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1

Venn Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive problem provides an opportunity for children to become familiar with Venn diagrams, while reinforcing knowledge of number properties. Students must place the numbers from 1 to 40 into a Venn diagram of two sets with an intersection. The Teachers' Notes page offers rationale, suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support.

2007-09-01

2

Duality Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The duality between the s- and t-channel descriptions of strong-interaction scattering amplitudes and the assumption that in every channel the scattering proceeds via nonexotic resonances are exhibited by simple diagrams. The diagrams lead to simple derivations of some known consequences of these assumptions as well as to many new predictions which can be tested experimentally.

Haim Harari

1969-01-01

3

Phase Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This handout and problem set is a stand alone tutorial that introduces students to the basics of phase diagrams and the phase rule. It is a rather lengthy exercise, suitable as a homework assignment. It can replace lectures and yields superior learning.

Perkins, Dexter

4

Venn diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These online resources offer varied opportunities to work with Venn diagrams, one of many tools used in logic and reasoning. Their use is especially helpful in learning foundational notions of definition and set theory. One of the five Process Standards promoted by NCTM, Reasoning and Proof requires middle school students to sharpen such skills as they learn to develop mathematical argument.

National Science Digital Library (NSDL) Middle School Portal Staff

2008-03-10

5

Thermodynamic Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermodynamic data such as equilibrium constants, standard cell potentials, molar enthalpies of formation, and standard entropies of substances can be a very useful basis for an organized presentation of knowledge in diverse areas of applied chemistry. Thermodynamic data can become particularly useful when incorporated into thermodynamic diagrams that are designed to be easy to recall, to serve as a basis for reconstructing previous knowledge, and to determine whether reactions can occur exergonically or only with the help of an external energy source. Few students in our chemistry-based courses would want to acquire the depth of knowledge or rigor of professional thermodynamicists. But they should nevertheless learn how to make good use of thermodynamic data in their professional occupations that span the chemical, biological, environmental, and medical laboratory fields. This article discusses examples of three thermodynamic diagrams that have been developed for this purpose. They are the thermodynamic energy account (TEA), the total entropy scale, and the thermodynamic scale diagrams. These diagrams help in the teaching and learning of thermodynamics by bringing the imagination into the process of developing a better understanding of abstract thermodynamic functions, and by allowing the reader to keep track of specialist thermodynamic discourses in the literature.

Chaston, Scot

1999-02-01

6

Venn Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unions, intersections, and differences: This can all be quite confusing to students trying to enter the potentially tricky world of Venn Diagrams. Fortunately, Alfredo Jiminez of Pennsylvania State University, Hazleton has created this handy Flash-enabled teaching application designed to provide students with an engaging way to learn about this subject. The project is party of the Digital Classroom Resources at the MAA Mathematical Sciences Digital Library, and visitors will find this particular learning activity quite easy to use. The interactive tool contains seven sections, including those dealing with the principles of union and intersection, distributive properties, and De Morgan's laws. Within each section, visitors can try their hand with a series of short questions and then take advantage of some review materials and, of course, a few basic tests.

Jiminez, Alfredo

7

Accident Reviews: M113 Accident, AMV Accident, Environmental Injuries, Field Training Accident, Tactical Parachuting Accident, Physical Training Accident, Weapons-Handling Accident.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains reviews on various kinds of accidents: armored personnel carriers, environmental injuries, field training accidents, tactical parachuting accidents, physical training accidents and weapon-handing accidents.

1985-01-01

8

Diagrams about Thoughts about Thoughts about Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of diagrammatic reasoning often focuses on computational models of diagram use rather than on studies of human performance. This paper considers diagrams as a notational system that can be used and studied in an experimental context. It presents a review of the experimental psychology literature rather than a complete theoretical framework, and is intended as an introduction to

Alan F. Blackwell

1997-01-01

9

Nesting in Euler Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the notion of nesting in Euler diagrams, and how nesting aects the interpretation and construction of such diagrams. After setting up the necessary definitions for Euler diagrams at concrete syntax and abstract levels, the notion of nestedness is introduced at the concrete level, then an equivalent notion is given at the abstract level. The natural progression to

Jean Flower; John Howse; John Taylor

2003-01-01

10

Radiotherapy Accidents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major benefit of a Quality Assurance system in a radiotherapy centre is that it reduces the likelihood of an accident. For over 20 years I have been the interface in the UK between the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine and the media — newspapers, radio and TV — and so I have learned about radiotherapy accidents from personal experience. In some cases, these accidents did not become public and so the hospital cannot be identified. Nevertheless, lessons are still being learned.

Mckenzie, Alan

11

Dosimetric Evaluation of Radiation Accident Situation. Methodology and Procedure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication contains the classification of neutron spectra from different neutron sources, a chapter on neutron absorption by the human body, a diagram for neutron and photon dose estimation and for classifying persons involved in a radiation accident...

Z. Prouza F. Spurny

1981-01-01

12

Nuclear accidents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Accidents at nuclear power plants can be especially devastating to people and the environment. This article, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to nuclear accidents at Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and Tokaimura. Students explore the incidents by examining possible causes, environmental impacts, and effects on life.

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

13

Structure Flow Diagram Generator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Structure Flow Diagram Generator provides the user with a convenient, easy-to-use, and less time-consuming way of diagramming the overall structure of a program. It allows for several options including segment and overlay numbers, and the inclusion of...

S. M. Adams

1989-01-01

14

Formalizing Spider Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geared to complement UML and to the specification of large software systems by non-mathematicians,spider di- agrams are a visual language that generalizes the popu- lar and intuitive Venn diagrams and Euler circles. The language design emphasized scalability and expressiveness while retaining intuitiveness. In this extended abstract we describe spider diagrams from a mathematical standpoint and show how their formal semantics

Joseph Gil; John Howse; Stuart Kent

1999-01-01

15

Sequence Diagrams for Mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several kinds of UML diagrams for convenient modelling of behaviour, but these diagrams can be hardly used for modelling mobility. The situa- tion is not very different in the case of agent languages. There exist already some pro- posals for modelling mobility of interacting agents by graphical notations, but these notations are rather not very intuitive and hard

Piotr Kosiuczenko

2002-01-01

16

Lenses and Ray Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the first time that students will draw technical ray diagrams (in previous experiments, they simply sketched the rays). They need a little instruction in drawing ray diagrams before they can do it, so the activity is not purely inquiry. But it is

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

17

Failure diagrams for unidirectional  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pertinent failure processes in unidirectional fiber metal-matrix composites (MMCs) have been identified and analyzed. The critical conditions for interface delamination in several composites are compared with the theoretical delamination diagram proposed by He and Hutchinson, in which interface delamination and fiber fracture are delineated on the basis of their relative tough-ness values. It is shown that the delamination diagram does

K. S. Chan

1993-01-01

18

Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HR-diagram), pioneered independently by EJNAR HERTZSPRUNG and HENRY NORRIS RUSSELL, is a plot of the star luminosity versus the surface temperature. It stems from the basic relation for an object emitting thermal radiation as a black body: ...

Chiosi, C.; Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

19

How to Interpret Circuit Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents an explanation of how to interpret circuit diagrams. Two diagrams show the difference between a "short hand" circuit diagram and a more detailed one. The detailed circuit diagram is useful for those first learning circuits in an effort to eventually understand the "short hand" diagram without difficulty.

Lesurf, Jim

2013-06-07

20

Investigation of the Core Melt Accident in Light Water Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the thesis the core melt accident, heating up and collapsing of the reactor core were investigated. The most important parameters of influence were found and their effect on the development of the accident were shown. A causal diagram was developed rep...

H. Koerber

1980-01-01

21

Plutonium Predominance Region Diagrams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four plutonium predominance region diagrams, a technique for estimating the solubility of hydrous plutonium(IV) oxide, and a method for comparing valence state distributions of uranium, neptunium and plutonium are described.

G. L. Silver

1975-01-01

22

Venn Diagram Shape Sorter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet helps students explore attributes of objects by sorting different sized, colored, shapes into Venn Diagrams. The user chooses the type of Venn Diagram including 2 intersecting circles, 2 non-intersecting circles, or a single circle. Two modes include "make the rule," where users create the rules of the circles and then sort, or "guess the rule," where users attempt to sort the shapes into the circles in order to guess the rule the computer has chosen.

2005-01-01

23

Failure diagrams for unidirectional  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pertinent failure processes in unidirectional fiber metal-matrix composites (MMCs) have been identified and analyzed. The\\u000a critical conditions for interface delamination in several composites are compared with the theoretical delamination diagram\\u000a proposed by He and Hutchinson, in which interface delamination and fiber fracture are delineated on the basis of their relative\\u000a tough-ness values. It is shown that the delamination diagram does

K. S. Chan

1993-01-01

24

UV-diagram: A Voronoi diagram for uncertain data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Voronoi diagram is an important technique for answering nearest-neighbor queries for spatial databases. In this paper, we study how the Voronoi diagram can be used on uncertain data, which are inherent in scientific and busines s applications. In particular, we propose the Uncertain-Voronoi Diagram (or UV-diagram in short). Conceptually, the data space is divided into distinct \\

Reynold Cheng; Xike Xie; Man Lung Yiu; Jinchuan Chen; Liwen Sun

2010-01-01

25

Minkowski Diagram Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Minkowski Diagram model displays the spacetime diagrams for two inertial observers. One or two events may be displayed and moved with the mouse. Optionally, the corresponding light cones may be shown, as well as the simultaneity lines in both reference frames. The spacetime interval is automatically computed. The simulation may be used to discuss simultaneity and causality in special relativity. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu item. The Minkowski Diagram model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ehu_special_relativity_minkowski.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Please note that this resource requires at least version 1.5 of Java (JRE).

Aguirregabiria, Juan

2011-09-09

26

Scrutinizing UML Activity Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Building an information system involves two processes: conceptual modeling of the “real world domain” and designing the software system. Object-oriented methods and languages (e.g., UML) are typically used for describing the software system. For the system analysis process that produces the conceptual description, object-oriented techniques or semantics extensions are utilized. Specifically, UML activity diagrams are the “flow charts” of object-oriented conceptualization tools. This chapter proposes an alternative to UML activity diagrams through the development of a conceptual modeling methodology based on the notion of flow.

Al-Fedaghi, Sabah

27

Functional schematic diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A carefully planned schematic diagram will simplify the study and servicing of electronic equipment. Whereas a conventional schematic merely shows the electrical components and how they are connected, a functional schematic will place these parts on the drawing in such a way as to delineate the circuits they build. This circuit concept versus component concept is the main thesis of

S. H. Larick

1946-01-01

28

Impulse-Momentum Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Multiple representations are a valuable tool to help students learn and understand physics concepts. Furthermore, representations help students learn how to think and act like real scientists. These representations include: pictures, free-body diagrams, energy bar charts, electrical circuits, and, more recently, computer simulations and…

Rosengrant, David

2011-01-01

29

Hierarchical Hybrid Block Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Block diagram languages are now commonly used to design and even implement embedded systems. In the design phase, they are used to model both plant and controller, typically with continuous and discrete modeling respectively. The semantics of these lan- guages are often vague and\\/or complex, which is fine for some users but leaves others puzzled by the behav- iors they

Ben Denckla; Pieter J. Mosterman

30

Knots and Feynman Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Introduction; 2. Perturbative quantum field theory; 3. The Hopf algebra structure of renormalization; 4. Rationality: no knots, no transcendentals; 5. The simplest link diagrams; 6. Necessary topics from knot theory; 7. Knots to numbers; 8. One-loop words; 9. Euler-Zagier sums; 10. Knots and transcendentals; 11. The 4-term relation; 12. Hopf algebras, non-commutative geometry, and what else?

Kreimer, Dirk

2000-07-01

31

Venn Diagrams and Logic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math lesson from Illuminations uses Venn diagrams to illustrate direct, indirect and transitive reasoning. Students will learn the definitions of direct, indirect and transitive reasoning and give examples of each. Several student activity sheets are included. The material is intended for grades 9-12 and should require 2 and a half class periods to complete.

2011-01-04

32

Acyclic Jacobi Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a simple new combinatorial model to study spaces of acyclic Jacobi diagrams, in which they are identified with algebras of words modulo operations. This provides a starting point for a word-problem type combinatorial investigation of such spaces, and provides fresh insights on known results.

Daniel Moskovich

2005-01-01

33

Chromatic Number of Diagrams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conditions concerning a partially ordered set (poset (P)) and an orientation for an undirected graph diagram are given. An explicit construction of an order P with given chi(D(P)) is given. This order is the interval order, as N free. This leads to specia...

J. Gustedt S. Felsner M. Morvan J. Rampon

1991-01-01

34

Simultaneity Spacetime Diagram Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Simultaneity Spacetime Diagram model uses light-trajectories to show the effect of relative motion when observing (recording) events in special relativity. In the default scenario, an explosion (an event) at the center of a right-moving stick occurs at t=0 and the arrival of the explosion light signal at each end is recorded. The arrival event at the left end occurs before the arrival event at the right end because the stick is moving. How do the location and time of these events change if they are observed in a reference frame (the Other Frame) in which the stick is stationary?   The Simultaneity Spacetime Diagram model was written for the study of special relativity the Lorentz transformation using spacetime diagrams and is a supplemental simulation for an article by Sebastien Cromier and Richard Steinberg "The Twin Twin Paradox: Exploring Student Approaches to Understanding Relativistic Concepts" in the The Physics Teacher 48 (9), 598-601 (2010). Initial conditions, such as the locations of the explosion and the detectors, can be adjusted by dragging before the simulation is run. The slider can be used to change the speed of the stick. A third view shows the stick and the wavefront in space. More importantly, a checkbox allows users to compare the predictions of Galilean and special relativity in order to observe how the assumption of a constant speed of light leads to the relativity of simultaneity.   The Simultaneity Spacetime Diagram model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_sr_SimultaneitySpacetimeDiagram.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang

2010-10-07

35

The Workup of Penetrometer Diagrams (Snyatie i Obrabotka Plotnomernykh Diagram).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During studies of operation and testing of agricultural machines and tools, penetrometers are used to plot diagrams for determining the density of the soil. The recorded registrations of the penetrometer diagrams as a function of the depth of cone submerg...

V. I. Buromski

1972-01-01

36

Automatic construction of intelligent diagram editors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intelligent diagram is a recent metaphor for diagramming in which the underlying graphic editor parses the diagram as it is being constructed, performing error correction and collecting geometric constraints which capture the relationships between diagram components. During diagram manipulation a constraint solver uses these geometric constraints to maintain the diagram’s semantics. We describe the Penguins system. This automates the

Sitt Chen Chok; Kim Marriott

1998-01-01

37

Schematic transformation diagrams for steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the diffusional transformations of austenite and concludes that separate C-curves are required for pearlite, upper bainite, lower bainite and isothermal martensite. A schematic isothermal transformation diagram incorporating the four curves is presented for a plain carbon eutectoid steel and used to develop a schematic continuous cooling transformation diagram. These diagrams are shown to be more compatible with

Noel F. Kennon

1978-01-01

38

Modeling process flow using diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the practice of process improvement, tools such as the flowchart, the value-stream map (VSM), and a variety of ad hoc variants of such diagrams are commonly used. The purpose of this paper is to present a clear, precise, and consistent framework for the use of such flow diagrams in process improvement projects. The paper finds that traditional diagrams, such

Benjamin Kemper; Jeroen de Mast; Michel Mandjes

2010-01-01

39

Sorting Helps for Voronoi Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that, using standard models of computation, ?(n logn) time is required to build a Voronoi diagram forn point sites. This follows from the fact that a Voronoi diagram algorithm can be used to sort. However, if the sites are sorted\\u000a before we start, can the Voronoi diagram be built any faster? We show that for certain

L. Paul Chew; Steven Fortune

1997-01-01

40

Diagram Techniques for Confluence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We,develop,diagram,techniques,for proving,confluence,in abstract reductions,systems. The underlying,theory,gives a systematic,and,uniform framework in which a number of known results, widely scattered throughout the literature, can be understood. These results include Newman’s lemma, Lemma 3.1 of Winkler and Buchberger, the HindleyRosen lemma, the Request lemmas of Staples, the Strong Confluence lemma of Huet, the lemma,of De Bruijn.,, 1998 Academic,Press

Marc Bezem; Jan Willem Klop; Vincent Van Oostrom

1998-01-01

41

Diagram Techniques for Confluence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop diagram techniques for proving confluence in abstract reductions systems. The underlying theory gives a systematic and uniform framework in which a number of known results, widely scattered throughout the literature, can be understood. These results include Newman's\\u000aLemma (1942), Lemma 3.1 of Winkler and Buchberger (1985), the\\u000aHindley-Rosen Lemma (1964), the Request Lemmas of Staples (1975),\\u000athe Strong

M. A. Bezem; J. W. Klop; V. van Oostrom

1996-01-01

42

TEP process flow diagram  

SciTech Connect

This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

Wilms, R Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlson, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coons, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kubic, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

43

Radiation accidents  

SciTech Connect

It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity.

Saenger, E.L.

1986-09-01

44

Phosphatidylcholine: cholesterol phase diagrams.  

PubMed

Two mono-cis-unsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid molecules, having very different gel-liquid crystalline phase transition temperatures as a consequence of the relative positions of the double bond, exhibit PC:cholesterol phase diagrams that are very similar to each other and to that obtained previously for a fully saturated PC:cholesterol mixture (Vist, M. R., and J. H. Davis. 1990. Biochemistry 29:451-464). This leads to the conjecture that PC:cholesterol membrane phase diagrams have a universal form which is relatively independent of the precise chemical structure of the PC molecule. One feature of this phase diagram is the observation over a wide temperature range of a fluid but highly conformationally ordered phase at bilayer concentrations of more than approximately 25 mol% cholesterol. This ;liquid ordered' phase is postulated to be the relevant physical state for many biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells, that contain substantial amounts of cholesterol or equivalent sterols. PMID:19431848

Thewalt, J L; Bloom, M

1992-10-01

45

Flow diagram analysis of electrical fatalities in construction industry.  

PubMed

The current study reanalyzed 250 electrical fatalities in the construction industry from 1996 to 2002 into seven patterns based on source of electricity (power line, energized equipment, improperly installed or damaged equipment), direct contact or indirect contact through some source of injury (boom vehicle, metal bar or pipe, and other conductive material). Each fatality was coded in terms of age, company size, experience, performing tasks, source of injury, accident cause and hazard pattern. The Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) was applied to the coded data of the fatal electrocution to find a subset of predictors that might derive meaningful classifications or accidents scenarios. A series of Flow Diagrams was constructed based on CHAID result to illustrate the flow of electricity travelling from electrical source to human body. Each of the flow diagrams can be directly linked with feasible prevention strategies by cutting the flow of electricity. PMID:22317293

Chi, Chia-Fen; Lin, Yuan-Yuan; Ikhwan, Mohamad

2012-01-01

46

Argument Diagramming: The Araucaria Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formal arguments, such as those used in science, medicine and law to establish a conclusion by providing supporting evidence, are frequently represented by diagrams such as trees and graphs. We describe the software package Araucaria which allows textual arguments to be marked up and represented as standard, Toulmin or Wigmore diagrams. Since each of these diagramming techniques was devised for a particular domain or argumentation, we discuss some of the issues involved in translating between diagrams. The exercise of translating between different diagramming types illustrates that any one diagramming system often cannot capture all of the nuances inherent in an argument. Finally, we describe some areas, such as critical thinking courses in colleges and universities and the analysis of evidence in court cases, where Araucaria has been put to practical use.

Rowe, Glenn; Reed, Chris

47

Schematic transformation diagrams for steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the diffusional transformations of austenite and concludes that separateC-curves are required for pearlite, upper bainite, lower bainite and isothermal martensite. A schematic isothermal transformation\\u000a diagram incorporating the four curves is presented for a plain carbon eutectoid steel and used to develop a schematic continuous\\u000a cooling transformation diagram. These diagrams are shown to be more compatible with the

Noel F. Kennon

1978-01-01

48

Preliminary Master Logic Diagram for ITER operation  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the work performed to develop a Master Logic Diagram (MLD) for the operations phase of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The MLD is a probabilistic risk assessment tool used to identify the broad set of potential initiating events that could lead to an offsite radioactive or toxic chemical release from the facility under study. The MLD described here is complementary to the failure modes and effects analyses (FMEAs) that have been performed for ITER`s major plant systems in the engineering evaluation of the facility design. While the FMEAs are a bottom-up or component level approach, the MLD is a top-down or facility level approach to identifying the broad spectrum of potential events. Strengths of the MLD are that it analyzes the entire plant, depicts completeness in the accident initiator process, provides an independent method for identification, and can also identify potential system interactions. MLDs have been used successfully as a hazard analysis tool. This paper describes the process used for the ITER MLD to treat the variety of radiological and toxicological source terms present in the ITER design. One subtree of the nineteen page MLD is shown to illustrate the levels of the diagram.

Cadwallader, L.C. [INEEL, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Taylor, N.P.; Poucet, A.E. [ITER San Diego Joint Work Site, La Jolla, CA (United States)

1998-04-01

49

Graphical process diagrams ion—views and diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process design (and description) is largely an ad hoc discipline composed of several diagramming techniques with no clear definition of the process characteristics described by any one, usually with no definition of the relationship between the diagrams, and in most cases with no definition of the process design stages. This is in sharp contrast with product description and design, where

KOSTIA MANDEL

1990-01-01

50

Schematic Diagrams, XML and Accessibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes work in progress at Oxford Brookes University. The aim of the project is to define a higher-level diagram description language for the World Wide Web, which captures the structure and the semantics of a diagram and enables the generation of accessible presentations in different modalities such as speech, text, graphic, etc. This project, called Graphical Structure Semantic

Zaineb Ben Fredj; David A. Duce

2003-01-01

51

Potential-pH Diagrams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Potential-pH diagrams show the domains of redoxpotential and pH in which major species are most stable. Constructing such diagrams provides students with opportunities to decide what species must be considered, search literature for equilibrium constants and free energies of formation, and practice in using the Nernst equation. (Author/JN)|

Barnum, Dennis W.

1982-01-01

52

Constructing Precise Object Relation Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Object Relation Diagram (ORD) of a program is a class interdependence diagram which has applications in a wide variety of software engineering problems (e.g., in- tegration testing, integration coverage analysis, regression testing, impact analysis, program understanding, and re- verse engineering). Because the imprecision of the ORD directly affects the practicality of its usage, it is important to investigate techniques

Ana Milanova; Atanas Rountev; Barbara G. Ryder

2002-01-01

53

CLIMATE DIAGRAM - MILES CITY, MT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research conducted across the Great Plains has shown precipitation and temperature are the main factors affecting plant growth and development. A climate diagram was constructed with long-term (96-year) climate records from Miles City, Montana. The diagram describes the climate of the area. Maximum ...

54

VORONOI DIAGRAMS AND ORNAMENTAL DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of points in the plane induces a Voronoi diagram, a division of the plane based on proximity to points in the set. Voronoi diagrams have been used extensively in engineering and scientific disciplines, but the possibility of using them for creating abstract ornamental designs is largely unexplored. I present some techniques for creating attractive ornamental designs using Voronoi

Craig S. Kaplan

1999-01-01

55

Time-Based Voronoi Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a variation of Voronoi diagram, or time-based Voronoi diagram, for a set S of points in the presence of transportation lines or highways in the plane. A shortest time-distance path from a query point to any given point in S is a path that takes the least travelling time. The travelling speeds and hence travelling times of the

D. T. Lee; Chung-Shou Liao; Wei-Bung Wang

56

Spider Diagrams: A Diagrammatic Reasoning System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spider diagrams combine and extend Venn diagrams and Euler circles to express constraints on sets and their relationships with other sets. These diagrams can be used in conjunction with object-oriented modelling notations such as the Unified Modelling Language. This paper summarises the main syntax and semantics of spider diagrams. It also introduces inference rules for reasoning with spider diagrams and

John Howse; Fernando Molina; John Taylor; Stuart Kent; JOSEPH YOSSI GIL

2001-01-01

57

Integrating UML diagrams for production control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes to use SDL block diagrams, UML class diagrams, and UML behavior diagrams like collaboration diagrams, activity diagrams, and statecharts as a visual programming language. We describe a modeling approach for flexible, autonomous production agents, which are used for the decentralization of production control systems. In order to generate a (Java) implementation of a production control system from

Hans J. Köhler; Ulrich Nickel; Jörg Niere; Albert Zündorf

2000-01-01

58

World commercial aircraft accidents  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

Kimura, C.Y.

1993-01-01

59

Electrical hazards and accidents  

SciTech Connect

This book contains proceedings of Electrical Hazards and Accidents. Topics covered include: Electrical Systems; Electrical and Lightning Accidents and Fires; Conductors and Overcurrent Protection; OSHA Standards and Requirements; and High Voltage Systems: Design.

Greenwald, E.K. (College of Engineering, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States))

1991-01-01

60

Accident Data Availability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accident information is valuable for identifying problem areas or locations of interest. This project investigates alternate forms of dissemination for the accident information. Costs, capabilities, and compatibility are reviewed for integration of the ac...

P. Martin J. Perrin B. Hansen A. Barrios

2000-01-01

61

Particles, Feynman Diagrams and All That  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Quantum fields are introduced in order to give students an accurate qualitative understanding of the origin of Feynman diagrams as representations of particle interactions. Elementary diagrams are combined to produce diagrams representing the main features of the Standard Model.|

Daniel, Michael

2006-01-01

62

Atemporal diagrams for quantum circuits  

SciTech Connect

A system of diagrams is introduced that allows the representation of various elements of a quantum circuit, including measurements, in a form which makes no reference to time (hence 'atemporal'). It can be used to relate quantum dynamical properties to those of entangled states (map-state duality), and suggests useful analogies, such as the inverse of an entangled ket. Diagrams clarify the role of channel kets, transition operators, dynamical operators (matrices), and Kraus rank for noisy quantum channels. Positive (semidefinite) operators are represented by diagrams with a symmetry that aids in understanding their connection with completely positive maps. The diagrams are used to analyze standard teleportation and dense coding, and for a careful study of unambiguous (conclusive) teleportation. A simple diagrammatic argument shows that a Kraus rank of 3 is impossible for a one-qubit channel modeled using a one-qubit environment in a mixed state.

Griffiths, Robert B.; Wu Shengjun; Yu Li; Cohen, Scott M. [Physics Department, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Physics Department, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15282 (United States)

2006-05-15

63

Phase diagrams of magnetic nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analytical expressions for the total magnetic energy of two characteristic internal configurations of nanometric tubes are calculated. A magnetic phase diagram with respect to the aspect ratio of the tubes is obtained which allows a discussion about the possibility of getting ensembles of nanotubes with low coercive fields. A comparison with recently reported coercive fields of three different cobalt nanotube arrays agrees well with the phase diagram derived here.

Escrig, J.; Landeros, P.; Altbir, D.; Vogel, E. E.; Vargas, P.

2007-01-01

64

Introduction to Ternary Phase Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is intended as a group exercise to help students learn the fundamentals of using ternary phase diagrams. It is a much better way for students to learn about the diagrams than to lecture to them. Good students will be able to walk through this with little assistance from the instructor.Weaker students will struggle and need help from peers or instructors. The entire exercise takes 1-2 hours for most.

Perkins, Dexter

65

Diagram Designer 1.23  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Turning out flowcharts and diagrams for presentations can be quite a hassle, so it's nice to lean about the Diagram Designer application. With the program's interface, visitors can take advantage of the customizable object palette, slide show viewer, and the ability to plot mathematical expressions. This version also allows users to import various image file formats, such as jpeg and gif files. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 98 and newer.

Vinther, Michael

66

Drawing Euler Diagrams with Circles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Euler diagrams are a popular and intuitive visualization tool which are used in a wide variety of application areas, including\\u000a biological and medical data analysis. As with other data visualization methods, such as graphs, bar charts, or pie charts,\\u000a the automated generation of an Euler diagram from a suitable data set would be advantageous, removing the burden of manual\\u000a data

Gem Stapleton; Leishi Zhang; John Howse; Peter Rodgers

2010-01-01

67

Problems in causal loop diagrams revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reemerging problem Word-and-arrow diagrams (causal-loop diagrams, influence diagrams, cognitive maps, and the like) are enjoying widespread use in the system dynamics and systems thinking communities. It is increasingly common to see these diagrams with links labeled \\

George P. Richardson

1997-01-01

68

Characteristics of Group Development of Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

One contributing factor to the lack of widespread usage of software for collaborative development of diagrams is the high degree of variability in the requirements for such software. The requirements are categorized in terms of diagram characteristics and diagram creation strategies. Various measures are proposed to characterize a potential collaborative diagramming need and to compare it to potential software systems.

Jeffrey D. Campbell

2002-01-01

69

Accident cause analysis method based on traffic accident information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the characteristics of data base and data of road traffic accident in China. On the basis of specific analysis of accident cause, this article offers classification and layer for accident data of road traffic accident information system in China, provides traffic accident causes analysis method based on rough set and gives quantitative analysis for the contribution of

Xi Jianfeng; Chen Xiaodong; Wang Shuangwei; Zhurong Tao

2010-01-01

70

Diagrams for laser materials processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical heat flow model is used to identify dimensionless parameter groups which determine the temperature field produced in a material by a scanning laser beam. The groups are used to plot experimental data for metallic alloys on a processing diagram for a range of continuous CO2 laser treatments. Practical operating regions for each type of treatment are thus identified, which coincide with those predicted using the heat flow model. The model is extended in order to construct more detailed diagrams for transformation hardening, surface melting and keyhole welding, which quantify the depth of treatment. By using realistic estimates of certain poorly-known process variables, good agreement is observed between measured and predicted data. Methods for optimizing processing parameters with respect to various criteria are presented for transformation hardening. The diagrams, which are constructed on a personal computer, are a useful tool for summarizing current data, optimizing practical processing parameters, and assessing the potential of novel laser treatments on new materials.

Ion, J. C.; Shercliff, H. R.; Ashby, M. F.

1992-07-01

71

Matched designs and causal diagrams.  

PubMed

We use causal diagrams to illustrate the consequences of matching and the appropriate handling of matched variables in cohort and case-control studies. The matching process generally forces certain variables to be independent despite their being connected in the causal diagram, a phenomenon known as unfaithfulness. We show how causal diagrams can be used to visualize many previous results about matched studies. Cohort matching can prevent confounding by the matched variables, but censoring or other missing data and further adjustment may necessitate control of matching variables. Case-control matching generally does not prevent confounding by the matched variables, and control of matching variables may be necessary even if those were not confounders initially. Matching on variables that are affected by the exposure and the outcome, or intermediates between the exposure and the outcome, will ordinarily produce irremediable bias. PMID:23918854

Mansournia, Mohammad A; Hernán, Miguel A; Greenland, Sander

2013-06-01

72

Pseudohaptic interaction with knot diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To make progress in understanding knot theory, we need to interact with the projected representations of mathematical knots, which are continuous in three dimensions (3-D) but significantly interrupted in the projective images. One way to achieve such a goal is to design an interactive system that allows us to sketch two-dimensional (2-D) knot diagrams by taking advantage of a collision-sensing controller and explore their underlying smooth structures through a continuous motion. Recent advances of interaction techniques have been made that allow progress in this direction. Pseudohaptics that simulate haptic effects using pure visual feedback can be used to develop such an interactive system. We outline one such pseudohaptic knot diagram interface. Our interface derives from the familiar pencil-and-paper process of drawing 2-D knot diagrams and provides haptic-like sensations to facilitate the creation and exploration of knot diagrams. A centerpiece of the interaction model simulates a physically reactive mouse cursor, which is exploited to resolve the apparent conflict between the continuous structure of the actual smooth knot and the visual discontinuities in the knot diagram representation. Another value in exploiting pseudohaptics is that an acceleration (or deceleration) of the mouse cursor (or surface locator) can be used to indicate the slope of the curve (or surface) of which the projective image is being explored. By exploiting these additional visual cues, we proceed to a full-featured extension to a pseudohaptic four-dimensional (4-D) visualization system that simulates the continuous navigation on 4-D objects and allows us to sense the bumps and holes in the fourth dimension. Preliminary tests of the software show that main features of the interface overcome some expected perceptual limitations in our interaction with 2-D knot diagrams of 3-D knots and 3-D projective images of 4-D mathematical objects.

Weng, Jianguang; Zhang, Hui

2012-07-01

73

The Butterfly Diagram internal structure .  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new graphic representation of the spotgroup distribution with respect to time and latitude is presented. At variance with Maunder's Butterfly Diagram, which registers the mere presence of spotgroups, the diagram presented here accounts for the spotgroup area. It shows that spotgroups aggregate in a few small, heavenly spotted portions (``knots'') of the diagram. Each knot is the signature of a photospheric region tightly limited in latitude, active for a short time. The butterfly diagram is but a cluster of knots and the spot zone is the latitude range inside which knots activate. The cycle is a sequence of knots activations and extinctions. Even though knots show the overall tendency to appear at lower and lower latitudes as the cycle goes on, a knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones. The examination of the knot distribution inside the ``butterfly wings'' suggests that - at any cycle and at any hemisphere - two ``activity waves" drift equatorward at a rate roughly twice the drift rate of the spot zone as a whole.

Ternullo, M.

74

Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…

Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

2011-01-01

75

Concrete and Abstract Voronoi Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Voronoi diagram of a set of sites is a partition of the plane into regions, one to each site, such that the region of each site contains all points of the plane that are closer to this site than to the other ones. Such partitions are of great importance to computer science and many other fields. The challenge is

Rolf Klein

1989-01-01

76

Animated Diagram: Sedimentary Rock Identification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash-enabled diagram provides a scheme for sedimentary rock identification accompanied by pop-up images of the rocks. Rolling the mouse over highlighted boxes links texture, grain size, composition, and map symbols to images of a variety of sedimentary rocks. The animation is downloadable.

77

Validation of Causal Loop Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present techniques for manually assessing the structural validity of each link in a causal loop diagram (CLD). A link is defined as consisting of an origination quantity, a destination quantity and a connection edge between them. Each link is considered as a separate and distinct causal hypothesis whose validity should stand on its own merits. Following

James R. Burns

78

Telesynergy V3 Wiring Diagram  

Cancer.gov

Extron 8 port Video/Audio Switch WAVE Camera Telesynergy v3 Wiring Diagram ISDN T1/PRI Module CTRLR 0 Legend: S-Video Audio VGA DVI USB RS-232 Serial Microphone Ethernet Planar C5i AMD Exam Cam Canon Document Camera Olympus BX51 Sony DVD Recorder JVC

79

QCD phase diagram: an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this review is to summarize the contemporary understanding of the QCD phase di- agram as a function of temperature T and baryo-chemical potential µB . The focus is on recent theoretical developments due to lattice simulations of the phase diagram.

Stephanov, Misha

2006-12-01

80

Precipitation and the Sounding Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This undergraduate meteorology tutorial deals with the interplay between the vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere and the temperature of the ascending air in the formation of precipitation. Students learn about the dry and moist adiabatic lapse rates, reading and interpreting sounding diagrams, and determining the change in temperature as air parcels rise or sink.

Nielsen-Gammon, John

1996-01-01

81

Stability diagrams for Landau damping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coherent modes which are present when there is no incoherent tune spread may be absent when such a spread exists. Such modes are “Landau damped”. There is instead an incoherent spectrum, a continuum of an infinite number of frequencies, which will decohere (filament), thus not leading to collective instabilities. A stability diagram indicates when Landau damping will be effective. It

J. Scott Berg; Francesco Ruggiero

1997-01-01

82

Voronoi Diagrams on Periodic Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A periodic graph models various natural and artificial periodic patterns with repetitions of a given static graph, and have vast applications in crystallography, scheduling, VLSI circuits and systems of uniform recurrence equations. This paper considers a graph Voronoi diagram for a given subset of vertices on a periodic graph. The simplest two-dimensional periodic graph is a square lattice, and the

Norie Fu; Hiroshi Imai; Sonoko Moriyama

2010-01-01

83

Acoustic Accident Detection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research we considered the development of a system for automatically detecting and reporting traffic accidents at intersections. A system with these properties would be a great benefit in determining the cause of accidents and could also be useful in determining features of the intersection that relate to safety. A complete system would automatically detect and record traffic conditions

Charles Harlow; Yu Wang

2002-01-01

84

Civil aircraft accident investigation.  

PubMed

This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309

Haines, Daniel

2013-01-01

85

Sport accidents in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injuries among children during sporting activities are common. This study is a one year study including children between five and fourteen years of age who sustained their injuries during sporting activities and were treated at Trondheim Regional and University Hospital. Sport accidents account for 27 per cent of all childhood accidents in this age group. Fifty-three per cent of the

Y Sahlin

1990-01-01

86

Research by accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article addresses the issue of uncertainty in technological knowledge. “Research by accident” is seen as a central cognitive process to generate (unanticipated) knowledge about the characteristics of a technology. In the example of nuclear weapons, scientific programs have initially led to a sequency of unanticipated discoveries — a process of research by accident that subsequently reveals properties and characteristics

Thomas C. Schelling

1996-01-01

87

Anatomy of an Accident.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings of industrial safety engineers in the areas of accident causation and prevention are wholly applicable to adventure programs. Adventure education instructors can use safety engineering concepts to assess the risk in a particular activity, understand factors that cause accidents, and intervene to minimize injuries and damages if…

Mobley, Michael

1984-01-01

88

Dynamic probabilistic risk assessment using event sequence diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic reliability/PRA is the probabilistic study of man-machine-software systems affected by an underlying physical process. Dynamic reliability/Probabilistic Risk Assessment methodologies have become fairly established in academia and their theoretical superiority over the classical Event Tree/Fault Tree approach to risk assessment has been demonstrated. Despite this, dynamic PRA methods have not enjoyed the support of the industry. One of the major reasons for this lack of support is the absence of a framework for qualitatively representing dynamic accident scenarios. This dissertation provides a framework for qualitatively representing dynamic accident scenarios using Event Sequence Diagrams (ESD). The concept of Event Sequence Diagrams is extended to capture dynamic scenarios. The mathematical equations governing the various building blocks of the Event Sequence Diagram framework are provided. From these equations it can be seen that ESDs can be studied using the theory of semi-Markov processes. All previous attempts to analytically solve dynamic reliability problems were involved with solving the Chapman-Kolmogorov system of hyperbolic partial differential equations and this could be done for only very small systems. The equations governing the ESD framework are such that they reduce the solution of dynamic reliability problems to the evaluation of a series of multidimensional integrals, thus facilitating analytical solutions by reducing the dimensionality of the problem. One of the drawbacks of the ESD approach, compared to full fledged dynamic methodologies, would arise from the analyst dependent nature of the approach. Indeed, since the scenarios are constructed by an analyst, it is possible that some scenarios would be neglected due to the use of simplifying assumptions. An approach to identify missing scenarios by combining ESDs with probabilistic dynamics is also given in this dissertation.

Swaminathan, S.

89

Master Logic Diagram: method for hazard and initiating event identification in process plants.  

PubMed

Master Logic Diagram (MLD), a method for identifying events initiating accidents in chemical installations, is presented. MLD is a logic diagram that resembles a fault tree but without the formal mathematical properties of the latter. MLD starts with a Top Event "Loss of Containment" and decomposes it into simpler contributing events. A generic MLD has been developed which may be applied to all chemical installations storing toxic and/or flammable substances. The method is exemplified through its application to an ammonia storage facility. PMID:12573826

Papazoglou, I A; Aneziris, O N

2003-02-28

90

Causal Construction of the Massless Vertex Diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The massless one-loop vertex diagram is constructed by exploiting the causal structure of the diagram in configuration space, which can be translated directly into dispersive relations in momentum space.

Aste, Andreas

2006-11-01

91

Persistence of airline accidents.  

PubMed

This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. PMID:20618386

Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

2010-10-01

92

Hero's journey in bifurcation diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hero's journey is a narrative structure identified by several authors in comparative studies on folklore and mythology. This storytelling template presents the stages of inner metamorphosis undergone by the protagonist after being called to an adventure. In a simplified version, this journey is divided into three acts separated by two crucial moments. Here we propose a discrete-time dynamical system for representing the protagonist's evolution. The suffering along the journey is taken as the control parameter of this system. The bifurcation diagram exhibits stationary, periodic and chaotic behaviors. In this diagram, there are transition from fixed point to chaos and transition from limit cycle to fixed point. We found that the values of the control parameter corresponding to these two transitions are in quantitative agreement with the two critical moments of the three-act hero's journey identified in 10 movies appearing in the list of the 200 worldwide highest-grossing films.

Monteiro, L. H. A.; Mustaro, P. N.

2012-06-01

93

Automatic Generation of Digital System Schematic Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic approach to the automatic generation of schematic diagrams for digital systems¿diagrams described as networks of modules¿provides useful CAD applications. This approach transforms guidelines. traditionally followed in manual drawings of schematic diagrams, into quantitative objectives. In view of the complex relationship between these objectives, the schematic design process is broken into a lengthy sequence of steps. We will attempt

Anshul Kumar; Anjali Arya; V. V. Swaminathan; Amit Misra

1986-01-01

94

White is green: new schematic diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new schematic diagrams are presented here that derive from the study of the value relationships of the primary colors of RGB computer and video color. The first diagram is a 'Truth Table' that presents true-false, on-off states of the three colors of RGB so that the colors are presented in the order of their brightness values. The second diagram

Hal Glicksman

2002-01-01

95

A Formal Semantics of Data Flow Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document presents a full version of the formal semantics of data ow diagrams reported in [Larsen&93]. Data Flow Diagrams are used in Structured Analysis and are based on an abstract model for data flow transformations. The semantics consists of a collection of VDM functions, transforming an abstract syntax representation of a data flow diagram into an abstract syntax representation

Peter Gorm Larsen; Nico Plat; Hans Toetenel

1994-01-01

96

Retrieving Information from Data Flow Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

For reverse engineering, we need tools that can extract information from documents written before routine digital storage was feasible. Documents contain both text and diagrams; data flow diagrams play a prominent role in software documents. Using current techniques, it is possible to recover the information in a data flow diagram by scanning the printed document and processing the data obtained.

Gregory Butler; Peter Grogono; Rajjan Shinghal; Indra A. Tjandra

1995-01-01

97

A Layout Algorithm for Data Flow Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A layout algorithm is presented that allows the automatic drawing of data flow diagrams, a diagrammatic representation widely used in the functional analysis of information systems. A grid standard is defined for such diagrams, and aesthetics for a good readability are identified. The layout algorithm receives as input an abstract graph, specifying connectivity relations between the elements of the diagram,

Carlo Batini; Enrico Nardelli; Roberto Tamassia

1986-01-01

98

Semantics of the Domain of Flow Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A domain of flow diagrams similar to that proposed by Scott, a domain of linear flow diagrams proposed by Goguen et al , a domain of decision table diagrams involving mfimtary branching, and a domain of processes based on the ideas of Milner and Beklc are each provided with a direct semantics, closely related to partial-function semantics, and a continuation

John C. Reynolds

1977-01-01

99

Arrows in Comprehending and Producing Mechanical Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mechanical systems have structural organizations--parts, and their relations--and functional organizations--temporal, dynamic, and causal processes--which can be explained using text or diagrams. Two experiments illustrate the role of arrows in diagrams of mechanical systems. In Experiment 1, people described diagrams with or without arrows,…

Heiser, Julie; Tversky, Barbara

2006-01-01

100

Calculations of forming limit diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The right-hand side of the forming limit diagram (FLD) was calculated using a Marciniak-Kuczynski analysis with a nonquadratic\\u000a anisotropic yield criterion. Effects of changing the strain-hardening exponent, n, strain-rate exponent, m, strain ratio,\\u000a R, stress exponent in the anisotropic yield criterion, a, and the inhomogeneity factor, f, were explored. For a ? 6, the effect\\u000a of R is negligible. The

Alejandro Graf; William F. Hosford

1990-01-01

101

T-X Phase Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a 15 page tutorial and problem set designed to get students familiar with T-X diagrams, their implications, and uses. Students start by reading but, after 10-15 minutes, the room becomes noisy as they work their way through the questions at the end. Often there are "Eureka" moments as they all of a sudden grasp some fundamental principles. It is also interesting to hear them try to explain these insights to others.

Perkins, Dexter

102

Phase Diagrams and Chemographic Projections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is a good way to get students thinking about the phase rule, metastable and stable reactions and phase diagrams. The exercise contains a lot of reading, and is suitable for in-class work or for homework. The idea is that students can do this on their own with little help from their instructor. The students only answer a few questions making this is more of a tutorial than a worksheet.

Perkins, Dexter

103

INCONEL 718: A solidification diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a program studying weldability of Ni-base superalloys, results of an integrated analytical approach are used to\\u000a generate a constitution diagram for INCONEL 718* in the temperature range associated with solidification. Differential thermal analysis of wrought material and optical and\\u000a scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and analytical electron microscopy of gas tungsten arc welds are\\u000a used in

G. A. Knorovsky; M. J. Cieslak; T. J. Headley; A. D. Romig; W. F. Hammetter

1989-01-01

104

Phase Diagram of Tetragonal Manganites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase diagram of La1-xSrxMnO3, as a function of hole doping x and tetragonal distortion c\\/a, which consists of ferromagnetic (FM), A-, C-, and G-type antiferromagnetic (AF) states, is obtained by the first-principles band structure calculations. Effects of tetragonal distortion on the magnetic ordering are discussed in terms of orbital ordering and anisotropy in the hopping integrals. The general sequence

Z. Fang; I. V. Solovyev; K. Terakura

2000-01-01

105

Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback.

2012-01-01

106

INCONEL 718: A solidification diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a program studying weldability of Ni-base superalloys, results of an integrated analytical approach are used to generate a constitution diagram for INCONEL 718* in the temperature range associated with solidification. Differential thermal analysis of wrought material and optical and scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and analytical electron microscopy of gas tungsten arc welds are used in conjunction with solidification theory to generate data points for this diagram. The important features of the diagram are an austenite (?)/Laves phase eutectic which occurs at ?19.1 wt pct Nb between austenite containing ?9.3 wt pct Nb and a Laves phase which contains ?22.4 wt pct Nb. The distribution coefficient for Nb was found to be ?0.5. The solidification sequence of INCONEL 718 was found to be (1) proeutectic ?, followed by (2) a ?/NbC eutectic at ?1250°C, followed by (3) continued ? solidification, followed by (4) a ?/Laves phase eutectic at ?1200°C. An estimate of the volume fraction eutectic is made using the Scheil solidification model, and the fraction of each phase in the eutectic is calculated via the lever rule. These are compared with experimentally determined values and found to be in good agreement.

Knorovsky, G. A.; Cieslak, M. J.; Headley, T. J.; Romig, A. D.; Hammetter, W. F.

1989-10-01

107

Physician Flight Accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis of physician flight accidents during the period 1964-1965 is presented. More than thirty physicians sustained fatal injuries while piloting light aircraft: a fatality record four times the ratio of physician pilots in the general aviation pilo...

S. R. Mohler S. F. Freud J. E. Veregge E. L. Umberger

1966-01-01

108

Accident Risk Forecasting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography represents literature acquired since the establishment of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in 1967, as related to accident forecasting. It is comprised of NHTSA contract reports, reports of other organizations c...

L. Flynn

1977-01-01

109

Safety Is No Accident.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Liability suits involving accidents in park and recreation areas are expensive and intangible costs are incalculable. Risk management practices related to park planning, personnel, and administrative practices are discussed. (MT)|

Christiansen, Monty L.

1985-01-01

110

FATAL ACCIDENT REPORTING SYSTEM (FARS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) database consist of three relational tables, containing data on automobile accidents on public U.S. roads that resulted in the death of one or more people within 30 days of the accident. Truck and trailer accidents are also included....

111

Accident management information needs  

SciTech Connect

In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1990-04-01

112

Phase diagram of tetragonal manganites  

PubMed

The phase diagram of La1-xSrxMnO3, as a function of hole doping x and tetragonal distortion c/a, which consists of ferromagnetic (FM), A-, C-, and G-type antiferromagnetic (AF) states, is obtained by the first-principles band structure calculations. Effects of tetragonal distortion on the magnetic ordering are discussed in terms of orbital ordering and anisotropy in the hopping integrals. The general sequence of the magnetic ground states, FM --> A-AF --> C-AF --> G-AF with increasing of x, is also explained based on the instability of FM states with respect to the spin-wave excitations. PMID:11019039

Fang; Solovyev; Terakura

2000-04-01

113

Structural Phase Diagram of Ca  

SciTech Connect

To help the understanding of the physical behavior of Ca{sub 1-x}Y{sub x}MnO{sub 3}, its phase diagram in the whole x concentration range was investigated taking into account the stability of phases and the possible coexistence of different structural phases. By careful analysis of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, we were able to observe the following phase diagram: (i) Orthorhombic phases were detected both in the region of 0 {le} x {le} 0.25 (O type phase with Ca site twelve fold coordinated) and in the region of 0.5 {le} x {le} 0.75 (O' type phase with Ca site ninefold coordinated). (ii) Phase segregation for 0.25 {le} x {le} 0.5 and for x > 0.75 that have not been reported previously, hexagonal YMnO{sub 3} segregates as a separate phase for x > 0.75, and for 0.25 {le} x {le} 0.5 the coexistence of Ca{sub 0.75}Y{sub 0.25}MnO{sub 3} (O) and Ca{sub 0.5}Y{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} (O') have to be included in the refinement for it to converge.

Vega, D.; Polla, G.; Leyva, A. G.; Konig, P.; Lanza, H.; Esteban, A.; Aliaga, H.; Causa, M. T.; Tovar, M.; Alascio, B.

2001-02-01

114

Accidents in Childhood  

PubMed Central

The causes of injury to 17,141 children brought to the emergency department of a large pediatric hospital in one year were studied. The leading causes of injury were: falls, 5682; cuts or piercings, 1902; poisonings, 1597; and transportation accidents, 1368. Included in these are 587 falls on or down stairs, 401 cuts due to glass, 630 poisonings from household or workshop substances, 510 poisonings from salicylate tablets, and 449 accidents involving bicycles or tricycles. Other findings included 333 injuries to fingers or hands in doors, usually car doors; 122 instances of pulled arms; 384 ingestions and 53 inhalations of foreign bodies; 60 alleged sexual assaults, 58 chemical burns, 127 wringer injuries, and four attempted suicides. A rewarding opportunity in accident prevention exists for hospitals that undertake to compile and distribute pertinent source data.

Keddy, J. Arthur

1964-01-01

115

Accident prevention manual  

SciTech Connect

Among the many common needs and goals are the safety and well-being of families, ourselves, fellow employees, and the continuing success of this organization. To these ends--minimizing human suffering and economic waste--the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Accident Prevention Program and this Accident Prevention Manual (APM) are dedicated. The BPA Accident Prevention Program is revised as necessary to ensure compliance with relevant Federal safety and health standards. The mandatory rules herein express minimum requirements for dealing with the principal hazards inherent in daily work activities. These and other written requirements, which neither can nor should provide complete coverage of all work situations, must be continually reinforced through the sound and mature safety judgments of all workers on each assigned task. In the event of conflicting judgments, the more conservative interpretation shall prevail pending review and resolution by management.

Not Available

1998-05-01

116

Some interesting color-magnitude diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some CCD color-magnitude diagrams for a few open clusters, global clusters, and dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group are presented. Consideration is given to the open clusters NGC 7789, NGC 2818, NGC 6205, and NGC 6341, the spheroidal galaxy in Draco, the B, R color-magnitude diagram of Carina, and the B, R color-magnitude diagram for the dwarf spheroidal galaxy in Fornax.

Stetson, Peter B.

1997-07-01

117

Object Flow Definition for Refined Activity Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activity diagrams are a well-known means to model the control flow of system behavior. Their expressiveness can be enhanced\\u000a by using their object flow notation. In addition, we refine activities by pairs of pre- and post-conditions formulated by\\u000a interrelated object diagrams. To define a clear semantics for refined activity diagrams with object flow, we use a graph transformation\\u000a approach. Control

Stefan Jurack; Leen Lambers; Katharina Mehner; Gabriele Taentzer; Gerd Wierse

2009-01-01

118

Linking the Macroscopic and Submicroscopic Levels: Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explanations of chemical phenomena are nearly always focused at the sub-micro level, a level that cannot be observed, yet\\u000a are normally provided with diagrams at the symbolic level. These diagrams represent the macro and sub-micro levels of matter.\\u000a The connections between the macro level and the diagrams of the sub-micro level are not always apparent to students, indicating\\u000a a need

Bette Davidowitz; Gail Chittleborough

119

Multiresolution Approximations of Generalized Voronoi Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A framework to support multiresolution approximations of planar generalized Voronoi diagrams is presented. Our proposal is:\\u000a (1) A multiresolution model based on a quadtree data structure which encodes approximations of a generalized Voronoi diagram\\u000a at different levels of detail. (2) A user driven refinement strategy which generates from the quadtree a continuous polygonal\\u000a approximation of the Voronoi diagram.

Imma Boada; Narcís Coll; Joan Antoni Sellarès

2004-01-01

120

The Fukushima radiation accident: consequences for radiation accident medical management.  

PubMed

The March 2011 radiation accident in Fukushima, Japan, is a textbook example of a radiation accident of global significance. In view of the global dimensions of the accident, it is important to consider the lessons learned. In this context, emphasis must be placed on consequences for planning appropriate medical management for radiation accidents including, for example, estimates of necessary human and material resources. The specific characteristics of the radiation accident in Fukushima are thematically divided into five groups: the exceptional environmental influences on the Fukushima radiation accident, particular circumstances of the accident, differences in risk perception, changed psychosocial factors in the age of the Internet and globalization, and the ignorance of the effects of ionizing radiation both among the general public and health care professionals. Conclusions like the need for reviewing international communication, interfacing, and interface definitions will be drawn from the Fukushima radiation accident. PMID:22951483

Meineke, Viktor; Dörr, Harald

2012-08-01

121

Aircraft accident construction set: performance engineering applied to accident reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

For some time aircraft accident investigation has been a reverse engineering procedure. Failure analysis has taken a strict engineering approach, disregarding many of the alternatives relating to cause. As aircraft become automated, many relating factors will need to be considered in order to build an accurate reconstruction of an accident. The Aircraft Accident Construction Set will provide the investigator with

James W. Blanchard

1992-01-01

122

A Regime Diagram for Subduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regime diagrams and associated scaling relations have profoundly influenced our understanding of planetary dynamics. Previous regime diagrams characterized the regimes of stagnant-lid, small viscosity contrast, transitional, and no-convection for temperature-dependent (Moresi and Solomatov, 1995), and non-linear power law rheologies (Solomatov and Moresi, 1997) as well as stagnant-lid, sluggish-lid, and mobile-lid regimes once the finite strength of rock was considered (Moresi and Solomatov, 1998). Scalings derived from such models have been the cornerstone for parameterized models of thermal evolution of rocky planets and icy moons for the past decade. While such a theory can predict the tectonic state of a planetary body, it is still rather incomplete in regards to predicting tectonics. For example, the mobile-lid regime is unspecific as to how continuous lithospheric recycling should occur on a terrestrial planet. Towards this goal, Gerya et al., (2008) advanced a new regime diagram aiming to characterize when subduction would manifest itself as a one-sided or two-sided downwelling and either symmetric or asymmetric. Here, we present a regime diagram for the case of a single-sided, asymmetric type of subduction (most Earth-like type). Using a 3-D numerical model of a free subduction, we describe a total of 5 different styles of subduction that can possibly occur. Each style is distinguished by its upper mantle slab morphology resulting from the sinking kinematics. We provide movies to illustrate the different styles and their progressive time-evolution. In each regime, subduction is accommodated by a combination of plate advance and slab rollback, with associated motions of forward plate velocity and trench retreat, respectively. We demonstrate that the preferred subduction mode depends upon two essential controlling factors: 1) buoyancy of the downgoing plate and 2) strength of plate in resisting bending at the hinge. We propose that a variety of subduction regimes are generated primarily as a product of two mechanisms. The first mechanism is that of the competition between the weight of the slab and the strength of the plate, which can be understood in terms of the applied bending moment, and this competition results in a particular radius of curvature (for which we provide a simple scaling theory). The second mechanism is the interaction between the slab and the more viscous lower mantle, which produces each regime's distinct slab morphology. Thus, the emergence of five distinct styles of subduction is a direct consequence of the presence of the modest barrier to flow into the lower mantle. Although only 2 of these styles presently operate on Earth, the possibility exists that other modes may have been the predominant mode in the past. Based on these models, we propose that the lithosphere is the primary factor in describing key elements of the plate tectonics system over time, rather than the convecting mantle. We discuss the various factors that may have influenced secular changes in Earth's tectonic behavior, some of which may have interesting consequences for the geochemical evolution of the Earth.

Stegman, D. R.; Farrington, R.; Capitanio, F. A.; Schellart, W. P.

2009-12-01

123

Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion.  

PubMed

Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168-173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velocities come chiefly from Vesto Melvin Slipher, and the interpretation in terms of the de Sitter effect is out of the mainstream of modern cosmology, this article opened the way to investigation of the expanding, evolving, and accelerating universe that engages today's burgeoning field of cosmology. PMID:14695886

Kirshner, Robert P

2003-12-26

124

A tutorial on flow diagrams: A tool for developing the structure of multicomponent phase diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tabular form of multiphase equilibria in temperature- or pressure-ordered sequence, often referred to as flow diagrams,\\u000a shows the interrelations that exist among the various types or classes of equilibria in a system. These interrelations establish\\u000a the structures of the various forms of phase diagrams. Flow diagrams have been used to simplify the presentation of complex\\u000a ternary phase diagrams. However,

R. G. Connell

1994-01-01

125

Physics in Accident Investigations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes physics formulas which can be used by law enforcement officials to determine the possible velocity of vehicles involved in traffic accidents. These include, among others, the slide to stop-level road, slide to stop-sloping roadway, and slide to stop-two different surfaces formulas. (JN)|

Brake, Mary L.

1981-01-01

126

The epistemics of accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human intervention has played a critical role in the causes of many major accidents. At Three Mile Island, the operators isolated a reactor from its heat sink. The pilots of the Boeing 737 at Kegworth managed to shut down their one functioning engine. Staff continued to allow trains to deposit passengers in Kings’ Cross after the fire had started. In

C. W. Johnson

1997-01-01

127

Accident and emergency monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a set of practical quality audit criteria relevant to the examination of nursing care delivered to patients and relatives in hospital Accident and Emergency (A & E) departments. The project was initiated by senior nurse managers at the North Staffordshire Royal Infirmary, UK, conducted in partnership with Leeds Polytechnic (now the Leeds Metropolitan University),

J. Dutton

1995-01-01

128

Stress, violations and accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources of stress among Western Australian car and truck drivers were investigated using an extended version of the Driver Behaviour Inventory (DBI) developed by Gulian et a\\/(1989). The associations between reported stress and drivers' accident or violation records were also examined. The DBI was mailed to two groups each of 500 truck drivers with 'high' or 'low' traffic violation involvements

L. R. Hartley; J. El Hassani

1994-01-01

129

Accident reconstruction methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

While reconstructing a car accident, there are several questions that must be answered, such as the movement of all the vehicles involved or of other people involved, or of objects from the point of first visual contact to their rest positions. Time history of velocities, positions as well as crash-related data such as velocity changes, deformation energies, or passenger loads

Hermann Steffan

2009-01-01

130

Accident characterization methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is preparing NUREG-1150 to examine the risk from a selected group of nuclear power plants. NUREG-1150 will provide technical bases for comparison of NRC research to industry results and resolution of numerous severe accident issues. In support of NUREG-1150, Sandia National Laboratories has directed the production of Level 3 Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) for the

A. L. Camp; F. T. Harper

1986-01-01

131

1976 Hanford Americium Accident.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the 2.5-year medical course of a 64-year-old Hanford nuclear chemical operator who was involved in an accident in an americium recovery facility in August 1976. He was heavily externally contaminated with americium, sustained a substa...

K. R. Heid B. D. Breitenstein H. E. Palmer B. J. McMurray N. Wald

1979-01-01

132

Profile of an Accident.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Depicts two helicopter crashes which happen on the same day, within the same area, not because of chance or fate, but because of carelessness and hastiness. Procedures are outlined by the accident investigation board as to why the mishaps occured, and why...

1994-01-01

133

Factbook on U.S. Pedestrian Accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three sets of accident data files have been analyzed to obtain a greater understanding of the personal, situational, and vehicle-related factors involved in pedestrian accidents. These include all fatal pedestrian accidents contained in the Fatal Accident...

A. C. Wolfe J. O'Day

1981-01-01

134

Applying STAMP in Accident Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accident models play a critical role in accident investigation and analysis. Most traditional models are based on an underlying chain of events. These models, however, have serious limitations when used for complex, socio-technical systems. Previously, Leveson proposed a new accident model (STAMP) based on system theory where the basic concept is not an event but a constraint. This paper shows

Nancy Leveson; Mirna Daouk; Nicolas Dulac; Karen Marais

2003-01-01

135

Automatic Generation of Digital System Schematic Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a rigorours approach to automatic generation of schematic diagrams for digital systems described as networks of modules. This is very useful in comprehensive CAD environment. The approach is based on identification of some guidelines which are traditionally followed in mannual drawing of schematic diagrams. Theses guidelines are transformed into quantitative objectives. In view of the complex interrelationship

A. Arya; V. V. Swaminathan; A. Misra; A. Kumar

1985-01-01

136

Automatic generation of digital system schematic diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a rigorous approach to automatic generation of schematic diagrams for digital systems described as networks of modules. This is very useful in comprehensive CAD environment. The approach is based on identification of some guidelines which are traditionally followed in manual drawing of schematic diagrams. Theses guidelines are transformed into quantitative objectives. In view of the complex interrelationship

Anjali Arya; Anshul Kumar; V. V. Swaminathan; Amit Misra

1985-01-01

137

Calculation of Binary Eutectic Phase Diagrams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The phase diagrams of 65 simple binary eutectic phase diagrams are calculated from the properties of the elemental constituents. The liquid phase is assumed to behave as an ideal solution and the terminal solid solution regions were assumed to be ideal an...

J. E. Davison

1969-01-01

138

Building Path Diagrams for Multilevel Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Multilevel models have come to play an increasingly important role in many areas of social science research. However, in contrast to other modeling strategies, there is currently no widely used approach for graphically diagramming multilevel models. Ideally, such diagrams would serve two functions: to provide a formal structure for deriving the…

Curran, Patrick J.; Bauer, Daniel J.

2007-01-01

139

Generic Phase Diagram of Active Polar Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study theoretically the phase diagram of compressible active polar gels such as the actin network of eukaryotic cells. Using generalized hydrodynamics equations, we perform a linear stability analysis of the uniform states in the case of an infinite bidimensional active gel to obtain the dynamic phase diagram of active polar films. We predict, in particular, modulated flowing phases and

R. Voituriez; J. F. Joanny; J. Prost

2006-01-01

140

EXTENDING FEATURE DIAGRAMS WITH UML MULTIPLICITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feature diagrams are an important product of domain analysis for product lines or system families, respectively. They describe relations between requirements and distin- guish between common and variable characteristics. Fea- ture diagrams, as part of the feature model, form the basis for configuring the system. Current principles do not sup- ply a complete description of the semantics of relation- ships

Matthias Riebisch; Kai Böllert; Detlef Streitferdt; Ilka Philippow

141

Dynamic Causality Diagram in Fault Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to overcomes some shortages of Belief Network dynamic causality diagram is put forward. Its knowledge expression, reasoning, probability computing and also the model of causality diagram used for system fault diagnosis, the model constructing method and reasoning algorithm are proposed. At last, an application example in the fault diagnosis of the nuclear power plant is given which shows

Qingsi Shi; Xinyuan Liang

2009-01-01

142

Influence diagram based on rough set theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conventional influence diagrams, the numerical models of uncertainty and imprecise knowledge from large-scaled data set is involved in the systems, the suitability of probability distributions is questioned. The influence diagrams model based on rough sets are proposed in this paper. In the framework, the causal relationships among the nodes and the decision rules are expressed with rough set theory.

Yueling Zhao; Hui Jin; Lihong Wang; Shuang Wang

2010-01-01

143

Diagrams based on structural object perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most diagrams, particularly those used in software engineering, are line drawings consisting of nodes drawn as rectangles or circles, and edges drawn as lines linking them. In the present paper we review some of the literature on human perception to develop guidelines for effective diagram drawing. Particular attention is paid to structural object recognition theory. According to this theory as

Pourang Irani; Colin Ware

2000-01-01

144

Hasse Diagram Generators and Petri Nets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In (LJ06) Lorenz and Juhas raised the question of whether there exists a suitable formalism for the representation of infinite families of partial orders generated by Petri nets. Restricting ourselves to bounded p\\/t-nets, we propose Hasse diagram generators as an answer. We show that Hasse diagram generators are expressive enough to represent the partial order lan- guage of any bounded

Mateus De Oliveira Oliveira

2009-01-01

145

Fibonacci numbers when counting chord diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Introduction. The combinatorics of drawing some chords in some circles arises in a section of knot theory called invariants of finite-type. We will see that the Fibonacci numbers are useful for counting certain forms of these chord diagrams. We also prove that most of the chord diagrams are null. 2. Definitions We begin with a vector space of chord

Jane Kraemer

146

Voronoi diagrams based on convex distance functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an “expanding waves” view of Voronoi diagrams that allows such diagrams to be defined for very general metrics and for distance measures that do not qualify as metrics. If a pebble is dropped into a still pond, circular waves move out from the point of impact. If n pebbles are dropped simultaneously, the places where wave fronts meet

L. Paul Chew

1985-01-01

147

Vesicle deformation by microtubules: A phase diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental investigation of vesicles deformed by the growth of encapsulated microtubules shows that the axisymmetric morphologies can be classified into ovals, lemons, ?, cherries, dumbbells, and pearls. A geometrical phase diagram is established. Numerical minimization of the elastic energy of the membrane reproduces satisfactorily well the observed morphologies and the corresponding phase diagram.

Emsellem, Virginie; Cardoso, Olivier; Tabeling, Patrick

1998-10-01

148

Diagrams and Descriptions in Acquiring Complex Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex systems such as a car brake, circulatory system, or legislative system can be c onveyed by language or diagrams. Such systems can be presented from structural or functional perspectives. In three e xperiments, we examine c ommunicating structure a nd function of mechanical systems (bike pump, car brake, pulley system) by text and diagrams in relation to mechanical ability.

Julie Heiser; Barbara Tversky

149

THE QCD PHASE DIAGRAM AT FINITE DENSITY.  

SciTech Connect

We study the density of states method to explore the phase diagram of the chiral transition on the temperature and quark chemical potential plane. Four quark flavours are used in the analysis. Though the method is quite expensive small lattices show an indication for a triple-point connecting three different phases on the phase diagram.

SCHMIDT, C.; FODOR, Z.; KATZ, S.

2005-07-25

150

Topology of ternary VLE diagrams: Elementary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classification of ternary vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) diagrams is a key to simple azeotropic dis- tillation analysis. We find that all ternary mixtures so far reported occurring in nature can be qualitatively represented by a combination of only four elementary cells. This greatly reduces the number of VLE diagram structures that need to be analyzed in order to reveal the

E. K. Hilmen; V. N. Kiva; S. Skogestad

2002-01-01

151

Semantic and Visual Encoding of Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed geometric diagrams capture a dynamic relationship between text and image that played a central role in ancient science and math- ematics. Euclid, Theodosius, Ptolemy, Archimedes and others constructed diagrams to geometrically model optics, astronomy, cartography, and hydro- statics. Each derived geometric properties from their models and interpreted their results with respect to the model's underlying semantics. Although dia- gram

Gabriel A. Weaver

152

Qualitative Motion Reasoning Based on Voronoi Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative motion reasoning is an important approach to spatial commonsense reasoning. In this paper, we propose a qualitative motion reasoning method based on Voronoi diagrams. The method adopts the vicinity relationship to represent qualitative position and qualitative path. Specifically, the qualitative position is represented by the edges of the Voronoi diagram region the moving point falls in, and the qualitative

Xiaodong Wang; Shizhong Liao

2009-01-01

153

Word Extraction Using Area Voronoi Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of word extraction based on the area Voronoi diagram is presented in this paper. Firstly, connected components are generated from the input image. Secondly, noise removal is performed including a special symbol detection technique to find some types of special symbols lying between words. Thirdly, base on the area Voronoi diagram, we select appropriate Voronoi edges which separate

Zhe Wang; Yue Lu; Chew Lim Tan

2003-01-01

154

Voronoi diagram computations for planar NURBS curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present robust and e-cient algorithms for computing Voronoi diagrams of planar freeform curves. Boundaries of the Voronoi diagram consist of portions of the bisec- tor curves between pairs of planar curves. Our scheme is based on computing critical structures of the Voronoi dia- grams, such as self-intersections and junction points of bi- sector curves. Since the geometric objects we

Joon-kyung Seong; Elaine Cohen; Gershon Elber

2008-01-01

155

Free-Body Diagrams: Necessary or Sufficient?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rutgers PAER group is working to help students develop various scientific abilities. One of the abilities is to create, understand and learn to use for qualitative reasoning and problem solving different representations of physical processes such as pictorial representations, motion diagrams, free-body diagrams, and energy bar charts. Physics education literature indicates that using multiple representations is beneficial for student understanding of physics ideas and for problem solving. We developed a special approach to construct and utilize free-body diagrams for representing physical phenomena and for problem solving. We will examine whether students draw free-body diagrams in solving problems when they know they will not receive credit for it; the consistency of their use in different conceptual areas; and if students who use free-body diagrams while solving problems in different areas of physics are more successful then those who do not.

Rosengrant, David; Van Heuvelen, A.; Etkina, Eugenia

2009-11-30

156

Tractor accidents in Swedish traffic.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to reach a better understanding of accidents on Swedish roads involving tractors and to suggest ways of preventing them. In an earlier study we analyzed police-reported fatal accidents and accidents that led to physical injuries from 1992 to 2005. During each year of this period, tractors were involved in 128 traffic accidents on average, an average of 7 people were killed, 44 sustained serious injuries, and 143 sustained slight injuries. The number of fatalities in these tractor accidents was about 1.3% of all deaths in traffic accidents in Sweden. Cars were most often involved in the tractor accidents (58%) and 15% were single vehicle accidents. The mean age of the tractor driver involved was 39.8 years and young drivers (15-24 years) were overrepresented (30%). We are now increasing the data collected with the years 2006-2010 in order to study the changes in the number of accidents. Special attention will be given to the younger drivers and to single vehicle accidents. Based on the results we aim to develop suggestions for reducing road accidents, e.g. including measures for making farm vehicles more visible and improvement of the training provided at driving schools. PMID:22317543

Pinzke, Stefan; Nilsson, Kerstin; Lundqvist, Peter

2012-01-01

157

Building protein diagrams on the web with the residue-based diagram editor RbDe.  

PubMed

The residue-based diagram editor (RbDe) is web-based software that greatly simplifies the construction of schematic diagrams of proteins. Residue-based diagrams display the sequence of a given protein in the context of its secondary and tertiary structure. Such diagrams are frequently used to summarize mutations or sequence features, in the context of the overall topology of a protein. The initial version of RbDe was designed for transmembrane proteins and has enabled many users to create diagrams of large systems such as G protein-coupled receptors or transporters. We present an extended diagram editor that supports other families of proteins. Users can now import custom-diagram layouts, use them to render members of any protein family and generate high-quality output for publication purposes. RbDe is available free over the web, at http://icb.mssm.edu/crt/RbDe PMID:12824436

Skrabanek, Lucy; Campagne, Fabien; Weinstein, Harel

2003-07-01

158

Accident prevention manual  

SciTech Connect

Among our many common needs and goals are the safety and well-being of our families, ourselves, our fellow employees, and the continuing success of our organization. To these ends--minimizing human suffering and economic waste--the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Accident Prevention Program and this Accident Prevention Manual (APM) are dedicated. The BPA Accident Prevention Program is revised as necessary to ensure compliance with relevant Federal safety and health standards. The mandatory rules herein express minimum requirements for dealing with the principal hazards inherent in daily work activities. These and other written requirements, which neither can nor should provide complete coverage of all work situations, must be continually reinforced through the sound and mature safety judgments of all workers on each assigned task. The APM is divided into two distinct sections: (1) Rules, and (2) Switching and Clearance Procedure (Operating Bulletin No. 2). For added awareness, the life-or-death Safety Rules are captioned in red; both in the index and throughout the text.

Not Available

1996-06-01

159

CUDD: CU Decision Diagram Package Release 2.2.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CUDD package provides functions to manipulate Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) [5,3], Algebraic Decision Diagrams (ADDs) [1], and Zero suppressed Decision Diagrams (ZDDs) [12]. BDDs are used to represent switch functions

Fabio Somenzi

1998-01-01

160

Physics Classroom: Drawing Free-Body Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial explains how free body diagrams are used in solving problems involving Newton's Second Law. This tutorials demonstrates how to draw free body diagrams, what the diagram means to Physics, and includes practice problems for the student. This tutorial also includes other tutorials, animations, and student activities in other concepts of Physics. The Physics Classroom is a set of resources created for learners and teachers of high school physics. It includes comprehensive tutorials, problem sets with solutions, extra help for struggling students, Shockwave animations, multimedia learning modules, labs, and photo gallery.

Henderson, Tom

2011-10-03

161

Phase diagrams of self-organizing maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method which allows the analytic determination of phase diagrams in the self-organizing map, a model for the formation of topographic projection patterns in the brain and in signal processing applications. The method only requires an ansatz for the tesselation of the data space induced by the map, not for the explicit state of the map. We analytically obtain phase diagrams for various examples, including models for the development of orientation and ocular-dominance maps. The latter phase diagram exhibits transitions to broadening ocular-dominance patterns as observed in a recent experiment.

Bauer, H.-U.; Riesenhuber, M.; Geisel, T.

1996-09-01

162

[Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].  

PubMed

It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power. PMID:22514916

Takada, Jun

2012-03-01

163

An Improved Mnemonic Diagram for Thermodynamic Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Considers pressure, volume, entropy, temperature, Helmholtz free energy, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and internal energy. Suggests the mnemonic diagram is for use with simple systems that are defined as macroscopically homogeneous, isotropic, uncharged, and chemically inert. (MVL)|

Rodriguez, Joaquin; Brainard, Alan J.

1989-01-01

164

ConcepTest: Relative Time Diagram #3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Match the features in the relative time diagram below with the events described in the short sentence. Assume all rocks are sedimentary unless otherwise indicated. Which unit is composed of granite and older than ...

165

ConcepTest: Relative Time Diagram #4  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Match the features in the relative time diagram below with the events described in the short sentence. Assume all rocks are sedimentary unless otherwise indicated. Which sedimentary unit did not experience contact ...

166

ConcepTest: Relative Time Diagram #2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Match the features in the relative time diagram below with the events described in the short sentences. Assume all rocks are sedimentary unless otherwise indicated. Which unit was formed before A but after E? a. C ...

167

ConcepTest: Relative Time Diagram #1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Match the features in the relative time diagram below with the events described in the short sentence. Assume all rocks are sedimentary unless otherwise indicated. Which is the oldest rock unit? a. A b. B c. C d. D ...

168

Sloan Digital Sky Survey - Hubble Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, containing information from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, provides projects and activities for advanced astronomy students. In this particular one, the user retraces Edwin Hubble's steps to discover that the Universe is expanding, by making a Hubble Diagram.

2010-01-07

169

Calculation of the Radar Vertical Coverage Diagram.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Algorithms are described for the calculation and plotting of radar vertical coverage diagrams. Two contour VCD algorithms are presented, with a brief discussion on the problem of numerical stability, and the effects of ship motion and frequency agility. (...

M. R. Battaglia

1984-01-01

170

Architecture flow diagrams under teamwork reg sign  

SciTech Connect

The Teamwork CASE tool allows Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs) to be maintained for structured analysis. Fermilab has extended teamwork under UNIX{trademark} to permit Hatley and Pirbhai Architecture Flow Diagrams (AFDs) to be associated with DFDs and subsequently maintained. This extension, called TWKAFD, allows a user to open an AFD, graphically edit it, and replace it into a TWKAFD maintained library. Other aspects of Hatley and Pirbhai's methodology are supported. This paper presents a quick tutorial on Architecture Diagrams. It then describes the user's view of TWKAFD, the experience incorporating it into teamwork, and the successes with using the Architecture Diagram methodology along with the shortcomings of using the teamwork/TWKAFD tool. 8 refs.

Nicinski, T.

1992-02-01

171

Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams and Minimal Trellises.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ordered binary decision diagrams (OBDDs) are graph based data structures for representing Boolean functions. Minimal trellises are graphical representations of error correcting codes that play a prominent role in coding theory. This paper establishes a cl...

J. Lafferty A. Vardy

1998-01-01

172

Azeotropic phase equilibrium diagrams: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the structural properties of vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE) diagrams provides a fundamental understanding of the thermodynamic behavior of azeotropic mixtures upon distillation.In addition to a review of well-known fundamental work on the analysis of VLE diagrams, this survey comprises less-known published results, especially from the Russian literature. Some new results are also presented for the first time.

V. N. Kiva; E. K. Hilmen; S. Skogestad

2003-01-01

173

Interactive Image-Based Exploded View Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a system for creating interactive exploded view diagrams using 2D images as input. This image-based approach enables us to directly support arbitrary rendering styles, eliminates the need for building 3D models, and allows us to leverage the abundance of existing static diagrams of complex objects. We have developed a set of semi-automatic authoring tools for quickly creating layered

Wilmot Li; Maneesh Agrawala; David Salesin

2004-01-01

174

A duality property of planar Feynman diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is found that the Fourier-transform of the amplitude of a planar Feynman diagram G can be written as the amplitude of the Feynman diagram G~, where G~ is the dual of G in the sense of graph theory of graph theory, the propagators of G~ being the Fourier-transformed of the ordinary ones. Associé au Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

David, F.; Tuan, R. Hong

1985-08-01

175

Fluctuations and the QCD phase diagram  

SciTech Connect

In this contribution the role of quantum fluctuations for the QCD phase diagram is discussed. This concerns in particular the importance of the matter back-reaction to the gluonic sector. The impact of these fluctuations on the location of the confinement/deconfinement and the chiral transition lines as well as their interrelation are investigated. Consequences of our findings for the size of a possible quarkyonic phase and location of a critical endpoint in the phase diagram are drawn.

Schaefer, B.-J., E-mail: bernd-jochen.schaefer@uni-graz.at [Karl-Franzens-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik (Austria)

2012-06-15

176

Review Azeotropic phase equilibrium diagrams: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the structural properties of vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) diagrams provides a fundamental understanding of the thermodynamic behavior of azeotropic mixtures upon distillation. In addition to a review of well-known fundamental work on the analysis of VLE diagrams, this survey comprises less-known published results, especially from the Russian literature. Some new results are also presented for the 6rst time.

V. N. Kiva; E. K. Hilmen; S. Skogestad

177

Automated Theorem Proving in Euler Diagram Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagrammatic reasoning has the potential to be important in numerous application areas. This paper focuses on the simple,\\u000a but widely used, Euler diagrams that form the basis of many more expressive logics. We have implemented a diagrammatic theorem\\u000a prover, called Edith, which has access to four sound and complete sets of reasoning rules for Euler diagrams. Furthermore,\\u000a for each rule

Gem Stapleton; Judith Masthoff; Jean Flower; Andrew Fish

2007-01-01

178

Assessing-to-Learn Physics: Strobe Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page contains a concept question for introductory physics on the use of strobe diagrams to demonstrate acceleration. Given four different diagrams, users must decide which objects are accelerating. This item can be used as a "Question of The Day" or with an electronic classroom response system (Clickers). Background information and tips to elicit critical thinking are also provided. This item is part of a larger library of similar questions, which may be searched by grade level and topic.

2008-11-18

179

Algebraic decision diagrams and their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present theory and experiments on the AlgebraicDecision Diagrams (ADD's). These diagrams extend BDD'sby allowing values from an arbitrary finite domain to be associatedwith the terminal nodes. We present a treatment foundedin boolean algebras and discuss algorithms and results in applicationslike matrix multiplication and shortest path algorithms.Furthermore, we outline possible applications of ADD's to logicsynthesis, formal verification,

R. Iris Bahar; Erica A. Frohm; Charles M. Gaona; Gary D. Hachtel; Enrico Macii; Abelardo Pardo; Fabio Somenzi

1993-01-01

180

Generalized Local Voronoi Diagram of Visible Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A circular robot in unknown environment, populated by non-overlapping obstacles is considered. The robot is equipped with a discrete scanner e.g. laser range scanner. We present a method for local construction of a one-dimensional structure, similar to the generalized Voronoi diagram. We call this structure a generalized local Voronoi diagram (GLVD). GLVD is constructed from scan points of the visible

Rajko Mahkovic; Tomaz Slivnik

1998-01-01

181

A Theoretical Study of Parallel Voronoi Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstractó In this paper, we concentrate on the problem of computing,a Voronoi diagram,using Hypercube,model of computation. The main,contribution of this work is the O(log, n) parallel algorithm for computing,Voronoi diagram on the Euclidean plane. Our technique parallelizes the wellknown,seemingly,inherent sequential technique of Shamos and Hoey, and makes use of a number of special properties of the dividing polygonal chain and

Rashid Muhammad

2006-01-01

182

Mort User's Manual: For use with the Management Oversight and Risk Tree analytical logic diagram  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the User's Manual for MORT (Management Oversight and Risk Tree), a logic diagram in the form of a work sheet'' that illustrates a long series of interrelated questions. MORT is a comprehensive analytical procedure that provides a disciplined method for determining the causes and contributing factors of major accidents. Alternatively, it serves as a tool to evaluate the quality of an existing system. While similar in many respects to fault tree analysis, MORT is more generalized and presents over 1500 specific elements of an ideal universal'' management program for optimizing environment, safety and health, and other programs. This User's Manual is intended to be used with the MORT diagram dated February 1992.

Knox, N.W.; Eicher, R.W.

1992-02-01

183

The randomness of accident counts.  

PubMed

Road accident occurrence is generally assumed to be governed by a random process. Experience analysing accident count series indicates a need for testing the randomness of such a series, and a simple statistical test is described. The test is a modified one-sample runs test, which can be used to assist the identification of three distinct patterns constituting non-randomness (namely, a trend, a discontinuity and over-correction). The test is designed for the preliminary analysis of accident count data, and its use is demonstrated, using both artificial and actual accident count series. PMID:3730092

Nicholson, A J

1986-06-01

184

Bicycle Accidents to School Aged Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Boys are involved in more motor vehicle accidents than are girls. Nighttime accidents account for relatively few accidents. However, severity of accident is increased at dark. A different type of accident occurs when the bicycle is used as a toy or as a m...

F. J. Vilardo J. H. Anderson

1969-01-01

185

Accident characterization methodology  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is preparing NUREG-1150 to examine the risk from a selected group of nuclear power plants. NUREG-1150 will provide technical bases for comparison of NRC research to industry results and resolution of numerous severe accident issues. In support of NUREG-1150, Sandia National Laboratories has directed the production of Level 3 Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) for the Surry, Sequoyah, Peach Bottom, and Grand Gulf nuclear power plants. The Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) at Sandia has been responsible for the Level 1 portion of the analyses, which includes estimation of core damage frequency and characterization of the dominant sequences. The ASEP analyses are being documented in NUREG/CR-4550. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe and evaluate the methodology utilized in these analyses. The methodology will soon be published in more detail as Reference 5. The results produced for NUREG/CR-4550 using this methodology are summarized in another paper to be presented at this conference.

Camp, A.L.; Harper, F.T.

1986-01-01

186

Extraction, layout analysis and classification of diagrams in PDF documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagrams are a critical part of virtually all scientific and technical documents. Analyzing diagrams will be important for building comprehensive document retrieval systems. This paper focuses on the extraction and classification of diagrams from PDF documents. We study diagrams available in vector (not raster) format in online research papers. PDF files are parsed and their vector graphics components installed in

Robert P. Futrelle; Mingyan Shao; Chris Cieslik; Andrea Elaina Grimes

2003-01-01

187

Practical guidelines for the readability of IT-architecture diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the work done to establish guidelines for the creation of readable IT-architecture diagrams and gives some examples of guidelines and some examples of improved diagrams. These guidelines are meant to assist practicing IT-architects in preparing the diagrams to communicate their architectures to the various stakeholders. Diagramming has always been important in information technology (IT), but the recent

Henk Koning; Claire Dormann; Hans van Vliet

2002-01-01

188

Science Visual Literacy: Learners' Perceptions and Knowledge of Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constructing meaning from science texts relies not only on comprehending the words but also the diagrams and other graphics. The goal of this study was to explore elementary students' perceptions of science diagrams and their skills related to diagram interpretation. 30 students, ranging from second grade through middle school, completed a diagram

McTigue, Erin M.; Flowers, Amanda C.

2011-01-01

189

Fishbone Diagrams: Organize Reading Content with a "Bare Bones" Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fishbone diagrams, also known as Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams, are one of the many problem-solving tools created by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a University of Tokyo professor. Part of the brilliance of Ishikawa's idea resides in the simplicity and practicality of the diagram's basic model--a fish's skeleton. This article describes how…

Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

2010-01-01

190

Nesting in Euler Diagrams: syntax, semantics and construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the notion of nesting in Euler diagrams, and how nesting affects the interpretation and construction of such diagrams. After setting up the necessary definitions for concrete Euler diagrams (drawn in the plane) and abstract diagrams (having just formal structure), the notion of nestedness is defined at both concrete and abstract levels. The concept of a dual graph

Jean Flower; John Howse; John Taylor

2004-01-01

191

Detecting Arabic handwritten word baseline using Voronoi Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology based on Voronoi diagram for detecting the Arabic handwritten word baseline. In this paper, the definition and background of Voronoi diagram has been explained. A short survey about the application of Voronoi diagram on the language recognition fields also presented. Finally, a method is proposed based on the Voronoi diagram

Atallah AL-Shatnawi; Khairuddin Omar

2009-01-01

192

Chornobyl Accident, Radiation, and Health Concerns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Chornobyl Accident Facts; (The 1986 Accident, Causes of the Accidental, The Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant Today); Medical and Health Effects of the Accident (Prompt or Early Health Effects, Thyroid Cancer, Leukemia, Teratogenesis - Radiation and...

G. J. Vargo

2000-01-01

193

Supplemental National Crash Severity Study Accident Reconstruction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study collected accident data that would allow determination of the relationships between occupant injury and accident severity. The measure of severity most commonly used to characterize an accident is the velocity change experienced by the passenger...

D. J. Segal M. T. McGrath N. Balasubramanian

1980-01-01

194

Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: (1) the energy deposition in the

W. Frid; F. Höjerup; I. Lindholm; J. Miettinen; L. Nilsson; E. K. Puska; H. Sjövall

2001-01-01

195

First Responders and Criticality Accidents  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

2005-11-01

196

Evaluating data flow diagrams and class diagrams in usability laboratory experiments (CADPRO Pilot #2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a second pilot experiment for the CADPRO project taking into account a number of the recommendations arising from the first pilot. Three subjects produced data flow diagrams and class diagrams in a usability laboratory setting. Characteristics of subjects' solutions are discussed and the usefulness of profiles of product delivery and constraint activations against time is determined.

SHINGO TAKADA; LOUISE SCOTT; ANDY BROOKS

197

Simple yet complete heuristics for transforming data flow diagrams into Booch style diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some simple heuristics for transforming a requirements specification (for a non-real time application) expressed as a data flow diagram (DFD) into a design architecture expressed as an extended Booch diagram. This architecture provides a starting point for subsequent design refinement. The transformations based on simple heuristics were implemented in a research tool. We show that simple things

Swathi C. Solsi; Edward L. Jones

1991-01-01

198

Dynamic tactile diagram simplification on refreshable displays.  

PubMed

The increasing use of visual diagrams in educational and work environments, and even our daily lives, has created obstacles for individuals who are blind or visually impaired to independently access the information they represent. Although physical tactile pictures can be created to convey the visual information, it is typically a slow, cumbersome, and costly process. Refreshable haptic displays, which interact with computers, promise to make this access quicker, easier, and cheaper. One important aspect in converting visual to tactile diagrams is to simplify the diagram as otherwise it can be too difficult to interpret with touch. Enabling this to be under user control in an interactive environment, such as with refreshable displays, could allow users to avoid being overwhelmed by the diagrams at any instant in time while still retaining access to all information in "storage". Through this article the authors investigate whether two types of diagram simplification--boundary simplification and contextual simplification--showed potential utility in an interactive environment. Boundary simplification was found to be significantly helpful in answering general questions about borders on a geographic map, and contextual simplification was helpful in answering relational questions, as compared to using the original map unchanged. PMID:23527429

Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T V

2013-01-01

199

Interpretation of UML Sequence Diagrams as Causality Flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a UML Interaction diagrams (Sequence diagrams (SD), Collaboration diagrams or Communication diagrams) lack a formal semantics;\\u000a they include some amount of ambiguity so that formal techniques cannot be applied e.g. for automatically deriving the behavior\\u000a of the objects (as Statecharts or State-Transition diagrams) from the SD where they appear. To overcome this situation, this\\u000a paper first analyses and simplifies the semantic

Christophe Sibertin-blanc; Omar Tahir; Janette Cardoso

2005-01-01

200

Solving multiloop Feynman diagrams using light-front coordinates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the numerical values of scalar multiloop two-vertex Feynman diagrams, the generalized sunset diagrams, or watermelon diagrams, by integrating all but the longitudinal momenta analytically. For the longitudinal momenta we introduce one collective coordinate, which allows us to determine the numerical value of the diagram efficiently and to an arbitrary accuracy. The imaginary part and the threshold behavior of the diagram is also handled within this framework.

Ligterink, N. E.

2000-05-01

201

The McConnell missile accident: clinical spectrum of nitrogen dioxide exposure  

SciTech Connect

Technical report:Twenty-four men were refueling a missile when a large spill of oxidizer occurred. Three men were exposed to very high concentrations of nitrogen oxides; one died within minutes, and severe respiratory distress symptoms developed in the other two. The rest of the crew members were exposed to moderate concentrations. Persisting headaches and visual disturbances were some prevalent disorders resulting from the accident. (1 diagram, 7 references, 1 table)

Yockey, C.C.; Eden, B.M.; Byrd, R.B.

1980-09-12

202

The Butterfly diagram leopard skin pattern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A time-latitude diagram where spotgroups are given proportional relevance to their area is presented. The diagram reveals that the spotted area distribution is higly dishomogeneous, most of it being concentrated in few, small portions (``knots'') of the Butterfly Diagram; because of this structure, the BD may be properly described as a cluster of knots. The description, assuming that spots scatter around the ``spot mean latitude'' steadily drifting equatorward, is challenged. Indeed, spots cluster around at as many latitudes as knots; a knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones, in a seemingly random way; accordingly, the spot mean latitude abruptly drifts equatorward or even poleward at any knot activation, in spite of any smoothing procedure. Preliminary analyses suggest that the activity splits, in any hemisphere, into two or more distinct ``activity waves'', drifting equatorward at a rate higher than the spot zone as a whole.

Ternullo, Maurizio

2011-08-01

203

Analyzing genomes with cumulative skew diagrams.  

PubMed Central

A novel method of cumulative diagrams shows that the nucleotide composition of a microbial chromosome changes at two points separated by about a half of its length. These points coincide with sites of replication origin and terminus for all bacteria where such sites are known. The leading strand is found to contain more guanine than cytosine residues. This fact is used to predict origin and terminus locations in other bacterial and archaeal genomes. Local changes, visible as diagram distortions, may represent recent genome rearrangements, as demonstrated for two strains of Escherichia coli . Analysis of the diagrams of viral and mitochondrial genomes suggests a link between the base composition bias and the time spent by DNA in a single stranded state during replication.

Grigoriev, A

1998-01-01

204

Generic Phase Diagram of Active Polar Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study theoretically the phase diagram of compressible active polar gels such as the actin network of eukaryotic cells. Using generalized hydrodynamics equations, we perform a linear stability analysis of the uniform states in the case of an infinite bidimensional active gel to obtain the dynamic phase diagram of active polar films. We predict, in particular, modulated flowing phases and a macroscopic phase separation at high activity. This qualitatively accounts for experimental observations of various active systems, such as actomyosin gels, microtubules and kinesins in vitro solutions, or swimming bacterial colonies.

Voituriez, R.; Joanny, J. F.; Prost, J.

2006-01-01

205

Generic phase diagram of active polar films.  

PubMed

We study theoretically the phase diagram of compressible active polar gels such as the actin network of eukaryotic cells. Using generalized hydrodynamics equations, we perform a linear stability analysis of the uniform states in the case of an infinite bidimensional active gel to obtain the dynamic phase diagram of active polar films. We predict, in particular, modulated flowing phases and a macroscopic phase separation at high activity. This qualitatively accounts for experimental observations of various active systems, such as actomyosin gels, microtubules and kinesins in vitro solutions, or swimming bacterial colonies. PMID:16486647

Voituriez, R; Joanny, J F; Prost, J

2006-01-17

206

Phase diagrams of diluted transverse Ising nanowire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the phase diagrams of diluted Ising nanowire consisting of core and surface shell coupling by Jcs exchange interaction are studied using the effective field theory with a probability distribution technique, in the presence of transverse fields in the core and in the surface shell. We find a number of characteristic phenomena. In particular, the effect of concentration c of magnetic atoms, the exchange interaction core/shell, the exchange in surface and the transverse fields in core and in surface shell of phase diagrams are investigated.

Bouhou, S.; Essaoudi, I.; Ainane, A.; Saber, M.; Ahuja, R.; Dujardin, F.

2013-06-01

207

A grounded theory model for analysis of marine accidents.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper was to design a conceptual model for analysis of marine accidents. The model is grounded on large amounts of empirical data, i.e. the Swedish Maritime Administration database, which was thoroughly studied. This database contains marine accidents organized by ship and variable. The majority of variables are non-metric and some have never been analyzed because of the large number of values. Summary statistics were employed in the data analysis. In order to develop a conceptual model, the database variables were clustered into eleven main categories or constructs, which were organized according to their properties and connected with the path diagram of relationships. For demonstration purposes, one non-metric and five metric variables were selected, namely fatality, ship's properties (i.e. age, gross register tonnage, and length), number of people on board, and marine accidents. These were analyzed using the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. The combined prediction power of the 'ship's properties' and 'number of people on board' independent variables accounted for 65% of the variance of the fatality. The model development was largely based on the data contained in the Swedish database. However, as this database shares a number of variables in common with other databases in the region and the world, the model presented in this paper could be applied to other datasets. The model has both theoretical and practical values. Recommendations for improvements in the database are also suggested. PMID:21545894

Mullai, Arben; Paulsson, Ulf

2011-04-15

208

Underreporting of maritime accidents to vessel accident databases.  

PubMed

Underreporting of maritime accidents is a problem not only for authorities trying to improve maritime safety through legislation, but also to risk management companies and other entities using maritime casualty statistics in risk and accident analysis. This study collected and compared casualty data from 01.01.2005 to 31.12.2009, from IHS Fairplay and the maritime authorities from a set of nations. The data was compared to find common records, and estimation of the true number of occurred accidents was performed using conditional probability given positive dependency between data sources, several variations of the capture-recapture method, calculation of best case scenario assuming perfect reporting, and scaling up a subset of casualty information from a marine insurance statistics database. The estimated upper limit reporting performance for the selected flag states ranged from 14% to 74%, while the corresponding estimated coverage of IHS Fairplay ranges from 4% to 62%. On average the study results document that the number of unreported accidents makes up roughly 50% of all occurred accidents. Even in a best case scenario, only a few flag states come close to perfect reporting (94%). The considerable scope of underreporting uncovered in the study, indicates that users of statistical vessel accident data should assume a certain degree of underreporting, and adjust their analyses accordingly. Whether to use correction factors, a safety margin, or rely on expert judgment, should be decided on a case by case basis. PMID:21819835

Hassel, Martin; Asbjørnslett, Bjørn Egil; Hole, Lars Petter

2011-06-12

209

Enhancing the Expressiveness of Spider Diagram Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many visual languages based on Euler diagrams have emerged for expressing relationships between sets. The ex- pressive power of these languages varies, but the major- ity are monadic and some include equality. Spider dia- grams are one such language, being equivalent in expres- sive power to monadic first order logic with equality. Spi- ders are used to represent the existence

Gem Stapleton; John Howse

2006-01-01

210

Automated generation of analog schematic diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to the automated generation of analog schematic diagrams is presented. The algorithms expressly address the esthetic requirements for analog schematics. There are four major algorithms: (1) functional clustering; (2) block placement; (3) wiring between blocks; and (4) block expansion. Experiments show that schematics can be automatically generated with favorable run times for large networks. Typical SPICE networks of

L. D. Green; J. Andersen

1990-01-01

211

Learning from Diagrams: Theoretical and Instructional Considerations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the eight studies reported in this paper was two-fold: to identify some of the relationships that exist between the unique properties of diagrams and various aspects of cognitive processes and learning, and, subsequently, to derive principl...

W. D. Winn W. G. Holliday

1981-01-01

212

Yttrium. Properties, Phase Diagrams, Industrial Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book generalizes available literature data on the preparation and purification of yttrium, and also on its properties, phase diagrams, and the properties of its alloys. It also presents a survey of the most important branches of the application of ytt...

V. F. Terekhova E. M. Savitskii

1970-01-01

213

Identification of complete data flow diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Structure Design is generated with Data Flow Diagrams (DFD). DFD have been used for more than ten years, and they are still popular. The main drawback of DFD is the lack of mathematical foundation. The great demand for bigger and more sophisticated computer systems makes necessary the formulation of a formal theory for DFD. This theory will provide a

Federico Vazquez

1994-01-01

214

Enhanced Pomeron diagrams: Resummation of unitarity cuts  

SciTech Connect

Unitarity cuts of enhanced Pomeron diagrams are analyzed in the framework of the Reggeon field theory. Assuming the validity of the Abramovskii-Gribov-Kancheli cutting rules, we derive a complete set of cut nonloop enhanced graphs and observe important cancellations between certain subclasses of the latter. We demonstrate also how the present method can be generalized to take into consideration Pomeron loop contributions.

Ostapchenko, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Kernphysik, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2008-02-01

215

Evaluating formal properties of feature diagram languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feature diagrams (FDs) are a family of popular modelling languages, mainly used for managing variability in software product lines. FDs were first introduced by Kang et al. as part of the feature-oriented domain analysis (FODA) method back in 1990. Since then, various extensions of FODA FDs were devised to compensate for purported ambiguity and lack of precision and expressiveness. Recently,

Patrick Heymans; Pierre-yves Schobbens; Jean-christophe Trigaux; Yves Bontemps; Raimundas Matulevicius; Andreas Classen

2008-01-01

216

Constructing Causal Diagrams to Learn Deliberation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Policy problems like "What should we do about global warming?" are ill-defined in large part because we do not agree on a system to represent them the way we agree Algebra problems should be represented by equations. As a first step toward building a policy deliberation tutor, we investigated: (a) whether causal diagrams help students learn to…

Easterday, Matthew W.; Aleven, Vincent; Scheines, Richard; Carver, Sharon M.

2009-01-01

217

Isotactic Polystyrene Phase Diagrams and Physical Gelation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although the gelation of isotactic polystyrene (iPS) solutions has been studied for a long time, no prior attempt has been made to measure phase diagrams of these solutions. This is surprising because it has been suggested that gelation occurs by liquid-l...

J. H. Aubert

1987-01-01

218

Computer-Generated Diagrams for the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes 10 computer programs used to draw diagrams usually drawn on chalkboards, such as addition of three vectors, vector components, range of a projectile, lissajous figures, beats, isotherms, Snell's law, waves passing through a lens, magnetic field due to Helmholtz coils, and three curves. Several programming tips are included. (JN)|

Carle, Mark A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

1986-01-01

219

Spectroscopic Determination of Ternary Phase Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ternary phase diagrams describe phase equilibria among three components as a function of composition at constant temperature and pressure. The system of n-propanol, n-heptane, and water exhibits a simple ternary diagram with two well-demarcated regions. One region represents complete liquid miscibility at high proportions of n-propanol. The second region delineates the compositions where two immiscible liquid phases coexist--a water-rich layer and a heptane-rich layer with distinct amounts of solubilized n-propanol. The ternary phase diagram for such partially miscible liquid systems is generally determined in an undergraduate laboratory experiment by both visual methods and classical techniques. Indeed, the demarcation between the one- and two-phase liquid regions is visually discernible through titrations of n-propanol-n-heptane mixtures with water until a second liquid phase appears. However, the compositions of the immiscible liquid phases within the two-phase region can not be determined using classical pH titrations or refractive index measurements. Acidic or basic species are absent, and n-heptane and n-propanol exhibit refractive indices that differ by only 0.002 at room temperature. We have designed a modern experiment using conventional absorbance or fluorescence spectroscopy to rapidly, accurately, ad conveniently construct the n-propanol-n-heptane-water ternary phase diagram.

Karukstis, Kerry K.; Avrantinis, Sara K.; Boegeman, Stephanie L.; Conner, Jeanie N.; Hackman, Blaine M.; Lindsay, Jennifer M.; Mandel, Alexander L.; Miller, Elizabeth J.

2000-06-01

220

NTNU Java: Free-Body Force Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet illustrates the forces on a block on an inclined plane. A free-body diagram shows the gravitational, normal, frictional and net force vectors. The weight, angle of the plane, and coefficient of friction can be changed by the user. The user can also apply an external force to the block. The motion resulting from the forces is not shown.

Hwang, Fu-Kwun

2005-02-07

221

Characterizing Communication Channel Deadlocks in Sequence Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract UML sequence diagrams,(SDs) are a mainstay of requirements specifications for communication protocols. Mauw and Reniers’ algebraic (MRA) semantics formally specifies a behaviour for these SDs that guarantees deadlock free processes. Practitioners commonly use communication semantics that differ from MRA, which may result in deadlocks. For example FIFO, token ring, etc. We define a process algebra that is an extension

Bill Mitchell

2008-01-01

222

Computer-Generated Diagrams for the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes 10 computer programs used to draw diagrams usually drawn on chalkboards, such as addition of three vectors, vector components, range of a projectile, lissajous figures, beats, isotherms, Snell's law, waves passing through a lens, magnetic field due to Helmholtz coils, and three curves. Several programming tips are included. (JN)

Carle, Mark A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

1986-01-01

223

Forming limit diagrams: a micromechanical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for obtaining the forming limit diagram (FLD) from a micromechanical approach is proposed. Periodic representative volume elements (RVEs) characteristic for the microstructure of a two-phase material containing particles are subjected to biaxial stretching with different strain paths. In the course of straining, a groove forms and grows, finally leading to a stress drop in the overall response. This

H.-P Gänser; E. A Werner; F. D Fischer

2000-01-01

224

Time dependent determination of forming limit diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forming limit diagram (FLD) is a convenient tool for classification of sheet metals’ formability in the finite element analysis as well as in the press shop. The FLD indicates the maximum strain values which can be applied on a material without failure as a function of the strain condition. In contrast to the standardized evaluation method described in the

M. Merklein; A. Kuppert; M. Geiger

2010-01-01

225

Fog Machines, Vapors, and Phase Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A series of demonstrations is described that elucidate the operation of commercial fog machines by using common laboratory equipment and supplies. The formation of fogs, or "mixing clouds", is discussed in terms of the phase diagram for water and other chemical principles. The demonstrations can be adapted for presentation suitable for elementary…

Vitz, Ed

2008-01-01

226

Dynamic Tactile Diagram Simplification on Refreshable Displays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The increasing use of visual diagrams in educational and work environments, and even our daily lives, has created obstacles for individuals who are blind or visually impaired to "independently" access the information they represent. Although physical tactile pictures can be created to convey the visual information, it is typically a slow,…

Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T. V.

2013-01-01

227

Complexities of One-Component Phase Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For most materials, the solid at and near the triple-point temperature is denser than the liquid with which it is in equilibrium. However, for water and certain other materials, the densities of the phases are reversed, with the solid being less dense. The profound consequences for the appearance of the "pVT" diagram of one-component materials…

Ciccioli, Andrea; Glasser, Leslie

2011-01-01

228

Phase diagrams of charged colloidal particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have calculated the phase diagrams of charged colloidal particles in the parameter space. The free energies of different phases, which were used to determine the phase boundaries, were calculated variationally. The Einstein oscillators and the hard sphere fluid were used as the reference systems for the solid phases and the liquid, respectively. The interparticle interactions were approximated to be

Wan Y. Shih; Ilhan A. Aksay; Ryoichi Kikuchi

1987-01-01

229

Structural Validation of Causal Loop Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present techniques for manually testing the validity of each link in a causal loop diagram (CLD). A link is defined as consisting of an origination quantity, a destination quantity and a connection edge between them. Each link is considered as a separate and distinct causal hypothesis whose validity should stand on its own merits. Following Goldratt,

James R. Burns; Philip Musa

2001-01-01

230

Weight diagram construction of Lax operators  

SciTech Connect

We review and expand methods introduced in our previous paper. It is proved that cyclic weight diagrams corresponding to representations of affine Lie algebras allow one to construct the associated Lax operator. The resultant Lax operator is in the Miura-like form and generates the modified KdV equations. The algorithm is extended to the super-symmetric case.

Carbon, S.L.; Piard, E.J.

1991-10-01

231

The BFKL Pomeron calculus: Summing enhanced diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this paper is to sum over a class of enhanced diagrams, and derive a new Pomeron Green function. It is found that this sum gives the Pomeron contribution to the scattering amplitude that decreases with energy. In other words, we found that the total cross section of two colourless dipoles of small but equal sizes, falls down at high energies.

Levin, E.; Miller, J.

2012-07-01

232

Multistate Block Diagrams and Fault Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how to model a multistate system with multistate components using binary variables. This modeling technique allows current binary algorithms for block diagrams and fault trees to be applied to multistate systems. Several multistate examples are presented, and some cases in which computational efficiency can be enhanced are discussed.

Alan P. Wood

1985-01-01

233

Magnetic phase diagram of MnSi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic phase diagram of MnSi was studied using small angle neutron scattering. The results were analysed using the three-dimensional resolution function and the scattering cross section to model the diffraction data. A small phase pocket (phase ‘A’) just below TN is found to be a modulated antiferromagnet.

B. Lebech; P. Harris; J. Skov Pedersen; K. Mortensen; C. I. Gregory; N. R. Bernhoeft; M. Jermy; S. A. Brown

1995-01-01

234

Dynamical mechanism for the hairpin diagram.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on the non-valence quark-antiquark and gluon constituent structure of mesons we give a reasonable dynamical mechanism which can induce the hairpin diagram without violating the well-observed OZI rule. We calculate the hairpin amplitudes of D deg. yi...

C. Chang X. Guo X. Li

1989-01-01

235

Image Attributes: A Study of Scientific Diagrams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses advancements in imaging technology and increased user access to digital images, as well as efforts to develop adequate indexing and retrieval methods for image databases. Describes preliminary results of a study of undergraduates that explored the attributes naive subjects use to describe scientific diagrams. (Author/LRW)

Brunskill, Jeff; Jorgensen, Corinne

2002-01-01

236

Failure Diagram for Chemically Assisted Crack Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A failure diagram that combines the thresholds for failure of a smooth specimen to that of a fracture mechanics specimen, similar to the modified Kitagawa diagram in fatigue, is presented. For a given material/environment system, the diagram defines conditions under which a crack initiated at the threshold stress in a smooth specimen becomes a propagating crack, by satisfying the threshold stress intensity of a long crack. In analogy with fatigue, it is shown that internal stresses or local stress concentrations are required to provide the necessary mechanical crack tip driving forces, on one hand, and reaction/transportation kinetics to provide the chemical potential gradients, on the other. Together, they help in the initiation and propagation of the cracks. The chemical driving forces can be expressed as equivalent mechanical stresses using the failure diagram. Both internal stresses and their gradients, in conjunction with the chemical driving forces, have to meet the minimum magnitude and the minimum gradients to sustain the growth of a microcrack formed. Otherwise, nonpropagating conditions will prevail or a crack formed will remain dormant. It is shown that the processes underlying the crack nucleation in a smooth specimen and the crack growth of a fracture mechanics specimen are essentially the same. Both require building up of internal stresses by local plasticity. The process involves intermittent crack tip blunting and microcrack nucleation until the crack becomes unstable under the applied stress.

Sadananda, K.; Vasudevan, A. K.

2011-02-01

237

Complexities of One-Component Phase Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For most materials, the solid at and near the triple-point temperature is denser than the liquid with which it is in equilibrium. However, for water and certain other materials, the densities of the phases are reversed, with the solid being less dense. The profound consequences for the appearance of the "pVT" diagram of one-component materials…

Ciccioli, Andrea; Glasser, Leslie

2011-01-01

238

A Generalized Wave Diagram for Moving Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many introductory physics texts1-5 accompany the discussion of the Doppler effect and the formation of shock waves with diagrams illustrating the effect of a source moving through an elastic medium. Typically these diagrams consist of a series of equally spaced dots, representing the location of the source at different times. These are surrounded by a series of successively smaller circles representing wave fronts (see Fig. 1). While such a diagram provides a clear illustration of the shock wave produced by a source moving at a speed greater than the wave speed, and also the resultant pattern when the source speed is less than the wave speed (the Doppler effect), the texts do not often show the details of the construction. As a result, the key connection between the relative distance traveled by the source and the distance traveled by the wave is not explicitly made. In this paper we describe an approach emphasizing this connection that we have found to be a useful classroom supplement to the usual text presentation. As shown in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, the Doppler effect and the shock wave can be illustrated by diagrams generated by the construction that follows.

Alt, Robert; Wiley, Sam

2004-12-01

239

Drawing conformal diagrams for a fractal landscape  

SciTech Connect

Generic models of cosmological inflation and the recently proposed scenarios of a recycling universe and the string theory landscape predict spacetimes whose global geometry is a stochastic, self-similar fractal. To visualize the complicated causal structure of such a universe, one usually draws a conformal (Carter-Penrose) diagram. I develop a new method for drawing conformal diagrams, applicable to arbitrary 1+1-dimensional spacetimes. This method is based on a qualitative analysis of intersecting lightrays and thus avoids the need for explicit transformations of the spacetime metric. To demonstrate the power and simplicity of this method, I present derivations of diagrams for spacetimes of varying complication. I then apply the lightray method to three different models of an eternally inflating universe (scalar-field inflation, recycling universe, and string theory landscape) involving the nucleation of nested asymptotically flat, de Sitter and/or anti-de Sitter bubbles. I show that the resulting diagrams contain a characteristic fractal arrangement of lines.

Winitzki, Sergei [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Theresienstr. 37, 80333 Munich (Germany)

2005-06-15

240

Interaction in collaborative computer supported diagram development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of computer programs have been developed to allow multiple people to work on the same document at the same time from different computers possibly in different locations. These allow groups to create and modify text and diagrams. A problem for people using these programs is that the physical constraints of working together are removed. For example, there is

Jeffrey D. Campbell

2004-01-01

241

An evaluation of spindle-shaft seizure accident sequences for the Schenck Dynamic Balancer  

SciTech Connect

This study was conducted at the request of the USDOE/AL Dynamic Balancer Project Team to develop a set of representative accident sequences initiated by rapid seizure of the spindle shaft of the Schenck dynamic balancing machine used in the mass properties testing activities in Bay 12-60 at the Pantex Plant. This Balancer is used for balancing reentry vehicles. In addition, the study identified potential causes of possible spindle-shaft seizure leading to a rapid deceleration of the rotating assembly. These accident sequences extend to the point that the reentry vehicle either remains in stable condition on the balancing machine or leaves the machine with some translational and rotational motion. Fault-tree analysis was used to identify possible causes of spindle-shaft seizure, and failure modes and effects analysis identified the results of shearing of different machine components. Cause-consequence diagrams were used to help develop accident sequences resulting from the possible effects of spindle-shaft seizure. To make these accident sequences physically reasonable, the analysts used idealized models of the dynamics of rotating masses. Idealized physical modeling also was used to provide approximate values of accident parameters that lead to branching down different accident progression paths. The exacerbating conditions of balancing machine over-speed and improper assembly of the fixture to the face plate are also addressed.

Bott, T.F.; Fischer, S.R.

1998-11-01

242

Train-pedestrian accidents.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the injury pattern, morbidity, and mortality in pedestrians involved in train accidents. The study was performed in the Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Turkey. Hospital records of 41 cases who were hit by train between the period of 1985-97 were evaluated. Age, gender, mechanism of injury (falling from train, hit by train), suicide attempts, pre-existing illnesses, RTS (Revised Trauma Score) and mortality were evaluated. Sixty-eight per cent (n = 28) of the victims were male. The mean age was 32 (9-72) years. Fifty-nine per cent of the victims had fallen from the train. The rate of suicide attempt was 22% (n = 9). The mean RTS was 10+/-3.6. Survivors had better RTS (11+/-2) than nonsurvivors (3.5+/-2.5) (p < 0.0001, 95% CI = 6.0-9.5). Extremity fractures and lower extremity amputations were frequently encountered. The mortality rate was 17%. The mortality rate was high in victims who were hit by the train (p = 0.00013). Suicide attempts carry a high mortality rate (p = 0.0001). Six mortalities were seen in nine documented suicide attempts. It is concluded that train-pedestrian injuries represent a different type of trauma. The mortality rate in suicide attempts is high. RTS lower than 11 and being hit by train are associated with high mortality. PMID:11132074

Agalar, F; Cakmakci, M; Kunt, M M

2000-06-01

243

Plutonium Accident Resistant Container Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC. This PAT-1 (plutonium air tr...

J. A. Andersen

1978-01-01

244

Multidisciplinary Accident Investigation. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the methodology, results, discussions, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to the investigation of 50 fatal and non-fatal vehicular accidents occurring in the Greater Baltimore metropolitan area from June 28, 1974 to June 30, 1...

R. S. Fisher

1976-01-01

245

Standby after the Chernobyl Accident.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is an investigation concerning standby and actions by SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (National Institute of Radiation Protection) due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. It consists of a final report and two appendices. The fin...

1987-01-01

246

CANDU safety under severe accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The characteristics of the CANDU reactor relevant to severe accidents are set first by the inherent properties of the design, and second by the Canadian safety/licensing approach. Probabilistic safety assessment studies have been performed on operating CA...

V. G. Snell J. Q. Howieson S. Alikhan G. M. Frescura F. King

1988-01-01

247

Automated Traffic Accident Data Entry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project was to develop a method to automatically enter traffic accident records into an existing database and to provide a computerized method of achiving the forms. This involved redesigning the existing forms, developing a method for...

S. B. Johnson K. Hofer

2000-01-01

248

The TMI2 accident evaluation program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor, now 10 years old, remains as the United States' worst commercial nuclear reactor accident. Although the consequences of the accident were restricted primarily to the plant itself, the potential consequences of the accident, should it have progressed further, are large enough to warrant close scrutiny of all aspects of

D. J. Osetek; J. M. Broughton; R. R. Hobbins

1989-01-01

249

Supplemental national crash severity study accident reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accident data was collected that allows determination of the relationships between occupant injury and accident severity. The measure of severity most commonly used to characterize an accident is the velocity change experienced by the passenger compartment during the collision. In some 52 percent of the accidents contained in the pre-April 1978 National Crash Severity Study (NCSS) data file, these velocity

D. J. Segal; M. T. McGrath; N. Balasubramanian

1980-01-01

250

Aircraft accident reconstruction: comparison of data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from the reconstruction of nine airplane accidents that occurred during the period of 1992 through 2000. The purpose of this paper is to re-examine previously compiled accident and test data for small airplanes. Comparing accident data from the present study with previous accident data shows the need to include the roll and yaw angles of an

Michael W. Dobbs

2010-01-01

251

Accurate Accident Reconstruction in VANET  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We propose a forensic VANET application to aid an accurate accident reconstruction. Our application provides a new source\\u000a of objective real-time data impossible to collect using existing methods. By leveraging inter-vehicle communications, we compile\\u000a digital evidence describing events before, during, and after an accident in its entirety. In addition to sensors data and\\u000a major components’ status, we provide relative positions

Yuliya Kopylova; Csilla Farkas; Wenyuan Xu

252

[Fatal occupational accidents in Lombardy].  

PubMed

All fatal occupational accidents compensated in Lombardy from 1984 to 1989 were analyzed (1259 cases): significant differences between geographical distribution of fatal occupational accidents and workers were observed. Males accounted for about 95% of fatalities; an excess of cases was shown in both young and elderly workers. Death was the consequence of injuries involving most frequently the head, thorax and spinal cord. An excess of fatalities was observed in agriculture and, at a lower level, in manufacturing industries; small enterprises were involved in approximately 25% of fatalities occurring in the manufacturing industries and services. Employers were the victims of fatal accidents in 50% of cases in agriculture and in 70% of cases in craft industries. Construction, agriculture and transport accounted for about 50% of all fatalities. About 50% of fatal occupational accidents were related to vehicle use: the victim was the driver in the majority of cases, sometimes the victim was run over by a vehicle or fell from a vehicle. The results agree with some previous observations (e.g.: sex and age distribution; construction, agriculture and transport as working activities at high accident risk); but some original observations have emerged, in particular about the frequency of employers as victims and the role of vehicles in the genesis of fatal occupational accidents. If further studies confirm these latter observations, important developments could follow in preventive action design and implementation. PMID:8815364

Pianosi, G

253

Generalized Voronoi Diagrams for a Ladder: II. Efficient Construction of the Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a collection of algorithms, all running in timeO(n\\u000a 2 logn ? (n)\\u000a o(?(n)3)) for some fixed integers(where ?(n) is the inverse Ackermann's function), for constructing a skeleton representation of a suitably generalized “Voronoi diagram”\\u000a for a ladder moving in a two-dimensional space bounded by polygonal barriers consisting ofn line segments. This diagram, which is a two-dimensional subcomplex of

Colm Ó'dúnlaing; Micha Sharir; Chee-keng Yap

1987-01-01

254

Visualizing Flow Diagrams in WebSphere Studio Using SHriMP Views (Visualizing Flow Diagrams)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper describes the integration of an information visualization tool, called SHriMPViews, with IBM WebSphere Studio Application Developer Integration Edition, whichwas developed with Eclipse technology. Although SHriMP was originally developedfor visualizing programs, it is content-independent. We have re-targeted SHriMP forvisualizing flow diagrams. Flow diagrams, as supported by WebSphere Studio ApplicationDeveloper Integration Edition, can be hierarchically composed, thus...

Derek Rayside; Marin Litoiu

255

Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a pressurized water reactor. The specific plant analyzed is the Zion Nuclear Power Plant, which is a Westinghouse-designed system that has been decommissioned.

Hakobyan, Aram P.

256

[Accidents of fulguration].  

PubMed

Fulguration, first electric accident in which the man was a victim, is to day better known. A clap of thunder is decomposed in two elements: lightning, and thunder. Lightning is caused by an electrical discharge, either within a cloud, or between two clouds, or, above all, between a cloud and the surface of the ground. Experimental equipments owned by the French Electricity Company and by the Atomic Energy Commission, have allowed to photograph lightnings and to measure certain physical characteristics (Intensity variable between 25 to 100 kA, voltage variable between 20 to 1 000 kV). The frequency of storms was learned: the isokeraunic level, in France, is about 20, meaning that thunder is heard twenty days during one year. Man may be stricken by thunder by direct hit, by sudden bursting, by earth current, or through various conductors. The electric charge which reached him may go to the earth directly by contact with the ground or may dissipate in the air through a bony promontory (elbow). The total number of victims, "wounded" or deceased, is not now known by statistics. Death comes by insulation breakdown of one of several anatomic cephalic formations: skull, meninx, brain. Many various lesions may happen in survivors: loss of consciousness, more or less long, sensorial or motion deficiencies. All these signs are momentary and generally reversible. Besides one may observe much more intense lesions on the skin: burns and, over all, characteristic aborescence (skin effect by high frequency current). The heart is protected, contrarily to what happens with industrial electrocution. The curative treatment is merely symptomatic : reanimation, surgery for burns or associated traumatic lesions. A prevention is researched to help the lonely man, in the country or in the mountains in the houses (lightning conductor, Faraday cage), in vehicles (aircraft, cars, ships). The mysterious and unforseeable character of lightning still stays, leaving a door opened for numerous investigations. PMID:1008283

Virenque, C; Laguerre, J

257

Algorithms and Programs for Consequence Diagram and Fault Tree Construction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A presentation of algorithms and programs for consequence diagram and sequential fault tree construction that are intended for reliability and disturbance analysis of large systems. The system to be analyzed must be given as a block diagram formed by mini...

E. Hollo J. R. Taylor

1976-01-01

258

Massive basketball diagram for a thermal scalar field theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ``basketball diagram'' is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar field theory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculate this diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it to expressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluated numerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massive scalar field with a ?4 interaction to three-loop order.

Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael

2000-08-01

259

Phase diagram of 4He on graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low-temperature phase diagram of 4He adsorbed on a single graphene sheet is studied by computer simulations of a system consisting of nearly a thousand helium atoms. In the first layer, two commensurate solid phases are observed with fillings 1/3 and 7/16, respectively, separated by a domain wall phase, as well as an incommensurate crystal at a higher coverage. No evidence of a thermodynamically stable superfluid phase is found for the first adlayer. Second-layer promotion occurs at a coverage of 0.111(4) Å-2. In the second layer, two phases are observed, namely a superfluid and an incommensurate solid, with no commensurate solid intervening between these two phases. The computed phase diagram closely resembles that predicted for helium on graphite.

Happacher, Jodok; Corboz, Philippe; Boninsegni, Massimo; Pollet, Lode

2013-03-01

260

Designing Class Methods from Dataflow Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for designing the class methods of an information system is described. The method is part of FOOM - Functional and Object-Oriented Methodology. In the analysis phase of FOOM, two models defining the users' requirements are created: a conceptual data model - an initial class diagram; and a functional model - hierarchical OO-DFDs (object-oriented dataflow diagrams). Based on these models, a well-defined process of methods design is applied. First, the OO-DFDs are converted into transactions, i.e., system processes that supports user task. The components and the process logic of each transaction are described in detail, using pseudocode. Then, each transaction is decomposed, according to well-defined rules, into class methods of various types: basic methods, application-specific methods and main transaction (control) methods. Each method is attached to a proper class; messages between methods express the process logic of each transaction. The methods are defined using pseudocode or message charts.

Shoval, Peretz; Kabeli-Shani, Judith

261

Pions in the quark matter phase diagram  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between mesonic correlations and quantum condensates in the quark matter phase diagram is explored within a quantum field theoretical approach of the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio (NJL) type. Mean-field values in the scalar meson and diquark channels are order parameters signaling the occurrence of quark condensates, entailing chiral symmetry breaking ({chi}SB) and color superconductivity (2SC) in quark matter. We investigate the spectral properties of scalar and pseudoscalar meson excitations in the phase diagram in Gaussian approximation and show that outside the {chi}SB region where the pion is a zero-width bound state, there are two regions where it can be considered as a quasi-bound state with a lifetime exceeding that of a typical heavy-ion collision fireball: (A) the high-temperature {chi}SB crossover region at low densities and (B) the high-density color superconducting phase at temperatures below 100 MeV.

Zablocki, D. [Instytut Fizyki Teoretycznej, Uniwersytet Wroclawski, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland); Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Blaschke, D. [Instytut Fizyki Teoretycznej, Uniwersytet Wroclawski, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland); Bogoliubov Laboratory for Theoretical Physics, JINR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Anglani, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

2008-08-29

262

Modeling the Round Earth through Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earlier studies have found that students, including adults, have problems understanding the scientifically accepted model of the Sun-Earth-Moon system and explaining day-to-day astronomical phenomena based on it. We have been examining such problems in the context of recent research on visual-spatial reasoning. Working with middle school students in India, we have developed a pedagogical sequence to build the mental model of the Earth and tried it in three schools for socially and educationally disadvantaged students. This pedagogy was developed on the basis of (1) a reading of current research in imagery and visual-spatial reasoning and (2) students' difficulties identified during the course of pretests and interviews. Visual-spatial tools such as concrete (physical) models, gestures, and diagrams are used extensively in the teaching sequence. The building of a mental model is continually integrated with drawing inferences to understand and explain everyday phenomena. The focus of this article is inferences drawn with diagrams.

Padalkar, Shamin; Ramadas, Jayashree

263

Simple thermodynamic diagrams for real refrigeration systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermodynamic performance of real irreversible cooling and refrigeration systems (chillers) can be summarized in simple rectangular temperature-entropy diagrams, in analogy to classic pedagogical examples for idealized reversible devices. The key to translating complex dissipative losses into this graphical framework is the process average temperature-a factor that can be calculated from nonintrusive experimental measurements, for converting entropy production into lost work. An uncomplicated thermodynamic model is used to transform the governing chiller performance equations into an easily-interpreted graph. Examples based upon actual data from commercial work-driven (reciprocating) and heat-driven (absorption) chillers are presented, and are used to highlight the predominance of internal dissipation in determining chiller efficiency. With the thermodynamic diagram representation, the relative roles of each irreversibility source, as well as the reversible and endoreversible limits, become transparent.

Gordon, J. M.; Ng, K. C.; Chua, H. T.

1999-01-01

264

Invited Commentary: Causal diagrams and measurement bias.  

PubMed

Causal inferences about the effect of an exposure on an outcome may be biased by errors in the measurement of either the exposure or the outcome. Measurement errors of exposure and outcome can be classified into 4 types: independent nondifferential, dependent nondifferential, independent differential, and dependent differential. Here the authors describe how causal diagrams can be used to represent these 4 types of measurement bias and discuss some problems that arise when using measured exposure variables (e.g., body mass index) to make inferences about the causal effects of unmeasured constructs (e.g., "adiposity"). The authors conclude that causal diagrams need to be used to represent biases arising not only from confounding and selection but also from measurement. PMID:19755635

Hernán, Miguel A; Cole, Stephen R

2009-09-15

265

Krajewski diagrams and the standard model  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a complete list of Krajewski diagrams representing the standard model of particle physics. We will give the possible representations of the algebra and the anomaly free lifts which provide the representation of the standard model gauge group on the fermionic Hilbert space. The algebra representations following from the Krajewski diagrams are not complete in the sense that the corresponding spectral triples do not necessarily obey to the axiom of Poincare duality. This defect may be repaired by adding new particles to the model, i.e., by building models beyond the standard model. The aim of this list of finite spectral triples (up to Poincare duality) is therefore to provide a basis for model building beyond the standard model.

Stephan, Christoph A. [Institut fuer Mathematik, Universitaet Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, 14469 Potsdam (Germany)

2009-04-15

266

Fishbone Diagrams: Organize Reading Content With a "Bare Bones" Strategy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fishbone diagrams, also known as Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams, are one of the many problem-solving tools created by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a University of Tokyo professor. Part of the brilliance of Ishikawa's idea resides in the simplicity

2010-07-01

267

Translating Data Flow Diagrams into Z (and Vice Versa).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of work into the integration of structured and formal methods, in particular, data flow diagrams and Z, are described. Data flow diagrams are given a formal, mathematical basis by defining rules to translate these diagrams into Z. Rules are al...

G. P. Randell

1990-01-01

268

Translating Data Flow Diagrams into Z (and Vice Versa).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of work into the integration of structured and formal methods, in particular, data flow diagrams and Z. Data flow diagrams are given a formal, mathematical basis by defining rules to translate these diagrams into Z. Rules...

G. P. Randell

1990-01-01

269

Compilation of Flow Diagrams into Target Code for Embedded Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a part of our work on the automatic generation of target code from Stateflow models. We focus on the flow diagrams from the Stateflow component of MATLAB and describe how flow diagram models can be compiled into target code for embedded systems. Moreover, the paper describes a method for analyzing flow diagrams, allowing an efficient

Achim Rettberg; Edwin Erpenbach; Jürgen Tacken; Carsten Rust; Bernd Kleinjohann

270

Triangular Diagrams Teach Steady and Dynamic Behaviour of Catalytic Reactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Illustrates how triangular diagrams can aid in presenting some of the rather complex transient interactions that occur among gas and surface species during heterogeneous catalytic reactions. The basic equations and numerical examples are described. Classroom use of the triangular diagram is discussed. Several diagrams and graphs are provided.…

Klusacek, K.; And Others

1989-01-01

271

Dinosaur Extinction: Causal Loop Diagram of Earth Feedback System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features a causal loop diagram from system dynamics methodology showing the solar-earth-space energy flow system (the dominant flow system driving earth's surficial systems, including the biosphere) and interactive natural earthly processes that influence it. Also included is a discussion of the diagram, and a link to a page that explains how to read causal loop diagrams.

Mclean, Dewey M.; Tech, Virginia

272

Machine recognition of hand-drawn circuit diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

An application of image processing techniques to recognition of hand-drawn circuit diagrams is presented. The scanned image of a diagram is pre-processed to remove noise and converted to bilevel. Morphological operations are applied to obtain a clean, connected representation using thinned lines. The diagram comprises of nodes, connections and components. Nodes and components are segmented using appropriate thresholds on a

B. Edwards; V. Chandran

2000-01-01

273

The Problem of Labels in E-Assessment of Diagrams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article we explore a problematic aspect of automated assessment of diagrams. Diagrams have partial and sometimes inconsistent semantics. Typically much of the meaning of a diagram resides in the labels; however, the choice of labeling is largely unrestricted. This means a correct solution may utilize differing yet semantically equivalent…

Jayal, Ambikesh; Shepperd, Martin

2009-01-01

274

Ride diagram: a tool for analysis of vehicle suspension settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new evaluation method for ride comfort, the ride diagram. The ride diagram is plotted from vehicle accelerations resulting from increased levels of excitation. The idea is to graphically visualize how the ride comfort changes with, for example, road unevenness or speed. The paper further focuses on investigating how fundamental suspension parameters affect the ride diagram shape.

K. Strandemar; B. Thorvald

2006-01-01

275

Generalization of an Interpolant Using Voronoi Diagrams in Two Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently the authors found a local coordinate property based on the planar Voronoi diagram that is simpler than the famous Sibson's local coordinates (R. Sibson, 1980; 1981), and proposed an interpolant using this property. The paper generalizes this property to general dimensions. The proof given in the paper enables us to use more general Voronoi diagrams, e.g., Laguerre Voronoi diagrams

Hisamoto Hiyoshi; Kokichi Sugihara

1999-01-01

276

An improved Voronoi diagram model based on fuzzy interval theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering that the application of traditional Voronoi diagram in spatial division ignores the impact of road hierarchy, speed, road-block, one-way and some other influential factors on proximity, an improved Voronoi diagram model based on fuzzy interval theory is proposed in this paper by introducing different influential factors into the construction of Voronoi diagram in order to enhance the accuracy of

Beibei Yan; Zhenfeng Shao; Yang Zhou; Qimin Cheng

2009-01-01

277

A flow phase diagram for helium superfluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of the flow phase diagram predicted by Volovik [JETP Lett. 78, 553 (2003)] is discussed based on the available experimental data for He II and 3He-B. The effective temperature-dependent but scale-independent Reynolds number Reeff?1\\/q?(1???)\\/?, where ? and ?? are the mutual friction parameters, and the superfluid Reynolds number characterizing the circulation\\u000a of the superfluid component in units of

L. Skrbek

2004-01-01

278

Characteristic Dynkin diagrams and W algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a classification of characteristic Dynkin diagrams for the AN, BN, CN and DN algebras. This classification is related to the classification of W(G, K) algebras arising from non-abelian Toda models, and we argue that it can give new insight on the structure of W algebras. On leave from absence of Laboratoire de Physique Théorique ENSLAPP, Chemin de Bellevue BP 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex, France.

Ragoucy, E.

1993-11-01

279

Space-efficient approximate Voronoi diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

(MATH) Given a set $S$ of $n$ points in $\\\\IR^d$, a {\\\\em $(t,\\\\epsilon)$-approximate Voronoi diagram (AVD)} is a partition of space into constant complexity cells, where each cell $c$ is associated with $t$ representative points of $S$, such that for any point in $c$, one of the associated representatives approximates the nearest neighbor to within a factor of $(1+\\\\epsilon)$. Like

Sunil Arya; Theocharis Malamatos; David M. Mount

2002-01-01

280

Magnetic phase diagram of bcc 3He  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete magnetic phase diagram of bcc solid 3He at a molar volume of 22.7 cm3\\/mol has been determined by pressure measurements at temperatures down to 250 muK in magnetic fields up to 7 T. The transition temperature between the paramagnetic phase and the high-field antiferromagnetic ordered phase increases with field and reaches a maximum (=0.96 mK) at 3 T.

Hiroshi Fukuyama; T. Fukuda; T. Okamoto; H. Akimoto; H. Ishimoto; S. Ogawa

1991-01-01

281

On forming limit stress diagram analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forming Limit Stress Diagrams (FLSDs) have been intensively studied and have been considered as being path-independent. This paper carries out a detailed study to examine the path-dependency of FLSDs based on different non-proportional loading histories, which are combinations of two linear strain paths. All simulations are based on crystal plasticity theory in conjunction with the M–K approach. It is confirmed

P. D. Wu; A. Graf; S. R. MacEwen; D. J. Lloyd; M. Jain; K. W. Neale

2005-01-01

282

Calculation of the forming limit diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is presented to help understand sheet metal deformation during forming. The particular purpose of this\\u000a model is to predict the forming limit diagram (FLD). The present model is an extension of a previous analysis by Jones and\\u000a Gillis (JG)[1] in which the deformation is idealized into three phases: (I) homogeneous deformation up to maximum load; (II) deformation

Wonjib Choi; Peter P. Gillis; S. E. Jones

1989-01-01

283

Using Diagrams and Models: 2.75  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses the importance of abstraction and generalization in being able to use models and diagrams effectively, whether children are creating their own models to represent a situation and explain their thinking, or interpreting a provided model. The resource offers examples to illustrate these ideas as well as teaching strategies and activities in the areas of parity, mental addition, equivalent fractions, and multi-digit multiplication.

2012-09-26

284

Sloan Digital Sky Survey: The Hubble Diagram  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's website provides an excellent explanation of how Astronomers are able to use red-shift to explain the expansion of the universe. An activity is provided for a user to retrace Edwin Hubble's steps of measuring magnitudes and calculating redshifts to make a Hubble Diagram. These pages are part of a large set of projects and activities provided by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey for advanced astronomy students.

2005-05-15

285

Phase diagram of dispersion of anisotropic particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the phase diagram of aqueous dispersions of colloidal plate-like charged particles (300 Å × 10 Å). Particle concentration\\u000a and ionic strength are the two parameters controlling the system. At fixed ionic strength, the suspensions undergo a sol\\/gel\\u000a transition without macroscopic phase separation. Shear rheology is used to monitor this transition and to locate the appearance\\u000a of the “mechanical

A. Mourchid; A. Delville; P. Levitz

286

Causal diagrams, gastroesophageal reflux and erosive oesophagitis.  

PubMed

Gastroesophageal reflux and its consequences have inspired numerous research questions in recent years: are non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) and erosive oesophagitis phenotypic expressions of gastroesophageal reflux disease? Why do patients with NERD not respond to treatment as well as patients with erosive oesophagitis? What is the natural history of NERD? Causal diagrams, coupled with conditional probabilities, offer clear and surprising answers. PMID:22804828

Shahar, Eyal

2012-07-16

287

Phase Diagram of Strongly Interacting Theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We summarize the phase diagrams of SU, SO and Sp gauge theories as function of the number of flavors, colors, and matter representation as well as the ones of phenomenologically relevant chiral gauge theories such as the Bars-Yankielowicz and the generalized Georgi-Glashow models. We finally report on the intriguing possibility of the existence of gauge-duals for nonsupersymmetric gauge theories and the impact on their conformal window.

Sannino, Francesco

288

Phase Diagram of Strongly Interacting Theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We summarize the phase diagrams of SU, SO and Sp gauge theories as function of the number of flavors, colors, and matter representation as well as the ones of phenomenologically relevant chiral gauge theories such as the Bars-Yankielowicz and the generalized Georgi-Glashow models. We finally report on the intriguing possibility of the existence of gauge-duals for nonsupersymmetric gauge theories and the impact on their conformal window.

Sannino, Francesco

2011-01-01

289

The plutonium-oxygen phase diagram  

SciTech Connect

Identification of products formed by the reaction of plutonium metal with liquid water at 23{degree}C indicates that the plutonium-oxygen phase diagram is similar to the cerium-oxygen and praseodymium-oxygen diagrams. Quantitative measurements of H{sub 2} formation and analytical data suggest that a sequence of hydrolysis reactions produces oxide hydrides of trivalent plutonium, Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, mixed-valent oxides and PuO{sub 2}. The intermediate oxides are the n {equals} 7, 9, 10 and 12 members of the Pu{sub n}O{sub 2n{minus}2} homologous series. Properties of the residue formed by thermal decomposition of the initial hydrolysis product, plutonium monoxide monhydride (PuOH), are consistent with the formation of metastable plutonium monoxide. Crystal-chemical, thermodynamic, and kinetic factors are evaluated, but definitive assignment of the equilibrium Pu-O diagram is not possible. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Haschke, J.M.

1990-01-01

290

Workplace accidents in materials transfer in Finland.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to show the proportion of workplace accidents related to materials transfer and to decide whether they were more serious than other kinds of workplace accidents. The research material for this study were statistics and data, available in Finland, regarding workplace accidents and fatal accidents. Twenty-five percent of studied fatal accidents were related to materials transfer; 26.9-27.7% of all workplace accidents in Finland in 2003-2007 were workplace accidents related to materials transfer. Over half (54.7%) of workplace accidents related to materials transfer caused disabilities lasting over 3 days. Most accidents related to materials transfer occurred to men aged 20-49 years. The most common types of injuries were dislocations, sprains and strains. PMID:23294658

Perttula, Pia; Salminen, Simo

2012-01-01

291

Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) and Forming Limit Stress Diagram (FLSD) For Aluminum Alloy 3105  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper experimental and theoretical FLD and FLSD of AA3105 are investigated. For this purpose, the forming limit diagram of Aluminum alloy 3105 using out-of-plane test is evaluated experimentally. Also, base of emphasis of forming limit stress diagrams and using plasticity equations, the stress limits resulted from strain limits and then forming limit stress diagram obtained. Some of the

Mehdi. Safari; S. J. Hoseinipour; H. D. Azodi; Sh. Yousefzadeh

2011-01-01

292

Stage line diagram: an age-conditional reference diagram for tracking development.  

PubMed

This paper presents a method for calculating stage line diagrams, a novel type of reference diagram useful for tracking developmental processes over time. Potential fields of applications include: dentistry (tooth eruption), oncology (tumor grading, cancer staging), virology (HIV infection and disease staging), psychology (stages of cognitive development), human development (pubertal stages) and chronic diseases (stages of dementia). Transition probabilities between successive stages are modeled as smoothly varying functions of age. Age-conditional references are calculated from the modeled probabilities by the mid-P value. It is possible to eliminate the influence of age by calculating standard deviation scores (SDS). The method is applied to the empirical data to produce reference charts on secondary sexual maturation. The mean of the empirical SDS in the reference population is close to zero, whereas the variance depends on age. The stage line diagram provides quick insight into both status (in SDS) and tempo (in SDS/year) of development of an individual child. Other measures (e.g. height SDS, body mass index SDS) from the same child can be added to the chart. Diagrams for sexual maturation are available as a web application at http://vps.stefvanbuuren.nl/puberty. The stage line diagram expresses status and tempo of discrete changes on a continuous scale. Wider application of these measures scores opens up new analytic possibilities. PMID:19260011

van Buuren, Stef; Ooms, Jeroen C L

2009-05-15

293

Aircraft accident construction set: performance engineering applied to accident reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For some time aircraft accident investigation has been a reverse engineering procedure. Failure analysis has taken a strict engineering approach, disregarding many of the alternatives relating to cause. As aircraft become automated, many relating factors will need to be considered in order to build an accurate reconstruction of an accident. The Aircraft Accident Construction Set will provide the investigator with the opportunity to investigate 'What if?' questions relating to causal factors. The system addressed both the vehicle and the human elements of performance. Significant integration of engineering principles and human factors probability data enhance the outcomes assessment. The pictorial display provides a near real- time image of the vehicle as supported by the engineering data, rather than the more traditional approach of line graphs and interpolative tables. This enables the investigator to consider far more data at a given time than in the past. Interaction between the workstation and the investigator is through a menu system derived from data tables and displayed as ICON symbology. Relational database operations and a user toolbox round out the system. Presentation of this system will provide a fundamental understanding of the capabilities of the system, and an actual air carrier accident will be examined briefly.

Blanchard, James W.

1992-06-01

294

Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents, Factbook 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents aggregate statistics on buses involved in traffic accidents in 2007. The statistics are derived from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) file, compiled by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. The BI...

A. Matteson J. Woodrooffe L. Jarossi

2010-01-01

295

Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents Factbook 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents aggregate statistics on buses involved in traffic accidents in 2006. The statistics are derived from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) file, compiled by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. The BI...

A. Matteson J. Woodrooffe L. Jarossi

2008-01-01

296

Traffic Accident Analysis and Roadway Visibility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Assessment of existing general purpose data bases for highway safety analysis; Accident data as a tool for highway risk management; Generalized loglinear models of truck accidents rates; Estimation of wet pavement exposure from available weather...

K. K. Mak J. G. Viner L. I. Griffin D. S. Turner C. W. Colson

1988-01-01

297

State-transition diagrams for biologists.  

PubMed

It is clearly in the tradition of biologists to conceptualize the dynamical evolution of biological systems in terms of state-transitions of biological objects. This paper is mainly concerned with (but obviously not limited too) the immunological branch of biology and shows how the adoption of UML (Unified Modeling Language) state-transition diagrams can ease the modeling, the understanding, the coding, the manipulation or the documentation of population-based immune software model generally defined as a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE), describing the evolution in time of populations of various biological objects. Moreover, that same UML adoption naturally entails a far from negligible representational economy since one graphical item of the diagram might have to be repeated in various places of the mathematical model. First, the main graphical elements of the UML state-transition diagram and how they can be mapped onto a corresponding ODE mathematical model are presented. Then, two already published immune models of thymocyte behavior and time evolution in the thymus, the first one originally conceived as an ODE population-based model whereas the second one as an agent-based one, are refactored and expressed in a state-transition form so as to make them much easier to understand and their respective code easier to access, to modify and run. As an illustrative proof, for any immunologist, it should be possible to understand faithfully enough what the two software models are supposed to reproduce and how they execute with no need to plunge into the Java or Fortran lines. PMID:22844438

Bersini, Hugues; Klatzmann, David; Six, Adrien; Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique

2012-07-23

298

State-Transition Diagrams for Biologists  

PubMed Central

It is clearly in the tradition of biologists to conceptualize the dynamical evolution of biological systems in terms of state-transitions of biological objects. This paper is mainly concerned with (but obviously not limited too) the immunological branch of biology and shows how the adoption of UML (Unified Modeling Language) state-transition diagrams can ease the modeling, the understanding, the coding, the manipulation or the documentation of population-based immune software model generally defined as a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE), describing the evolution in time of populations of various biological objects. Moreover, that same UML adoption naturally entails a far from negligible representational economy since one graphical item of the diagram might have to be repeated in various places of the mathematical model. First, the main graphical elements of the UML state-transition diagram and how they can be mapped onto a corresponding ODE mathematical model are presented. Then, two already published immune models of thymocyte behavior and time evolution in the thymus, the first one originally conceived as an ODE population-based model whereas the second one as an agent-based one, are refactored and expressed in a state-transition form so as to make them much easier to understand and their respective code easier to access, to modify and run. As an illustrative proof, for any immunologist, it should be possible to understand faithfully enough what the two software models are supposed to reproduce and how they execute with no need to plunge into the Java or Fortran lines.

Bersini, Hugues; Klatzmann, David; Six, Adrien; Thomas-Vaslin, Veronique

2012-01-01

299

Notes on Road Accident Statistics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Road Research Laboratory has organised courses in traffic and safety for the benefit of police officers and highway engineerings for a number of years. The notes for one of the lectures, dealing with accident statistics form the basis of the report. I...

H. D. Johnson F. Garwood

1971-01-01

300

The Physics of Traffic Accidents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Shows how physics can be used to analyze and prevent traffic accidents by determining critical speeds on curves, the behavior of motor cycles and stability of articulated vehicles, and the visibility that is needed to make a minor road junction safe. (MLH)|

Knight, Peter

1975-01-01

301

Plutonium accident resistant container project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC. This PAT-1 (plutonium air transportable) package survives a very severe sequential test program of impact, crush, puncture, slash, burn, and water immersion. There is also an individual hydrostatic pressure test. The package

1978-01-01

302

Time Slows Down during Accidents  

PubMed Central

The experienced speed of the passage of time is not constant as time can seem to fly or slow down depending on the circumstances we are in. Anecdotally accidents and other frightening events are extreme examples of the latter; people who have survived accidents often report altered phenomenology including how everything appeared to happen in slow motion. While the experienced phenomenology has been investigated, there are no explanations about how one can have these experiences. Instead, the only recently discussed explanation suggests that the anecdotal phenomenology is due to memory effects and hence not really experienced during the accidents. The purpose of this article is (i) to reintroduce the currently forgotten comprehensively altered phenomenology that some people experience during the accidents, (ii) to explain why the recent experiments fail to address the issue at hand, and (iii) to suggest a new framework to explain what happens when people report having experiences of time slowing down in these cases. According to the suggested framework, our cognitive processes become rapidly enhanced. As a result, the relation between the temporal properties of events in the external world and in internal states becomes distorted with the consequence of external world appearing to slow down. That is, the presented solution is a realist one in a sense that it maintains that sometimes people really do have experiences of time slowing down.

Arstila, Valtteri

2012-01-01

303

Tank Car Accident Data Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of a study of accidents involving railroad tank cars. The study is part of an overall effort to provide improved safety of rail transportation at reduced life-cycle costs. A major goal of the study is to provide a technical...

M. E. Hazel

1991-01-01

304

Severe accident research in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactor safety research program in Canada not only recognizes the unique features of the CANDU reactor, but is supplemented by a strong interaction with the LWR research community. This is especially so in the area of severe accidents. We participate in international programs such as Phebus FP and CSARP to take advantage of cooperative efforts on phenomena that are

1994-01-01

305

Chernobyl accident sequence of events  

SciTech Connect

A chronology of the Chernobyl accident begins with the 1 a.m. reduction to half power on Friday, April 25, and reports significant events until all fires were extinguished at 5 a.m. on Saturday. Mathematical reconstruction derived some of the times. The sequence uses data from the Soviet report.

Not Available

1986-09-01

306

Driving Circumstances and Accidents Among Novice Drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The study evaluated the accident risk of certain driving circumstances and driving motives among novice drivers.Methods. Self-reported exposure and accidents according to driving circumstances and driving motives were compared between young (n = 6,847) and middle-aged (n = 942) male and female novice drivers. For young drivers, self-reported accidents were further compared to fatal accidents (n = 645) in

S. Laapotti; E. Keskinen; M. Hatakka; K. Hernetkoski; A. Katila; M. Peräaho; I. Salo

2006-01-01

307

Multibody Models for Vehicle Accident Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simplified multibody models can be used to reconstruct accidents involving complex dynamics, particularly, in the first stages\\u000a of accident investigation, accidents involving motorcycles and pedestrians [1], [2].\\u000a \\u000a In this work, vehicle models based on multibody dynamics formulations [3] are developed to be used in motorcycle accident reconstruction. The models developed are a four-wheel vehicle, a motorcycle\\u000a and a human biomechanical

Ricardo J. F. Portal; João M. P. Dias

308

Tri-Level Accident Investigation Study. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volume 1 is the final technical report of a program that describes accident investigation studies, which incorporate varying levels of accident detail, and accompanying analysis of accident data. In-depth multidisciplinary accident case studies are discus...

P. Cooley J. Beaumont T. Gates J. O'Day D. E. Cleveland

1973-01-01

309

Dublin Accident Lists (1976-1980).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An alphabetical list of streets in Dublin showing accident statistics for the years 1976-1980 is now available. The lists are intended to provide information on number and types of accidents in each street during this period. Accident rates in terms of to...

A. Marry

1982-01-01

310

Work accidents among shiftworkers in industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined the risk potentials and accident patterns amongst the monthly rotating shiftworkers and permanent nightworkers in textile industries. The retrospective- cum-prospective study covered 3470 fatal and non-fatal accidents that had been taken place in 11 textile departments, spinning, weaving, engineering, etc. A detailed questionnaire survey indicates that frequent occurrence of accidents in the industries was a culmination of

P. K. Nag; V. G. Patel

1998-01-01

311

Economic costs of traffic accidents in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to estimate the economic costs of traffic accidents in Jordan during the year of 1996 and to derive unit accident costs for various accident severity levels. The related data were acquired from different sources, including traffic police records, insurance companies, private hospitals and medical centers. In this study, a framework for applying unit casualty

Hashem R Al-Masaeid; Adel A Al-Mashakbeh; Abdalla M Qudah

1999-01-01

312

Scoping the extent of adventure tourism accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the scope and extent of adventure tourism accidents in New Zealand. The concept of tourist well-being is introduced to characterize the emergence of a new research paradigm based on related multidisciplinary evaluations. Analysis of accident claim data from the Accident Rehabilitation and Compensation Insurance Scheme suggests that this tourism practice might be a significant contributor to tourists'

Tim A. Bentley; Stephen J. Page

2001-01-01

313

Severe accident research in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The USNRC research program on light-water-reactor severe accidents is, with extensive international contributions, preeminent in this subject area. The program focuses on accidents that could exceed plant design bases and protection against severe accident risks, particularly with respect to containment integrity. This paper describes the issues and the nature, status, and results of the research. A number of the issues,

E. S. Beckjord; F. Eltawilla

1994-01-01

314

Variety of attentional failures in traffic accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation - Attentional problems have been considered by many authors as one of the main causes of traffic accidents, but the results given leave to presume a certain notional vagueness. Research approach - Analysis of the detailed data gathered at traffic accident scenes (EDA - Etudes Détaillées d'Accidents) is an original tool that can be used for fine definition of

Pierre Van Elslande; Magali Jaffard; Katel Fouquet; Véronique Vatonne

2008-01-01

315

School Bus Accidents and Driver Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examines the rates and types of school bus accidents according to the age of the school bus driver. Accident rates in North Carolina for the school year 1971-72 were analyzed using three sources of data: accident reports, driver and mileage data, and questionnaires administered to a sample of school bus drivers. Data were obtained on…

McMichael, Judith

316

Offshore accidents and effects on their performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine accidents are some of the risk sources on human life at sea and also make the founded budget to be sank to the deep. In order to prevent these damages and losses, it is necessary to do a proper understanding of these accidents. Offshore systems as of the main parts of ocean structures and their accidents are considered here

H. Sayyaadi; P. Hemati

2004-01-01

317

Dose calculations for severe LWR accident scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a set of precalculated doses based on a set of postulated accident releases and intended for use in emergency planning and emergency response. Doses were calculated for the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) accident categories of the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) using the CRAC (Calculations of Reactor Accident Consequences) code. Whole body and thyroid doses are presented for

T. S. Margulies; J. A. Jr. Martin

1984-01-01

318

The Diagram as Story: Unfolding the Event-Structure of the Mathematical Diagram  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores the role of narrative in decoding diagrams. I focus on two fundamental facets of narrative: (1) the recounting of causally related sequences of events, and (2) the positioning of the narrator through point-of-view and voice. In the first two sections of the paper I discuss philosophical and semiotic frameworks for making sense…

de Freitas, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

319

Phase diagram of quantum square ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the ground-state and finite-temperature phase diagram of quantum square ice - realized by the transverse-field Ising model on a checkerboard lattice - using both linear spin-wave (LSW) theory and quantum Monte Carlo (QMC). We generalize the model with different couplings between nearest (J1) and next-to-nearest (J2) neighbors on the checkerboard lattice. Our QMC approach generalizes the loop algorithm - very efficient in the study of constrained classical systems - to a ``brane algorithm'' for quantum systems. At the LSW level the vast degeneracy of the ground-state for J1=J2 and J2>J1 remains intact; moreover LSW theory breaks down in extended regions of the phase diagram, pointing at non-classical states [1]. Our QMC study goes beyond perturbative schemes and addresses directly the nature of the low-temperature phases. We have critically examined the possibility of a resonating-plaquette state for J1=J2, suggested by degenerate perturbation theory on the ice-rule manifold for weak fields. Our QMC results for finite fields confirm the absence of Néel or collinear order, but they do not confirm the presence of resonating-plaquette order, pointing at a possibly more complex non-classical state.[4pt] [1] L.-P. Henry et al., PRB 85, 134427 (2012).

Henry, Louis-Paul; Holdsworth, Peter; Mila, Frederic; Roscilde, Tommaso

2013-03-01

320

[Case report: fatal diving-accident. Or: accident while diving?].  

PubMed

This example of a fatal diving accident shows how challenging such cases can be in pre-hospital and clinical care. There is no common mechanism in diving fatalities and more than one group of disorders coming along with decompression sickness. Diving medicine is not an element of medical education, which results in insecurity and hampers adequate therapy of diving incidents. This is aggravated by an insufficient availability of hyperbaric chambers in Germany. PMID:22354401

Böttcher, F; Jüttner, B; Krause, A; Rocha, M; Koppert, W

2012-02-01

321

On the Sn-Bi-Ag ternary phase diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selection and evaluation of Pb-free solders requires information that is best determined through a knowledge of ternary and higher order phase diagrams. As part of an ongoing program on Pb-free solder phase diagrams at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, a thermodynamic model is formulated for the Sn-Bi-Ag phase diagram. Thermodynamic functions for the various phases obtained by

Ursula R. Kattner; William J. Boettinger

1994-01-01

322

Binary decision diagrams for first-order predicate logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an extension of Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) such that they can be used for predicatelogic. We present a sound and complete proof search method which we apply to a number of examples.Key Words & Phrases: Automatic Reasoning, Binary Decision Diagrams, First Order Predicate Logic.1 IntroductionIn 1986 Randy Bryant proposed to represent propositional formulas by Ordered Binary DecisionDiagrams (BDDs)

Jan Friso Groote; Olga Tveretina

2003-01-01

323

Quickest Paths, Straight Skeletons, and the City Voronoi Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

The city Voronoi diagram is induced by quickest paths in the L 1plane, made faster by an isothetic transportation network. We investigate the rich geometric and algorithmic properties of city Voronoi diagrams, and report on their use in processing quickest-path queries. In doing so, we revisit the fact that not every Voronoi-type diagram has interpretations in both the distance model

Oswin Aichholzer; Franz Aurenhammer; Belén Palop

2004-01-01

324

Quickest paths, straight skeletons, and the city Voronoi diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

The city Voronoi diagram is induced by quickest paths, in the L 1 plane speeded up by an isothetic transportation network. We investigate the rich geometric and algorithmic properties of city Voronoi diagrams, and report on their use in processing quickest-path queries.In doing so, we revisit the fact that not every Voronoi-type diagram has interpretations in both the distance model

Oswin Aichholzer; Franz Aurenhammer; Belén Palop

2002-01-01

325

TIME-TEMPERATURE-TRANSFORMATION DIAGRAMS FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 3 - FRIT 418 GLASS SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

As a part of the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms defined by the Department of Energy - Office of Environmental Management, the phase stability must be determined for each of the projected high-level waste (HLW) types at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, WAPS 1.4.1 requires the glass transition temperature (Tg) to be defined and time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams to be developed. The Tg of a glass is an indicator of the approximate temperature where the supercooled liquid converts to a solid on cooling or conversely, where the solid begins to behave as a viscoelastic solid on heating. A TTT diagram identifies the crystalline phases that can form as a function of time and temperature for a given waste type or more specifically, the borosilicate glass waste form. In order to assess durability, the Product Consistency Test (PCT) was used and the durability results compared to the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. The measurement of glass transition temperature and the development of TTT diagrams have already been performed for the seven Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) projected compositions as defined in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP). These measurements were performed before DWPF start-up and the results were incorporated in Volume 7 of the Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). Additional information exists for other projected compositions, but overall these compositions did not consider some of the processing scenarios now envisioned for DWPF to accelerate throughput. Changes in DWPF processing strategy have required this WAPS specification to be revisited to ensure that the resulting phases have been bounded. Frit 418 was primarily used to process HLW Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) at 38% waste loading (WL) through the DWPF. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) fabricated a cache of glass from reagent grade oxides to simulate the SB3-Frit 418 system at a 38 wt % WL for glass transition temperature measurement and TTT diagram development. The glass transition temperature (Tg) was measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and was recorded to be 443 {+-} 3 C. Using the previous TTT diagrams as guidance, subsamples of the glass were isothermally heat treated for 0.5 to 768 hours at temperatures between 400 C to 1100 C. Each of the 56 heat treated samples, along with quenched and centerline canister cooled (CCC) treated samples, were analyzed using Xray diffraction (XRD) and the PCT. Crystallization was detected only in samples treated at 600 C for more than 192 hours, and 700, 800, and 900 C for more than 48 hours. Phases crystallized were similar in composition if not the same as those found in the previous TTT studies. Six different crystalline phases were detected, including nepheline, acmite, lithium silicate, trevorite, krinovite, and albite. Overall, phases were spinel (iron) based, lithium metasilicate, sodium aluminosilicate or sodium transition metal silicate in composition. No new crystalline families were detected. Durability, as measured by the PCT, decreased when lithium silicate or nepheline crystals were present. Only one heat treated sample had a measured PCT response exceeding the benchmark EA glass, which was a sample treated at 600 C for 768 hours. During normal processing at the DWPF these conditions would be highly unlikely to occur, even in an extreme accident scenario. In order to continue to meet the requirements of the WCP, a simplified strategy is suggested for the generation of future TTT diagrams. A strategy has been developed that would require completing two more TTT diagrams for two averaged, future, predicted waste types. By creating diagrams for the resulting glass compositions of encompassing waste types, it will give insight to the crystallization regions possible for those averages. As discussed in the report, 'Initial MAR Assessments to Access the Impact of Al-Dissolution on DWPF Operating Windows' (WSRC-STI 2007-00688), the majority of waste compositions could be grouped into two futu

Billings, A; Tommy Edwards, T

2009-03-03

326

The use of diagrams in analogical problem solving.  

PubMed

In four experiments, we examined the impact of perceptual properties on the effectiveness of diagrams in analogical problem solving, using variants of convergence diagrams as source analogues for the radiation problem. Static diagrams representing the initial problematic state (one large line directed at a target) and the final state for a convergence solution (multiple converging lines) were not accessed spontaneously but were often used successfully once a hint to consider the diagram had been provided. The inaccessibility of static diagrams was not alleviated by adding additional diagrams to represent intermediate states (Experiment 1), but spontaneous access was improved by augmenting static diagrams with a verbal statement of the convergence principle (Experiment 3). Spontaneous retrieval and noticing were increased markedly by animating displays representing converging forces and thereby encouraging encoding of the lines as indicating motion toward a target (Experiments 3 and 4). However, neither static nor animated diagrams were effective when the arrows were reversed to imply divergence rather than convergence (Experiment 2). The results indicate that when animation encourages the interpretation of a diagram as a helpful source analogue, it can greatly enhance analogical transfer. PMID:11352204

Pedone, R; Hummel, J E; Holyoak, K J

2001-03-01

327

Diagram-Based Support for Collaborative Learning in Mathematical Exercise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the collaborative learning of mathematics in which learners effectively acquire knowledge of common exercises through discussion with other learners. During collaborative learning, learners sometimes cannot solve exercises successfully, because they cannot derive answers by themselves or they hesitate to propose answers through discussion. To cope with such situations, this paper proposes two support functions using diagrams to encourage active discussion, since diagrams are often used to graphically illustrate mathematical concepts. One function indicates the differences between learner diagrams and the group diagram in order to encourage participation in discussions. To compare the characteristics of diagrams drawn by different learners, internal representation of the diagram, which consists of types of figures and remarkable relations to other figures, is introduced. The other function provides hints in the group diagram so that all learners can consider their answers collaboratively through discussions. Since preparing hints for all exercises is difficult, rules for drawing supplementary figures, which are general methods for drawing supplementary figures that correspond to individual answering methods/formulas, are also developed. By applying available rules to current group diagram, appropriate supplementary figures that can solve current learning situations may be generated. The experimental results showed that the generated hints successfully increased the number of utterances in the groups. Moreover, learners were also able to derive answers by themselves and tended to propose more opinions in discussions when the uniqueness of their diagrams was indicated.

Kojiri, Tomoko; Murase, Yosuke; Watanabe, Toyohide

328

Massive basketball diagram for a thermal scalar field theory  

SciTech Connect

The ''basketball diagram'' is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar field theory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculate this diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it to expressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluated numerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massive scalar field with a {phi}{sup 4} interaction to three-loop order. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

Andersen, Jens O. [Physics Department, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Braaten, Eric [Physics Department, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Strickland, Michael [Physics Department, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)

2000-08-15

329

54. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

54. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ONE COMPLETE CYCLE - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

330

53. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ONE COMPLETE CYCLE - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

331

55. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

55. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM, REPRESENTING ONE COMPLETE CYCLE - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

332

FFTF containment of hypothetical accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FFTF facility was evaluated for the consequences of an HCDA followed by failure of in-vessel post-accident heat removal, reactor vessel melt-through, and release of core debris and sodium coolant to the reactor cavity. Two cases are presented based on parameters considered to represent upper limits for rates of chemical and thermal attack of the reactor cavity concrete containment structure.

R. D. Peak; H. C. Martin; R. L. Jensen; D. D. Stepnewski; J. P. Hale

1979-01-01

333

Phase diagram of water between hydrophobic surfaces.  

PubMed

Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that there are at least two classes of quasi-two-dimensional solid water into which liquid water confined between hydrophobic surfaces freezes spontaneously and whose hydrogen-bond networks are as fully connected as those of bulk ice. One of them is the monolayer ice and the other is the bilayer solid which takes either a crystalline or an amorphous form. Here we present the phase transformations among liquid, bilayer amorphous (or crystalline) ice, and monolayer ice phases at various thermodynamic conditions, then determine curves of melting, freezing, and solid-solid structural change on the isostress planes where temperature and intersurface distance are variable, and finally we propose a phase diagram of the confined water in the temperature-pressure-distance space. PMID:15836349

Koga, Kenichiro; Tanaka, Hideki

2005-03-01

334

Phase diagram of water in carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

A phase diagram of water in single-walled carbon nanotubes at atmospheric pressure is proposed, which summarizes ice structures and their melting points as a function of the tube diameter up to 1.7 nm. The investigation is based on extensive molecular dynamics simulations over numerous thermodynamic states on the temperature-diameter plane. Spontaneous freezing of water in the simulations and the analysis of ice structures at 0 K suggest that there exist at least nine ice phases in the cylindrical space, including those reported by x-ray diffraction studies and those unreported by simulation or experiment. Each ice has a structure that maximizes the number of hydrogen bonds under the cylindrical confinement. The results show that the melting curve has many local maxima, each corresponding to the highest melting point for each ice form. The global maximum in the melting curve is located at approximately 11 A, where water freezes in a square ice nanotube. PMID:18162549

Takaiwa, Daisuke; Hatano, Itaru; Koga, Kenichiro; Tanaka, Hideki

2007-12-27

335

Microfluidic Evaporation for Phase Diagram Screening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a pervaporation-based microfluidic device to concentrate solutions in a controlled way. This allows us to develop chips for phase diagram screening,and to study both fundamental and technological issues, such as the impact of kinetic pathway of concentration on a variety of aqueous solutions (colloids, surfactants, polymers and mixtures of thereof). The first part of the presentation will deals with the characterization of the concentration process (including analytical results, numerical simulations, and experimental observations). It will be shown that our device is well suited for a wide range of particle sizes in the colloidal range. In the second part, we will present results obtained on several systems during (along) the concentration process (surfactants and polymers). On-chip FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) and microrheology measurements will be presented in addition to optical and fluorescence microscopy.

Moreau, Patrick; Salmon, Jean-Baptiste; Leng, Jacques

2007-11-01

336

Phase diagram of magnetic vortex dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of a magnetic vortex are influenced profoundly by nonlinear effects at large and small amplitudes. For example, a strongly driven magnetic vortex is unstable with respect to internal deformation, leading to reversal of its core magnetization. At small amplitudes, a nonlinear response is associated with pinning of the vortex core. Given these phenomena, there is an acute need for a global picture of vortex dynamics over a wide range of excitation amplitudes and frequencies. We have constructed a phase diagram of vortex dynamics in permalloy (Ni80Fe20) disks by probing the response spectrum over four orders of magnitude in excitation power. We identify the boundary separating pinned and unpinned dynamics in a phase space of amplitude and frequency. Our approach allows for a highly quantitative analysis of the pinning potential for localized defects and can be used to trace the dynamics of a single vortex from deep in the pinning regime to the onset of core reversal.

Chen, T. Y.; Galkiewicz, A. T.; Crowell, P. A.

2012-05-01

337

Phase Diagram of Disordered Quantum XY Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effect of disorder on the phase-diagram of the 2D quantum XY model. Using a directed-loop Monte Carlo algorithm, we calculate the pair susceptibility and winding susceptibility in the spin-1/2 case with a random field in the z-direction. Starting from the ordered phase at low temperature in the clean limit, increasing either T or disorder strength causes a transition to a paramagnetic state. The thermal transition is, of course, the well-known Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) transition in which there is a close connection between the pair and winding susceptibility at the transition. At the very lowest temperatures, we see evidence for the influence of a nearby quantum critical point.

Priyadarshee, Anand; Chandrasekharan, S.; Baranger, H. U.

2004-03-01

338

Phase diagram of chirally imbalanced QCD matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the QCD phase diagram in the plane of the chiral chemical potential and temperature using the linear sigma model coupled to quarks and to the Polyakov loop. The chiral chemical potential accounts for effects of imbalanced chirality due to QCD sphaleron transitions which may emerge in heavy-ion collisions. We found three effects caused by the chiral chemical potential: the imbalanced chirality (i) tightens the link between deconfinement and chiral phase transitions; (ii) lowers the common critical temperature; (iii) strengthens the order of the phase transition by converting the crossover into the strong first order phase transition passing via the second order end point. Since the fermionic determinant with the chiral chemical potential has no sign problem, the chirally imbalanced QCD matter can be studied in numerical lattice simulations.

Chernodub, M. N.; Nedelin, A. S.

2011-05-01

339

Energy level diagrams for black hole orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spinning black hole with a much smaller black hole companion forms a fundamental gravitational system, like a colossal classical analog to an atom. In an appealing if imperfect analogy with atomic physics, this gravitational atom can be understood through a discrete spectrum of periodic orbits. Exploiting a correspondence between the set of periodic orbits and the set of rational numbers, we are able to construct periodic tables of orbits and energy level diagrams of the accessible states around black holes. We also present a closed-form expression for the rational q, thereby quantifying zoom-whirl behavior in terms of spin, energy and angular momentum. The black hole atom is not just a theoretical construct, but corresponds to extant astrophysical systems detectable by future gravitational wave observatories.

Levin, Janna

2009-12-01

340

Specification of Learning Content Using Feature Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main idea of a learning object (LO) is to break educational content down into small chunks that can be reused in various learning environments. When reused, such small chunks of educational content are combined in various ways leading to a great variability of the learning content. We propose using feature diagrams (FDs) for the specification of learning content at different layers of abstraction starting from the organization of teaching material in a lecture down to the specification and demonstration of particular software/hardware components. FDs can be used by (1) designers, teachers, and learners for graphical representation of domain knowledge in LOs; (2) programmers to specify and express variability-commonality relationships of LOs at a higher abstraction level to allow the development and implementation of generative LOs; and (3) researchers as a vehicle for analysis and better understanding of the e-Learning domain itself.

Damaševi?ius, Robertas

341

Phase diagram of half-doped manganites  

SciTech Connect

The phase diagram of half-doped manganites which may consist of experimentally observed ferromagnetic (FM), A-,C-, and charge-exchange (CE)-type antiferromagnetic (AF) states is obtained in terms of a model which is based on double exchange via degenerate e{sub g} orbitals, the on-site Coulomb interaction (U), and the nearest-neighbor Coulomb interaction (V). We find that, because of the strong spatial anisotropy of the electron hoppings, the on-site Coulomb interaction has different effects on these magnetic order states. As a result, large values of U suppress the FM state and favor the A- and C-type AF states. Moreover, we show that it is the interplay between the on-site and nearest-neighbor Coulomb repulsions that stabilizes the CE phase and results in the charge ordering in the state.

Shu, Zhenghuang; Dong, Jinming; Xing, D. Y.

2001-06-01

342

CCM flare modeling using sensor intensity diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compact Camera Module (CCM) is widely used in PDAs, Cellular phones and PC web cameras. Nowadays CCM image quality level should match with photo-quality in that frame, optics plays an important role. Among the whole set of optical parameters, flare is particularly threatening as it can waste the world-best-design associated to the world-best-manufacturing-process optics resulting to a simple piece of plastic without any value. Because it acts at the border between optical designer and mechanical designer fields, it is a challenging parameter to study. In this paper, after defining Flare parameter, we show a powerful method for tracking Flare among a complete CCM, through the use of the sensor's emitted intensity diagram. Following this procedure will prevent from random time consuming calculations on flare topic.

Ramel, Romain

2005-09-01

343

Extending UML 2 Activity Diagrams with Business Intelligence Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data Warehouse (DWH) information is accessed by business proc- esses. Today, no conceptual models exist that make the relationship between the DWH and the business processes transparent. In this paper, we extend a business process modeling diagram, namely the UML 2 activity diagram with a UML profile, which allows to make this relationship explicit. The model is tested with example

Veronika Stefanov; Beate List; Birgit Korherr

2005-01-01

344

Revised phase diagram of the Gross-Neveu model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We confirm earlier hints that the conventional phase diagram of the discrete chiral Gross-Neveu model in the large N limit is deficient at nonzero chemical potential. We present the corrected phase diagram constructed in mean field theory. It has three different phases, including a kink-antikink crystal phase. All transitions are second order. The driving mechanism for the new structure of

Michael Thies; Konrad Urlichs

2003-01-01

345

Diagrams in Mathematics: To Draw or Not to Draw?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the use of diagrams as self-explanatory tools. It considers the use of diagrams, in general, and more specifically, examines research that is currently being undertaken in the broad field of visualisation. The research participants referred to in this article were Advanced Certificate of Education students and the paper…

Mudaly, Vimolan

2012-01-01

346

Data flow diagrams: reverse engineering production and animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose the use of interactive animation techniques as a support to reverse engineering processes oriented to the synthesis of semantic abstractions. Starting from data flow diagrams, a formal model, called dynamic data flow diagrams (DDFDs), has been defined, which can be used for the production of executable models of a software system. A strategy for the DDFD interactive

G. Canfora; L. Sansone; G. Visaggio

1992-01-01

347

Technical Note - A Proposal to Simplify Data Flow Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This technical note presents an adaptation of the data flow diagram (DFD) technique whereby each data store symbol represents a database rather than a single table. It is conjectured that this modification makes DFDs easier to create, understand, and maintain. It also reduces an overlap with the entity-relationship diagram technique by curtailing graphical manifestations of the data model in the

Ido Millet

1999-01-01

348

Do students use and understand free-body diagrams?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physics education literature recommends using multiple representations to help students understand concepts and solve problems. However, there is little research concerning why students use the representations and whether those who use them are more successful. This study addresses these questions using free-body diagrams (diagrammatic representations used in problems involving forces) as a type of representation. We conducted a two-year quantitative and qualitative study of studentsâ use of free-body diagrams while solving physics problems. We found that when students are in a course that consistently emphasizes the use of free-body diagrams, the majority of them do use diagrams on their own to help solve exam problems even when they receive no credit for drawing the diagrams. We also found that students who draw diagrams correctly are significantly more successful in obtaining the right answer for the problem. Lastly, we interviewed students to uncover their reasons for using free-body diagrams. We found that high achieving students used the diagrams to help solve the problems and as a tool to evaluate their work while low achieving students only used representations as aids in the problem-solving process.

Rosengrant, David; Van Heuvelen, Alan; Etkina, Eugenia

2010-06-29

349

Diagram This Headline in One Minute, if You Can  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Say "sentence diagramming" to people of a certain age, and one gets different reactions. Say it to most college students, and one gets a blank look. But not from the 24 students in Lucy Ferriss's "Constructing Thought," a half-credit course in the English department at Trinity College. They know how to diagram a sentence--and they are passionate…

Landecker, Heidi

2009-01-01

350

DYNAMIC BIFURCATION DIAGRAMS FOR SOME MODELS IN ECONOMICS AND BIOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to determine the static bifurcation diagram (sbd) and dynamical bifurcation diagram (dbd) is proposed and the results for a few concrete problems are shown. 1. Historical premises For a long time, we were working in hydrodynamic stability theory (hsth) (1), just the period during which this field was quickly moving from an analytical towards a geometric and topological

Adelina Georgescu

351

Dynamic Reliability Block Diagrams VS Dynamic Fault Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability block diagrams (RBD), and fault trees (FT) are the most widely used formalisms in system reliability modeling. They implement two different approaches: in a reliability block diagram, the system is represented by components connected according to their function or reliability relationships, while fault trees show which combinations of the components failures will result in a system failure. Although RBD

Salvatore Distefano; Antonio Puliafito

2007-01-01

352

DEVELOPING SYSTEM DYNAMICS MODELS FROM CAUSAL LOOP DIAGRAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss how a Causal Loop diagram (CLD) can be la- beled and structured incrementally in order to nally transform it into a Stock and Flow diagram. A CLD does not contain enough information to describe a model uniquely. Hence the decisions on how to transform the CLD cannot be made auto- matically; they must be based

Thomas Binder; ANDREAS VOX; SALIM BELYAZID; MATS SVENSSON

2004-01-01

353

Using Tree Diagrams as an Assessment Tool in Statistics Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the potential of the tree diagram, a type of graphic organizer, as an assessment tool to measure students' knowledge structures in statistics education. Students' knowledge structures in statistics have not been sufficiently assessed in statistics, despite their importance. This article first presents the rationale and method for using tree diagrams as assessment tools in statistics education, followed

Yue Yin

2012-01-01

354

Argument Diagramming and Critical Thinking in Introductory Philosophy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a multi-study naturalistic quasi-experiment involving 269 students in a semester-long introductory philosophy course, we investigated the effect of teaching argument diagramming (AD) on students' scores on argument analysis tasks. An argument diagram is a visual representation of the content and structure of an argument. In each study, all of…

Harrell, Maralee

2011-01-01

355

Knot symbols: A tool to describe and simplify knot diagrams  

SciTech Connect

A convenient representation of knot diagrams by abstract symbols is introduced. A set of simple moves, which are convenient combinations of the classic Reidemeister moves, is also introduced. These moves can be applied directly to the symbols to obtain simplified symbols (and therefore simplified diagrams) for the knot.

Bruschi, M. [Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy)]|[INFN, Rome (Italy)

1996-04-01

356

Redetermination of succinonitrile (SCN)–camphor phase diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-melting temperature transparent organic materials have been extensively used to study the pattern formation and microstructure evolution. It proves to be very challenging to accurately determine the phase diagram since there is no viable way to measure the composition microscopically. In this paper, we presented the detailed experimental characterization of the phase diagram of succinonitrile (SCN)–camphor binary system. Differential scanning

Jing Teng; Shan Liu

2006-01-01

357

Diagram, Gesture, Agency: Theorizing Embodiment in the Mathematics Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper, we use the work of philosopher Gilles Chatelet to rethink the gesture/diagram relationship and to explore the ways mathematical agency is constituted through it. We argue for a fundamental philosophical shift to better conceptualize the relationship between gesture and diagram, and suggest that such an approach might open up new…

de Freitas, Elizabeth; Sinclair, Nathalie

2012-01-01

358

Using a Spreadsheet To Explore Melting, Dissolving and Phase Diagrams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares phase diagrams relating to the solubilities and melting points of various substances in textbooks with those generated by a spreadsheet using data from the literature. Argues that differences between the diagrams give rise to new chemical insights. (Author/MM)

Goodwin, Alan

2002-01-01

359

The Effect of Causal Diagrams on Text Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We examined the effect of studying a causal diagram on comprehension of causal relationships from an expository science text. A causal diagram is a type of visual display that explicitly represents cause-effect relationships. In Experiment 1, readers between conditions did not differ with respect to memory for main ideas, but the readers who…

McCrudden, Matthew T.; Schraw, Gregory; Lehman, Stephen; Poliquin, Anne

2007-01-01

360

Evaluating Using Animation to Improve Understanding of Sequence Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an experiment whereby the benefit of using animation to improve the comprehensibility of UML sequence diagrams is assessed. The paper hypothesizes that through animation the control flow of sequence diagram will become more evident. The development a system that seeks to enable stakeholders to better interpret UML modeling behaviour is described. This system aims to provide dynamic

Elizabeth Burd; Dawn Overy; Ady Wheetman

2002-01-01

361

Effects of causal loop diagrams on escalating commitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research suggests that decision makers have the tendency to keep on investing in losing courses of action. The present study focuses on de-escalation and proposes causal loop diagrams as a technique to decrease escalating commitment in a failing action. The effectiveness of causal loop diagrams is also contrasted with the effect of receiving a list of important factors. Causal

Özge Pala; Dirk Vriens; Jac Vennix

362

Property-Part Diagrams: A Dependence Notation for Software Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some limitations of traditional dependence diagrams are explained, and a new notation that overcomes them is proposed. The key idea is to include in the diagram not only the parts of a system but also the properties that are assigned to them; dependences are shown as a relation not from parts to parts, but between properties and the parts (or

Daniel Jackson; Eunsuk Kang

363

Water, Water, Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional phase diagram for ordinary water substance, with its solid, liquid, and vapor phases, based on fitted authentic experimental data is presented. Such an authentic diagram appears not to have been presented for water before, and may improve the understanding of its phase relationships. The nature of the IAPWS-95 equations, fitted to data, is discussed.

Glasser, L.

2004-03-01

364

Do students use and understand free-body diagrams?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics education literature recommends using multiple representations to help students understand concepts and solve problems. However, there is little research concerning why students use the representations and whether those who use them are more successful. This study addresses these questions using free-body diagrams (diagrammatic representations used in problems involving forces) as a type of representation. We conducted a two-year quantitative and qualitative study of students’ use of free-body diagrams while solving physics problems. We found that when students are in a course that consistently emphasizes the use of free-body diagrams, the majority of them do use diagrams on their own to help solve exam problems even when they receive no credit for drawing the diagrams. We also found that students who draw diagrams correctly are significantly more successful in obtaining the right answer for the problem. Lastly, we interviewed students to uncover their reasons for using free-body diagrams. We found that high achieving students used the diagrams to help solve the problems and as a tool to evaluate their work while low achieving students only used representations as aids in the problem-solving process.

Rosengrant, David; van Heuvelen, Alan; Etkina, Eugenia

2009-06-01

365

Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The…

Chamizo, Jose A.

2012-01-01

366

A sweepline algorithm for Euclidean Voronoi diagram of circles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented in this paper is a sweepline algorithm to compute the Voronoi diagram of a set of circles in a two-dimensional Euclidean space. The radii of the circles are non-negative and not necessarily equal. It is allowed that circles intersect each other, and a circle contains others. The proposed algorithm constructs the correct Voronoi diagram as a sweepline moves on

Li Jin; Donguk Kim; Lisen Mu; Deok-soo Kim; Shi-min Hu

2006-01-01

367

Symbol-and-Arrow Diagrams in Teaching Pharmacokinetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Symbol-and-arrow diagrams are helpful adjuncts to equations derived from pharmacokinetic models. Both show relationships among dependent and independent variables. Diagrams show only qualitative relationships, but clearly show which variables are dependent and which are independent, helping students understand complex but important functional…

Hayton, William L.

1990-01-01

368

Diagram This Headline in One Minute, if You Can  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Say "sentence diagramming" to people of a certain age, and one gets different reactions. Say it to most college students, and one gets a blank look. But not from the 24 students in Lucy Ferriss's "Constructing Thought," a half-credit course in the English department at Trinity College. They know how to diagram a sentence--and they are passionate…

Landecker, Heidi

2009-01-01

369

Using a Spreadsheet To Explore Melting, Dissolving and Phase Diagrams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compares phase diagrams relating to the solubilities and melting points of various substances in textbooks with those generated by a spreadsheet using data from the literature. Argues that differences between the diagrams give rise to new chemical insights. (Author/MM)|

Goodwin, Alan

2002-01-01

370

Proposed Notation for Exception Handling in UML 2 Sequence Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a way to handle exceptions in sequence diagrams. The proposal is inspired by the UML 2 Testing Profiles (U2TP) default mechanism and introduces the use of multiple logical levels of sequence diagrams and what we call dynamic gate matching. The suggested notation distinguishes exception flow from the normal flow of control, creating a visual separation, and providing a

Oddleif Halvorsen; Øystein Haugen

2006-01-01

371

Fully Dynamic and Kinematic Voronoi Diagrams in GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a survey of static, dynamic, and kinematic Voronoi diagrams as a basic tool for Geographic Information Systems (GIS). We show how the Voronoi diagram with its dual, the Delaunay multigraph, can be used to maintain the topology of the map objects of a GIS. The presented method allows the insertion, deletion, and translation of points and line

Christopher M. Gold; Peter R. Remmele; Thomas Roos

372

The Path Planning for Mobile Robot Based on Voronoi Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to get the shortest path of the mobile robot, Voronoi diagram has been introduced to the robot path planning in the paper. The paper uses the voronoi diagram method to model the work space, and obtained the global shortest path by the improved Dijkstra algorithm, besides, when dealing with the unknown static obstacles, the paper adopt one method

Huiying Dong; Wenguang Li; Jiayu Zhu; Shuo Duan

2010-01-01

373

Multi-scale image warping using weighted Voronoi diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new multi-scale image warping method based on the weighted Voronoi diagram is proposed. Weights are assigned to the control points according to their influence scales. At each scale level, a triangulation based on the weighted Voronoi diagram is constructed. Then the interpolation of displacements is performed on this triangulation. In this process, only the control points with large weights

Hai Tao; Thomas S. Huang

1996-01-01

374

Vesicle computers: Approximating a Voronoi diagram using Voronoi automata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irregular arrangements of vesicles filled with excitable and precipitating chemical systems are imitated by Voronoi automata --- finite-state machines defined on a planar Voronoi diagram. Every Voronoi cell takes four states: resting, excited, refractory and precipitate. A resting cell excites if it has at least one excited neighbour; the cell precipitates if a ratio of excited cells in its neighbourhood to its number of neighbours exceed certain threshold. To approximate a Voronoi diagram on Voronoi automata we project a planar set onto automaton lattice, thus cells corresponding to data-points are excited. Excitation waves propagate across the Voronoi automaton, interact with each other and form precipitate in result of the interaction. Configuration of precipitate represents edges of approximated Voronoi diagram. We discover relation between quality of Voronoi diagram approximation and precipitation threshold, and demonstrate feasibility of our model in approximation Voronoi diagram of arbitrary-shaped objects and a skeleton of a planar shape.

Adamatzky, Andrew; de Lacy Costello, Ben; Holley, Julian; Gorecki, Jerzy; Bull, Larry

2011-07-01

375

Finite calculation of divergent self-energy diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using dispersive techniques, it is possible to avoid ultraviolet divergences in the calculation of Feynman diagrams, making subsequent regularization of divergent diagrams unnecessary. We give a simple introduction to the most important features of such dispersive techniques in the framework of the so-called finite causal perturbation theory. The method is also applied to the "divergent" general massive two-loop sunrise self-energy diagram, where it leads directly to an analytic expression for the imaginary part of the diagram in accordance with the literature, whereas the real part can be obtained by a single integral dispersion relation. It is pointed out that dispersive methods have been known for decades and have been applied to several nontrivial Feynman diagram calculations.

Aste, A.; Trautmann, D.

2003-12-01

376

Summarizing multiple aspects of model performance in a single diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A diagram has been devised that can provide a concise statistical summary of how well patterns match each other in terms of their correlation, their root-mean-square difference, and the ratio of their variances. Although the form of this diagram is general, it is especially useful in evaluating complex models, such as those used to study geophysical phenomena. Examples are given showing that the diagram can be used to summarize the relative merits of a collection of different models or to track changes in performance of a model as it is modified. Methods are suggested for indicating on these diagrams the statistical significance of apparent differences and the degree to which observational uncertainty and unforced internal variability limit the expected agreement between model-simulated and observed behaviors. The geometric relationship between the statistics plotted on the diagram also provides some guidance for devising skill scores that appropriately weight among the various measures of pattern correspondence.

Taylor, Karl E.

2001-04-01

377

Supplemental national crash severity study accident reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accident data was collected that allows determination of the relationships between occupant injury and accident severity. The measure of severity most commonly used to characterize an accident is the velocity change experienced by the passenger compartment during the collision. In some 52 percent of the accidents contained in the pre-April 1978 National Crash Severity Study (NCSS) data file, these velocity changes were established with the CRASH computer program. A substantial number of the remaining cases were reconstructable with other methods. Procedures were developed to estimate velocity changes in two car accidents in which the damage to 484 additional accidents from the pre-April 1978 NCSS file were reconstructed to the point of having velocity change estimates for the vehicles involved.

Segal, D. J.; McGrath, M. T.; Balasubramanian, N.

1980-09-01

378

MELCOR analysis of the TMI-2 accident  

SciTech Connect

The MELCOR computer code has been used to analyze the first 174 minutes of the TMI-2 accident. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of analyzing severe accidents in nuclear power plants. Comparison of the code predictions to the available data shows that MELCOR is capable of modeling the key events of the TMI-2 accident and reasonable agreement with the available data is obtained. In particular, the core degradation and hydrogen generation models agree with best-estimate information available for this phase of the accident. While the code uses simplified modeling, all important characteristics of the reactor system and the accident phenomena could be modeled. This exercise demonstrates that MELCOR is applicable to severe accident analysis. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Boucheron, E.A.; Kelly, J.E.

1988-01-01

379

The Min-Max Voronoi Diagram of Polygons and Applications in VLSI Manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the min-max Voronoi diagram of a set S of polygo- nal objects, a generalization of Voronoi diagrams based on the maximum distance between a point and a polygon. We show that the min-max Voronoi diagram is equivalent to the Voronoi diagram under the Haus- dorff distance function. We investigate the combinatorial properties of this diagram and give improved

Evanthia Papadopoulou; D. T. Lee

2002-01-01

380

[Expert opinions in German statutory accident insurance].  

PubMed

German statutory accident insurance covers employees and trainees against occupational accidents, employers bear the inherent charges. Expert opinion is obtained, in particular, for discussing causality questions and for rating accidental health disorders. Causality has to be estimated based on the "theory of essential condition", health disorders have to be substantiated without any reasonable doubt. Reduction in earning capacity due to an accident may not consider the individual kind of occupation and has to be rated by an abstract approach. PMID:22161230

Widder, B; Gaidzik, P W

2011-12-12

381

The accident liability of British car drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data had been collected from a structured sample of just over 18 500 drivers using a postal questionnaire, to determine the relationship between their accident liability—defined as the expected number of accident involvement per year—and their exposure to driving, age, driving experience, sex and socio?economic group. The statistical model developed from this data suggests that accident liability is dependent mainly

G. Maycock; C. R. Lockwóod

1993-01-01

382

Psychiatric consequences of road traffic accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine the psychiatric consequences of being a road traffic accident victim. DESIGN--Follow up study of road accident victims for up to one year. SETTING--Emergency department of the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford. SUBJECTS--188 consecutive road accident victims aged 18-70 with multiple injuries (motorcycle or car) or whiplash neck injury, who had not been unconscious for more than 15 minutes, and

R Mayou; B Bryant; R Duthie

1993-01-01

383

Skidding Accidents: Wet-Weather Accident Experience, Human Factors, and Legal Aspects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 10 papers deal with the following areas: Skidding accidents, friction numbers, and the legal aspects involved report of the PIARC technical committee on slipperiness and evenness; traffic accidents and road surface skidding resistance; the location an...

K. H. Schulze

1976-01-01

384

Summer activities: incidents and accidents.  

PubMed

Summer invites activities and sports that are unique to this time of year. Although safety is a priority, there are commonly accidents and incidents that occur while individuals are participating in these activities. The prevalence and incidence of several types of injuries and trauma related to water activities, camping, caving, backpacking, and hiking are discussed. Treatment of nonfatal drowning is discussed, along with the pathophysiologic process that must be corrected for optimal outcomes. Summer is a time for outdoor cooking, campfires, and the traditional Fourth of July firework pastimes, which can result in admissions to critical care areas. PMID:23692945

Krau, Stephen D

2013-03-27

385

Systematics of Reconstructed Process Facility Criticality Accidents  

SciTech Connect

The systematics of the characteristics of twenty-one criticality accidents occurring in nuclear processing facilities of the Russian Federation, the United States, and the United Kingdom are examined. By systematics the authors mean the degree of consistency or agreement between the factual parameters reported for the accidents and the experimentally known conditions for criticality. The twenty-one reported process criticality accidents are not sufficiently well described to justify attempting detailed neutronic modeling. However, results of classic hand calculations confirm the credibility of the reported accident conditions.

Pruvost, N.L.; McLaughlin, T.P.; Monahan, S.P.

1999-09-19

386

[Possibilities, limitations and results in accident prevention in non-occupational accidents, especially in road traffic].  

PubMed

Traffic accident occurrence in Switzerland has undergone a positive development, in spite of the fact that the number of motor vehicles in use and the overall driving performance have increased. The main features of accident occurrence are illustrated, alcohol and driving too fast being the most frequent accident causes. The construction of a motorway network, the use of safety-belts and the introduction of general speed limits play the most important part in the positive development of accident occurrence. PMID:2346700

Jung, H

1990-01-01

387

A phase diagram for jammed matter.  

PubMed

The problem of finding the most efficient way to pack spheres has a long history, dating back to the crystalline arrays conjectured by Kepler and the random geometries explored by Bernal. Apart from its mathematical interest, the problem has practical relevance in a wide range of fields, from granular processing to fruit packing. There are currently numerous experiments showing that the loosest way to pack spheres (random loose packing) gives a density of approximately 55 per cent. On the other hand, the most compact way to pack spheres (random close packing) results in a maximum density of approximately 64 per cent. Although these values seem to be robust, there is as yet no physical interpretation for them. Here we present a statistical description of jammed states in which random close packing can be interpreted as the ground state of the ensemble of jammed matter. Our approach demonstrates that random packings of hard spheres in three dimensions cannot exceed a density limit of approximately 63.4 per cent. We construct a phase diagram that provides a unified view of the hard-sphere packing problem and illuminates various data, including the random-loose-packed state. PMID:18509438

Song, Chaoming; Wang, Ping; Makse, Hernán A

2008-05-29

388

The phase diagram of ammonium nitrate.  

PubMed

The pressure-temperature (P-T) phase diagram of ammonium nitrate (AN) [NH(4)NO(3)] has been determined using synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy measurements. Phase boundaries were established by characterizing phase transitions to the high temperature polymorphs during multiple P-T measurements using both XRD and Raman spectroscopy measurements. At room temperature, the ambient pressure orthorhombic (Pmmn) AN-IV phase was stable up to 45 GPa and no phase transitions were observed. AN-IV phase was also observed to be stable in a large P-T phase space. The phase boundaries are steep with a small phase stability regime for high temperature phases. A P-V-T equation of state based on a high temperature Birch-Murnaghan formalism was obtained by simultaneously fitting the P-V isotherms at 298, 325, 446, and 467 K, thermal expansion data at 1 bar, and volumes from P-T ramping experiments. Anomalous thermal expansion behavior of AN was observed at high pressure with a modest negative thermal expansion in the 3-11 GPa range for temperatures up to 467 K. The role of vibrational anharmonicity in this anomalous thermal expansion behavior has been established using high P-T Raman spectroscopy. PMID:22897290

Chellappa, Raja S; Dattelbaum, Dana M; Velisavljevic, Nenad; Sheffield, Stephen

2012-08-14

389

Phase diagram of a generalized Winfree model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the phase diagram of a generalized Winfree model. The modification is such that the coupling depends on the fraction of synchronized oscillators, a situation which has been noted in some experiments on coupled Josephson junctions and mechanical systems. We let the global coupling k be a function of the Kuramoto order parameter r through an exponent z such that z=1 corresponds to the standard Winfree model, z<1 strengthens the coupling at low r (low amount of synchronization), and at z>1 , the coupling is weakened for low r . Using both analytical and numerical approaches, we find that z controls the size of the incoherent phase region and that one may make the incoherent behavior less typical by choosing z<1 . We also find that the original Winfree model is a rather special case; indeed, the partial locked behavior disappears for z>1 . At fixed k and varying ? , the stability boundary of the locked phase corresponds to a transition that is continuous for z<1 and first order for z>1 . This change in the nature of the transition is in accordance with a previous study of a similarly modified Kuramoto model.

Giannuzzi, F.; Marinazzo, D.; Nardulli, G.; Pellicoro, M.; Stramaglia, S.

2007-05-01

390

Stability diagram for the forced Kuramoto model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the periodically forced Kuramoto model. This system consists of an infinite population of phase oscillators with random intrinsic frequencies, global sinusoidal coupling, and external sinusoidal forcing. It represents an idealization of many phenomena in physics, chemistry, and biology in which mutual synchronization competes with forced synchronization. In other words, the oscillators in the population try to synchronize with one another while also trying to lock onto an external drive. Previous work on the forced Kuramoto model uncovered two main types of attractors, called forced entrainment and mutual entrainment, but the details of the bifurcations between them were unclear. Here we present a complete bifurcation analysis of the model for a special case in which the infinite-dimensional dynamics collapse to a two-dimensional system. Exact results are obtained for the locations of Hopf, saddle-node, and Takens-Bogdanov bifurcations. The resulting stability diagram bears a striking resemblance to that for the weakly nonlinear forced van der Pol oscillator.

Childs, Lauren M.; Strogatz, Steven H.

2008-12-01

391

Traffic accident segmentation by means of latent class clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic accident data are often heterogeneous, which can cause certain relationships to remain hidden. Therefore, traffic accident analysis is often performed on a small subset of traffic accidents or several models are built for various traffic accident types. In this paper, we examine the effectiveness of a clustering technique, i.e. latent class clustering, for identifying homogenous traffic accident types. Firstly,

Benoît Depaire; Geert Wets; Koen Vanhoof

2008-01-01

392

POSSIBILITIES OF TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS AND RISK CRASH EVALUATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the traffic accident rate on roads and highways and possibilities of risk evaluation related to traffic accident occurrence based on factors that were the causes of accidents. A new term - risk of traffic accident occurrence is a product of probability of accident occurrence and its impacts. The results are presented by way of example that uses

Stodola Jiri

393

Safety Management of Traffic Accident Scene Based on System Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic system is a dynamic complicated one which is constituted of some factors. Traffic accident will happen if these factors mismatch with each other. Safety level of traffic accident scene affects occurrence rate of secondary accident. In order to evaluate safety level of traffic accident scene, prevent from secondary accident happening and protect the policemen, crowds by the scene and

Wen-hui Zhang; Hong-guo Xu; Biao Wu; Sheng-qin Li

2008-01-01

394

Accident Patterns on Arterial Streets in Dublin with Above Average Accident Rate 1980/82.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An examination of the complete list of High Accident Locations in Dublin City showed that a number of urban arterial streets had a higher than average accident rate. It was decided to examine accident patterns on these streets with a view to determining t...

M. McCarthy

1984-01-01

395

Accident evolution and barrier function and accident evolution management modeling of nuclear power plant incidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every analysis of an accident or an incident is founded on a more or less explicit model of what an accident is. On a general level, the current approach models an incident or accident in a nuclear power plant as a failure to maintain a stable state with all variables within their ranges of stability. There are two main sets

Svenson

1992-01-01

396

Older drivers and accidents: A meta analysis and data mining application on traffic accident data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teenage driving and associated accidents have been thoroughly studied. With the graying of our population in the United States, a focus on senior drivers and related accidents is needed. Unfortunately, there is not one comprehensive study that reviews the major existing studies conducted on senior drivers and accidents. In examining the literature, it also appears that data mining has rarely

Evrim Bayam; Jay Liebowitz; William W. Agresti

2005-01-01

397

Development and applications of light-hydrocarbon-based star diagrams  

SciTech Connect

Two star diagrams (multivariate plots in polar coordinates) have been developed to assess subtle chemical differences among oils. The diagrams are based on analysis of C{sub 7} hydrocarbons of crude oils separated by gas chromatography. The first of the C{sub 7} diagrams is used for distinguishing variations in oils caused by transformation, e.g., water washing, biodegradation, and evaporation. A second C{sub 7}-based diagram consists of five ratios composed of compounds that are very resistant to the effects of transformation, and thus are useful for correlation. These ratios, designated C1 through C5, are plotted on the C{sub 7} oil correlation star diagram (C{sub 7}OCSD). This diagram can be used to correlate both transformed and primary oils based on source-related chemical differences, a task not easily accomplished through most conventional geochemical techniques. For example, condensates often contain no biomarkers due to their advanced maturity and therefore cannot be correlated with lower maturity oils. However, both condensates and oils usually contain light ends allowing correlation by C{sub 7}-based star diagrams. These microscale correlations detect small chemical differences between oils; and, therefore, allow even slight variations among oils within the same reservoir to be recognized. Production-related uses include reservoir compartmentalization studies, investigating reservoir extent and connectivity, determining the source of casing leakage, and determining the extent of commingling of oils from different reservoirs in multicompletion wells (or leaky single-completion wells).

Halpern, H.I. [Saudi Arabian Oil Co., Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

1995-06-01

398

Plotting and Analyzing Data Trends in Ternary Diagrams Made Easy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ternary plots are used in many fields of science to characterize a system based on three components. Triangular plotting is thus useful to a broad audience in the Earth sciences and beyond. Unfortunately, it is typically the most expensive commercial software packages that offer the option to plot data in ternary diagrams, and they lack features that are paramount to the geosciences, such as the ability to plot data directly into a standardized diagram and the possibility to analyze temporal and stratigraphic trends within this diagram. To address these issues, ?Plot was developed with a strong emphasis on ease of use, community orientation, and availability free of charges. This ``freeware'' supports a fully graphical user interface where data can be imported as text files, or by copying and pasting. A plot is automatically generated, and any standard diagram can be selected for plotting in the background using a simple pull-down menu. Standard diagrams are stored in an external database of PDF files that currently holds some 30 diagrams that deal with different fields of the Earth sciences. Using any drawing software supporting PDF, one can easily produce new standard diagrams to be used with ?Plot by simply adding them to the library folder. An independent column of values, commonly stratigraphic depths or ages, can be used to sort the data sets.

John, Cédric M.

2004-04-01

399

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagram: Part B, Remedial Action  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Part A of Vols. 1. and 2 focuses on D&D. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the RA of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. Remedial action is the focus of Vol. 2, Pt. B, which has been divided into the three necessary subelements of the RA: characterization, RA, and robotics and automation. Each of these sections address general ORNL problems, which are then broken down by problem area/constituents and linked to potential remedial technologies. The diagrams also contain summary information about a technology`s status, its science and technology needs, and its implementation needs.

Not Available

1993-09-01

400

76 FR 2919 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OCS Block Diagrams (SOBDs) located in the Pacific Ocean near Eureka, California...Protraction Diagram in the Pacific Ocean Description/Date NK10-10...Block Diagrams in the Pacific Ocean, all located within Official...

2011-01-18

401

Phase diagrams of single-domain ferroelectric-dielectric superlattices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the thermodynamic theory, the authors developed misfit strain-temperature phase diagrams of single-domain ferroelectric-dielectric superlattices grown on cubic substrates. Owing to internal electric fields appearing in such multilayers, the superlattice diagrams are expected to be very different from phase maps of homogeneous ferroelectric films. The calculations show, however, that this electrostatic effect does not change relative positions of phase transition lines. It only shifts the diagram as a whole along the line separating stability ranges of paraelectric phase and in-plane polarization state. The magnitude of this shift is governed by the capacitance of dielectric layer and the thickness of ferroelectric one.

Urtiev, F. A.; Kukhar, V. G.; Pertsev, N. A.

2007-06-01

402

Physics of high contrast gratings: a band diagram insight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We generalize the theoretical modelling of high contrast gratings (HCGs) to arbitrary incidence angle. We unveil the HCG band diagram with HCG supermode formulism, and present the intriguing connections between HCG and 1D photonic crystal (PhC). We show, for the first time, HCG and PhC can be unified in the same theoretical analysis architecture. They differentiate themselves by operating at different regimes in the band diagram. The HCG band diagram not only provides a powerful tool to study both HCG and PhC, but also to design various optical components with different functionalities on the HCG-based optoelectronics platform.

Yang, Weijian; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.

2013-03-01

403

On the Sn-Bi-Ag ternary phase diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The selection and evaluation of Pb-free solders requires information that is best determined through a knowledge of ternary and higher order phase diagrams. As part of an ongoing program on Pb-free solder phase diagrams at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, a thermodynamic model is formulated for the Sn-Bi-Ag phase diagram. Thermodynamic functions for the various phases obtained by fitting measured data for the three constituent binary systems are extrapolated to the ternary system using the method of Muggianu. Modeling results are compared to preliminary experimental data for the ternary system and are applied in the calculation of the solidification path.

Kattner, Ursula R.; Boettinger, William J.

1994-07-01

404

Energetic Studies and Phase Diagram of Thioxanthene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molecular stability of thioxanthene, a key species from which very important compounds with industrial relevance are derived, has been studied by a combination of several experimental techniques and computational approaches. The standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of crystalline thioxanthene (117.4 ± 4.1 kJ·mol-1) was determined from the experimental standard molar energy of combustion, in oxygen, measured by rotating-bomb combustion calorimetry at T = 298.15 K. The enthalpy of sublimation was determined by a direct method, using the vacuum drop microcalorimetric technique, and also by an indirect method, using a static apparatus, where the vapor pressures at different temperatures were measured. The latter technique was used for both crystalline and undercooled liquid samples, and the phase diagram of thioxanthene near the triple point was obtained (triple point coordinates T = 402.71 K and p = 144.7 Pa). From the two methods, a mean value for the standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K (101.3 ± 0.8 kJ·mol-1), was derived. From the latter value and from the enthalpy of formation of the solid, the standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) enthalpy of formation of gaseous thioxanthene was calculated as 218.7 ± 4.2 kJ·mol-1. Standard ab initio molecular orbital calculations were performed using the G3(MP2)//B3LYP composite procedure and several homodesmotic reactions in order to derive the standard molar enthalpy of formation of thioxanthene. The ab initio results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data.

Freitas, Vera L. S.; Monte, Manuel J. S.; Santos, Luís M. N. B. F.; Gomes, José R. B.; Ribeiro da Silva, Maria D. M. C.

2009-10-01

405

Energetic studies and phase diagram of thioxanthene.  

PubMed

The molecular stability of thioxanthene, a key species from which very important compounds with industrial relevance are derived, has been studied by a combination of several experimental techniques and computational approaches. The standard (p degrees = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of crystalline thioxanthene (117.4 +/- 4.1 kJ x mol(-1)) was determined from the experimental standard molar energy of combustion, in oxygen, measured by rotating-bomb combustion calorimetry at T = 298.15 K. The enthalpy of sublimation was determined by a direct method, using the vacuum drop microcalorimetric technique, and also by an indirect method, using a static apparatus, where the vapor pressures at different temperatures were measured. The latter technique was used for both crystalline and undercooled liquid samples, and the phase diagram of thioxanthene near the triple point was obtained (triple point coordinates T = 402.71 K and p = 144.7 Pa). From the two methods, a mean value for the standard (p degrees = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K (101.3 +/- 0.8 kJ x mol(-1)), was derived. From the latter value and from the enthalpy of formation of the solid, the standard (p degrees = 0.1 MPa) enthalpy of formation of gaseous thioxanthene was calculated as 218.7 +/- 4.2 kJ x mol(-1). Standard ab initio molecular orbital calculations were performed using the G3(MP2)//B3LYP composite procedure and several homodesmotic reactions in order to derive the standard molar enthalpy of formation of thioxanthene. The ab initio results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data. PMID:19821598

Freitas, Vera L S; Monte, Manuel J S; Santos, Luís M N B F; Gomes, José R B; Ribeiro da Silva, Maria D M C

2009-11-19

406

Color-Magnitude Diagram for M14  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RR Lyrae variable stars are useful tools in determining a number of physical characteristics of their parent globular clusters. In an effort to determine the properties of the globular cluster M14 we used the SARA 0.9-meter telescope located at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) to do time-series photometry of known and previously unknown RR Lyrae variable stars. M14 lies near the Galactic plane and thus is highly reddened with an E(B-V)=0.6. We obtained R images during the summer of 2010 and V images during the summer of 2012 of M14. The images were analyzed using the DAOPHOT/ALLFRAME package of Stetson (1987,1994) to create a preliminary color magnitude diagram (CMD) of M14. Using our previous results from Conroy et al. (2012) we positively identified the positions of 64 of the 112 known RR Lyrae variables on the CMD. We find considerable spread in both the V magnitudes and color of the RR Lyrae variables indicating a significant amount of differential reddening on relatively small scales. This is also seen in the giant branch which shows up to a 0.15 magnitude spread in V- R color. We also found the median magnitude of the RR Lyrae variable stars and hence the horizontal branch to be 17.2. Because RR Lyrae stars can provide an estimation of reddening our next step will be to apply the technique of Blanco (1992) to our sample of RR0-type RR Lyrae variables to obtain a two-dimensional reddening map across the face of the cluster.

Reinhart, Erik; McCombs, T.; Murphy, B. W.; Darragh, A.; Liu, Z.; Conroy, K. E.

2013-01-01

407

The neodymium-gold phase diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nd-Au phase diagram was studied in the 0 to 100 at. pct Au composition range by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (LOM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Six intermetallic phases were identified, the crystallographic structures were determined or confirmed, and the melting behavior was determined, as follows: Nd2Au, orthorhombic oP12-Co2Si type, peritectic decomposition at 810 °C; NdAu, R.T. form, orthorhombic oP8-FeB type, H.T. forms, orthorhombic oC8-CrB type and, at a higher temperature, cubic cP2-CsCl type, melting point 1470 °C; Nd3Au4, trigonal hR42-Pu3Pd4 type, peritectic decomposition at 1250 °C; Nd17Au36, tetragonal tP106-Nd17Au36 type, melting point 1170 °C; Nd14Au51, hexagonal hP65-Gd14Ag51 type, melting point 1210 °C; and NdAu6, monoclinic mC28-PrAu6 type, peritectic decomposition at 875 °C. Four eutectic reactions were found, respectively, at 19.0 at. pct Au and 655 °C, at 63.0 at. pct Au and 1080 °C, at 72.0 at. pct Au and 1050 °C, and, finally, at 91.0 at. pct Au and 795 °C. A catatectic decomposition of the ( ?Nd) phase, at 825 °C and ?1 at. pct Au, was also found. The results are briefly discussed and compared to those for the other rare earth-gold ( R-Au) systems. A short discussion of the general alloying behavior of the “coinage metals” (Cu, Ag, and Au) with the rare-earth metals is finally presented.

Saccone, A.; Macciò, D.; Delfino, S.; Ferro, R.

1999-05-01

408

49 CFR 801.30 - Records from accident investigations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Records from accident investigations. 801.30 Section 801.30...AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Accident Investigation Records § 801.30 Records from accident investigations. Upon completion of an...

2011-10-01

409

49 CFR 801.30 - Records from accident investigations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Records from accident investigations. 801.30 Section 801.30...AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Accident Investigation Records § 801.30 Records from accident investigations. Upon completion of an...

2012-10-01

410

Work Zone Accident Data Process-Training Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The collection of accident data by law enforcement officials on accidents occurring within construction and maintenance work zones is usually not adequate to assess whether or not the accidents are directly or indirectly related to traffic control or phys...

D. Rubin E. Carter

1985-01-01

411

29 CFR 1960.70 - Reporting of serious accidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Reporting of serious accidents. Agencies must provide the Office of Federal Agency Programs with a summary report of each fatal and catastrophic accident investigation. The summaries shall address the date/time of accident,...

2013-07-01

412

10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304...Situations § 835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing...possible, shall provide nuclear accident dosimetry for those individuals. (b)...

2009-01-01

413

10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304...Situations § 835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing...possible, shall provide nuclear accident dosimetry for those individuals. (b)...

2010-01-01

414

10 CFR 71.73 - Hypothetical accident conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Hypothetical accident conditions. 71.73...LSA-III Tests 2 § 71.73 Hypothetical accident conditions. (a) Test procedures. Evaluation for hypothetical accident conditions is...

2009-01-01

415

10 CFR 71.73 - Hypothetical accident conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hypothetical accident conditions. 71.73...LSA-III Tests 2 § 71.73 Hypothetical accident conditions. (a) Test procedures. Evaluation for hypothetical accident conditions is...

2010-01-01

416

49 CFR 225.11 - Reporting of accidents/incidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...crossing accidents/incidents described in § 225...equipment accidents/incidents described in § 225...illness accidents/incidents described in § 225.19. (b) The report shall be made on the forms prescribed...

2011-10-01

417

49 CFR 225.11 - Reporting of accidents/incidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...crossing accidents/incidents described in § 225...equipment accidents/incidents described in § 225...illness accidents/incidents described in § 225.19. (b) The report shall be made on the forms prescribed...

2012-10-01

418

Assessment of Accident Risks in the CRBRP. Volume 2. Appendices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Appendices to Volume I include core-related accident-sequence definition, CRBRP risk-assessment sequence-probability determinations, failure-probability data, accident scenario evaluation, radioactive material release analysis, ex-core accident analysis, ...

1977-01-01

419

A Serious Game for Traffic Accident Investigators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In Dubai, traffic accidents kill one person every 37 hours and injure one person every 3 hours. Novice traffic accident investigators in the Dubai police force are expected to "learn by doing" in this intense environment. Currently, they use no alternative to the real world in order to practice. This paper argues for the use of an alternative…

Binsubaih, Ahmed; Maddock, Steve; Romano, Daniela

2006-01-01

420

Cognitive failure analysis for aircraft accident investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present studies were undertaken to investigate the applicability of an information processing approach to human failure in the aircraft cockpit. Using data obtained from official aircraft accident investigation reports, a database of accidents and incidents involving New Zealand civil aircraft between 1982 and 1991 was compiled. In the first study, reports were coded into one of three error stages

DAVID OHARE; MARK WIGGINS; RICHARD BATT; DIANNE MORRISON

1994-01-01

421

Squeal Those Tires! Automobile-Accident Reconstruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Methods use to reconstruct traffic accidents provide settings for real life applications for students in precalculus, mathematical analysis, or trigonometry. Described is the investigation of an accident in conjunction with the local Highway Patrol Academy integrating physics, vector, and trigonometry. Class findings were compared with those of…

Caples, Linda Griffin

1992-01-01

422

An analysis of causation in aerospace accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a short description of common accident models and their limitations, a new model is used to evaluate the causal factors in a mission interruption of the SOHO (SOlar Heliospheric Observatory) spacecraft. The factors in this accident are similar to common factors found in other recent software related aerospace losses

K. A. Weiss; N. Leveson; K. Lundqvist; N. Farid; M. Stringfellow

2001-01-01

423

Method of assessing severe accident management strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accident management can be defined as the innovative use of existing and or alternative resources, systems, and actions to prevent or mitigate a severe accident. A significant number of probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) have been completed that yield the principal plant vulnerabilities. These vulnerabilities can be categorized as (1) dominant sequences with respect to core-melt frequency. (2) dominant sequences with

W. E. Kastenberg; G. Apostolakis; V. K. Dhir; D. Okrent; M. Jae; H. Lim; T. Milici; J. Swider; L. Xing; D. Yu

1991-01-01

424

Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents Codebook 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA), 2006, including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2006 BIFA file is a census of all buses involved in a fatal accident in the...

D. Blower D. Hershberger J. Woodrooffe L. Jarossi

2008-01-01

425

Fuel performance during severe accidents. [PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the Three Mile Island Unit-2 (TMI-2) accident, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a severe fuel damage test program to evaluate fuel rod and core response during severe accidents similar to TMI-2. This program is underway in the Power Burst Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In preparation for the first test, predictions have been

B. J. Buescher; G. E. Gruen; P. E. MacDonald

1982-01-01

426

Understanding the TMI2 accident: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) on March 28, 1979 has had a profound impact on the nuclear power industry despite the fact that the health consequences to the public were insignificant. There is considerable benefit to the nuclear power industry in understanding the progression of this severe core damage accident and its relationship to the very

R. R. Hobbins; J. M. Broughton; C. M. Allison

1986-01-01

427

MELCOR analysis of the TMI2 accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MELCOR computer code has been used to analyze the first 174 minutes of the TMI-2 accident. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of analyzing severe accidents in nuclear power plants. Comparison of the code predictions to the available data shows that MELCOR is capable of modeling the key

E. A. Boucheron; J. E. Kelly

1988-01-01

428

A scenario of the TMI2 accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is the first of a series of three Nuclear Safety articles summarizing the major research findings from the TMI-2 Accident Evaluation Program (AEP) being conducted by EG and G Idaho, Inc. for the US Department of Energy. The focal point of the AEP is to develop a consistent understanding of the core damage progression (accident scenario) during the

J. M. Broughton; E. L. Tolman; P. Kuan; D. Petti

1988-01-01

429

MELCOR analysis of the TMI2 accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the analysis of the Three Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) standard problem that was performed with MELCOR. The MELCOR computer code is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of analyzing severe accident in nuclear power plants. The primary role of MELCOR is to provide realistic predictions of severe accident phenomena and

Boucheron

1990-01-01

430

Consequence calculations for PPCS bounding accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ‘worst case’ assessment of the radiologically significant environmental source term, based on bounding accident analysis of a single blanket cooling loop loss of cooling accident (LOCA), has been performed for Fusion Plant Models A and B of the Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS). This paper describes the calculations of ensuing material mobilisation, transport in the containment, release to the

W. E. Han

2005-01-01

431

49 CFR 845.40 - Accident report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Accident report. 845.40 Section...TRANSPORTATION; ACCIDENT/INCIDENT HEARINGS AND REPORTS Board Reports § 845...warrant such a report. The report will set forth the...reported in a manner and form prescribed by the...

2012-10-01

432

49 CFR 845.40 - Accident report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Accident report. 845.40 Section...TRANSPORTATION; ACCIDENT/INCIDENT HEARINGS AND REPORTS Board Reports § 845...warrant such a report. The report will set forth the...reported in a manner and form prescribed by the...

2011-10-01

433

Injury reduction by the airbag in accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today an increasing number of automobiles are being equipped with additional passive safety devices: driver and passenger airbags. To examine the efficiency of the airbag in real road traffic accidents, a collective study was conducted from 181 traumatology centres throughout Germany. The inquiry was answered by 81 per cent of the medical centres contacted. From the evaluation of 122 accident

E. H. Kuner; W. Schlickewei; D. Oltmanns

1996-01-01

434

Normal Accident at Three Mile Island.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some aspects of the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. Explains a number of factors involved including the type of accident, warnings, design and equipment failure, operator error, and negative synergy. Presents alternatives to systems with catastrophic potential. (MK)

Perrow, Charles

1981-01-01

435

Accident risks in nuclear-power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of estimates of nuclear-power plant safety based on probabilistic safety analyses and discusses the means used to decrease core damage factors, large release frequency and cancer deaths due to nuclear accidents. Estimates made for new nuclear power plants show that these risks are negligibly small. The radiological effects of the Chernobyl accident are discussed and

A. Strupczewski

2003-01-01

436

Conducting in-depth accident studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1983 the Accident Research Unit at the Institute for Consumer Ergonomics began a major study, sponsored by the UK Department of Transport and three motor companies, to investigate the causes of injury to occupants in car accidents. This study has been under way for nearly ten years and the database of information is one of the most comprehensive of

Pete Thomas; Mo Bradford

1995-01-01

437

Sample-Based Bayesian Accident Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In accident reconstruction, information derived from samples of crash tests can on occasion replace subjective prior information reflecting expert opinion. A method for accomplishing this, based on a straightforward application of Bayesian reasoning as used in statistics, is applied to three-accident scenarios: estimating critical speeds from yaw marks, estimating impact speed from crush, and estimating impact speed from pedestrian throw

Gary A. Davis

2009-01-01

438

Bayesian networks and traffic accident reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attempt to draw rational conclusions about a road accident can be viewed as a problem in uncertain reasoning about a particular event, to which developments in the modeling of uncertain reasoning for artificial intelligence can be applied. Physical principles can be used to develop a structural model for the accident, and this model can then be combined with an

Gary A. Davis; Jianping Pei

2003-01-01

439

Road Safety: Accident Analysis And Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses, in this first phase, on accident analysis and reconstruction, with the purpose of devoting a second phase on the analysis of risk levels. The present paper defines synthetically the analysis of procedures and methodologies related to poor safety conditions, turning in the last part in a applicative example. Since the year 2000, a certain number of accidents

G. e Sillo

440

Traffic accidents during work and work commuting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to analyze both the background of the victims and drivers involved in traffic accidents during work and during the commute to and from work by car or other means and the circumstances of these accidents. The study was based on three independent data sets, of which two were based on compensation claims to insurance

Simo Salminen

2000-01-01

441

Normal Accident at Three Mile Island.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses some aspects of the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. Explains a number of factors involved including the type of accident, warnings, design and equipment failure, operator error, and negative synergy. Presents alternatives to systems with catastrophic potential. (MK)|

Perrow, Charles

1981-01-01

442

Accident Trend Monitoring and Exploratory Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report consists of a compilation of a series of accident trend analyses. The report provides a summary of results developed in the initial tests of the accident trend analysis system, documentation of technical methods utilized in the design of the sy...

M. Stein J. Magidson M. Beauregard C. Logan

1986-01-01

443

Sykkelulykker Blant Ungdom (Bicycle Accidents Among Teenagers).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report shows that knowledge of traffic rules does not contribute to reduce the accident risk, or injury risk of young cyclists. Running red lights and cycling in the wrong direction in one-way traffic increase accident and injury risk. Using cycle pat...

T. Bjomskau

2001-01-01

444

Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies could provide an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. This analysis, however, does not take credit for the additional barrier and establishes only the total release fractions for bare unconfined intact commercial SNF assemblies, which may be conservatively applied to confined intact commercial I SNF assemblies.

J. Schulz

2004-11-05

445

Advantages of enthalpy-temperature diagrams for nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The enthalpy-temperature diagram for nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures has illustrative and useful features, combining the advantages of the entropy-temperature diagram and the enthalpy-pressure diagram commonly used in the refrigeration and heat pump industry. Plotting temperature versus enthalpy has advantages similar to those of plotting pressure versus enthalpy, and has the additional advantages of depicting the temperature profiles for both sides of the heat exchange equipment during the cycle. This additional advantage is particularly useful for analyzing the vapor compression refrigeration cycle using nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures, where nonisothermal phase-change processes occur. Problems such as heat exchanger pinch-points and wet compression are easily detected. The possible cycle enhancement due to a liquid-to-suction heat exchanger is readily apparent. This paper presents and discusses examples of enthalpy-temperature diagrams.

Granryd, E.; Conklin, J. C.; Sand, J. R.

1991-08-01

446

Task Filtered Display of Functional Diagrams for Flightline Maintenance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses a proposed design of the display of simplified schematics and writing diagrams in Interactive Electronic Technical Manual (IETMs) to support flightline maintenance. The paper reviews current theoretical and applied solutions to the di...

J. L. Wampler

1998-01-01

447

View southwest of carousel displaying schematic diagrams of electrical system; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View southwest of carousel displaying schematic diagrams of electrical system; operators console switchboard #1 is at lower right of photograph - Thirtieth Street Station, Power Director Center, Thirtieth & Market Streets in Amtrak Railroad Station, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

448

Application of quaternary phase diagrams to compound semiconductor processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Isobaric, isothermal phase diagrams are a molar representation of condensed phases in equilibrium with each other at a fixed temperature, pressure, and composition. Since three or four elements are usually involved at a fabricated interface in a semicondu...

R. Sinclair

1994-01-01

449

Flame Deflector Section, Elevation, Water Supply Flow Diagram, Exploded ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Flame Deflector - Section, Elevation, Water Supply Flow Diagram, Exploded Deflector Manifolds, and Interior Perspective - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur , Huntsville, Madison County, AL

450

Plan of North Approach, Plan of South Approach, Diagram of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Plan of North Approach, Plan of South Approach, Diagram of Camber, Detail of Framing of Arch Member of Bottom Chord, Isometric of T Blocks in Bottom Chord - Wood-Covered Bridge, Spanning Main Licking River, Butler, Pendleton County, KY

451

21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

452

8. Photocopy of top half of an 1855 organizational diagram ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Photocopy of top half of an 1855 organizational diagram of the New York and Erie Railroad. Original in the collections of the Library of Congress. - Erie Railway, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Deposit, Broome County, NY

453

9. Photocopy of bottom half of an 1855 organizational diagram ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Photocopy of bottom half of an 1855 organizational diagram of the New York and Erie Railroad. Original in the collections of the Library of Congress. - Erie Railway, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Deposit, Broome County, NY

454

USING THE HASSE DIAGRAM TECHNIQUE TO PRIORITIZE POTENTIAL PBTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The identification of chemicals with PBT (Persistence, Bioaccumulation,Toxicity) potential is of major interest to many organizations. In the present study about 2800 commercially important chemicals are included. Initially Hasse Diagram Technique (HDT) has been applied to...

455

An Interpretive Approach to Drawing Causal Loop Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Causal loop diagram largely influences the effectiveness of system dynamics. The complex interpretive nature of management problems makes it difficult to recognize all the existing causal loop relations. In order to build system dynamics models for ill-defined problems, \\

Mostafa Jafari; Roozbeh Hesam Amiri; Atieh Bourouni

456

RR Lyrae Period-Amplitude Diagrams: From Bailey to Today  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than a century ago, Solon Bailey's pioneering investigations of the variable stars in globular clusters allowed the first period-amplitude diagrams to be constructed for their RR Lyrae stars. These diagrams differ from cluster to cluster, and there has been debate as to whether these differences are correlated mainly with [Fe/H] or with Oosterhoff type. It is clear now that a cluster's Oosterhoff type plays an important role in determining its period-amplitude relation, although the Oosterhoff dichotomy itself is correlated with metallicity. Not all clusters follow the usual patterns, however. The globular clusters NGC 6388 and NGC 6441 have period-amplitude diagrams similar to those of metal-poor Oosterhoff type II globular clusters, but they themselves are comparatively metal-rich. The period-amplitude diagrams of Oosterhoff-intermediate systems are discussed.

Smith, Horace A.; Catelan, Márcio; Kuehn, Charles

2011-08-01

457

High-temperature phase diagram of sodium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The critical point is calculated and a high-temperature phase diagram is constructed for sodium chloride with allowance for the structural phase transition between B1 and B2 polymorphs of NaCl crystal.

Savintsev, A. P.; Gavasheli, Yu. O.

2011-11-01

458

22. Power plant engine pipingcompressed air piping diagram and sections, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. Power plant engine piping-compressed air piping diagram and sections, sheet 81 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

459

Integrated 3-Parameter Diagram for Determining Thermodynamic Properties of Fluids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The importance of thermodynamic properties of fluids has motivated recent studies in developing methods of calculating thermodynamic properties. Among the various methods, the use of computational diagrams is a commonly used engineering method. Convention...

G. Zhao X. Deng M. Zhu

1987-01-01

460

Ground water quality assessment using multi-rectangular diagrams.  

PubMed

A new graphical technique is proposed here for classifying chemical analyses of ground water. In this technique, a diagram is constructed using rectangular coordinates. The new diagram, called a multi-rectangular diagram (MRD), uses adjacent multi-rectangles in which each rectangle represents a specific ground water type. This new diagram has the capability to accommodate a large number of data sets. MRDs have been used to classify chemical analyses of ground water in the Chaj Doab area of Pakistan to illustrate this new approach. Using this graphical method, the differentiated ground water types are calcium bicarbonate, magnesium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, and sodium sulfate. Sodium bicarbonate emerges as the most abundant ground water type. MRDs also offer a visual display of the Chebotarev sequence of ground water quality evolution. PMID:14649865

Ahmad, Niaz; Sen, Zekai; Ahmad, Manzoor

461

Architecture flow diagrams under teamwork{reg_sign}  

SciTech Connect

The Teamwork CASE tool allows Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs) to be maintained for structured analysis. Fermilab has extended teamwork under UNIX{trademark} to permit Hatley and Pirbhai Architecture Flow Diagrams (AFDs) to be associated with DFDs and subsequently maintained. This extension, called TWKAFD, allows a user to open an AFD, graphically edit it, and replace it into a TWKAFD maintained library. Other aspects of Hatley and Pirbhai`s methodology are supported. This paper presents a quick tutorial on Architecture Diagrams. It then describes the user`s view of TWKAFD, the experience incorporating it into teamwork, and the successes with using the Architecture Diagram methodology along with the shortcomings of using the teamwork/TWKAFD tool. 8 refs.

Nicinski, T.

1992-02-01

462

129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. Sheet lO of 11 (#3283) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

463

Encopresis: Not just an accident.  

PubMed

Encopresis is a medical condition that can be seen in the school setting with children of all ages, though primarily at the early childhood and elementary level. This condition can cause a great amount of frustration with the student, family, and teachers due to the child's inability to control elimination patterns. The school nurse must be aware of the warning signs that a student may be experiencing encopresis in order to promote treatment. This article will assist the school nurse in understanding typical causes for functional encopresis, knowing how to help a student who soils, and developing an individualized healthcare plan that assists a student to become continent of stool again. Encopresis is not just an accident. PMID:24050041

Mosca, Nancy W; Schatz, Mary L

2013-09-01

464

[Oral contraception and cerebrovascular accidents].  

PubMed

The authors had the opportunity to follow a case of fatal ischemic bilateral cerebral infarctus which occurred in a 28 year old female with a history of migraine (but without any anti-migrainous drug). She had been using a low dose (0.05 mg ethinyl estradiol) oral contraceptive (OC) for 2 years. The previous pathological data of subendothelial thickening and fibrosis with thrombosis were confirmed, but for the 1st time, a marked giant cell reaction was found in close contact with lesions of the internal elastic membrane. Thus, there was evidence of inflammatory thrombo-angeitis obliterans. Biological and immunological abnormalities such as a high rate of anti-ethinyl estradiol antibodies in the serum (polyclonal immunoglobulin IgC) and circulating blood immune complexes seem to be closely related to this inflammatory thrombo-angeitis. These biological and histological findings suggest that vascular accidents related to OCs may be induced by an immunological mechanism. (author's) PMID:7034891

Nick, J; Bakouche, P; Beaumont, V; Vedrenne, C

1981-06-01

465

[Iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents].  

PubMed

Radioactive iodine isotopes may be released to air to a varying degree during accidents with nuclear reactors. Iodine tablets, taken before or shortly after such release, protect against intake of radioactive iodine isotopes, but not against other radionuclides. Iodine prophylaxis can be a relevant countermeasure in Norway and will be implemented according to recommendations from the Crisis Committee for Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies. The Chernobyl accident confirmed that the risk for radiogenic thyroid cancer is much higher for foetuses and children and adolescents under 18 years. An epidemiological study showed that intake of iodine tablets could reduce the risk for thyroid cancer by a factor of three. For children, the WHO has therefore recommended a 10 mGy avertable dose to the thyroid. The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority acknowledge the WHO guidelines and advise that the first priority of all emergency preparedness planning for potential releases that can cause dispersion of radioactive iodine, should be given to the protection of pregnant and breast-feeding women, newborns and children under 18 years. Iodine tablets should be taken immediately (preferably not later than a few hours) in situations where inhalation of radioactive iodine may occur. It should be underlined that iodine prophylaxis is one of several emergency countermeasures; other measures are sheltering and evacuation. The latter two countermeasures will protect not only from intake of radioactive iodine, but also against other radionuclides that may be released. Based on the present risk assessment in Norway, iodine tablets have been distributed to the counties north of Salten. In addition, there is an emergency stockpile of iodine tablets in Oslo. PMID:17205086

Jaworska, Alicja

2007-01-01

466

A Hubble diagram of distant type IA supernovae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed Hubble diagrams in B and V for 13 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) found in the course of the Calan\\/Tololo survey covering an unprecedented range in redshift (0.01 less than Z less than 0.1). As opposed to other published Hubble diagrams, these are solely based on light curves obtained with CCDs, which have been carefully reduced in

Mario Hamuy; M. M. Phillips; Jose Maza; Nicholas B. Suntzeff; R. A. Schommer; R. Aviles

1995-01-01

467

State diagram and water adsorption isotherm of raspberry ( Rubus idaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal transitions of freeze-dried raspberry powder (Rubus idaeus) were analyzed by using differential scanning calorimetry. Freeze-dried raspberry powders containing unfreezable and freezable water were examined to develop the state diagram of raspberry. The state diagram of freeze-dried raspberry powders included the glass line; glass transition temperature versus solids content, freezing curve; initial freezing point versus solids content; end point of

Roopesh M. Syamaladevi; Shyam S. Sablani; Juming Tang; Joseph Powers; Barry G. Swanson

2009-01-01

468

Generalized Dynkin Diagrams and Root Systems and Their Folding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphs which generalize the simple or affine Dynkin diagrams are introduced. Each diagram defines a bilinear form on a root system and thus a reflection group. We present some properties of these groups and of their natural "Coxeter element". The folding of these graphs and groups is also discussed, using the theory of C-algebras. (Proceedings of the Taniguchi Symposium {Topological Field Theory, Primitive Forms and Related Topics}, Kyoto Dec 1996)

Zuber, Jean-Bernard

469

Modelling the phase diagram of magnetic shape memory Heusler alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have modelled the phase diagram of magnetic shape memory alloys of the Heusler type by using the phenomenological Ginzburg–Landau theory. When fixing the parameters by realistic values taken from experiment we are able to reproduce most details of, for example, the phase diagram of Ni2+xMn1?xGa in the (T, x) plane. We present the results of ab initio calculations of

P Entel; V D Buchelnikov; V V Khovailo; A T Zayak; W A Adeagbo; M E Gruner; H C Herper; E F Wassermann

2006-01-01

470

Phase diagrams of extended Hubbard models in the atomic limit  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider phase diagrams of a family of two-dimensional Hubbard-like models in the atomic limit. We start with the ground state phase diagram of the Hubbard model augmented by a nearest-neighbour repulsion and study the effect of a perturbation by temperature. This enables us to reveal the origin of the tricritical behaviour found earlier in a mean field approximation. Then

J. Jedrzejewski

1994-01-01

471

Forming limit diagram for Indian interstitial free steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the suitability of interstitial free steel sheets of thickness 0.6 and 1.6mm for press forming operations were examined by obtaining the forming limit diagram. The microstructural aspects, tensile properties and formability parameters were studied. Forming limit diagrams (FLD) were evaluated for the above sheet metals of two different thicknesses and they were compared. Strain distribution profiles were

R. Narayanasamy; C. Sathiya Narayanan

2006-01-01

472

Determination of the forming limit diagram for Al 3105 sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forming limit diagram presents limit strains for different linear strain paths. In other words it indicates localized formability of sheet metals under different proportional loading and is considered a powerful tool for trouble shooting in sheet-metal forming industries. In this study in-plane and out-of-plane forming limit diagrams were determined for aluminum 3105. In the experimental works, all specimens were prepared

M. M. Moshksar; S. Mansorzadeh

2003-01-01

473

Latest Results Found with Ring-Diagram Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ring-diagram analysis is a helioseismic tool useful for studying the near-surface layers of the Sun. It has been employed to study near-surface shear, meridional circulation, flows around sunspots, and thermal structure beneath active regions. We review recent results obtained using ring-diagram analysis, state some of the more important outstanding difficulties in the technique, and point out several extensions to the technique that are just now beginning to bear fruit.

Baldner, C. S.; Basu, S.; Bogart, R. S.; Burtseva, O.; González Hernández, I.; Haber, D.; Hill, F.; Howe, R.; Jain, K.; Komm, R. W.; Rabello-Soares, M. C.; Tripathy, S.

2013-10-01

474

Phase diagram of a coupled tetrahedral Heisenberg model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase diagram of a coupled tetrahedral Heisenberg model is obtained. The quantum chain has a local gauge symmetry and its eigenspectrum is obtained by the composition of the eigenspectra of spin-1\\/2 XXZ chains with arbitrary distribution of spin-3\\/2 impurities. The phase diagram is quite rich with an infinite number of phases with ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, or ferrimagnetic order. In some

Onofre Rojas; F. C. Alcaraz

2003-01-01

475

Recognition and clear representation of handwritten electronic diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recognition system for handwritten electronic diagrams is described. This system will be integrated in another one which performs automatic page-settings. The different steps presented are acquisition, skeletonization, segmentation, text elimination, connections detection, classification and identification of the basic symbols. An interactive phase, at the end of the treatment, allows simultaneous correction the final diagram and introduce the text which was previously eliminated.

Silbermann, M.; Deschizeaux, P.

476

Moment\\/thrust interaction diagrams for reinforced masonry sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a numerical analysis for estimating moment\\/thrust interaction diagrams for reinforced masonry sections. Realistic constitutive models are used for the masonry and steel reinforcement. Considering compatibility of strains and equilibrium of forces on reinforced masonry sections, the moment–curvature relationships for different axial thrusts are first produced. The moment–thrust interaction diagrams are then developed. Comparisons between the behaviour predicted

Y. Chen; A. F. Ashour; S. W. Garrity

2008-01-01

477

Displaying clinical data relationships using scaled rectangle diagrams.  

PubMed

A method is presented to draw rectangles to represent categorical data relationships. The idea is an adaptation of a scaled Venn diagram. Rectangles are drawn with area proportional to the frequency of categories and the rectangles are positioned to overlap each other so that the areas of overlap are in proportion to the joint frequencies of the characteristics. The diagrams are especially useful to illustrate symptom co-occurrence. PMID:11276037

Marshall, R J

2001-04-15

478

CLEA: H-R Diagrams of Star Clusters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab illustrates how HR diagrams of star clusters are used to determine the distances and ages of the clusters. Students use real photometric data, star positions, and data analysis software to fit HR diagrams to various models. If desired, students can also measure the magnitudes and colors of the cluster stars using a simulated telescope, thus learning how astronomers collect the data. This is part of a larger collection of simulations, Project CLEA.

Marschall, Laurence; Snyder, Glenn; Cooper, P. R.; Hayden, Michael; Good, Rhonda

2008-08-28

479

Efficient Computation of 3D Clipped Voronoi Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Voronoi diagram is a fundamental geometry structure widely used in various fields, especially in computer graphics and\\u000a geometry computing. For a set of points in a compact 3D domain (i.e. a finite 3D volume), some Voronoi cells of their Voronoi\\u000a diagram are infinite, but in practice only the parts of the cells inside the domain are needed, as when

Dong-Ming Yan; Wenping Wang; Bruno Lévy; Yang Liu

2010-01-01

480

Fast computation of Generalized Voronoi Diagrams Using Graphics Hardware  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate a new approach for computing generalized 2D and 3D Voronoi diagrams using interpolation-based polygon rasterization hardware. We compute a discrete Voronoi diagram by rendering a three dimensional distance mesh for each Voronoi site. The polygonal mesh is a bounded-error approximation of a (possibly) non-linear function of the distance between a site and a 2D planar grid of sample

Kenneth E. Hoff III; Tim Culver; John Keyser; Dinesh Manocha; Ming C. Lin

2000-01-01

481

Polygon Characterization With the Multiplicatively Weighted Voronoi Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many landscape features are represented as polygons in GIS. This paper characterizes polygon shapes with the multiplicatively weighted Voronoi (MW-Voronoi) diagram and improves its understanding. The MW-Voronoi diagram's composition is implemented with topological overlay, growth simulation, and vertex calculation methods. The decomposition is done by reversing a polygon to MW-Voronoi point pairs by segment. It is a new approach to

Lan Mu

2004-01-01

482

L? Voronoi Diagrams and Applications to VLSI Layout and Manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we address the L\\u000a ? Voronoi diagram of polygonal objects and present applications in VLSI layout and manufacturing. We show that in L\\u000a ? the Voronoi diagram of segments consists only of straight line segments and is thus much simpler to compute than its Euclidean\\u000a counterpart. Moreover, it has a natural interpretation. In applications where Euclidean precision

Evanthia Papadopoulou

483

MORT User's Manual for use with the Management Oversight and Risk Tree analytical logic diagram. [Contains a list of System Safety Development Center publications  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the User's Manual for MORT (Management Oversight and Risk Tree), a logic diagram in the form of a work sheet'' that illustrates a long series of interrelated questions. MORT is a comprehensive analytical procedure that provides a disciplined method for determining the causes and contributing factors of major accidents. Alternatively, it serves as a tool to evaluate the quality of an existing system. While similar in many respects to fault tree analysis, MORT is more generalized and presents over 1,500 specific elements of an ideal universal'' management program for optimizing environment, safety and health, and other programs. This User's Manual is intended to be used with the MORT diagram dated February 1992.

Knox, N.W.; Eicher, R.W.

1992-02-01

484

The neodymium-gold phase diagram  

SciTech Connect

The Nd-Au phase diagram was studied in the 0 to 100 at. pct Au composition range by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (LOM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Six intermetallic phases were identified, the crystallographic structures were determined or confirmed, and the melting behavior was determined, as follows: Nd{sub 2}Au, orthorhombic oP12-Co{sub 2}Si type, peritectic decomposition at 810 C; NdAu, R.T. form, orthorhombic oP8-FeB type, H.T. forms, orthorhombic oC8-CrB type and, at a higher temperature, cubic cP2-CsCl type, melting point 1470 C; Nd{sub 3}Au{sub 4}, trigonal hR42-Pu{sub 3}Pd{sub 4} type, peritectic decomposition at 1250 C; Nd{sub 17}Au{sub 36}, tetragonal tP106-Nd{sub 17}Au{sub 36} type, melting point 1170 C; Nd{sub 14}Au{sub 51}, hexagonal hP65-Gd{sub 14}Ag{sub 51} type, melting point 1210 C; and NdAu{sub 6}, monoclinic mC28-PrAu{sub 6} type, peritectic decomposition at 875 C. Four eutectic reactions were found, respectively, at 19.0 at. pct Au and 655 C, at 63.0 at. pct Au and 1080 C, at 72.0 at. pct Au and 1050 C, and, finally, at 91.0 at. pct Au and 795 C. A catatectic decomposition of the ({beta}Nd) phase, at 825 C and {approx}1 at. pct Au, was also found. The results are briefly discussed and compared to those for the other rare earth-gold (R-Au) systems. A short discussion of the general alloying behavior of the coinage metals (Cu, Ag, and Au) with the rare-earth metals is finally presented.

Saccone, A.; Maccio, D.; Delfino, S.; Ferro, R. [Sezione di Chimica Inorganicae Metallurgia, Genova (Italy)

1999-05-01

485

CALCULATING ASTEROSEISMIC DIAGRAMS FOR SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS  

SciTech Connect

With the success of the Kepler and CoRoT missions, the number of stars with detected solar-like oscillations has increased by several orders of magnitude; for the first time we are able to perform large-scale ensemble asteroseismology of these stars. In preparation for this golden age of asteroseismology we have computed expected values of various asteroseismic observables from models of varying mass and metallicity. The relationships between these asteroseismic observables, such as the separations between mode frequencies, are able to significantly constrain estimates of the ages and masses of these stars. We investigate the scaling relation between the large frequency separation, {Delta}{nu}, and mean stellar density. Furthermore we present model evolutionary tracks for several asteroseismic diagrams. We have extended the so-called C-D diagram beyond the main sequence to the subgiants and the red giant branch. We also consider another asteroseismic diagram, the {epsilon} diagram, which is more sensitive to variations in stellar properties at the subgiant stages and can aid in determining the correct mode identification. The recent discovery of gravity-mode period spacings in red giants forms the basis for a third asteroseismic diagram. We compare the evolutionary model tracks in these asteroseismic diagrams with results from pre-Kepler studies of solar-like oscillations and early results from Kepler.

White, Timothy R.; Bedding, Timothy R.; Stello, Dennis; Huber, Daniel [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen; Kjeldsen, Hans, E-mail: t.white@physics.usyd.edu.au [Danish AsteroSeismology Centre (DASC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2011-12-20

486

Voronoi diagram and spatial clustering in the presence of obstacles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clustering in spatial data mining is to group similar objects based on their distance, connectivity, or their relative density in space. Clustering algorithms typically use the Euclidean distance. In the real world, there exist many physical obstacles such as rivers, lakes and highways, and their presence may affect the result of clustering substantially. In this paper, we study the problem of clustering in the presence of obstacles and propose spatial clustering by Voronoi distance in Voronoi diagram (Thiessen polygon). Voronoi diagram has lateral spatial adjacency character. Based on it, we can express the spatial lateral adjacency relation conveniently and solve the problem derived from spatial clustering in the presence of obstacles. The method has three steps. First, building the Voronoi diagram in the presence of obstacles. Second, defining the Voronoi distance. Based on Voronoi diagram, we propose the Voronoi distance. Giving two spatial objects, Pi and Pj, The Voronoi distance is defined that the minimum object Voronoi regions number between Pi and Pj in the Voronoi diagram. Third, we propose Following-Obstacle-Algorithm (FOA). FOA includes three steps: the initializing step, the querying step and the pruning step. By FOA, we can get the Voronoi distance between any two objects. By Voronoi diagram and the FOA, the spatial clustering in the presence of obstacles can be accomplished conveniently, and more precisely. We conduct various performance studies to show that the method is both efficient and effective.

Wang, Zuocheng; Xue, Lixia; Li, Yongshu; Wang, Linlin; Zhang, Xuewang

2005-11-01

487

Accidents in Canada: mortality and hospitalization.  

PubMed

For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985. PMID:2491351

Riley, R; Paddon, P

1989-01-01

488

Mine accident liabilities: a Pandora's box  

SciTech Connect

Mine accidents continue to occur despite countless thousands of man-hours devoted to their prevention by company safety professionals, operational personnel and federal and state regulators. They occur because mining is conducted in a hostile environment where there is little margin for error. This article discusses the potential liabilities following a mine accident, including employee or survivor claims, suits by non-employees affected by the accident, losses of production and mining equipment, exposure of the company to federal and state-imposed mine closure, and exposure of the company and its supervisory employees to civil or criminal penalties for violation of federal and state mining laws.

Biddle, T.M.

1985-10-01

489

Legal intervention against medical accidents in Japan  

PubMed Central

The number of civil lawsuits in Japan concerning medical accidents has been increasing gradually. Emotional reports in the media about medical accidents have amplified people’s distrust of physicians. Since 2002, the police have been more actively involved, and the number of criminal prosecutions against physicians as a result of medical accidents has increased. Fear of litigation and arrest has demoralized physicians. Communication of the risks associated with various medical practices is considered vital if physician–patient relationships are to be improved. Moreover, there needs to be a reconsideration of legal interventions into medical affairs.

Yasunaga, Hideo

2008-01-01

490

A DIAGRAM APPROACH TO AUTOMATIC GENERATION OF JSP\\/SERVLET WEB APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We defined diagrams called Web transition diagrams to rep- resent overall behavior of Web applications. Using these diagrams, we can generate server program type Web ap- plications such as CGI-based Web applications, and server page type Web applications such as ASP-based Web appli- cations. The purpose of this paper is to design Web transi- tion diagrams to represent wider class

Kornkamol Jamroendararasame; Tetsuya Suzuki; Takehiro Tokuda

491

Shuttle accident stalls science plans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plans to make 1986 a uniquely productive year for U.S. space science activities ended in one horrible moment with the January 28, 1986, explosion of the space shuttle Challenger. The joyless scene at Cape Canaveral, Fla., stood in sharp contrast to the overwhelming success of Voyager 2 in its encounter with Uranus 4 days earlier. (Scientific details of that encounter will follow in upcoming issues of Eos.)Of the 15 space shuttle flights planned for fiscal year 1986, beginning October 1, 1985, a total of seven were to have carried scientific payloads for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The remaining eight flights were evenly divided between missions for the U.S. Department of Defense and commercial missions for NASA's paying customers. The explosion caused NASA to put its entire space shuttle program on hold to allow time for engineers to find the cause of the accident and for NASA to implement corrective measures. As Eos went to press, NASA acting administrator William R. Graham had not yet released the names of those who would serve on the formal investigative panel. “I think everybody's agreed that it will take weeks to months to unravel,” said Alexander Dessler, director of the space science laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center near Huntsville, Ala. Dessler speculated that investigators would begin with a list of hundreds of possible causes for the explosion.

Katzoff, Judith A.

492

Structural assessment of accident loads  

SciTech Connect

Structural assessments were made for specific accident loads for specific catch, receiver, and storage tanks. The evaluation herein represents level-of-effort order-of-magnitude estimates of limiting loads that would lead to collapse or rupture of the tank and unmitigated loss of confinement for the waste. Structural capacities were established using failure criteria. Compliance with codes such as ACI, ASCE, ASME, RCRA, UBC, WAC, and DOE Orders was `NOT` maintained. Normal code practice is to prevent failure with margins consistent with expected variations in loads and strengths and confidence in analysis techniques. The evaluation herein represent estimates of code limits without code load factors or code strength reduction factors, and loading beyond such a limit is considered as an onset of some failure mode. The exact nature of the failure mode and its relation to a safe condition is a judgment of the analyst. Consequently, these `RESULTS SHALL NOT BE USED TO ESTABLISH OPERATING OR SAFETY LOAD LIMITS FOR THESE TANKS`.

Wagenblast, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-28

493

Review of models applicable to accident aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Estimations of potential airborne-particle releases are essential in safety assessments of nuclear-fuel facilities. This report is a review of aerosol behavior models that have potential applications for predicting aerosol characteristics in compartments containing accident-generated aerosol sources. Such characterization of the accident-generated aerosols is a necessary step toward estimating their eventual release in any accident scenario. Existing aerosol models can predict the size distribution, concentration, and composition of aerosols as they are acted on by ventilation, diffusion, gravity, coagulation, and other phenomena. Models developed in the fields of fluid mechanics, indoor air pollution, and nuclear-reactor accidents are reviewed with this nuclear fuel facility application in mind. The various capabilities of modeling aerosol behavior are tabulated and discussed, and recommendations are made for applying the models to problems of differing complexity.

Glissmeyer, J.A.

1983-07-01

494

22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...expeditious means possible (priority telephone or telegraph message) at Government expense. If the accident involves a private...case, the Department will ascertain from the Civil Aeronautics Board whether it desires to investigate the case, and inform...

2013-04-01

495

Intelligence and Accidents: A Multilevel Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Intelligence reduces the risk of accidents. Prior tests of this reasonable hypothesis have produced associations that are too weak to be of much theoretical or practical importance. However, intelligence is most valuable when complex patterns of informati...

R. R. Vickers A. Villasenor

2006-01-01

496

Development of Reconstruction Procedure for Pole Accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the study is to develop a reconstruction procedure for pole accidents in which the struck pole was partially or completely fractured. Alternative reconstruction approaches were evaluated and an analytical model based on a three-phase coll...

K. K. Mak J. J. Labra

1980-01-01

497

Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) Data Enhancement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The quality of data in the 1978 Fatal Accident Reporting System data file was evaluated. Errors in the FARS data can affect statistical inferences of researchers and, more importantly, can affect NHTSA's policy decisions. Procedures for assessing the exte...

P. Dougan L. A. Klimko B. Schmitz

1980-01-01

498

Abnormal Glucose Levels Found in Transportation Accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Aviation Administration's Office of Aviation Medicine (OAM) is responsible for the certification of pilots with diabetic conditions. Therefore, it is essential for OAM to monitor pilots involved in fatal accidents for abnormal glucose levels, ...

D. V. Canfield A. K. Chaturvedi H. K. Boren S. J. H. Veronneau V. L. White

2000-01-01

499

Chernobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chernobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chernobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

Vargo, G.J.; Poyarkov, V.; Baryakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.

1999-11-01

500

Chernobyl accident: A comprehensive risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

The authors, all of whom are Ukrainian and Russian scientists involved with Chernobyl nuclear power plant since the April 1986 accident, present a comprehensive review of the accident. In addition, they present a risk assessment of the remains of the destroyed reactor and its surrounding shelter, Chernobyl radioactive waste storage and disposal sites, and environmental contamination in the region. The authors explore such questions as the risks posed by a collapse of the shelter, radionuclide migration from storage and disposal facilities in the exclusion zone, and transfer from soil to vegetation and its potential regional impact. The answers to these questions provide a scientific basis for the development of countermeasures against the Chernobyl accident in particular and the mitigation of environmental radioactive contamination in general. They also provide an important basis for understanding the human health and ecological risks posed by the accident.

Vargo, G.J.; Poyarkov, V.; Baryakhtar, V.; Kukhar, V.; Los, I.

1999-01-01