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1

Prediction of work functioning following accidental injury: The contribution of PTSD symptom severity and other established risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses to a mail survey were used to investigate the contribution of PTSD symptom severity to work functioning in 69 previously employed adult survivors of accidental injury approximately 8 months post?hospitalization. Associations of PTSD symptom severity with other established risk factors for poor work functioning were also examined. Participants were initially divided into three groups based on PTSD symptom severity

Lynda R. Matthews; Darien Chinnery

2005-01-01

2

On the corrosion behavior of zircaloy-4 in spent fuel pools under accidental conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After zircaloy cladding tubes have been subjected to irradiation in the reactor core, they are stored temporarily in spent fuel pools. In case of an accident, the integrity of the pool may be affected and the composition of the coolant may change drastically. This was the case in Fukushima Daiichi in March 2011. Successive incidents have led to an increase in the pH of the coolant and to chloride contamination. Moreover, water radiolysis may occur owing to the remnant radioactivity of the spent fuel. In this study, we propose to evaluate the corrosion behavior of oxidized Zr-4 (in autoclave at 288 °C for 32 days) in function of the pH and the presence of chloride and radical forms. The generation of radicals is achieved by the sonolysis of the solution. It appears that the increase in pH and the presence of radicals lead to an increase in current densities. However, the current densities remain quite low (depending on the conditions, between 1 and 10 ?A cm-2). The critical parameter is the presence of chloride ions. The chloride ions widely decrease the passive range of the oxidized samples (the pitting potential is measured around +0.6 V (vs. SCE)). Moreover, if the oxide layer is scratched or damaged (which is likely under accidental conditions), the pitting potential of the oxidized sample reaches the pitting potential of the non-oxidized sample (around +0.16 V (vs. SCE)), leaving a shorter stable passive range for the Zr-4 cladding tubes.

Lavigne, O.; Shoji, T.; Sakaguchi, K.

2012-07-01

3

Effects of meteorological conditions on the concentration and dispersion of an accidental release of H2S in Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to determine the effects of the land's meteorological conditions on the dispersion of an accidental release of H2S using the CALPro software. The three Canadian cities or towns of Edmonton, Yarmouth and Whitehorse, which are all of different meteorological conditions, were chosen as the domains of study. Hourly geophysical, surface and upper air meteorological data were used with CALMET to model the wind field of the three domains for the modeling period of March 11, 2012 from 00h00 to 23h00 LST. Individual 5-h modeling periods where the wind field showed the most significant variations were chosen for each region of study. CALPUFF was used to model the dispersion effects of an accidental release of H2S from a single point source due to an accidental vessel puncture using time-varying emission data modified to suit each region's modeling period. Despite the wind reversal encountered in Edmonton, its relatively flat terrain allowed H2S to disperse outwards, causing concentrations to accumulate lower than the other two regions but still to sever levels and a much greater population. Differences between the effect of land and sea breeze on H2S dispersion in Yarmouth's coastal region caused concentrations to accumulate higher than the other two regions and to life threatening levels around the source. The mountainous terrain of Whitehorse shaped the plume trajectory, causing H2S concentrations to accumulate to levels that can cause irreversible health effects at various times and locations. Results show that each area's meteorological conditions will have different impacts on dispersion.

Abdul-Wahab, Sabah A.; Chan, Keziah; Elkamel, Ali; Ahmadi, Lena

2014-01-01

4

Inflammatory Factors Contribute to Depression and Its Comorbid Conditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New perspectives have emerged regarding the processes associated with depressive disorders and their many comorbid conditions. Particular attention has been paid to the potential role of inflammatory factors in promoting these illnesses. These inflammatory responses include those elicited by pathogenic stimuli, as well as sterile inflammatory processes, such as those related to severe or chronic stress. These diverse challenges may activate common processes in which cytokines, which are inflammatory signaling molecules, provoke the dysregulation of several growth factors, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, fibroblast growth factor–2, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and erythropoietin. The result of such dysregulation favors the development of depressive disorders and their comorbid illnesses, such as heart disease, diabetes, autoimmune conditions, and poststroke depression.

Hymie Anisman (Carleton University;Department of Neuroscience REV); Shawn Hayley (Carleton University;Department of Neuroscience REV)

2012-10-02

5

Accidental HIV exposure.  

PubMed

This is a case presentation of an accidental contaminated needle stick injury from a patient known to be infected with both Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and hepatitis B. The patient was managed with prophylactic hepatitis B immune globulin, hepatitis B vaccination and the HIV retroviral drug zidovudine (AZT). At one year after treatment the patient was not infected with HIV or hepatitis B, and there was adequate immunity generated after vaccination for hepatitis B. PMID:9675972

Abayomi, E A; Mandisodza, M T

1998-02-01

6

Genetic tradeoffs and conditional neutrality contribute to local adaptation  

PubMed Central

Divergent natural selection promotes local adaptation and can lead to reproductive isolation of populations in contrasting environments; however, the genetic basis of local adaptation remains largely unresolved in natural populations. Local adaptation might result from antagonistic pleiotropy, where alternate alleles are favored in distinct habitats, and polymorphism is maintained by selection. Alternatively, under conditional neutrality some alleles may be favored in one environment but neutral at other locations. Antagonistic pleiotropy maintains genetic variation across the landscape; however, there is a systematic bias against discovery of antagonistic pleiotropy since the fitness benefits of local alleles need to be significant in at least two environments. Here, we develop a generally applicable method to investigate polygenic local adaptation and identify loci that are the targets of selection. This approach evaluates allele frequency changes after selection at loci across the genome to distinguish antagonistic pleiotropy from conditional neutrality and deleterious variation. We investigate local adaptation at the QTL-level in field experiments, in which we expose 177 F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and parental lines of Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae) to their parental environments over two seasons. We demonstrate polygenic selection for native alleles in both environments, with 2.8% of the genome exhibiting antagonistic pleiotropy, and 8% displaying conditional neutrality. Our study strongly supports antagonistic pleiotropy at one large-effect flowering phenology QTL (nFT): native homozygotes had significantly greater probabilities of flowering than foreign homozygotes in both parental environments. Such large-scale field studies are essential to elucidate the genetic basis of adaptation in natural populations.

Anderson, Jill T.; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Rushworth, Catherine; Colautti, Robert; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

2012-01-01

7

Deep accidental hypothermia during the Queensland summer.  

PubMed

A 52-year-old woman presented with severe accidental hypothermia associated with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest after a polypharmacy overdose. Deep hypothermia developed while she lay unconscious, with a split-system air-conditioning unit rapidly cooling the confined area of her bedroom. Despite the need for lengthy resuscitative efforts at the scene and in hospital, she went on to a full neurological recovery. The neuroprotective role of accidental hypothermia is reviewed, as are the guidelines for resuscitation in this setting. We conclude that hypothermia must be considered even in unlikely circumstances, such as the Queensland summer, when ambient temperatures are high. PMID:18052898

Udy, Andrew A; Ziegenfuss, Marc D; Fraser, John F

2007-12-01

8

Is the tribimaximal mixing accidental?  

SciTech Connect

The tribimaximal (TBM) mixing is not accidental if structures of the corresponding leptonic mass matrices follow immediately from certain (residual or broken) flavor symmetry. We develop a simple formalism which allows one to analyze effects of deviations of the lepton mixing from TBM on the structure of the neutrino mass matrix and on the underlying flavor symmetry. We show that possible deviations from the TBM mixing can lead to strong modifications of the mass matrix and strong violation of the TBM-mass relations. As a result, the mass matrix may have an 'anarchical' structure with random values of elements or it may have some symmetry that differs from the TBM symmetry. Interesting examples include matrices with texture zeros, matrices with certain 'flavor alignment' as well as hierarchical matrices with a two-component structure, where the dominant and subdominant contributions have different symmetries. This opens up new approaches to understanding the lepton mixing.

Abbas, Mohammed [Ain Shams University, Faculty of Sciences, Abbassiyah 11566, Cairo (Egypt); Center for Theoretical Physics (CTP), British University in Egypt, BUE, El-Sherouk City, Cairo (Egypt); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Smirnov, A. Yu. [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-07-01

9

[Accidental methyl alcohol poisoning].  

PubMed

An accidental poisoning due to drinking methyl alcohol in Chaoyang county is reported, analysing the accident. The poison came from the "retail white spirit" which was contaminated with methyl alcohol. Twenty-nine persons drank the wine, fourteen of them died, two of them became blind. After drinking this "retail white spirit" the drinkers showed symptoms of vertigo, headache, weakness, vomiting, night sweat, dyspnea and blurring of vision etc. within 6-120 hours. On examining the remaining spirit, we found the content of methyl alcohol to be between 16.6 and 40.69 g/100 ml. Some of the patients' urine and blood also contained methyl alcohol. We reckoned that each one of the twenty patients had taken more than 27 g of methyl alcohol and each of the ten dead drank more than 40 ml of the alcohol. PMID:2253526

Xiao, J H

1990-05-01

10

Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.  

PubMed Central

Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed.

Cardis, E

1996-01-01

11

History of accidental hypothermia?  

PubMed Central

Death from exposure to cold has been recognised for thousands of years but hypothermia as a clinical condition was not generally recognised until the mid-20th century and then only in extreme conditions such as immersion in cold water or snow. In the UK, hypothermia in less extreme conditions was not generally recognised until the 1960s. Recognition of hypothermia required the temperature to be measured and this did not become a clinical tool until the late 1800s and it was not used routinely until the early 1900s. Although John Hunter and James Curry did some physiological experiments in the 1700s, detailed physiological experiments were not done until the early 20th century and the use of therapeutic hypothermia for malignancy and in anaesthesia in the 1930s and 1940s provided more impetus for investigating the physiology of hypothermia in humans and familiarising the medical profession with measuring core temperatures.

Guly, Henry

2011-01-01

12

A new insight into the contribution of environmental conditions to tropical cyclone activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The changes of tropical cyclone (TC) activities in response to influencing environmental conditions have been paid more and more attention to in recent years. The potential contributions of single and multivariate environmental variables to annual TC frequency and intensity from 1970 to 2009 are investigated in this study. Instead of using correlation coefficient that assumes a set of samples satisfying the normal distribution, a quantitative measurement is formulated based on the information theory. The results show that dynamic environmental variables play an important role in variations of TC activities over the western North Pacific, North Atlantic, and eastern Pacific. These dynamic factors include wind shear between 850 and 200 hPa and 850-hPa relative vorticity. However, the effects of thermal factors on TC activities are distinct over different basins. The thermal environmental variables only have significant contributions to TC frequency and intensity over the eastern Pacific as well as to TC frequency over the North Atlantic. It is found that the primary factors influencing TC activities are indeed not the same over different basins because of the differences in atmospheric conditions and their changes across different areas. The effects of dynamic variables should be considered more in the regions such as the western North Pacific where the thermal conditions are always satisfied.

Wang, Yuan; Song, Jinjie; Wu, Rongsheng

2013-06-01

13

Factors contributing to cement sheath deposition in casing under highly deviated well conditions  

SciTech Connect

Deposition of a cement sheath inside 9 5/8-in. intermediate casings cemented in highly deviated North Sea wells often required reaming before drilling operations could be resumed. Attempts to remove or prevent solids deposition by means of additional wiper plugs, flushes, or flow-rate variation were ineffective and led to a laboratory investigation of the factors contributing to the cement sheath formation in highly deviated wells. The laboratory study was conducted in a large-scale cement-displacement test facility previously used in similar investigations to simulate field conditions in scale-model proportions with actual field operation pumping equipment, materials, and techniques. This paper describes the identification of cement sheath deposition through case histories, test facilities, conditions, and results and indicates a satisfactory resolution for this problem.

Sabins, F.L.; Smith, R.C.; Broussard, M.D.; Talbot, K.J.; Olaussen, S.R.

1993-12-01

14

Region-specific contribution of the ventral tegmental area to heroin-induced conditioned immunomodulation.  

PubMed

Dopamine receptor stimulation is critical for heroin-conditioned immunomodulation; however, it is unclear whether the ventral tegmental area (VTA) contributes to this phenomenon. Hence, rats received repeated pairings of heroin with placement into a distinct environmental context. At test, they were re-exposed to the previously heroin-paired environment followed by systemic lipopolysaccharide treatment to induce an immune response. Bilateral GABA agonist-induced neural inactivation of the anterior, but not the posterior VTA, prior to context re-exposure inhibited the ability of the heroin-paired environment to suppress peripheral nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-? expression, suggesting a role for the anterior VTA in heroin-conditioned immunomodulation. PMID:24462948

Hutson, Lee W; Szczytkowski, Jennifer L; Saurer, Timothy B; Lebonville, Christina; Fuchs, Rita A; Lysle, Donald T

2014-05-01

15

Epigenetic upregulation of PSD-95 contributes to the rewarding behavior by morphine conditioning.  

PubMed

Abuse of opiates, including morphine, induced remarkable synaptic adaptation in several brain regions including ventral tegmental area (VTA), which underlay the induction and maintenance of opioid dependence and addiction. Scaffolding protein postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) is critically involved in the glutamatergic synaptic maturation and plasticity in the central neurons. The present study revealed a significantly increased mRNA and protein expression of PSD-95 in the VTA of the rats conditioned with morphine. The further chromatin immunoprecipitation study found an increased histone H3 acetylation in the promoter region of Dlg4. An upregulation of expression of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and the occupancy of pCREB in the Dlg4 promoter region were shown in the VTA of the morphine-conditioned rats. Inhibition of pCREB activity significantly decreased the histone H3 acetylation in Dlg4 promoter region, PSD-95 upregulation, enhancement of glutamatergic strength and the preference to morphine-paired chamber in the rats with morphine conditioning. These results suggested that CREB-mediated epigenetic upregulation of PSD-95 critically contributed to the enhanced glutamatergic transmission and rewarding behavior induced by morphine conditioning. PMID:24704371

Wang, Ziwen; Yan, Pingao; Hui, Tianli; Zhang, Jiqiang

2014-06-01

16

Hsc70 Contributes to Cancer Cell Survival by Preventing Rab1A Degradation under Stress Conditions  

PubMed Central

Heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) acts as a molecular chaperone for the maintenance of intracellular proteins, which allows cancer cells to survive under proteotoxic stress. We attempted to use Hsc70 to identify key molecules in cancer cell survival. Here, we performed mass-spectrometry-based proteomics analysis utilizing affinity purification with anti-Hsc70 antibodies; as a result, 83 differentially expressed proteins were identified under stress conditions. This result implies that there was a change in the proteins with which Hsc70 interacted in response to stress. Among the proteins identified under both serum-depleted and 5-fluorouracil-treated conditions, Rab1A was identified as an essential molecule for cancer cell survival. Hsc70 interacted with Rab1A in a chaperone-dependent manner. In addition, Hsc70 knockdown decreased the level of Rab1A and increased the level of its ubiquitination under stress conditions, suggesting that Hsc70 prevented the degradation of Rab1A denatured by stress exposure. We also found that Rab1A knockdown induced cell death by inhibition of autophagosome formation. Rab1A may therefore contribute to overcoming proteotoxic insults, which allows cancer cells to survive under stress conditions. Analysis of Hsc70 interactors provided insight into changes of intracellular status. We expect further study of the Hsc70 interactome to provide a more comprehensive understanding of cancer cell physiology.

Tanaka, Masako; Mun, Saya; Harada, Akihito; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Inagaki, Azusa; Sano, Soichi; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Izumi, Yasukatsu; Osada-Oka, Mayuko; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Yamagata, Masayo; Yukimura, Tokihito; Miura, Katsuyuki; Shiota, Masayuki; Iwao, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

17

Forebrain contribution to the induction of a brainstem correlate of conditioned taste aversion: I. The amygdala.  

PubMed

The induction of c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (c-FLI) in the intermediate division of the nucleus of the solitary tract (iNTS) has been shown to be a reliable cellular correlate of the acquisition and/or behavioral expression of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). To begin to define neuroanatomical structures and pathways that contribute to this cellular response and to CTA learning in general, electrolytic lesions of the amygdala were combined with immunostaining for c-FLI. Rats were given either unilateral or bilateral electrolytic lesions of the amygdala or "sham' operations. Following surgery "paired' animals were given a single conditioning trial consisting of intraoral infusion of 5 ml 0.15% sodium-saccharin followed by injection with LiCl (0.15 M, 20 ml/kg, i.p.) while "unpaired' controls received a non-contingent saccharin-LiCl presentation. When tested, unilateral-lesioned rats displayed a CTA by rejecting the saccharin, but increases in c-FLI were evident only on the side of the iNTS contralateral to the lesion. Rats with bilateral lesions showed no evidence of having acquired a CTA and no increase in c-FLI in iNTS relative to unpaired controls. These findings support involvement of amygdala in CTA learning and suggest that a lateralized connection between amygdala and iNTS is necessary for the conditioned c-FLI which is induced by exposure to a conditioned aversive taste. PMID:9001712

Schafe, G E; Bernstein, I L

1996-11-25

18

Fear conditioning can contribute to behavioral changes observed in a repeated stress model.  

PubMed

Repeated exposure to laboratory stressors often results in behavioral changes that are commonly referred to as depressive-like behaviors. Here, we examined the contribution fear conditioning may play in altering an animals' behavior in a repeated stress paradigm. Fischer rats were exposed daily to different stressors in a complex environment (context A). After four days of stressor exposure, exploratory behavior (10 min in new cage) and social interaction (5 min with juvenile) were tested on day 5 in either the same environment or a new environment (context B). Rats showed decreased exploration and social interaction when tested in context A compared to control rats or rats tested in context B. Additionally, chronic infusion of propranolol (beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist that crosses the blood-brain barrier), but not nadolol (beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist that does not readily cross the blood-brain barrier), prevented the behavioral changes following repeated stressor exposure. Propranolol treatment did not affect the acute or chronic elevation of corticosterone, the decrease in body weight gain, or adrenal hypertrophy observed in animals exposed to stress. These data demonstrate that conditioned fear responses can contribute to behavioral changes in a repeated stress paradigm. Additional studies revealed, Sprague-Dawley rats do not demonstrate decreased exploration or social interaction when testing occurs in the same context as repeated stressor exposure suggesting Fischer rats may have a greater propensity to associate distal cues with aversive events in a complex environment. This may be due to greater stress responses in Fischer animals that are known to enhance consolidation of emotionally arousing events. PMID:22664265

Camp, Robert M; Remus, Jennifer L; Kalburgi, Sahana N; Porterfield, Veronica M; Johnson, John D

2012-08-01

19

The Contribution of Infant, Maternal, and Family Conditions to Maternal Feeding Competencies  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Objective Because little is known about the role of family problem-solving processes in the development of mothers’ competencies in feeding a very low birth-weight (VLBW) infant, we explored the contribution made by the competence in negotiating displayed by a mother and family member as they jointly problem solve infant-care issues. The infant’s neonatal biomedical condition, maternal depressive symptoms, and family poverty status may also contribute to feeding competencies. Design A sample of 41 mothers of VLBW infants from 2 longitudinal studies who were observed during feeding at 1 and 8 months infant postterm age, with a family member of their choosing, participated in a dyadic problem-solving exercise. We assessed maternal feeding competencies with the Parent–Child Early Relational Assessment (Clark, 1997) and dyadic negotiating competence using an observational scale from the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scales (Melby & Conger, 2001). We classified infant condition through medical record audit. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) Scale (L. S. Radloff, 1977), and family poverty status was determined through the mother’s report of family income. Results Mothers’ feeding competencies, structured into 2 factors, Parental Positive Affective Involvement, Sensitivity, and Responsiveness (PPAISR) and Parental Negative Affect and Behavior (PNAB, scored in the direction of low negativity) were stable from 1 to 8 months, accounting for the entire set of predictor variables. Neonatal biomedical condition had no effect on either PPAISR or PNAB; depressive symptoms were negatively associated with PNAB at 8 months; poverty status negatively predicted both PPAISR and PNAB at 1 and 8 months; and negotiating competence of the mother–family member dyad was positively associated with PNAB at 1 month. Conclusions Evidence that family poverty status and dyadic negotiating competence were both associated with maternal feeding competencies supports inclusion of these family-level variables in a model of feeding competencies. A mother’s negotiating competence with another family member who takes a responsible role in infant care may support maternal feeding competencies during a VLBW infant’s early weeks when parenting patterns are forming.

Pridham, Karen; Melby, Janet N.; Brown, Roger; Clark, Roseanne

2011-01-01

20

Estimation of the Ionosphere and Plasmasphere Contribution to the GPS TEC under Solar Minimum Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plasmaspheric electron content (PEC) was estimated by comparison GPS observations and FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC radio occultation (RO) measurements at the extended solar minimum of cycle 23/24. GPS observations provide information about values of vertical total electron content (TEC) up to the metricconverterProductID20,200 km20,200 km. FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC now provides unprecedented global coverage of GPS RO measurements. Depending on the state of the constellation, COSMIC has been producing 1,500 -- 2,500 good soundings of the ionosphere and atmosphere per day, uniformly distributed around the globe. This number of RO is much higher than even before. In this study, COSMIC RO data for different seasons corresponded to equinoxes and solstices of 2007-2009 (March, June, September and December) were analyzed. All selected COSMIC RO electron density profiles were integrated up to the height of metricconverterProductID700 km700 km (altitude of COSMIC satellites), in that way the estimates of ionospheric electron content (IEC) were retrieved on a global scale. The final IGS combined global ionospheric maps (GIMs) were used to calculate the global maps of monthly medians of TEC values. As a result there were analyzed global distributions of GPS TEC and IEC estimates corresponded to the monthly median values for different seasons of 2007-2009. We consider the quantitative differences PEC = TEC -- IEC as a measure of the contribution of the PEC to GPS TEC. In order to analyze seasonal behaviour of PEC contribution to GPS TEC at the different regions we selected several specific points with coordinates, corresponded to the approximate positions of different, mid-latitude and low-latitude, ionospheric sounding stations. Such points were selected at Northern America, European and Asian regions, Southern America, Southern Africa and country-regionplaceAustralia. For each specific points GPS TEC, COSMIC IEC and PEC estimates were analyzed. Results of our comparative study revealed that for mid-latitude stations PEC estimates varied weakly with the time of a day and reached the value of several TECU (3-5 TECU) for the condition of solar minimum. Percentage contribution of PEC to GPS TEC indicates the clear dependence from the time and varies from a minimum of about 25-30% during day-time to the value of more than 60% at night-time. The presented results are compared with TEC, PEC and IEC estimates retrieved by Standard Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model (SPIM, http://ftp.izmiran.ru/pub/izmiran/SPIM/).

Zakharenkova, Irina; Cherniak, Iurii; Krankowski, Andrzej; Shagimuratov, Irk; Sieradzki, Rafal

2012-07-01

21

[Accidental hanging during auto-erotic practices].  

PubMed

An unusual case of accidental hanging during autoerotic practices in a 25-year-old male student is described and the autoerotic asphyxia syndrome briefly discussed. The authors stressed the importance of a correct diagnostic of accidental death in these cases. PMID:2624150

Vieira, D N; da Silva, A G

1989-01-01

22

Bad Jobs, Bad Health? How Work and Working Conditions Contribute to Health Disparities  

PubMed Central

In this review, we touch on a broad array of ways that work is linked to health and health disparities for individuals and societies. First focusing on the health of individuals, we discuss the health differences between those who do and do not work for pay, and review key positive and negative exposures that can generate health disparities among the employed. These include both psychosocial factors like the benefits of a high status job or the burden of perceived job insecurity, as well as physical exposures to dangerous working conditions like asbestos or rotating shift work. We also provide a discussion of the ways differential exposure to these aspects of work contributes to social disparities in health within and across generations. Analytic complexities in assessing the link between work and health for individuals, such as health selection, are also discussed. We then touch on several contextual level associations between work and the health of populations, discussing the importance of the occupational structure in a given society, the policy environment that prevails there, and the oscillations of the macroeconomy for generating societal disparities in health. We close with a discussion of four areas and associated recommendations that draw on this corpus of knowledge but would push the research on work, health and inequality toward even greater scholarly and policy relevance.

Burgard, Sarah A.; Lin, Katherine Y.

2013-01-01

23

21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

2013-04-01

24

Water dynamics and groundwater contributions in a young mountain soil under different meteorological conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater contribution to the soil-water content and to the evapotranspiration is a major uncertainty to assess the water balance. Particularly in mountain environments, where the soil and the depth of the water table are shallow, both percolation and water rise from the water table can happen. Aiming at better understanding these processes at the local scale, a micrometeorological station, equipped with both traditional sensors, an eddy covariance (EC) apparatus with a 20Hz sonic anemometer and infrared CO2 and H2O gas analyser, and four multiplexed TDR probes, was installed at Cividate Camuno (Oglio river basin, Central Italian Alps, Italy, 274ma.s.l.), in a mountain environment with complex topography and Alpine sublitoranean climate. The young, anthropised, soil upper layers are about 40cm deep and mainly covered by alfalfa (Medicago sativa), wild carrot (Daucus carota) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium). Field and laboratory tests were performed to characterise the soil hydraulic properties. Particularly the soil-water retention relationships were measured by means of a low- and a high-pressure Richards' apparatus, and the hydraulic conductivity at saturation of each soil layer was estimated by 2-dimensional, axis-symmetrical, inverse modelling of field infiltration tests from single ring infiltrometer. The measurements were performed during Summer 2012 and Summer 2013. The groundwater exchange was numerically estimated both in wet (Summer 2012) and in dry meteorlogical conditions (Summer 2013). Evapotranspiration was assessed by means of Penman-Monteith method, which was found to be in the range between EC-estimated fluxes and an indirect estimate based on the Bowen ratio correction for Summer 2012. The two seasons are meteorologically very different and it results also in the soil-water regime. During Summer 2012, the weather was relatively wet, the soil did not reach very small water contents, so that precipitation was able to percolate towards the groundwater table and the groundwater table to meaningfully contribute to the evapotranspirative fluxes. Summer 2013 was instead much drier, precipitation was not able to meaningfully change the water content of the lowest soil layer and to percolate toward the water table. As a consequence of the very small water contents of the soil, also a very small water rise had place.

Negm, Amro; Falocchi, Marco; Barontini, Stefano; Ranzi, Roberto; Bacchi, Baldassare

2014-05-01

25

Contribution of the anterior cingulate cortex to laser-pain conditioning in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emotional component of nociception is seldom distinguished from pain behavioral testing. The aim of the present study was to develop a behavioral test that indicates the emotional pain responses using the classical conditioning paradigm. The role of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in the process of this pain conditioning response was also evaluated. In laser-pain conditioning, free moving rats

Jen-Chuang Kung; Ning-Miao Su; Ruey-Jane Fan; Sin-Chee Chai; Bai-Chuang Shyu

2003-01-01

26

Contribution of the anterior cingulate cortex to laser-pain conditioning in rats.  

PubMed

The emotional component of nociception is seldom distinguished from pain behavioral testing. The aim of the present study was to develop a behavioral test that indicates the emotional pain responses using the classical conditioning paradigm. The role of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in the process of this pain conditioning response was also evaluated. In laser-pain conditioning, free moving rats were trained to associate a tone (conditioned stimulus, CS) and short CO(2) laser pulsation (unconditioned stimulus, US). Monotonous tone (800 Hz, 0.6 s) was delivered through a loud-speaker as CS. CO(2) laser pulses (5 W at 50 or 100 ms in duration) applied to the hind paw was adopted as US. The CS-US interval was 0.5 s. Laser-pain conditioning was developed during 40 CS-US pairings. CS and US pairing with 100-ms laser pulse stimuli was more effective in establishing conditioning responses than that of 50-ms stimuli. The conditioning responses remained, tested by presenting CS alone, immediate to and 24 h subsequent to training. The performance of laser-pain conditioning was significantly reduced after bilateral lesioning of the ACC. Similar results were also obtained by bilateral lesions of the amygdala. The conditioning responses were also diminished following morphine treatment. The association between a neutral stimulus and a noxious stimulus could be demonstrated in a Pavlovian conditioning test in free moving rats. Thus, the conditioned response may be employed as a measure of the emotional component of the nociception. It is also suggested that the ACC may play an important role in mediating this conditioning effect. PMID:12706248

Kung, Jen-Chuang; Su, Ning-Miao; Fan, Ruey-Jane; Chai, Sin-Chee; Shyu, Bai-Chuang

2003-04-25

27

Contributions of the oxide layer to the corrosion potential of stainless steel under nuclear reactor conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed potential modeling of the stainless steel corrosion potential (CP) in high temperature water has concentrated on aqueous species reactions at the steel\\/water interface and has ignored the variable stoichiometry oxide layer, which reacts with water to gain or lose oxygen. The oxide\\/water couple contributes to the CP during the slow approach to the steady state and to the determination

D. Cubicciotti; R. H. Lamoreaux

1993-01-01

28

Contextual Fear Conditioning in Humans: Cortical-Hippocampal and Amygdala Contributions  

PubMed Central

Functional imaging studies of cued fear conditioning in humans have largely confirmed findings in animals, but it is unclear whether the brain mechanisms that underlie contextual fear conditioning in animals are also preserved in humans. We investigated this issue using fMRI and virtual reality contexts. Subjects underwent differential context conditioning in which they were repeatedly exposed to two contexts (CXT+ and CXT-) in semi-random order, with contexts counterbalanced across participants. An un-signaled footshock was consistently paired with the CXT+, and no shock was ever delivered in the CXT-. Evidence for context conditioning was established using skin conductance and anxiety ratings. Consistent with animal models centrally implicating the hippocampus and amygdala in a network supporting context conditioning, CXT+ compared to CXT- significantly activated right anterior hippocampus and bilateral amygdala. In addition, context conditioning was associated with activation in posterior orbitofrontal cortex, medial dorsal thalamus, anterior insula, subgenual anterior cingulate, and parahippocampal, inferior frontal and parietal cortices. Structural equation modeling was used to assess interactions among the core brain regions mediating context conditioning. The derived model indicated that medial amygdala was the source of key efferent and afferent connections including input from orbitofrontal cortex. These results provide evidence that similar brain mechanisms may underlie contextual fear conditioning across species.

Alvarez, Ruben P.; Biggs, Arter; Chen, Gang; Pine, Daniel S.; Grillon, Christian

2008-01-01

29

Dietary Proteins Contribute Little to Glucose Production, Even Under Optimal Gluconeogenic Conditions in Healthy Humans  

PubMed Central

Dietary proteins are believed to participate significantly in maintaining blood glucose levels, but their contribution to endogenous glucose production (EGP) remains unclear. We investigated this question using multiple stable isotopes. After overnight fasting, eight healthy volunteers received an intravenous infusion of [6,6-2H2]-glucose. Two hours later, they ingested four eggs containing 23 g of intrinsically, uniformly, and doubly [15N]-[13C]–labeled proteins. Gas exchanges, expired CO2, blood, and urine were collected over the 8 h following egg ingestion. The cumulative amount of dietary amino acids (AAs) deaminated over this 8-h period was 18.1 ± 3.5%, 17.5% of them being oxidized. The EGP remained stable for 6 h but fell thereafter, concomitantly with blood glucose levels. During the 8 h after egg ingestion, 50.4 ± 7.7 g of glucose was produced, but only 3.9 ± 0.7 g originated from dietary AA. Our results show that the total postprandial contribution of dietary AA to EGP was small in humans habituated to a diet medium-rich in proteins, even after an overnight fast and in the absence of carbohydrates from the meal. These findings question the respective roles of dietary proteins and endogenous sources in generating significant amounts of glucose in order to maintain blood glucose levels in healthy subjects.

Fromentin, Claire; Tome, Daniel; Nau, Francoise; Flet, Laurent; Luengo, Catherine; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Sanders, Pascal; Fromentin, Gilles; Gaudichon, Claire

2013-01-01

30

Bivariate empirical mode decomposition and its contribution to wind turbine condition monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accessing difficulties and harsh environments require more advanced condition monitoring techniques to ensure the high availability of offshore wind turbines. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) has been shown to be a promising technique for meeting this need. However, EMD was developed for one-dimensional signals, unable to carry out an information fusion function which is of importance to reach a reliable condition monitoring conclusion. Therefore, bivariate empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) is investigated in this paper to assess whether it could be a better solution for wind turbine condition monitoring. The effectiveness of the proposed technique in detecting machine incipient fault is compared with EMD and a recently developed wavelet-based 'energy tracking' technique. Experiments have shown that the proposed BEMD-based technique is more convenient than EMD for processing shaft vibration signals, and more powerful than EMD and wavelet-based techniques in terms of processing the non-stationary and nonlinear wind turbine condition monitoring signals and detecting incipient mechanical and electrical faults.

Yang, Wenxian; Court, Richard; Tavner, Peter J.; Crabtree, Christopher J.

2011-07-01

31

Inhibition of vesicular glutamate transporters contributes to attenuate methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in rats.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence suggests that glutamatergic system plays a crucial role in methamphetamine (METH) addiction. In the glutamatergic transmission, vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) are responsible for transporting glutamate into synaptic vesicles and affect the glutamate concentrations in the synaptic cleft. It is well documented that VGLUTs play an essential role in pathophysiology of several psychiatric and neurological diseases, however, whether VGLUTs also have a role in addiction caused by psychostimulant drugs is still unknown. The present study was underwent to investigate the effect of inhibition of VGLUTs on METH-induced induce conditioned place preference in rats. Rats were induced to conditioned place preference with METH (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection. Intracerebroventricular administration of 1.0 or 5.0?g Chicago sky blue 6B (CSB6B), a VGLUTs inhibitor, and 2.5h prior to METH was to observe its effect on METH-induced conditioned place preference in rats. The rats receiving METH showed stronger place preference at the dose of 1.0mg/kg than that of other doses. The intracerebroventricular administration of CSB6B (1.0, 5.0?g) 2.5h prior to the exposure to METH attenuated the acquisition of METH-induced conditioned place preference, while CSB6B itself had no effect on place preference. These results indicate that VGLUTs are involved in the effect of METH-induced conditioned place preference and may be a new target against METH addiction. PMID:24613241

He, Zongsheng; Chen, Yuan; Dong, Huajin; Su, Ruibin; Gong, Zehui; Yan, Lingdi

2014-07-01

32

Contribution of macrophages to enhanced regenerative capacity of dorsal root ganglia sensory neurons by conditioning injury.  

PubMed

Although the central branches of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons do not spontaneously regenerate, a conditioning peripheral injury can promote their regeneration. A potential role of macrophages in axonal regeneration was proposed, but it has not been critically addressed whether macrophages play an essential role in the conditioning injury model. After sciatic nerve injury (SNI) in rats, the number of macrophages in DRGs gradually increased by day 7. The increase persisted up to 28 d and was accompanied by upregulation of inflammatory mediators, including oncomodulin. A macrophage deactivator, minocycline, reduced the macrophage number and expressions of the inflammatory mediators. Molecular signatures of conditioning effects were abrogated by minocycline, and enhanced regenerative capacity was substantially attenuated both in vitro and in vivo. Delayed minocycline infusion abrogated the SNI-induced long-lasting heightened neurite outgrowth potential, indicating a role for macrophages in the maintenance of regenerative capacity. Intraganglionic cAMP injection also resulted in an increase in macrophages, and minocycline abolished the cAMP effect on neurite outgrowth. However, conditioned media (CM) from macrophages treated with cAMP did not exhibit neurite growth-promoting activity. In contrast, CM from neuron-macrophage cocultures treated with cAMP promoted neurite outgrowth greatly, highlighting a requirement for neuron-macrophage interactions for the induction of a proregenerative macrophage phenotype. The growth-promoting activity in the CM was profoundly attenuated by an oncomodulin neutralizing antibody. These results suggest that the neuron-macrophage interactions involved in eliciting a proregenerative phenotype in macrophages may be a novel target to induce long-lasting regenerative processes after axonal injuries in the CNS. PMID:24048840

Kwon, Min Jung; Kim, Jinha; Shin, Haeyoung; Jeong, Soo Ryeong; Kang, Young Mi; Choi, Jun Young; Hwang, Dong Hoon; Kim, Byung Gon

2013-09-18

33

Accidental ligature strangulation due to electric grinder.  

PubMed

A young girl was accidentally strangled when her chunni (a piece of cloth worn around the neck by most Indian women) was caught in a moving electrical grinder. She was taken to the nearest hospital where she died within the next 9h, remaining unconscious throughout the hospital stay. Accidental strangulation of this kind due to household devices or machinery is extremely uncommon and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of its kind to be reported. The findings are presented. PMID:16442331

Shetty, Mahabalesh; Shetty, B Suresh

2006-04-01

34

Respective Contribution of Chronic Conditions to Disability in France: Results from the National Disability-Health Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Representative national data on disability are becoming increasingly important in helping policymakers decide on public health strategies. We assessed the respective contribution of chronic health conditions to disability for three age groups (18–40, 40–65, and >65 years old) using data from the 2008–2009 Disability-Health Survey in France. Methods Data on 12 chronic conditions and on disability for 24,682 adults living in households were extracted from the Disability-Health Survey results. A weighting factor was applied to obtain representative estimates for the French population. Disability was defined as at least one restriction in activities of daily living (ADL), severe disability as the inability to perform at least one ADL alone, and self-reported disability as a general feeling of being disabled. To account for co-morbidities, we assessed the contribution of each chronic disorder to disability by using the average attributable fraction (AAF). Findings We estimated that 38.8 million people in France (81.7% [95% CI 80.9;82.6]) had a chronic condition: 14.3% (14.0;14.6) considered themselves disabled, 4.6% (4.4;4.9) were restricted in ADL and 1.7% (1.5;1.8) were severely disabled. Musculoskeletal and sensorial impairments contributed the most to self-reported disability (AAF 15.4% and 12.3%). Neurological and musculoskeletal diseases had the largest impact on disability (AAF 17.4% and 16.4%, respectively). Neurological disorders contributed the most to severe disability (AAF 31.0%). Psychiatric diseases contributed the most to disability categories for patients 18–40 years old (AAFs 23.8%–40.3%). Cardiovascular conditions were also among the top four contributors to disability categories (AAFs 8.5%–11.1%). Conclusions Neurological, musculoskeletal, and cardiovascular chronic disorders mainly contribute to disability in France. Psychiatric impairments have a heavy burden for people 18–40 years old. These findings should help policymakers define priorities for health-service delivery in France and perhaps other developed countries.

Palazzo, Clemence; Ravaud, Jean-Francois; Trinquart, Ludovic; Dalichampt, Marie; Ravaud, Philippe; Poiraudeau, Serge

2012-01-01

35

Reinterpretation of Mouse Thyroid Changes under Space Conditions: The Contribution of Confinement to Damage.  

PubMed

Abstract During space missions, astronauts work in a state of separation from their daily social environment and in physical confinement. It has been shown that confinement influences mood and brain cortical activity, but no data has been obtained with regard to its effect on the thyroid gland, the structure and function of which change during spaceflights. Here, we report the results of a study on the effects of confinement on mouse thyroid, which was implemented with the Mice Drawer System Facility maintained on the ground, a system used for spaceflight experiments. The results show that confinement changes the microscopic structure of the thyroid gland and that it exhibits symptoms similar to those that result from physiological and/or pathological hyperfunction. What is left unchanged, however, is the sphingomyelinase-thyrotropin receptor relationship, which is important for thyrotropin response with a consequential production of hormones that act on the metabolism of almost all tissues and reduces the production of calcitonin, a hormone involved in bone metabolism. During space missions, the overexpression of pleiotrophin, a widespread cytokine up-regulated after tissue injury that acts on bone remodeling, attenuates changes to the thyroid that are spaceflight-dependent; therefore we studied the thyroids of pleiotrophin-transgenic mice in the Mice Drawer System Facility. In confinement, pleiotrophin overexpression does not protect from the loss of calcitonin. The contribution of confinement to thyroid damage during spaceflights is discussed. Key Words: Calcitonin-Confinement-Sphingomyelinase-Thyroid-Thyrotropin receptor. Astrobiology 14, 563-567. PMID:24945896

Albi, E; Ambesi-Impiombato, F S; Lazzarini, A; Lazzarini, R; Floridi, A; Cataldi, S; Loreti, E; Ferri, I; Curcio, F

2014-07-01

36

The normal flora may contribute to the quantitative preponderance of myeloid cells under physiological conditions.  

PubMed

Under physiological conditions, the innate immune cells derived from myeloid lineage absolutely outnumber the lymphoid cells. At present, two theories are attributed to the maintenance of haemopoiesis: the asymmetric cell division and the bone marrow hematopoietic microenvironment or "niche". However, the former only explains the self-renewal of haemopoietic stem cell (HSC) and the start of haemopoietic differentiation but fails to address the inducers of cell fate decisions; the latter has to admit that the hematopoietic cytokines, despite their significance in the maintenance of haemopoiesis, have no specific effect on lineage commitment. Given these flaws, the advantageous mechanism of myeloid haemopoiesis has not yet been uncovered in the current theories. The discoveries that bacterial components (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and intestinal decontamination affect the mobilization of HSC trigger the interest in normal flora, which together with their components may have an effect on haemopoiesis. In the experiments in dogs and mice, researchers documented that the generation of myeloid cells has undergone changes in the bone marrow and periphery when antibiotics are used to regulate the normal intestinal flora and the concentration of its components. However, the same changes are not involved in lymphoid cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that in human body normal flora and its components are a driving force to maintain myeloid haemopoiesis under physiological conditions. To account for the selectiveness in haemopoiesis, these facts should be taken into consideration, such as HSC and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) functionally expressed pattern recognition receptors (PRR), and both of them can self-migrate or be recruited by normal flora or its components into periphery. Dynamically monitoring the myeloid haemopoiesis may provide an important complementary program that precludes the abuse of antibiotics, which prevents diseases triggered by the imbalance of normal flora. Meanwhile, the regulation of normal flora and the use of purified microecological modulator may serve as valuable auxiliary treatments to mobilize HSC prior to the HSC transplantation as well as to promote hematopoietic recovery after transplantation or chemotherapy in the blood diseases. PMID:20889261

Liang, Shi; LiHua, Hu

2011-01-01

37

Accidental tritium doses based on realistic modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

An early effective dose equivalent (EDE) to the most exposed individual of the public (MEI) at 1 km of 0.5 mSv per g tritium released in HTO form is presently used to quantify the environmental impact of accidental tritium releases from future fusion devices like NET (Next European Torus) or ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). To quantify the uncertainty margin

W. Gulden; W. Raskob

1992-01-01

38

Accidental Head Injury: A Real Life Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The adult victim of accidental head injury as a result of an automobile accident recounts his experiences as a brain injured adult with such problems as poor balance, poor speech, spasticity, and lack of fine motor movement. He emphasizes his determination to get on with his life. (DB)

Blakely, Jim

1988-01-01

39

Accidental and planned weather modification in illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather modification, both planned by humans and accidentally produced by humans, is the focus of an Illinois study. Populations in Illinois and the Midwest are living in a climate that is now modified inadvertently from its natural state. State atmospheric scientists have tackled weather modification through a series of interrelated studies, experimental design studies, experimental field studies to verify changes

1977-01-01

40

Chlorite reactivity and contribution to flow path modifications under conditions relevant for CO2 sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron-bearing clay minerals, such as chlorite, have been identified as key reactants with CO2 in caprock and reservoir formations and have been frequently shown to coat pores and even govern connected microporosity in these formations. Some studies have linked the total amount of CO2 trapped as carbonate minerals to the abundance of chlorite, glauconite, and smectite. However, the reactivity of these minerals under the conditions and timescales relevant for geologic sequestration of CO2 is largely unknown. When these minerals occur along a fracture leakage pathway, dissolution and precipitation reactions may create self-sealing or self-enhancing leakage pathways. In this presentation, we describe experiments that probe the reactivity of chlorite and its potential to alter connected porosity and either enhance or seal fracture leakage pathways. Our experiments use a network of capillary tubes packed with chlorite to mimic the case where a CO2-acidified brine flows through a fracture and reacts with iron-bearing clays in the caprock matrix. Before and after reaction, the chlorite-filled capillaries are imaged using 3D X-ray synchrotron microtomography at three points along the column to track changes in the pore structure. During the experiment, effluent ion concentrations are tracked using ICP-MS to infer mineralogical changes. The packed capillaries are imaged periodically during the experiment using Raman Spectroscopy to interpret the evolution of minerals along the tube length. Alteration of nanoporosity is assessed through TEM imaging or SAXS. Our experiments reveal how the couplings between mass transport, weathering reactions, and pore structure alteration affect the geochemical evolution of fracture permeability.

Beckingham, L. E.; Yang, L.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Voltolini, M.; Banuelos, J. L.; Anovitz, L. M.; Bourg, I. C.; Steefel, C. I.

2013-12-01

41

Coroners' records of accidental deaths.  

PubMed Central

This study set out to provide a description of the children involved in fatal accidents and to ascertain which deaths might have been prevented and by what means. The records from a convenience sample of four coroners (jurisdictions of Inner North London, Birmingham, Bedfordshire, and Ipswich) of inquests opened in 1984-8 on children aged under 15 killed in accidents were reviewed for information on the deceased, the accident, and the injuries sustained. Altogether 225 records (150 boys, 75 girls) were examined. Accidents to pedestrians were the commonest cause of death (81 cases), and road safety engineering measures were the most likely means by which most fatalities might have been prevented. The records frequently omitted information on social circumstances, family structure, ethnic group, or the use of safety equipment. Cooperative coroners can contribute to child safety as their records are rich in information about accidents. This could be made available to parties interested in accident prevention, including community paediatricians.

Levene, S

1991-01-01

42

Hemodialysis for the treatment of severe accidental hypothermia.  

PubMed

Severe hypothermia is defined as a core body temperature <28°C and is associated with in-hospital mortality rates of 50% or higher. Delays in rewarming and slower rates of rewarming are the most important prognostic factors associated with increased mortality. Arrhythmias are the most common cause of mortality in patients with severe accidental hypothermia. Electrolyte abnormalities such as hyperkalemia and hypocalcemia that may worsen when patients are rewarmed contribute to the risk of arrhythmias. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) is considered the treatment of choice for active internal rewarming of patients with severe hypothermia, but it is not always available and is time consuming to initiate. We describe a case where hemodialysis (HD) was used to treat accidental hypothermia in a patient with an initial temperature of 23.5°C. Average rewarming rates of 1.5°C/hour were achieved. The advantages of HD when compared with CBP are that it is (1) more widely and readily available, (2) less invasive, (3) less expensive, and (4) can correct associated acidosis and electrolyte abnormalities commonly seen in patients with severe hypothermia. PMID:24118090

Singh, Tripti; Hallows, Kenneth R

2014-05-01

43

Epidemiology of accidental home poisoning in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia).  

PubMed Central

In a prospective study on 178 cases of accidental home poisoning admitted to the main children's hospital in Riyadh poisoning was found to account for 5.6% of the total annual admissions--greater than any other developing country and approaching Western proportions. The commonest ages were between 1 and 5 years. Drugs accounted for 52% of cases and household products for 46%. This picture also differs from the pattern of poisoning in developing countries and is more akin to that of industrialised countries. The most important factors in aetiology, besides the age of the patient and the underprivileged social class, were the abundance of drugs and household chemicals in the Saudi home, none of them in child proof containers; inappropriate storage; and lack of supervision of children. Cultural factors also contributed. The frequency of poisoning in childhood may be decreased in the long run by improved housing, socioeconomic status, and education. The place and methods of health education, also a long term objective, is discussed. For immediate primary prevention two important legislative measures are proposed: (1) provision of childproof containers of drugs and other chemicals used in the home and (2) banning of over the counter sales of drugs. For more accurate epidemiological data collection, and thereby better preventative planning, a national register of accidental poisoning and other accidents is recommended. Poison information centres are also deemed necessary.

Mahdi, A H; Taha, S A; Al Rifai, M R

1983-01-01

44

Accidental inflation from Kähler uplifting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the possibility of realizing inflation with a subsequent dS vacuum in the Käahler uplifting scenario. The inclusion of several quantum corrections to the 4d effective action evades previous no-go theorems and allows for construction of simple and successful models of string inflation. The predictions of several benchmark models are in accord with current observations, i.e., a red spectral index, negligible non-gaussianity, and spectral distortions similar to the simplest models of inflation. A particularly interesting subclass of models are ``left-rolling" ones, where the overall volume of the compactified dimensions shrinks during inflation. We call this phenomenon ``inflation by deflation" (IBD), where deflation refers to the internal manifold. This subclass has the appealing features of being insensitive to initial conditions, avoiding the overshooting problem, and allowing for observable running ? ~ 0.012 and enhanced tensor-to-scalar ratio r ~ 10?5. The latter results differ significantly from many string inflation models.

Ben-Dayan, Ido; Jing, Shenglin; Westphal, Alexander; Wieck, Clemens

2014-03-01

45

Computer code to assess accidental pollutant releases  

SciTech Connect

A computer code was developed to calculate the cumulative frequency distributions of relative concentrations of an air pollutant following an accidental release from a stack or from a building penetration such as a vent. The calculations of relative concentration are based on the Gaussian plume equations. The meteorological data used for the calculation are in the form of joint frequency distributions of wind and atmospheric stability.

Pendergast, M.M.; Huang, J.C.

1980-07-01

46

Osteogenesis Imperfecta and non-accidental injury: problems in diagnosis and management.  

PubMed

It has been noted in the literature that Osteogenesis Imperfecta is frequently mistaken for non-accidental injury. This article serves to illustrate the difficulty in differentiating between the two conditions and that they can occur concomitantly in one patient. PMID:7565189

Kasim, M S; Cheah, I; Sameon, H

1995-06-01

47

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 15: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR TRIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report, discussing sulfur trioxide (SO3), is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. SO3, a clear oily liquid or solid at typical ambient conditions, has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, w...

48

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOL. 15: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR TRIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report, discussing sulfur trioxide (SO3), is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. SO3, a clear oily liquid or solid at typical ambient conditions, has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, w...

49

Forebrain contribution to the induction of a brainstem correlate of conditioned taste aversion. II. Insular (gustatory) cortex.  

PubMed

The induction of c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (c-FLI) in the intermediate division of the nucleus of the solitary tract (iNTS) has been shown to be a cellular correlate of the behavioral expression of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). To further define neuroanatomical structures and pathways that contribute to this cellular response and to CTA learning in general, electrolytic lesions of insular (gustatory) cortex (IC) were combined with immunostaining for c-FLI. Rats were given either unilateral or bilateral electrolytic lesions of insular cortex or 'sham' operations. Following surgery, 'paired' animals were given a single conditioning trial consisting of intraoral infusion of 5-ml 0.15% sodium-saccharin followed by injection with LiCl (0.15 M, 20 ml/kg, i.p.) while 'unpaired' controls received a non-contingent saccharin-LiCl presentation. Rats with bilateral lesions showed no behavioral evidence of having acquired a CTA. Increases in c-FLI in iNTS were evident, but reduced, relative to 'sham' animals. Rats with unilateral-lesions displayed a CTA by rejecting the saccharin, although increases in c-FLI on the side of the iNTS ipsilateral to the lesion were reduced relative to that seen in 'sham' animals. A comparison of these results with those obtained after amygdala lesions supports the conclusion that amygdala and insular cortex are necessary, but not sufficient, for the behavioral expression of a CTA. PMID:9685579

Schafe, G E; Bernstein, I L

1998-07-27

50

Spatial variation in water quality within the water bodies of a Peak District catchment and the contribution of moorland condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial variation in water quality within the water bodies of a Peak District catchment and the contribution of moorland condition Tia Crouch and Jonathan Walker (Moors for the Future Partnership) Upland locations are significant water supply sources providing over 70% of fresh water in Great Britain. However, the peatlands of the Peak District, Southern Pennines are highly contaminated with anthropogenically derived, atmospherically deposited pollutants, such as heavy metals. This is due to their location between the cities of Manchester and Sheffield, the centre of the 19th century English Industrial Revolution. These peatlands are also severely eroded; therefore erosion could be releasing these pollutants into the fluvial system, representing a threat to both aquatic ecosystems and drinking water supplies. These threats are regulated under the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Water Supply Regulations respectively. There are two aims of this project. The first aim is to identify spatial and temporal variability of water quality within the Bamford water treatment works (WTW) catchment. This was achieved by fortnightly spot sampling at eight of the tributaries into the reservoir system. The second aim is to assess the contribution of moorland condition to water quality within the Bamford WTW catchment. Similarly, this was achieved by fortnightly spot sampling at eight moorland streams, draining from a variety of peatland conditions (bare peat, restoration, intact and heather burn). Water samples were analysed for carbon (DOC, POC & TOC), pH, hardness and a suite of heavy metals, including copper, iron and zinc. In addition, stream temperature and stage height was recorded. Preliminary results highlight a number of issues within the Bamford WTW catchment: under the WFD streams are not achieving 'good' status for pH, copper and zinc, and under the Drinking Water Standards (DWS) streams are not achieving targets for aluminium, iron and colour. For example, the DWS for colour is 20 hazen units; however, mean values for streams within the Bamford WTW catchment range from 40 to 742 Hazen Units. Further analysis of the results will identify where spatial issues and priorities exist in space and time, as well as in relation to WFD objectives and DWS. The relationships between heavy metals and carbon (DOC, POC & TOC), pH, temperature and stage height will also be investigated, and the impacts of moorland restoration on carbon and heavy metals in water supplies will be discussed. Overall, this project is intended to provide evidence of the links between moorland restoration and management and DWS and WFD objectives; therefore, enabling continued support for moorland restoration work. This project was funded by the Environment Agency and Severn Trent Water Limited.

Crouch, Tia; Walker, Jonathan

2013-04-01

51

Elevation of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Upon Accidental Hypothermia in an Elderly Man.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: Although 'polar triiodothyronine (T3) syndrome' in chronic dwellers/workers in Antarctica has been established, alteration of the pituitary thyroid-axis upon accidental hypothermia is not well recognized. We report here a rare case of elevation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) upon accidental hypothermia. Patient Findings: A 75-yr-old man was admitted because of consciousness disturbance. The mean outside temperature was approximately -2.0ºC but his house was inadequately heated. His rectal temperature was 29.5ºC. Goiter was not palpable and pitting edema, not myxedema, was present. Serum TSH was elevated (28.3 mU/l, reference range 0.27-4.2), and free T3 (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) lowered (FT3, 3.25 pmol/l with a reference range of 4.00-7.85, and FT4, 9.18 pmol/l with a reference range of 12.87-23.179), but thyroid-related autoantibodies were all negative. By the next morning, body temperature had risen to >36ºC and there was no further recurrence of hypothermia. Serum TSH decreased exponentially and the patient's condition had become normal by Day 22. FT3 and FT4 were found to be slightly lowered and elevated, respectively, during the same period, in the subnormal range. At the end of the observation period, the patient settled into the state known as "non-thyroidal illness syndrome". Summary: Elevation of TSH in an elderly patient with accidental hypothermia was normalized after restoration of normal body temperature. Elevation of TSH upon accidental hypothermia was probably an adaptive response. Conclusions: In patients with accidental hypothermia, the possibility of an adaptive elevation of TSH should be born in mind. There is a clear warrant for further studies of the adaptation of the pituitary-thyroid axis in patients with accidental hypothermia. PMID:22866965

Yamashita, Koh; Suganuma, Kazuki; Funase, Yoshiko; Yamauchi, Keishi; Aizawa, Toru

2012-08-01

52

Accidental electrocution during autoeroticism: a shocking case.  

PubMed

A case of atypical autoerotic death is described. An 18-year-old white man clad in two brassieres was found dead in his bedroom by his brother. Two wet green terry cloths were under the brassiere cups, connected to the house current via two metal washers and a bifid electrical cord. Literature depicting nude women was found near the victim. Autopsy revealed second-degree and third-degree burns of the mammary regions. Death was attributed to accidental self-electrocution. The authors will discuss typical and atypical forms of autoerotic death. PMID:12605007

Schott, Jennifer C; Davis, Gregory J; Hunsaker, John C

2003-03-01

53

Contributions of vacancies and self-interstitials to self-diffusion in silicon under thermal equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since many years, the contribution of vacancies (V) and self-interstitials (I) to silicon (Si) self-diffusion is a matter of debate. Native defects and their interaction among themselves and with foreign atoms influence the processes taking place during device fabrication, starting with the growth of Si single crystals and ending with doping of nanosized electronic devices. Considering this relevance, it is remarkable that present data about the properties of native point defects in Si are still limited and controversial. This work reports experiments on self-diffusion in Si for temperatures between 650?C and 960?C to verify recent results of Shimizu [Phys. Rev. Lett.10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.095901 98, 095901 (2007)] that give rise to inconsistencies in V-mediated self- and dopant diffusion. Two different structures of isotopically controlled epitaxial layers of Si are used for the diffusion study. One structure consisting of 20 bilayers of 29Si/28Si was grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The other structure with a 28Si layer sandwiched between natural Si was grown by means of chemical vapor deposition. Self-diffusion in (29Si/28Si)20 multilayers (ML) was analyzed by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and neutron reflectometry, whereas self-diffusion in natSi/28Si/natSi sandwich (SW) structures was measured with SIMS only. Analysis of the experimental profiles reveals an enhanced self-diffusion in ML compared to SW structures. The enhanced diffusion is ascribed to the dissolution of V- and I-related defect clusters grown-in during MBE. On the other hand, self-diffusion in the SW structures accurately confirms the data of Shimizu that are considered to represent data for thermal equilibrium conditions. The temperature dependence of self-diffusion is described by V- and I-mediated contributions with temperature-dependent thermodynamic properties of V. This interpretation can solve the inconsistency between self- and dopant diffusion in Si, but further experiments are required to verify this concept.

Kube, R.; Bracht, H.; Hüger, E.; Schmidt, H.; Hansen, J. Lundsgaard; Larsen, A. Nylandsted; Ager, J. W., III; Haller, E. E.; Geue, T.; Stahn, J.

2013-08-01

54

Subdural haematoma and non-accidental head injury in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients and methods. In this retrospective study, 36 children referred to paediatric neurology and neurosurgery during April 1995-June 1998 with a diagnosis of subdural haematoma (SDH) were studied. Nine were accidental secondary to witnessed trauma and 4 were iatrogenic. Non-accidental head injury (NAHI) was suspected in the remaining 23 children. Results. After a full clinical, radiological and social assessment, NAHI

Aparna Hoskote; Peter Richards; Philip Anslow; Tony McShane

2002-01-01

55

Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" is a comprehensive overview of standards, practices and possibilities of course management systems in higher education. "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" focuses on what the current knowledge is (in best practices, research, standards and…

McGee, Patricia; Carmean, Colleen; Jafari, Ali

2005-01-01

56

Imitation of Intentional and Accidental Actions by Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine whether children with autism (CWA) would selectively imitate intentional, as opposed to accidental actions, an experimenter demonstrated either an "intentional" and an "accidental" action or two "intentional" actions on the same toy [Carpenter, Akhtar, & Tomasello ("1998a") "Infant Behavior and Development, 21," 315-330]. CWA tended…

D'Entremont, Barbara; Yazbek, Aimee

2007-01-01

57

Experiences of Causing an Accidental Death: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accidentally killing or feeling responsible for another person's death constitutes an event that is different from many typical traumatic stressors in that the responsibility for causing the trauma is located in the person themselves, rather than another person or persons. Research exploring the perspective of those who have accidentally caused a…

Rassool, Sara B.; Nel, Pieter W.

2012-01-01

58

CONTROL AND MITIGATION SYSTEMS FOR ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF TOXIC CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses control and mitigation systems for accidental releases of toxic chemicals. A review of the control/mitigation system data base developed during an EPA study reveals that the major control measure employed by industry for accidental releases is routine process ...

59

[Accidental myiasis by Ornidia obesa in humans].  

PubMed

Dipterous of the genus Ornidia are pollinator bugs, but immature stages can be found in organic matter in decomposition. This article refers to a found of larvae of Ornidia obesa in humans feces. An eight years old child was treated in a medical clinic due to the presence of two larvae and one pupae in the feces, hyperthermia, intestinal obstruction and strong abdominal pain. Medical therapy consisted of Mebendazol and Ivermectin in the indicated doses. 24 hours after the administration of the drugs, several larvae were expelled with diarrheic feces. The material was taken to the Parasitological Veterinary Lab, and the larvae were classified belonging to the genus Ornidia. According to the literature, this specie of Diptera is not incriminated to cause myiasis in vertebrates. We think that this study reports a case of accidental myiasis in humans, were the patient may have ingested food with immature stages of the fly (eggs or larvae). PMID:20059825

Monteiro, Silvia G; Faccio, Lucian; Otto, Mateus Anderson; Soares, João Fabio; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Mazzanti, Alexandre

2008-09-01

60

Accidental etizolam ingestion in a child.  

PubMed

Etizolam (ETZ) is an antidepressive thienodiazepine drug that is used worldwide. The most frequent adverse effects in adults are drowsiness and muscle weakness, and this can rarely cause paradoxical excitation; however, no information exists on intoxication in children. Furthermore, evidence bearing on its safety in children is not available. We present a case of a child who accidentally took a single dose of ETZ, approximately the same as a therapeutic dose for adults, and who showed paradoxical excitation and muscle weakness. The case presented here suggests that pediatricians and emergency physicians should be aware of the possible adverse effects in children and therapeutic approaches in intoxication of ETZ and the necessity of further investigations on a specific therapeutic guideline for overdose management especially in children. PMID:17666930

Kato, Zenichiro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Funato, Michinori; Kuwabara, Hideaki; Kondo, Naomi

2007-07-01

61

Clinical clues for head injuries amongst Malaysian infants: accidental or non-accidental?  

PubMed

Identifying the differences between infants with non-accidental head injuries (NAHI) and accidental head injuries (AHI) may help alert clinicians to recognize markers of abuse. A retrospective review of infants <1 year of age admitted to a tertiary referral centre in Malaysia over a two year period with a diagnosis of head injury or abnormal computed tomography head scans was conducted to identify the clinical features pointing towards a diagnosis of NAHI by comparing the socio-demographics, presenting complaints, clinical features and the extent of hospital investigations carried out. NAHI infants were more likely to be symptomatic, under a non-related caregiver's supervision, and presented with inconsistent or no known mechanism of injury. Subdural haemorrhages were more common in NAHI infants. The history, mechanism of injury, presenting signs and symptoms as well as the nature of the injuries sustained are all valuable clues as to whether a head injury sustained during infancy is likely to be accidental or not. PMID:22424957

Thalayasingam, M; Veerakumarasivam, A; Kulanthayan, S; Khairuddin, F; Cheah, I G S

2012-12-01

62

Contributions of the amygdala central nucleus and ventrolateral periaqueductal grey to freezing and instrumental suppression in Pavlovian fear conditioning  

PubMed Central

In Pavlovian fear conditioning animals receive pairings of a neutral cue and an aversive stimulus such as an electric foot-shock. Through such pairings, the cue will come to elicit a central state of fear that produces a variety of autonomic and behavioral responses, among which are conditioned freezing and suppression of instrumental responding, termed conditioned suppression. The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) have been strongly implicated in the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. However, previous work suggests different roles for the CeA and vlPAG in fear learning may be revealed when fear is assessed with conditioned freezing or conditioned suppression. To further explore this possibility we gave rats selective lesions of either the CeA or vlPAG and trained them in Pavlovian first-order fear conditioning as well as Pavlovian second-order fear conditioning. We concurrently assessed the acquisition of conditioned freezing and conditioned suppression. We found that vlPAG and CeA lesions impaired both first- and second-order conditioned freezing. VlPAG lesions did not impair, and CeA lesions only transiently impaired, first-order conditioned suppression. However, both vlPAG and CeA lesions impaired second-order conditioned suppression. These results suggest that the CeA and vlPAG are critically important to expressing fear through conditioned freezing but play different and less critical roles in expressing fear through conditioned suppression.

McDannald, Michael A.

2010-01-01

63

Prolonged Toxic Encephalopathy following Accidental 4-Aminopyridine Overdose  

PubMed Central

Background. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is a drug that is used to improve motor fatigue in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS). Medication error can occur, as commercial preparation may not be available in some countries. Case Presentation. A 58-year-old woman with progressive MS presented with status epilepticus. She was receiving 4-AP for more than 3 years. The symptoms started soon after the ingestion of a single pill that was supposed to contain 10?mg 4-AP, but further investigations revealed that each pill had been inadvertently prepared with an 100?mg 4-AP concentration. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for appropriate management (orotracheal intubation, sedation, and antiepileptic drugs). The first electroencephalogram (EEG) showed abundant irregular spike-waves on the left central regions. Neurological condition gradually improved from day 7, while the EEG did not reveal any more electrical seizures but was still consistent with toxic encephalopathy. The patient stayed in the ICU until day 13. At discharge from the rehabilitation ward (2.5 months later), the patient had not yet recovered her previous cognitive and functional condition. Conclusion. A single 100?mg 4-AP accidental overdose may cause serious immediate complications, with a slow and incomplete neurological recovery.

Ballesta Mendez, Maria; van Pesch, Vincent; Capron, Arnaud; Hantson, Philippe

2014-01-01

64

Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.  

PubMed

Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ?100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies. PMID:22349318

Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

2012-07-01

65

The Failure to Contain: How Persecutory Anxieties Contribute to Noncompliance in Adult Patients with Congenital Chronic Pain Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with sickle-cell disease suffer from lifelong pain. Many prefer to receive emergent rather than managed health care, which results in these people being termed “noncompliant.” This paper explores the contributing factors of such noncompliance in the adult patient with painful chronic illness. In the earliest stages of development, internal pain is attributed to external origins, and the effects of

Michele McShea

2008-01-01

66

Results of an Accidental Explosion in a Propellant Process Building.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In January 1990, an accidental explosion occurred in a propellant process building in one of Israel Military Industries' plants. The building collapsed and debris was found beyond the surrounding barricades. The paper describes the building and its vicini...

A. Boimel

1990-01-01

67

[Accidental intraartrial injection of diacethylmorphine (heroin) in drug addicts -- three case reports].  

PubMed

Accidental intrarterial injections are not uncommon in medical treatments. This is also true for uncontrolled injections by drug-addicts. Since 2002 a number of 600 heavy opiate addicts in Germany are substituted in a country-wide study with pure diacetylmorphine (Heroine). We report the course and outcome of three cases of accidental intraarterial injections of pure diacetylmorphine under controlled conditions. After initial symptoms of vasospasms, all cases were without symptoms within one hour and no obvious loss of tissue was observed. After discussing the literature about medical literature and treatment options in intraarterial injections it is concluded, that the cause of major complications after intraarterial injections may not be the pure diacetylmorphine but additional substances in impure "street-heroin" samples. PMID:16001321

Passie, T; Metzner, C; Seifert, J; Zedler, M; Schneider, U; Emrich, H M; Karst, M

2005-07-01

68

Numerical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statement of work for contract 006 {open_quotes}Mathematical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport{close_quotes} implies that the final result of the activity within this task will be VNIIEF developed techniques which will provide for the prediction of the post-accidental environment. Report [1] presents the description of physical models and calculation techniques which were chosen by VNIIEF to accomplish

V. N. Piskunov; A. A. Aloyan; V. M. Gerasimov; V. S. Pinaev; A. I. Golubev; Yu. V. Yanilkin; N. V. Ivanov; S. N. Nikonov; A. I. Kharchenko

1995-01-01

69

Accidental hanging with delayed death in a lift.  

PubMed

While hanging is a common method of committing suicide in India, accidental hanging is uncommon. However, it does occur when people are engaged in auto-erotic practices. An adult male who was helping passengers trapped in the lift of an outpatient department at a teaching hospital was accidentally hanged. He survived for 39 days. This case highlights a rare but serious hazard in the use of lifts. PMID:10581915

Verma, S K; Agarwal, B B

1999-10-01

70

Ground shock profiles for an accidental explosion at the proposed Large Rocket Test Facility at Arnold Engineering Development Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment is made of the ground shock in profile which may be generated in the event of an accidental explosion at the proposed Large Rocket Test Facility (LRTF) at Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC). The assessment is accomplished by using previous results and by reviewing existing ground motion data at depth, for sites with similar geology to expected conditions

B. C. Davis

1987-01-01

71

Contributions of different mechanisms of self-diffusion in face-centered cubic metals under equilibrium conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contributions of different mechanisms of self-diffusion in face-centered cubic metals Ni, Cu, and Al at thermodynamic\\u000a equilibrium have been analyzed using the molecular dynamics method. The vacancy, divacancy, and cyclic mechanisms of self-diffusion,\\u000a as well as the mechanisms involving the vacancy migration to the second coordination sphere and the formation and recombination\\u000a of Frenkel pairs, have been considered. It

G. M. Poletaev; M. D. Starostenkov

2010-01-01

72

Contributions of different mechanisms of self-diffusion in face-centered cubic metals under equilibrium conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contributions of different mechanisms of self-diffusion in face-centered cubic metals Ni, Cu, and Al at thermodynamic equilibrium have been analyzed using the molecular dynamics method. The vacancy, divacancy, and cyclic mechanisms of self-diffusion, as well as the mechanisms involving the vacancy migration to the second coordination sphere and the formation and recombination of Frenkel pairs, have been considered. It

G. M. Poletaev; M. D. Starostenkov

2010-01-01

73

Infrasonic signals from an accidental chemical explosion  

SciTech Connect

A series of large accidental explosions occurred at a chemical plant in Henderson, Nevada on May 4, 1988. The explosions were produced by the ignition of stores of ammonium perchlorate produced for solid rocket fuel at the Pacific Engineering and Production Co. This material, prior to the incident, had been believed to be non- explosive. The blasts destroyed the plant and caused one death. There was a series of explosions over a period of time with two major explosions which we will identify as A at 18:53:34 (all times herein will be given in C.U.T.) and B at 18:57:35. Signals from events A and B as well as smaller events were detected by the infrasound arrays operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at St. George, Utah (distance 159 km) and at Los Alamos, N.M. (distance 774 km). The Henderson explosions present an interesting and challenging set of infrasound observations. The case may be unique in providing two very large sources separated in time by only four minutes. To fully understand the propagation details will require further analysis and probably a modeling effort. The understanding of the St. George signals in the context of Lamb waves would be valuable for a better understanding of this mode of propagation. The improved understanding of long range infrasonic propagation is now especially important in the context of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). A portion of the plan for CTBT monitoring includes a global distribution of sixty infrasound arrays to provide for the monitoring of signals in as uniform a way as possible. It is expected that under this global network many signals and interpretation questions of the type described here will be encountered. Investigations of propagation over the ranges of hundreds to thousands of kilometers will be highly desired.

Mutschlecner, J.P.; Whitaker, R.W.

1996-12-31

74

The development of a detection system for seniors' accidental fall from bed using cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many seniors, patients, and vulnerable people, an accidental fall could bear consequences serious enough to be life-threatening. Accordingly, increasing expenditure on the prevention of accidental fall has been a trend in the developed countries. One of the methods of preventing an accidental fall includes a quick notification to the caregiver. In order to detect and inform an accidental fall

Jinwook Shim; Myung-hoon Shim; Yoon-su Baek; Tack-don Han

2011-01-01

75

Beta-Adrenergic Receptors in the Lateral Nucleus of the Amygdala Contribute to the Acquisition but Not the Consolidation of Auditory Fear Conditioning  

PubMed Central

Beta-adrenergic receptors (?ARs) have long been associated with fear disorders and with learning and memory. However, the contribution of these receptors to Pavlovian fear conditioning, a leading behavioral model for studying fear learning and memory, is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of ?AR activation in the acquisition, consolidation and expression of fear conditioning. We focused on manipulations of ?ARs in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) because of the well-established contribution of this area to fear conditioning. Specifically, we tested the effects of intra-LA microinfusions of the ?AR antagonist, propranolol, on learning and memory for auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats. Pre-training propranolol infusions disrupted the initial acquisition, short-term memory (STM), and long-term memory (LTM) for fear conditioning, but infusions immediately after training had no effect. Further, infusion of propranolol prior to testing fear responses did not affect fear memory expression. These findings indicate that amygdala ?ARs are important for the acquisition but not the consolidation of fear conditioning.

Bush, David E. A.; Caparosa, Ellen M.; Gekker, Anna; LeDoux, Joseph

2010-01-01

76

Effects of training condition on the contribution of specific items to relational processing in baboons (Papio papio).  

PubMed

Relational processing involves learning about the relationship between or among stimuli, transcending the individual stimuli, so that abstract knowledge generalizable to novel situations is acquired. Relational processing has been studied in animals as well as in humans, but little attention has been paid to the contribution of specific items to relational thinking or to the factors that may affect that contribution. This study assessed the intertwined effects of item and relational processing in nonhuman primates. Using a procedure that entailed both expanding and contracting sets of pictorial items, we trained 13 baboons on a two-alternative forced-choice task, in which they had to distinguish horizontal from vertical relational patterns. In Experiment 1, monkeys engaged in item-based processing with a small training set size, and they progressively engaged in relation-based processing as training set size was increased. However, in Experiment 2, overtraining with a small stimulus set promoted the processing of item-based information. These findings underscore similarities in how humans and nonhuman primates process higher-order stimulus relations. PMID:24352791

Maugard, Anaïs; Wasserman, Edward A; Castro, Leyre; Fagot, Joël

2014-07-01

77

Distinct Contributions of the Basolateral Amygdala and the Medial Prefrontal Cortex to Learning and Relearning Extinction of Context Conditioned Fear  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We studied the roles of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in learning and relearning to inhibit context conditioned fear (freezing) in extinction. In Experiment 1, pre-extinction BLA infusion of the NMDA receptor (NMDAr) antagonist, ifenprodil, impaired the development and retention of inhibition but…

Laurent, Vincent; Westbrook, R. Frederick

2008-01-01

78

Forebrain contribution to the induction of a cellular correlate of conditioned taste aversion in the nucleus of the solitary tract.  

PubMed

A conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is a form of classical conditioning in which animals avoid a taste (conditioned stimulus; CS) which has been previously paired with a treatment (unconditioned stimulus; US) that produces transient illness. Recently, a reliable cellular correlate of the behavioral expression of a CTA was identified using c-Fos immunostaining as a marker of neuronal activation. Exposure to a saccharin solution (CS) which had previously been paired with lithium chloride (LiCl; US) induced significant c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (c-FLI) in the intermediate zone of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), a response that was quite similar to that displayed following administration of LiCl alone. The present studies employed a variant of the chronic decerebrate rat preparation to explore whether circuitry intrinsic to the brainstem is sufficient for the induction of c-FLI in both as an unconditioned response to the LiCl and as a conditioned response to the saccharin. Using chronic hemidecerebrate rats, which have a unilateral brain transection at the level of the superior colliculus, we found that the unconditioned c-FLI to LiCI was unaltered by the transection, while the conditioned expression of c-FLI to the CS taste was evident only on the side of the NTS which retained neural connections with the forebrain. These findings strongly implicate forebrain input in this cellular correlate of CTA learning and also indicate that the pathways mediating the response to the US (LiCl) and the CS (saccharin) differ. PMID:7472437

Schafe, G E; Seeley, R J; Bernstein, I L

1995-10-01

79

Contribution of leaf growth on the disappearance of fungicides used on tea under south Indian agroclimatic conditions  

PubMed Central

The sprayed chemicals on tea leaves disappear over a period of time by the influence of rainfall elution, evaporation, growth dilution, and photodegradation. Influence of plant growth on the four fungicides (hexaconazole, propiconazole, tridemorph, and c) was studied to know the constructive loss of fungicides. The study shows that residues of fungicides sprayed on tea shoots got diluted by the growing process. The expansion of a leaf took 8 to 11 d and more than 50% of the fungicide residues were cleaned out during this leaf expansion period. Under south Indian agroclimatic condition, the fungicides are sprayed at an interval of 10 d, so it is safe that the tea is harvested on the 10th day of the application of fungicides.

Karthika, Chinnachamy; Muraleedharan, Narayanan Nair

2009-01-01

80

Enthalpy contributions to adsorption of highly charged lysozyme onto a cation-exchanger under linear and overloaded conditions.  

PubMed

An investigation of the adsorption mechanism of lysozyme onto carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was conducted using flow calorimetry and adsorption isotherm measurements. This study was undertaken to provide additional insight into the underlying mechanisms involved in protein adsorption that traditional approaches such isotherm measurements or van't Hoff analysis can't always provide, particularly when protein adsorption occurs under overloaded conditions. Lysozyme and CMC were selected for this study because the characteristics of the protein and the adsorbent are well known, hence, allowing the focus of this work to be on the driving forces influencing adsorption. Calorimetry results have showed that lysozyme adsorption onto CMC produced both exothermic and endothermic heats of adsorption. More specifically flow calorimetry data coupled with peak deconvolution methods illustrated a series of chronological events that included dilution, primary protein adsorption, rearrangement of surface proteins and a secondary adsorption of lysozyme molecules. The observations and conclusions derived from the experimental work presented in our figures and tables were developed within the mechanistic framework proposed by Lin et al., J. Chromatogr. A. 912 (2001) 281. PMID:24925448

Silva, G L; Marques, F S; Thrash, M E; Dias-Cabral, A C

2014-07-25

81

Caracterisation des etats de surface par teledetection infrarouge thermique multispectrale: Contribution a l'etude des conditions de viabilite hivernale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La mesure de temperature d'une surface et de son emissivite thermique constitue encore de nos jours, un defi de taille. D'un point de vue microclimatique, la temperature significative d'une surface est celle qui reflete l'etat des echanges energetiques qui y ont lieu. La radiometrie infrarouge thermique permet de lire la temperature de l'interface air-sol pour une couche infiniment petite de la surface (de l'ordre de quelques microns). Dans le cadre d'un systeme d'aide aux decisions en viabilite hivernale, nous avons defini un prototype de station de mesures mobiles. Cette station permet de determiner, avec precision, la temperature radiative de la surface de la chaussee ainsi que de determiner, avec un taux de succes de plus de 65 %, l'etat de cette meme surface. Par la conception de ce prototype, nous avons aborde le principe physique de la mesure de temperature de surface par radiometrie multispectrale infrarouge thermique. Ce travail aura permis d'evaluer une approche standard de mesure a bande spectrale unique (de 8 a 14 mum). Dans la correction de la temperature radiative de surface, nous avons considere trois methodes distinctes. La premiere methode utilisee est celle de l'algorithme TES (Gillespie et al., 1998). Cet algorithme etablit le spectre d'emissivite, puis calcule une temperature de surface corrigee, en tenant compte de la reflexion du rayonnement thermique incident a la surface. La seconde methode consideree est l'indice TISI (Li et al., 1999) qui consiste en un indice d'emissivite relatif independant de la temperature de la surface et qui tient compte du rayonnement incident a la surface. La troisieme methode est un indice de temperature relative (ITR) qui correspond au contraste normalise des temperatures radiatives de surface. L'identification du type de surface a montre un taux de succes de 54,8 % pour les resultats de l'indice ITR, de 51,9 % pour les resultats de l'indice TISI et de 67,3 % pour les resultats de l'algorithme TES. Quant a la valeur de temperature corrigee, une verification prealable ayant permis de determiner la precision du TES a 0,5 °C, nous avons determine la precision relative des deux autres methodes par rapport a celle du TES. Pour les deux methodes TISI et ITR, la correction de temperature radiative a donne un ecart moyen similaire de l'ordre de --1,2 °C, avec une etendue d'ecart allant de ---0,5 a --2,2 °C. L'experience realisee a permis de presenter un prototype operationnel de mesure de la temperature de surface permettant en meme temps la caracterisation de la surface mesuree. L'extraction de ces deux types d'informations a partir d'une meme serie de mesures est une innovation. La banque d'emissivite spectrale mesuree sur le terrain est aussi une contribution de ce projet. Teledetection -- Infrarouge thermique -- Temperature de surface -- Neige -- Glace -- Meteorologie routiere

Chagnon, Frederic

82

Femur Fractures in the Pediatric Population: Abuse or Accidental Trauma?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Child abuse represents a serious threat to the health and well-being of the pediatric population. Orthopaedic specialists\\u000a will often become involved when child abuse is suspected as a result of the presence of bony injury. Distinguishing abuse\\u000a from accidental trauma can be difficult and is often based on clinical suspicion.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  We sought to determine whether accidental femur fractures in pediatric

Keith Baldwin; Nirav K. Pandya; Hayley Wolfgruber; Denis S. Drummond; Harish S. Hosalkar

2011-01-01

83

Accidental pleural puncture by a thoracic epidural catheter.  

PubMed

We report the occurrence of an accidental pleural puncture by an epidural catheter that happened during the attempted induction of thoracic epidural anaesthesia using a paramedian approach in an awake patient. The incorrect placement of the catheter was recognised while the patient was undergoing thoracoscopic surgery. The possibility of accidental pleural puncture during attempted thoracic epidural catheter placement by either the paramedian or the midline approach should be borne in mind. A misplaced catheter may injure lung tissue and result in a potentially dangerous intra-operative tension pneumothorax. PMID:9505745

Zaugg, M; Stoehr, S; Weder, W; Zollinger, A

1998-01-01

84

Accidental Falls Among Geriatric Patients: Can More Be Prevented?  

PubMed Central

The potential for accidental falls among geriatric patients is of mounting concern. Two hundred forty-one accidental falls over a 12-month period at the VA Medical Center were analyzed retrospectively and the literature reviewed in order to highlight factors that have bearing on the incidence and severity of falls. If a patient's potential for falling could be identified through a grading system based on these premonitory features, preventive measures might be more clearly focused where needed to reduce this frequent hazard in our hospital population.

Johnson, Edwin T.

1985-01-01

85

[Failure conditions of glass filament yarns: a contribution to the valuation of carcinogenic potentials of fiber fragments].  

PubMed

Failure of glass filament yarns results in the formation of many fragments. Through inhalation, these particles can intrude into the human body. If the fragments are sufficiently bioresistant and have a fiber dust geometry, according to the MAK-values (6), i.e. if they are longer than 5 microns and thinner than 3 microns and show an aspect ratio greater than 3, they have a carcinogenic potential. Since the glass filaments show a diameter greater than 3 microns, no fiber dust particles will be formed if transversal fiber failure occurs without crack-branching. In the present study the geometric distribution of fragments after failure of glass filament yarns under combined stress was investigated in order to estimate the carcinogenic potential of the fragments. The knot tension test was shown to be a suitable method for this investigation. A defined fraction of the total amount of fragments were analysed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) by measuring their length and diameter. To investigate whether the analysed particles are fragments of the glass filament yarns, chemical analysis was performed with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Morphologically, two different fragment types were observed: a) Fragments with their entire filament cross-section which were formed by transversal fiber fraction. b) Smaller fragments which were formed through crack-branching. These smaller fragments were observed to adhere on the bigger fragments due to high surface forces. During each knot tension test, 5-60 fragments per filament were formed. However, the fraction of fiber dust particles was very low and showed a maximum of 1.5%. Only in one of the four tested yarn types (high temperature yarn HT 75) the formation of fiber dust particles was observed. The other yarns showed fragments with dimensions close to fiber dust geometry. Therefore, it cannot be excluded that some fragments with fiber dust geometry may have been formed during mechanical testing. Fragment distribution of the studied E-glass yarns was shown to be dependent on the modification method. To date, it cannot be excluded that there are types of glass filament yarns forming a major quantity of fiber dust particles during failure. The fragments of type b such as fiber dust particles were observed to adhere on bigger fragments which are themselves too big to reach the alveoli. In the present study the stability of these agglomerates under various environmental conditions was not investigated. Moreover, fragment agglomerates should not be considered on their own but in connection with the application. The presented tests were carried out with simple yarns and, therefore, represent isolated observations. PMID:9789360

Oser, M; Ramseyer, C; Mayer, J; Wintermantel, E

1998-09-01

86

Non-accidental injury: a review of the radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   There have been many descriptions of the radiological features of non-accidental injury since John Caffey introduced the\\u000a concept of inflicted injury and initially described some of the patterns of injury. Since then, our understanding of the radiologically\\u000a detectable injuries has increased. This article provides a review of our current understanding of the lesions.

H. Carty; Alder Hey

1997-01-01

87

The Emergence of the “Accidental Citizen”: Implications for Political Marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central argument developed in this paper is premised on the belief that, in the life experiences of individuals, we find a messy interface between politics and consumption, where, often unintentionally, we take on citizenly roles and have civic experiences in market spaces as consumers. Flowing from this is the emergence of what the author calls the “accidental citizen,” where

Richard Scullion

2010-01-01

88

The Accidental Transgressor: Morally-Relevant Theory of Mind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test young children's false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N=162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered three tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an "accidental transgressor" task, which measured a…

Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah; Woodward, Amanda

2011-01-01

89

Accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines  

PubMed Central

Two clinical cases of accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines are described. One cat died the day after presentation as a result of aspiration pneumonia and head trauma, despite supportive care. The second cat survived with supportive treatment, but developed dermatologic complications 10 d later.

Stewart, Sarah A.; Gaunt, Matthew C.; Taylor, Susan M.; Snead, Elizabeth C.R.

2010-01-01

90

Pneumonitis and pneumatoceles following accidental hydrocarbon aspiration in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidental ingestion and aspiration of hydrocarbons in children are common. Among the various clinical and pathological manifestations of hydrocarbon (HC) poisoning, pneumonitis is the most significant and occurs in up to 40% of children, whereas formation of pneumatoceles is believed to be a rare event. We report two children with HC pneumonitis and pneumatoceles as a reversible complication after ingestion

Gabriela H. Thalhammer; Ernst Eber; Maximilian S. Zach

2005-01-01

91

ACCIDENTAL POISONING : SELECTED ASPECTS OF ITS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PREVENTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unintentional or accidental poisoning continues to be an important health threat throughout the world including Malaysia. It is particularly a problem among children under the age of 5 years, primarily due to developmental incompetencies and their dependence on adults for their care and well being. In the United States for every poisoning death among children under the age of 5,

John T Arokiasamy

1994-01-01

92

Modeling downwind hazards after an accidental release of chlorine trifluoride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A module simulating ClF3 chemical reactions with water vapor and thermodynamic processes in the atmosphere after an accidental release has been developed. Initial model runs simulate the rapid formation of HF and ClO2 after an atmospheric release of ClF3....

D. A. Lombardi M. D. Cheng

1996-01-01

93

A rare complication of nasotracheal intubation: accidental middle turbinectomy.  

PubMed

In this paper, we are presenting a rare case of accidental middle turbinectomy, a complication of nasotracheal intubation. We have reviewed the literature and addressed important parameters on nasotracheal intubation to avoid damage to the turbinates and its possible serious complications. PMID:19305259

Cavusoglu, Tarik; Yazici, Ilker; Demirtas, Yener; Gunaydin, Berrin; Yavuzer, Reha

2009-03-01

94

Targeting of observations for accidental atmospheric release monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the event of an accidental atmospheric release of radionuclides from a nuclear power plant, accurate real-time forecasting of the activity concentrations of radionuclides is acutely required by the decision makers for the preparation of adequate countermeasures. Yet, the accuracy of the forecasted plume is highly dependent on the source term estimation. Inverse modelling and data assimilation techniques should help

Rachid Abida; Marc Bocquet

2009-01-01

95

ACCIDENTAL INJURY AND INCLEMENT WEATHER: DEFINING THE RELATIONSHIP AND ANTICIPATING THE EFFECTS OF A CHANGING CLIMATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this activity is to utilize a combination of existing scientific knowledge and professional expertise and experience to develop a research strategy for lessening the incidence and the impact of accidental injuries associated with inclement weather. Accidental inj...

96

Modelling of accidental released toxic gases for emergency responders in Austria, Kosovo and Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. A number of models for the prediction and simulation of hazard areas affected by accidental releases of toxic gases are available worldwide. Modelling accidental releases may be required for

Sirma Stenzel; Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer; Salih Gashi; Bashkim Thaci; Ekaterina Batchvarova; Tatiana Spassova

2010-01-01

97

Accidental Nuclear War: The Growing Peril. Part I [and] Part II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two volumes designed to increase awareness of accidental nuclear war dangers are presented. The first of 5 sections in volume I proposes that although accidental war is preventable, the current arms race and secrecy about accidents and false alarms increase the possibility of an accidental war. Section 2 posits that decreased decision-making time…

Newcombe, Alan, Ed.

1984-01-01

98

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 9. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF CHLORINE  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual discusses reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of chlorine. It identifies examples of potential causes of accidental releases that apply to processes that use chlorine, as well as measures that may be taken to reduce the accidental release risk. Such...

99

Circumstances and factors associated with accidental deaths among children, adolescents and young adults in Cuiabá, Brazil.  

PubMed

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Analysis on accidents from the perspective of population segments shows there is higher incidence among children, adolescents and young adults. Since the characteristics and circunstances of the event are closely related to educational, economic, social and cultural issues, identifying them may contribute towards minimizing the causes, which are often fatal. The aim here was to identify the environmental, chemical, biological and cultural factors associated with deaths due to accidents among children, adolescents and young adults in Cuiabá, in 2009. DESIGN AND SETTING This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. RESULTS Thirty-nine accidental deaths of individuals aged 0 to 24 years were examined: 56.4% due to traffic accidents; 25.6%, drowning; 10.3%, aspiration of milk; 5.1%, falls; and 2.6%, accidentally triggering a firearm. Male victims predominated (82.1%). The presence of chemical, environmental and biological risk factors was observed in almost all of the homes. Regarding cultural factors and habits, a large proportion of the families had no idea whether accidents were foreseeable events and others did not believe that the family's habits might favor their occurrence. Delegation of household chores or care of younger siblings to children under the age of 10 was common among the families studied. CONCLUSION The results point towards the need to have safe and healthy behavioral patterns and environments, and to monitor occurrences of accidents, thereby structuring and consolidating the attendance provided for victims. PMID:24141293

Martins, Christine Baccarat de Godoy; Mello-Jorge, Maria Helena Prado de

2013-01-01

100

Contribution of the TRPV1 channel to salt taste quality in mice as assessed by conditioned taste aversion generalization and chorda tympani nerve responses.  

PubMed

In rodents, at least two transduction mechanisms are involved in salt taste: 1) the sodium-selective epithelial sodium channel, blocked by topical amiloride administration, and 2) one or more amiloride-insensitive cation-nonselective pathways. Whereas electrophysiological evidence from the chorda tympani nerve (CT) has implicated the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel as a major component of amiloride-insensitive salt taste transduction, behavioral results have provided only equivocal support. Using a brief-access taste test, we examined generalization profiles of water-deprived C57BL/6J (WT) and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice conditioned (via LiCl injection) to avoid 100 ?M amiloride-prepared 0.25 M NaCl and tested with 0.25 M NaCl, sodium gluconate, KCl, NH(4)Cl, 6.625 mM citric acid, 0.15 mM quinine, and 0.5 M sucrose. Both LiCl-injected WT and TRPV1 KO groups learned to avoid NaCl+amiloride relative to controls, but their generalization profiles did not differ; LiCl-injected mice avoided the nonsodium salts and quinine suggesting that a TRPV1-independent pathway contributes to the taste quality of the amiloride-insensitive portion of the NaCl signal. Repeating the experiment but doubling all stimulus concentrations revealed a difference in generalization profiles between genotypes. While both LiCl-injected groups avoided the nonsodium salts and quinine, only WT mice avoided the sodium salts and citric acid. CT responses to these stimuli and a concentration series of NaCl and KCl with and without amiloride did not differ between genotypes. Thus, in our study, TRPV1 did not appear to contribute to sodium salt perception based on gustatory signals, at least in the CT, but may have contributed to the oral somatosensory features of sodium. PMID:23054171

Smith, Kimberly R; Treesukosol, Yada; Paedae, A Brennan; Contreras, Robert J; Spector, Alan C

2012-12-01

101

Contribution of the TRPV1 channel to salt taste quality in mice as assessed by conditioned taste aversion generalization and chorda tympani nerve responses  

PubMed Central

In rodents, at least two transduction mechanisms are involved in salt taste: 1) the sodium-selective epithelial sodium channel, blocked by topical amiloride administration, and 2) one or more amiloride-insensitive cation-nonselective pathways. Whereas electrophysiological evidence from the chorda tympani nerve (CT) has implicated the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel as a major component of amiloride-insensitive salt taste transduction, behavioral results have provided only equivocal support. Using a brief-access taste test, we examined generalization profiles of water-deprived C57BL/6J (WT) and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice conditioned (via LiCl injection) to avoid 100 ?M amiloride-prepared 0.25 M NaCl and tested with 0.25 M NaCl, sodium gluconate, KCl, NH4Cl, 6.625 mM citric acid, 0.15 mM quinine, and 0.5 M sucrose. Both LiCl-injected WT and TRPV1 KO groups learned to avoid NaCl+amiloride relative to controls, but their generalization profiles did not differ; LiCl-injected mice avoided the nonsodium salts and quinine suggesting that a TRPV1-independent pathway contributes to the taste quality of the amiloride-insensitive portion of the NaCl signal. Repeating the experiment but doubling all stimulus concentrations revealed a difference in generalization profiles between genotypes. While both LiCl-injected groups avoided the nonsodium salts and quinine, only WT mice avoided the sodium salts and citric acid. CT responses to these stimuli and a concentration series of NaCl and KCl with and without amiloride did not differ between genotypes. Thus, in our study, TRPV1 did not appear to contribute to sodium salt perception based on gustatory signals, at least in the CT, but may have contributed to the oral somatosensory features of sodium.

Smith, Kimberly R.; Treesukosol, Yada; Paedae, A. Brennan; Contreras, Robert J.

2012-01-01

102

Potential contribution of planktonic components to ammonium cycling in the coastal area off central-southern Chile during non-upwelling conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential contributions of different microbial components (<20 ?m) and metabolisms to ammonium cycling were assessed during non-upwelling conditions in a coastal area off Concepción (?36.5°S). Assays with specific inhibitors to estimate rates of ammonium consumption and production, and carbon assimilation associated with photolithotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic (nitrification) metabolisms in the water column were performed. Despite low water column concentrations of ammonium in wintertime, intense ammonium transformations were registered. Prokaryotes (or bacterioplankton) contributed most to ammonium generation rates over the entire water column; these rates increased with depth (0.4-3.1 ?M d -1). In surface waters (10 m depth), aerobic ammonium oxidation (potentially by Bacteria and Archaea) was the dominant consumption process (average 0.7 ?M d -1) whereas in the subsurface layer (20 and 50 m depth), unexpectedly, eukaryotes accounted for most of its consumption (average 2.1 ?M d -1). Nitrification oxidized an important proportion of the ammonium in both layers (from 25% to 100%) and provided regenerated nitrate. The integrated water column rates of chemosynthesis (0.005 g C m -2 d -1) represented a large proportion (51%) of the total dark carbon fixation during the non-upwelling season when integrated rates of photosynthesis are relatively low (0.42 g C m -2 d -1) and microbial food webs dominate the transfer of carbon within this coastal system.

Molina, Veronica; Morales, Carmen E.; Farías, Laura; Cornejo, Marcela; Graco, Michelle; Eissler, Yoanna; Cuevas, Luis A.

2012-01-01

103

[Accidental out-of-hospital deliveries].  

PubMed

Unexpected out-of-hospital delivery accounts for 0.5% of the total number of delivery in France. The parturient is placed under constant multiparametric monitoring. Fetus heart rate is monitored thanks to fetal doppler. A high concentration mask containing a 50-to-50 percent mix of O(2) and NO performs analgesia. Assistance of mobile pediatric service can be required under certain circumstances such as premature birth, gemellary pregnancy, maternal illness or fetal heart rate impairment. Maternal efforts should start only when head reaches the pelvic floor, only if the rupture of the membranes is done and the dilation is completed. The expulsion should not exceed 30 min. Episiotomy should not be systematically performed. A systematic active management of third stage of labour is recommended. Routine care such as warming and soft drying can be performed when the following conditions are fulfilled: clear amniotic liquid, normal breathing, crying and a good tonus. Every 30 seconds assessment of heart rate, breathing quality and muscular tonus then guide the care. The redaction of birth certificate is a legal obligation and rests with the attending doctor. PMID:23773899

Bouet, P-E; Chabernaud, J-L; Duc, F; Khouri, T; Leboucher, B; Riethmuller, D; Descamps, P; Sentilhes, L

2014-03-01

104

Acute effects of nitrogen dioxide after accidental release.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Following an accidental release of nitrogen dioxide from a railroad tank car containing nitrous tetroxide, the authors undertook a study of the health effects of the release, measuring the association between acute low level exposure and pulmonary symptoms. METHODS: The authors reviewed the records of three emergency departments, surveyed 80 emergency department patients, 552 community residents, 21 chemical plant workers, and 29 emergency workers, and conducted a case-control study. Pulmonary case status was defined as having an objective pulmonary finding noted on the emergency department record, reporting that the onset of symptoms was subsequent to the release, and being within the city limits at the time of the release. Self-reported case status was defined as reporting one or more symptoms consistent with exposure to nitrogen dioxide in the week after the release and having been within the city limits at the time of the release. Control subjects were survey respondents who reported no symptoms in the week after the release and had been within the city limits at the time of the release. Chemical exposure was characterized by proximity to, direction from, and being outdoors within one hour after the release. Duration of potential exposure was not measured. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence interval for symptoms by exposure level, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and preexisting pulmonary conditions. RESULTS: Local emergency department visits increased fivefold in the week after the release. The most common complaints recorded in a systematic sample of 528 visits in the first 30 hours after the release were headache (31%), burning eyes (30%), and sore throat (24%). Objective pulmonary findings were recorded for 41 (5%) patients in the week before and 165 (4%) in the week after the release. The odds of being a pulmonary case increased by 40% for each quarter-mile increment in proximity to the release (odds ratio [OR] 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1, 1.7), while the odds of being a self-reported case increased by 20% for each quarter-mile increment in proximity (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1, 1.4). People who met the pulmonary case definition were 2.5 times (CI 1.3, 4.8) more likely than control subjects to have been outdoors and 6.4 times (CI 3.2, 12.6) more likely to report a preexisting pulmonary condition. Self-reported cases were 2.6 times (95% CI 1.8, 3.8) more likely than control subjects to have been outdoors and 1.9 times (95% CI 1.1, 3.1) more likely to report a preexisting pulmonary condition. CONCLUSIONS: Emergency department visits increased five-fold, but serious acute health effects were uncommon. People who met the pulmonary case definition were six times more likely to report pulmonary symptoms than those without preexisting conditions. This study was not designed to determine any potential long-term effects of exposure.

Bauer, U; Berg, D; Kohn, M A; Meriwether, R A; Nickle, R A

1998-01-01

105

Accidental Electric Shock during Pregnancy: Reflection on a Case  

PubMed Central

Objectives Data on fetal effects following accidental electric shock during pregnancy are scarce. We report on a case of accidental maternal electric shock associated with benign fetal arrhythmia in a woman at 28 weeks' gestation. Study Design Case report. Results Although electrocution involving low-voltage, low-frequency current has been associated with fatal cardiac arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities, two protective parameters in the present case likely reduced the fetal injury: the dry skin at the site of current entry and the hand-to-hand pathway of current flow. Conclusion Because the pathophysiology of electric injury is altered during pregnancy, assessment of fetal well-being should be prompted no matter how trivial an incident may appear.

Awwad, Johnny; Hannoun, Antoine; Fares, Farah; Ghazeeri, Ghina

2013-01-01

106

Epidemiology of accidental drowning in Denmark 1989-1993.  

PubMed

Three hundred and forty-nine cases of accidental drowning or cooling in water occurring in Denmark from 1989 to 1993 have been studied. The incidence was highest in 0-4-year-old children, in middle-aged men, and in old people. A third of the children drowned in private pools. A quarter of all fatalities occurred during leisure boating. At least half of those that drowned in this way did not wear a life-jacket and could have been saved if they had been wearing one. Between a third and a half of the adult drownings were related to alcohol intake, and a large number of inebriated men fell into harbour basins and other water bodies. A few final remarks are made on the prospects for preventing accidental drowning in children, elderly people and adult males. PMID:9805518

Steensberg, J

1998-11-01

107

Modulating Accidental Fermi Resonance: What a Difference a Neutron Makes  

PubMed Central

Vibrational reporters have shown significant promise as sensitive probes of local environments in proteins and nucleic acids. The utility of two potential vibrational probes, the cyanate and azide groups in phenyl cyanate and 3-azidopyridine, respectively, has been hindered by accidental Fermi resonance. Anharmonic coupling, between the fundamental –OCN or –N3 asymmetric stretch vibration with a near resonant combination band, results in an extremely broad and complex absorption profile for each of these probes. A total of eight phenyl cyanate and six 3-azidopyridine isotopomers were synthesized and studied. Isotopic editing effectively modulated the accidental Fermi resonance — the absorption profiles of several isotopomers were greatly simplified while others remained complex. The origins of the observed profiles are discussed. Addition of a single neutron to the middle atom of the oscillator converted the absorption profile to essentially a single band resulting from either the cyanate or azide asymmetric stretch vibration.

Lipkin, Jacob S.; Song, Rui; Fenlon, Edward E.; Brewer, Scott H.

2011-01-01

108

Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal.  

PubMed

Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using k·p method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect. PMID:24714512

Chen, Ze-Guo; Ni, Xu; Wu, Ying; He, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Zheng, Li-Yang; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

2014-01-01

109

Accidental Electric Shock during Pregnancy: Reflection on a Case.  

PubMed

Objectives Data on fetal effects following accidental electric shock during pregnancy are scarce. We report on a case of accidental maternal electric shock associated with benign fetal arrhythmia in a woman at 28 weeks' gestation. Study Design Case report. Results Although electrocution involving low-voltage, low-frequency current has been associated with fatal cardiac arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities, two protective parameters in the present case likely reduced the fetal injury: the dry skin at the site of current entry and the hand-to-hand pathway of current flow. Conclusion Because the pathophysiology of electric injury is altered during pregnancy, assessment of fetal well-being should be prompted no matter how trivial an incident may appear. PMID:24147245

Awwad, Johnny; Hannoun, Antoine; Fares, Farah; Ghazeeri, Ghina

2013-10-01

110

Fatal accidental asphyxia in a jack-knife position  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidental death from postural or positional asphyxia takes place when the abnormal position of the victim’s body compromises the process of respiration. Diagnosis is largely made by circumstantial evidence supported by absence of any other significant pathology or trauma explaining death. This case report is about a 50-year-old male who had been drinking the previous night and was found dead

F. A. Benomran

2010-01-01

111

Accidental Degeneracy and Berry Phase of Resonant States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Resonant States Resonant States in a Slowly Time Evolving Environment A Few Facts About Gamow Functions The Mixing Matrix Geometric Phase of a Resonant State Berry Phase Factors of Resonant States and Holonomy in a Complex - Line Bundle Resonant States as Elements of a Rigged Hilbert Space Adiabatic Evolution and Parallel Translation Accidental Degeneracy of Resonances Degeneracy of Two Resonances Computation of the Geometric Phase Results and Conclusions

Mondragón, A.; Hernández, E.

112

Cardiac arrhythmias during rewarming of patients with accidental hypothermia.  

PubMed Central

Accidental hypothermia has a high mortality and is associated with cardiac arrhythmias. To determine the incidence of arrhythmias and their importance 22 patients with accidental hypothermia (core temperature less than 35 degrees C) were studied by 12 lead electrocardiography and continuous recording of cardiac rhythm. Although 14 of the patients died (64%), only six died while hypothermic. Prolongation of the Q-T interval and the presence of J waves were related to the severity of the hypothermia. Supraventricular arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation, were common (nine cases) and benign. Ventricular extrasystoles were also common (10 cases), but ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation did not occur during rewarming. In eight patients who died while being monitored the terminal rhythm was asystole. There was no correlation between the severity of hypothermia or the rate of rewarming and the clinical outcome. In the absence of malignant arrhythmias there is no indication for using prophylactic antiarrhythmic treatment in patients with accidental hypothermia. The presence or absence of severe underlying disease is the main determinant of prognosis.

Rankin, A C; Rae, A P

1984-01-01

113

An investigation of accidental ingestion during dental procedures.  

PubMed

Twenty-three cases of accidental ingestion during dental procedures, which occurred at the Center for Dental Clinics of Hokkaido University Hospital between 2006 and 2010, were analyzed retrospectively. We examined not only the objects ingested, but also details of the circumstances (treated teeth, types of treatment, professional experience of the practitioners). Except for two cases (an unidentified endodontic file and the tip of an ultrasonic scaler, which were recovered by vacuuming), the other 21 accidentally ingested objects were all found in the digestive tract, and none in the respiratory tract, by radiographic examination of the chest and abdomen. The ingested objects were mostly metal restorations (inlays or onlays) or prostheses (crowns or cores). Ingestion occurred more frequently during treatment of lower molars, and when procedures were being conducted by practitioners with less than 5 years of experience. No adverse events related to ingestion were reported. The present study found no cases of aspiration or complications related to the ingested objects. However, considering the risk of life-threatening emergencies related to accidental aspiration and ingestion, dentists must take meticulous precautions and be ready to deal with this kind of emergency during dental procedures. PMID:22167036

Obinata, Kenichi; Satoh, Takafumi; Towfik, Alam Mohammad; Nakamura, Motoyasu

2011-12-01

114

Population trajectories for accidental versus planned colonisation of islands.  

PubMed

We modify an existing model of the population trajectory on an island after the first arrival of a group of hominins to compare the potential success rates of accidental arrival (e.g., on vegetation rafts following major floods or a tsunami) against planned colonisation by watercraft. Our model predicts that colonisation through the accidental arrival of a group of individuals on an island should be around half as likely to be successful as colonisation through the arrival of a planned voyaging party of the same size, but that this difference could be entirely counteracted by the infrequent arrival of small numbers of individuals by similar accidental circumstances in the centuries after the initial colonisation. We argue that our model investigations strengthen the plausibility that especially early island colonisation (such as Homo erectus on Flores) may have occurred as a result of highly anomalous natural events (such as a tsunami), and thus hominin colonisation of islands outside swimming range of continents should not be seen as necessarily indicating the existences of seafaring technologies and skills. PMID:22748511

Ruxton, Graeme D; Wilkinson, David M

2012-09-01

115

The contribution of nano- and micro-planktonic assemblages in the surface layer (0 30 m) under different hydrographic conditions in the upwelling area off Concepción, central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the highly productive region off central Chile, the structure and temporal and spatial variability of planktonic assemblages, and the factors that determine changes in this structure are poorly understood. In the region, wind-driven upwelling, heating by solar radiation and freshwater inputs are highly seasonal processes, which, together with higher frequency events, can promote changes in the planktonic communities, especially in the upper layer. This study focuses on the structure of nano- through to micro-planktonic assemblages (2-200 ?m) of unicellular organisms (protists) in surface waters (0-30 m) during different hydrographic conditions. Samples were taken from a fixed shelf station off Concepción (COPAS time series Station 18) on eight occasions between September 2003 and August 2004. The nano-plankton flagellate-dominated fraction was numerically important during the whole period. Maxima in flagellate abundance and biomass occurred during the upwelling period (November-April samplings) but these maxima appear to be unrelated to the degree of water column stratification. The micro-plankton diatom-dominated fraction was usually the largest component in terms of biomass during the study period and the diatoms made important numerical contributions during the upwelling period, with maxima in abundance and biomass when water column stability was lowest. The dominant genera and morphotypes in each functional group were found throughout the study period, with maxima in abundance and biomass co-occurring under similar environmental upwelling conditions. The mean macro-nutrient concentrations (nitrate and silicate) were relatively high in the top 30 m during both upwelling and non-upwelling periods, and did not explain the maxima in plankton or functional group replacements. The persistence of the dominant taxa in the planktonic assemblages suggests a high degree of flexibility, though probably not at the specific level, to withstand the highly variable environmental conditions in this upwelling area.

Anabalón, V.; Morales, C. E.; Escribano, R.; Angélica Varas, M.

2007-11-01

116

Contribution of hydrodynamic conditions during shallow water stages to the sediment balance on a tidal flat: Mont-Saint-Michel Bay, Normandy, France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field measurements were conducted in Mont-Saint-Michel Bay, a megatidal embayment (spring tidal range of 15 m), in order to monitor, over the course of a tidal cycle, sediment transport variability due to waves and tides on the upper part of a tidal flat characterised by shallow water depths. Sensors used to measure currents, water depth and turbidity were installed just above the bed (0.04 m). Two experiments were conducted under contrasting hydrodynamic conditions. The results highlight wave activity over the tidal flat even though observed wind waves were largely dissipated due to the very shallow water depths. Very high suspended sediment concentrations (up to 6 kg/m 3) were recorded in the presence of wave activity at the beginning of the local flood, when significant sediment transport occurred, up to 7 times as much as under conditions of no wave activity. This influence may be attributed to the direct action of waves on bed sediments, to wave-induced liquefaction, and to the erosive action of waves on tidal channel banks. The sediment composition, comprising a clay fraction of 2-5%, may also enhance sediment transport by reducing critical shear stress through the sand lubrication effect. The results also show that antecedent meteorological conditions play an important role in suspended sediment transport on the tidal flat. Total sediment flux directions show a net transport towards the inner part of the bay that contributes to deposition over the adjacent salt marshes, and this tendency also prevails during strong wave conditions. Such sediment transport is characterised by significant variability over the course of the tidal cycle. During fair and moderate weather conditions, 83% and 71% of the total flux was observed, respectively, over only 11% and 28% of the duration of the local tidal cycle and with water depths between 0.04 and 0.3 m. These results suggest that in order to improve our understanding of sediment budgets in this type of coastal environment, it is essential to record data just at the beginning and at the end of tidal submergence close to the bed.

Desguée, R.; Robin, N.; Gluard, L.; Monfort, O.; Anthony, E. J.; Levoy, F.

2011-10-01

117

Hybrid parallel strategy for the simulation of fast transient accidental situations at reactor scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution is dedicated to the latest methodological developments implemented in the fast transient dynamics software EUROPLEXUS (EPX) to simulate the mechanical response of fully coupled fluid-structure systems to accidental situations to be considered at reactor scale, among which the Loss of Coolant Accident, the Core Disruptive Accident and the Hydrogen Explosion. Time integration is explicit and the search for reference solutions within the safety framework prevents any simplification and approximations in the coupled algorithm: for instance, all kinematic constraints are dealt with using Lagrange Multipliers, yielding a complex flow chart when non-permanent constraints such as unilateral contact or immersed fluid-structure boundaries are considered. The parallel acceleration of the solution process is then achieved through a hybrid approach, based on a weighted domain decomposition for distributed memory computing and the use of the KAAPI library for self-balanced shared memory processing inside subdomains.

Faucher, V.; Galon, P.; Beccantini, A.; Crouzet, F.; Debaud, F.; Gautier, T.

2014-06-01

118

Hemizygous mutations in SNAP29 unmask autosomal recessive conditions and contribute to atypical findings in patients with 22q11.2DS  

PubMed Central

Background 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion disorder, affecting an estimated 1?:?2000–4000 live births. Patients with 22q11.2DS have a broad spectrum of phenotypic abnormalities which generally includes congenital cardiac abnormalities, palatal anomalies, and immunodeficiency. Additional findings, such as skeletal anomalies and autoimmune disorders, can confer significant morbidity in a subset of patients. 22q11.2DS is a contiguous gene DS and over 40 genes are deleted in patients; thus deletion of several genes within this region contributes to the clinical features. Mutations outside or on the remaining 22q11.2 allele are also known to modify the phenotype. Methods We utilised whole exome, targeted exome and/or Sanger sequencing to examine the genome of 17 patients with 22q11.2 deletions and phenotypic features found in <10% of affected individuals. Results and conclusions In four unrelated patients, we identified three novel mutations in SNAP29, the gene implicated in the autosomal recessive condition cerebral dysgenesis, neuropathy, ichthyosis and keratoderma (CEDNIK). SNAP29 maps to 22q11.2 and encodes a soluble SNARE protein that is predicted to mediate vesicle fusion at the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi membranes. This work confirms that the phenotypic variability observed in a subset of patients with 22q11.2DS is due to mutations on the non-deleted chromosome, which leads to unmasking of autosomal recessive conditions such as CEDNIK, Kousseff, and a potentially autosomal recessive form of Opitz G/BBB syndrome. Furthermore, our work implicates SNAP29 as a major modifier of variable expressivity in 22q11.2 DS patients.

McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Revil, Timothee; Nowakowska, Beata A; Suhl, Joshua; Bailey, Alice; Mlynarski, Elisabeth; Lynch, David R; Yan, Albert C; Bilaniuk, Larissa T; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Warren, Stephen T; Emanuel, Beverly S; Vermeesch, Joris R; Zackai, Elaine H; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A

2013-01-01

119

Surviving two hours of ventricular fibrillation in accidental hypothermia.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. Cardiac arrest as a consequence of deep accidental hypothermia is associated with high mortality. Standardized prehospital management as well as rewarming with extracorporeal circulation (ECC) are important factors to improve survival. The objective of this case report is to illustrate the importance of effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and ECC in a cardiac arrest following deep accidental hypothermia. Case report. A 42-year-old man was found unresponsive to external stimuli and pulseless at an outdoor temperature of 1°C. CPR was started at the scene by laypersons, and the emergency medical services (EMS) arrived 5 minutes after the emergency call. Resuscitation according to International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) guidelines was initiated by EMS. The first recorded rhythm was ventricular fibrillation (VF), which persisted, despite repeated defibrillation. The patient showed signs of severe hypothermia and, during ongoing CPR, was transported to hospital where on arrival the patient's rectal temperature was measured at 22°C. Resuscitation measures were continued and warming was started at the emergency room. Due to persistent VF and deep hypothermia, the patient was transferred to a cardiothoracic surgical unit for rewarming with ECC. At commencement of ECC, CPR had been going for approximately 130 minutes and a total of 38 defibrillations had been made. During this time interval the patients was pulseless. At a core temperature of 30°C, one defibrillation restored sinus rhythm and subsequently stable circulation was achieved. The patient received a further 24 hours of hypothermia treatment at 32-34°C. He was discharged to rehabilitation facilities after 3 weeks of hospital care. Three months after the cardiac arrest the patient was fully recovered, was back to work, and had resumed normal activities. Conclusions. We demonstrate a case of cardiac arrest due to deep accidental hypothermia that stresses the importance of effective CPR and early-stage consideration of the use of ECC for safe and effective rewarming. PMID:24670046

Nordberg, Per; Ivert, Torbjörn; Dalén, Magnus; Forsberg, Sune; Hedman, Anders

2014-01-01

120

Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium  

DOEpatents

An improvement is described in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release. 1 fig.

Galloway, T.R.

1980-04-01

121

[Biological effects and risks of accidental radionuclide uptake].  

PubMed

This review presents the actual state of knowledge about medical dangers of a radioactive fall-out. Concepts for the estimation of accidental incorporation, as well as effects and risks that are known to occur after incorporation of radionuclides are discussed. Special attention is paid to the following topics: effect of radioiodine on the thyroid gland, effect of radio-cesium on whole body burden, alpha-emitting particles (plutonium) with deposition in the airways, association of osteotrope radionuclides (strontium) with malignomas of the skeleton and finally prophylaxis with iodine to prevent damage of the thyroid. PMID:3554876

Fueger, G F

1986-01-01

122

Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium  

DOEpatents

An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release.

Galloway, Terry R. (Berkeley, CA)

1980-01-01

123

Accidental ingestion of an untethered instrument during implant surgery.  

PubMed

During dental treatment, patients can swallow or inhale a foreign object as a result of several patient- and clinician-related factors; however, several methods can be used to prevent this complication. A 65-year-old man was referred to the Oral Implantology Clinic at the University of Amsterdam (ACTA) for a fixed prosthesis in the maxilla. While placing the implants, the screwdriver accidentally slipped from the fingers of the surgeon and was ingested by the patient. Since the difference between swallowing and inhaling cannot be accurately diagnosed, patient follow-up is advisable. PMID:24905271

Pull Ter Gunne, Lotte; Wismeijer, Daniel

2014-01-01

124

Primary inoculation tuberculosis after an accidental scalpel injury.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) infection in healthcare personnel occurs mostly by mycobacteria inhalation and contact with infected material. Here, we report a case of primary inoculation TB in a surgeon resulting from an accidental scalpel injury. Standard anti-TB treatment produced a good result, and no relapses occurred in the 18-month follow-up period. Given the increased incidence of TB and the use of surgery to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains, this report underscores the need to take special precautions during lesion excision in TB patients. PMID:23468222

Huang, D; Yin, H

2013-08-01

125

[Accidental staining of corneal nerves by methylene blue].  

PubMed

A 10-year-old child presented after accidental exposure of the left eye to a blue hair dye containing methylene blue. Mild ocular surface changes and a selective blue staining of the usually invisible corneal nerve fibre bundles were present. Corneal sensitivity was reduced. Despite copious lubrication a transient neurotrophic keratitis developed which did not resolve until corneal sensitivity became normal 2 weeks later. Association of mild chemical burns with neurotrophic keratitis is unusual but is of high clinical relevance as keratitis is a vision-threatening complication. PMID:23288315

Peter, S; Reichart, E; Poyntner, L; Mennel, S

2013-09-01

126

ECMO for Cardiac Rescue after Accidental Intravenous Mepivacaine Application  

PubMed Central

Mepivacaine is a potent local anaesthetic and used for infiltration and regional anaesthesia in adults and pediatric patients. Intoxications with mepivacaine affect mainly the CNS and the cardiovascular system. We present a case of accidental intravenous mepivacaine application and intoxication of an infant resulting in seizure, broad complex bradyarrhythmia, arterial hypotension and finally cardiac arrest. The patient could be rescued by prolonged resuscitations and a rapid initiation of ECMO and survived without neurological damage. The management strategies of this rare complication including promising other treatment options with lipid emulsions are discussed.

Froehle, Michael; Haas, Nikolaus A.; Kirchner, Guenther; Kececioglu, Deniz; Sandica, Eugen

2012-01-01

127

Control of accidental releases of hydrogen selenide in vented storage cabinets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly toxic hydrogen selenide and hydrogen sulfide gases are used in the production of copper-indium-diselenide photovoltaic cells by reactive sputtering. In the event of an accident, these gases may be released to the atmosphere and pose hazards to public and occupational safety and health. This paper outlines an approach for designing systems for the control of these releases given the uncertainty in release conditions and lack of data on the chemical systems involved. Accidental releases of these gases in storage cabinets can be controlled by either a venturi and packed-bed scrubber and carbon adsorption bed, or containment scrubbing equipment followed by carbon adsorption. These systems can effectively reduce toxic gas emissions to levels needed to protect public health. The costs of these controls (~$0.012/Wp) are samll in comparison with current (~$6/Wp) and projected (~$I/Wp) production costs.

Fthenakis, V. M.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Sproull, R. D.

1988-07-01

128

Accidental injections of dexamethasone intravitreal implant (Ozurdex®) into the crystalline lens.  

PubMed

Purpose: To describe the side effects and management after inadvertent injection of a dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex®) into the crystalline lens.Methods: Two case reports.Results: Two patients with macular edema due to unilateral retinal vein occlusion were scheduled for an intravitreal injection of Ozurdex®. During the procedure, the implant was accidentally injected into the crystalline lens. Both patients developed cataracts during the course of several weeks and in both there was an intraocular pressure (IOP) increase, which required treatment with topical hypotensives. Macular edema improved only slightly. Cataract surgery with uneventful removal of the implant was performed 3 (case 1) and 6 months (case 2) after the injection.Conclusions: After inadvertent injection of Ozurdex® into the crystalline lens, cataract surgery with removal of the implant should be performed as soon as possible in order to avoid IOP increase and so that the underlying condition may be treated adequately. PMID:24519506

Coca-Robinot, Javier; Casco-Silva, Bruno; Armadá-Maresca, Felix; García-Martínez, Jesús

2014-06-23

129

Doses from accidental releases of tritium and activation products into the atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

In view of public acceptance and the licensing procedure of projected fusion reactors, the release of tritium and activation products during normal operation as well as after accidents is a significant safety aspect. Calculations have been performed under accidental conditions for unit releases of corrosion products from water coolant loops, of first wall erosion products including different coating materials, and of tritium in its chemical form of tritiated water (HTO). Dose assessments during normal operation have been performed for corrosion products from first wall primary coolant loop and for tritium in both chemical forms (HT/HTO). The two accident consequence assessment (ACA) codes UFOTRI and COSYMA have been applied for the deterministic dose calculations SYMA and NORMTRI have been applied for several radiologic source terms. Furthermore, COSYMA and NORMTRI have been applied for routine release scenarios. The paper analyzes the radiation doses to individuals and the population resulting from the different materials assumed to be released in the environment.

Raskob, W. (Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Karlsruhe (Germany))

1993-06-01

130

Interpretation of the accidental predissociation of the E1? state of CO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A special case of predissociation, known as indirect or accidental predissociation observed in the Rydberg E1? bound state of CO is discussed. We resort to ab initio potentials in order to determine the plausible mechanism for this predissociation. Values of the predissociation width for the valence k3? state of CO, as obtained from Fermi's golden rule, are also reported. The predissociation width obtained for the mixed E1? (v = 1, J = 7) state is 0.033 cm-1 compared to the experimental value of 0.034 cm-1. The mixed E - E' state with J = 28, v = 0 is found to be in near resonance condition with the k3? (v = 4, J = 28) state, thus providing the means to indirect predissociation.

Majumder, M.; Sathyamurthy, N.; Vázquez, G. J.; Lefebvre-Brion, H.

2014-04-01

131

Interpretation of the accidental predissociation of the E(1) ? state of CO.  

PubMed

A special case of predissociation, known as indirect or accidental predissociation observed in the Rydberg E(1)? bound state of CO is discussed. We resort to ab initio potentials in order to determine the plausible mechanism for this predissociation. Values of the predissociation width for the valence k(3)? state of CO, as obtained from Fermi's golden rule, are also reported. The predissociation width obtained for the mixed E(1)? (v = 1, J = 7) state is 0.033 cm(-1) compared to the experimental value of 0.034 cm(-1). The mixed E - E(') state with J = 28, v = 0 is found to be in near resonance condition with the k(3)? (v = 4, J = 28) state, thus providing the means to indirect predissociation. PMID:24784266

Majumder, M; Sathyamurthy, N; Vázquez, G J; Lefebvre-Brion, H

2014-04-28

132

Doses from accidental releases of tritium and activation products into the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of public acceptance and the licensing procedure of projected fusion reactors, the release of tritium and activation products during normal operation as well as after accidents is a significant safety aspect. Calculations have been performed under accidental conditions for unit releases of corrosion products from water coolant loops, of first wall erosion products including different coating materials, and of tritium in its chemical form of tritiated water (HTO). Dose assessments during normal operation have been performed for corrosion products from first wall primary coolant loop and for tritium in both chemical forms (HT/HTO). The two accident consequence assessment (ACA) codes UFOTRI and COSYMA have been applied for the deterministic dose calculations with nearly the same input variables and for several radiological source terms. Furthermore, COSYMA and NORMTRI have been applied for routine release scenarios. The paper analyzes the radioation doses to individuals and the population resulting from the different materials assumed to be released in the environment.

Raskob, W.

1993-06-01

133

An Interpretation of Non-Accidental Traffic Congestion Based on a Hybrid Phenomenological Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hybrid phenomenological theory based on the fundamental elastic and hydrodynamic theories is developed to interpret common traffic phenomena of non-accidental vehicle congestion. Compressional (longitudinal) waves propagating through a hyperspace and their hypothetical mapping onto the real configurational space are employed to prescribe the established traffic flow pattern. The continuity equation is solved for the density distribution function of the traffic subject to the derived group velocity and particular boundary and initial or final conditions. All desired quantities of the traffic flow can then be calculated with this distribution function. Possible applications of this work can be achieved by utilizing the concept of sinks and sources. One can predict the traffic flow through appropriate exits and entrances of the highway section where traffic jams often occur.

Chu, Kwo-Sun; Richards, Bernard L.; Davis, George W.

2001-10-01

134

Preventing Accidental Ignition of Upper-Stage Rocket Motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report presents a proposal to reduce the risk of accidental ignition of certain upper-stage rocket motors or other high energy hazardous systems. At present, mechanically in-line initiators are used for initiation of many rocket motors and/or other high-energy hazardous systems. Electrical shorts and/or mechanical barriers, which are the basic safety devices in such systems, are typically removed as part of final arming or pad preparations while personnel are present. At this time, static discharge, test equipment malfunction, or incorrect arming techniques can cause premature firing. The proposal calls for a modular out-of-line ignition system incorporating detonating-cord elements, identified as the donor and the acceptor, separated by an air gap. In the safe configuration, the gap would be sealed with two shields, which would prevent an accidental firing of the donor from igniting the system. The shields would be removed to enable normal firing, in which shrapnel generated by the donor would reliably ignite the acceptor to continue the ordnance train. The acceptor would then ignite a through bulkhead initiator (or other similar device), which would ignite the motor or high-energy system. One shield would be remotely operated and would be moved to the armed position when a launch was imminent or conversely returned to the safe position if the launch were postponed. In the event of failure of the remotely operated shield, the other shield could be inserted manually to safe the system.

Hickman, John; Morgan, Herbert; Cooper, Michael; Murbach, Marcus

2005-01-01

135

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. Uncertainties in the meteorological input together with incorrect estimates of the source play a critical role for the model results. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation gives a short introduction to the project and presents the results of task 1 (meteorological input). The results of task 2 are presented by Stenzel and Baumann-Stanzer in this session. For the aim of this project, the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) was used. INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) data were calculated with 1 km horizontal resolution and based on the weather forecast model ALADIN. The meteorological field's analysis with INCA include: Temperature, Humidity, Wind, Precipitation and Cloudiness. In the frame of the project INCA data were compared with measurements conducted at traffic-near sites. INCA analysis and very short term forecast fields (up to 6 hours) are found to be an advanced possibility to provide on-line meteorological input for the model package used by the fire brigade. Nevertheless a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is required - especially in the case of very slow wind speeds, very stable atmospheric condition, and flow deflection by buildings in the urban area or by complex topography.

Baumann-Stanzer, K.; Stenzel, S.

2009-04-01

136

Involving Parents in Indicated Early Intervention for Childhood PTSD Following Accidental Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome…

Cobham, Vanessa E.; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

2012-01-01

137

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - utility for the fire brigades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release

S. Stenzel; K. Baumann-Stanzer

2009-01-01

138

Accidental Contaminant Detection Method Based on One-Tailed U Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidental environmental pollution threatens people's health and life badly, it becomes more and more significant to develop a method to identify an accidental source and predict its hazard accurately and quickly. An effective source identification method should be composed of contaminant detection, source location and strength estimation, meanwhile, contaminant detection is a key. The performance of source detection could determine

Liping Pang; Yu Zhang; Hongquan Qu

2011-01-01

139

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 12. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the control of accidental releases of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to the atmosphere. SO2 has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 100 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of SO2 ...

140

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 10. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the control of accidental releases of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to the atmosphere. HCN has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 50 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of HCN...

141

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 2. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AMMONIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the control of accidental releases of ammonia to the atmosphere. Ammonia has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 500 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of ammonia invol...

142

The effects of gun control on the accidental death rate from firearms in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

One factor that has been proposed as affecting accidental death rates is the availability of a lethal agent in the environment. The present study explores this hypothesis for the case of firearm availability and the accidental death rate from firearms. Data from Canada indicated that the passage of Canada's Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1977 (Bill C-51), enforced from 1978

Antoon A. Leenaars; David Lester

1997-01-01

143

Accidental blood exposure: risk and prevention in interventional radiology  

PubMed Central

There is a growing concern about the transmission of bloodborne pathogens during medical procedures among health care workers and patients. Over the last three decades, radiological services have undergone many changes with the introduction of new modalities. One of these new disciplines is interventional radiology (IR) which deals with procedures such as arteriography, image-guided biopsies, intravascular catheter insertions, angioplasty and stent placements. Despite these developments, the potential for accidental blood exposure and exposure to other infectious material continues to exist. Therefore, it is important for all radiologists who perform invasive procedures to observe specific recommendations for infection control. In this review, we look at the different policies for protection and universal standards on infection control.

Vijayananthan, A; Tan, LH; Owen, A; Bhat, R; Edwards, R; Robertson, I; Moss, JG; Nicholls, R

2006-01-01

144

Delayed Upper-Airway Injury after Accidental Alkaline Ingestion  

PubMed Central

A 62-year-old man presented to the emergency department one week after accidentally drinking an alkaline cleaning agent stored in unlabeled bottle. The day of the incident the patient presented to an outside hospital where he was admitted for an upper endoscopy of the esophagus which was found to be negative for acute injury. An initial chest X-ray taken the day of the incident was also found to be normal. After discharge the patient continued to have a sore throat and marked dysphagia which caused him to vomit repeatedly. Moreover, the patient began to develop chest pain with associated shortness of breath. We present a case of delayed airway injury and tracheal thickening and associated chest pain after alkaline ingestion and we discuss herein the pathophysiology and management of alkaline ingestions.

Ryan, Matthew F.

2014-01-01

145

Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at the IPNS  

SciTech Connect

Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenetic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

Campos Torres, M.M.

1995-02-01

146

Accidental low velocity atypical missile injury to the head.  

PubMed

Missile injuries on the head are mostly due to firearms. Atypical missiles may be encountered in case of shrapnel of bomb explosions but rarely because of stones. The present case is a rare case where a stone propelled by the pressure from the rear wheel of a speeding truck on the highway, struck the head of a 7-year-old girl resulting in fatality. Reconstruction of the incident on the basis of history and postmortem findings throws some light on the mechanism. The case is unique as it is the first reported case of an accidental missile injury to the head resulting in fatality without any direct human involvement for propulsion of the projectile. PMID:19259020

Chattopadhyay, Saurabh

2008-12-01

147

Contribution of the ear and the flag leaf to grain filling in durum wheat inferred from the carbon isotope signature: genotypic and growing conditions effects.  

PubMed

The ear, together with the flag leaf, is believed to play a major role as a source of assimilates during grain filling in C3 cereals. However, the intrusive nature of most of the available methodologies prevents reaching conclusive results in this regard. This study compares the carbon isotope composition (?(13)C) in its natural abundance in the water-soluble fractions of the flag leaf blade and the ear with the ?(13)C of mature kernels to assess the relative contribution of both organs to grain filling in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum). The relative contribution of the ear was higher in landraces compared to modern cultivars, as well as in response to nitrogen fertilization and water stress. Such genotypic and environmentally driven differences were associated with changes in harvest index (HI), with the relative contribution of the ear being negatively associated with HI. In the case of the genotypic differences, the lower relative contribution of the ear in modern cultivars compared with landraces is probably associated with the appearance in the former of a certain amount of source limitation driven by a higher HI. In fact, the relative contribution of the ear was far more responsive to changes in HI in modern cultivars compared with landraces. PMID:24028829

Sanchez-Bragado, Rut; Elazab, Abdelhalim; Zhou, Bangwei; Serret, Maria Dolors; Bort, Jordi; Nieto-Taladriz, Maria Teresa; Araus, José Luis

2014-05-01

148

Precipitation of Nb in Ferrite After Austenite Conditioning. Part II: Strengthening Contribution in High-Strength Low-Alloy (HSLA) Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Often, Nb contributes to the strength of a microalloyed steel beyond the expected level because of the grain size strengthening resulting from thermomechanical processing. Two different mechanisms are behind this phenomenon, and both of them have to do with the amount of Nb remaining in solution after hot rolling. The first of them is the increase of the hardenability of the steel as a result of Nb, and the second one is the fine precipitation of NbC in ferrite. Three Nb microalloyed steels were thermomechanically processed in the laboratory and coiled at different temperatures to investigate the effect of Nb content on the tensile properties. The extra strength was linearly related to the Nb remaining in solution after the hot working. The maximum contribution from Nb was reached for a coiling temperature of 873 K (600 °C).

Altuna, M. A.; Iza-Mendia, Amaia; Gutiérrez, I.

2012-12-01

149

Historical doses to the public from routine and accidental releases of tritium - Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1953-2005  

SciTech Connect

Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 29,300 TBq of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; about 75% of this was released accidentally as gaseous tritium in 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 3,700 TBq gaseous tritium and about 2,800 TBq tritiated water vapor to the total. Mean annual doses (with 95% confidence intervals) to the most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Because time-dependent tritium models require detailed meteorological data that were unavailable for the large releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from experience with UFOTRI. Even with assumptions to assure that doses would not be underestimated, all doses from routine and accidental releases were below the level (3.6 mSv) at which adverse health effects have been documented, and most were below the current regulatory limit of 100 {mu}Sv per year from releases to the atmosphere. (authors)

Peterson, S. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Raskob, W. [Institut fuer Kern und Energietechnik IKET, Bau 433, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Technik und Umwelt, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2008-07-15

150

Historical Doses To The Public from Routine and Accidental Releases of Tritium - Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1953 - 2005  

SciTech Connect

Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 29,300 TBq of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; about 75% of this was released accidentally as gaseous tritium in 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 3,700 TBq gaseous tritium and about 2,800 TBq tritiated water vapor to the total. Mean annual doses (with 95% confidence intervals) to the most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Because time-dependent tritium models require detailed meteorological data that were unavailable for the large releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from experience with UFOTRI. Even with assumptions to assure that doses would not be underestimated, all doses from routine and accidental releases were below the level (3.6 mSv) at which adverse health effects have been documented, and most were below the current regulatory limit of 100 {micro}Sv per year from releases to the atmosphere.

Peterson, S; Raskob, W

2007-08-15

151

Lemon aesthetics in hand dishwashing detergents do not influence reported accidental ingestion frequency and volume.  

PubMed

Accidental ingestion reports for 2 nationally distributed hand dishwashing detergents with similar formulations were compared to determine the possible effect of lemon aesthetics on ingestion frequency and volume. Data were compared over almost a 2-year period (May 1986 to April 1988), and a total of 2141 accidental ingestion reports for the 2 products were reviewed. There was no difference in the reported ingestion volume of lemon-scented versus nonlemon-scented product. Fewer accidental ingestion reports were received for lemon-scented than for nonlemon-scented products, even when data were normalized for market shipments of each product. PMID:2741316

Petersen, D W

1989-06-01

152

Sheltering--a protective measure following an accidental atmospheric release from a nuclear power plant  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of sheltering the population for reducing radiological effects following an accidental release of radioactivity at a nuclear power plant was investigated. Different levels of respiratory protection and the administration of a thyroid blocking agent were also studied as possible complements to sheltering. Specific conditions were assumed, concerning the high protection factors of regular buildings and the high availability of civil defense shelters. Computations were performed by means of a probabilistic consequence model, which allows a comprehensive description of exposure modes and processes dealing with the implementation of sheltering and which takes into account a broad range of radiological effects. Sheltering, even in regular buildings, was found to be efficient in reducing early fatalities and other non-stochastic effects. However, it was shown that respiratory protection is also needed in order to alleviate stochastic effects and that, for this purpose, expedient individual filtration methods may be satisfactory. Under the conditions studied, sheltering was found to be preferable in most cases over evacuation, as the main immediate protective measure, unless evacuation can be carried out before the radioactive cloud reaches the populated area.

Koch, J.; Tadmor, J.

1988-06-01

153

Sheltering--a protective measure following an accidental atmospheric release from a nuclear power plant.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of sheltering the population for reducing radiological effects following an accidental release of radioactivity at a nuclear power plant was investigated. Different levels of respiratory protection and the administration of a thyroid blocking agent were also studied as possible complements to sheltering. Specific conditions were assumed, concerning the high protection factors of regular buildings and the high availability of civil defense shelters. Computations were performed by means of a probabilistic consequence model, which allows a comprehensive description of exposure modes and processes dealing with the implementation of sheltering and which takes into account a broad range of radiological effects. Sheltering, even in regular buildings, was found to be efficient in reducing early fatalities and other non-stochastic effects. However, it was shown that respiratory protection is also needed in order to alleviate stochastic effects and that, for this purpose, expedient individual filtration methods may be satisfactory. Under the conditions studied, sheltering was found to be preferable in most cases over evacuation, as the main immediate protective measure, unless evacuation can be carried out before the radioactive cloud reaches the populated area. PMID:3378897

Koch, J; Tadmor, J

1988-06-01

154

Assessment of accidental intakes of uranyl acetylacetonate (UAA)  

SciTech Connect

Uranyl acetylacetonate (UAA) is an organic complex of uranium used for military applications as a chemical catalyst in high explosives. It is prepared from depleted uranium metal (in lots of 5 kg to 7 kg) by dissolution in nitric acid, neutralization, and complexation with 2,4-pentanedione; the precipitate is dissolved in benzene and recrystallized, dried, ground, and packaged. About six workers at a small chemical company were exposed over a period of time to UAA powders during routine preparation and packaging of the uranium catalyst. The dissolution characteristics of the inhaled material were unknown and could not be determined from the published scientific literature. A 1.05-g sample of UAA powder was obtained from the responsible regulatory authority for further study to determine its chemical composition, and for dissolution in simulated lung fluid. We found the solubility of UAA to be equivalent to a mixture of 52% ICRP class D and 48% ICRP class W material. The annual limit on intake and the derived air concentration for radiological protection were estimated from this result for airborne exposure to UAA. A recycling biokinetic model was used to estimate both material-specific variations in urinary excretion rates and lung retention with time after accidental intakes. This study provides new information for evaluating future exposures to UAA.

Fisher, D.R.; Briant, J.K.

1993-12-01

155

Accidental blood exposures among medical residents in Paris, France.  

PubMed

Accidental blood exposure (ABE) exposes healthcare workers, including medical residents, to the risk of occupational infection. We aimed to determine the characteristics of ABEs in residents with an anonymous self-reporting electronic questionnaire. A total of 350 residents (33% from surgical disciplines) entered this survey. One hundred and eighty-five residents (52%) reported at least one ABE during their residency (median, 2; range, 1-25), 53% of which occurred in operating theatres. Sixty-nine per cent of residents followed the current procedures for local disinfection. ABEs were notified to the hospital administration by 62% of residents, but only 51% of residents were referred to the occupational medicine department. The most frequently reported concerns following ABEs were human immunodeficiency virus (52%) and hepatitis C virus infection (39%). In 74% of cases, the serological status of the index patient was investigated. Only 54% of residents were aware of their hepatitis B surface antibody titres. Medical residents behaved inappropriately in 33% of cases in this survey. Further educational programmes should include residents, and not only senior healthcare workers, in order to improve individual behaviours. PMID:20673268

Mir, O; Adam, J; Veyrie, N; Chousterman, B; Gaillard, R; Gregory, T; Yordanov, Y; Berveiller, P; Loulergue, P

2011-03-01

156

Management of profound accidental hypothermia with cardiorespiratory arrest.  

PubMed Central

Complete recovery following rapid rewarming is described in three tourists who were admitted in a state of profound hypothermia with total cardiorespiratory arrest (rectal temperature ranging from 19 to 24 C). In all three patients, respiration and circulation had ceased during the rescue operation. Rapid core rewarming was achieved by thoracotomy and continuous irrigation of the pericardial cavity with warm fluids in one patient, whereas in the other two patients rewarming was accomplished with extracorporeal circulation using femoro-femoral bypass. In the first patient, the heart could not be defibrillated earlier than 90 minutes following thoracotomy; in the other patients rewarming was attained very rapidly, and within half an hour after institution of bypass, resuscitation of the heart was successful. The patients fully recovered their intellectual and physical abilities, despite the prolonged periods of circulatory arrest lasting from 2 1/2 to 4 hours. We conclude that rapid core rewarming is the adequate therapy for profound accidental hypothermia with circulatory arrest or low cardiac output. If feasible extracorporeal circulation represents the method of choice because it combines the advantage of immediate central rewarming with the benefit of efficient circulatory support, the heart is rewarmed before the shell, thus preventing the "rewarming shock" due to peripheral vasodilatation. Resuscitative efforts should be promptly initiated and vigorously pursued, even in the state of clinical death; in profound hypothermia neurologic examination is inconclusive regarding prognosis.

Althaus, U; Aeberhard, P; Schupbach, P; Nachbur, B H; Muhlemann, W

1982-01-01

157

Accidental radiation exposure leading to non-healing ulcers.  

PubMed

Two patients with accidental radiation injury presented at the Sir Ganga Ram Hospital. The first patient, a 41-year-old male, presented with a large necrotic patch on his right gluteal region, which was debrided. Due to the progressive nature of the injury, he developed further necrosis and a non-healing ulcer over the right gluteal region, which was further debrided and covered with a tensor fascia lata flap. Further necrosis over the ischial region was debrided and covered with a pedicled gracilis muscle flap, following which he again required debridement and flap cover for the residual area, which then finally healed. The second patient had a history of radiation exposure followed by a non-healing ulcer on right arm. He was managed by debridement and flap coverage in a single sitting. These two cases suggest that wide excision, thorough debridement and coverage with vascularised tissue are effective in treating radiation ulcers and emphasise that all radiation sources and their management should be strictly controlled. PMID:23103484

Gambhir, S; Mangal, M; Gupta, A; Shah, A

2012-10-01

158

Balanced Flow Measurement and Conditioning Technology (Balanced Orifice Plate 7,051,765 B1) for NASA Inventions and Contributions Board Invention of the Year Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph document reviews the Balanced Flow Measurement (BFM) and Conditioning Technology, and makes the case for this as the NASA Invention of the Year. The BFM technology makes use of a thin, multi-hole orifice plate with holes sized and placed per a unique set of equations. It produces mass flow, volumetric flow,kinelic energy,or momentum BALANCE across the face of the plate. The flow is proportional.to the square root of upstream to downstream differential pressure. Multiple holes lead to smoother pressure measurement. Measures and conditions or can limit fluid flow. This innovation has many uses in and out of NASA.

Kelley, Anthony R.

2008-01-01

159

Possible contribution of acetylamrinone and its enhancing effects on platelet aggregation under shear stress conditions in the onset of thrombocytopenia in patients treated with amrinone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Thrombocytopenia is recognized as one of the most common complications when the patients with severe heart failure are treated with cardiotropic phosphodiesterase (PDE)-3 inhibitors. To understand the mechanism of the onset of this complication, we focused on the effects of various PDE-3 inhibitors and its stable metabolite of acetylamrinone on platelet aggregation occurring under physiological shear stress conditions. Method:

Athar Sadiq; Noriko Tamura; Minako Yoshida; Yasunari Hoshiba; Asako Kumagai; Teruhisa Tanabe; Shunnosuke Handa; Yasuo Ikeda; Shinya Goto

2003-01-01

160

Accidental hanging deaths in children in Konya, Turkey between 1998 and 2007.  

PubMed

In general, hanging cases are the result of suicide, and accidental and homicidal hanging cases are rarely seen. This study retrospectively investigated 4571 death examinations and autopsies that were performed at The Konya Branch of the Forensic Medicine Council (Turkey) between 1998 and 2007; hanging was involved in 201 (6.5%) of the cases. There were a total of 13 accidental hanging cases, where 12 of these involved children. In seven of the cases, the accidental hanging involved a scarf that wraps around swing-like cradles and is intended to prevent infants from falling down. It was concluded that accidental hanging deaths can be reduced by replacing swing-like cradles with cribs that are designed for children, removing ropes in and around the house, and preventing children from reaching and/or playing with rope-like objects. PMID:20202070

Dogan, Kamil H; Demirci, Serafettin; Erkol, Zerrin; Gulmen, Mete K

2010-05-01

161

Structures to Resist the Effects of Accidental Explosions. Volume 2. Blast, Fragment, and Shock Loads.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report details design procedures for structures which are subjected to the effects of accidental explosions. The procedures over the determination of the blast environment and structural design. This volume contains procedures for determining the eff...

H. Ayvazyan M. Dede M. Whitney N. Dobbs P. Bowles

1986-01-01

162

Evaluation of Health Effects in Sequoyah Fuels Corporation Workers from Accidental Exposure to Uranium Hexafluoride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Uranium urinalyses and medical laboratory results were studied to determine whether there were any health effects from uranium intake among a group of 31 workers exposed to uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and hydrolysis products following the accidental ruptur...

D. R. Fisher M. J. Swint R. L. Kathren

1990-01-01

163

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 8. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN FLUORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a chemical specific manual for hydrogen fluoride (HF). It summarizes information to aid regulators and industry personnel in identifying and controlling release hazards associated with HF. Reducing the risk associated with accidental release of HF involves identifyi...

164

Contribution of root growth responses to leaf traits and relative growth rate of Populus alba under different water-table conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-table depth variations alter root growth response and may affect whole-plant growth in arid and semi-arid regions. We\\u000a examined how root biomass allocation and root morphological traits affect the leaf physiological and morphological traits\\u000a and whole-plant growth of Populus alba growing under different water tables. We exposed 1-year-old P. alba cuttings to contrasting soil–water conditions via water table changes in

Shogo Imada; Norikazu Yamanaka; Shigenobu Tamai

2010-01-01

165

Too close for comfort: accidental burn following subcutaneous mastectomy and immediate implant reconstruction*  

PubMed Central

We report a case of an accidental burn from a self-applied heat pack following subcutaneous mastectomy and implant reconstruction. Such patients are at increased risk of accidental burns not only due to loss of protective sensation, but also because of the thinner, less vascular overlying skin. We have changed our practice so that all patients undergoing breast reconstructive surgery are warned postoperatively to protect the skin from externally applied heat sources.

Seth, R; Lamyman, MJ; Athanassopoulos, A; Tyler, M

2008-01-01

166

Increasing U.S. Mortality Due to Accidental Poisoning: The Role of the Baby Boom Cohort  

PubMed Central

Aims In this study we examine whether the recent, sharp increase in mortality due to accidental poisoning since the year 2000 is the result of the aging of the baby boom cohort, or instead, a historical trend apparent among decedents of all ages. Design We conduct an age-period-cohort analysis using data from the U.S. Vital Statistics and the U.S. Census covering the period 1968–2007. Setting and Participants The United States population aged 15–64. Findings The increase in mortality due to accidental poisoning since the year 2000 stems primarily from a historical period effect across all ages for whites, but results in large part from a rate spike in the baby boom cohort among blacks. For all demographic groups baby boomers had higher odds of death due to accidental poisoning than the cohorts that came before them and after them. Historical influences acting across all ages led to an increase in accidental poisoning mortality that was almost tenfold for whites and threefold for blacks over the study period. Conclusions While the recent, sharp increase in accidental poisoning mortality stems in part from the aging of the baby boom cohort, substantially more of the increase results from influences unique to recent years that have affected all age groups. These results point to the need to bolster overdose prevention programs and policies as the historical increase in accidental poisoning mortality appears to continue unabated.

Miech, Richard; Koester, Steve; Dorsey-Holliman, Brook

2014-01-01

167

Laboratory-Acquired Parasitic Infections from Accidental Exposures  

PubMed Central

Parasitic diseases are receiving increasing attention in developed countries in part because of their importance in travelers, immigrants, and immunocompromised persons. The main purpose of this review is to educate laboratorians, the primary readership, and health care workers, the secondary readership, about the potential hazards of handling specimens that contain viable parasites and about the diseases that can result. This is accomplished partly through discussion of the occupationally acquired cases of parasitic infections that have been reported, focusing for each case on the type of accident that resulted in infection, the length of the incubation period, the clinical manifestations that developed, and the means by which infection was detected. The article focuses on the cases of infection with the protozoa that cause leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis), and African trypanosomiasis. Data about 164 such cases are discussed, as are data about cases caused by intestinal protozoa and by helminths. Of the 105 case-patients infected with blood and tissue protozoa who either recalled an accident or for whom the likely route of transmission could be presumed, 47 (44.8%) had percutaneous exposure via a contaminated needle or other sharp object. Some accidents were directly linked to poor laboratory practices (e.g., recapping a needle or working barehanded). To decrease the likelihood of accidental exposures, persons who could be exposed to pathogenic parasites must be thoroughly instructed in safety precautions before they begin to work and through ongoing training programs. Protocols should be provided for handling specimens that could contain viable organisms, using protective clothing and equipment, dealing with spills of infectious organisms, and responding to accidents. Special care should be exercised when using needles and other sharp objects.

Herwaldt, Barbara L.

2001-01-01

168

The Contribution of Social Networks to the Health and Self-Management of Patients with Long-Term Conditions: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Evidence for the effectiveness of patient education programmes in changing individual self-management behaviour is equivocal. More distal elements of personal social relationships and the availability of social capital at the community level may be key to the mobilisation of resources needed for long-term condition self-management to be effective. Aim To determine how the social networks of people with long-term conditions (diabetes and heart disease) are associated with health-related outcomes and changes in outcomes over time. Methods Patients with chronic heart disease (CHD) or diabetes (n?=?300) randomly selected from the disease registers of 19 GP practices in the North West of England. Data on personal social networks collected using a postal questionnaire, alongside face-to-face interviewing. Follow-up at 12 months via postal questionnaire using a self-report grid for network members identified at baseline. Analysis Multiple regression analysis of relationships between health status, self-management and health-economics outcomes, and characteristics of patients' social networks. Results Findings indicated that: (1) social involvement with a wider variety of people and groups supports personal self-management and physical and mental well-being; (2) support work undertaken by personal networks expands in accordance with health needs helping people to cope with their condition; (3) network support substitutes for formal care and can produce substantial saving in traditional health service utilisation costs. Health service costs were significantly (p<0.01) reduced for patients receiving greater levels of illness work through their networks. Conclusions Support for self-management which achieves desirable policy outcomes should be construed less as an individualised set of actions and behaviour and more as a social network phenomenon. This study shows the need for a greater focus on harnessing and sustaining the capacity of networks and the importance of social involvement with community groups and resources for producing a more desirable and cost-effective way of supporting long term illness management.

Reeves, David; Blickem, Christian; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Brooks, Helen; Kennedy, Anne; Richardson, Gerry; Rogers, Anne

2014-01-01

169

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - utility for the fire brigades.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios”), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Viennese fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program of the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. For the purpose of our study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Trace (Safer System), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer). A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed, with the models above, in order to predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. Furthermore, the application of the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in case of toxic release was investigated. INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) data are calculated operationally with 1 km horizontal resolution and based on the weather forecast model ALADIN. The meteorological field's analysis with INCA include: Temperature, Humidity, Wind, Precipitation, Cloudiness and Global Radiation. In the frame of the project INCA data were compared with measurements from the meteorological observational network, conducted at traffic-near sites in Vienna. INCA analysis and very short term forecast fields (up to 6 hours) are found to be an advanced possibility to provide on-line meteorological input for the model package used by the fire brigade. Since the input requirements differ from model to model, and the outputs are based on unequal criteria for toxic area and exposure, a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is required - especially in the case of slow wind speeds, stable atmospheric condition, and flow deflection by buildings in the urban area or by complex topography.

Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

2009-09-01

170

Fatal colchicine poisoning by accidental ingestion of Colchicum persicum: a case report.  

PubMed

Colchicine poisoning can occur not only by taking dosage form but also by ingesting a plant containing colchicine. A 39-year-old man presented to the emergency room with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea 9 hours after ingestion of wild garlic. Symptoms attributed to food poisoning, and he received supportive cares and discharged. However, he was admitted to the hospital because of severe gastrointestinal presentations 4 hours later. He received treatments based on the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis. The patient was in a fair condition during 30 hours of hospitalization until he suddenly developed respiratory distress and unfortunately died with cardiopulmonary arrest. The deceased body referred to our legal medicine center for determining cause of death and investigating possible medical staff malpractices. Postmortem examination, autopsy, macropathology and micropathology study, and postmortem toxicological analysis were performed. All results were submitted to the medical committee office for decision. The unknown cause of death was disclosed after determination of colchicine in the plant and botanical identification as Colchicum persicum. The committee determined the most probable cause of death as acute cardiopulmonary complications induced by colchicine poisoning and the manner of death as accidental. The medical staff was acquitted of the malpractice. PMID:24196723

Amrollahi-Sharifabadi, Mohammad; Seghatoleslami, Ahmad; Amrollahi-Sharifabadi, Maryam; Bayani, Farajali; Mirjalili, Mahdi

2013-12-01

171

Reducing the risk of accidental death due to vehicle-related carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) from motor vehicles cause several hundred accidental fatal poisonings annually in the United States. The circumstances that could lead to fatal poisonings in residential settings with motor vehicles as the source of CO were explored. The risk of death in a garage (volume = 90 m3) and a single-family dwelling (400 m3) was evaluated using a Monte Carlo simulation with varying CO emission rates and ventilation rates. Information on emission rates was obtained from a survey of motor vehicle exhaust gas composition under warm idle conditions in California, and information on ventilation rates was obtained from a summary of published measurements in the U.S. housing stock. The risk of death ranged from 16 to 21% for a 3-hr exposure in a garage to 0% for a 1-hr exposure in a house. Older vehicles were associated with a disproportionately high risk of death. Removing all pre-1975 vehicles from the fleet would reduce the risk of death by one-fourth to two-thirds, depending on the exposure scenario. Significant efforts have been made to control CO emissions from motor vehicles with the goal of reducing CO concentrations in outdoor air. Substantial public health benefit could also be obtained if vehicle control measures were designed to take account of acute CO poisonings explicitly. PMID:9798430

Marr, L C; Morrison, G C; Nazaroff, W W; Harley, R A

1998-10-01

172

Atmospheric entry of Mars-return nuclear-powered vehicles due to accidental termination of operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The entry of nuclear reactors into Earth's atmosphere resulting from an accidental or inadvertent abort of a space vehicle powered by nuclear-thermal rockets is investigated. The study is made for a typical piloted Mars mission vehicle incapacitated by an accident or malfunction during the Earth-arrival phase of the Mars-return journey due to simultaneous, multiple failures of its component systems. A single accident/abort scenario resulting in three entry possibilities is considered for a nominal hyperbolic in-bound approach velocity of 8 km/sec. The most severe case involving a direct entry is then analyzed over a broad range of approach velocities extending to 12 km/sec to include sprint-type missions. The results indicate that the severe surface heating, stagnation pressures, and g-loads are greater than 150 kW/sq cm, 300 atm, and 800-g, respectively. The wall heat transfer rate exceeds the value that can be accommodated by a carbon heatshield through radiation equilibrium prior to sublimation at 5500 K. These conditions are beyond our previous experience in crew safety, structural design, and thermal protection.

Menees, Gene P.; Park, Chul

1993-01-01

173

Alpha 1 subunit-containing GABA type A receptors in forebrain contribute to the effect of inhaled anesthetics on conditioned fear.  

PubMed

Inhaled anesthetics are believed to produce anesthesia by their actions on ion channels. Because inhaled anesthetics robustly enhance GABA A receptor (GABA(A)-R) responses to GABA, these receptors are considered prime targets of anesthetic action. However, the importance of GABA(A)-Rs and individual GABA(A)-R subunits to specific anesthetic-induced behavioral effects in the intact animal is unknown. We hypothesized that inhaled anesthetics produce amnesia, as assessed by loss of fear conditioning, by acting on the forebrain GABA(A)-Rs that harbor the alpha1 subunit. To test this, we used global knockout mice that completely lack the alpha1 subunit and forebrain-specific, conditional knockout mice that lack the alpha1 subunit only in the hippocampus, cortex, and amygdala. Both knockout mice were 75 to 145% less sensitive to the amnestic effects of the inhaled anesthetic isoflurane. These results indicate that alpha1-containing GABA(A)-Rs in the hippocampus, amygdala, and/or cortex influence the amnestic effects of inhaled anesthetics and may be an important molecular target of the drug isoflurane. PMID:15833735

Sonner, James M; Cascio, Mike; Xing, Yilei; Fanselow, Michael S; Kralic, Jason E; Morrow, A Leslie; Korpi, Esa R; Hardy, Steven; Sloat, Brian; Eger, Edmond I; Homanics, Gregg E

2005-07-01

174

Mu opioid receptors on primary afferent nav1.8 neurons contribute to opiate-induced analgesia: insight from conditional knockout mice.  

PubMed

Opiates are powerful drugs to treat severe pain, and act via mu opioid receptors distributed throughout the nervous system. Their clinical use is hampered by centrally-mediated adverse effects, including nausea or respiratory depression. Here we used a genetic approach to investigate the potential of peripheral mu opioid receptors as targets for pain treatment. We generated conditional knockout (cKO) mice in which mu opioid receptors are deleted specifically in primary afferent Nav1.8-positive neurons. Mutant animals were compared to controls for acute nociception, inflammatory pain, opiate-induced analgesia and constipation. There was a 76% decrease of mu receptor-positive neurons and a 60% reduction of mu-receptor mRNA in dorsal root ganglia of cKO mice. Mutant mice showed normal responses to heat, mechanical, visceral and chemical stimuli, as well as unchanged morphine antinociception and tolerance to antinociception in models of acute pain. Inflammatory pain developed similarly in cKO and controls mice after Complete Freund's Adjuvant. In the inflammation model, however, opiate-induced (morphine, fentanyl and loperamide) analgesia was reduced in mutant mice as compared to controls, and abolished at low doses. Morphine-induced constipation remained intact in cKO mice. We therefore genetically demonstrate for the first time that mu opioid receptors partly mediate opiate analgesia at the level of Nav1.8-positive sensory neurons. In our study, this mechanism operates under conditions of inflammatory pain, but not nociception. Previous pharmacology suggests that peripheral opiates may be clinically useful, and our data further demonstrate that Nav1.8 neuron-associated mu opioid receptors are feasible targets to alleviate some forms of persistent pain. PMID:24069332

Weibel, Raphaël; Reiss, David; Karchewski, Laurie; Gardon, Olivier; Matifas, Audrey; Filliol, Dominique; Becker, Jérôme A J; Wood, John N; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Gaveriaux-Ruff, Claire

2013-01-01

175

Mu Opioid Receptors on Primary Afferent Nav1.8 Neurons Contribute to Opiate-Induced Analgesia: Insight from Conditional Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

Opiates are powerful drugs to treat severe pain, and act via mu opioid receptors distributed throughout the nervous system. Their clinical use is hampered by centrally-mediated adverse effects, including nausea or respiratory depression. Here we used a genetic approach to investigate the potential of peripheral mu opioid receptors as targets for pain treatment. We generated conditional knockout (cKO) mice in which mu opioid receptors are deleted specifically in primary afferent Nav1.8-positive neurons. Mutant animals were compared to controls for acute nociception, inflammatory pain, opiate-induced analgesia and constipation. There was a 76% decrease of mu receptor-positive neurons and a 60% reduction of mu-receptor mRNA in dorsal root ganglia of cKO mice. Mutant mice showed normal responses to heat, mechanical, visceral and chemical stimuli, as well as unchanged morphine antinociception and tolerance to antinociception in models of acute pain. Inflammatory pain developed similarly in cKO and controls mice after Complete Freund’s Adjuvant. In the inflammation model, however, opiate-induced (morphine, fentanyl and loperamide) analgesia was reduced in mutant mice as compared to controls, and abolished at low doses. Morphine-induced constipation remained intact in cKO mice. We therefore genetically demonstrate for the first time that mu opioid receptors partly mediate opiate analgesia at the level of Nav1.8-positive sensory neurons. In our study, this mechanism operates under conditions of inflammatory pain, but not nociception. Previous pharmacology suggests that peripheral opiates may be clinically useful, and our data further demonstrate that Nav1.8 neuron-associated mu opioid receptors are feasible targets to alleviate some forms of persistent pain.

Karchewski, Laurie; Gardon, Olivier; Matifas, Audrey; Filliol, Dominique; Becker, Jerome A. J.; Wood, John N.; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Gaveriaux-Ruff, Claire

2013-01-01

176

Marginal costing methods highlight the contributing cost of comorbid conditions in Medicare patients: a quasi-experimental case-control study of ischemic stroke costs  

PubMed Central

Background Cost of illness studies are needed to provide estimates for input into cost-effectiveness studies and as information drivers to resource allocation. However, these studies often do not differentiate costs associated with the disease of interest and costs of co-morbidities. The goal of this study was to identify the 1-year cost of ischemic stroke compared to the annual cost of care for a comparable non-stroke group of South Carolina (SC) Medicare beneficiaries resulting in a marginal cost estimate. Methods SC data for 2004 and 2005 were used to estimate the mean 12 month cost of stroke for 2,976 Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for Ischemic Stroke in 2004. Using nearest neighbor propensity score matching, a control group of non-stroke beneficiaries were matched on age, gender, race, risk factors, and Charlson comorbidity index and their costs were calculated. Marginal cost attributable to ischemic stroke was calculated as the difference between these two adjusted cost estimates. Results The total cost estimated for SC stroke patients for 1 year (2004) was $81.3 million. The cost for the matched comparison group without stroke was $54.4 million. Thus, the 2004 marginal costs to Medicare due to Ischemic stroke in SC are estimated to be $26.9 million. Conclusions Accurate estimates of cost of care for conditions, such as stroke, that are common in older patients with a high rate of comorbid conditions require the use of a marginal costing approach. Over estimation of cost of care for stroke may lead to prediction of larger savings than realizable from important stroke treatment and prevention programs, which may damage the credibility of program advocates, and jeopardize long term funding support. Additionally, correct cost estimates are needed as inputs for valid cost-effectiveness studies. Thus, it is important to use marginal costing for stroke, especially with the increasing public focus on evidence-based economic decision making to be expected with healthcare reform.

2013-01-01

177

Analysis of the contribution of wind drift factor to oil slick movement under strong tidal condition: Hebei Spirit oil spill case.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model and Automatic Weather System (AWS) were used to generate tidal and wind fields respectively. Simulation results were then compared with 5 sets of spaceborne optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. From the present study, it was found that highest matching rate between the simulation results and satellite imagery was obtained with different values of the wind drift factor, and to first order, this factor was linearly proportional to the wind speed. Based on the results, a new modified empirical formula was proposed for forecasting the movement of oil slicks on the coastal area. PMID:24498094

Kim, Tae-Ho; Yang, Chan-Su; Oh, Jeong-Hwan; Ouchi, Kazuo

2014-01-01

178

Analysis of the Contribution of Wind Drift Factor to Oil Slick Movement under Strong Tidal Condition: Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Case  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model and Automatic Weather System (AWS) were used to generate tidal and wind fields respectively. Simulation results were then compared with 5 sets of spaceborne optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. From the present study, it was found that highest matching rate between the simulation results and satellite imagery was obtained with different values of the wind drift factor, and to first order, this factor was linearly proportional to the wind speed. Based on the results, a new modified empirical formula was proposed for forecasting the movement of oil slicks on the coastal area.

Kim, Tae-Ho; Yang, Chan-Su; Oh, Jeong-Hwan; Ouchi, Kazuo

2014-01-01

179

Increase of Suicide and Accidental Death After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Relapse and transplant-related complications are leading causes of mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Suicides and accidents have not been studied in these patients. This study sought to determine whether there is an excess of suicide and accidental deaths after HSCT, and to determine risk factors. METHODS The incidence of suicidal and accidental death in patients after undergoing HSCT, standardized mortality ratio (SMR), and absolute excess risk (AER) of suicide and accidental deaths was determined, compared with the general European population. A case-control analysis was done to define factors associated with suicide and accidental deaths. Data were derived from the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Registry, including 294,922 patients who underwent autologous or allogeneic HSCT from 1980 to 2009. RESULTS The 10-year cumulative incidence of suicide and accidental deaths was 101.8 and 55.6 per 100,000 patients, respectively. SMR and AER of suicide after HSCT were 2.12 (P < .001) and 10.91, higher than in the European general population for 100,000 deaths, respectively. SMR and AER of accidental death were 1.23 (P < .05) and 2.54, respectively. In the case-control study, relapses were more frequent among patients who committed suicide after autologous HSCT (37% versus 18%; P < .0001). Chronic graft-versus-host disease was higher among patients who committed suicide after allogeneic HSCT (64% versus 37%; P = .001). CONCLUSIONS There is an excess of deaths due to suicide and accidents in patients after undergoing HSCT as compared with the European general population. Relapse was associated with more suicide and accidental deaths after autologous HSCT, and chronic graft-versus-host disease was associated with more deaths by suicide after allogeneic HSCT. Cancer 2013;119:2012–2021. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

Tichelli, Andre; Labopin, Myriam; Rovo, Alicia; Badoglio, Manuela; Arat, Mutlu; van Lint, Maria Teresa; Lawitschka, Anita; Schwarze, Carl Philipp; Passweg, Jakob; Socie, Gerard

2013-01-01

180

Accidental hypothermia and death from cold in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypothermia is considered a sericus problem in big cities. In order to clarify factors contributing to urban hypothermia and death from cold which will continue to be an issue in cities in the future, we analyzed autopsy reports recorded in the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office from 1974 to 1983. In a total of 18346 autopsy reports 157 deaths had been

Masatoshi Tanaka; Shogo Tokudome

1991-01-01

181

Suicide in Peacekeepers: Risk Factors for Suicide versus Accidental Death  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate risk factors for suicide in veterans of peacekeeping, 43 suicides and 41 fatal accidents in Norwegian peacekeepers (1978 to 1995) were compared in a psychological autopsy study. Mental health problems were the most important risk factor for suicide. Both living alone and the break-up of a love relationship contributed uniquely to…

Thoresen, Siri; Mehlum, Lars

2006-01-01

182

Evolution of epileptic encephalopathy in an infant with non-accidental head injury.  

PubMed

A 5-month-old child, previously healthy, was hospitalized with frequent episodes of tonic seizures. The seizures were controlled with antiepileptic medication. However, the parents did not continue medications after discharge from the hospital. The child was admitted several times with breakthrough seizures. Over time the seizures became refractory to treatment. Neurometabolic work up and imaging studies for uncontrolled seizures revealed non-accidental head injury (shaken baby syndrome) as the underlying cause. His first EEG was normal and changed from normal to an epileptic encephalopathy pattern during his several admissions for uncontrolled seizures. From a normal child at the first admission, the child was severely regressed at the last admission. The present paper highlights the evolution of EEG changes in a child with non-accidental head injuries. This report also highlights considering non-accidental head injury as the underlying cause in younger children presenting with unexplained epileptic encephalopathy. PMID:23887218

Koul, Roshan; Poothrikovil, Rajesh; Al-Azri, Faisal; Al-Sadoon, Muna

2013-07-01

183

Initial predictive factors of outcome in severe non-accidental head trauma in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object  The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of young children hospitalized for non-accidental head trauma in our PICU,\\u000a to evaluate PRISM II score in this sub-population of pediatric trauma and to identify factors that might influence the short-term\\u000a outcome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Files of all children less than 2 years old with the diagnosis of non-accidental head trauma

Didier Scavarda; Charline Gabaudan; Fabrice Ughetto; Frederic Lamy; Vanessa Imada; Gabriel Lena; Olivier Paut

2010-01-01

184

Resuscitation from cardiopulmonary arrest during accidental hypothermia due to exhaustion and exposure.  

PubMed

A 16-year-old boy with accidental hypothermia and cardiopulmonary arrest due to exhaustion and exposure was resuscitated after warming measures -- hot wet towels, hot water bottles, and hot water enemas and gastric lavage -- had increased his rectal temperature from 25.2 to 28.0 degrees C. Despite prolonged cardiopulmonary arrest, recovery was almost complete, with no evident cerebral damage. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation procedures should not be abandoned until the body temperature is more than 30 degrees C, because the prognosis in cases of accidental hypothermia without associated disease is excellent if cardiac function can be re-established. PMID:880528

Bristow, G; Smith, R; Lee, J; Auty, A; Tweed, W A

1977-08-01

185

Resuscitation from cardiopulmonary arrest during accidental hypothermia due to exhaustion and exposure.  

PubMed Central

A 16-year-old boy with accidental hypothermia and cardiopulmonary arrest due to exhaustion and exposure was resuscitated after warming measures -- hot wet towels, hot water bottles, and hot water enemas and gastric lavage -- had increased his rectal temperature from 25.2 to 28.0 degrees C. Despite prolonged cardiopulmonary arrest, recovery was almost complete, with no evident cerebral damage. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation procedures should not be abandoned until the body temperature is more than 30 degrees C, because the prognosis in cases of accidental hypothermia without associated disease is excellent if cardiac function can be re-established. Images FIG. 1

Bristow, G.; Smith, R.; Lee, J.; Auty, A.; Tweed, W. A.

1977-01-01

186

Bittering agents in the prevention of accidental poisoning: children's reactions to denatonium benzoate (Bitrex).  

PubMed Central

The responses of young children to Denatonium Benzoate (Bitrex) were observed, in order to assess the potential of this bittering agent in the prevention of accidental poisoning. Thirty-three children aged 17-36 months were offered orange juice containing Bitrex (in a concentration of 10 parts per million). Of the 30 children who took some of this juice, only seven were willing to take more than 10 gm. A variety of negative verbal and non-verbal responses were noted. It is suggested that the highly unpalatable nature of Bitrex makes this compound a useful additive that could well prevent accidental poisoning from household products of mild to moderate toxicity.

Sibert, J R; Frude, N

1991-01-01

187

Was the rocket invented or accidentally discovered? Some new observations on its origins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of spaceflight would not have been possible without a single object, the rocket—one of the most complex engineering feats in human history. However, a closer examination of the earliest history of the basic rocket, a gunpowder-propelled device developed in China around 900 years ago, suggests that it originated as an accidental discovery rather than as a deliberately planned invention. This paper will examine the evidence in support of the idea of accidental discovery, including new observations on the earliest concepts of rocket motion, not only in China but also in the West.

Winter, Frank H.; Neufeld, Michael J.; Dougherty, Kerrie

2012-08-01

188

The potential for damage from the accidental release of conductive carbon fibers from aircraft composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper considers the potential for damage from the accidental release of conductive carbon fibers from aircraft composites. The electrical conductivity of carbon and graphite fibers has led to electrical equipment damage from the inadvertent release of virgin fibers into the atmosphere; an accidental release of carbon fibers from filamentary composites from the burning of crashed commercial airliners could damage electrical and electronic equipment. The experimental and analytical results by NASA of the methods of assessing the extent of potential damage in terms of costs is presented; the NASA materials research program to provide alternate or modified composites to overcome electrical hazards of carbon composites in aircraft structures is described.

Bell, V. L.

1980-01-01

189

Robust accidental nodes and zeros and critical quasiparticle scaling in iron-based multiband superconductors.  

SciTech Connect

We study multigap superconductivity, with strong angular variations of one of the gaps, as appropriate for certain iron-based high-temperature superconductors. We solve the gap equations of this model and find that the nodes or zeros in the gap function present at T{sub c} - although purely accidental - typically survive down to T = 0. Based on this result, we investigate the line of quantum transitions at which gap zeros first appear. The peculiar 'zero-point' quantum critical scaling emanating from this line dominates quasiparticle thermodynamics and transport properties over much of the phase diagram and supplants more familiar forms of scaling associated with the accidental nodes.

Stanev, V.; Alexandrov, B. S.; Nikolic, P.; Tesanovic, Z. (Materials Science Division); (Los Alamos Nat. Lab.); (George Mason Univ.); (Johns Hopkins Univ.)

2011-07-19

190

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades. Sirma Stenzel, Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. For hazard prediction and simulation

S. Stenzel; K. Baumann-Stanzer

2009-01-01

191

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 2. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF CHLORINE (SCAQMD) (SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual discusses reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of chlorine. It identifies some of the potential causes of accidental releases that apply to the processes that use chlorine. It also identifies examples of potential causes, as well as measures that may...

192

Infantile Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: Diagnostic Features and Differentiation from Non-accidental Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is rare, but associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. After a baby, subsequently proven to have HSE, had initially been diagnosed as non-accidental injury (NAI), we reviewed the clinical features and radiology of infants with HSE recently diagnosed by our laboratory.Methods: Screening of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples sent to Oxford for HSV polymerase

J. Kurtz; P. Anslow

2003-01-01

193

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 14: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF PHOSGENE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report, discussing phosgene, is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. Phosgene, a highly reactive and corrosive liquid that boils at room temperature has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (lDLH) conctntration of 2 ppm, ...

194

Accidental ingestion of Ecstasy by a toddler: unusual cause for convulsion in a febrile child.  

PubMed Central

The case is reported of a toddler who presented with an apparent febrile convulsion. The final diagnosis was that of accidental ingestion of Ecstasy. The child made an uneventful recovery. Ecstasy toxicity should be added to the list of differential diagnoses in a child presenting with fever and an unexplained seizure.

Cooper, A J; Egleston, C V

1997-01-01

195

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report for Nebraska: Cattleman Dies Due to Accidental Injection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 38-year-old cattleman died as a result of an accidental injection of an animal antibiotic known as Micotil which has no known antidote. On March 8, 2003, the victim was preparing to vaccinate a heifer inside a barn. He was carrying a 12cc plastic dispos...

2003-01-01

196

Non-Accidental Head Injury in New Zealand: The Outcome of Referral to Statutory Authorities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To describe the outcome of referral to the statutory authorities for infants under 2 years with non-accidental head injury (NAHI), and to establish whether the authorities held sufficient information to develop a risk profile for these cases. Methods: Retrospective review of cases admitted to hospital in Auckland, New Zealand from 1988…

Kelly, Patrick; MacCormick, Judith; Strange, Rebecca

2009-01-01

197

An accidental case of aconite poisoning due to Kampo herbal medicine ingestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accidental case of aconite intoxication occurred after a patient took a therapeutic dose of Kampo herbal medicine containing Aconiti tuber, Uzu but had used the wrong decoction procedure. The poisoning was likely caused by an increased level of Aconitum alkaloids in the decoction; the patient developed aconite intoxication due to incomplete decoction. Aconitum alkaloid levels in the leftover solution

Takiyoshi Ono; Makiko Hayashida; Kyoko Uekusa; Cui Fan Lai; Hideyuki Hayakawa; Makoto Nihira; Youkichi Ohno

2009-01-01

198

Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water

Neff

1989-01-01

199

Confiding in others and illness rate among spouses of suicide and accidental-death victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveyed 19 spouses (mean age 37.5 yrs) of suicide and accidental death victims (representing a 61.3% response rate of all relevant cases that occurred in 1982 in a metropolitan county) concerning their health and coping strategies approximately 1 yr after their spouse's death. Results show that the more Ss discussed their spouse's death with friends and the less that they

James W. Pennebaker; Robin C. OHeeron

1984-01-01

200

Accidental Federated Searching: Implementing Federated Searching in the Smaller Academic Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borrowing its title from and continuing in the vein of Rachel Gordon Singer's book, The Accidental Systems Librarian, this article explores issues raised during implementation of federated search in the smaller academic library. Smaller academic libraries have smaller budgets and are less likely to have the levels of information technology support required to undertake large scale electronic projects; however, these

Nina McHale

2007-01-01

201

Psychosocial factors and safety behaviour as predictors of accidental work injuries in farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farming is one of the most hazardous occupations in terms of the incidence and seriousness of accidental injuries. Research with other occupational groups has drawn attention to the role of psychosocial factors and stress. Such research needs to be extended to agriculture. Since stress may be a problem faced by farmers, there is a particular need to investigate the associations

David J. Glasscock; Kurt Rasmussen; Ole Carstensen; Ole N. Hansen

2006-01-01

202

Frequency and outcomes of accidental ingestion of tobacco products in young children.  

PubMed

This review assesses published literature related to frequency and outcomes associated with accidental ingestion of tobacco and pharmaceutical nicotine products among young children. Twenty-seven years of annual reports by American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) were analyzed for occurrence and outcomes associated with accidental ingestion events involving tobacco and pharmaceutical nicotine products among young children. Over a 27-year period, and of >50 million contacts for all categories combined, 217,340 contacts involving ingestion of tobacco products were reported. Approximately 89% involved children <6 years old. One fatality was reported, however the co-ingestion of both cigarettes and diazepam complicates an assessment of a contributory role of tobacco. The rate of major, non-fatal, outcomes was <0.1%. Data from AAPCC reports and other sources indicate the frequency of accidental poisoning events is relatively low for tobacco products compared with other products such as drugs, dietary supplements, cleaning products, and personal care products. These findings, along with those for pharmaceutical nicotine products, are consistent with published case reports and reviews, indicating that the frequency and severity of outcomes associated with accidental ingestion of tobacco products by young children appear to be relatively low. However, adults should keep tobacco products out of the reach of children. PMID:21821089

Appleton, Scott

2011-11-01

203

A retrospective case series of skeletal surveys in children with suspected non-accidental injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe skeletal survey is widely used as the principal radiological investigation in suspected physical abuse of infants and young children. However, the evidence on which current guidelines are based is limited, especially for siblings of index cases. We conducted a retrospective study to describe the characteristics of children who underwent skeletal surveys for suspected non-accidental injury (NAI) in the Edinburgh

Fiona Day; Sarah Clegg; Maeve McPhillips; Jacqueline Mok

2006-01-01

204

Accidental ingestion of foreign object: Systematic review, recommendations and report of a case  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the serious complications during a routine endodontic procedure is accidental ingestion\\/aspiration of the endodontic instruments, which can happen when proper isolation is not done. There are at present no clear guidelines whether foreign body ingestion in the gastrointestinal tract should be managed conservatively, endoscopically or surgically. A 5year old boy reported to the Department of Pediatric and Preventive

Karthik Venkataraghavan; A. Anantharaj; P. Praveen; S. Prathibha Rani; B. Murali Krishnan

2011-01-01

205

Fatal morphine poisoning in a child due to accidental oral ingestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of fatal intoxication of an 8 year old child due to accidental oral ingestion of morphine is presented. Following a tonsillectomy and release from the hospital the decedent was prescribed meperidine syrup 50 mg per teaspoon (tsp) to be taken 2 tsps every 4 h. A pharmacist when filling her prescription mistakenly dispensed Roxanol ® which contained 20

Alphonse Poklis; Leslie E. Edinboro; A. Shannon Wohler; Faruk Presswalla; David Barron

1995-01-01

206

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 13: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF METHYL ISOCYANATE  

EPA Science Inventory

This is one of a series of manuals addressing accidental releases of toxic chemicals. Methyl isocyanite (MIC) has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, making it a substantially acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an acciden...

207

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 13: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF METHYL ISOCYANATE  

EPA Science Inventory

This is one of a series of manuals addressing accidental releases of toxic chemicals. ethyl isocyanite (MIC) has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, making it a substantially acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accident...

208

Assessment of methodologies for analysis of the dungeness B accidental aircraft crash risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has requested Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to review the aircraft crash methodology for nuclear facilities that are being used in the United Kingdom (UK). The scope of the work included a review of one method utilized in the UK for assessing the potential for accidental airplane crashes into nuclear facilities (Task 1) and a

Jeffrey L. LaChance; Clifford W. Hansen

2010-01-01

209

Reducing the Risk of Accidental Death Due to Vehicle-Related Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) from motor vehicles cause several hundred accidental fatal poisonings annually in the United States. The circumstances that could lead to fatal poisonings in residential settings with motor vehicles as the source of CO were explored. The risk of death in a garage (volume = 90 m) and a single-family dwelling (400 m) was evaluated using

Linsey C. Marr; Glenn C. Morrison; William W. Nazaroff; Robert A. Harley

1998-01-01

210

A probabilistic risk assessment for accidental releases from nuclear power plants in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. At present, over 200 nuclear power reactors for commercial electricity production are operational in Europe. An integrated assessment of probabilistic cancer mortality risks due to possible accidental releases from the European

Harry Slaper; Roelf Blaauboer

1998-01-01

211

Recent developments in modelling mitigation of accidental releases of hazardous gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process safety management guidelines suggest that a facility operator should investigate and document a plan for installing systems to detect, contain or mitigate accidental releases if such systems are not already in place. In addition, proposed EPA 112(r) regulations would require such investigation. This paper illustrates how mathematical modelling can aid such an evaluation. It describes how the HGSPRAY and

V. M. Fthenakis; D. N. Blewitt

1995-01-01

212

Water-spray systems for mitigating accidental indoor releases of water-soluble gasesq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-spray systems have been designed for mitigating accidental outdoor releases of water-soluble gases. This paper describes the new application of water systems to mitigating indoor releases. The performance of spray systems is studied by using models of atmospheric release and spray mitigation, having adjusted them for the indoor environment. A case study is presented of a mitigation system for a

Vasilis M. Fthenakis

213

Peripheral Zonal Hepatic Necrosis Caused by Accidental Ingestion of Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatal massive peripheral zonal hepatic necrosis developed in a 47-year-old man who accidentally ingested a solution of methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) in dimethyl phtalate. Such solutions contain about 10% active oxygen. The clinical course was characterized by temporary cardiac arrest, abdominal burns, severe metabolic acidosis, rapid hepatic failure, rhabdomyolysis and respiratory insufficiency. A fatal outcome resulted 4 d afterwards

P. J. Karhunen; I. Ojanperä; K. Lalu; E. Vuori

1990-01-01

214

Vibration behavior and response to an accidental collision of SFT prototype in Qiandao Lake (China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents free vibration analysis of the submerged floating tunnel (SFT) prototype, which has been designed to be built in Qiandao Lake (China). As an approximation the supporting effect of the tethers is omitted in the calculation of beam-like bending vibrations. As a case study, the response of the SFT prototype to an accidental collision by an object like

Shuangyin Zhang; Lei Wang; Youshi Hong

2010-01-01

215

Summary of accidental releases of radioactivity detected off the Nevada Test Site, 1963--1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the more than 450 underground nuclear explosives tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site from August 1963 (signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty) through the end of 1986, only 23 accidentally released radioactivity that was detectable beyond the boundary of the NTS. Of these 23, 4 were detectable off the NTS only by aircraft while the remainder were

R. G. Patzer; W. G. Phillips; R. F. Grossman; S. C. Black; C. F. Costa

1988-01-01

216

Buckling Analysis in Creep Conditions: Review and Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the case of structures operating at high temperature in normal or accidental conditions, the influence of creep has to be considered at the design stage because this phenomenon may reduce the lifetime significantly. This is true in particular for buckling analysis: in creep conditions, the buckling sometimes occurs after a long period under a compressive load which is lower

Andre Turbat; Bernard Drubay

2002-01-01

217

Probabilistic margin evaluation on accidental transients for the ASTRID reactor project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ASTRID is a technological demonstrator of Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) under development. The conceptual design studies are being conducted in accordance with the Generation IV reactor objectives, particularly in terms of improving safety. For the hypothetical events, belonging to the accidental category "severe accident prevention situations" having a very low frequency of occurrence, the safety demonstration is no more based on a deterministic demonstration with conservative assumptions on models and parameters but on a "Best-Estimate Plus Uncertainty" (BEPU) approach. This BEPU approach ispresented in this paper for an Unprotected Loss-of-Flow (ULOF) event. The Best-Estimate (BE) analysis of this ULOFt ransient is performed with the CATHARE2 code, which is the French reference system code for SFR applications. The objective of the BEPU analysis is twofold: first evaluate the safety margin to sodium boiling in taking into account the uncertainties on the input parameters of the CATHARE2 code (twenty-two uncertain input parameters have been identified, which can be classified into five groups: reactor power, accident management, pumps characteristics, reactivity coefficients, thermal parameters and head losses); secondly quantify the contribution of each input uncertainty to the overall uncertainty of the safety margins, in order to refocusing R&D efforts on the most influential factors. This paper focuses on the methodological aspects of the evaluation of the safety margin. At least for the preliminary phase of the project (conceptual design), a probabilistic criterion has been fixed in the context of this BEPU analysis; this criterion is the value of the margin to sodium boiling, which has a probability 95% to be exceeded, obtained with a confidence level of 95% (i.e. the M5,95percentile of the margin distribution). This paper presents two methods used to assess this percentile: the Wilks method and the Bootstrap method ; the effectiveness of the two methods is compared on the basis of 500 simulations performed with theCATHARE2 code. We conclude that, with only 100 simulations performed with the CATHARE2 code, which is a number of simulations workable in the conceptual design phase of the ASTRID project where the models and the hypothesis are often modified, it is best in order to evaluate the percentile M5,95 of the margin to sodium boiling to use the bootstrap method, which will provide a slightly conservative result. On the other hand, in order to obtain an accurate estimation of the percentileM5,95, for the safety report for example, it will be necessary to perform at least 300 simulations with the CATHARE2 code. In this case, both methods (Wilks and Bootstrap) would give equivalent results.

Marquès, Michel

2014-06-01

218

Modelling of accidental released toxic gases for emergency responders in Austria, Kosovo and Bulgaria.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. A number of models for the prediction and simulation of hazard areas affected by accidental releases of toxic gases are available worldwide. Modelling accidental releases may be required for a variety of reasons: for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), for preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management (e.g. in the frame of the SEVESO directive). Depending on the demand and the particular purposes, the choice of the appropriate model is up to the authorities. The one year project was funded by the Austrian Science and research liaison Office (ASO, www.aso.zsi.at) as a part of the program: Research Cooperation and Networking between Austria, the public higher education institutions in Kosovo and South Eastern Europe. The project was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG, http://www.zamg.ac.at) in cooperation with the University of Prishtina (Kosovo, www.uni-pr.edu and the National Institute of meteorology and Hydrology (NIHM Bulgaria, www.meteo.bg). One of the main purposes of the project was to provide the both partners with basic knowledge in modelling with accidental release of toxic gases, based on the practical experience of the meteorologists from the ZAMG in the area. This knowledge can be used as scientific response to society driven current or upcoming problems especially in Kosovo. The activities involved know-how transfer on European standards and practice among the project partners, as well as joint efforts to adapt and disseminate the scientific methods and results in Kosovo. Within the project, the partners from Kosovo and Bulgaria were introduced to the atmospheric dispersion model (ALOHA - Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere) and proceeded several model runs based on reference scenarios for chemicals of concern. ALOHA is one of the tools developed by EPA's Office of Emergency Management (OEM) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office of Response and Restoration (NOAA), to assist front-line chemical emergency planners and responders. In the frame of the project the partners in Kosovo and Bulgaria also undertook first steps in establishing cooperation connections with decision makers for emergency response planning, fire brigades and chemical plants. This presentation focuses on basic issues and problems in handling with accidental release of toxic gases, as well as on communication difficulties among the emergency responders, modellers and authorities in the three countries.

Stenzel, Sirma; Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Gashi, Salih; Thaci, Bashkim; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Spassova, Tatiana

2010-05-01

219

Is the contribution of cis and trans protonated 5-methylcytosine-SO3(-) isomers equal in the conversion to thymine-SO3(-) under bisulfite conditions? A theoretical perspective.  

PubMed

Cytosine (Cyt) can be converted to 5-methylcytosine (5-MeCyt) in CpG sequences of DNA. Conventional bisulfite sequencing can discriminate Cyt from 5-MeCyt, however inappropriate conversion of 5-MeCyt to thymine and a failure to convert Cyt to uracil always occur when Cyt and 5-MeCyt are treated with bisulfite, which would lead to erroneous estimates of DNA methylation densities. Here, the direct hydrolytic deamination of cis (paths A-C) and trans (paths A'-C') 5-MeCytN3(+)-SO3(-) isomers with bisulfite have been explored at the MP2/6-311++G(3df,3pd)//B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. The activation free energies (?G(s-a?)) of the cis and trans 5-MeCytN3(+)-SO3(-) isomers' paths exhibit no obvious differences, implying both isomers may make an equal contribution to the hydrolytic deamination of 5-MeCyt under bisulfite conditions. It is greatly expected that these results could aid experimental scientists to explore new methods to avoid the formation of the deaminated reactants (5-MeCytN3(+)-SO3(-)). Meanwhile, the HSO3(-)-induced direct hydrolytic deamination of cis and trans 5-MeCytN3(+)-SO3(-) isomers is represented by paths A and A', respectively, and has been further explored in the presence of two water molecules. It was found that the contribution of two water molecules renders the HSO3(-)-induced direct hydrolytic deamination of cis and trans 5-MeCytN3(+)-SO3(-) isomers by paths A and A' favourable. In addition, the ?G(s-a?) values (85.74-85.34 kJ mol(-1)) of the rate-limiting steps of the two water-mediated paths A and A' are very close to that of the theoretical value for CytN3(+)-SO3(-) (88.18 kJ mol(-1)), implying that the free barrier gap between Cyt and 5-MeCyt is very small under bisulfite conditions. This further suggests that bisulfite sequencing technology may be easily influenced by the external environment. PMID:24974803

Jin, Lingxia; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Caiying; Wang, Wenliang; Min, Suotian; Hu, Daodao

2014-07-01

220

Estudio de la distribucion de plutonio en el ecosistema marino de Palomares despues de una descarga accidental de un aerosol de transuranidos. (Study on plutonium distribution in Palomares ecosystem after an accidental aerosol release of transuranic radionuclides).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A discharge of plutonium and transuranic elements accidentally ocurred near Palomares (Almeria, Spain) in 1966. After decontamining operations, about 10 g of finely dispersed plutonium remained on the soil and was spreaded on the sorroundings and into Med...

L. Gasco Sanchez

1990-01-01

221

Estudio de la distribucion de plutinio en el ecosistema marino de Palomares despues de una descarga accidental de un aerosol de transuranidos. (Study on plutonium distribution in Palomares ecosystem after an accidental aerosol release of transuranic radionuclides).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A discharge of plutonium and transuranic elements accidentally ocurred near Palomares (Almeria, Spain) in 1966. After decontaminating operations, about 10 g of finely dispersed plutonium remained on the soil and was spreaded on the surroundings and into M...

C. Gasco

1991-01-01

222

Comparative study of the PARK and ASTRAL post-accidental decision support software.  

PubMed

The French radioecological assessment model ASTRAL and the German model PARK have been developed to evaluate the radiological situation in the case of an accidental release of radionuclides and a widespread contamination of the environment. For decision makers it is of importance that the results on foodstuff contamination and on dose to humans are in fairly good agreement, when areas of the common border are affected. Therefore a comparative study has been done for two scenarios, assuming accidental releases on 1 June and 1 October. The study indicates that the models' structures and the transfer parameters are in good agreement. Only model principles for root vegetables are different in both models. Significant differences in results on the contamination of foodstuff and on dose to humans by ingestion are caused by different assumptions on dates of harvest and feeding methods of animals. A corresponding harmonization is essential with respect to decision making. PMID:10201563

Renaud, P; Stapel, R; Maubert, H; Bleher, M; Wirth, E

1999-05-01

223

Multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy induced by accidental consumption of levamisole: A case report  

PubMed Central

Levamisole is an anthelmintic agent and also immunostimulant drug which is used to treat colorectal cancer. The present study aimed to show accidental consumption of levamisole alone induced multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy. A 53-year-old male was admitted to the Neurology Department of Farabi Hospital (Kermanshah, Iran) with walking inability and recognition disorder. Following clinical examinations, the patient diagnosed as multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy following levamisole consumption.The patient was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone followed by prednisolone. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was done 1 month later and did not show a reduction or remission in the lesions. History of the patient showed that he had accidentally consumed levamisole 8 months ago. It seems that the consumption of levamisole can induce multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy and delayed treatment of the patient with corticosteroid cannot diminish the neurotoxicity of levamisole. In addition, the cytotoxic dose of levamisole induces irreversible multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy.

Sariaslani, Payam; Ghanbari, Parvin

2012-01-01

224

Accidental ingestion of foreign object: Systematic review, recommendations and report of a case  

PubMed Central

One of the serious complications during a routine endodontic procedure is accidental ingestion/aspiration of the endodontic instruments, which can happen when proper isolation is not done. There are at present no clear guidelines whether foreign body ingestion in the gastrointestinal tract should be managed conservatively, endoscopically or surgically. A 5 year old boy reported to the Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, D.A. Pandu Memorial R.V. Dental College, Bangalore, India, with a complaint of pain and swelling in the lower right back teeth region. Endodontic therapy was planned for the affected tooth. During the course of treatment the child accidentally swallowed a 21 mm 15 size K file. Endoscopy was performed immediately but the instrument could not be retrieved. The instrument passed out uneventfully along with the stools 48 h after ingestion. Careful evaluation of the patient immediately after the accident helps in managing the patient effectively along with following the recommended guidelines.

Venkataraghavan, Karthik; Anantharaj, A.; Praveen, P.; Rani, S. Prathibha; Krishnan, B. Murali

2010-01-01

225

Death scene evaluation in a case of fatal accidental carbon monoxide toxicity.  

PubMed

Exposure of humans to high concentrations of carbon monoxide can result in death, due to the formation of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb), which impairs the oxygen carrying capacity of the haemoglobin. Carbon monoxide is responsible of a great number of accidental domestic poisonings and deaths throughout the world, particularly in homes that have faulty or poorly vented combustion appliances. A case is reported, in which a 21-year-old woman was found dead, due to carbon monoxide poisoning from a gas water heater, despite the puzzling evidence that the heater has been used for more than 10 years without any problem. An evaluation of the exposure to CO was performed, by measuiring the rate of production of CO from the heater, and using the Coburn-Forster-Kane equation to describe the kinetics of the poisoning process. The death was attributed to an accidental poisoning from carbon monoxide due to a sum of unfortunate circumstances. PMID:16439085

Sedda, Antioco Franco; Rossi, Gabriele

2006-12-20

226

Costochondral junction fractures and intra-abdominal trauma in non-accidental injury (child abuse)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rib fractures are a common skeletal manifestation of non-accidental injury (NAI) in infants and young children and are generally\\u000a considered to be highly specific for abuse. There are, however, relatively few descriptions of fractures involving the costochondral\\u000a junctions in NAI. We present three children (two boys, one girl; 7, 18, and 36 months of age) with anterior rib fractures\\u000a which

Chaan S. Ng; Christine M. Hall

1998-01-01

227

Genotypic and Phenotypic Modifications of Neisseria meningitidis after an Accidental Human Passage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scientist in our laboratory was accidentally infected while working with Z5463, a Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A strain. She developed severe symptoms (fever, meningism, purpuric lesions) that fortunately evolved with antibiotic treatment to complete recovery. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis confirmed that the isolate obtained from the blood culture (Z5463BC) was identical to Z5463, more precisely to a fourth subculture of this

Hélène Omer; Graham Rose; Keith A. Jolley; Eric Frapy; Jean-Ralph Zahar; Martin C. J. Maiden; Stephen D. Bentley; Colin R. Tinsley; Xavier Nassif; Emmanuelle Bille; Olivier Neyrolles

2011-01-01

228

Atmospheric entry of Mars-return nuclear-powered vehicles due to accidental termination of operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The entry of nuclear reactors into Earth's atmosphere resulting from an accidental or inadvertent abort of a space vehicle powered by nuclear-thermal rockets is investigated. The study is made for a typical piloted Mars mission vehicle incapacitated by an accident or malfunction during the Earth-arrival phase of the Mars-return journey due to simultaneous, multiple failures of its component systems. A

Gene P. Menees; Chul Park

1993-01-01

229

Multiple metallic foreign bodies accidentally detected in different body cavities: a case report.  

PubMed

We accidentally found an unusual case of a middle aged Tibetan woman who had eight metallic foreign bodies (eight needles) in her head, chest and abdomen. These needles were not related to any surgical intervention or trauma. The diagnosis "metallic foreign bodies" cannot usually be made in an acute setting. Some patients may present chronic symptoms, such as infection or pain. However, in some cases, the patients do not have any symptoms. PMID:24889982

Ma, Hu-Sai; Cai, Yi-Xin; Zhang, Ni; Gao, Jun-Lin; Zhao, Dong; Liu, Gang; Fu, Xiang-Ning

2014-06-01

230

Bitter pill to swallow: a case of accidental poisoning with digitalis purpurea  

Microsoft Academic Search

While digitoxicity secondary to therapeutic use is frequent, due to its distinctive appearance and unpleasant taste accidental ingestion of digitalis purpurea (foxglove) is uncommon. This report relates the case of two previously healthy individuals who inadvertently consumed significant quantities of digitalis in its plant form. Both men presented in first-degree atrioventricular block and had digoxin levels of 4.9 ?g\\/litre, but

Andrew Mitchell

2010-01-01

231

Atmospheric dispersion modeling for an accidental release from the Pakistan Research Reactor1 (PARR1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric dispersion modeling and radiation dose calculations have been performed for a postulated accidental airborne radionuclide release from the Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) appropriate to a power upgrade to 10MW. Estimates of releases for various radionuclide groups are based upon US-NRC regulatory guide 1.183. Committed Effective Doses (CEDs) to the public at various downwind distances were calculated using a health

S. Shoaib Raza; M. Iqbal

2005-01-01

232

[Cardiac arrest and secondary pulmonary oedema following accidental intramucosal injection of naphazoline in an adult].  

PubMed

During neurosurgery for hypophysary adenoma under general anaesthesia in a prone position, a 34 year-old-women received accidental 6 ml intramucosal injection of lidocaine with naphazoline. The patient presented a severe bradycardia associated with a major increase in arterial blood pression followed by a brief cardiac arrest. She also presented a prolonged awakening and a pulmonary oedema, which lead to mechanical ventilation. The patient rapidly recovered a normal clinical state. PMID:12831977

Villeret, I; Tellier, A C; Erhmann, S; Réa, D; Delalande, J P

2003-05-01

233

Serologic markers for hepatitis B among Marshallese accidentally exposed to fallout radiation in 1954  

SciTech Connect

At least one serologic marker of prior hepatitis B infection (hepatitis B surface antigen, antibody to surface antigen, or antibody to core antigen) was found in 91.7% of 314 Marshallese tested. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenemia (3.3%) in a subpopulation that had resided on Rongelap Atoll at the time of accidental exposure to radioactive fallout from a thermonuclear test in 1954 did not differ significantly from the prevalence in a selected unexposed population (10.5%).

Adams, W.H.; Fields, H.A.; Engle, J.R.; Hadler, S.C.

1986-10-01

234

Rewarming a patient with accidental hypothermia and cardiac arrest using thoracic lavage.  

PubMed

The optimal treatment for severe accidental hypothermia is cardiopulmonary bypass because this offers the most rapid rate of rewarming. However, cardiopulmonary bypass therapy is not available in every hospital. In these circumstances, rewarming has to be achieved with other methods. We present a patient who was successfully rewarmed with thoracic lavage after he had been found with a core temperature of 21°C and asystole. PMID:24882294

Turtiainen, Johanna; Halonen, Jari; Syväoja, Sakari; Hakala, Tapio

2014-06-01

235

A risk assessment method for accidental releases from nuclear power plants in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present over 200 nuclear power reactors are operational. The question\\u000araised is to what extent possible accidents with nuclear power reactors\\u000apose a risk for the European population. In this report a method is\\u000adescribed for evaluating the probability of death due to stochastic\\u000aeffects, combining the probability of accidental releases with the\\u000aconsequences in terms of the excess

Slaper H; Blaauboer RO; Eggink GJ

2007-01-01

236

The EPA's process safety management program for preventing accidental chemical releases (40 CFR 68)  

SciTech Connect

Section 304, Chemical Process Safety Management,'' of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 required the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to develop a complete integrated process safety management program regulation. In February 1992, OSHA published rule 29 CFR 1910.119, Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals''. The 1990 CAA Amendment section 112(r), Prevention of Accidental Releases'', required the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish measures for owners and operators of facilities processing or handling hazardous materials to prevent accidental releases of regulated substances and other extremely hazardous substances to the air. Additionally, it required the consequence of releases to be minimized by focusing preventative measures on those chemicals that pose the greatest risk. Section 112(r) begins with a general duty clause requiring owners and operators to: identify hazards that may result from releases; design and maintain a safe facility; and minimize the consequences of releases when they occur. The major difference between the two regulations concerns the areas affected by the potential release of a regulated substance. The OSHA 29 CFR 1910.119 regulation limits the concern to incidents that could result in an exposure to employees within the boundaries of the facility. The proposed EPA 40 CFR regulation will address significant accidental releases that have a potential for off-site effects on humans and the environment. The provisions of the new EPA regulation would require additional resources and increase the formal documentation and record keeping requirements beyond those of the older OSHA regulation.

Brown, C.A.; Sharma, P. (Brown and Root Petroleum and Chemicals Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-04-01

237

Pre-hospital core temperature measurement in accidental and therapeutic hypothermia.  

PubMed

Abstract Strapazzon, Giacomo, Emily Procter, Peter Paal, and Hermann Brugger. Pre-hospital core temperature measurement in accidental and therapeutic hypothermia. High Alt Med Biol. 15:104-111, 2014.-Core temperature (Tcore) measurement is the only diagnostic tool to accurately assess the severity of hypothermia. International recommendations for management of accidental hypothermia encourage Tcore measurement for triage, treatment, and transport decisions, but they also recognize that lack of equipment may be a limiting factor, particularly in the field. The aim of this nonsystematic review is to highlight the importance of field measurement of Tcore and to provide practical guidance for clinicians on pre-hospital temperature measurement in accidental and therapeutic hypothermia. Clinicians should recognize the difference between alternative measurement locations and available thermometers, tailoring their decision to the purpose of the measurement (i.e., intermittent vs. continual measurement), and the impact on management decisions. The importance of Tcore measurement in therapeutic hypothermia protocols during early cooling and monitoring of target temperature is discussed. PMID:24950388

Strapazzon, Giacomo; Procter, Emily; Paal, Peter; Brugger, Hermann

2014-06-01

238

Infant homicide and accidental death in the United States, 1940-2005: ethics and epidemiological classification.  

PubMed

Potential ethical issues can arise during the process of epidemiological classification. For example, unnatural infant deaths are classified as accidental deaths or homicides. Societal sensitivity to the physical abuse and neglect of children has increased over recent decades. This enhanced sensitivity could impact reported infant homicide rates. Infant homicide and accident mortality rates in boys and girls in the USA from 1940 to 2005 were analysed. In 1940, infant accident mortality rates were over 20 times greater than infant homicide rates in both boys and girls. After about 1980, when the ratio of infant accident mortality rates to infant homicide rates decreased to less than five, and the sum of infant accident and homicide rates became relatively constant, further decreases in infant accident mortality rates were associated with increases in reported infant homicide rates. These findings suggest that the dramatic decline of accidental infant mortality and recent increased societal sensitivity to child abuse may be related to the increased infant homicide rates observed in the USA since 1980 rather than an actual increase in societal violence directed against infants. Ethical consequences of epidemiological classification, involving the principles of beneficence, non-maleficence and justice, are suggested by observed patterns in infant accidental deaths and homicides in the USA from 1940 to 2005. PMID:21450748

Riggs, Jack E; Hobbs, Gerald R

2011-07-01

239

The role of environmental accidental risk assessment in the process of granting development consent.  

PubMed

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a procedure that must be followed for certain types of development before they are granted development consent. The procedure requires the developer to compile an environmental impact report (EIR) describing the likely significant effects of the project on the environment. A regulatory requirement in Slovenia is that an accidental risk assessment for a new installation should be a part of an EIR. The article shows how risk assessment (RA) related to accidental release of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) or a polyvalent alcohol mixture from a new planned unit of a chemical factory in the Alpine region of Slovenia was performed in the framework of an EIA for the purpose of obtaining a construction permit. Two accidental scenarios were considered: (a) a spill of 20 m(3) of MDI or polyvalent alcohol mixture into the river Soca (the river runs close to the chemical factory) and (b) a fire in the warehouse storing the raw material, where emission of toxic gases HCN, NO(x), and CO is expected during combustion of MDI. One of the most important results of this case is the agreement among the developer, the competent authority, and a consultant in the field of EIA and RA to positively conclude the licensing process despite the absence of formal (regulatory) limit values for risk. It has been approved that transparent, reasonably uncertain, and semi-quantitative environmental risk assessment is an inevitable component of an EIA, and an essential factor in informed, licensing-related decision making. PMID:19732394

Kontic, Branko; Gerbec, Marko

2009-11-01

240

Prevention Reference Manual: Control Technologies. Volume 2. Post-Release Mitigation Measures for Controlling Accidental Releases of Air Toxics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report covers post-release mitigation measures to control accidental releases of air toxics. This can be accomplished by a variety of mitigation measures that can contain, capture, destroy, divert, or disperse the released chemical. Mitigation measure...

D. S. Davis G. B. DeWolf K. A. Ferland D. L. Harper R. C. Keeney

1989-01-01

241

Integrated Simulation of Atmospheric Pressures and Dynamic Forces During Accidental Decompression and Subsequent Emergency Descent of High Altitude Transport Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These experiments exposed for the first time human subjects simultaneously to decompression events and to mechanical forces. The selected profiles simulated an accidental decompression and subsequent emergency descent of a high altitude/multi Mach transpo...

H. J. vonBeckh W. P. Baas

1975-01-01

242

Bronchial impaction of an implant screwdriver after accidental aspiration: report of a case and revision of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Adverse outcomes resulting from aspiration or ingestion of instruments and materials can occur in any dental procedure. Clinical\\u000a manifestation depends on the location, the obstructive potential of the foreign body, and the temporal factor since the accidental\\u000a incident. Accidental inhalation of dental appliances can be an even more serious event than ingestion and must always be treated\\u000a as an emergency

Lorena Pingarrón Martín; María José Morán Soto; Rocío Sánchez Burgos; Miguel Burgueño García

2010-01-01

243

In-depth analysis of accidental oil spills from tankers in the context of global spill trends from all sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study gives a global overview of accidental oil spills from all sources (?700t) for the period 1970–2004, followed by a detailed examination of trends in accidental tanker spills. The present analysis of the number and volume of tanker spills includes temporal and spatial spill trends, aspects of spill size distribution as well as trends of key factors (i.e., flag

Peter Burgherr

2007-01-01

244

Youth Versus Adult "Weightlifting" Injuries Presenting to United States Emergency Rooms: Accidental Versus Nonaccidental Injury Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Myer, GD, Quatman, CE, Khoury, J, Wall, EJ, and Hewett, TE. Youth versus adult “weightlifting” injuries presenting to united states emergency rooms: accidental versus nonaccidental injury mechanisms. J Strength Cond Res 23(7): 2054–2060, 2009—Resistance training has previously been purported to be unsafe and ineffective in children. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate resistance training-related injuries presenting to U.S. emergency rooms by age, type, and mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that older athletes would sustain greater percentages of joint sprains and muscle strains, whereas younger athletes would sustain a greater percentage of accidental injuries that would result in an increased percentage of fractures in youths. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried from 2002 to 2005 using the CPSC code for “Weightlifting.” Subjects between the ages of 8 and 30 were grouped by age categories 8 to 13 (elementary/middle school age), 14 to 18 (high school), 19 to 22 (college), and 23 to 30 (adult). Injuries were classified as “accidental” if caused by dropped weight or improper equipment use. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare accidental injuries between age groups. The sample consisted of 4, 111 patients. Accidental injuries decreased (p < 0.05) with age: 8 to 13 > 14 to 18 > 19 to 22 years = 23 to 30 years. Conversely, sprain/strain injuries increased in each successive age group (p < 0.05). Evaluation of only the nonaccidental injuries (n = 2, 565) showed that the oldest categories (19–22 and 23–30 yr) demonstrated a greater percentage of sprains and strains relative to younger age categories (p < 0.001). Two thirds of the injuries sustained in the 8 to 13 group were to the hand and foot and were most often related to “dropping” and “pinching” in the injury descriptions, and there was an increased percentage of fractures in the 8 to 13 group relative to all other groups (p < 0.001). The study findings indicate that children have lower risk of resistance training-related joint sprains and muscle strains than adults. The majority of youth resistance training injuries are the result of accidents that are potentially preventable with increased supervision and stricter safety guidelines.

Myer, Gregory D.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J.; Hewett, Timothy E.

2014-01-01

245

Streamflow Conditions in the Guadalupe River Basin, South-Central Texas, Water Years 1987-2006 - An Assessment of Streamflow Gains and Losses and Relative Contribution of Major Springs to Streamflow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Edwards Aquifer Authority, assessed available streamflow data in the Guadalupe River Basin to determine streamflow gains and losses and the relative contribution of flow from major springs - Comal Springs, San Marcos Springs, and Hueco Springs - to streamflow in reaches of the Guadalupe River and its tributaries. The assessment is based primarily on long-term (1987-2006) and short-term (January 1999, August 1999, August 2000, and August 2006) streamflow conditions. For each analysis period, the ratio of flow from the major springs (measured at the spring source) to the sum of inflows (measured at the source of inflow to the river system) is computed for reaches of the Comal River and San Marcos River that include springflows from major springs, and for Guadalupe River reaches downstream from Canyon Dam. The ratio of springflow to the sum of inflows to the reach is an estimate of the contribution of flows from major springs to streamflow. For 1987-2006, the ratio of springflow from the major springs to the sum of inflows for the most upstream reach that includes inflow from all three major springs, Guadalupe River - above Comal River to Gonzales, is 27 percent. At the lowermost downstream reach, Guadalupe River - Bloomington to the San Antonio River, the percentage of the sum of inflows attributed to springflow is 18 percent. At that lowermost reach, the ratio of Canyon Lake releases to the sum of inflows was 20 percent. For the short-term periods August 2000 and August 2006 (periods of relatively low flow), springflow in the reach Guadalupe River - above Comal River to Gonzales accounted for 77 and 78 percent, respectively, of the sum of inflows in that reach. At the lowermost reach Guadalupe River - Bloomington to San Antonio River, springflow was 52 and 53 percent of the sum of inflows, respectively, during August 2000 and August 2006 (compared with 18 percent during 1987-2006); and during August 2000 and August 2006, the ratios of Canyon Lake releases to the sum of inflows were less than 10 percent (compared with 20 percent during 1987-2006)

Ockerman, Darwin J.; Slattery, Richard N.

2008-01-01

246

Accidental Discoveries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The students will understand that science theories change in the face of new evidence, but those changes can be slow in coming. To download the lesson plan as a pdf, see the document below. Students willResearch scientific discoveries that happened by accident in the past and learn how gamma-rays were discovered by 20th century scientists

2010-01-01

247

[Accidental falls].  

PubMed

Falls are common cause of injuries among elderly people, and fractures are the most serious consequence of falls. For seniors, hip fractures are the second major cause of bedridden. The feature and acute care of head injury, spinal cord injury, vertebrae fracture, and hip fracture are described. Just had fracture fixation, the patient can not go back to the original ADL. In order not to become bedridden, both medication and physical examination are important based on the new disease concept of locomotive syndrome. To do so, requires hospital and clinic cooperation. Sufficient cooperation is not currently possible, and spread of liaison service is essential. PMID:23855211

Inokuchi, Koichi

2013-06-01

248

Accidental mechanical asphyxia of children in Germany between 2000 and 2008.  

PubMed

Accidents constitute one of the greatest risks to children, yet there are few medical reports that discuss the subject of accidental asphyxia. However, a systematic analysis of all documented cases in Germany over the years 2000-2008 has now been conducted, aiming at identifying patterns of accidental asphyxia, deducing findings, defining avoidance measures and recommending ways of increasing product safety and taking possible precautions. The analysis is based on a detailed retrospective analysis of all 91 relevant autopsy reports from 24 different German forensic institutes. A variety of demographic and morphological data was systematically collected and analysed. In 84 of the 91 cases, the sex of the victim was reported, resulting in a total of 57 boys (68 %) and 27 girls (32 %). The age spread ranged between 1 day and 14 years, with an average of 5.9 years. Most accidents occurred in the first year of life (20 %) or between the ages of 1 and 2 years (13 %). In 46 % of cases, the cause of death was strangulation, with the majority occurring in the home environment. In 31 % of all cases, the cause of death was positional asphyxia, the majority resulting from chest compression. In 23 % of cases, the cause of death was aspiration, mainly of foreign bodies. Today, accidental asphyxiation is a rare cause of death in children in Germany. Nevertheless, the majority of cases could have been avoided. Future incidence can be reduced by implementing two major precautions: increasing product safety and educating parents of potentially fatal risks. Specific recommendations relate to children's beds, toys and food. PMID:22752751

Meyer, F S; Trübner, K; Schöpfer, J; Zimmer, G; Schmidt, E; Püschel, K; Vennemann, M; Bajanowski, T; Althaus, L; Bach, P; Banaschak, S; Cordes, O; Dettmeyer, S R; Dressler, J; Gahr, B; Grellner, W; Héroux, V; Mützel, E; Tatschner, T; Zack, F; Zedler, B

2012-09-01

249

Balantidiosis: A Rare Accidental Finding in the Urine of A Patient with Acute Renal Failure  

PubMed Central

Balantidium coli is the only ciliated protozoan which is known to infect human and nonhuman primates. Route of infection is faecal-oral route. It is actively motile and causes mostly asymptomatic infections, or it may develop dysentery which is similar to that which is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. Here, we are describing a case of an accidental finding of B.coli in the urine of a patient who presented with acute renal failure, based on its characteristic morphology and motility which were seen on light microscopy. This is the third case of Urinary Balantidiosis which has been reported from India.

Chauhan, Sapna; Chandola, IVA; Mahawal, BS; Kataria, VK

2014-01-01

250

[Bernard-Horner syndrome after accidental lesion of carotid artery: case report].  

PubMed

Among the complications of internal jugular vein insertion there is the lesion of the cervical sympathetic trunk with the onset of Bernard-Horner syndrome, consisting of miosis, eyelid ptosis, enophthalmos and anhidrosis on the same side of the lesion. The neurological damage can be caused by the direct puncture of the trunk or by the irritating and compressive action of a hematoma during the puncture of the internal jugular; the clinical picture, when reversible, resolves in a few months. The case we report is about the onset of the syndrome after accidental puncture of carotid artery, followed by the total disappearance of signs in a few days. PMID:23007824

Spinelli, G; Damiano, G; Palumbo, V D; Cillino, G; Lo Monte, A I

2012-07-01

251

Accidental phosgene gas exposure: A review with background study of 10 cases.  

PubMed

Here, authors present a review on clinical presentation and management of exposure of phosgene gas after reviewing the literature by searching with keywords phosgene exposure on Google, Cochrane, Embase and PubMed with a background of experience gained from 10 patients who were admitted to our institute after an accidental phosgene exposure in February 2011 nearby a city in India. Phosgene is a highly toxic gas, occupational workers may have accidental exposure. The gas can also be generated inadvertently during fire involving plastics and other chemicals and solvents containing chlorine, which is of concern to emergency responders. Phosgene inhalation may cause initially symptoms of respiratory tract irritation, patients feel fine thereafter, and then die of choking a day later because of build up of fluid in the lungs (delayed onset non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema). Phosgene exposure is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with a history of exposure should be admitted to the hospital for a minimum of 24 h for observation because of the potential for delayed onset respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:24339660

Vaish, Arvind Kumar; Consul, Shuchi; Agrawal, Avinash; Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Singh, Mohit Mohan

2013-10-01

252

Accidental fatal poisoning of a dog by Dieffenbachia picta (dumb cane).  

PubMed

A single case of accidental fatal poisoning by Dieffenbachia picta, (dumb cane) (Araceae) in a 9-y-old female Poodle is described. Clinical signs included severe, locally extensive erosive/ulcerative glossitis accompanied by marked dyspnea of acute onset. The animal did not respond to emergency procedures to relieve severe respiratory distress; fatal asphyxiation ensued from edema of the glottis a few hours after the first clinical signs were observed. According to the owner, the dog had access to a tall, potted dumb cane plant and chewed the thick stem of the plant intensely. The owner did not authorize a necropsy of the animal. The diagnosis of Dieffenbachia picta poisoning was based on the history of accidental consumption of dumb cane and clinical signs. A comparison of this single case with other reports of dumb cane poisoning suggests that dogs poisoned by Dieffenbachia species usually recover uneventfully with conservative management and that death from asphyxiation is a rare but possible consequence of this intoxication. Severe edematous swelling of the glottis with occlusion of the larynx airway passage can occur in those cases in which large amounts of sap are quickly squeezed from the plant during intense chewing. Death would occur if owners do not seek veterinary care immediately and if emergency procedures are not instituted on time. PMID:14513888

Loretti, Alexandre Paulino; da Silva Ilha, Marcia Regina; Ribeiro, Rita Elaine Streda

2003-10-01

253

Accidental phosgene gas exposure: A review with background study of 10 cases  

PubMed Central

Here, authors present a review on clinical presentation and management of exposure of phosgene gas after reviewing the literature by searching with keywords phosgene exposure on Google, Cochrane, Embase and PubMed with a background of experience gained from 10 patients who were admitted to our institute after an accidental phosgene exposure in February 2011 nearby a city in India. Phosgene is a highly toxic gas, occupational workers may have accidental exposure. The gas can also be generated inadvertently during fire involving plastics and other chemicals and solvents containing chlorine, which is of concern to emergency responders. Phosgene inhalation may cause initially symptoms of respiratory tract irritation, patients feel fine thereafter, and then die of choking a day later because of build up of fluid in the lungs (delayed onset non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema). Phosgene exposure is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with a history of exposure should be admitted to the hospital for a minimum of 24 h for observation because of the potential for delayed onset respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Vaish, Arvind Kumar; Consul, Shuchi; Agrawal, Avinash; Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Singh, Mohit Mohan

2013-01-01

254

Triage and Management of Accidental Laboratory Exposures to Biosafety Level-3 and -4 Agents  

PubMed Central

The recent expansion of biocontainment laboratory capacity in the United States has drawn attention to the possibility of occupational exposures to BSL-3 and -4 agents and has prompted a reassessment of medical management procedures and facilities to deal with these contingencies. A workshop hosted by the National Interagency Biodefense Campus was held in October 2007 and was attended by representatives of all existing and planned BSL-4 research facilities in the U.S. and Canada. This report summarizes important points of discussion and recommendations for future coordinated action, including guidelines for the engineering and operational controls appropriate for a hospital care and isolation unit. Recommendations pertained to initial management of exposures (ie, immediate treatment of penetrating injuries, reporting of exposures, initial evaluation, and triage). Isolation and medical care in a referral hospital (including minimum standards for isolation units), staff recruitment and training, and community outreach also were addressed. Workshop participants agreed that any unit designated for the isolation and treatment of laboratory employees accidentally infected with a BSL-3 or -4 pathogen should be designed to maximize the efficacy of patient care while minimizing the risk of transmission of infection. Further, participants concurred that there is no medically based rationale for building care and isolation units to standards approximating a BSL-4 laboratory. Instead, laboratory workers accidentally exposed to pathogens should be cared for in hospital isolation suites staffed by highly trained professionals following strict infection control procedures.

Rodak, Colleen; Bray, Mike; Davey, Richard T.

2009-01-01

255

Larger-area single-mode photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers enabled by an accidental Dirac point.  

PubMed

By altering the lattice geometry of the photonic crystal (PhC) surface-emitting lasers (PCSELs), we tune the regular lasing band edges of quadratic dispersions to form a single accidental Dirac point of linear dispersion at the Brillouin zone center. This not only increases the mode spacing by orders of magnitude but also eliminates the distributed in-plane feedback to enable single-mode PCSELs of substantially larger area and thus substantially higher output power. The advantages of using accidental Dirac cones are systematically evaluated through two-dimensional in-plane calculations and confirmed by three-dimensional simulations of PhC slab devices. PMID:24686677

Chua, Song-Liang; Lu, Ling; Bravo-Abad, Jorge; Joannopoulos, John D; Solja?i?, Marin

2014-04-01

256

Treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia associated with accidental pegylated asparaginase push in a child with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

Asparaginase treatment is associated with several adverse effects, including allergy, thromboembolic events, acute pancreatitis, altered liver function, and hyperglycemia. In addition, asparaginase can cause abnormalities in lipid metabolism, predominantly hypercholesterolemia and -triglyceridemia. Herein, we report on the case of a 5-year-old male presenting with acute severe hypertriglyceridemia caused by accidental pegylated asparaginase push during treatment of relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Hypertriglyceridemia did not occur after appropriate administrations of pegylated asparaginase before and after accidental drug infusions, so we speculate that the rate of pegylated asparaginase administration may have an effect on the serum triglyceride level. PMID:22149271

Malbora, Baris; Avci, Zekai; Ozbek, Namik

2012-10-01

257

PAVAN: an atmospheric-dispersion program for evaluating design-basis accidental releases of radioactive materials from nuclear power stations  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a user's guide for the NRC computer program, PAVAN, which is a program used by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to estimate downwind ground-level air concentrations for potential accidental releases of radioactive material from nuclear facilities. Such an assessment is required by 10 CFR Part 100 and 10 CFR Part 50. The program implements the guidance provided in Regulatory Guide 1.145, Atmospheric Dispersion Models for Potential Accident Consequence Assessments at Nuclear Power Plants. Using joint frequency distributions of wind direction and wind speed by atmospheric stability, the program provides relative air concentration (X/Q) values as functions of direction for various time periods at the exclusion area boundary (EAB) and the outer boundary of the low population zone (LPZ). Calculations of X/Q values can be made for assumed ground-level releases (e.g., through building penetrations and vents) or elevated releases from free-standing stacks. Various options may be selected by the user. They can account for variation in the location of release points, additional plume dispersion due to building wakes, plume meander under low wind speed conditions, and adjustments to consider non-straight trajectories. It computes an effective plume height using the physical release height which can be reduced by inputted terrain features. It cannot handle multiple emission sources. A description of the main program and all subroutines is provided. Also included as appendices are a complete listing of the program and two test cases with the required data inputs and the resulting program outputs.

Bander, T.J.

1982-11-01

258

Quantum order by disorder and accidental soft mode in Er2Ti2O7.  

PubMed

Motivated by recent neutron scattering experiments, we derive and study an effective "pseudodipolar" spin-1/2 model for the XY pyrochlore antiferromagnet Er(2)Ti(2)O(7). While a bond-dependent in-plane exchange anisotropy removes any continuous symmetry, it does lead to a one-parameter 'accidental' classical degeneracy. This degeneracy is lifted by quantum fluctuations in favor of the noncoplanar spin structure observed experimentally-a rare experimental instance of quantum order by disorder. A non-Goldstone low-energy mode is present in the excitation spectrum in accordance with inelastic neutron scattering data. Our theory also resolves the puzzle of the experimentally observed continuous ordering transition, absent from previous models. PMID:23006400

Zhitomirsky, M E; Gvozdikova, M V; Holdsworth, P C W; Moessner, R

2012-08-17

259

Survival After Accidental Extrahepatic Distribution of Y90 Microspheres to the Mesentery During a Radioembolization Procedure  

SciTech Connect

We present the acute management and outcome of a patient after an accidental mesenteric distribution of Y90 microspheres during radioembolization (RE). This report describes and highlights: (1) the incidence of a significant reflux during a RE session while injecting into a replaced right hepatic artery from the superior mesenteric artery, (2) the appearance of diffuse mesenteric Y90 distribution in bremsstrahlung-imaging, (3) the management protocol with the radiation protection agent amifostine, (4) the development of typical adverse effects in the expected time window, and (5) survival of the patient without long-term sequelae. This report should sensitize physicians to this particular problem and may help to avoid as well as manage similar radioembolization incidences.

Sabet, Amir; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Schaefer, Nico [University Hospital, Department of Surgery (Germany); Wilhelm, Kai; Schueller, Heinrich [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Radiation Oncology (Germany); Ezziddin, Samer, E-mail: samer.ezziddin@ukb.uni-bonn.de [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Germany)

2012-08-15

260

Complications following an accidental sodium hypochlorite extrusion: A report of two cases  

PubMed Central

Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most commonly used solution in root canal treatments, as it is a low-cost method that displays a very effective antimicrobial activity against microbiota of infected root canals. However, this solution can cause complications especially due to its cytotoxic features. When this solution is injected into the adjacent tissues, the patient usually experiences intense pain, and an urgent treatment should be implemented in order to prevent a long-term sequelae. This paper describes the clinical features of two patients that experienced an accidental extrusion of NaOCl after endodontic treatment of varying severity and with different treatments. Furthermore, it shows the long-term neurologic injuries that this type of accidents may cause and a treatment protocol for these situations will be suggested. Key words:Nerve damage, root canal irrigation, root canal treatment, sodium hypochlorite.

Bosch-Aranda, Maria L.; Canalda-Sahli, Carlos; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

2012-01-01

261

Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984  

SciTech Connect

March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Adams, W.H.; Engle, J.R.; Harper, J.A.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

1986-01-01

262

When acetaminophen use becomes toxic. Treating acute accidental and intentional overdose.  

PubMed

Whether accidental or intentional, acetaminophen poisoning is not uncommon; in fact, it is the most common drug-induced cause of liver failure. When hepatic glutathione is depleted, the toxic metabolite NAPQI fails to be conjugated and causes hepatic injury. At risk are chronic alcoholics, binge drinkers, patients taking medications that induce the P-450 isoenzyme system, and those with concomitant liver disease. The four phases that make up the clinical course of acetaminophen poisoning distinguish signs, symptoms, and laboratory values according to severity. In diagnosing acetaminophen toxicity, adequate history taking and serial measurements of acetaminophen level are essential. Treatment is rooted in three goals: decreasing the absorption of acetaminophen using activated charcoal, replacing hepatic glutathione using acetylcysteine, and supportive care in the case of hepatic failure. The prognosis depends on the amount ingested and the time of presentation after ingestion. PMID:10223088

Salgia, A D; Kosnik, S D

1999-04-01

263

Relative public health effects from accidental release of fusion structural radioactivity  

SciTech Connect

The FUSECRAC code, a modification of the CRAC code, was developed to estimate public health effects from released fusion radioactivity both for safety studies and for comparison of the hazards associated with candidate structural materials. This paper summarizes the key motivations, problems, and results of the FUSECRAC comparison. The evolving CRAC code is a product of the Reactor Safety Study and represents the state-of-the-art in fission accident consequence assessments. It was found that potential public health effects from accidental releases of 316 SS are two orders of magnitude higher than from V-15Cr-5Ti or TZM per unit volume of activated first wall released. The probabilities for releases among these materials were not addressed here.

Piet, S.J.; Kazimi, M.S.; Lidsky, L.M.

1983-01-01

264

Relative public health effects from accidental release of fusion structural radioactivity  

SciTech Connect

The FUSECRAC code, a modification of the CRAC code, was developed to estimate public health effects from released fusion radioactivity both for safety studies and for comparison of the hazards associated with candidate structural materials. This paper summarizes the key motivations, problems, and results of the FUSECRAC comparison. The evolving CRAC code is a product of the Reactor Safety Study and represents the state of the art in fission accident consequence assessments. It was found that potential public health effects from accidental releases of 316 SS are two orders of magnitude higher than from V-15Cr-5Ti or TZM per unit volume of activated first wall released. The probabilities for releases among these materials were not addressed here.

Piet, S.J.; Kazimi, M.S.

1983-09-01

265

Accidental carbadox overdosage in pigs in an Irish weaner-producing herd.  

PubMed

A weaner ration containing carbadox at concentrations of 331 to 363 mg/kg was accidentally fed to suckling and weaned pigs in an 84 sow herd. Discarded ration was fed to 36 sows. One hundred and sixty five weaner pigs died in a 10 week period with clinical signs including refusal to eat, ill thrift, the passing of hard pelleted faeces, posterior paresis and death in seven to nine days. The surviving weaners did not thrive and some males showed poor testicular development. Sows and suckling pigs that consumed the ration also failed to thrive as did the progeny of affected sows. The main pathological finding was obliteration of the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex. Increased potassium and decreased sodium concentrations in serum were the most notable and consistent biochemical findings. PMID:2718336

Power, S B; Donnelly, W J; McLaughlin, J G; Walsh, M C; Dromey, M F

1989-04-01

266

Simulation of accidental UF/sub 6/ releases in support of the safety analysis effort  

SciTech Connect

The safety analysis of the US uranium enrichment facilities requires that postulated accidental releases of UF/sub 6/ be simulated. In order to predict the human health consequences of a postulated UF/sub 6/ release, two types of information are needed: (1) predicted toxicant concentrations and exposure durations at pertinent locations (calculated by a dispersion model), and (2) toxicity data which support the assessment of the human health consequences of a known exposure to a mixture of UF/sub 6/ and UF/sub 6/ hydrolysis products. This report describes the development of a Gaussian dispersion model for simulating UF/sub 6/ dispersion and the plans for developing a puff dispersion model.

Just, R.A.

1986-01-01

267

Parents Accidentally Substitute Similar Sounding Sibling Names More Often than Dissimilar Names  

PubMed Central

When parents select similar sounding names for their children, do they set themselves up for more speech errors in the future? Questionnaire data from 334 respondents suggest that they do. Respondents whose names shared initial or final sounds with a sibling’s reported that their parents accidentally called them by the sibling’s name more often than those without such name overlap. Having a sibling of the same gender, similar appearance, or similar age was also associated with more frequent name substitutions. Almost all other name substitutions by parents involved other family members and over 5% of respondents reported a parent substituting the name of a pet, which suggests a strong role for social and situational cues in retrieving personal names for direct address. To the extent that retrieval cues are shared with other people or animals, other names become available and may substitute for the intended name, particularly when names sound similar.

Griffin, Zenzi M.; Wangerman, Thomas

2013-01-01

268

Non-accidental injuries found in necropsies of domestic cats: a review of 191 cases.  

PubMed

Animal cruelty is defined as a deliberate action that causes pain and suffering to an animal. In Brazil, legislation known as the Environmental Crimes Law states that cruelty toward all animal species is criminal in nature. From 644 domestic cats necropsied between January 1998 and December 2009, 191 (29.66%) presented lesions highly suggestive of animal cruelty. The main necroscopic finding was exogenous carbamate poisoning (75.39%) followed by blunt-force trauma (21.99%). Cats from 7 months to 2 years of age were the most affected (50.79%). In Brazil, violence is a public health problem and there is a high prevalence of domestic violence. Therefore, even if laws provide for animal welfare and protection, animals are common targets for violent acts. Within a context of social violence, cruelty toward animals is an important parameter to be considered, and the non-accidental lesions that were found are evidence of malicious actions. PMID:22694958

de Siqueira, Adriana; Cassiano, Fabiana Cecília; de Albuquerque Landi, Marina Frota; Marlet, Elza Fernandes; Maiorka, Paulo César

2012-10-01

269

Peripheral zonal hepatic necrosis caused by accidental ingestion of methyl ethyl ketone peroxide.  

PubMed

Fatal massive peripheral zonal hepatic necrosis developed in a 47-year-old man who accidentally ingested a solution of methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) in dimethyl phthalate. Such solutions contain about 10% active oxygen. The clinical course was characterized by temporary cardiac arrest, abdominal burns, severe metabolic acidosis, rapid hepatic failure, rhabdomyolysis and respiratory insufficiency. A fatal outcome resulted 4 d afterwards from hepatic coma associated with blood coagulation disorders. Microscopical examination revealed massive periportal hepatic necrosis accompanied by atypical pseudoductular proliferation. The proliferating cells were probably of bile duct origin and exhibited atypia and mitoses. The pathogenetic mechanism may involve lipid peroxidation caused by free oxygen radicals derived from MEKP. PMID:2375889

Karhunen, P J; Ojanperä, I; Lalu, K; Vuori, E

1990-05-01

270

The effectiveness of a multidisciplinary QI activity for accidental fall prevention: Staff compliance is critical  

PubMed Central

Background Accidental falls among inpatients are a substantial cause of hospital injury. A number of successful experimental studies on fall prevention have shown the importance and efficacy of multifactorial intervention, though success rates vary. However, the importance of staff compliance with these effective, but often time-consuming, multifactorial interventions has not been fully investigated in a routine clinical setting. The purpose of this observational study was to describe the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary quality improvement (QI) activity for accidental fall prevention, with particular focus on staff compliance in a non-experimental clinical setting. Methods This observational study was conducted from July 2004 through December 2010 at St. Luke’s International Hospital in Tokyo, Japan. The QI activity for in-patient falls prevention consisted of: 1) the fall risk assessment tool, 2) an intervention protocol to prevent in-patient falls, 3) specific environmental safety interventions, 4) staff education, and 5) multidisciplinary healthcare staff compliance monitoring and feedback mechanisms. Results The overall fall rate was 2.13 falls per 1000 patient days (350/164331) in 2004 versus 1.53 falls per 1000 patient days (263/172325) in 2010, representing a significant decrease (p?=?0.039). In the first 6?months, compliance with use of the falling risk assessment tool at admission was 91.5% in 2007 (3998/4368), increasing to 97.6% in 2010 (10564/10828). The staff compliance rate of implementing an appropriate intervention plan was 85.9% in 2007, increasing to 95.3% in 2010. Conclusion In our study we observed a substantial decrease in patient fall rates and an increase of staff compliance with a newly implemented falls prevention program. A systematized QI approach that closely involves, encourages, and educates healthcare staff at multiple levels is effective.

2012-01-01

271

Acute health effects after accidental exposure to styrene from drinking water in Spain  

PubMed Central

Objectives We studied subjective health symptoms in a population accidentally exposed to high styrene concentrations in drinking tap water. The contamination occurred during the reparation of a water tank. Methods Residents of 27 apartments in two buildings using the contaminated water were contacted. A questionnaire on subjective symptoms was administered to 84 out of 93 persons living in the apartments at the time of the accident. Styrene concentration was measured in samples of water collected two days after the accident. The means of exposure associated with appearance of symptoms were examined through case-control analyses. Results Styrene in water reached concentrations up to 900 ?g/L. Symptoms were reported by 46 persons (attack rate 55 %). The most frequent symptoms were irritation of the throat (26%), nose (19%), eyes (18%) and the skin (14%). General gastrointestinal symptoms were observed with 11% reporting abdominal pain and 7% diarrhea. The factors most strongly associated with symptoms were drinking tap water (OR = 7.8, 95% CI 1.3–48), exposure to vapors from the basement (OR = 10.4, 2.3–47) and eating foods prepared with tap water (OR = 8.6, 1.9–40). All residents in the ground floor reported symptoms. Conclusions This accidental contamination led to very high styrene concentrations in water and was related to a high prevalence of subjective symptoms of the eyes, respiratory tract and skin. Similar exposures have been described in workers but not in subjects exposed at their residence. Various gastrointestinal symptoms were also observed in this population probably due to a local irritative effect.

Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; Bellido-Blasco, Juan; Villamarin-Vazquez, Jose-Luis; Aranda-Mares, Jose-Luis; Font-Cardona, Nuria; Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Kogevinas, Manolis

2003-01-01

272

Maximum permissible amounts of accidentally released tritium derived from an environmental experiment to meet dose limits for public exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that it is important in the design of future fusion reactors and associated facilities that incorporate passive safety to take account of the possible environmental impact of accidental tritium release. Reliable information on dose consequences can be obtained by evaluating urine samples from persons exposed to tritium. Translating the results of the environmental HT experiment performed in

M. Taeschner; C. Bunnenberg; W. Gulden

1991-01-01

273

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report for Kentucky: Equine Farm Manager Dies From Accidental Overdose of Xylazine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On October 6, 2003, a 49-year-old male equine farm manager accidentally died after injecting himself with an unknown quantity of Sedazine (xylazine), a sedative commonly used to sedate horses. After visiting a barn's storage area at approximately 8:45 am,...

2005-01-01

274

Accidental oil spill due to grounding: Summary of model test results. Summary report, Jan-Jun 92  

SciTech Connect

The International Maritime Organization (IMO) sponsored model tests to help in their evaluation of accidental oil spillage from a Mid-Deck Tanker (MDT) and from a Double Hull Tanker (DHT) Design. These tests were conducted at Tsukuba Institute, Japan, and at the Carderock Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center. The test results are explained herein and their significance is summarized.

Karafiath, G.

1992-06-01

275

Protection of the public and workers in the event of accidental releases of radioactive materials into the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NRPB has responsibility in the UK for specifying emergency reference levels (intervention levels) of dose to be applied in protecting the public in the event of accidental releases. As a result of the experience gained from the Chernobyl accident, and the evidence about radiation risks provided by the latest Hiroshima and Nagasaki studies, NRPB wishes to review its recommendations

M. D. Hill; A. D. Wrixon; G. A. M. Webb

1988-01-01

276

Focal myelomalacia and syrinx formation after accidental intramedullary lidocaine injection during lumbar anesthesia: A report of 3 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three cases of focal myelomalacia and syrinx formation occurring as complications of lumbar spinal anesthesia are reported. In all three instances complication occurred due to accidental injection of lidocaine into the substance of the spinal cord. The primary complaint in all the three cases was severe sharp and shooting pain in both lower limbs, being more severe in certain dermatomes.

Sunil Pradhan; Ramakant Yadav; Pradeep Kumar Maurya; Vijay Nath Mishra

2006-01-01

277

Analysis of the use of an accidental competency discourse as a reflective tool for professional placement students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situated learning in professional practice is increasingly recognized as a key component of engineering curricula. One challenge in this context is to establish a reflexive link between the students' learning at university and their experiences in practice. This paper proposes the accidental competency discourse as an alternative tool to support students' experiential learning through reflection on critical learning events. The

Joachim Walther; David Radcliffe; Llewellyn Mann

2007-01-01

278

The role of organizations in community participation--Prevention of accidental injuries in a rural Swedish municipality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidental injuries are a major public health problem in most of the industrialized world. It is no longer justifiable to accept accidents as unfortunate but unavoidable occurrences. Their prevention is important and appears increasingly possible. The health care sector is uniquely knowledgeable about health hazards and must be more involved in social planning. An intervention programme towards the prevention of

Lothar Schelp

1988-01-01

279

Design of a monitoring network over France in case of a radiological accidental release  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (France) is planning the set-up of an automatic nuclear aerosol monitoring network over the French territory. Each of the stations will be able to automatically sample the air aerosol content and provide activity concentration measurements on several radionuclides. This should help monitor the French and neighbouring countries nuclear power plants set. It would help evaluate the impact of a radiological incident occurring at one of these nuclear facilities. This paper is devoted to the spatial design of such a network. Here, any potential network is judged on its ability to extrapolate activity concentrations measured on the network stations over the whole domain. The performance of a network is quantitatively assessed through a cost function that measures the discrepancy between the extrapolation and the true concentration fields. These true fields are obtained through the computation of a database of dispersion accidents over one year of meteorology and originating from 20 French nuclear sites. A close to optimal network is then looked for using a simulated annealing optimisation. The results emphasise the importance of the cost function in the design of a network aimed at monitoring an accidental dispersion. Several choices of norm used in the cost function are studied and give way to different designs. The influence of the number of stations is discussed. A comparison with a purely geometric approach which does not involve simulations with a chemistry-transport model is performed.

Abida, Rachid; Bocquet, Marc; Vercauteren, Nikki; Isnard, Olivier

280

[Thermolabile drugs stability faced with an accidental interruption in the cold chain].  

PubMed

Objective: To develop an updated guide about the stability of thermolabiledrugs included in the Pharmacotherapeutic Guide that,according to product information sheet, should be stored underrefrigeration or freezing, when are accidentally exposed to temperaturesoutside the range recommended by the manufacturer.Methods: It was reviewed the information about storage temperaturesrecommended in the product information sheet andthe available stability data at different temperatures of thermolabiledrugs included in the Pharmacotherapeutic Guide of a400-bed hospital that, according to the manufacturer, shouldbe stored under refrigeration or freezing. Drugs of clinical trialswere excluded. Stability data were obtained from the productinformation sheet, the last two guides published in Spain aboutthermolabile drugs and through consultations to laboratories(via phone or e-mail).Results: It was created a table with the storage temperaturesrecommended in the product information sheet and currentlyavailable stability data at different temperatures of 209 presentationsof several drugs. Stability data were requested to laboratoriesin 172 cases.Conclusions: The stability guide is a tool that facilitates decisionsof pharmacists when they are faced with an accidentalinterruption of the cold chain, when it is necessary to knowwhether the drug can be used and it is not possible to contactthe laboratory. PMID:24951902

Ricote-Lobera, I; Ortiz-Martín, B; Fraile-Gil, S; Santos-Mena, B; Hidalgo-Correas, F J; García-Díaz, B

2014-01-01

281

Can we prevent accidental injury to adolescents? A systematic review of the evidence.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: As part of the Department of Health strategy The Health of the Nation, a systematic review of published and unpublished literature relating to the effectiveness of interventions in reducing accidental injury in the population aged 15-24 years was carried out. METHODS: The literature was reviewed under the standard setting headings of road, work, home, and sports and leisure, and graded for quality of evidence and strength of recommendation using a scale published in the UK national epidemiologically based needs assessment programme. RESULTS: The most effective measures appear to be legislative and regulatory controls in road, sport, and workplace settings. Environmental engineering measures on the road and in sports have relatively low implementation costs and result in fewer injuries at all ages. There is little evidence that purely educational measures reduced injuries in the short term. Community based approaches may be effective in all age groups, and incentives to encourage safer behaviour hold promise but require further evaluation. The potential of multifactorial approaches seems greater than narrowly based linear approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Few interventions to reduce injury in adolescents have been rigorously evaluated using good quality randomised controlled trials, and where such evidence is available, fewer have been shown to be definitely worthwhile. Many studies relied on surrogate measures rather than actual injury rates, and substantial issues relating to the efficacy or implementation of preventive measures in adolescent and young adult populations remain unresolved.

Munro, J.; Coleman, P.; Nicholl, J.; Harper, R.; Kent, G.; Wild, D.

1995-01-01

282

Capitalizing on deliberate, accidental, and GM-driven environmental change caused by crop modification.  

PubMed

The transgenic traits associated with the majority of commercial genetically modified crops are focused on improving herbicide and insecticide management practices. The use of the transgenic technology in these crops and the associated chemistry has been the basis of studies that provide evidence for occasional improvement in environmental benefits due to the use of less residual herbicides, more targeted pesticides, and reduced field traffic. This is nicely exemplified through studies using Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) assessments. Whilst EIQ evaluations may sometimes illustrate environmental benefits they have their limitations. EIQ evaluations are not a surrogate for Environmental Risk Assessments and may not reflect real environmental interactions between crops and the environment. Addressing the impact cultivated plants have on the environment generally attracts little public attention and research funding, but the introduction of GM has facilitated an expansion of research to address potential environmental concerns from government, NGOs, industry, consumers, and growers. In this commentary, some evidence from our own research and several key papers that highlight EIQ assessments of the impact crops are having on the environment are presented. This information may be useful as an education tool on the potential benefits of GM and conventional farming. In addition, other deliberate, accidental, and GM-driven benefits derived from the examination of GM cropping systems is briefly discussed. PMID:22090440

Knox, Oliver G G; Walker, Robin L; Booth, Elaine J; Hall, Clare; Crossan, Angus N; Gupta, Vadakattu V S R

2012-01-01

283

Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1980-December 1982  

SciTech Connect

This report updates, for 1980 through 1982, the results of continuing medical surveillance of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in March 1954. The originally exposed Marshallese population comprised 64 persons on Rongelap Atoll who each received, on the average, an estimated 190 rads of absorbed external gamma radiation, 18 on Ailingnae Atoll who received 110 rads, and 159 on Utirik who received 11 rads. There were, in addition, 3 persons in utero on Rongelap, 1 person in utero on Ailingnae, and 8 persons in utero on Utirik who are considered exposed. The recipients of primary medical care include exposed and comparison populations as well as a rather large number of additional beneficiaries who are seen on a humanitarian basis of practical need and resource availability. In recent years, about 1400 people have been seen annually. This report, however, deals with four clearly defined groups: the remaining individuals who were exposed to radioactive fallout on Rongelap, Ailingnae, and Utirik in 1954 (including those in utero), and a comparison population of individuals from Rongelap who were unexposed. The number of persons now in each exposure category are 51, 12, 116, and 137, respectively. 100 references, 4 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Rittmaster, R.S.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

1984-01-01

284

An accidental death due to Freon 22 (monochlorodifluoromethane) inhalation in a fishing vessel.  

PubMed

A case of accidental Freon 22 (monochlorodifluoromethane) poisoning in a fishing vessel is reported. Forensic autopsy revealed severe pulmonary edema and congestion (left lung; 576 g, right lung; 740 g). GC-MS analysis clearly showed that the deceased inhaled Freon 22 gas prior to his death. Freon 22 concentration was 169+/-7.0 microg/ml in the heart blood. The distribution pattern of Freon 22 in tissue samples was similar to that in previously reported cases. The brain had the highest concentration of Freon 22 followed by the spleen, liver, kidney and lung, respectively. Histopathologically, Oil red O staining of the liver showed many small, positive red areas in the cytosol, which have been reported in other cases of Freon 22 poisoning. However, Schmorl staining revealed that most areas of Oil red O positivity were lipofuscin granules. Lipofuscin in the liver, which closely relates to aging and other cell stresses, could have a relevance to Freon 22 exposure, but further experimental studies are needed to confirm it. PMID:16490332

Koreeda, Ako; Yonemitsu, Kosei; Mimasaka, Sohtarou; Ohtsu, Yuki; Tsunenari, Shigeyuki

2007-05-24

285

Failure Criteria for Evaluating Accidental Drops of Fuel Containers at INTEC  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a failure criterion that has been developed for use in evaluating fuel containers at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for accidental drop events. The criterion would typically be used in dynamic finite element analyses using the ABA-QUS/Explicit program. The failure criterion used in the past is generally considered to substantially underestimate the strength and ductility of the materials involved. The new criterion is intended to be more realistic, allowing for more accurate impact analyses. The criterion is based on the distortion energy theory, which is considered to be appropriate for the ductile materials typically used in fuel containers. Also addressed in development of the criterion were the effects of strain rate and hydrostatic stress. The importance of these factors, however, is highly dependent on the material used. Three materials specifically addressed in this study were stainless steel, aluminum, and lead. The criterion is presented in the form of guidelines and recommendations that are based on material data obtained from the literature. The most significant difference between these and the previous criterion is that ductile materials are allowed to strain to much higher levels before they are considered to fail.

Miller, G. K.

1998-10-01

286

Modeling acute health risks associated with accidental releases of toxic gases  

SciTech Connect

CHEM{_}MACCS has been developed from the radiological accident consequence code, MACCS, to perform probabilistic calculations of potential off-site consequences of the accidental atmospheric release of hazardous chemicals. The principal phenomena considered in CHEM{_}MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways, and early and latent health effects. CHEM{_}MACCS provides the following capabilities: (1) statistical weather sampling data (8,760 hourly data points per year), (2) population dose and health effect risk calculations based on site-specific population data, (3) health effects calculations including the consideration of potential site specific mitigative actions (evacuation and shielding), and (4) modeling of multiple release segments. Three different sample problems are contained in this report to show how to use CHEM{_}MACCS. Three test problems are run to compare CHEM{_}MACCS and D2PC. The doses versus the downwind centerline distances from the source for the given doses are in very close agreement.

Haskin, F.E.; Ding, C.; Summa, K.J. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering] [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Young, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Accident Analysis and Consequence Assessment Dept.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Accident Analysis and Consequence Assessment Dept.

1996-09-01

287

Review of accidental safety studies for the European HCPB test blanket system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a review of safety studies for accidental sequences in the European solid breeder test blanket module (TBM) system. These studies are the starting point for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report of ITER, under preparation to get the construction permit first and then later the operation licence. In general the reduced inventory of activation products and tritium associated with the TBM system makes the impact of this test system almost negligible on the overall safety risk of ITER. Nevertheless, the possibility of jeopardizing the ITER safety concept has been analysed in connection to the consequences of specific accident sequences, e.g. the pressurization of the vacuum vessel due to the He coolant blow-down, the hydrogen production from the Be-steam reaction, the possible interconnection between the port cell and the vacuum vessel causing air ingress and the necessity to assure heat removal in the short and long periods. In the frame of this assessment, three LOCA sequences have been selected as representative of accidents judged to cover all scenarios envisaged in Cat II to IV events involving the TBM, namely, in-vessel LOCA, ex-vessel LOCA and in-box LOCA.

Boccaccini, L. V.; Ciattaglia, S.; Meyder, R.; Jin, X.

2007-07-01

288

Geothermal power production: accidental fluid releases, waste disposal, and water use  

SciTech Connect

Environmental problems related to the use and disposal of fluids can accompany the operation of geothermal power plants using hot water resources (temperature > 150/sup 0/C). More than 100 kg of fluids must be extracted, processed, and disposed for each kW.h of electricity generated from a facility relying on a geothermal reservoir with fluids of 150/sup 0/C. The low thermal efficiencies of geothermal power plants result in large requirements for cooling water - over 7.4 x 10/sup 4/ m/sup 3//MW.y compared with 1.7 x 10/sup 4/ m/sup 3//MW.y for coal-fired plants. Geothermal fluids can contain as much as 250,000 mg/1 total dissolved solids. Toxic substances like boron and NH/sub 3/ are often present in fluids. This paper focuses on impacts associated with accidental releases of geothermal fluids as well as the disposal of liquid and solid wastes. The consequences of consuming alternative sources of cooling water are also addressed. Inadvertent discharges of fluids are of concern because they could contaminate soils and surface waters, adversely affecting crops and aquatic organisms. The pretreatment of fluids before subsurface injection could lead to solid waste problems - especially when toxic substances are produced. The consumption of alternative cooling waters can pose problems involving the disposal of blowdown from cooling towers. In addition, the toxicity of drift emitted from cooling towers depends on the kind of cooling water used.

Layton, D.W.; Morris, W.F.

1980-06-01

289

Methodology for evaluation of possible consequences of accidental atmospheric releases of hazardous matter.  

PubMed

Sites exist with high levels of risk of accidental atmospheric releases. These releases can be hazardous nuclear, chemical, and biological matter. Such accidents may occur during transport of waste, or they may be due to natural hazards, human errors, terror acts or various operations at high risk. Considering the operation of lifting and transport of the sunken Kursk nuclear submarine as an example, a methodology for risk assessment is described. This methodology includes two approaches: (1) probabilistic analysis of possible atmospheric transport pathways using trajectory modelling, and (2) evaluation of possible contamination and consequences using real-time operational atmospheric dispersion modelling. The first approach can be applied in advance of an operation during the preparation stage, the second in real time during the operation stage. For the cases considered in this study, the results of trajectory modelling are supported by the operational dispersion modelling, i.e., the westerly flow is dominant during fall occurring 79% of the time. Hence, September-October 2001 was more appropriate for the lifting and transport of the Kursk nuclear submarine in comparison with summer months, when atmospheric transport toward the populated regions of the Kola and Scandinavian Peninsulas was dominant. The suggested methodology may be applied to any potentially dangerous object involving a risk of atmospheric release of hazardous material of nuclear, chemical or biological nature. PMID:12593432

Mahura, A; Baklanov, A; Sørensen, J Havskov

2003-01-01

290

Response of Microorganisms to an Accidental Gasoline Spillage in an Arctic Freshwater Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

The response of microorganisms to an accidental spillage of 55,000 gallons of leaded gasoline into an Arctic freshwater lake was studied. Shifts in microbial populations were detected after the spillage, reflecting the migration pattern of the gasoline, enrichment for hydrocarbon utilizers, and selection for leaded-gasoline-tolerant microorganisms. Ratios of gasoline-tolerant/utilizing heterotrophs to “total” heterotrophs were found to be a sensitive indicator of the degree of hydrocarbon contamination. Respiration rates were elevated in the highly contaminated area, but did not reflect differences between moderately and lightly contaminated areas. Hydrocarbon biodegradation potential experiments showed that indigenous microorganisms could extensively convert hydrocarbons to CO2. In situ measurement of gasoline degradation showed that, if untreated, sediment samples retained significant amounts of gasoline hydrocarbons including “volatile components” at the time the lake froze for the winter. Nutrient addition and bacterial inoculation resulted in enhanced biodegradative losses, significantly reducing the amount of residual hydrocarbons. Enhanced biodegradation, however, resulted in the appearance of compounds not detected in the gasoline. Since the contaminated lake serves as a drinking water supply, treatment to enhance microbial removal of much of the remaining gasoline still may be advisable.

Horowitz, A.; Atlas, R. M.

1977-01-01

291

Neuropathological changes in a lamb model of non-accidental head injury (the shaken baby syndrome).  

PubMed

Non-accidental head injury (NAHI), also termed the "shaken baby syndrome", is a major cause of death and severe neurological dysfunction in children under three years of age, but it is debated whether shaking alone is sufficient to produce brain injury and mortality or whether an additional head impact is required. In an attempt to resolve this question, we used a lamb model of NAHI since these animals have a relatively large gyrencephalic brain and weak neck muscles resembling those of a human infant. Three anaesthetised lambs of lower body weight than others in the experimental group died unexpectedly after being shaken, proving that shaking alone can be lethal. In these lambs, axonal injury, neuronal reaction and albumin extravasation were widely distributed in the hemispheric white matter, brainstem and at the craniocervical junction, and of much greater magnitude than in higher body weight lambs which did not die. Moreover, in the eyes of these shaken lambs, there was damage to retinal inner nuclear layer neurons, mild, patchy ganglion cell axonal injury, widespread Muller glial reaction, and uveal albumin extravasation. This study proved that shaking of a subset of lambs can result in death, without an additional head impact being required. PMID:22705132

Finnie, J W; Blumbergs, P C; Manavis, J; Turner, R J; Helps, S; Vink, R; Byard, R W; Chidlow, G; Sandoz, B; Dutschke, J; Anderson, R W G

2012-08-01

292

Expression, subunit composition, and function of AMPA-type glutamate receptors are changed in activated microglia; possible contribution of GluA2 (GluR-B)-deficiency under pathological conditions.  

PubMed

Microglia express AMPA (?-amino-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionate)-type of glutamate (Glu) receptors (AMPAR), which are highly Ca(2+) impermeable due to the expression of GluA2. However, the functional importance of AMPAR in microglia remains to be investigated, especially under pathological conditions. As low expression of GluA2 was reported in some neurodegenerative diseases, GluA2(-/-) mice were used to show the functional change of microglial AMPARs in response to Glu or kainate (KA). Here we found that Glu-induced currents in the presence of 100 ?M cyclothiazide, an inhibitor of AMPAR desensitization, showed time-dependent decrease after activation of microglia with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in GluA2(+/+) microglia, but not in GluA2(-/-) microglia. Upon activation of microglia, expression level of GluA2 subunits significantly increased, while expression of GluA1, A3 and A4 subunits on membrane surface significantly decreased. These results suggest that nearly homomeric GluA2 subunits were the main reason for low conductance of AMPAR in activated microglia. Increased expression of GluA2 in microglia was also detected partially in brain slices from LPS-injected mice. Cultured microglia from GluA2(-/-) mice showed higher Ca(2+) -permeability, consequently inducing significant increase in the release of proinflammatory cytokine, such as TNF-?. The conditioning medium from KA-treated GluA2(-/-) microglia had more neurotoxic effect on wild type cultured neurons than that from KA-treated GluA2(+/+) microglia. These results suggest that membrane translocation of GluA2-containing AMPARs in activated microglia has functional importance and thus, dysfunction or decreased expression of GluA2 may accelerate Glu neurotoxicity via excess release of proinflammatory cytokines from microglia. PMID:23468421

Beppu, Kaoru; Kosai, Yuki; Kido, Mizuho A; Akimoto, Nozomi; Mori, Yuki; Kojima, Yuichiro; Fujita, Kyota; Okuno, Yuko; Yamakawa, Yukiko; Ifuku, Masataka; Shinagawa, Rika; Nabekura, Junichi; Sprengel, Rolf; Noda, Mami

2013-06-01

293

Neuroimaging evaluation of non-accidental head trauma with correlation to clinical outcomes: A review of 57 cases  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the clinical presentation and CT and MRI findings in patients with high clinical suspicion of non-accidental trauma (NAT); to examine associations between imaging findings and neurological long-term outcome in abused children. Patients and Methods A retrospective review of 57 cases of non-accidental trauma (NAT) from a single institution was performed. Neuroimaging studies (CT and MRI) were reviewed by a senior neuroradiologist, a neuroradiology fellow and a radiology resident. Clinical history and physical findings including retinal examination, imaging and follow-up assessment documents were reviewed. Results Mean time between arrival that CT and MRI imaging was 2.9 hours and 40.6 hours respectively. The most common clinical presentation (47%) was mental status changes. The most common neuroimaging finding was subdural hemorrhage, seen in 86% of patients. In 47 cases in which both MRI and CT was performed, there was one case of suspected non-accidental trauma missed on head CT. CT detected signs of global ischemia in all 11 of the patients that died (CT mean time performed after arrival = 1.1 hours). MRI detected additional signs of injury in patients who ended up with mild to moderate developmental delay. Conclusion CT was able to detect evidence of non-accidental head injury in 56 out of 57 abused children included in our cohort and predicted severe neurological injury and mortality. MRI was useful in detecting additional evidence of trauma which can be helpful in risk stratification for neurological outcomes as well as providing confirming evidence of repeated injury.

Foerster, Bradley R.; Petrou, Myria; Lin, Doris; Thurnher, Majda M.; Carlson, Martha D; Strouse, Peter J.; Sundgren, Pia C.

2009-01-01

294

Late accidental dislodgement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube: an underestimated burden on patients and the health care system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Since its introduction in 1980, the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube has become an efficient means of providing\\u000a long-term enteral access. Conveniently, the soft inner bumper allows PEG removal with relatively minimal external traction.\\u000a Consequently, a major complication is accidental dislodgement, from which significant morbidity may occur. Clinicians have\\u000a perhaps underestimated and underappreciated this complication, not only in the acute

Laura H. Rosenberger; Timothy Newhook; Bruce Schirmer; Robert G. Sawyer

295

Evacuation of the Population as a Means of Mitigating the Radiological Effects Following an Accidental Atmospheric Release of Radioactivity from a Nuclear Power Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Evacuation of the population in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant following an accidental release of radioactivity into the atmosphere, is one of the protective means which might reduce the radiation doses and radiological effects caused to the popula...

E. Gants

1985-01-01

296

Accidental intakes of remedies from complementary and alternative medicine in children—analysis of data from the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in Switzerland is rather high, and therefore, the occurrence of accidental\\u000a intakes of CAM remedies by children and associated intoxications is to be expected. In the present study, the inquiries to\\u000a the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre that took place from 1998 until 2007 and concerned accidental, unintended intakes\\u000a of CAM remedies by

Tycho Jan Zuzak; Christine Rauber-Lüthy; Ana Paula Simões-Wüst

2010-01-01

297

El modelo DRAG–España (IDE 1): Análisis de los principales factores de influencia en el número de accidentes en las carreteras Españolas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen  En este trabajo se presentan los principales resultados obtenidos de los modelos de accidentes con heridos y accidentes mortales\\u000a ocurridos en carreteras interurbanas españolas, en el período 1990–2004, desarrollados en base a la metodología de modelos\\u000a econométricos DRAG (Demand Demande Routière, Accidents et Gravité). Las 19 variables utilizadas para el ajuste de los modelos\\u000a DRAG–España (I-DE 1), son de distinta

F. Aparicio; B. Arenas; E. Bernardos; A. Gómez

2009-01-01

298

Selective binding of nuclear alpha-synuclein to the PGC1alpha promoter under conditions of oxidative stress may contribute to losses in mitochondrial function: implications for Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Alpha-synuclein has been reported to be present in the nucleus and levels enhanced by oxidative stress. Herein, we sought to investigate the mechanistic role of nuclear alpha-synuclein. We found that alpha-synuclein nuclear localization coincided with enhanced chromatin binding both in an in vitro and a corresponding in vivo brain oxidative stress model previously characterized by our laboratory as well as in PD brain tissues. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-on-chip analysis of alpha-synuclein:promoter binding in response to oxidative stress in vitro revealed that binding occurs at several promoters belonging to a range of functional categories including transcriptional regulation. Interestingly, given the important role of mitochondrial dysfunction in PD, this included binding to the promoter for the master mitochondrial transcription activator, PGC1alpha in vitro, in vivo, and in human brain tissue with age and PD. To test the possible mechanistic impact of alpha-synuclein PGC1alpha promotor binding, we assessed PGC1alpha promoter activity, mRNA, and protein levels and expression of candidate PGC1alpha-target genes in our in vitro model. All were found to be reduced in conjunction with increased levels of aberrant mitochondrial morphology and impaired mitochondrial function. Exogenous PGC1alpha expression was found to attenuate alpha-synuclein-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent neurotoxicity in vitro. Our data suggests that nuclear alpha-synuclein localization under conditions of oxidative stress may impact on mitochondrial function in part via the protein’s capacity to act as a transcriptional modulator of PGC1alpha. This represents a novel role for alpha-synuclein as it relates to mitochondrial dysfunction in PD.

Siddiqui, Almas; Chinta, Shankar J.; Mallajosyula, Jyothi K.; Rajagopolan, Subramanian; Hanson, Ingrid; Rane, Anand; Andersen, Julie K.

2012-01-01

299

Selective binding of nuclear alpha-synuclein to the PGC1alpha promoter under conditions of oxidative stress may contribute to losses in mitochondrial function: implications for Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Alpha-synuclein has been reported to be present in the nucleus and levels enhanced by oxidative stress. Herein, we sought to investigate the mechanistic role of nuclear alpha-synuclein. We found that alpha-synuclein nuclear localization coincided with enhanced chromatin binding both in an in vitro and a corresponding in vivo brain oxidative stress model previously characterized by our laboratory as well as in PD brain tissues. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-on-chip analysis of alpha-synuclein:promoter binding in response to oxidative stress in vitro revealed that binding occurs at several promoters belonging to a range of functional categories including transcriptional regulation. Interestingly, given the important role of mitochondrial dysfunction in PD, this included binding to the promoter for the master mitochondrial transcription activator, PGC1alpha in vitro, in vivo, and in human brain tissue with age and PD. To test the possible mechanistic impact of alpha-synuclein PGC1alpha promotor binding, we assessed PGC1alpha promoter activity, mRNA, and protein levels and expression of candidate PGC1alpha target genes in our in vitro model. All were found to be reduced in conjunction with increased levels of aberrant mitochondrial morphology and impaired mitochondrial function. Exogenous PGC1alpha expression was found to attenuate alpha-synuclein-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent neurotoxicity in vitro. Our data suggest that nuclear alpha-synuclein localization under conditions of oxidative stress may impact on mitochondrial function in part via the protein's capacity to act as a transcriptional modulator of PGC1alpha. This represents a novel role for alpha-synuclein as it relates to mitochondrial dysfunction in PD. PMID:22705949

Siddiqui, Almas; Chinta, Shankar J; Mallajosyula, Jyothi K; Rajagopolan, Subramanian; Hanson, Ingrid; Rane, Anand; Melov, Simon; Andersen, Julie K

2012-08-15

300

Counteracting the accidental pollutant propagation in a section of the River Some? by automatic control.  

PubMed

Real-time response to accidental pollution in rivers is a challenging mission that requires efficient on-line monitoring and rapid mitigating systems and calls for automatic control for diminishing or eliminating the pollutant effect. Remediation measures are addressed for cases in which the pollutant concentration can be measured and a neutralising agent can be identified and added to react with the pollutant and transform it by a chemical reaction into less harmful or non-harmful products. Pollution in a section of the River Some? is presented as a case study. Based on the advection-dispersion-reaction processes, a 2D dynamic simulator is developed to investigate and provide accurate predictions of the pollutant distribution. The complex river section geometry, the single and multiple points or spatially distributed sources, and a constant or time-varying release of the pollutant may be handled by the simulator. Furthermore, two control systems are designed and tested. One system involves implementing a feedback control approach, while the other involves applying a feedforward-feedback control structure. System identification of the disturbance and the manipulated variable paths is carried out, and a suitable allocation of the measuring points for both the disturbance and the controlled variable is addressed and demonstrated. The control structures prove to help the proposed polluting counteracting measures by bringing the concentration of the pollutant down to the safe setpoint value. The predictive action of the feedforward-feedback control structure reveals complementary benefits, as the pollutant concentration is promptly forced and maintained below the maximum allowed limit all the time and all over the river region of interest. PMID:23867840

Cristea, Vasile-Mircea

2013-10-15

301

Atmospheric dispersion of ammonia accidentally released from the 242-A Evaporator, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

Two errors have been identified in the authorization basis for the 242-A Evaporator at the Hanford Site. These errors, which appear in the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Final Safety Analysis Report analysis of ammonia gas concentrations accidentally released from the 242-A Evaporator, are: (1) the vessel ventilation system flow rate used in the previous calculations is a factor of ten higher than the actual flow rate, and (2) the previous calculations did not account for the ammonia source term reduction that would occur via condensation of ammonia vapors, which will remove a large fraction of the ammonia from the exhaust gas stream. The purpose of this document is to correct these errors and recalculate the maximum ground-level concentrations of ammonia released to the environment as a result of potential errors in blending Evaporator feed. The errors offset each other somewhat, so it is unlikely that the 242-A Evaporator has operated outside its current authorization basis. However, the errors must be corrected and the results incorporated into a revision of the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Safety Analysis Report, WHC-SD-WM-SAR-023. An EPA-approved atmospheric dispersion model, SCREEN3, was used to recalculate the maximum ground-level concentrations of ammonia that would be released from the 242-A Evaporator as a result of a feed-blending error. The results of the re-analysis of the 242-A Evaporator`s ammonia release scenario are as follows. The onsite receptor 100 m away from the release point (242-A vessel vent stack) is projected to be exposed to a maximum ground-level concentration of ammonia of 8.3 ppm. The maximally-exposed offsite receptor, located at the nearest Hanford Site boundary 16 km away from the 242-A vessel vent stack, will be exposed to a maximum ground-level concentration of 0.11 ppm ammonia.

Daling, P.M.; Lavender, J.C.

1997-11-01

302

Impact of delirium and suture-less securement on accidental vascular catheter removal in the ICU.  

PubMed

The objectives were to describe the incidence of accidental vascular catheter removal (AVCR) in an Australian Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and evaluate whether the fixation method or patient delirium increased the risk of AVCR. This prospective observational study was based in a tertiary level ICU between April 2011 and October 2012. All vascular catheters were secured either by sutures or by a suture-less securement device (STATLOCK(™), Bard Medical, Covington, GA, USA) as per the treating clinician. Data were obtained from bedside nursing staff, with daily screening for delirium completed by the ICU medical team using the Confusion Assessment Method-ICU. 2361 patients were admitted during this period with 1032 patients screened and data available for 322 patients (452 vascular catheters). AVCR occurred in 15 patients (16 vascular catheters) (5.0%) with an incidence of AVCR of 2.77 per 100 catheter-days. Delirious patients were 13-fold more likely to have an AVCR event (odds ratio=13.3; 95% confidence interval 4.36, 40.52; P <0.0001). There was a non-significant trend to an increase in AVCR when using the suture-less securement device (odds ratio=2.6; 95% confidence interval 0.87, 7.8; P=0.09) but delirious patients were no more likely to have an AVCR episode when a suture-less securement device was used (P=0.95). In this study the use of suture-less securement did not seem to increase the risk of AVCR. However, there was a non-significant trend towards increased AVCR when using suture-less securement devices, which may reflect a ß error. PMID:24967762

Sundararajan, K; Wills, S; Chacko, B; Kanabar, G; O'Connor, S; Deane, Am

2014-07-01

303

Appendix: Additional Contributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of contributions to the Symposium was so high that only the review and invited talks have found place, in the form of articles, in this volume. This Appendix lists all these additional contributions (oral and posters) which are not present as articles. The abstracts of all contributions were published in a booklet produced by the Local Organizing Committee and are available at the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS). More information on these contributions (PowerPoint presentations and/or articles) have been made public in the Internet web site of the conference (http://cab.inta-csic.es/molecular_universe/).

2011-12-01

304

Instantaneous death due to transorbital reverse penetration of a screw in an accidental fall: unusual autopsy case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

We present a peculiar autopsy case of a transorbital penetrating head injury, in a male worker, after an accidental fall onto a screw not completely stuck into a wooden board. A 13-cm screw entered the cranium 9.5 cm deep, penetrating with the flat end, a condition defined in literature as "reverse penetration." The death was instantaneous and caused by a neurogenic shock due to injuries to the brain stem and the right cerebellar hemisphere. These injuries, enabled by the length of the screw, are generally described in literature as due to nontransorbital penetrations, frequently associated with posterior entry and a large intracranial injury. The ocular globe has been, furthermore, perfectly preserved thanks to its mobility in the orbit. Even the dynamic of the incident is peculiar because of the stationary nature of the penetrating object, which the victim actively fell on by accident. To the best of our knowledge, the matter is therefore a very peculiar mortal case of transorbital intracranial penetration, whose verified injuries and dynamics are absolutely atypical. The case is now under discussion, and a review of pertinent literature is performed. PMID:24457588

Gioia, Sara; Bacci, Mauro; Lancia, Massimo; Carlini, Luigi; Suadoni, Fabio

2014-03-01

305

Long-term environmental fate of perfluorinated compounds after accidental release at Toronto airport.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS; a perfluorinated compound or PFC), its salts, and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride have recently been listed in Annex B of the Stockholm Convention due to their widespread presence, persistence, and toxicity. Because of the persistent nature of PFCs, it is generally presumed that the impact of direct discharges of these chemicals on a receiving environment would be long-lasting. However, long-term environmental fate studies based on field measurements are rare. We examined spatial and long-term (9 year) temporal trends of PFCs in water, sediment, fish, and fish liver collected in 2003, 2006, and 2009 from 10 locations spanning ?20 km in Etobicoke and Spring Creeks, where an accidental release of fire fighting foam containing PFOS from nearby Toronto International Airport occurred in 2000. Even a decade after the spill, sediment PFOS concentrations are still elevated in Spring Creek Pond which received the foam discharge; however, the major impact is relatively localized likely due to the stormwater management nature of the pond and the diluting effect of Etobicoke Creek. Fish and fish liver PFOS concentrations at a Spring Creek location downstream of Spring Creek Pond declined by about 70 and 85%, respectively, between 2003 and 2009. PFOS in water at locations further downstream in Etobicoke Creek have declined by >99.99% since the spill; however, the 2009 water and fish levels were ?2-10 times higher than upstream locations likely due to the long-term impact of the spill as well as urbanization. The decrease in the upstream PFOS concentrations likely reflects the reduction of PFOS sources due to phased out production by 3M and regulations on the use of PFOS in fire fighting foams. Field-based sediment/water distribution coefficients (K(D)) and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) were calculated from environmental measurements. Log K(D) values were 0.54-1.65 for perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs) and 1.00-1.85 for perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs). Log BAF(fish) ranged from 1.85 to 3.24 for PFASs and 0.88-3.47 for PFCAs, whereas log BAF(fish liver) ranged from 2.1-4.3 for PFASs and 1.0-5.0 for PFCAs. PMID:21774496

Awad, Emily; Zhang, Xianming; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Petro, Steve; Crozier, Patrick W; Reiner, Eric J; Fletcher, Rachael; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Braekevelt, Eric

2011-10-01

306

The quest for an intermediate-scale accidental axion and further ALPs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent detection of the cosmic microwave background polarimeter experiment BICEP2 of tensor fluctuations in the B-mode power spectrum basically excludes all plausible axion models where its decay constant is above 1013 GeV. Moreover, there are strong theoretical, astrophysical, and cosmological motivations for models involving, in addition to the axion, also axion-like particles (ALPs), with decay constants in the intermediate scale range, between 109 GeV and 1013 GeV. Here, we present a general analysis of models with an axion and further ALPs and derive bounds on the relative size of the axion and ALP photon (and electron) coupling. We discuss what we can learn from measurements of the axion and ALP photon couplings about the fundamental parameters of the underlying ultraviolet completion of the theory. For the latter we consider extensions of the Standard Model in which the axion and the ALP(s) appear as pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons from the breaking of global chiral U(1) (Peccei-Quinn (PQ)) symmetries, occurring accidentally as low energy remnants from exact discrete symmetries. In such models, the axion and the further ALP are protected from disastrous explicit symmetry breaking effects due to Planck-scale suppressed operators. The scenarios considered exploit heavy right handed neutrinos getting their mass via PQ symmetry breaking and thus explain the small mass of the active neutrinos via a seesaw relation between the electroweak and an intermediate PQ symmetry breaking scale. For a number of explicit models, we determine the parameters of the low-energy effective field theory describing the axion, the ALPs, and their interactions with photons and electrons, in terms of the input parameters, in particular the PQ symmetry breaking scales. We show that these models can accommodate simultaneously an axion dark matter candidate, an ALP explaining the anomalous transparency of the universe for ?-rays, and an ALP explaining the recently reported 3.55 keV gamma line from galaxies and clusters of galaxies, if the respective decay constants are of intermediate scale. Moreover, they do not suffer severely from the domain wall problem.

Dias, A. G.; Machado, A. C. B.; Nishi, C. C.; Ringwald, A.; Vaudrevange, P.

2014-06-01

307

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades. Sirma Stenzel, Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. For hazard prediction and simulation of the hazard zones a number of air dispersion models are available. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for display the results, they are easy to use and can operate fast and effective during stress situations. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. There are also possibilities for model direct coupling to automatic meteorological stations, in order to avoid uncertainties in the model output due to insufficient or incorrect meteorological data. Another key problem in coping with accidental toxic release is the relative width spectrum of regulations and values, like IDLH, ERPG, AEGL, MAK etc. and the different criteria for their application. Since the particulate emergency responders and organizations require for their purposes unequal regulations and values, it is quite difficult to predict the individual hazard areas. There are a quite number of research studies and investigations coping with the problem, anyway the end decision is up to the authorities. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). One of the main tasks of this project was 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation introduces the project models used and presents the results of task 2. The results of task 1 are presented by Baumann-Stanzer and Stenzel in this session. For the purpose of this study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAFER System, SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer), COMPAS. A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed in order to reliably predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. The models simulated the accidental release from the mentioned above gases and estimates the potential toxic areas. Since the inputs requirement differ from model to model, and the outputs are based on different criteria for toxic areas and exposure, a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is needed.

Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

2009-04-01

308

Adverse reactions to accidental forearm injection of Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine in schoolchildren: 12-month cohort follow-up.  

PubMed

This study examined the natural history of reaction after accidental intradermal administration of bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine instead of purified protein derivative (PPD) in 226 schoolchildren. At 18 days after vaccination, a local reaction with a diameter of 4.5-14 mm was found in 62% of the students, and ulceration with discharge was found in 26.6%; corresponding rates at 120 days were 72.3% and 38% and at 281 days were 73% and 6%. At 345 days, 85% of the students had a dry scar measuring 5-14 mm in diameter, and none had ulceration or discharge. PMID:15156491

Gross, Samuel; Kahan, Ernesto; Vesterman, Liora; Havkin, Ofra; Leventhal, Alex

2004-05-15

309

A screening tool to prioritize public health risk associated with accidental or deliberate release of chemicals into the atmosphere  

PubMed Central

The Chemical Events Working Group of the Global Health Security Initiative has developed a flexible screening tool for chemicals that present a risk when accidentally or deliberately released into the atmosphere. The tool is generic, semi-quantitative, independent of site, situation and scenario, encompasses all chemical hazards (toxicity, flammability and reactivity), and can be easily and quickly implemented by non-subject matter experts using freely available, authoritative information. Public health practitioners and planners can use the screening tool to assist them in directing their activities in each of the five stages of the disaster management cycle.

2013-01-01

310

Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

Conard, R.A.

1991-01-01

311

Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

Conard, R.A.

1991-12-31

312

Contributions of groundwater conditions to soil and water salinization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinization is the process whereby the concentration of dissolved salts in water and soil is increased due to natural or human-induced processes. Water is lost through one or any combination of four main mechanisms: evaporation, evapotranspiration, hydrolysis, and leakage between aquifers. Salinity increases from catchment divides to the valley floors and in the direction of groundwater flow. Salinization is explained by two main chemical models developed by the authors: weathering and deposition. These models are in agreement with the weathering and depositional geological processes that have formed soils and overburden in the catchments. Five soil-change processes in arid and semi-arid climates are associated with waterlogging and water. In all represented cases, groundwater is the main geological agent for transmitting, accumulating, and discharging salt. At a small catchment scale in South and Western Australia, water is lost through evapotranspiration and hydrolysis. Saline groundwater flows along the beds of the streams and is accumulated in paleochannels, which act as a salt repository, and finally discharges in lakes, where most of the saline groundwater is concentrated. In the hummocky terrains of the Northern Great Plains Region, Canada and USA, the localized recharge and discharge scenarios cause salinization to occur mainly in depressions, in conjunction with the formation of saline soils and seepages. On a regional scale within closed basins, this process can create playas or saline lakes. In the continental aquifers of the rift basins of Sudan, salinity increases along the groundwater flow path and forms a saline zone at the distal end. The saline zone in each rift forms a closed ridge, which coincides with the closed trough of the groundwater-level map. The saline body or bodies were formed by evaporation coupled with alkaline-earth carbonate precipitation and dissolution of capillary salts. Résumé La salinisation est le processus par lequel la concentration des sels dissous dans l'eau et les sols s'accroît sous l'effet de processus naturels ou anthropiques. L'eau est perdue par l'une ou l'autre combinaison de quatre principaux mécanismes : l'évaporation, l'évapotranspiration, l'hydrolyse et la drainance entre aquifères. La salinité augmente depuis les limites des bassins jusqu'au fond des vallées et le long des axes d'écoulement souterrain. La salinisation est expliquée au moyen de deux principaux modèles chimiques développés par les auteurs : l'altération et le dépôt. Ces modèles sont en accord avec les processus géologiques d'altération et de dépôt qui ont formé les sols et qui recouvrent les bassins versants. Cinq processus d'évolution de sols sous climats aride et semi-aride sont associés à l'eau et à des formations aquifères. Dans tous les cas présentés, l'eau souterraine est le principal agent géologique qui transporte, accumule et dépose les sels. A l'échelle de petits bassins versants dans le sud et dans l'ouest de l'Australie, l'eau est consommée par évapotranspiration et par hydrolyse. L'eau souterraine salée coule le long des berges de rivières et s'accumule dans des paléochenaux, qui fonctionnent comme des zones de stockage de sels, et finalement s'écoule dans des lacs, où la plupart des eaux salées se concentrent. Dans les formations bosselées des grandes plaines du nord du Canada et des États-Unis, des scénarios d'alimentation et de décharge localisées conduisent la salinisation à se produire surtout dans les dépressions, en association avec la formation de sols et d'infiltrations salins. A l'échelle régionale dans les bassins fermés, ce processus peut être à l'origine de playas ou de lacs salés. Dans les aquifères continentaux des bassins de rift du Soudan, la salinité augmente le long des axes d'écoulement souterrain et forme ainsi une zone saline à leur extrémité. La zone saline de chaque rift constitue une crête, qui coïncide avec le creux piézométrique. Le ou les ensembles salins se sont formés par évaporation couplée

Salama, Ramsis B.; Otto, Claus J.; Fitzpatrick, Robert W.

313

Melt-layer motion and droplet ejection under divertor-relevant plasma conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accidental melting of metallic plasma-facing materials in future fusion devices poses serious issues regarding the material lifetime and power-handling capabilities as well as core plasma performances. The behaviour of aluminium (as a proxy for beryllium) and tungsten materials was investigated in the Pilot-PSI linear plasma device to study the melt-layer motion and droplet ejection under ITER-relevant plasma conditions. Heat fluxes of up to 50 MW m-2 raised the surface temperature to values up to 5000 K. The melt-layer rotation was found to depend on the magnetic field (up to 1.6 T) strength and target potential and is attributed to J × B forces caused by radial currents in the plasma. The amount of droplets ejected from the molten surface depends on the material—more droplets ejected from aluminium than from tungsten—and the heat flux to the target. The average droplet velocity was determined to be around 60 m s-1 for both materials with droplets being ejected mainly in the axial direction. Droplet ejection is only observed during helium discharges, no ejection can be observed with hydrogen plasmas despite similar heat fluxes. Bubble boiling appears to be the main mechanism contributing to the observed droplet ejection.

De Temmerman, G.; Daniels, J.; Bystrov, K.; van den Berg, M. A.; Zielinski, J. J.

2013-02-01

314

Aid and Conditionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter examines the conditions under which foreign aid will be effective in raising growth, reducing poverty, and meeting basic needs in areas such as education and health. The primary aim is not to draw policy conclusions, but to highlight the main questions that arise, the contributions of the academic literature in addressing them, and the areas where much remains

Jonathan R. W. Temple

2010-01-01

315

A mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I of the project: early effects of inhaled radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

The report presents a mathematical model for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included.

Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.

1980-06-01

316

Model-Independent Analysis of Tri-bimaximal Mixing: A Softly-Broken Hidden or an Accidental Symmetry?  

SciTech Connect

To address the issue of whether tri-bimaximal mixing (TBM) is a softly-broken hidden or an accidental symmetry, we adopt a model-independent analysis in which we perturb a neutrino mass matrix leading to TBM in the most general way but leave the three texture zeros of the diagonal charged lepton mass matrix unperturbed. We compare predictions for the perturbed neutrino TBM parameters with those obtained from typical SO(10) grand unified theories with a variety of flavor symmetries. Whereas SO(10) GUTs almost always predict a normal mass hierarchy for the light neutrinos, TBM has a priori no preference for neutrino masses. We find, in particular for the latter, that the value of |U{sub e3}| is very sensitive to the neutrino mass scale and ordering. Observation of |U{sub e3}|{sup 2} > 0.001 to 0.01 within the next few years would be incompatible with softly-broken TBM and a normal mass hierarchy and would suggest that the apparent TBM symmetry is an accidental symmetry instead. No such conclusions can be drawn for the inverted and quasi-degenerate hierarchy spectra.

Albright, Carl H.; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab; Rodejohann, Werner; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst.

2008-04-01

317

Panel acoustic contribution analysis.  

PubMed

Formulations are derived to analyze the relative panel acoustic contributions of a vibrating structure. The essence of this analysis is to correlate the acoustic power flow from each panel to the radiated acoustic pressure at any field point. The acoustic power is obtained by integrating the normal component of the surface acoustic intensity, which is the product of the surface acoustic pressure and normal surface velocity reconstructed by using the Helmholtz equation least squares based nearfield acoustical holography, over each panel. The significance of this methodology is that it enables one to analyze and rank relative acoustic contributions of individual panels of a complex vibrating structure to acoustic radiation anywhere in the field based on a single set of the acoustic pressures measured in the near field. Moreover, this approach is valid for both interior and exterior regions. Examples of using this method to analyze and rank the relative acoustic contributions of a scaled vehicle cabin are demonstrated. PMID:23363099

Wu, Sean F; Natarajan, Logesh Kumar

2013-02-01

318

Optimisation of the digital radiographic imaging of suspected non-accidental injury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aim: To optimise the digital (radiographic) imaging of children presenting with suspected non-accidental injury (NAI). Objectives: (i) To evaluate existing radiographic quality criteria, and to develop a more suitable system if these are found to be inapplicable to skeletal surveys obtained in suspected NAI. (ii) To document differences in image quality between conventional film-screen and the recently installed Fuji5000R computed radiography (CR) system at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, (iii) To document the extent of variability in the standard of skeletal surveys obtained in the UK for suspected NAI. (iv) To determine those radiographic parameters which yield the highest diagnostic accuracy, while still maintaining acceptable radiation dose to the child, (v) To determine how varying degrees of edge-enhancement affect diagnostic accuracy. (vi) To establish the accuracy of soft compared to hard copy interpretation of images in suspected NAI. Materials and Methods: (i) and (ii) Retrospective analysis of 286 paediatric lateral spine radiographs by two observers based on the Commission of European Communities (CEC) quality criteria, (iii) Review of the skeletal surveys of 50 consecutive infants referred from hospitals throughout the United Kingdom (UK) with suspected NAI. (iv) Phantom studies. Leeds TO. 10 and TO. 16 test objects were used to compare the relationship between film density, exposure parameters and visualisation of object details, (iv) Clinical study. Anteroposterior and lateral post mortem skull radiographs of six consecutive infants were obtained at various exposures. Six observers independently scored the images based on visualisation of five criteria, (v) and (vi) A study of diagnostic accuracy in which six observers independently interpreted 50 radiographs from printed copies (with varying degrees of edge-enhancement) and from a monitor. Results: The CEC criteria are useful for optimisation of imaging parameters and allow the detection of differences in quality of film-screen and digital images. There is much variability in the quality and number of radiographs performed as part of skeletal surveys in the UK for suspected NAI. The Leeds test objects are either not sensitive enough (TO. 10) or perhaps over sensitive (TO. 16) for the purposes of this project. Furthermore, the minimum spatial resolution required for digital imaging in NAI has not been established. Therefore the objective interpretation of phantom studies is difficult. There is scope for reduction of radiation dose to children with no effect on image quality. Diagnostic accuracy (fracture detection) in suspected NAI is generally low, and is not affected by image display modality. Conclusions: The CEC quality criteria are not applicable to the assessment of clinical image quality. A national protocol for skeletal surveys in NAI is required. Dedicated training, close supervision, collaboration and consistent exposure of radiologists to cases of NAI should improve diagnostic accuracy. The potential exists for dose reduction when performing skeletal surveys in children and infants with suspected NAI. Future studies should address this issue.

Offiah, Amaka

319

Field studies on the ammonia odor threshold based on ambient air-sampling following accidental releases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia is one of the most widely produced and utilized chemicals in the U.S., and while numerous lab studies have been undertaken, there is no consensus on the odor threshold. In contrast to controlled lab conditions used to determine odor thresholds, the field conditions following unintentional chemical releases are uncontrolled and highly variable due to many factors. A critical component

David Cawthon; Dyron Hamlin; Auburn Steward; Cory Davis; Finis Cavender; Phillip Goad

2009-01-01

320

Snowmelt contributions to discharge of the Ganges.  

PubMed

Himalayan headwaters supply large quantities of runoff derived from snowmelt and monsoon rainfall to the Ganges River. Actual snowmelt contribution to discharge in the Ganges remains conjectural under both present and future climatic conditions. As snowmelt is likely to be perturbed through climatic warming, four hydrological models, VIC, JULES, LPJmL and SWAT, appropriate for coupling with regional climate models, were used to provide a baseline estimate of snowmelt contribution to flow at seasonal and annual timescales. The models constrain estimates of snowmelt contributions to between 1% and 5% of overall basin runoff. Snowmelt is, however, significant in spring months, a period in which other sources of runoff are scarce. PMID:23791434

Siderius, C; Biemans, H; Wiltshire, A; Rao, S; Franssen, W H P; Kumar, P; Gosain, A K; van Vliet, M T H; Collins, D N

2013-12-01

321

Contributed Papers, 1967.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included are six papers from the Special Libraries Association Documentation Division's Contributed Papers Session at the National Conference in New York, May 28 - June 1, 1967, which were not included in the November, 1967 issue of Special Libraries. The papers are: (1) "The Bibliographical Control of Aerospace Industry Conference Literature…

Special Libraries Association, New York, NY. Documentation Div.

322

Skin Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

... redness, swelling, burning, and itching. Allergies, irritants, your genetic makeup, and certain diseases and immune system problems can cause rashes, hives, and other skin conditions. Many skin problems, ...

323

Impact of Model Resolution and Snow Cover Modification on the Performance of Weather Forecasting and Research (WRF) Models of Winter Conditions that Contribute to Ozone Pollution in the Uintah Basin, Eastern Utah, Winter 2013. Trang T. Tran, Marc Mansfield and Seth Lyman Bingham Research Center, Utah State University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Uintah Basin of Eastern Utah, USA, has experienced winter ozone pollution events with ozone concentrations exceeding the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 75 ppb. With a total of four winter seasons of ozone sampling, winter 2013 is the worst on record for ozone pollution in the basin. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from oil and gas industries and other activities provide the precursors for ozone formation. The chemical mechanism of ozone formation is non-linear and complicated depending on the availability of VOCs and NOx. Moreover, meteorological conditions also play an important role in triggering ozone pollution. In the Uintah Basin, high albedo due to snow cover, a 'bowl-shaped' terrain, and strong inversions that trap precursors within the boundary layer are important factors contributing to ozone pollution. However, these local meteorological phenomena have been misrepresented by recent numerical modeling studies, probably due to misrepresenting the snow cover and complex terrain of the basin. In this study, Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations are performed on a model domain covering the entire Uintah Basin for winter 2013 (Dec 2012 - Mar 2013) to test the impacts of several grid resolutions (e.g., 4000, 1300 and 800m) and snow cover modification on performance of models of the local weather conditions of the basin. These sensitivity tests help to determine the best model configurations to produce appropriate meteorological input for air-quality simulations.

Tran, T. T.; Mansfield, M. L.; Lyman, S.

2013-12-01

324

Pattern of cerebrospinal immediate early gene c-fos expression in an ovine model of non-accidental head injury.  

PubMed

Expression of the immediate early gene, c-fos, was examined in a large animal model of non-accidental head injury ("shaken baby syndrome"). Lambs were used because they have a relatively large gyrencephalic brain and weak neck muscles resembling a human infant. Neonatal lambs were manually shaken in a manner similar to that believed to occur with most abused human infants, but there was no head impact. The most striking c-fos expression was in meningothelial cells of the cranial cervical spinal cord and, to a lesser degree, in hemispheric, cerebellar, and brainstem meninges. Vascular endothelial cells also frequently showed c-fos immunopositivity in the meninges and hemispheric white matter. It was hypothesised that this c-fos immunoreactivity was due to mechanical stress induced by shaking, with differential movement of different craniospinal components. PMID:24035422

Finnie, J W; Blumbergs, P C; Manavis, J; Vink, R

2013-12-01

325

Evidence Theory Based Uncertainty Quantification in Radiological Risk due to Accidental Release of Radioactivity from a Nuclear Power Plant  

SciTech Connect

Consequence of the accidental release of radioactivity from a nuclear power plant is assessed in terms of exposure or dose to the members of the public. Assessment of risk is routed through this dose computation. Dose computation basically depends on the basic dose assessment model and exposure pathways. One of the exposure pathways is the ingestion of contaminated food. The aim of the present paper is to compute the uncertainty associated with the risk to the members of the public due to the ingestion of contaminated food. The governing parameters of the ingestion dose assessment model being imprecise, we have approached evidence theory to compute the bound of the risk. The uncertainty is addressed by the belief and plausibility fuzzy measures.

Ingale, S. V. [New Arts, Science and Commerce College, Ahmednagar (MS)-414 001 (India); Datta, D. [Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

2010-10-26

326

Loss of sight caused by calcium hydroxide paste accidentally splashed into the eye during endodontic treatment: case report.  

PubMed

Calcium hydroxide, widely used in endodontic treatment, is a strong base that may cause irreversible injury to vital tissue that comes into contact with this substance. We present the first case of a dentist who accidentally splashed endodontic calcium hydroxide into her own eye. After washing with copious amounts of water for several minutes, she was treated in the hospital within 30 minutes of the accident. Because of the burning caused by the base solution, the dentist lost vision in the affected eye. She returned to the hospital several times for treatment of a corneal abscess and corneal fungal infection. She had the keloid that formed between the eyeball and eyelid removed 3 times. Calcium hydroxide can cause blindness when it comes into contact with the eye. Clinicians should take adequate precautions to prevent this serious complication. In case of an accident, it is important to wash the eye efficiently. PMID:24195193

Lipski, Mariusz; Buczkowska-Radli?ska, Jadwiga; Góra, Monika

2013-06-01

327

Evolution of N-species Kimura/voter models towards criticality, a surrogate for general models of accidental pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In models for accidental pathogens, with the paradigmatic epidemiological system of bacterial meningitis, there was evolution towards states exhibiting critical fluctuations with power law behaviour observed [1]. This is a model with many possibly pathogenic strains essentially evolving independently to low pathogenicity. A first and previous study had shown that in the limit of vanishing pathogenicity there are critical fluctuations with power law distributions observed, already when only two strains interact [2]. This earlier version of a two strain model was very recently reinvestigated [3] and named as Stollenwerk-Jansen model (SJ). Mun~oz et al. demonstrated that this two-strain model for accidental pathogens is in the universality class of the so-called voter model. Though this model clearly shows criticality, its control parameter, the pathogenicity, is not self-tuning towards criticality. However, the multi-strain version mentioned above [1] is well evolving towards criticality, as well as a spatially explicit version of this, shown in [4] p. 155. These models of multi-strain type including explicitly mutations of the pathogenicity can be called SJ-models of type II [5]. Since the original epidemiological model is of SIRYX-type, the evolution to zero pathogenicity is slow and perturbed by large population noise. In the present article we now show on the basis of the notion of the voter-model universality classes the evolution of n-voter models with mutaion towards criticality, now much less perturbed by population noise, hence demonstrating a clear mechanism of self-organized criticality in the sense of [6, 7]. The present results have wide implications for many diseases in which a large proportion of infections is asymptomatic, meaning that the system has already evolved towards an average low pathogenicity. This holds not only for the original paradigmatic case of bacterial meningitis, but was reecently also suggested for example for dengue fever (DENFREE project).

Ghaffari, Peyman; Stollenwerk, Nico

2012-09-01

328

Accidental cold-related injury leading to hospitalization in northern Sweden: an eight-year retrospective analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Cold injuries are rare but important causes of hospitalization. We aimed to identify the magnitude of cold injury hospitalization, and assess causes, associated factors and treatment routines in a subarctic region. Methods In this retrospective analysis of hospital records from the 4 northernmost counties in Sweden, cases from 2000-2007 were identified from the hospital registry by diagnosis codes for accidental hypothermia, frostbite, and cold-water drowning. Results were analyzed for pre-hospital site events, clinical events in-hospital, and complications observed with mild (temperature 34.9 - 32°C), moderate (31.9 - 28°C) and severe (<28°C), hypothermia as well as for frostbite and cold-water drowning. Results From the 362 cases, average annual incidences for hypothermia, frostbite, and cold-water drowning were estimated to be 3.4/100 000, 1.5/100 000, and 0.8/100 000 inhabitants, respectively. Annual frequencies for hypothermia hospitalizations increased by approximately 3 cases/year during the study period. Twenty percent of the hypothermia cases were mild, 40% moderate, and 24% severe. For 12%, the lowest documented core temperature was 35°C or higher, for 4% there was no temperature documented. Body core temperature was seldom measured in pre-hospital locations. Of 362 cold injury admissions, 17 (5%) died in hospital related to their injuries. Associated co-factors and co-morbidities included ethanol consumption, dementia, and psychiatric diagnosis. Conclusions The incidence of accidental hypothermia seems to be increasing in this studied sub-arctic region. Likely associated factors are recognized (ethanol intake, dementia, and psychiatric diagnosis).

2014-01-01

329

Physical performance tests, self-reported outcomes, and accidental falls before and after total knee arthroplasty: an exploratory study.  

PubMed

This longitudinal, observational study explored the relationship between physical performance tests, self-reported outcomes, and accidental falling, before and after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Thirty-seven patients were randomly selected from a larger study of falling before and after surgery conducted at a UK National Health Service Orthopaedic Unit. Physical performance tests were the Berg Balance Score (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG), and Hand Grip Strength (HGS). Self-reported outcomes incorporated the Western Ontario and McMaster's Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Activities Balance Confidence Scale (ABC-UK), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and accidental falls. Paired pre- and postoperative data were available on 22 patients. A total of 22.7% patients fell before and after TKA. Postoperative improvement in BBS and TUG was found in 41% and 50% of patients, respectively, HGS did not change. BBS showed a consistent moderate-to-strong association with other physical tests both before and after surgery; TUG (rs -0.76; rs -0.90), maximal HGS (r 0.49; r 0.48), and self-report measures; ABC-UK (r 0.52; r 0.74), WOMAC stiffness (r -0.53; r -0.48), and WOMAC function (r -0.56; r -0.45). Although self-report questionnaires are an efficient, cost-effective approach to outcome assessment in TKA, there is a growing case for inclusion of physical performance tests. The Berg Balance Score may be a useful addition to outcome assessment in patients with TKA. PMID:23289963

Swinkels, Annette; Allain, Theresa J

2013-08-01

330

Molecular faunistics of accidental infections of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 (Monogenea) parasitic on salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout Salmo trutta L. in NW Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout S. trutta L. juveniles were examined for the presence of accidental monogenean ectoparasitic species of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 in the Baltic and White Sea basins of Russian Karelia in order to estimate the frequency of host-switching attempts on an ecological timescale. To collect phylogeographical information and for exact species identification, the parasites were

Marek S. Zi?tara; Jussi Kuusela; Alexei Veselov; Jaakko Lumme

2008-01-01

331

Analysis of criticality alarm system response to an accidental criticality outside the cascade process buildings at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron dose rates at detector positions within the X-326, X-330, and X-333 buildings were evaluated for an accidental criticality outside of each building. As fissile material bearing equipment and containers are moved to and from each building, the possibility exists for a criticality accident to occur. This analysis demonstrates that a criticality accident which occurs at any position on the

S. B. Negron; R. W. Jr. Tayloe; M. C. Dobelbower

1994-01-01

332

Follow-Up Skeletal Surveys for Suspected Non-Accidental Trauma: Can a More Limited Survey Be Performed without Compromising Diagnostic Information?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Follow-up skeletal surveys have been shown to improve the rate of fracture detection in suspected cases of non-accidental trauma (NAT). As these studies are performed in a particularly radiosensitive population, it is important to evaluate if all of the (approximately 20) radiographs obtained at repeat skeletal survey are clinically…

Sonik, Arvind; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Rogers, Kristen K.; Coulter, Kevin P.; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.

2010-01-01

333

Sports-related injuries in childrenA study of their characteristics, frequency, and severity, with comparison to other types of accidental injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1981 to 1982, within a 1 year period, details were recorded of children aged 0 to 15 years and 3 months, who were treated for accidental injury in a French health care district; 789 sports-related accidents were regis tered, representing 11 % of all accidents. Sports areas were the leading sites of accident among children over age 12. Out-of-school

Anne Tursz; Monique Crost

1986-01-01

334

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 3. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE (SCAQMD) (SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses a strategy (being considered by the South Coast Air Quality Management District--SCAQMD--of Southern California) for reducing the risk of a major accidental air release of toxic chemicals. The strategy, intended to guide both industry and communities, consist...

335

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 6. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE (SCAQMD) (SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual summarizes information that will aid in identifying and controlling release hazards specific to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) of southern California. The SCAQMD has been considering a strategy for reducing the risk of a major accidental air r...

336

Acute Pancreatitis and Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Accidental Hypothermia and Hypothermic Myxoedema  

PubMed Central

Serial serum amylase and blood glucose levels were measured in 68 hypothermic (rectal temperature 35°C or less) patients, including 15 who had hypothermic myxoedema (serum protein bound iodine 3·5 ?g/100 ml or less). Raised amylase levels were found in 34 patients and probably reflected a mild acute pancreatitis. The high amylase levels correlated with low arterial PO2 levels and significantly with high arterial PCO2 levels and the base deficit but not with the severity or duration of the hypothermia. The acute pancreatitis does not explain why hypothermic patients with myxoedema have a poorer prognosis than those who are euthyroid. The pancreatitis occasionally contributed to the development, sometimes delayed, of diabetic ketoacidosis, blood glucose levels of over 120 mg/100 ml being found in 20 patients. There was a significant correlation between the raised serum amylase levels and the hyperglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia, sometimes profound, was found in 12 patients.

Maclean, D.; Murison, J.; Griffiths, P. D.

1973-01-01

337

The Spectrum of Non-accidental Injury and Its Imitators in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamental role of diagnostic imaging in cases of suspected abuse is much the same as with other medical conditions.\\u000a The diagnostic process is characterized by gathering facts through appropriate imaging studies, integrating these findings\\u000a with clinical and laboratory data, consulting with colleagues, and formulating a diagnosis based on one’s knowledge and expertise.\\u000a This process is predicated on a thorough

P. K. Kleinman

338

Can Accidental Local Application of A Drug Cause Discolouration of Permanent Teeth?  

PubMed Central

Thorough knowledge on the aetiology of tooth staining is of importance to dental surgeons, in order to enable a correct diagnosis to be made when examining a discoloured dentition and it allows the dental practitioner to explain to the patient the exact nature of the condition. Tetracyclines are a group of drugs which can discolour teeth permanently. One such case of discolouration of adult teeth caused by administration of tetracycline(oxytetracycline) has been reported here and it has been discussed in detail.

Hans, Manoj Kumar; Nagpal, Ajay; Shetty, Shashit; Hans, Rinki

2013-01-01

339

Chemical composition of burnt smell caused by accidental fires: environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the odors typical of fires has recently been deciphered. Basically the constituents are mixtures of acetophenone, benzyl alcohol, hydroxylated derivatives of benzaldehyde, methoxylated and/or alkylated phenols and naphthalene. This finding makes it possible to develop objective, practical analytic measurement methods for the burnt smell as a contribution to improving fire damage assessment and remediation monitoring. With the aid of an artificially produced burnt smell and a panel of testers the odor detection threshold of a test mixture was determined olfactometrically to 2 ?g m?³. Using a defined burnt-smell atmosphere in a test chamber, analytical methods with active sampling, the adsorbents XAD 7 and TENAX TA, and GC/MS measurement were then optimized and tested with a view to being able to carry out sensitive quantitative measurement of burnt smells. A further practical method with particular application to the qualitative characterization of this odor is based on the use of a new SPME (solid-phase microextraction) field sampler with DVB/CAR/PDMS (divinylbenzene/Carboxen™/polydimethylsiloxane) fibers. PMID:20947130

Heitmann, K; Wichmann, H; Bahadir, M; Gunschera, J; Schulz, N; Salthammer, T

2011-01-01

340

ASTEC V2.0 computational evaluation of source term and its chemical forms under accidental conditions during mid-loop operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of an accident or component failure during mid-loop operation has been identified in probabilistic safety studies as a major contributor to core melt frequency and source term risk. The fission products release and transport to the containment has been analyzed during mid-loop operation of a reference PWR 1000 MWe reactor using the severe accident integral code ASTEC V2.0. The

A. Bujan; L. Ammirabile; J. Slaby

2011-01-01

341

Accidental potassium dichromate poisoning. Toxicokinetics of chromium by ICP-MS-CRC in biological fluids and in hair.  

PubMed

Intoxications by chromium (Cr) compounds are very life threatening and often lethal. After oral ingestion of 2 or 3g of hexavalent Cr (Cr(VI)), gastrointestinal injury, but also hepatic and renal failure, often occurs which each leads to a fatal outcome in most patients. Cellular toxicity is associated with mitochondrial and lysosomal injury by biologically Cr(VI) reactive intermediates and reactive oxygen species. After Cr(VI) has been absorbed, there is not much that can be done except to control the main complications as the treatment is only symptomatic. The biotransformation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) reduces the toxicity because the trivalent form does not cross cellular membranes as rapidly. In fact, more than 80% of Cr(VI) is cleared in urine as Cr(III). We report the case of a 58-year-old male patient who was admitted to hospital after accidental oral ingestion of a 30 g/L potassium dichromate (the estimated amount of ingested Cr is about 3g). ICP-MS equipped with a collision/reaction cell (CRC) and validated methods were used to monitor plasma (P), red blood cells (RBCs), urine (U) and hair chromium. For urine the results were expressed per gram of creatinine. After 7 days in the intensive care unit, the patient was discharged without renal or liver failure. P, RBC and U were monitored during 49 days. During this period Cr decreased respectively from 2088 ?g/L to 5 ?g/L, 631 ?g/L to 129 ?g/L and 3512 ?g/g to 10 ?g/g. The half-life was much shorter in P than in RBC as the poison was more quickly cleared from the P than from the RBC, suggesting a cellular trapping of the metal. Hair was collected 2 months after the intoxication. We report a very rare case of survival after accidental Cr poisoning which has an extremely poor prognosis and usually leads to rapid death. For the first time, this toxicokinetic study highlights a sequestration of chromium in the RBC and probably in all the cells. PMID:22024652

Goullé, J P; Saussereau, E; Grosjean, J; Doche, C; Mahieu, L; Thouret, J M; Guerbet, M; Lacroix, C

2012-04-10

342

Protecting a HVDC link against accidental isolation from its receiving AC system  

SciTech Connect

When an HVdc scheme is isolated from its receiving ac system, the inverter may continue to operate, generating its own ac bus voltages; this is defined here as islanding. If islanding is allowed to continue unrestricted, then main circuit components may in some conditions be damaged and it is therefore necessary to provide a suitable protection system. This paper outlines the protection scheme developed for the McNeill Back-to-Back HVdc link in Alberta, Canada, to prevent damage due to islanding while still permitting the link to automatically restart on reclosure of the isolating breaker. Oscillograms showing the protection in operation on both the GEC ALSTHOM HVdc simulator and during tests carried out as part of the commissioning of the McNeill HV dc link are included.

Whitehouse, R.S. (GEC Alsthom Transmission and Distribution Projects Ltd., Stafford (United Kingdom))

1993-07-01

343

Hashimoto's thyroiditis: an accidental discovery of a lingual thyroid in a 7-year-old child.  

PubMed

An ectopic thyroid located at the base of the tongue is a rare entity, resulting from early developmental defects of thyroid gland embryogenesis during its descent from the foramen caecum to its normal eutopic pretracheal site. This condition is the main cause of congenital primary hypothyroidism, even though signs and symptoms of thyroid dysfunction may also appear later in childhood. Lingual thyroid may sometimes present with symptoms of respiratory obstruction or feeding difficulties. We illustrate the case of a 7-year-old girl with subclinical hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis arising in a lingual thyroid. She had never suffered from upper airway obstructive symptoms, but did refer a 3-month history of cough. Rapid normalisation of thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and termination of the cough were attained when the L-thyroxine treatment started. After 6 months a significant reduction of lingual thyroid size was also noted. The diagnostic procedures and therapeutic options in childhood are discussed. PMID:23966462

Mariani, Michela; Palpacelli, Alessandra; Mussoni, Annalisa; Rossodivita, Aurora Natalia

2013-01-01

344

[Pulmonary intoxication by accidental inhalation of a household aerosol water repellent].  

PubMed

Two young people, a 23 year man and his wife aged 21, are admitted in hospital because they complain of headache; nausea, dyspnea. These symptoms are related with the use of a water-reppellent spray in bad conditions; troubles appear because the product is used in an insufficiently ventilated room. At the admission time, the man suffers from coughing, polypnea, giddiness, the fever is 38 degrees, 3 C. The blood gas values are normal. The thoracic Xray is also normal. The woman is more affected the fever is 38,8 degrees C. The signs are worse and the blood value of Co is 5%. The blood gas values are: PO2 64,8 mm HG, SaO2 92,4%, PCO2 28,8 mm Hg. The chest Xray shows signs of acute pulmonary oedema. Corticoïds and furosemide give a progressive improvement. 48 h later a favorable evolution is noted in the two cases. The german manufacturer of the product gave its composition which is as follows: - petrol 17,3% - essence 15,3% - methylen chloride 13,7% - freon (trichlorofluoro-methane - dichlorofluoromethane) 42,2% - impregnant (melamine resin; organic methylic soap) 2,6% - propan butan 9,2%. The compound responsible for the symptomatology is petrol vapour which, if inhalated, is well known to produce pulmonary toxicity. The woman's condition was worse because she used the spray herself and therefore inhaled a lot a vapours. With this type of product the direction for use have to be strictly followed ie the operation must take place in a well ventilated room. PMID:6612726

Thibaut, G; Wylomanski, J L; Laroche, D

1983-03-01

345

Mexican contributions to Noncommutative Theories  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we summarize the Mexican contributions to the subject of Noncommutative theories. These contributions span several areas: Quantum Groups, Noncommutative Field Theories, Hopf algebra of renormalization, Deformation Quantization, Noncommutative Gravity, and Noncommutative Quantum Mechanics.

Vergara, J. David [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, A. Postal 70-543, Mexico, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Garcia-Compean, H. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Monterrey, Cerro de las Mitras 2565, Col. Obispado, Monterrey N.L. 64060 (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07000 (Mexico)

2006-09-25

346

EMSL Contribution Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Contribution Plan is EMSL’s template for achieving our vision of simultaneous excellence in all aspects of our mission as a national scientific user facility. It reflects our understanding of the long-term stewardship we must work toward to meet the scientific challenges faced by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the nation. During the next decade, we will implement the strategies contained in this Plan, working closely with the scientific community, our advisory committees, DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research, and other key stakeholders. This Plan is fully aligned with the strategic plans of DOE, its Office of Science, and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). We recognize that shifts in science and technology, national priorities, and resources made available through the Federal budget process create planning uncertainties and, ultimately, a highly dynamic planning environment. Accordingly, this Plan should be viewed as a living document and we continually evaluate the changing needs and opportunities posed by our stakeholders (i.e., DOE, users, staff, advisory committees), work closely with them to understand and respond to those changes, and align our strategy accordingly. This Plan is organized around two sections. Section 1 describes our vision and four strategic outcomes: 1) Scientific Innovation, 2) Capabilities that Transform Science, 3) Outstanding Management and Operations, and Engaged and Proactive Users. These outcomes provide the framework for seven critical actions we must take during the next 3 to 5 years: 1) Establishing leadership in EMSL science themes, 2) building and deploying transformational capabilities, 3) integrating computation with experiment, 4) ensuring EMSL’s workforce meets the scientific challenges of the future, 5) creating partnerships, 6) attracting and engaging users in EMSL’s long-term strategy, and 7) building a research infrastructure that meets emerging scientific needs. Section 2 describes EMSL’s detailed business plan, including an analysis of opportunity, organizational investments, and actionable milestones.

Campbell, Allison A.

2008-12-01

347

Contributions to Khovanov Homology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Khovanov homology ist a new link invariant, discovered by M. Khovanov, and used by J. Rasmussen to give a combinatorial proof of the Milnor conjecture. In this thesis, we give examples of mutant links with different Khovanov homology. We prove that Khovanov's chain complex retracts to a subcomplex, whose generators are related to spanning trees of the Tait graph, and we exploit this result to investigate the structure of Khovanov homology for alternating knots. Further, we extend Rasmussen's invariant to links. Finally, we generalize Khovanov's categorifications of the colored Jones polynomial, and study conditions under which our categorifications are functorial with respect to colored framed link cobordisms. In this context, we develop a theory of Carter--Saito movie moves for framed link cobordisms.

Wehrli, Stephan M.

2008-10-01

348

Assessment of the environmental impact from tritium releases under normal operation conditions and after accidents  

SciTech Connect

In view of the public acceptance and the licensing procedure of projected fusion reactors, the release of tritium during normal operation as well as after accidents is a significant safety aspect. Tritium, being chemically identical to hydrogen and thus interacting directly with water and organic substances, differs considerably from the behaviour of other radionuclides in the environment. Therefore, the two consequence assessment codes UFOTRI and NORMTRI have been developed and applied to estimate the doses to the public from releases of tritium under accidental and routine conditions, respectively. In the frame of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and SEAFP (Safety and Environmental Aspects of Fusion Power) the dose/release translation has been determined for typical and various worst case release scenarios. Under worst case accidental release conditions, the dose/release translation for the early dose to an individual at the fence may range from 0.5 to 1 mSv/g HTO. The result for the EDE at the fence is up to 3 mSv/g HTO. The collective accidental and dose/release translation is about 2.5 manSv/g HTO. However, due to processes inside the facility, only a small fraction of the mobilised activity may be released into the environment. 24 refs.

Raskob, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany)

1995-10-01

349

Prophylactic vs therapeutic blood patch for obstetric patients with accidental dural puncture--a randomised controlled trial.  

PubMed

Epidural blood patch is a standard treatment for obstetric patients experiencing a severe post-dural puncture headache. Patients who sustained an accidental dural puncture during establishment of epidural analgesia during labour or at caesarean delivery were randomly assigned to receive a prophylactic epidural blood patch or conservative treatment with a therapeutic epidural blood patch if required. Eleven of 60 (18.3%) patients in the prophylactic epidural blood patch group developed a post-dural puncture headache compared with 39 of 49 (79.6%) in the therapeutic epidural blood patch group (p < 0.0001). A blood patch was performed in 36 (73.4%) of patients in the therapeutic group. The number of patients who needed a second blood patch did not differ significantly between the two groups: 6 (10.0%) for prophylactic epidural blood patch and 4 (11.1%) for therapeutic epidural blood patch. We conclude that prophylactic epidural blood patch is an effective method to reduce the development of post-dural puncture headache in obstetric patients. PMID:24641638

Stein, M H; Cohen, S; Mohiuddin, M A; Dombrovskiy, V; Lowenwirt, I

2014-04-01

350

Estimation of the dispersion of an accidental release of radionuclides and toxic materials based on weather type classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the influence of the regional-scale weather types on the atmospheric dispersion processes of the air pollutants originated from point sources. Hypothetical accidents were simulated with two different dispersion models. During a year's test period, the 6-h emission of a radionuclide from the Paks Nuclear Power Plant (Paks NPP, Hungary) was assumed every day and the transport and deposition of the radionuclide was simulated by the Eulerian TREX dispersion model over the Central European region. In addition, the ALOHA Gaussian air dispersion model was also used for the local environment of the Paks NPP to simulate hypothetical hourly releases of ammonia during a 10-year period. During both types of model simulations, the dispersion of the plume for each time was analysed and tested with consideration of 13 circulation types corresponding to daily weather patterns over the Carpathian Basin. There are significant correlations between circulation types and plume directions and structures both in local and regional scales. The daily circulation pattern can be easily obtained from weather analyses; the expected size and direction of polluted area after an accidental release can be quickly estimated even before an accident occurs. However, this fast method cannot replace or neglect dispersion model simulations. It gives a `first guess' and a fast estimation on the direction of the plume and can provide sufficient information for decision-making strategies.

Mészáros, Róbert; Leel?ssy, Ádám; Vincze, Csilla; Sz?cs, Mihály; Kovács, Tibor; Lagzi, István

2012-02-01

351

Accidental spills at sea--risk, impact, mitigation and the need for co-ordinated post-incident monitoring.  

PubMed

A fully integrated and effective response to an oil or chemical spill at sea must include a well planned and executed post-incident assessment of environmental contamination and damage. While salvage, rescue and clean-up operations are generally well considered, including reviews and exercises, the expertise, resources, networks and logistical planning required to achieve prompt and effective post-spill impact assessment and monitoring are not generally well established. The arrangement and co-ordination of post-incident monitoring and impact assessment need to consider sampling design, biological effects, chemical analysis and collection/interpretation of expert local knowledge. This paper discusses the risks, impacts and mitigation options associated with accidental spills and considers the importance of pre-considered impact assessment and monitoring programmes in the wider response cycle. The PREMIAM (Pollution Response in Emergencies: Marine Impact Assessment and Monitoring; www.premiam.org) project is considered as an example of an improved approach to the planning, co-ordination and conduct of post-incident monitoring. PMID:20381098

Kirby, Mark F; Law, Robin J

2010-06-01

352

Immunochemical and proteomic technologies as tools for unravelling toxins involved in envenoming by accidental contact with Lonomia obliqua caterpillars.  

PubMed

The accidental contact with Lonomia obliqua caterpillar causes local and systemic symptoms (such as fibrinogen depletion), leading, in some cases, to serious clinical complications (acute renal failure and intracranial haemorrhage). Fortunately, a successful therapeutical approach using anti-Lonomic serum, produced in horses against L. obliqua's bristle extract, has already been put in place. However, a global view of immunogenic toxins involved in the coagulation disorders could help to elucidate the envenoming process. In the present study, our aim was to identify bristle extract's immunogenic components, especially those related to the haemostasis, coupling proteomics and immunochemical approaches (bidimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and immunoblotting). The bidimensional map of bristle extract showed a broad profile of 157 silver-stained spots, where at least 153 spots were immunochemically revealed. Twenty-four of these spots were submitted to sequencing by mass spectrometry and three different categories of proteins were identified: lipocalins, cuticle proteins and serpins. From these protein families, it was observed that the most abundant was the lipocalin family, specifically represented by different isoforms of Lopap (a prothrombin activator protein), reinforcing its relevance during envenoming. Peptide sequences of several other immunochemically revealed spots showed no correspondence to any known sequence and were classified as unknown proteins. These proteins could represent new immunogenic molecules and/or toxins. The sequences presented in this article can be used for oligonucleotide design aiming the amplification of cDNAs coding for new molecules using L. obliqua bristles' cDNA libraries or isolated RNAs as template. PMID:18342903

Ricci-Silva, Maria Esther; Valente, Richard Hemmi; León, Ileana Rodriguez; Tambourgi, Denise Vilarinho; Ramos, Oscar Henrique Pereira; Perales, Jonas; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana Marisa

2008-05-01

353

Prediction of monitoring data for 239Pu accidentally injected via wound site based on the proposed NCRP wound model.  

PubMed

In response to the consultation from the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) committee 2, retention and excretion of 239Pu deposited at wound site were calculated by coupling together the proposed NCRP wound model and the current ICRP systemic model of Pu. The physicochemical forms considered were the soluble form categorized into 'Strong Retention', and the colloidal, particulate and fragmentary forms. The results are summarized as follows. If in soluble form, immediate medical intervention is needed to prevent uptake of radionuclides to body tissues, and prompt wound monitoring is essential for an accurate estimation of the initially deposited radioactivity. If in particulate form, a multi-component exponential equation leads to an overestimation of the absorption rate to blood because of significant lymph node drainage. The committed doses in the organs for direct transfer of 239Pu to the blood may be applied to every cases of accidental injection except for fragments. PMID:17561522

Ishigure, N

2007-01-01

354

Successful treatment of severe accidental hypothermia with cardiac arrest for a long time using cardiopulmonary bypass - report of a case  

PubMed Central

Accidental hypothermia is defined as an unintentional decrease in body temperature to below 35°C, and cases in which temperatures drop below 28°C are considered severe and have a high mortality rate. This study presents the case of a 57-year-old man discovered drifting at sea who was admitted to our hospital suffering from cardiac arrest. Upon admittance, an electrocardiogram indicated asystole, and the patient's temperature was 22°C. Thirty minutes of standard CPR and external rewarming were ineffective in raising his temperature. However, although he had been in cardiac arrest for nearly 2 h, it was decided to continue resuscitation, and a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was initiated. CPB was successful in gradually rewarming the patient and restoring spontaneous circulation. After approximately 1 month of rehabilitation, the patient was subsequently discharged, displaying no neurological deficits. The successful recovery in this case suggests that CPB can be considered a useful way to treat severe hypothermia, particularly in those suffering from cardiac arrest.

2012-01-01

355

Simulation de l'ecoulement dans un parc d'eoliennes situees sur un terrain accidente  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'objectif principal de cette these est la modelisation de l'ecoulement de la couche limite atmospherique dans un parc eolien sur un terrain complexe. Pour ce faire, trois domaines distincts ont ete abordes: caracteristiques de la couche limite atmospherique, aerodynamique des eoliennes et modelisation du terrain complexe. Ainsi l'objectif global de la these a ete divise a trois objectifs specifiques. Le premier objectif specifique est de demontrer l'efficacite du modele de turbulence propose base sur le modele de turbulence RNG, combinee avec les equations du tenseur de Reynolds moyennees dans le temps (RANS) pour simuler l'ecoulement turbulent moyen sur les collines et les vallees bidimensionnelles de formes analytiques et de pentes variables, et aussi, sur le terrain complexe tridimensionnel Blashaval. Le deuxieme objectif specifique de la these est de proposer un nouveau modele de turbulence pour simuler l'ecoulement axisymetrique a travers une eolienne a axe horizontal. Pour valider le modele propose, des resultats sont presentes pour les eoliennes experimentales Nibe B, Danwin 180/23, et MOD-0A. Le dernier objectif specifique est d'appliquer le modele de turbulence propose pour la simulation de l'ecoulement tridimensionnel a travers une eolienne immergee dans une couche limite atmospherique sous diverses conditions de stabilite thermique.

El Kasmi, Amina

356

Early indicators of response to accidental radiation exposure and the relevance for clinical management strategies.  

PubMed

In the development of clinical strategies to manage radiation accident casualties, the medical doctor in charge should be encouraged to use a "decision tree" to establish by a "sequential diagnosis procedure". This should be done within the first few days after exposure to determine whether or not a spontaneous recovery of hemopoietic function can be expected. With the assistance of a computer simulation model it appears possible to relate certain granulocyte response patterns to the extend and quality of damage caused in the hematopoietic stem cell pool. The determination of this damage is of great importance because it quantifies the strain inflicted upon the hemopoietic system by radiation exposure. It must be remembered that some stem cells are intact or are able to repair the damage completely. These stem cells serve as the ultimate source of hemopoietic recovery. The other stem cells that are left with the restricted hematopoietic potential are the source for the so called abortive recovery. On this basis it must be recognized that the day-to-day detailed analysis of documentation of blood cell changes for the first 5-10 days after exposure is of critical importance in order to be able to answer the question whether a spontaneous hemopoietic recovery can be expected or not. If the stem cell pool is sufficiently damaged (less than 6-8 in 10,000 stem cells) then one can expect a particular constellation of blood cells around day 5-7 characterized by severe granulocytopenia, severe lymphopenia and beginning thrombocytopenia. This blood cell response pattern is indicative of an irreversible stem cell damage. In this case, a transplantation of stem cells may well be life saving if done using the criteria developed for the treatment of severe aplastic anemia by bone marrow transplantation including an appropriate conditioning regimen for immune suppression. PMID:1956914

Weinsheimer, W; Szepesi, T; Fliedner, T M

1991-01-01

357

[The role, objectives and usefulness of medico-legal determinations in post-accidental procedures in traumatic deaths in hard coal-mining industry].  

PubMed

The underground hard coal-mining sector demonstrates one of the highest rates of fatal accidents, in spite of a decline in coal-mining over the last few years. Post-accidental investigations, including forensic medical expertise, continue to present a significant problem. The objective of the research was to evaluate the role, tasks and usefulness of medico-legal determinations in post-accidental procedures in traumatic deaths in hard coal-mining industry. The study was carried out retrospectively by investigating files and autopsy reports, with attention focusing on the scope of necessary activities and medico-legal examinations in order to determine the cause and manner of death, and on identification of fatalities, especially in the cases of collective occupational accidents. Complex medico-legal determinations (identification, autopsy), supplemented by additional investigations (toxicology, histopathology and hemogenetics) provide a valuable source of evidence for legal authorities and post-accidental commissions. Mutual cooperation of the experts representing various branches of science is the basis of executing appropriate procedures after a traumatic death in the coal mine. PMID:20073259

Skowronek, Rafa?; Chowaniec, Czes?aw

2009-01-01

358

75 FR 34388 - Employee Contribution Elections and Contribution Allocations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...pay and contributed to the TSP on the employee's behalf if the employee does not make an affirmative election; (b) The employee's right to elect to not have default employee contributions made to the TSP on his or her behalf or to elect...

2010-06-17

359

Follow-up study of abnormal biological indicators and gene expression in the peripheral blood of three accidentally exposed persons.  

PubMed

In order to identify biomarkers for early diagnosis and/or for therapeutic targets in the delayed health effects of ionizing radiation, we analyzed the subgroups of lymphocytes, serum protein levels and gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood of three ??Co ?-ray accidentally exposed persons during the three years after irradiation. Flow cytometry analyses and agarose gel electrophoresis were applied to investigate the subgroups of lymphocytes and the composition of serum proteins, respectively. Gene expression profiling was obtained using a whole genome gene expression chip assay. Both the percentage of CD4+ T lymphocytes and the ratio of Th to Ts were reduced compared with the normal control values. The percentage of albumin decreased whereas beta globulin increased. There were 285 up-regulated and 446 down-regulated genes in irradiated samples relative to the control samples. The expression of KDR, CEACAM8 and OSM was validated by RT-PCR. The majority of the differentially expressed genes encode proteins associated with the immune response, inflammation, oncogenesis, cell structure, oxidative stress, neuro-hormone regulation, reproduction, susceptibility to psychiatric disorders, or transcriptional regulation. We have identified a number of promising novel candidates that have potential for serving as biomarkers for delayed damage. Furthermore, the changes in the immunological indicator CD4+ T cells, and the ratio of CD4+ T to CD8+ T cells may be biomarkers for the prediction of delayed damage by ionizing radiation. The findings of our study are useful for forming a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying the delayed effects of ionizing radiation. PMID:23559597

Chi, Cuiping; Tian, Rong; Liu, Huifang; Wang, Haiyan; Wei, Jinping; Guo, Jianping; Guo, Fengling; Li, Shufang

2013-09-01

360

Collaborating on contributions to conversations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contributing to conversation, it is proposed, is accomplished in two phases. In the presentation phase, one participant ordinarily presents a stretch of speech intended to specify the content of his or her contribution. In the acceptance phase, all the participants work together to establish the mutual belief that everyone else has understood that content well enough for current purposes. The

Herbert H. Clark; Edward F. Schaefer

1987-01-01

361

Mexico: The Accidental Narco.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the escalation of drug cartel and gang violence in Mexico directly and indirectly affecting U.S. interests, the U.S. government's response has been to bolster border security and support Mexican president Felipe Calderon administration's efforts to b...

P. R. Kan

2011-01-01

362

The Accidental Systems Librarian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers advice and information to help librarians manage and interact with computer technology in their institutions. Chapters 1 and 2 provide a background in systems librarianship, outlining the skills that may be needed and defining the specialty. Chapters 3 and 4 show how traditional library skills such as the organization of knowledge…

Gordon, Rachel Singer

363

Recovery from accidental occurrences  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the steps in the manufacture of test reactor fuel is the production of uranium-aluminum (UAlâ) powder. This is done by first melting highly enriched uranium cubes and aluminum in an electric arc furnace. The furnace has a graphite hearth inside a water-cooled jacket and has a water-cooled electrode. Each of the six cavities in the furnace is charged

Ketzlach

1991-01-01

364

Accidental overirradiation syndrome.  

PubMed

Between the 10th and 20th December 1990, there was a malfunction in the operation of the Electron Linear Accelerator (ELA) at the Hospital Clínico Universitario in Zaragoza (Spain), which led to irradiation with the highest beam energy. This situation shows the existence of a latent period between the irradiation and the appearance of the symptoms, even in situations involving much higher than normal doses in cases of localized irradiation. PMID:8248561

Escó, R; López, P; Bellosta, R; Baquedano, J E; Mateo, P

1993-08-01

365

The Accidental Artist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adapted from the 1998 Anne Carroll Moore Lecture, relates the background of Newbery Medal winner, Paul Fleischman, and his travel adventures, mostly by bicycle, that lead to him becoming a writer and influenced the content of his work. (LRW)

Fleischman, Paul

1999-01-01

366

Problems associated with the use of immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) values for estimating the hazard of accidental chemical releases.  

PubMed

The possibility of accidental industrial chemical releases has generated considerable recent attention. One area requiring research for emergency planning is the development of safe exposure concentrations for the public in the event of an inadvertent release. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established a list of extremely hazardous substances and suggested that the toxicity ranking for 92 hazardous materials could be based on the "immediately dangerous to life or health" (IDLH) values developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Eighty-four compounds with IDLH values for which published toxicologic data were available were reviewed to assess the appropriateness of applying such values to accidental release situations. When compared with 30-min animal median lethal concentrations (LC50s), 18 of the IDLHs reviewed were in the same range as lethal levels for animals. For 45 compounds the IDLH values were comparable to concentrations producing severe toxic effects (specifically, unconsciousness, incapacitation, or intolerable irritation). Where available, emergency planning guidelines for the military were compared to IDLHs, and in all 31 cases, the IDLHs exceeded the military exposure guidelines. Twenty compounds also were found to pose a potential cancer risk according to common regulatory guidelines, even under the assumption of a single, 30-min exposure at the IDLH concentration. In addition, the high degree of variability (four orders of magnitude) in the relationship of IDLH values to outcomes of lethality or severe toxicity suggests that the use of IDLH values as emergency planning guidelines for accidental releases is questionable.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2688389

Alexeeff, G V; Lipsett, M J; Kizer, K W

1989-11-01

367

Contributive Research Program of AFWAL.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description of the work performed under the Contributive Research Program of AFWAL is presented. The scope and objectives of each individual task is reported. The work reported consisted of a wide range of individual tasks involving theoretical studies,...

R. C. Darrah

1983-01-01

368

Tesla's contribution to radiowave propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review Nikola Tesla's contribution to radiowave propagation and wireless power transmission. Tesla's patents, published and unpublished notes about radiowave propagation and wireless power transmission are less known, and if known to some extent, they are usually wrongly interpreted

Aleksandar Marincic; Djuradj Budimir

2001-01-01

369

Initial Conditions for Turbulent Mixing Simulations  

SciTech Connect

In the context of the classical Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamical instability, we examine the much debated question of models for initial conditions and the possible influence of unrecorded long wave length contributions to the instability growth rate {alpha}.

Kaman, T.; Glimm, J.; Sharp, D.H.

2010-12-01

370

[Contribution of animal experimentation to pharmacology].  

PubMed

Animal experimentation is of considerable importance in pharmacology and cannot yet be avoided when studying complex, highly integrated physiological functions. The use of animals has been drastically reduced in the classical phases of pharmacological research, for example when comparing several compounds belonging to the same pharmacological class. However, animal experiments remain crucial for generating and validating new therapeutic concepts. Three examples of such research, conducted in strict ethical conditions, will be used to illustrate the different ways in which animal experimentation has contributed to human therapeutics. PMID:20669540

Sassard, Jean; Hamon, Michel; Galibert, Francis

2009-11-01

371

The accidental risk assessment methodology for industries (ARAMIS)/layer of protection analysis (LOPA) methodology: a step forward towards convergent practices in risk assessment?  

PubMed

In the last ten years, layer of protection analysis (LOPA) emerged as a simplified form of quantitative risk assessment (QRA). The European Commission funded project Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries in the context of the Seveso 2 Directive (ARAMIS) has recently been completed. ARAMIS has several modules which give a consistent simplified approach to risk assessment which does not approach the complexity or expense of full QRA. LOPA is potentially a means of carrying out the assessment of barriers required in ARAMIS. This paper attempts to explain the principles of LOPA and the means by which it can be used within ARAMIS. PMID:16139426

Gowland, Richard

2006-03-31

372

Inherited thrombophilic conditions.  

PubMed

Since 1965, when antithrombin deficiency was identified as the first congenital defect of hemostasis able to increase the risk of thrombosis, we have assisted in a substantial evolution of thrombophilia. From the original monogenic view, it has been demonstrated that thrombosis is a polygenic and complex disorder that involves potentially hundreds of polymorphisms and rare mutations, as well as multiple acquired and triggering factors. From the enthusiasm of searching prothrombotic polymorphisms that might contribute to the risk of each individual to have a thrombotic episode, to the frustration of considering that thrombophilic tests might have no clinical relevance. Also the methods used in thrombophilic analysis have significantly changed from original simple analysis to recent and complex technological approaches. It is time to analyze carefully, without any pressure, the real state of the art and to moderate the conclusions, separating clinical use and research of inherited thrombophilic conditions. PMID:22507810

Corral, Javier; Vicente, Vicente

2012-04-01

373

Transfer of a conditional ordering response through conditional equivalence classes  

PubMed Central

Eight adult humans were taught conditional discriminations in a matching-to-sample format that led to the formation of two four-member equivalence classes. When subjects were taught to select one comparison stimulus from each class in a set order, they then ordered all other members of the equivalence classes without explicit training. When the ordering response itself was brought under conditional control, conditional sequencing also transferred to all other members of the two equivalence classes. When the conditional discriminations in the matching-to-sample task were brought under higher order conditional control, the eight stimulus members were arranged into four conditional equivalence classes. Both ordering and conditional ordering transferred to all members of the four conditional equivalence classes; for some subjects this occurred without a typical test for equivalence. One hundred twenty untrained sequences emerged from eight trained sequences for all subjects. Transfer of functions through equivalence classes may contribute to a behavior-analytic approach to semantics and generative grammar.

Wulfert, Edelgard; Hayes, Steven C.

1988-01-01

374

The Condition-Dependent Transcriptional Landscape of Burkholderia pseudomallei  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp), the causative agent of the often-deadly infectious disease melioidosis, contains one of the largest prokaryotic genomes sequenced to date, at 7.2 Mb with two large circular chromosomes (1 and 2). To comprehensively delineate the Bp transcriptome, we integrated whole-genome tiling array expression data of Bp exposed to >80 diverse physical, chemical, and biological conditions. Our results provide direct experimental support for the strand-specific expression of 5,467 Sanger protein-coding genes, 1,041 operons, and 766 non-coding RNAs. A large proportion of these transcripts displayed condition-dependent expression, consistent with them playing functional roles. The two Bp chromosomes exhibited dramatically different transcriptional landscapes — Chr 1 genes were highly and constitutively expressed, while Chr 2 genes exhibited mosaic expression where distinct subsets were expressed in a strongly condition-dependent manner. We identified dozens of cis-regulatory motifs associated with specific condition-dependent expression programs, and used the condition compendium to elucidate key biological processes associated with two complex pathogen phenotypes — quorum sensing and in vivo infection. Our results demonstrate the utility of a Bp condition-compendium as a community resource for biological discovery. Moreover, the observation that significant portions of the Bp virulence machinery can be activated by specific in vitro cues provides insights into Bp's capacity as an “accidental pathogen”, where genetic pathways used by the bacterium to survive in environmental niches may have also facilitated its ability to colonize human hosts.

Nandi, Tannistha; Kreisberg, Jason F.; Chua, Hui Hoon; Sun, Guangwen; Chen, Yahua; Mueller, Claudia; Conejero, Laura; Eshaghi, Majid; Ang, Roy Moh Lik; Liu, Jianhua; Sobral, Bruno W.; Korbsrisate, Sunee; Gan, Yunn Hwen; Titball, Richard W.; Bancroft, Gregory J.; Valade, Eric; Tan, Patrick

2013-01-01

375

Contributions to environmental mechanics: Introduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the second half of the 20th century, environmental mechanics developed from a collection of loosely connected principles and techniques t o a coherent quantitative treatment of flow and transport in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. John Philip was in many respects the life and soul of this adventure . He contributed foremost to the physics of water in unsaturated soils, but also to micrometeorology and physical ecology. In this introductory chapter we briefly review how his contributions influenced and are related to the activities of his colleagues and provide an overview of the present status of theory of soil water movement. We also indicate how the various contributions to this volume fit in this context. We start with a discussion of the nature, foundation, and application of the Richards equation, with emphasis on the dominant role of John Philip in finding analytical solutions of this equation. This is followed by a discussion of various developments beyond the Richards equation: multiphase flow, simultaneous transport of water and heat, flow of water in soils subject to swelling-shrinkage, transport of solutes in unsaturated soils, and flow and transport processes at various scales in space and time. The varied contributions of John Philip to micrometeorology and physical ecology are also reviewed briefly. In the concluding section, some challenges for environmental mechanics are indicated.

Raats, Peter A. C.; Smiles, David E.; Warrick, Arthur W.

376

Supporting Enterprise. A College Contribution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the experience of one college--Percival Whitley College in Calderdale, England--in contributing to the strategy for economic regeneration of the surrounding metropolitan district. It charts the success of the borough and the college working together to attract national and European funding. A checklist for implementing…

Bolton, John F.; Cook, David

377

Thermal hydraulic calculation in a passive residual heat removal system of the SMART-P plant for forced and natural convection conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the thermal hydraulic characteristics in the passive residual heat removal system of the System integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor-P (SMART-P) has been carried out using the MARS code, which is a best estimate system analysis code. The SMART-P is designed to cool the system during accidental conditions by a natural convection. The dominant heat transfer in the steam

Young-Jong Chung; Soo-Hyong Yang; Hee-Cheol Kim; Sung-Quun Zee

2004-01-01

378

Atmospheric Methane Contributions From Fractured Bedrock Aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is not normally considered as an important contributor of atmospheric methane because the organic carbon content of aquifers is too low to sustain significant methanogenesis. Also, groundwater-generated methane partitions into the gas phase of the overlying soil, where it either dissolves in the pore water or is oxidized to carbon dioxide by methanotrophs. There are, however, localized conditions (related to human activities and hydrogeologic conditions) under which atmospheric contributions of groundwater-generated methane occur at the ground surface. Storing and transporting liquid petroleum products in the subsurface has resulted in the local introduction of high concentrations of degradable organic carbon and the creation of redox conditions that favor methanogenesis over more oxidative biodegradation pathways. Groundwater overlain by fractured bedrock, rather than by unconsolidated porous media, creates a situation where CH4 migrates through discrete fractures, thus limiting the soil volume and the surface area available for methanotrophic activity. The spatial distribution of methane in thin surface soils overlying bedrock suggests that CH4 migrates via fracture networks and that CH4 oxidation is a factor of about 50 less than that measured in typical unconsolidated soils. Atmospheric flux rates associated with contaminated bedrock aquifers were on the order of several grams of carbon (as CH4) per square meter, which is less than that reported for well documented sources (e.g., rice paddies) and probably represents a minor worldwide contribution. Nonetheless, these aquifers can represent an important localized source, can shift soils from a sink to a source of methane, and can permit petroleum products to load carbon (as biogenic CH4 and CO2) to the atmosphere without ever being combusted.

Marrin, D. L.

2013-05-01

379

A contribution Monte Carlo method  

SciTech Connect

A Contribution Monte Carlo method is developed and successfully applied to a sample deep-penetration shielding problem. The random walk is simulated in most of its parts as in conventional Monte Carlo methods. The probability density functions (pdf's) are expressed in terms of spherical harmonics and are continuous functions in direction cosine and azimuthal angle variables as well as in position coordinates; the energy is discretized in the multigroup approximation. The transport pdf is an unusual exponential kernel strongly dependent on the incident and emergent directions and energies and on the position of the collision site. The method produces the same results obtained with the deterministic method with a very small standard deviation, with as little as 1,000 Contribution particles in both analog and nonabsorption biasing modes and with only a few minutes CPU time.

Aboughantous, C.H. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Nuclear Science Center)

1994-11-01

380

LeRoy Meisinger, Part I: Biographical Tribute with an Assessment of His Contributions to Meteorology.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LeRoy Meisinger was a U.S. Weather Bureau meteorologist and aeronaut who worked vigorously to bring meteorology to the aid of aviation in the post-World War 1 period. He was killed at the age of 29 in a scientific ballooning accident that has been detailed in a companion paper by Lewis and Moore. Meisinger's personality and scientific profile are reconstructed by examination of his oeuvre, which contains research contributions augmented by popular articles in the magazines of the period.Meisinger's personal characteristics were those of a quiet, scholarly man with strong interests in science, music, and art. His experiences as a Signal Corps weather officer during World War 1 inclined him toward a career in meteorology. While stationed at the Fort Omaha Balloon School, he became intrigued with the possibilities of using the tree balloon as a platform for tracking air currents.As a research meteorologist with the U.S. Weather Bureau after the war, Meisinger melded adventurous scientific ballooning with the more painstaking and arduous task of scrutinizing data from the limited upper-air network of kite stations. His principal research contribution was a form of differential analysis that extrapolated surface data to the 1- and 2-km levels by using climatological statistics from the upper-air network. The impressive line of research he pioneered at the bureau came to an immediate and abrupt end with his accidental death in 1924.

Lewis, John M.

1995-01-01

381

Parasupersymmetric formulation of a three-level atom coupled to a f-deformed two-dimensional potential system: eigenstates, spectrum and accidental degeneracies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, within a parasupersymmetric and quantum deformed formalism, we continue studying a class of bound-state problems which represents the coupling of a three-level atom with a two-dimensional potential system, first introduced in Aleixo and Balantekin (2013 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46 055302). We obtain the solutions of the eigenvalue equation of the coupled system, determine its energy eigenvalues and their corresponding eigenstates. An illustrative application is worked out for a couple of shape-invariant potentials widely used to model quantum confined systems in several fields of physics assuming a simple form of the Tamm–Dancoff potential cutoff deformed formalism. We study the deformation effects on the splitting of the energy level produced by the coupling of the atomic system with the shape-invariant potential systems, considering the occurrence of degeneracy and accidental pairwise degeneracy in the energy levels of the coupled system.

Aleixo, A. N. F.; Balantekin, A. B.

2014-06-01

382

Astroglial networking contributes to neurometabolic coupling  

PubMed Central

The strategic position of astrocytic processes between blood capillaries and neurons, provided the early insight that astrocytes play a key role in supplying energy substrates to neurons in an activity-dependent manner. The central role of astrocytes in neurometabolic coupling has been first established at the level of single cell. Since then, exciting recent work based on cellular imaging and electrophysiological recordings has provided new mechanistic insights into this phenomenon, revealing the crucial role of gap junction (GJ)-mediated networks of astrocytes. Indeed, astrocytes define the local availability of energy substrates by regulating blood flow. Subsequently, in order to efficiently reach distal neurons, these substrates can be taken up, and distributed through networks of astrocytes connected by GJs, a process modulated by neuronal activity. Astrocytic networks can be morphologically and/or functionally altered in the course of various pathological conditions, raising the intriguing possibility of a direct contribution from these networks to neuronal dysfunction. The present review upgrades the current view of neuroglial metabolic coupling, by including the recently unravelled properties of astroglial metabolic networks and their potential contribution to normal and pathological neuronal activity.

Escartin, Carole; Rouach, Nathalie

2013-01-01

383

Effects of diurnal variations in temperature on non-accidental mortality among the elderly population of Montreal, Québec, 1984-2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The association between ambient temperature and mortality has been studied extensively. Recent data suggest an independent role of diurnal temperature variations in increasing daily mortality. Elderly adults—a growing subgroup of the population in developed countries—may be more susceptible to the effects of temperature variations. The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in diurnal temperature were associated with daily non-accidental mortality among residents of Montreal, Québec, who were 65 years of age and over during the period between 1984 and 2007. We used distributed lag non-linear Poisson models constrained over a 30-day lag period, adjusted for temporal trends, mean daily temperature, and mean daily concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and ozone to estimate changes in daily mortality with diurnal temperature. We found, over the 30 day lag period, a cumulative increase in daily mortality of 5.12 % [95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.02-10.49 %] for a change from 5.9 °C to 11.1 °C (25th to 75th percentiles) in diurnal temperature, and a 11.27 % (95%CI: 2.08-21.29 %) increase in mortality associated with an increase of diurnal temperature from 11.1 to 17.5 °C (75th to 99th percentiles). The results were relatively robust to adjustment for daily mean temperature. We found that, in Montreal, diurnal variations in temperature are associated with a small increase in non-accidental mortality among the elderly population. More studies are needed in different geographical locations to confirm this effect.

Vutcovici, Maria; Goldberg, Mark S.; Valois, Marie-France

2013-04-01

384

Effects of diurnal variations in temperature on non-accidental mortality among the elderly population of Montreal, Québec, 1984-2007.  

PubMed

The association between ambient temperature and mortality has been studied extensively. Recent data suggest an independent role of diurnal temperature variations in increasing daily mortality. Elderly adults-a growing subgroup of the population in developed countries-may be more susceptible to the effects of temperature variations. The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in diurnal temperature were associated with daily non-accidental mortality among residents of Montreal, Québec, who were 65 years of age and over during the period between 1984 and 2007. We used distributed lag non-linear Poisson models constrained over a 30-day lag period, adjusted for temporal trends, mean daily temperature, and mean daily concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and ozone to estimate changes in daily mortality with diurnal temperature. We found, over the 30 day lag period, a cumulative increase in daily mortality of 5.12 % [95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.02-10.49 %] for a change from 5.9 °C to 11.1 °C (25th to 75th percentiles) in diurnal temperature, and a 11.27 % (95%CI: 2.08-21.29 %) increase in mortality associated with an increase of diurnal temperature from 11.1 to 17.5 °C (75th to 99th percentiles). The results were relatively robust to adjustment for daily mean temperature. We found that, in Montreal, diurnal variations in temperature are associated with a small increase in non-accidental mortality among the elderly population. More studies are needed in different geographical locations to confirm this effect. PMID:23609901

Vutcovici, Maria; Goldberg, Mark S; Valois, Marie-France

2014-07-01

385

Autonomic Contribution to Blood Pressure and Metabolism in Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is associated with alterations in the autonomic nervous system that may contribute to the increase in blood pressure and resting energy expenditure present in this condition. To test this hypothesis, we induced autonomic withdrawal with the ganglionic blocker trimethaphan in 10 lean (323 years) and 10 obese (353 years) subjects. Systolic blood pressure fell more in obese compared with

Cyndya Shibao; Alfredo Gamboa; Andre Diedrich; Andrew C. Ertl; Kong Y. Chen; Daniel W. Byrne; Ginnie Farley; Sachin Y. Paranjape; Stephen N. Davis; Italo Biaggioni

2010-01-01

386

Short circuit current contribution for different wind turbine generator types  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important aspect of wind power plant (WPP) impact studies is to evaluate the short circuit (SC) current contribution of the plant into the transmission network under different fault conditions. This task can be challenging to protection engineers due to the topology differences between different types of wind turbine generators (WTGs) and the conventional generating units. This paper presents simulation

Eduard Muljadi; Nader A. Samaan; Vahan Gevorgian; Jun Li; Subbaiah Pasupulati

2010-01-01

387

Decomposition of the magnetoresistance of multilayers into ferromagneticand superparamagnetic contributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of both magnetic and magnetotransport properties is presented for electrodeposited multilayers prepared intentionally under conditions to make the superparamagnetic (SPM) magnetization contribution comparable to or larger than the ferromagnetic term. Based on a model elaborated for the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) of granular metals [N. Wiser, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 159, 119 (1996); B. Hickey , Phys. Rev. B.

I. Bakonyi; L. Péter; Z. Rolik; K. Kiss-Szabó; Z. Kupay; J. Tóth; L. F. Kiss; J. Pádár

2004-01-01

388

Contributive factors to aviation accidents.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to compare the results of aviation accident analyses performed by the Center for Investigation and Prevention of Aviation Accidents (CENIPA) with the method Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). The final reports of thirty-six general aviation accidents occurring between 2000 and 2005 in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil were analyzed and compared. CENIPA reports mentioned 163 contributive factors, while HFACS identified 370 factors. It was concluded that CENIPA reports did not contemplate the organizational factors associated with aviation accidents. PMID:21344127

Fajer, Marcia; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz de; Fischer, Frida Marina

2011-04-01

389

Contributions to Global Warming Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site comes from the World Resources Institute, "an environmental think tank that goes beyond research to find practical ways to protect the earth and improve people's lives." The site contains a map of the relative contribution of carbon dioxide emissions of different geographic areas, and is offered as part of WRI's Global Topics: Climate Change and Energy. The map, which depicts emissions from 1900-99 to reflect the estimated residence time of CO2 in the atmosphere, can be downloaded. The site also includes a table of the top CO2-producing countries and links to the data sources used to create the map.

390

Acid-sensing ion channels contribute to neurotoxicity.  

PubMed

Acidosis that occurs under pathological conditions not only affects intracellular signaling molecules, but also directly activates a unique family of ligand-gated ion channels: acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). ASICs are widely expressed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems and play roles in pain sensation, learning and memory, and fear conditioning. Overactivation of ASICs contributes to neurodegenerative diseases such as ischemic brain/spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. Thus, targeting ASICs might be a potential therapeutic strategy for these conditions. This mini-review focuses on the electrophysiology and pharmacology of ASICs and roles of ASICs in neuronal toxicity. PMID:24323724

Chu, Xiang-Ping; Grasing, Kenneth A; Wang, John Q

2014-02-01

391

Statistical Contributions to Proteomic Research  

PubMed Central

Proteomic profiling has the potential to impact the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of various diseases. A number of different proteomic technologies are available that allow us to look at many proteins at once, and all of them yield complex data that raise significant quantitative challenges. Inadequate attention to these quantitative issues can prevent these studies from achieving their desired goals, and can even lead to invalid results. In this chapter, we describe various ways the involvement of statisticians or other quantitative scientists in the study team can contribute to the success of proteomic research, and we outline some of the key statistical principles that should guide the experimental design and analysis of such studies.

Morris, Jeffrey S.; Baggerly, Keith A.; Gutstein, Howard B.; Coombes, Kevin R.

2012-01-01

392

Optimum contribution selection for conserved populations with historic migration  

PubMed Central

Background In recent decades, local varieties of domesticated animal species have been frequently crossed with economically superior breeds which has resulted in considerable genetic contributions from migrants. Optimum contribution selection by maximizing gene diversity while constraining breeding values of the offspring or vice versa could eventually lead to the extinction of local breeds with historic migration because maximization of gene diversity or breeding values would be achieved by maximization of migrant contributions. Therefore, other objective functions are needed for these breeds. Results Different objective functions and side constraints were compared with respect to their ability to reduce migrant contributions, to increase the genome equivalents originating from native founders, and to conserve gene diversity. Additionally, a new method for monitoring the development of effective size for breeds with incomplete pedigree records was applied. Approaches were compared for Vorderwald cattle, Hinterwald cattle, and Limpurg cattle. Migrant contributions could be substantially decreased for these three breeds, but the potential to increase the native genome equivalents is limited. Conclusions The most promising approach was constraining migrant contributions while maximizing the conditional probability that two alleles randomly chosen from the offspring population are not identical by descent, given that both descend from native founders.

2012-01-01

393

IDS contribution to ITRF2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of the forthcoming ITRF 2013, the IDS Combination Center is involved in the estimation of DORIS stations positions/velocities as well as Earth orientation parameters from DORIS data. These computations are based on the latest series of all of the 6 IDS Analysis Centers multi-satellite weekly SINEX solutions from January 1993 to December 2013. The primary objective of this study is to analyze the DORIS contribution to ITRF2013 in terms of (1) geocenter and scale solutions; (2) stations positions. Furthermore, we will focus on the impact of new standards such as the application of DORIS ground antennas phase laws in the data processing and improved modeling of DORIS ground beacon frequency variations. We will also address benefits of including new DORIS data in the IDS combination compared to ITRF2008, including data from new DORIS missions (e.g. Jason-2, Cryosat-2), as well as improved data for both Jason-1 and SPOT-5 where these satellite data are now corrected to accommodate perturbations introduced by the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). In addition we will compare this new DORIS ITRF realization to the previous realization (ITRF2008).

Moreaux, Guilhem; Lemoine, Frank; Willis, Pascal; Capdeville, Hugues; Otten, Michiel; Stepanek, Petr; Kuzin, Sergei; Ferrage, Pascale

2014-05-01

394

The microbial contribution to macroecology  

PubMed Central

There has been a recent explosion of research within the field of microbial ecology that has been fueled, in part, by methodological improvements that make it feasible to characterize microbial communities to an extent that was inconceivable only a few years ago. Furthermore, there is increasing recognition within the field of ecology that microorganisms play a critical role in the health of organisms and ecosystems. Despite these developments, an important gap still persists between the theoretical framework of macroecology and microbial ecology. We highlight two idiosyncrasies of microorganisms that are fundamental to understanding macroecological patterns and their mechanistic drivers. First, high dispersal rates provide novel opportunities to test the relative importance of niche, stochastic, and historical processes in structuring biological communities. Second, high speciation rates potentially lead to the convergence of ecological and evolutionary time scales. After reviewing these unique aspects, we discuss strategies for improving the conceptual integration of microbes into macroecology. As examples, we discuss the use of phylogenetic ecology as an integrative approach to explore patterns across the tree of life. Then we demonstrate how two general theories of biodiversity (i.e., the recently developed theory of stochastic geometry and the neutral theory) can be adapted to microorganisms. We demonstrate how conceptual models that integrate evolutionary and ecological mechanisms can contribute to the unification of microbial ecology and macroecology.

Barberan, Albert; Casamayor, Emilio O.; Fierer, Noah

2014-01-01

395

Molecular faunistics of accidental infections of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 (Monogenea) parasitic on salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout Salmo trutta L. in NW Russia.  

PubMed

Salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout S. trutta L. juveniles were examined for the presence of accidental monogenean ectoparasitic species of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 in the Baltic and White Sea basins of Russian Karelia in order to estimate the frequency of host-switching attempts on an ecological timescale. To collect phylogeographical information and for exact species identification, the parasites were characterised by nuclear internal transcribed spacer sequences of rDNA (ITS) and, for some species, also by their mitochondrial DNA (CO1 gene) sequences. Four accidental Gyrodactylus species were observed on salmon and brown trout. A few specimens of G. aphyae Malmberg, 1957, the normal host of which is the Eurasian minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (L.), were observed on lake salmon from the Rivers Kurzhma (Lake Kuito, White Sea basin) and Vidlitsa (Lake Ladoga, Baltic basin). G. lucii Kulakovskaya, 1952, a parasite of the northern pike Esox lucius L., was observed on salmon in the Kurzhma. In the River Vidlitsa, two specimens of G. papernai Ergens & Bychowsky, 1967, normally on stone loach Barbatula barbatula (L.), were found on salmon. On anadromous White Sea salmon in the River Pulonga in Chupa Bay, a few salmon parr carried small colonies of G. arcuatus Bychowsky, 1933, which were shown to have originated from the local three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L. consumed as prey. No specimens of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 were observed, although the Pulonga is the nearest salmon spawning river to the River Keret', which is heavily infected with introduced G. salaris. In the River Satulinoja, Lake Ladoga, three specimens of G. lotae Gusev, 1953, from burbot Lota lota (L.), were collected from a single brown trout S. trutta. All nonspecific gyrodactylid infections on salmonids were judged to be temporary, because only a few specimens were observed on each of the small number of infected fishes. The prevalence of endemic G. salaris was also low, only 1% (Nfish = 296) in Lake Onega and 0.7% (Nfish = 255) in Lake Ladoga, while brown trout specific Gyrodactylus species were not observed on any of the 429 trout examined from the Ladoga basin. The host-specific and unspecific burden of Gyrodactylus spp. on these 'glacial relict' populations of salmon and brown trout was very low, suggesting a generalised resistance against the co-evolved freshwater parasite community, or some kind of 'vaccination' effect. These hypotheses deserve further testing. PMID:18038199

Zietara, Marek S; Kuusela, Jussi; Veselov, Alexei; Lumme, Jaakko

2008-02-01

396

Initial conditions for small-field inflation  

SciTech Connect

Small-field inflation typically requires rather special initial conditions to commence. It is proposed that in models where the inflaton is an axionlike field, with a periodic contribution to the potential, there is a possibility of significantly enhancing the chances of inflation without any fine-tuning of initial conditions and with no additional fine-tuning of the dynamics beyond what is needed for the potential to support inflation in the first place.

Spalinski, Michal [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw, Poland and Physics Department, University of Bialystok, Bialystok (Poland)

2009-09-15

397

Pursuing the Pavlovian Contributions to Induction in Rats Responding for 1% Sucrose Reinforcement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated whether Pavlovian conditioning contributes, in the form of the response operandum serving as a conditioned stimulus, to the increase in the rate of response for 1% liquid-sucrose reinforcement when food-pellet reinforcement is upcoming. Rats were exposed to conditions in which sign tracking for 1% sucrose was…

Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Huls, Amber; Kulland, Ashley

2007-01-01

398

GENERALIZED AUTOREGRESSIVE CONDITIONAL HETEROSKEDASTICITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A natural generalization of the ARCH (Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedastic) process introduced in Engle (1982) to allow for past conditional variances in the current conditional variance equation is proposed. Stationarity conditions and autocorrelation structure for this new class of parametric models are derived. Maximum likelihood estimation and testing are also considered. Finally an empirical example relating to the uncertainty of the

Tim Bollerslev

1986-01-01

399

31 CFR 29.352 - Refunded contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...refunds of employee contributions made by police officers and firefighters through pay period 13. If pay period records are unavailable...of the retirement contributions made to police officers or firefighters in calendar year 1997. Otherwise, if the participant...

2013-07-01

400

Amateur Contributions to Eclipsing Binary Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both theoretical and observational contributions have been made by amateurs to the astronomy of eclipsing binary stars. The specific contributions of John Goodricke and Edward Pigott, J. Miller Barr, and Alexander Roberts illustrate this point.

Williams, Thomas R.

1986-06-01

401

45 CFR 1326.9 - Contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.9 Contributions. (a) Each tribal...coordinated services systems supported under this part, while using nutrition services contributions only to expand services as...

2013-10-01

402

45 CFR 1321.67 - Service contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...all contributions. (b) Each service provider shall use supportive services and nutrition services contributions to expand supportive services and nutrition services respectively. To that end, the State agency shall: (1) Permit...

2013-10-01

403

Financial Analysis of Defined Contribution Plans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study focuses on the rates of return of Defined Contribution (DC) plans, and compares plan types and characteristics in the sponsoring company against returns and contributions per active participants.

J. S. Park

1992-01-01

404

IDS contribution to ITRF2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time, the International DORIS Service (IDS) has produced a technique level combination based on the contributions of seven analysis centers (ACs), including the European Space Operations Center (ESOC), Geodetic Observatory Pecny (GOP), Geoscience Australia (GAU), the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the Institut Géographique National (IGN), the Institute of Astronomy, Russian Academy of Sciences (INASAN, named as INA), and CNES/CLS (named as LCA). The ACs used five different software packages to process the DORIS data from 1992 to 2008, including NAPEOS (ESA), Bernese (GOP), GEODYN (GAU, GSC), GIPSY/OASIS (INA), and GINS (LCA). The data from seven DORIS satellites, TOPEX/Poseidon, SPOT-2, SPOT-3, SPOT-4, SPOT-5, Envisat and Jason-1 were processed and all the analysis centers produced weekly SINEX files in either variance-covariance or normal equation format. The processing by the analysis centers used the latest GRACE-derived gravity models, forward modelling of atmospheric gravity, updates to the radiation pressure modelling to improve the DORIS geocenter solutions, denser parameterization of empirically determined drag coefficients to improve station and EOP solutions, especially near the solar maximum in 2001-2002, updated troposphere mapping functions, and an ITRF2005-derived station set for orbit determination, DPOD2005. The CATREF software was used to process the weekly AC solutions, and produce three iterations of an IDS global weekly combination. Between the development of the initial solution IDS-1, and the final solution, IDS-3, the ACs improved their analysis strategies and submitted updated solutions to eliminate troposphere-derived biases in the solution scale, to reduce drag-related degradations in station positioning, and to refine the estimation strategy to improve the combination geocenter solution. An analysis of the frequency content of the individual AC geocenter and scale solutions was used as the basis to define the scale and geocenter of the IDS-3 combination. The final IDS-3 combination has an internal position consistency (WRMS) that is 15 to 20 mm before 2002 and 8 to 10 mm after 2002, when 4 or 5 satellites contribute to the weekly solutions. The final IDS-3 combination includes solutions for 130 DORIS stations on 67 different sites of which 35 have occupations over 16 years (1993.0-2009.0). The EOPs from the IDS-3 combination were compared with the IERS 05 C04 time series and the RMS agreement was 0.24 mas and 0.35 mas for the X and Y components of polar motion. The comparison to ITRF2005 in station position shows an agreement of 6 to 8 mm RMS in horizontal and 10.3 mm in height. The RMS comparison to ITRF2005 in station velocity is at 1.8 mm/year on the East component, to 1.2 mm/year in North component and 1.6 mm/year in height.

Valette, Jean-Jacques; Lemoine, Frank G.; Ferrage, Pascale; Yaya, Philippe; Altamimi, Zuheir; Willis, Pascal; Soudarin, Laurent

2010-12-01

405

Indian contribution to behavior therapy  

PubMed Central

Publication of papers related to psycho-social interventions in general and Behavior Therapy, in particular, in Indian Journal of Psychiatry has been limited. Though the first paper related to Behavior Therapy was published in 1952, a manual search of all available issues of the journal from 1949 showed that only 42 papers related to Behavior Therapy have been published till 2009. Among them 10 are case reports. Methodological limitations abound even in the papers on larger groups of patients. Studies using operant conditioning have been very few. Aversion therapy and progressive muscle relaxation have been very frequently used. The published articles are reviewed under the various diagnostic categories. Publications in the recent years have been mostly on Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Even after 57 years of co-existence, the relationship between Behavior Therapy and Indian Psychiatry remains a tenuous one.

Kuruvilla, K.

2010-01-01

406

Indian contribution to behavior therapy.  

PubMed

Publication of papers related to psycho-social interventions in general and Behavior Therapy, in particular, in Indian Journal of Psychiatry has been limited. Though the first paper related to Behavior Therapy was published in 1952, a manual search of all available issues of the journal from 1949 showed that only 42 papers related to Behavior Therapy have been published till 2009. Among them 10 are case reports. Methodological limitations abound even in the papers on larger groups of patients. Studies using operant conditioning have been very few. Aversion therapy and progressive muscle relaxation have been very frequently used. The published articles are reviewed under the various diagnostic categories. Publications in the recent years have been mostly on Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Even after 57 years of co-existence, the relationship between Behavior Therapy and Indian Psychiatry remains a tenuous one. PMID:21836708

Kuruvilla, K

2010-01-01

407

Methane emissions and contaminant degradation rates at sites affected by accidental releases of denatured fuel-grade ethanol.  

PubMed

The recent increase in the use of denatured fuel-grade ethanol (DFE) has enhanced the probability of its environmental release. Due to the highly labile nature of ethanol (EtOH), it is expected to rapidly biodegrade, increasing the potential for inducing methanogenic conditions in the subsurface. As environmental releases of DFE can be expected to occur at the ground surface or in the vadose zone (e.g., due to surficial spills from rail lines or tanker trucks and leaking underground storage tanks), the potential for methane (CH4) generation at DFE spill sites requires evaluation. An assessment is needed because high CH4 generation rates may lead to CH4 fluxes towards the ground surface, which is of particular concern if spills are located close to human habitation-related to concerns of soil vapor intrusion (SVI). This work demonstrates, for the first time, the measurement of surficial gas release rates at large volume DFE spill sites. Two study sites, near Cambria and Balaton, in MN are investigated. Total carbon emissions at the ground surface (summing carbon dioxide (CO2) and CH4 emissions) are used to quantify depth-integrated DFE degradation rates. Results from both sites demonstrate that substantial CO2 and CH4 emissions do occur-even years after a spill. However, large total carbon fluxes, and CH4 emissions in particular, were restricted to a localized area within the DFE source zone. At the Balaton site, estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 5 and 174 ?mol m(-2) s(-1), and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 9 ?mol m(-2) s(-1). At the Cambria site estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 8 and 500 ?mol m(-2) s(-1), and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 393 ?mol m(-2) s(-1). Substantial CH4 accumulation, coupled with oxygen (O2) depletion, measured in samples collected from custom-designed gas collection chambers at the Cambria site suggests that the development of explosion or asphyxiation hazards is possible in confined spaces above a rapidly degrading DFE release. However, the results also indicate that the development of such hazards is locally constrained, will require a high degree of soil moisture, close proximity to the source zone, a good connection between the soil and the confined space, and poorly aerated conditions. PMID:23685780

Sihota, Natasha J; Mayer, K Ulrich; Toso, Mark A; Atwater, Joel F

2013-08-01

408

Orienting responses and GSR conditioning: A dilemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents 2 experiments which applied an orienting response (OR) analysis to GSR conditioning phenomena of CR acquisition and UCR diminution in 62 female undergraduates. The analysis focused on the stimulus properties of CS and UCS omission. A hypothetical response to UCS omission was suggested to affect CR measurement with short but not long interstimulus intervals (ISIs) thus contributing to the

P. Badia; R. H. Defran

1970-01-01

409

Early Modern Language Learning: Conditions of Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A language education specialist who has studied elementary school second language programs, primarily in France but also in other European countries, outlines the factors he has found contributing to program success and makes recommendations for further development of second language education in Europe. Seven conditions for effective programs of…

Girard, Denis

410

Trends of Non-Accidental, Cardiovascular, Stroke and Lung Cancer Mortality in Arkansas Are Associated with Ambient PM2.5 Reductions  

PubMed Central

The cardiovascular and stroke mortality rates in Arkansas are among the highest in the USA. The annual trends of stroke and cardiovascular mortality are barely correlated to smoking cessation; while the prevalence of risk factors such as obesity; cholesterol and hypertension increased over the 1979–2007 period. The study determined the effect of chronic exposure to PM2.5 on non-accidental; cardiovascular; stroke and lung cancer mortality in Arkansas over the 2000–2010 period using the World Health Organization’s log-linear health impact model. County chronic exposures to PM2.5 were computed by averaging spatially-resolved gridded concentrations using PM2.5 observations. A spatial uniformity was observed for PM2.5 mass levels indicating that chronic exposures were comparable throughout the state. The reduction of PM2.5 mass levels by 3.0 ?g/m3 between 2000 and 2010 explained a significant fraction of the declining mortality. The effect was more pronounced in southern and eastern rural Arkansas as compared to the rest of the state. This study provides evidence that the implementation of air pollution regulations has measurable effects on mortality even in regions with high prevalence of major risk factors such as obesity and smoking. These outcomes are noteworthy as efforts to modify the major risk factors require longer realization times.

Chalbot, Marie-Cecile G.; Jones, Tamara A.; Kavouras, Ilias G.

2014-01-01

411

Examining the relationship between processes of care and selected AHRQ patient safety indicators postoperative wound dehiscence and accidental puncture or laceration using the VA electronic medical record.  

PubMed

This study examines whether Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs) Postoperative Wound Dehiscence (PWD) and Accidental Puncture or Laceration (APL) events reflect problems with hospital processes of care (POC). The authors randomly selected 112 PSI-flagged PWD/APL discharges from 2002-2007 VA administrative data, identified true cases using chart review, and matched cases with controls. This yielded a total of 95 case-control pairs per PSI. Patient information and clinical processes on each case-control pair were abstracted from the electronic medical record (EMR). Although PWD cases and controls differed on incision and closure types, APL cases and controls were comparable in examined processes. Further exploration of the process differences between PWD cases and controls indicated that they were primarily caused by patients' underlying surgical problems rather than quality of care shortfalls. Documentation of POC was frequently missing in EMRs. Future studies should combine EMR review with alternative approaches, such as direct observation, to better assess POC. PMID:23007377

Chen, Qi; Borzecki, Ann M; Cevasco, Marisa; Shin, Marlena H; Shwartz, Michael; Itani, Kamal M F; Rosen, Amy K

2013-01-01

412

Use of natural radionuclides to determine the time range of the accidental melting of an orphan radioactive source in a steel recycling plant.  

PubMed

In the rare event that an orphan radioactive source is melted in an Electric Arc Furnace steel recycling plant, the radionuclides present are partitioned in the different products, by-products and waste. As a consequence of an unforeseen melting of a radiocesium source, cesium radioisotopes can be found in the dust, together with many natural radionuclides from the decay of radon and thoron, which are present in the atmosphere, picked up from the off-gas evacuation system and associated with the dust of the air filtration system ("baghouse"). In this work we verified that the activity concentration of ²¹²Pb in this dust is essentially constant in a specific factory so that it is possible to use it to date back to the time of the accidental melting of the orphan radioactive source. The main features of this method are described below, together with the application to a particular case in which this method was used for dating the moment in which the dust was contaminated with ¹³?Cs. PMID:22103976

Cantaluppi, Chiara; Ceccotto, Federica; Cianchi, Aldo

2012-02-01

413

Lattice QCD with open boundary conditions and twisted-mass reweighting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lattice QCD simulations at small lattice spacings and quark masses close to their physical values are technically challenging. In particular, the simulations can get trapped in the topological charge sectors of field space or may run into instabilities triggered by accidental near-zero modes of the lattice Dirac operator. As already noted in ref. [1], the first problem is bypassed if open boundary conditions are imposed in the time direction, while the second can potentially be overcome through twisted-mass determinant reweighting [2]. In this paper, we show that twisted-mass reweighting works out as expected in QCD with open boundary conditions and 2+1 flavours of O(a) improved Wilson quarks. Further algorithmic improvements are tested as well and a few physical quantities are computed for illustration.

Lüscher, Martin; Schaefer, Stefan

2013-03-01

414

Chronic Conditions and School  

MedlinePLUS

... and School Health Issues Listen Chronic Conditions and School Article Body My child has a chronic health condition. What do I need to tell the school? If your child has special health needs, the ...

415

Irreversibility and Conditional Probability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mathematical entropy - unlike physical entropy - is simply a measure of uniformity for probability distributions in general. So understood, conditional entropies have the same logical structure as conditional probabilities. If, as is sometimes suppose...

C. I. J. M. Stuart

1989-01-01

416

Knowledge Condition Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agents often interact strategically to meet conditions in- volving their own or other agents' knowledge. This interac- tion can be modeled using a new method of game construc- tion, knowledge condition games, introduced in this paper. Knowledge condition games are games in which a coali- tion of agents chooses its strategy in an extensive game form such that an epistemic

Sieuwert Van Otterloo; Wiebe Van Der Hoek; Michael Wooldridge

2006-01-01

417

Identifying Conditional Conservatism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides guidance for empiricists interested in measuring conditional conservatism and in interpreting associations of those measures with variables of interest. I begin by discussing the nature and importance of conditional conservatism and surveying the literature identifying conditional conservatism. I then describe and comment on the various limitations of asymmetric timeliness identified in the literature. Despite these limitations, I

Stephen G. Ryan

2006-01-01

418

Inflation of Conditional Predictions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors report 7 experiments indicating that conditional predictions--the assessed probability that a certain outcome will occur given a certain condition--tend to be markedly inflated. The results suggest that this inflation derives in part from backward activation in which the target outcome highlights aspects of the condition that are…

Koriat, Asher; Fiedler, Klaus; Bjork, Robert A.

2006-01-01

419

Canonical Conditional Rewrite Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditional equations have been studied for their use in the specification of abstract data types and as a computational paradigm that combines logic and function programming in a clean way. In this paper we examine different formulations of conditional equations as rewrite systems, compare their expressive power and give sufficient conditions for rewrite systems to have the \\

Nachum Dershowitz; Mitsuhiro Okada; G. Sivakumar I

1988-01-01

420

Satellite Contributions to Global Change Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By providing a global view with a level playing field (no region missed because of unfavorable surface conditions or political boundaries), satellites have made major contributions to improved monitoring and understanding of our constantly changing planet. The global view has allowed surprising realizations like the relative sparsity of lightning strikes over oceans and the large-scale undulations on the massive Antarctic ice sheet. It has allowed the tracking of all sorts of phenomena, including aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, as they move with the atmospheric circulation and impact weather and human health. But probably nothing that the global view allows is more important in the long term than its provision. of unbiased data sets to address the issue of global change, considered by many to be among the most important issues facing humankind today. With satellites we can monitor atmospheric temperatures at all latitudes and longitudes, and obtain a global average that lessens the likelihood of becoming endlessly mired in the confusions brought about by the certainty of regional differences. With satellites we can monitor greenhouse gases such as CO2 not just above individual research stations but around the globe. With satellites we can monitor the polar sea ice covers, as we have done since the late 1970s, determining and quantifying the significant reduction in Arctic sea ice and the slight growth in Antarctic sea ice over that period, With satellites we can map the full extent and changes in the Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletions that were first identified from using a single ground station; and through satellite data we have witnessed from afar land surface changes brought about by humans both intentionally, as with wide-scale deforestation, and unintentionally, as with the decay of the Aral Sea. The satellite data are far from sufficient for all that we need in order to understand the global system and forecast its changes, as we also need sophisticated climate models, in situ process studies, and data sets that extend back well before the introduction of satellite technology. Nonetheless, the repetitive, global view provided by satellites is contributing in a major way to our improved recognition of how the Earth im changing, a recognition that is none too soon in view of the magnitude of the impacts that humans can now have.

Parkinson, Claire L.

2009-01-01

421

Landscape Thresholds and the Condition of Northeastern Estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

Anthropogenic impacts to northeastern estuaries have been well documented and many researchers have quantified the associations between broad scale human land uses in contributing landscapes and impacted estuarine condition. However, associations alone are not adequate for ident...

422

Impact of pavement conditions on crash severity.  

PubMed

Pavement condition has been known as a key factor related to ride quality, but it is less clear how exactly pavement conditions are related to traffic crashes. The researchers used Geographic Information System (GIS) to link Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Crash Record Information System (CRIS) data and Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) data, which provided an opportunity to examine the impact of pavement conditions on traffic crashes in depth. The study analyzed the correlation between several key pavement condition ratings or scores and crash severity based on a large number of crashes in Texas between 2008 and 2009. The results in general suggested that poor pavement condition scores and ratings were associated with proportionally more severe crashes, but very poor pavement conditions were actually associated with less severe crashes. Very good pavement conditions might induce speeding behaviors and therefore could have caused more severe crashes, especially on non-freeway arterials and during favorable driving conditions. In addition, the results showed that the effects of pavement conditions on crash severity were more evident for passenger vehicles than for commercial vehicles. These results provide insights on how pavement conditions may have contributed to crashes, which may be valuable for safety improvement during pavement design and maintenance. Readers should notice that, although the study found statistically significant effects of pavement variables on crash severity, the effects were rather minor in reality as suggested by frequency analyses. PMID:23892046

Li, Yingfeng; Liu, Chunxiao; Ding, Liang

2013-10-01

423

Film tourism: sustained economic contributions to destinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to highlight the potential of film-induced tourism to provide sustained economic contribution to destinations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper takes the form of a literature review and identifies the economic contribution made by film-induced tourism. Findings – It is observed that film-induced tourism only provides a sustained economic contribution to destinations in exceptional

W. Glen Croy

2011-01-01

424

My NASA Data User Contributed Lesson 17: Analysis of Atmospheric Conditions for a High Mountain Retreat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to help students gain knowledge in accessing current weather data and in using the MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) to specify and download historical satellite data. Students then use the data to examine the relationship between altitude, atmospheric pressure, temperature and humidity at a particular location. In this lesson, weather data from ground-based and satellite observations are analyzed for a real world application -- to plan a high mountain retreat in Tibet. Students compare current weather balloon data for a specific location to historical weather data generated using the LAS. Students are asked to gather data for several months throughout the year for comparison. The lesson provides detailed procedure, related links, sample graphs, follow-up questions, extensions, and teacher notes.

Werhun, Laurissa

2010-08-18

425

Contributions of psychology to limiting climate change.  

PubMed

Psychology can make a significant contribution to limiting the magnitude of climate change by improving understanding of human behaviors that drive climate change and human reactions to climate-related technologies and policies, and by turning that understanding into effective interventions. This article develops a framework for psychological contributions, summarizes what psychology has learned, and sets out an agenda for making additional contributions. It emphasizes that the greatest potential for contributions from psychology comes not from direct application of psychological concepts but from integrating psychological knowledge and methods with knowledge from other fields of science and technology. PMID:21553955

Stern, Paul C

2011-01-01

426

7 CFR 1703.122 - Matching contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program § 1703.122 Matching contributions. (a) The grant applicant's minimum matching...

2011-01-01

427

7 CFR 1703.122 - Matching contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program § 1703.122 Matching contributions. (a) The grant applicant's minimum matching...

2010-01-01

428

7 CFR 1703.122 - Matching contributions.  

...Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program § 1703.122 Matching contributions. (a) The grant applicant's minimum matching...

2014-01-01

429

7 CFR 1703.122 - Matching contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program § 1703.122 Matching contributions. (a) The grant applicant's minimum matching...

2012-01-01

430

Self-Esteem Conditioning for Learning Conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose to introduce the self-esteem component within learning process. More precisely, we explore the effects of learner self-esteem conditioning in a tutoring system. Our approach is based on a subliminal priming method aiming at enhancing implicit self-esteem. An experiment was conducted while participants were outfitted with biofeedback device. Three physiological sensors were used to continuously monitor

Imene Jraidi; Maher Chaouachi; Claude Frasson

2010-01-01

431

Incorporation of therapeutic interventions in physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of human clinical case reports of accidental or intentional overdosing with ethylene glycol.  

PubMed

Although occupational uses of the high production volume (HPV) chemical ethylene glycol (EG) have not been associated with adverse effects, there are case reports where humans have either intentionally or accidentally ingested large quantities of EG, primarily from antifreeze. The acute toxicity of EG can proceed through three stages, each associated with a different metabolite: central nervous system depression (ethylene glycol), cardiopulmonary effects associated with metabolic acidosis (glycolic acid), and ultimately renal toxicity (oxalic acid), depending on the total amounts consumed and the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model developed in a companion paper (Corley et al., 2005). Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for ethylene glycol and its metabolite, glycolic acid, in rats and humans. Toxicol. Sci., in press 2005) was refined in this study to include clinically relevant treatment regimens for EG poisoning such as hemodialysis or metabolic inhibition with either ethanol or fomepizole. Such modifications enabled the model to describe data from several human case reports, confirming the ability of the previous model to describe the pharmacokinetics of EG and its metabolite, glycolic acid, in humans across a broad range of doses and multiple exposure routes. By integrating the case report data sets with controlled studies in this PBPK model, it was demonstrated that fomepizole, if administered early enough in a clinical situation, can be more effective than ethanol or hemodialysis in preventing the metabolism of EG to more toxic metabolites. Hemodialysis remains an important option, however, if treatment is instituted after a significant amount of EG is metabolized or if renal toxicity has occurred. PMID:15716481

Corley, R A; McMartin, K E

2005-05-01

432

Is FISH painting an appropriate biological marker for dose estimates of suspected accidental radiation overexposure? A review of cases investigated in France from 1995 to 1996.  

PubMed Central

From 1995 to 1996 about 15 people suspected of being overexposed to ionizing radiation were referred to the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection in Fontenay-aux-Roses, France, for investigation by chromosome aberration analysis. Biological estimates of accidental overexposure were first obtained by scoring radio-induced unstable structural chromosome aberrations (dicentrics, centric rings, and fragments) in peripheral blood lymphocytes. For dose estimates, the yield of these chromosomal aberrations observed in 500 metaphases was compared with the laboratory dose-response relationship established from human blood irradiated in vitro (gamma-rays, 60Co, 0.5 Gy/min). To extend the possibilities of detecting DNA damage from earlier exposures by visualizing stable chromosome aberrations, chromosome painting by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH painting) was developed using a cocktail of three composite whole human chromosome-specific DNA probes (numbers 2, 4, and 12). A laboratory calibration curve for scoring terminal and/or reciprocal translocations was established for the same radiation quality and dose rate as those used for conventional cytogenetics (gamma-rays, 60Co, 0.5 Gy/min). For dosimetry purposes, it was also important to verify whether FISH painting could be applied to each human blood sample assessed for conventional expertise. For each individual, 2000 metaphases were scored for the presence or absence of reciprocal and terminal translocations. We present here a comparison between the results obtained by the two technologies for each of the cases studied separately. We describe their similarities or differences and discuss the suitability of using FISH painting for routine expertise analysis. Images Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 2. C

Sorokine-Durm, I; Durand, V; Le Roy, A; Paillole, N; Roy, L; Voisin, P

1997-01-01

433

Monitoring perfluorinated surfactants in biota and surface water samples following an accidental release of fire-fighting foam into Etobicoke Creek.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated surfactants have emerged as priority environmental contaminants due to recent reports of their detection in environmental and biological matrices as well as concerns regarding their persistence and toxicity. In June 2000, 22000 L of fire retardant foam containing perfluorinated surfactants was accidentally released at L. B. Pearson International Airport, Toronto, ON, and subsequently entered into Etobicoke Creek, a tributary to Lake Ontario. A suite of analytical tools that include liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and 19F NMR were employed to characterize fish (common shiner, Notropus cornutus) and surface water samples collected following the discharge of the perfluorinated material. Total perfluoroalkanesulfonate (4, 6, and 8 carbons) concentrations in fish liver samples ranged from 2.00 to 72.9 microg/g, and total perfluorocarboxylate (5-14 carbons) concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 1.02 microg/g. In addition to fish samples, total perfluoroalkanesulfonate (6 and 8 carbons) concentrations were detected in creek water samples by LC/MS/MS over a 153 day sampling period with concentrations ranging from <0.017 to 2260 microg/L; perfluorooctanoate concentrations (<0.009-11.3 microg/L) were lower than those observed for the perfluoroalkane-sulfonates. By 19F NMR, the total perfluorinated surfactant concentrations in surface water samples ranged from < 10 to 17000 microg/L. A bioaccumulation factor range of 6300-125000 was calculated for perfluorooctanesulfonate, based on concentrations in fish liver and surface water. The residence time of perfluorooctanesulfonate in Etobicoke Creek as well as the high bioaccumulation in fish liver suggests that perfluorinated surfactants will persist and bioaccumulate following release into the aquatic environment. PMID:11883418

Moody, Cheryl A; Martin, Jonathan W; Kwan, Wai Chi; Muir, Derek C G; Mabury, Scott A

2002-02-15

434

Traits Contributing to the Autistic Spectrum  

PubMed Central

Background It is increasingly recognised that traits associated with autism reflect a spectrum with no clear boundary between typical and atypical behaviour. Dimensional traits are needed to investigate the broader autism phenotype. Methods and Principal Findings Ninety-three individual measures reflecting components of social, communication and repetitive behaviours characterising autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) were identified between the ages of 6 months and 9 years from the ALSPAC database. Using missing value imputation, data for 13,138 children were analysed. Factor analysis suggested the existence of 7 factors explaining 85% of the variance. The factors were labelled: verbal ability, language acquisition, social understanding, semantic-pragmatic skills, repetitive-stereotyped behaviour, articulation and social inhibition. Four factors (1, 3, 5 and 7) were specific to ASD being more strongly associated with this phenotype than other co-morbid conditions while other factors were more associated with learning difficulties and specific language impairment. Nevertheless, all 7 factors contributed independently to the explanation of ASD (p<0.001). Exploration of putative genetic causal factors such as variants in the CNTNAP2 gene showed a varying pattern of associations with these traits. An alternative predictive model of ASD was derived using four individual measures: the coherence subscale of the Children's Communication Checklist (9y), the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (91 m), repetitive behaviour (69 m) and the sociability subscale of the Emotionality Activity and Sociability measure (38 m). Although univarably these traits performed better than some factors, their combined explanations of ASD were similar (R2?=?0.48). Conclusions and Significance These results support the fractional nature of ASD with different aetiological origins for these components despite pleiotropic genetic effects being observed. These traits are likely to be useful in the exploration of ASD.

Steer, Colin D.; Golding, Jean; Bolton, Patrick F.

2010-01-01

435