Ryotaro; Aoki, Hideo; Kuroki, Kazuhiko

    2004-03-01

    In order to explore how superconductivity arises when charge fluctuations and spin fluctuations coexist, we have obtained a phase diagram against the off-site repulsion V and charge density n for the extended, repulsive Hubbard model on the square lattice with the fluctuation exchange approximation. We have found the existence of (i) a quantum phase transition between d_xy and d_x^2-y^2 pairing symmetries, (ii) f-pairing phase in between the d_x^2-y^2 and CDW phases for intermediate 0.5diagram". All these are consequences of the structure in the charge and spin susceptibilities, which can have peaks habitating at common or segregated positions in k space.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Nonperiodic Rail Operation Diagram Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yongsheng; Wang, Bingbing; Zeng, Junwei; Wang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    This paper succeeded in utilizing cellular automata (CA) model to simulate the process of the train operation under the four-aspect color light system and getting the nonperiodic diagram of the mixed passenger and freight tracks. Generally speaking, the concerned models could simulate well the situation of wagon in preventing trains from colliding when parking and restarting and of the real-time changes the situation of train speeds and displacement and get hold of the current train states in their departures and arrivals. Finally the model gets the train diagram that simulates the train operation in different ratios of the van and analyzes some parameter characters in the process of train running, such as time, speed, through capacity, interval departing time, and departing numbers. PMID:25435863

  3. Voronoi Diagram Based Optimization of Dynamic Reactive Power Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Weihong; Sun, Kai; Qi, Junjian; Xu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic var sources can effectively mitigate fault-induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR) issues or even voltage collapse. This paper proposes a new approach to optimization of the sizes of dynamic var sources at candidate locations by a Voronoi diagram based algorithm. It first disperses sample points of potential solutions in a searching space, evaluates a cost function at each point by barycentric interpolation for the subspaces around the point, and then constructs a Voronoi diagram about cost function values over the entire space. Accordingly, the final optimal solution can be obtained. Case studies on the WSCC 9-bus system and NPCC 140-bus system have validated that the new approach can quickly identify the boundary of feasible solutions in searching space and converge to the global optimal solution.

  4. Phase diagram of the ground states of DNA condensates.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Trinh X; Trinh, Hoa Lan; Giacometti, Achille; Podgornik, Rudolf; Banavar, Jayanth R; Maritan, Amos

    2015-12-01

    The phase diagram of the ground states of DNA in a bad solvent is studied for a semiflexible polymer model with a generalized local elastic bending potential characterized by a nonlinearity parameter x and effective self-attraction promoting compaction. x=1 corresponds to the wormlike chain model. Surprisingly, the phase diagram as well as the transition lines between the ground states are found to be a function of x. The model provides a simple explanation for the results of prior experimental and computational studies and makes predictions for the specific geometries of the ground states. The results underscore the impact of the form of the microscopic bending energy at macroscopic observable scales. PMID:26764619

  5. Phase diagram of Mo at high pressure and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M

    2008-10-01

    We report values of the Poisson Ratios for shock compressed Mo, calculated from the sound speed measurements, which provide evidence that the 210 GPa ({approx}4100K) transition cannot be a bcc-hcp transition, as originally proposed. Instead, we find the transition is from the bcc to a noncrystalline phase. For pressures above 210 GPa, the Poisson Ratio increases steadily with increasing temperature, approaching the liquid value of 0.5 at 390 GPa({approx}10,000K), suggesting the presence of a noncrystalline solid-liquid mixture. Free energy model calculations were used to show that the low melting slope of Mo, and the phase diagram, can be explained by the presence of local liquid structures. A new phase diagram is proposed for Mo that is constrained by the experimental evidence.

  6. The phase diagram and Bose metal in superconducting nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan-Wall, Tyler; Hughes, Hannah; Hartman, Nikolaus; Markovic, Nina

    We experimentally investigated the transport properties of thin, narrow superconducting aluminum nanowires as a function of magnetic field and temperature. We characterized the full superconducting phase diagram with respect to magnetic field and temperature, and show the onset of a flux-flow phase for certain values of temperature and magnetic field. The flux-flow resistance follows the Bardeen-Stephen model and it is shown that the resistance increases linearly with respect to magnetic field in this region of the phase diagram. In addition, we show the saturation to a non-zero finite resistance state below the normal state resistance for certain magnetic fields as the temperature decreases to zero. This work is supported by NSF DMR-1507782.

  7. Diagrams of stability of circumbinary planetary systems (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E.

    2015-08-01

    The stability diagrams in the "pericentric distance - eccentricity" plane of initial data are built and analysed for Kepler-38, Kepler-47, and PH1. This completes a survey of stability of the known up to now circumbinary planetary systems, initiated by Popova and Shevchenko (ApJ, 769, 152, 2013), where the analysis was performed for Kepler-16, 34, and 35. In the diagrams, the planets appear to be "embedded" in the fractal chaos border; however, I make an attempt to measure the "distance" to the chaos border in a physically consistent way. The obtained distances are compared to those given by the widely used numerical-experimental criterion by Holman and Wiegert (1999), who employed smooth polynomial approximations to describe the border. I identify the resonance cells, hosting the planets. Results of this study will appear in Proceedings of IAU Symposium 310 "Complex planetary systems".

  8. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Phase Diagrams: Fifty Years of Research.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Avraham; Kröger, Martin; Winnik, Françoise M

    2015-12-14

    In 1968, Heskins and Guillet published the first systematic study of the phase diagram of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), at the time a "young polymer" first synthesized in 1956. Since then, PNIPAM became the leading member of the growing families of thermoresponsive polymers and of stimuli-responsive, "smart" polymers in general. Its thermal response is unanimously attributed to its phase behavior. Yet, in spite of 50 years of research, a coherent quantitative picture remains elusive. In this Review we survey the reported phase diagrams, discuss the differences and comment on theoretical ideas regarding their possible origins. We aim to alert the PNIPAM community to open questions in this reputably mature domain. PMID:26612195

  9. Phase Diagrams of Electrostatically Self-Assembled Amphiplexes

    SciTech Connect

    V Stanic; M Mancuso; W Wong; E DiMasi; H Strey

    2011-12-31

    We present the phase diagrams of electrostatically self-assembled amphiplexes (ESA) comprised of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTACl), dodecane, pentanol, and water at three different NaCl salt concentrations: 100, 300, and 500 mM. This is the first report of phase diagrams for these quinary complexes. Adding a cosurfactant, we were able to swell the unit cell size of all long-range ordered phases (lamellar, hexagonal, Pm3n, Ia3d) by almost a factor of 2. The added advantage of tuning the unit cell size makes such complexes (especially the bicontinuous phases) attractive for applications in bioseparation, drug delivery, and possibly in oil recovery.

  10. Phase Diagram of the Bose Hubbard Model with Weak Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettiarachchilage, Kalani; Rousseau, Valy; Tam, Ka-Ming; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark; Sheehy, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    We study the ground state phase diagram of strongly interacting ultracold Bose gas in a one-dimensional optical lattice with a tunable weak link, by means of Quantum Monte Carlo simulation. This model contains an on-site repulsive interaction (U) and two different near-neighbor hopping terms, J and t, for the weak link and the remainder of the chain, respectively. We show that by reducing the strength of J, a novel intermediate phase develops which is compressible and non-superfluid. This novel phase is identified as a Normal Bose Liquid (NBL) which does not appear in the phase diagram of the homogeneous bosonic Hubbard model. Further, we find a linear variation of the phase boundary of Normal Bose Liquid (NBL) to SuperFluid (SF) as a function of the strength of the weak link. These results may provide a new path to design advanced atomtronic devices in the future.

  11. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, R.L.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. Volume 2 contains logic diagrams. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use. This report is part A of Volume 3 concerning characterization, decontamination, and dismantlement.

  12. Design of processes with reactive distillation line diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Bessling, B.; Schembecker, G.; Simmrock, K.H.

    1997-08-01

    On the basis of the transformation of concentration coordinates, the concept of reactive distillation lines is developed. It is applied to study the feasibility of a reactive distillation with an equilibrium reaction on all trays of a distillation column. The singular points in the distillation line diagrams are characterized in terms of nodes and saddles. Depending on the characterization of the reactive distillation line diagrams, it can be decided whether a column with two feed stages is required. On the basis of the reaction space concept, a procedure for identification of reactive distillation processes is developed, in which the reactive distillation column has to be divided into reactive and nonreactive sections. This can be necessary to overcome the limitations in separation which result from the chemical equilibrium. The concentration profile of this combined reactive/nonreactive distillation column is estimated using combined reactive/nonreactive distillation lines.

  13. Use of influence diagrams in gas transfer system option prioritization

    SciTech Connect

    Heger, A.S.; Garcia, M.D.

    1995-08-01

    A formal decision-analysis methodology was applied to aid the Department of Energy (DOE) in deciding which of several gas transfer system (GTS) options should be selected. The decision objectives for this case study, i.e., risk and cost, were directly derived from the DOE guidelines. Influence diagrams were used to define the structure of the decision problem and clearly delineate the flow if information. A set of performance matrices wee used in conjunction with the influence diagrams to assess and evaluate the degree to which the objectives of the case study were met. These performance measures were extracted from technical models, design and operating data, and professional judgments. The results were aggregated to provide an overall evaluation of the different design options of the gas transfer system. Consequently, the results of this analysis were used as an aid to DOE to select a viable GTS option.

  14. Global Phase Diagram of the High-Tc Cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Han-Dong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2006-02-01

    We propose a bosonic effective quantum Hamiltonian based on the projected SO(5) model with extended interactions, which can be derived from the microscopic models of the cuprates. The global phase diagram of this model is obtained using mean-field theory and the quantum Monte Carlo simulation. We show that this single quantum model can account for most salient features observed in the high-Tc cuprates, with different families of the cuprates attributed to different traces in the global phase diagram. A particular prediction of this theory is the checkerboard state of the d-wave hole pairs formed at certain magic filling fractions. We shall describe various properties of this state and present evidence that this novel state has been detected in recent STM and transport experiments.

  15. Computationally Useful Bridge Diagram Series. III. Lennard-Jones Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, Kippi M.; Perkyns, John S.; Pettitt, Bernard M.

    2002-06-01

    The first two orders of bridge diagrams for the f-bond expansion and the h-bond expansion are calculated for a binary mixture of Lennard-Jones spheres. The method used follows the Legendre polynomial integration methods outlined in the first two papers of this series. As for the pure fluid cases, the thermodynamic results which follow from these methods are found to be in reasonable agreement with the simulation result. Analysis of the thermodynamic and structural results in comparison to the best current bridge function approximations indicate that accurate descriptions of higher order mixtures will require methods beyond the current mean field treatments which are of utility in simple fluids. The methods given are unfortunately not computationally convenient at highest order; however, the lower order diagrams are both accessible and give reasonable numerical results.

  16. Computationally useful bridge diagram series. III. Lennard-Jones mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, Kippi; Perkyns, John; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2002-06-01

    The first two orders of bridge diagrams for the f-bond expansion and the h-bond expansion are calculated for a binary mixture of Lennard-Jones spheres. The method used follows the Legendre polynomial integration methods outlined in the first two papers of this series. As for the pure fluid cases, the thermodynamic results which follow from these methods are found to be in reasonable agreement with the simulation result. Analysis of the thermodynamic and structural results in comparison to the best current bridge function approximations indicate that accurate descriptions of higher order mixtures will require methods beyond the current mean field treatments which are of utility in simple fluids. The methods given are unfortunately not computationally convenient at highest order; however, the lower order diagrams are both accessible and give reasonable numerical results.

  17. Retrieval phase diagrams of non-monotonic Hopfield networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Jun-ichi

    1996-08-01

    We investigate the retrieval phase diagrams of an asynchronous fully connected attractor network with non-monotonic transfer function by means of a mean-field approximation. We find for the noiseless zero-temperature case that this non-monotonic Hopfield network can store more patterns than a network with monotonic transfer function investigated by Amit et al. Properties of retrieval phase diagrams of non-monotonic networks agree with the results obtained by Nishimori and Opris who treated synchronous networks. We also investigate the optimal storage capacity of the non-monotonic Hopfield model with state-dependent synaptic couplings introduced by Zertuche et al. We show that the non-monotonic Hopfield model with state-dependent synapses stores more patterns than the conventional Hopfield model. Our formulation can be easily extended to a general transfer function.

  18. The wiring diagram of a glomerular olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Berck, Matthew E; Khandelwal, Avinash; Claus, Lindsey; Hernandez-Nunez, Luis; Si, Guangwei; Tabone, Christopher J; Li, Feng; Truman, James W; Fetter, Rick D; Louis, Matthieu; Samuel, Aravinthan Dt; Cardona, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The sense of smell enables animals to react to long-distance cues according to learned and innate valences. Here, we have mapped with electron microscopy the complete wiring diagram of the Drosophila larval antennal lobe, an olfactory neuropil similar to the vertebrate olfactory bulb. We found a canonical circuit with uniglomerular projection neurons (uPNs) relaying gain-controlled ORN activity to the mushroom body and the lateral horn. A second, parallel circuit with multiglomerular projection neurons (mPNs) and hierarchically connected local neurons (LNs) selectively integrates multiple ORN signals already at the first synapse. LN-LN synaptic connections putatively implement a bistable gain control mechanism that either computes odor saliency through panglomerular inhibition, or allows some glomeruli to respond to faint aversive odors in the presence of strong appetitive odors. This complete wiring diagram will support experimental and theoretical studies towards bridging the gap between circuits and behavior. PMID:27177418

  19. Model Checking with Edge-Valued Decision Diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roux, Pierre; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2010-01-01

    We describe an algebra of Edge-Valued Decision Diagrams (EVMDDs) to encode arithmetic functions and its implementation in a model checking library. We provide efficient algorithms for manipulating EVMDDs and review the theoretical time complexity of these algorithms for all basic arithmetic and relational operators. We also demonstrate that the time complexity of the generic recursive algorithm for applying a binary operator on EVMDDs is no worse than that of Multi- Terminal Decision Diagrams. We have implemented a new symbolic model checker with the intention to represent in one formalism the best techniques available at the moment across a spectrum of existing tools. Compared to the CUDD package, our tool is several orders of magnitude faster

  20. Higher-order gravitational lensing reconstruction using Feynman diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Elizabeth E.; Manohar, Aneesh V.; Yadav, Amit P.S.; Waalewijn, Wouter J. E-mail: amanohar@ucsd.edu E-mail: ayadav@physics.ucsd.edu

    2014-09-01

    We develop a method for calculating the correlation structure of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) using Feynman diagrams, when the CMB has been modified by gravitational lensing, Faraday rotation, patchy reionization, or other distorting effects. This method is used to calculate the bias of the Hu-Okamoto quadratic estimator in reconstructing the lensing power spectrum up to  O (φ{sup 4}) in the lensing potential φ. We consider both the diagonal noise TT TT, EB EB, etc. and, for the first time, the off-diagonal noise TT TE, TB EB, etc. The previously noted large  O (φ{sup 4}) term in the second order noise is identified to come from a particular class of diagrams. It can be significantly reduced by a reorganization of the φ expansion. These improved estimators have almost no bias for the off-diagonal case involving only one B component of the CMB, such as EE EB.

  1. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, R.L.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates envirorunental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. This volume, Volume 2, contains logic diagrams with an index. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use.

  2. Size Dependent Phase Diagrams of Nickel-Carbon Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Magnin, Y; Zappelli, A; Amara, H; Ducastelle, F; Bichara, C

    2015-11-13

    The carbon rich phase diagrams of nickel-carbon nanoparticles, relevant to catalysis and catalytic chemical vapor deposition synthesis of carbon nanotubes, are calculated for system sizes up to about 3 nm (807 Ni atoms). A tight binding model for interatomic interactions drives the grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations used to locate solid, core shell and liquid stability domains, as a function of size, temperature, and carbon chemical potential or concentration. Melting is favored by carbon incorporation from the nanoparticle surface, resulting in a strong relative lowering of the eutectic temperature and a phase diagram topology different from the bulk one. This should lead to a better understanding of the nanotube growth mechanisms. PMID:26613451

  3. Evaluation of Brazed Joints Using Failure Assessment Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yury

    2012-01-01

    Fitness-for service approach was used to perform structural analysis of the brazed joints consisting of several base metal / filler metal combinations. Failure Assessment Diagrams (FADs) based on tensile and shear stress ratios were constructed and experimentally validated. It was shown that such FADs can provide a conservative estimate of safe combinations of stresses in the brazed joints. Based on this approach, Margins of Safety (MS) of the brazed joints subjected to multi-axial loading conditions can be evaluated..

  4. Maunder's Butterfly Diagram in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2005-01-01

    E. Walter Maunder created his first "Butterfly Diagram" showing the equatorward drift of the sunspot latitudes over the course of each of two solar cycles in 1903. This diagram was constructed from data obtained through the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO) starting in 1874. The RGO continued to acquire data up until 1976. Fortunately, the US Air Force (USAF) and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have continued to acquire similar data since that time. This combined RGO/USAF/NOAA dataset on sunspot group positions and areas now extends virtually unbroken from the 19th century to the 21st century. The data represented in the Butterfly Diagram contain a wealth of information about solar activity and the solar cycle. Solar activity (as represented by the sunspots) appears at mid-latitudes at the start of each cycle. The bands of activity spread in each hemisphere and then drift toward the equator as the cycle progresses. Although the equator itself tends to be avoided, the spread of activity reaches the equator at about the time of cycle maximum. The cycles overlap at minimum with old cycle spots appearing near the equator while new cycle spots emerge in the mid-latitudes. Large amplitude cycles tend to have activity starting at higher latitudes with the activity spreading to higher latitudes as well. Large amplitude cycles also tend to be preceded by earlier cycles with faster drift rates. These drift rates may be tied to the Sun s meridional circulation - a component in many dynamo theories for the origin of the sunspot cycle. The Butterfly Diagram must be reproduced in any successful dynamo model for the Sun.

  5. Data-driven implementation of data flow diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Babb, R.G. II

    1982-01-01

    Current software engineering methods employ a variety of design notations and techniques during the development process. This paper suggests a new, unified approach to developing software, termed program/system design. Programs are viewed as being made up of systems of data-coupled data-activated processing units. Using a coherent hierarchy of data flow diagrams, complex systems are specified as compositions of successively simpler systems. The methods are illustrated by a program/system solution to the telegram problem. 19 references.

  6. Respiratory gas exchange using a triaxial alveolar gas diagram.

    PubMed Central

    Fuster, J. F.; Pages, T.; Palacios, L.

    1993-01-01

    A triaxial alveolar gas diagram to depict fractional concentration of oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen is described, in which the R = 1 line is always implicit. Although it is not claimed that this representation leads to new insights into respiratory physiology, a method of plotting on a triaxial coordinate system has been found to be well suited to many applications when a direct display of fractional nitrogen concentration is required. PMID:8303637

  7. Magnetic phase diagrams of barcode-type nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighton, B.; Suarez, O. J.; Landeros, P.; Escrig, J.

    2009-09-01

    The magnetic configurations of barcode-type magnetic nanostructures consisting of alternate ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic layers arranged within a multilayer nanotube structure are investigated as a function of their geometry. Based on a continuum approach we have obtained analytical expressions for the energy which lead us to obtain phase diagrams giving the relative stability of characteristic internal magnetic configurations of the barcode-type nanostructures.

  8. Crystalline condensates in the chiral symmetry breaking phase diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Dunne, Gerald V.

    2010-07-27

    The existence of crystalline condensates in the temperature and chemcial potential phase diagram of the Gross-Neveu models can be traced to intricate symmetries of the associated inhomogeneous gap equation, which in turn reflect the form of chiral symmetry (discrete or continuous) that is broken. The gap equation based on the Ginzburg-Landau expansion is precisely the mKdV or AKNS hierarchy of integrable nonlinear equations for the Gross-Neveu model with discrete or continuous chiral symmetry, respectively.

  9. Electronegativity and hardness as coordinates in structure stability diagrams.

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, S; Parr, R G

    1985-01-01

    With electronegativity and hardness of an atom defined as 1/2(I + A) and 1/2(I - A), respectively, where I and A are the ionization potential and electron affinity, electronegativity difference and hardness sum are proposed as coordinates in structure stability diagrams. With these coordinates a successful topological classification of the crystal structures of octet and suboctet binary compounds is obtained, and a clear delineation of the structural classes portraying chemical periodicity is found. PMID:3855552

  10. Optical logic gates using binary decision diagram with mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2013-12-01

    Optical circuits of different logical operations using binary decision diagram (BDD) are proposed and described in this paper. A simple table-top model using plane mirrors based on this architecture has been shown in this manuscript. This model is the macroscopic form of micro-electromechanical (MEMS) optical switch, which is also described in this manuscript. Numerical simulations using torsion type micromirrors have been done to find its operational performance. The design is simple and easy to implement for higher bit also.

  11. Flow Effects on the Flammability Diagrams of Solid Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordova, J. L.; Ceamanos, J.; Fernandez-Pello, A. C.; Long, R. T.; Torero, J. L.; Quintiere, J. G.

    1997-01-01

    A research program is currently underway with the final objective of developing a fundamental understanding of the controlling mechanisms underlying the flammability diagrams of solid combustible materials and their derived fire properties. Given that there is a high possibility of an accidental fire occurring in a space-based facility, understanding the fire properties of materials that will be used in such facilities is of critical importance. With this purpose, the flammability diagrams of the materials, as those produced by the Lateral Ignition and Flame Spread Test (LIFT) apparatus and by a new forced flow device, the Forced Flow Ignition and Flame Spread Test (FIST) apparatus, will be obtained. The specific objective of the program is to apply the new flammability apparatus, which will more accurately reflect the potential ambient conditions of space-based environments, to the characterization of the materials for space applications. This paper presents a parametric study of oxidizer flow effects on the ignition curve of the flammability diagrams of PMMA. The dependence of the ignition delay time on the external radiant flux and either the sample width (LIFT) or the flow velocity (FIST) has been studied. Although preliminary, the results indicate that natural and forced convection flow changes, affect the characteristics of the ignition curves of the flammability diagrams. The major effect on the ignition time appears to be due to convective transfer variations at the fuel surface. At high radiant fluxes or high flow velocities, however, it appears that gas phase processes become increasingly important, affecting the overall ignition delay time. A numerical analysis of the solid fuel heating and pyrolysis has also been developed. The theoretical predictions approximate the experiments well for conditions in which the gas phase induction time is negligible.

  12. Towards a Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram Using Travel Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Using travel diary data from 2000–2001 and 2010–2012 this research examines fundamental traffic relationships at the metropolitan level. The results of this paper can help to explain the causes of some traffic phenomena. Network average speed by time of day can be explained by trip length and cumulative number of vehicles on the road. A clockwise hysteresis loop is found in the Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram in the morning period and a reverse process happens in the afternoon. PMID:26866913

  13. Towards a Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram Using Travel Survey Data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Levinson, David M

    2016-01-01

    Using travel diary data from 2000-2001 and 2010-2012 this research examines fundamental traffic relationships at the metropolitan level. The results of this paper can help to explain the causes of some traffic phenomena. Network average speed by time of day can be explained by trip length and cumulative number of vehicles on the road. A clockwise hysteresis loop is found in the Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram in the morning period and a reverse process happens in the afternoon. PMID:26866913

  14. [New diagrams for quick calculation of refrigerating machines (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Palla, L; Sellerio, U

    1974-01-01

    The present edition is a re-elaboration and an extension of a previous one and takes into account the data meanwhile brought up to date--concerning the characteristics of saturated vapours--as well as the opportuneness of an easier consultation. In fact, by introducing logarithmic scales and by an appropriate choice of the logarithmic modulus, it has been possible to summarize the characteristics of each fluid in one diagram only, whereas, in the first edition, the extension of the metric scales of the abcissas imposed to divide each diagram in two parts. Besides, more units have been introduced, namely: m3/kcal, m3/kj and ft3/Btu for volumes; oF and oC degrees for temperatures. These new diagrams have heen developed for the following refrigerant fluids: R 11, R 12, R 13, R 13 B1, R 22, R 114, R 502, NH3 and CH3Cl. Known the temperature before the throttling device, the evaporating temperature and the one of the eventual superheating, they enable to promptly calculate the volume of the refrigerant in the gaseous phase, both as dry saturated vapour and superheated vapour; besides, they allow the quick calculation of the speed of the fluid inside thepiping system, the performance of the compressor under different working conditions and with different refrigerants, and so on. A number of practical examples illustrate even more clearly what stated about quickness and possibilities of calculation. PMID:4470993

  15. Classification of ischaemic episodes with ST/HR diagrams.

    PubMed

    Faganeli Pucer, Jana; Demšar, Janez; Kukar, Matjaž

    2012-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the developed world's premier cause of mortality and the most probable cause of myocardial ischaemia. More advanced diagnostic tests aside, in electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis it manifests itself as a ST segment deviation, targeted by both exercise ECG and ambulatory ECG. In ambulatory ECG, besides ischaemic ST segment deviation episodes there are also non-ischaemic heart rate related episodes which aggravate real ischaemia detection. We present methods to transform the features developed for the heart rate adjustment of ST segment depression in exercise ECG for use in ambulatory ECG. We use annotations provided by the Long-Term ST Database to plot the ST/HR diagrams and then estimate the overall and maximal slopes of the diagrams in the exercise and recovery phase for each ST segment deviation episode. We also estimate the angle at the extrema of the ST/HR diagrams. Statistical analysis shows that ischaemic ST segment deviation episodes have significantly steeper overall and maximal slopes than heart rate related episodes, which indicates the explored features' utility for distinguishing between the two types of episodes. This makes the proposed features very useful in automated ECG analysis. PMID:22874369

  16. Phase diagram of KHF2 and non-equilibrium effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobson, M. C.; Kellner, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The equilibrium diagram for the KHF2-H2O system was constructed from cooling and heating curves for the compositions between 5 wt% and 40 wt% KHF2 and the results are shown. The phase diagrams shown is typical of that of a two component system with miscible liquid phases and whole solid phases consist of pure components. A eutectic point was found at approximately 15% KHF2 which remains completely liquid down to a temperature of -9.0 C. No hydrate formation was observed and no anomalous behavior such as the occurrence of solid transitions or metastable states was observed. The effect of rapid freezing on the equilibrium diagram did not appear, and cooling curves exhibited only one halt. Also, at rapid freezing rates, the supercooling of the solutions was smaller than those observed at the slow cooling rates. The existence of a eutectic composition and the slow rate of dissolution of the salt are used to interpret heat absorption behavior in practical applications of the KHF2-H2O system.

  17. Global phase diagram and single particle excitations in Kondo insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Qimiao; Pixley, Jedediah; Yu, Rong; Paschen, Silke

    Motivated by quantum criticality in Kondo insulators tuned by pressure or doping we study the effects of magnetic frustration and the properties of the single particle excitations in a Kondo lattice model. Focusing on the Kondo insulating limit we study the Shastry-Sutherland Kondo lattice and determine the zero temperature phase diagram, which incorporates a valence bond solid, antiferromagnet, and Kondo insulating ground states, with metal-to-insulator quantum phase transitions. We argue that this phase diagram is generic and represents a ``global'' phase diagram of Kondo insulators in terms of quantum fluctuations and the Kondo interaction. We then focus on the momentum distribution of single particle excitations within the Kondo insulating ground state. We show how features of the Fermi-surface of the underlying conduction electrons appear in the Kondo insulating phase. Lastly, we discuss the implications of our results for quantum criticality in Kondo insulators as well as for the recent de Haas-von Alphen measurements in the Kondo insulator SmB6.

  18. Phase Diagrams of Electric-Fduced Aggregation in Conducting Colloids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khusid, B.; Acrivos, A.

    1999-01-01

    Under the application of a sufficiently strong electric field, a suspension may undergo reversible phase transitions from a homogeneous random arrangement of particles into a variety of ordered aggregation patterns. The surprising fact about electric-field driven phase transitions is that the aggregation patterns, that are observed in very diverse systems of colloids, display a number of common structural features and modes of evolution thereby implying that a universal mechanism may exist to account for these phenomena. It is now generally believed that this mechanism emanates from the presence of the long-range anisotropic interactions between colloidal particles due to their polarization in an applied field. But, in spite of numerous applications of the electric-field-driven phenomena in biotechnology, separation, materials engineering, chemical analysis, etc. our understanding of these phenomena is far from complete. Thus, it is the purpose of the proposed research to develop a theory and then test experimentally, under normal- and low-gravity conditions, the accuracy of the theoretical predictions regarding the effect of the synergism of the interparticle electric and hydrodynamic interactions on the phase diagram of a suspension. The main results from our theoretical studies performed to-date enable one to trace how the variations of the electrical properties of the constituent materials influence the topology of the suspension phase diagram and then, by using an appropriate phase diagram, to evaluate how the electric-field-induced transformations will depend on the frequency and the strength of the applied field.

  19. (An)isotropy of the Hubble diagram: comparing hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, D. J.; Weinhorst, B.

    2007-11-01

    Aims:We test the isotropy of the Hubble diagram. At small redshifts, this is possible without assumptions on the cosmic inventory and provides a fundamental test of the cosmological principle. At higher redshift we check for the self-consistency of the ΛCDM model. Methods: At small redshifts, we use public supernovae (SNe) Ia data to determine the deceleration parameter q0 and the SN calibration on opposite hemispheres. For the complete data sets we fit ΩM and the SN calibration on opposite hemispheres. Results: A statistically significant anisotropy of the Hubble diagram at redshifts z < 0.2 is discovered (>95%C.L.). While data from the North Galactic hemisphere favour the accelerated expansion of the Universe, data from the South Galactic hemisphere are not conclusive. The hemispheric asymmetry is maximal toward a direction close to the equatorial poles. The discrepancy between the equatorial North and South hemispheres shows up in the SN calibration. For the ΛCDM model fitted to all available SNe, we find the same asymmetry. Conclusions: The alignment of discrepancies between hemispheric Hubble diagrams with the equatorial frame seems to point toward a systematic error in the SN search, observation, analysis or data reduction. We also find that our model independent test cannot exclude the case of the deceleration of the expansion at a statistically significant level.

  20. Towards a Cosmological Hubble Diagram for Type II-PSupernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, Peter; Sullivan, Mark; Ellis, Richard; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Leonard, Douglas C.; Howell, D. Andrew; Astier, Pierre; Carlberg, RaymondG.; Conley, Alex; Fabbro, Sebastien; Fouchez, Dominique; Neill, James D.; Pain, Reynald; Perrett, Kathy; Pritchet, Chris J; Regnault, Nicolas

    2006-03-20

    We present the first high-redshift Hubble diagram for Type II-P supernovae (SNe II-P) based upon five events at redshift upto z {approx}0.3. This diagram was constructed using photometry from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey and absorption line spectroscopy from the Keck observatory. The method used to measure distances to these supernovae is based on recent work by Hamuy&Pinto (2002) and exploits a correlation between the absolute brightness of SNeII-P and the expansion velocities derived from the minimum of the Fe II 516.9 nm P-Cygni feature observed during the plateau phases. We present three refinements to this method which significantly improve the practicality of measuring the distances of SNe II-P at cosmologically interesting redshifts. These are an extinction correction measurement based on the V-I colors at day 50, across-correlation measurement for the expansion velocity and the ability to extrapolate such velocities accurately over almost the entire plateau phase. We apply this revised method to our dataset of high-redshift SNe II-P and find that the resulting Hubble diagram has a scatter of only 0.26 magnitudes, thus demonstrating the feasibility of measuring the expansion history, with present facilities, using a method independent of that based upon supernovae of Type Ia.

  1. The effective QCD phase diagram and the critical end point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Alejandro; Bashir, Adnan; Cobos-Martínez, J. J.; Hernández-Ortiz, Saúl; Raya, Alfredo

    2015-08-01

    We study the QCD phase diagram on the temperature T and quark chemical potential μ plane, modeling the strong interactions with the linear sigma model coupled to quarks. The phase transition line is found from the effective potential at finite T and μ taking into account the plasma screening effects. We find the location of the critical end point (CEP) to be (μCEP /Tc, TCEP /Tc) ∼ (1.2, 0.8), where Tc is the (pseudo)critical temperature for the crossover phase transition at vanishing μ. This location lies within the region found by lattice inspired calculations. The results show that in the linear sigma model, the CEP's location in the phase diagram is expectedly determined solely through chiral symmetry breaking. The same is likely to be true for all other models which do not exhibit confinement, provided the proper treatment of the plasma infrared properties for the description of chiral symmetry restoration is implemented. Similarly, we also expect these corrections to be substantially relevant in the QCD phase diagram.

  2. Phase diagram of a reentrant gel of patchy particles

    SciTech Connect

    Roldán-Vargas, Sándalo; Smallenburg, Frank; Sciortino, Francesco; Kob, Walter

    2013-12-28

    We study the phase diagram of a binary mixture of patchy particles which has been designed to form a reversible gel. For this we perform Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the thermodynamics of such a system and compare our numerical results with predictions based on the analytical parameter-free Wertheim theory. We explore a wide range of the temperature-density-composition space that defines the three-dimensional phase diagram of the system. As a result, we delimit the region of thermodynamic stability of the fluid. We find that for a large region of the phase diagram the Wertheim theory is able to give a quantitative description of the system. For higher densities, our simulations show that the system is crystallizing into a BCC structure. Finally, we study the relaxation dynamics of the system by means of the density and temperature dependences of the diffusion coefficient. We show that there exists a density range where the system passes reversibly from a gel to a fluid upon both heating and cooling, encountering neither demixing nor phase separation.

  3. Molecular Complexation and Phase Diagrams of Urea/PEG Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guoepeng; Kyu, Thein

    2014-03-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and urea complexation has been known to form a stable crystal due to molecular complexation. The effect of molecular weight of PEG on the phase diagrams of its blends with urea has been explored. In the case of high molecular weight PEG8k/urea, the observed phase diagram is azeotrope, accompanied by eutectoid reactions in the submerged phases such as induced stable ``alpha'' phase crystals and metastable ``beta'' phase crystals. The metastable crystal can transform to stable crystal under a certain thermal annealing condition. However, the phase diagram of PEG1k/urea is of coexistence loop, whereas PEG400/urea exhibits eutectic character. Subsequently, the change of azeotrope to eutectic behavior with PEG molecular weight is analyzed in the context of the combined Flory-Huggins theory of liquid-liquid demixing and phase field theory of crystal solidification. Of particular interest is that only a very small urea amount (2 wt%) is needed to form a stable inclusion crystal via complexation with PEG. Potential application in lithium battery is discussed based on AC impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Supported by NSF-DMR 1161070.

  4. Low-Resolution Remeshing Using the Localized Restricted Voronoi Diagram.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dong-Ming; Bao, Guanbo; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wonka, Peter

    2014-10-01

    A big problem in triangular remeshing is to generate meshes when the triangle size approaches the feature size in the mesh. The main obstacle for Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation (CVT)-based remeshing is to compute a suitable Voronoi diagram. In this paper, we introduce the localized restricted Voronoi diagram (LRVD) on mesh surfaces. The LRVD is an extension of the restricted Voronoi diagram (RVD), but it addresses the problem that the RVD can contain Voronoi regions that consist of multiple disjoint surface patches. Our definition ensures that each Voronoi cell in the LRVD is a single connected region. We show that the LRVD is a useful extension to improve several existing mesh-processing techniques, most importantly surface remeshing with a low number of vertices. While the LRVD and RVD are identical in most simple configurations, the LRVD is essential when sampling a mesh with a small number of points and for sampling surface areas that are in close proximity to other surface areas, e.g., nearby sheets. To compute the LRVD, we combine local discrete clustering with a global exact computation. PMID:26357388

  5. Upper respiratory tract illnesses and accidents.

    PubMed

    Smith, A P; Harvey, I; Richmond, P; Peters, T J; Thomas, M; Brockman, P

    1994-07-01

    Anecdotal accounts suggest that colds and influenza may increase human error. This view is supported by laboratory studies of the effects of upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTIs) on performance efficiency, which have shown that both experimentally induced and naturally occurring URTIs reduce aspects of performance efficiency. The present research examined the relationship between accidents and URTIs by studying 923 patients attending an Accident and Emergency department at a time of year when upper respiratory tract viruses were circulating. The results revealed no significant associations between URTIs and workplace accidents, and, similarly, no significant associations emerged when all accidents were compared with other attenders. The only effect which was close to statistical significance was a protective effect of influenza against workplace accidents, which could be explained in terms of a person with influenza or who has recently had influenza being less likely to work and therefore less likely to be at risk of experiencing a workplace accident. Further research must examine this topic with different methodologies, such as selecting controls from fellow workers of the index case, and these studies will provide us with a clearer view as to whether or not there is an association between URTIs and workplace accidents. PMID:7919298

  6. An analysis of aircraft accidents involving fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucha, G. V.; Robertson, M. A.; Schooley, F. A.

    1975-01-01

    All U. S. Air Carrier accidents between 1963 and 1974 were studied to assess the extent of total personnel and aircraft damage which occurred in accidents and in accidents involving fire. Published accident reports and NTSB investigators' factual backup files were the primary sources of data. Although it was frequently not possible to assess the relative extent of fire-caused damage versus impact damage using the available data, the study established upper and lower bounds for deaths and damage due specifically to fire. In 12 years there were 122 accidents which involved airframe fires. Eighty-seven percent of the fires occurred after impact, and fuel leakage from ruptured tanks or severed lines was the most frequently cited cause. A cost analysis was performed for 300 serious accidents, including 92 serious accidents which involved fire. Personal injury costs were outside the scope of the cost analysis, but data on personnel injury judgements as well as settlements received from the CAB are included for reference.

  7. Accidents in Canada: mortality and hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Riley, R; Paddon, P

    1989-01-01

    For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985. PMID:2491351

  8. Diagrams increase the recall of nondepicted text when understanding is also increased.

    PubMed

    Serra, Michael J

    2010-02-01

    Multimedia presentations typically produce better memory and understanding than do single-medium presentations. Little research, however, has considered the effect of multimedia on memory for nonmultimedia information within a large multimedia presentation (e.g., nondepicted text in a large text with diagrams). To this end, the present two experiments compared memory for target text information that was either depicted in diagrams or not. Participants (n = 180) studied either a text-only version of a text about lightning or a text-with-diagrams version in which half the target information was depicted in diagrams. Memory was tested with both free recall and cued recall questions. Overall, diagrams did not affect memory for the entire text; diagrams increased memory only for the information they depicted. Diagrams exerted a generalized effect on free recall only when diagrams increased the overall understanding of the text (i.e., when the participants studied the materials twice before the test). PMID:20081170

  9. 1994 Accident sequence precursor program results

    SciTech Connect

    Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program involves the systematic review and evaluation of operational events that have occurred at light-water reactors to identify and categorize precursors to potential severe core damage accident sequences. The results of the ASP Program are published in an annual report. The most recent report, which contains the analyses of the precursors for 1994, is NUREG/CR-4674, Vols. 21 and 22, Precursors to Potential Severe Core Damage Accidents: 1994, A Status Report, published in December 1995. This article provides an overview of the ASP review and evaluation process and a summary of the results for 1994. 12 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. 1995 Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program results

    SciTech Connect

    Muhlheim, M.D.; Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.; O`Reilly, P.D.; Dolan, B.W.; Minarick, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program involves the systematic review and evaluation of operational events that have occurred at light-water reactors to identify and categorize precursors to potential severe core damage accident sequences. The results of the ASP Program are published in an annual report. The most recent report, which contains the precursors for 1995, is NUREG/CR-4674, Volume 23, Precursors to Potential Severe Core Damage Accidents: 1995, A Status Report, published in April 1997. This article provides an overview of the ASP review and evaluation process and a summary of the results for 1995.

  11. An Analysis of Diagram Modification and Construction in Students' Solutions to Applied Calculus Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremigan, Elizabeth George

    2005-01-01

    In the study reported here, I examined the diagrams that mathematically capable high school students produced in solving applied calculus problems in which a diagram was provided in the problem statement. Analyses of the diagrams contained in written solutions to selected free-response problems from the 1996 BC level Advanced Placement Calculus…

  12. Formative Feedback Using Pseudo Peer Diagrams: Evaluating System Equilibrium of Buoyancy Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Sensen

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces an innovative instructional method, called "pseudo peer diagram" (PPD), where students employ executive skills to compare and contrast their work with others' as a formative feedback mechanism. The focus of this study is how students compare and contrast their own diagrams with the pseudo peer diagrams as a stimulus…

  13. Experimenting with Automatic Text-to-Diagram Conversion: A Novel Teaching Aid for the Blind People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukherjee, Anirban; Garain, Utpal; Biswas, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    Diagram describing texts are integral part of science and engineering subjects including geometry, physics, engineering drawing, etc. In order to understand such text, one, at first, tries to draw or perceive the underlying diagram. For perception of the blind students such diagrams need to be drawn in some non-visual accessible form like tactile…

  14. The Iron-Iron Carbide Phase Diagram: A Practical Guide to Some Descriptive Solid State Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Gary J.; Leighly, H. P., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the solid state chemistry of iron and steel in terms of the iron-iron carbide phase diagram. Suggests that this is an excellent way of introducing the phase diagram (equilibrium diagram) to undergraduate students while at the same time introducing the descriptive solid state chemistry of iron and steel. (Author/JN)

  15. The Interplay among Gestures, Discourse, and Diagrams in Students' Geometrical Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chia-Ling; Herbst, Patricio

    2013-01-01

    This study explores interactions with diagrams that are involved in geometrical reasoning; more specifically, how students publicly make and justify conjectures through multimodal representations of diagrams. We describe how students interact with diagrams using both gestural and verbal modalities, and examine how such multimodal interactions with…

  16. Query Processing for Probabilistic State Diagrams Describing Multiple Robot Navigation in an Indoor Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Czejdo, Bogdan; Bhattacharya, Sambit; Ferragut, Erik M

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the syntax and semantics of multi-level state diagrams to support probabilistic behavior of cooperating robots. The techniques are presented to analyze these diagrams by querying combined robots behaviors. It is shown how to use state abstraction and transition abstraction to create, verify and process large probabilistic state diagrams.

  17. An Application of CICCT Accident Categories to Aviation Accidents in 1988-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2007-01-01

    Interventions or technologies developed to improve aviation safety often focus on specific causes or accident categories. Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of those interventions is dependent upon mapping the historical aviation accidents into those same accident categories. To that end, the United States civil aviation accidents occurring between 1988 and 2004 (n=26,117) were assigned accident categories based upon the taxonomy developed by the CAST/ICAO Common Taxonomy Team (CICTT). Results are presented separately for four main categories of flight rules: Part 121 (large commercial air carriers), Scheduled Part 135 (commuter airlines), Non-Scheduled Part 135 (on-demand air taxi) and Part 91 (general aviation). Injuries and aircraft damage are summarized by year and by accident category.

  18. [Origin of the S curve in the ancient Taiji diagram-evolvement from the heaven and earth positioning diagram to the Taiji diagram].

    PubMed

    Jian, Yan-Min

    2012-01-01

    The term 'Taiji' first appear in Zhouyi·Xici, saying that 'yi has Taiji which includes yin and yang'. Chinese ancestors formed the 'year' conception by observing sunrise, sundown and seasonal successions for a long period. 'yi has Taiji which includes yin and yang' was the resultant recording of their sun-movement observations. People compared the heaven and earth to a circle and they divided the circle into four areas to record meteorological changes of the four seasons. A line was drawn from the spring equinox to the autumn equinox and the heaven and earth positioning diagram was created with the upper half as the heaven and the bottom half as the earth. The line was called the Taiji line. Considering that 'yang starts to grow at the winter solstice and yin starts to grow at the summer solstice', therefore people gradually changed the line to a S -curve. PMID:22613480

  19. Shuttle accident stalls science plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Plans to make 1986 a uniquely productive year for U.S. space science activities ended in one horrible moment with the January 28, 1986, explosion of the space shuttle Challenger. The joyless scene at Cape Canaveral, Fla., stood in sharp contrast to the overwhelming success of Voyager 2 in its encounter with Uranus 4 days earlier. (Scientific details of that encounter will follow in upcoming issues of Eos.)Of the 15 space shuttle flights planned for fiscal year 1986, beginning October 1, 1985, a total of seven were to have carried scientific payloads for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The remaining eight flights were evenly divided between missions for the U.S. Department of Defense and commercial missions for NASA's paying customers. The explosion caused NASA to put its entire space shuttle program on hold to allow time for engineers to find the cause of the accident and for NASA to implement corrective measures. As Eos went to press, NASA acting administrator William R. Graham had not yet released the names of those who would serve on the formal investigative panel. “I think everybody's agreed that it will take weeks to months to unravel,” said Alexander Dessler, director of the space science laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center near Huntsville, Ala. Dessler speculated that investigators would begin with a list of hundreds of possible causes for the explosion.

  20. Safety analysis of surface haulage accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, R.F.; Boldt, C.M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Research on improving haulage truck safety, started by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, is being continued by its successors. This paper reports the orientation of the renewed research efforts, beginning with an update on accident data analysis, the role of multiple causes in these accidents, and the search for practical methods for addressing the most important causes. Fatal haulage accidents most often involve loss of control or collisions caused by a variety of factors. Lost-time injuries most often involve sprains or strains to the back or multiple body areas, which can often be attributed to rough roads and the shocks of loading and unloading. Research to reduce these accidents includes improved warning systems, shock isolation for drivers, encouraging seatbelt usage, and general improvements to system and task design.