Science.gov

Sample records for accidental conditions contribution

  1. Computational modeling for hexcan failure under core distruptive accidental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada, T.; Ninokata, H.; Shimizu, A.

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes the development of computational modeling for hexcan wall failures under core disruptive accident conditions of fast breeder reactors. A series of out-of-pile experiments named SIMBATH has been analyzed by using the SIMMER-II code. The SIMBATH experiments were performed at KfK in Germany. The experiments used a thermite mixture to simulate fuel. The test geometry of SIMBATH ranged from single pin to 37-pin bundles. In this study, phenomena of hexcan wall failure found in a SIMBATH test were analyzed by SIMMER-II. Although the original model of SIMMER-II did not calculate any hexcan failure, several simple modifications made it possible to reproduce the hexcan wall melt-through observed in the experiment. In this paper the modifications and their significance are discussed for further modeling improvements.

  2. Framework for preventing accidental falls in hospitals - management plan for ADL, medication and medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shogo; Tsuru, Satoko; Iizuka, Yoshinori

    2009-01-01

    Prevention and reduction of medical accidents is essential. Among medical accidents, accidental falls remain a serious problem. While "assessment score sheets" have already been used in hospitals to prevent accidental falls, satisfactory results have not actually been achieved. In this study, we aim to establish a methodology for preventing accidental falls. We consider that the 'management plan' for each patient includes three factors. A plan of instructions for patients on actions they can take for safety in their ADL (Activities of Daily Living) is essential as a base. Second, a plan to keep up with any short term change in a patient's state is needed, because the state of a hospitalized patient will usually be temporarily affected by medication and changing medical conditions. We develop a model for preventing accidental falls, which enable us to design appropriate management plan for each patient. Then, we develop a prototype system based on the designed model. Finally, we address the result of verification of the model, by applying the prototype system into actual cases in hospitals. PMID:19592884

  3. [Great discoveries: from the painstaking efforts of researchers to the contribution of accidental findings and the dissemination of study results].

    PubMed

    Garattini, Silvio

    2015-06-01

    This article takes its cue from the original work of sir Alexander Fleming on penicillin, published in the first issue of Recenti Progressi in Medicina in 1946 and reproduced here on the occasion of the approaching 70-year anniversary of the journal. The path that brought Fleming to the discovery of penicillin, one of the major milestones in the history of clinical pharmacology, provides insight for a range of considerations: the painstaking efforts of researchers, the contribution from accidental findings, and the dissemination of study results. Although the discovery of penicillin has changed the course of medicine, the benefits deriving from such an important advance are most likely to be offset by the overprescription of antibiotics, which is the leading cause of antimicrobial resistance and one of the most serious public health problems of our time. PMID:26076415

  4. Effects of meteorological conditions on the concentration and dispersion of an accidental release of H2S in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah A.; Chan, Keziah; Elkamel, Ali; Ahmadi, Lena

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of the land's meteorological conditions on the dispersion of an accidental release of H2S using the CALPro software. The three Canadian cities or towns of Edmonton, Yarmouth and Whitehorse, which are all of different meteorological conditions, were chosen as the domains of study. Hourly geophysical, surface and upper air meteorological data were used with CALMET to model the wind field of the three domains for the modeling period of March 11, 2012 from 00h00 to 23h00 LST. Individual 5-h modeling periods where the wind field showed the most significant variations were chosen for each region of study. CALPUFF was used to model the dispersion effects of an accidental release of H2S from a single point source due to an accidental vessel puncture using time-varying emission data modified to suit each region's modeling period. Despite the wind reversal encountered in Edmonton, its relatively flat terrain allowed H2S to disperse outwards, causing concentrations to accumulate lower than the other two regions but still to sever levels and a much greater population. Differences between the effect of land and sea breeze on H2S dispersion in Yarmouth's coastal region caused concentrations to accumulate higher than the other two regions and to life threatening levels around the source. The mountainous terrain of Whitehorse shaped the plume trajectory, causing H2S concentrations to accumulate to levels that can cause irreversible health effects at various times and locations. Results show that each area's meteorological conditions will have different impacts on dispersion.

  5. Effect of wet-cold weather transportation conditions on thermoregulation and the development of accidental hypothermia in pullets under tropical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minka, Ndazo S.; Ayo, Joseph O.

    2015-07-01

    The present study examines onboard thermal microclimatic conditions and thermoregulation of pullets exposed to accidental hypothermia during wet-cold weather transportation conditions, and the effect of rewarming on colonic temperature (CT) of the birds immediately after transportation. A total of 2200 pullets were transportation for 5 h in two separate vehicles during the nighttime. The last 3 h of the transportation period was characterized by heavy rainfall. During the precipitation period, each vehicle was covered one fourth way from the top-roof with a tarpaulin. The onboard thermal conditions inside the vehicles during transportation, which comprised ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded, while humidity ratio and specific enthalpy were calculated. The CT of the birds was recorded before and after transportation. During transportation, onboard thermal heterogeneity was observed inside the vehicles with higher (p < 0.05) values in the front and center, and lower values recorded at the air inlets at the sides and rear planes. The CT values recorded in birds at the front and center planes were between 42.2 and 42.5 °C, indicative of mild hypothermia; while lower CT values between 28 and 38 °C were recorded at the sides and rear planes, indicative of mild to severe hypothermia. Several hours of gradual rewarming returned the CT to normal range. The result, for the first time, demonstrated the occurrence of accidental hypothermia in transported pullets under tropical conditions and a successful rewarming outcome. In conclusion, transportation of pullets during wet weather at onboard temperature of 18-20 °C induced hypothermia on birds located at the air inlets, which recovered fully after several hours of gradual rewarming.

  6. Accidental Pinhole and Pinspeck Cameras

    E-print Network

    Torralba, Antonio

    We identify and study two types of “accidental” images that can be formed in scenes. The first is an accidental pinhole camera image. The second class of accidental images are “inverse” pinhole camera images, formed by ...

  7. Prevention of accidental exposure in radiotherapy: the risk matrix approach.

    PubMed

    Vilaragut, J J; Duménigo, C; Delgado, J M; Morales, J; McDonnell, J D; Ferro, R; Ortiz López, P; Ramírez, M L; Pérez Mulas, A; Papadopulos, S; Gonçalves, M; López Morones, R; Sánchez Cayuela, C; Cascajo Castresana, A; Somoano, F; Álvarez, C; Guillén, A; Rodríguez, M; Pereira, P P; Nader, A

    2013-02-01

    Knowledge and lessons from past accidental exposures in radiotherapy are very helpful in finding safety provisions to prevent recurrence. Disseminating lessons is necessary but not sufficient. There may be additional latent risks for other accidental exposures, which have not been reported or have not occurred, but are possible and may occur in the future if not identified, analyzed, and prevented by safety provisions. Proactive methods are available for anticipating and quantifying risk from potential event sequences. In this work, proactive methods, successfully used in industry, have been adapted and used in radiotherapy. Risk matrix is a tool that can be used in individual hospitals to classify event sequences in levels of risk. As with any anticipative method, the risk matrix involves a systematic search for potential risks; that is, any situation that can cause an accidental exposure. The method contributes new insights: The application of the risk matrix approach has identified that another group of less catastrophic but still severe single-patient events may have a higher probability, resulting in higher risk. The use of the risk matrix approach for safety assessment in individual hospitals would provide an opportunity for self-evaluation and managing the safety measures that are most suitable to the hospital's own conditions. PMID:23274816

  8. Is the tribimaximal mixing accidental?

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Mohammed; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2010-07-01

    The tribimaximal (TBM) mixing is not accidental if structures of the corresponding leptonic mass matrices follow immediately from certain (residual or broken) flavor symmetry. We develop a simple formalism which allows one to analyze effects of deviations of the lepton mixing from TBM on the structure of the neutrino mass matrix and on the underlying flavor symmetry. We show that possible deviations from the TBM mixing can lead to strong modifications of the mass matrix and strong violation of the TBM-mass relations. As a result, the mass matrix may have an 'anarchical' structure with random values of elements or it may have some symmetry that differs from the TBM symmetry. Interesting examples include matrices with texture zeros, matrices with certain 'flavor alignment' as well as hierarchical matrices with a two-component structure, where the dominant and subdominant contributions have different symmetries. This opens up new approaches to understanding the lepton mixing.

  9. Accidental Kähler moduli inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maharana, Anshuman; Rummel, Markus; Sumitomo, Yoske

    2015-09-01

    We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small Kähler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil Kähler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model.

  10. Accidental inflation in the landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Metallinos, Konstantinos; Gomez-Reino, Marta E-mail: marta.gomez-reino.perez@cern.ch

    2013-02-01

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P{sup 4}{sub [1,1,1,6,9]} by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

  11. Accidental mobile phone card ingestion.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Sudesh; Mekwan, Jayanand; Brayley, Nigel F

    2009-01-01

    Accidental overdose, poisoning and foreign-body ingestion are common presentations to the emergency department. Usually, the ingested material is a common drug or household product. We present an unusual case of accidental ingestion where the foreign body was a mobile phone simulation (SIM) card. PMID:21686554

  12. Contribution of water chemistry and fish condition to otolith chemistry: comparisons across salinity environments.

    PubMed

    Izzo, C; Doubleday, Z A; Schultz, A G; Woodcock, S H; Gillanders, B M

    2015-06-01

    This study quantified the per cent contribution of water chemistry to otolith chemistry using enriched stable isotopes of strontium ((86) Sr) and barium ((137) Ba). Euryhaline barramundi Lates calcarifer, were reared in marine (salinity 40), estuarine (salinity 20) and freshwater (salinity 0) under different temperature treatments. To calculate the contribution of water to Sr and Ba in otoliths, enriched isotopes in the tank water and otoliths were quantified and fitted to isotope mixing models. Fulton's K and RNA:DNA were also measured to explore the influence of fish condition on sources of element uptake. Water was the predominant source of otolith Sr (between 65 and 99%) and Ba (between 64 and 89%) in all treatments, but contributions varied with temperature (for Ba), or interactively with temperature and salinity (for Sr). Fish condition indices were affected independently by the experimental rearing conditions, as RNA:DNA differed significantly among salinity treatments and Fulton's K was significantly different between temperature treatments. Regression analyses did not detect relations between fish condition and per cent contribution values. General linear models indicated that contributions from water chemistry to otolith chemistry were primarily influenced by temperature and secondly by fish condition, with a relatively minor influence of salinity. These results further the understanding of factors that affect otolith element uptake, highlighting the necessity to consider the influence of environment and fish condition when interpreting otolith element data to reconstruct the environmental histories of fish. PMID:26033292

  13. Glacial conditions that contribute to the regeneration of Fountain Glacier proglacial icing, Bylot Island, Canada

    E-print Network

    Moorman, Brian

    accretion and hydro-thermal erosion. The storage and conduction of the glacial meltwater involvedGlacial conditions that contribute to the regeneration of Fountain Glacier proglacial icing, Bylot icing; glacial hydrology; permafrost hydrology; GPR Received 10 September 2011; Accepted 7 February 2013

  14. Accidental poisoning with biodiesel preservative biocide

    PubMed Central

    Aslanidis, T; Ourailoglou, V; Boultoukas, E; Giannakou-Peftoulidou, M

    2014-01-01

    Although biodiesel fuels’ use is getting more and more popular, there are only few reports in the literature of poisoning with such agents, and none referring to their preservatives: biocides. We present the management of a 49-year-old Caucasian male who was admitted, after accidental ingestion of biocide solution, in the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital. In spite of his devastating condition upon arrival to the hospital, he had a remarkable recovery with no local or systemic sequel due to multidisciplinary and early supportive approach of his care. PMID:25336882

  15. Urban contribution of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants to streams during differing flow conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, D.W.; Skopec, M.; Meyer, M.T.; Furlong, E.T.; Zaugg, S.D.

    2004-01-01

    During 2001, 76 water samples were collected upstream and downstream of select towns and cities in Iowa during high-, normal- and low-flow conditions to determine the contribution of urban centers to concentrations of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) in streams under varying flow conditions. The towns ranged in population from approximately 2000 to 200000. Overall, one or more OWCs were detected in 98.7% of the samples collected, with 62 of the 105 compounds being found. The most frequently detected compounds were metolachlor (pesticide), cholesterol (plant and animal sterol), caffeine (stimulant), ??-sitosterol (plant sterol) and 1,7-dimethylxanthine (caffeine degradate). The number of OWCs detected decreased as streamflow increased from low- (51 compounds detected) to normal- (28) to high-flow (24) conditions. Antibiotics and other prescription drugs were only frequently detected during low-flow conditions. During low-flow conditions, 15 compounds (out of the 23) and ten compound groups (out of 11) detected in more than 10% of the streams sampled had significantly greater concentrations in samples collected downstream than in those collected upstream of the urban centers. Conversely, no significant differences in the concentrations were found during high-flow conditions. Thus, the urban contribution of OWCs to streams became progressively muted as streamflow increased. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. History of accidental hypothermia?

    PubMed Central

    Guly, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Death from exposure to cold has been recognised for thousands of years but hypothermia as a clinical condition was not generally recognised until the mid-20th century and then only in extreme conditions such as immersion in cold water or snow. In the UK, hypothermia in less extreme conditions was not generally recognised until the 1960s. Recognition of hypothermia required the temperature to be measured and this did not become a clinical tool until the late 1800s and it was not used routinely until the early 1900s. Although John Hunter and James Curry did some physiological experiments in the 1700s, detailed physiological experiments were not done until the early 20th century and the use of therapeutic hypothermia for malignancy and in anaesthesia in the 1930s and 1940s provided more impetus for investigating the physiology of hypothermia in humans and familiarising the medical profession with measuring core temperatures. PMID:21036455

  17. The influence of surface boundary conditions on the phonon contribution to the melting temperature of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Kang, Kai; Qin, Shaojing

    2016-01-01

    The phonon thermal contribution to the melting temperature of nano-particles is inspected. Unlike in periodic boundary condition, under a general boundary condition the integration volume of low energy phonon for a nano-particle is more complex. We estimate the size-dependent melting temperature through the phase shift of the low energy phonon mode acquired by its scattering on boundary surface. A nano-particle can have either a rising or a decreasing melting temperature due to the boundary condition effect, and we found that an upper melting temperature bound exists for a nano-particle in various environments. Moreover, the melting temperature under a fixed boundary condition sets this upper bound.

  18. Daytime and nighttime groundwater contributions to soils with different surface conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xuguang; Ma, Xiaoyi; Shi, Wenjuan

    2015-08-01

    Contributions of groundwater to the soil-water balance play an important role in areas with shallow water tables. The characteristics of daytime and nighttime water flux using non-weighing lysimeters were studied from June to September 2012 and 2013 in the extremely arid Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in northwestern China. The study consisted of nine treatments: three surface conditions, bare soil and cotton plants, each with water tables at depths of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 m; and plastic mulch with a water table at 1.5 m but with three percentages of open areas (POAs) in the plastic. The groundwater supply coefficient (SC) and the groundwater contribution (GC) generally varied with surface conditions. Both SC and GC decreased in the bare-soil and cotton treatments with increasing depth of the groundwater. Both SC and GC increased in the plastic-mulch treatment with increasing POA. Average nighttime GCs in the bare-soil treatments in July and August (the midsummer months) were 50.8-60.8 and 53.2-65.3 %, respectively, of the total daily contributions. Average nighttime GCs in the cotton treatments in July and August were 51.4-60.2 and 51.5-58.1 %, respectively, of the total daily contributions. The average GCs in June and September, however, were lower at night than during the daytime. Soil temperature may thus play a more important role than air temperature in the upflow of groundwater.

  19. Resistance of Microorganisms to Extreme Environmental Conditions and Its Contribution to Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampelotto, Pabulo Henrique

    2010-06-01

    In the last decades, substantial changes have occurred regarding what scientists consider the limits of habitable environmental conditions. For every extreme environmental condition investigated, a variety of microorganisms have shown that not only can they tolerate these conditions, but that they also often require these extreme conditions for survival. Microbes can return to life even after hundreds of millions of years. Furthermore, a variety of studies demonstrate that microorganisms can survive under extreme conditions, such as ultracentrifugation, hypervelocity, shock pressure, high temperature variations, vacuums, and different ultraviolet and ionizing radiation intensities, which simulate the conditions that microbes could experience during the ejection from one planet, the journey through space, as well as the impact in another planet. With these discoveries, our knowledge about the biosphere has grown and the putative boundaries of life have expanded. The present work examines the recent discoveries and the principal advances concerning the resistance of microorganisms to extreme environmental conditions, and analyzes its contributions to the development of the main themes of astrobiology: the origins of life, the search for extraterrestrial life, and the dispersion of life in the Universe.

  20. Contribution of air conditioning adoption to future energy use under global warming

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Lucas W.; Gertler, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    As household incomes rise around the world and global temperatures go up, the use of air conditioning is poised to increase dramatically. Air conditioning growth is expected to be particularly strong in middle-income countries, but direct empirical evidence is scarce. In this paper we use high-quality microdata from Mexico to describe the relationship between temperature, income, and air conditioning. We describe both how electricity consumption increases with temperature given current levels of air conditioning, and how climate and income drive air conditioning adoption decisions. We then combine these estimates with predicted end-of-century temperature changes to forecast future energy consumption. Under conservative assumptions about household income, our model predicts near-universal saturation of air conditioning in all warm areas within just a few decades. Temperature increases contribute to this surge in adoption, but income growth by itself explains most of the increase. What this will mean for electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions depends on the pace of technological change. Continued advances in energy efficiency or the development of new cooling technologies could reduce the energy consumption impacts. Similarly, growth in low-carbon electricity generation could mitigate the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. However, the paper illustrates the enormous potential impacts in this sector, highlighting the importance of future research on adaptation and underscoring the urgent need for global action on climate change. PMID:25918391

  1. Contribution of air conditioning adoption to future energy use under global warming.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lucas W; Gertler, Paul J

    2015-05-12

    As household incomes rise around the world and global temperatures go up, the use of air conditioning is poised to increase dramatically. Air conditioning growth is expected to be particularly strong in middle-income countries, but direct empirical evidence is scarce. In this paper we use high-quality microdata from Mexico to describe the relationship between temperature, income, and air conditioning. We describe both how electricity consumption increases with temperature given current levels of air conditioning, and how climate and income drive air conditioning adoption decisions. We then combine these estimates with predicted end-of-century temperature changes to forecast future energy consumption. Under conservative assumptions about household income, our model predicts near-universal saturation of air conditioning in all warm areas within just a few decades. Temperature increases contribute to this surge in adoption, but income growth by itself explains most of the increase. What this will mean for electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions depends on the pace of technological change. Continued advances in energy efficiency or the development of new cooling technologies could reduce the energy consumption impacts. Similarly, growth in low-carbon electricity generation could mitigate the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. However, the paper illustrates the enormous potential impacts in this sector, highlighting the importance of future research on adaptation and underscoring the urgent need for global action on climate change. PMID:25918391

  2. Conditionally rare taxa disproportionately contribute to temporal changes in microbial diversity.

    PubMed

    Shade, Ashley; Jones, Stuart E; Caporaso, J Gregory; Handelsman, Jo; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah; Gilbert, Jack A

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities typically contain many rare taxa that make up the majority of the observed membership, yet the contribution of this microbial "rare biosphere" to community dynamics is unclear. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of 3,237 samples from 42 time series of microbial communities from nine different ecosystems (air; marine; lake; stream; adult human skin, tongue, and gut; infant gut; and brewery wastewater treatment), we introduce a new method to detect typically rare microbial taxa that occasionally become very abundant (conditionally rare taxa [CRT]) and then quantify their contributions to temporal shifts in community structure. We discovered that CRT made up 1.5 to 28% of the community membership, represented a broad diversity of bacterial and archaeal lineages, and explained large amounts of temporal community dissimilarity (i.e., up to 97% of Bray-Curtis dissimilarity). Most of the CRT were detected at multiple time points, though we also identified "one-hit wonder" CRT that were observed at only one time point. Using a case study from a temperate lake, we gained additional insights into the ecology of CRT by comparing routine community time series to large disturbance events. Our results reveal that many rare taxa contribute a greater amount to microbial community dynamics than is apparent from their low proportional abundances. This observation was true across a wide range of ecosystems, indicating that these rare taxa are essential for understanding community changes over time. Importance: Microbial communities and their processes are the foundations of ecosystems. The ecological roles of rare microorganisms are largely unknown, but it is thought that they contribute to community stability by acting as a reservoir that can rapidly respond to environmental changes. We investigated the occurrence of typically rare taxa that very occasionally become more prominent in their communities ("conditionally rare"). We quantified conditionally rare taxa in time series from a wide variety of ecosystems and discovered that not only were conditionally rare taxa present in all of the examples, but they also contributed disproportionately to temporal changes in diversity when they were most abundant. This result indicates an important and general role for rare microbial taxa within their communities. PMID:25028427

  3. Non-Gaussian initial conditions in ?CDM: Newtonian, relativistic, and primordial contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Bruni, Marco; Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Meures, Nikolai; Wands, David

    2014-04-10

    The goal of the present paper is to set initial conditions for structure formation at nonlinear order, consistent with general relativity, while also allowing for primordial non-Gaussianity. We use the nonlinear continuity and Raychaudhuri equations, which together with the nonlinear energy constraint, determine the evolution of the matter density fluctuation in general relativity. We solve this equations at first and second order in a perturbative expansion, recovering and extending previous results derived in the matter-dominated limit and in the Newtonian regime. We present a second-order solution for the comoving density contrast in a ?CDM universe, identifying nonlinear contributions coming from the Newtonian growing mode, primordial non-Gaussianity and intrinsic non-Gaussianity, due to the essential nonlinearity of the relativistic constraint equations. We discuss the application of these results to initial conditions in N-body simulations, showing that relativistic corrections mimic a non-zero nonlinear parameter f {sub NL}.

  4. Alcohol use and misuse: What are the contributions of occupation and work organization conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Marchand, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Background This research examines the specific contribution of occupation and work organization conditions to alcohol use and misuse. It is based on a social-action model that takes into account agent personality, structures of daily life, and macro social structures. Methods Data come from a representative sample of 10,155 workers in Quebec, Canada. Multinomial regression models corrected for sample design effect have been used to predict low-risk and high-risk drinking compared to non-drinkers. The contribution of occupation and work organization conditions (skill used, decision authority, physical and psychological demands, hours worked, irregular work schedule, harassment, unionization, job insecurity, performance pay, prestige) have been adjusted for family situation, social network outside the workplace, and individual characteristics. Results Compared to non-qualified blue-collars, both low-risk and high-risk drinking are associated with qualified blue-collars, semi-qualified white-collars, and middle managers; high-risk drinking is associated with upper managers. For constraints-resources related to work organization conditions, only workplace harassment is an important determinant of both low-risk and high-risk drinking, but it is modestly moderated by occupation. Family situation, social support outside work, and personal characteristics of individuals are also associated with alcohol use and misuse. Non-work factors mediated/suppressed the role of occupation and work organization conditions. Conclusion Occupation and workplace harassment are important factors associated with alcohol use and misuse. The results support the theoretical model conceptualizing alcohol use and misuse as being the product of stress caused by constraints and resources brought to bear simultaneously by agent personality, structures of daily life, and macro social structures. Occupational alcohol researchers must expand their theoretical perspectives to avoid erroneous conclusions about the specific role of the workplace. PMID:18816388

  5. Dorsal medial prefrontal cortex contributes to conditioned taste aversion memory consolidation and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Maria Carolina; Villar, Maria Eugenia; Igaz, Lionel M; Viola, Haydée; Medina, Jorge H

    2015-12-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is known for its role in decision making and memory processing, including the participation in the formation of extinction memories. However, little is known regarding its contribution to aversive memory consolidation. Here we demonstrate that neural activity and protein synthesis are required in the dorsal mPFC for memory formation of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) task and that this region is involved in the retrieval of recent and remote long-term CTA memory. In addition, both NMDA receptor and CaMKII activity in dorsal mPFC are needed for CTA memory consolidation, highlighting the complexity of mPFC functions. PMID:26493441

  6. Melanocortin 4 receptor mutations contribute to the adaptation of cavefish to nutrient-poor conditions.

    PubMed

    Aspiras, Ariel C; Rohner, Nicolas; Martineau, Brian; Borowsky, Richard L; Tabin, Clifford J

    2015-08-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding of morphological evolution, the genetic underpinnings of behavioral and physiological evolution remain largely unknown. Here, we study the metabolic changes that evolved in independently derived populations of the Mexican cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus. A hallmark of cave environments is scarcity of food. Cavefish populations rely almost entirely on sporadic food input from outside of the caves. To survive under these conditions, cavefish have evolved a range of adaptations, including starvation resistance and binge eating when food becomes available. The use of these adaptive strategies differs among independently derived cave populations. Although all cavefish populations tested lose weight more slowly than their surface conspecifics during restricted rations, only a subset of cavefish populations consume more food than their surface counterparts. A candidate gene-based screen led to the identification of coding mutations in conserved residues of the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene, contributing to the insatiable appetite found in some populations of cavefish. Intriguingly, one of the mutated residues has been shown to be linked to obesity in humans. We demonstrate that the allele results in both reduced maximal response and reduced basal activity of the receptor in vitro. We further validate in vivo that the mutated allele contributes to elevated appetite, growth, and starvation resistance. The allele appears to be fixed in cave populations in which the overeating phenotype is present. The presence of the same allele in multiple caves appears to be due to selection from standing genetic variation present in surface populations. PMID:26170297

  7. Platelet PI3K? Contributes to Carotid Intima-Media Thickening under Severely Reduced Flow Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cuiping; Jin, Rong; Nanda, Anil; Yan, Jinchuan; Li, Guohong

    2015-01-01

    Studies have begun to focus on the emerging function of platelets as immune and inflammatory cells that initiate and accelerate vascular inflammation. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3K?) is critically involved in a number of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. This study aims to investigate the contribution of platelet PI3K? to vascular remodeling under flow severely reduced conditions. Mouse partial left carotid artery ligation with adoptive transfer of activated, washed wild-type or PI3K?-/- platelets was used as the model. Intima-media area, leukocyte recruitment, and proinflammatory mediator expression were assessed. In vitro PI3K?-/- platelets were used to verify the effect of PI3K? on platelet activation, interaction with leukocytes, and endothelial cells. Mice injected with activated platelets showed a significant increase in intima-media thickening, recruitment of neutrophils (at 3 d) and macrophages (at 21 d), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-6 expression (at 3 d) in the flow-reduced area. These effects were abrogated by platelet PI3K? deficiency. Circulating platelet-leukocyte aggregates were reduced in PI3K?-/- mice after partial ligation. In vivo data confirmed that PI3K? mediated Adenine di-Phosphate -induced platelet activation through the Akt and p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways. Moreover, platelet PI3K? deficiency reduced platelet-leukocyte aggregation and platelet-endothelial cell (EC) interaction. These findings indicate that platelet PI3K? contributes to platelet-mediated vascular inflammation and carotid intima-media thickening after flow severely reduced. Platelet PI3K? may be a new target in the treatment of vascular diseases. PMID:26053836

  8. BASIC ACCIDENTAL DEATH AND DISMEMBERMENT INSURANCE PLAN

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    BASIC ACCIDENTAL DEATH AND DISMEMBERMENT INSURANCE PLAN "Every year in Ontario, over 100. The coverage includes: § benefits for an accidental death or injury and § medical/dental benefits to treat: $100,000.00 In the event of your death, the Benefit Amount is payable to the beneficiary you have

  9. Accidental decapitation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Serafettin; Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Erkol, Zerrin; Gunaydin, Gursel

    2009-09-01

    We report a case of an accidental decapitation of an agriculture worker in a field. The scene investigation revealed that the worker had loosely tied a scarf tied over his face in an attempt to diminish his exposure to barley dust, to which he was allergic, while distributing the barley loads with a shovel upon a trailer. The trailer was simultaneously being loaded by a helix elevator machine and its rotating shaft suddenly caught the victim's scarf and pulled it down to the victim's neck. The rotating motion immediately tightened the scarf around the neck resulting in hanging/strangulation noose that, by continued tightening, caused decapitation of the victim. The victim's body was found on the ground by the trailer and the victim's head was discovered in the barley load in the trailer. Examination revealed that the neck was severed at the level of the second and third cervical vertebrae. PMID:19696584

  10. Accidental firearm fatalities during hunting.

    PubMed

    Ornehult, L; Eriksson, A

    1987-06-01

    Swedish legislation concerning firearms is highly restrictive. It is illegal to possess weapons (except airguns) without a license. From 1970 through 1982, there were 79 accidental firearm fatalities in Sweden. This number, corresponding to 0.074/100,000/year, is very low in comparison with similar statistics worldwide. Of these fatalities, 47 were associated with hunting and were studied carefully. Despite an increase in both the popularity of hunting and in licensing of weapons, on change in the number of accidents per year could be confirmed. Twenty-nine accidents occurred during small game hunting, of which 24 involved shotguns, and 18 occurred during moose hunting. The mean age overall was 46 years. All victims and shooters were men. Most accidents occurred before noon and during the autumn. During moose hunting, the victim most commonly was either mistaken for game or was standing beyond game. During small game hunting, the most common reason for death was improper handling of the weapon. Firing of defective weapons caused at least 10 fatal accidents. Alcohol inebriation was uncommon. It is unlikely that more restrictive firearm legislation would further decrease the number of fatal accidents. Instead, we believe that accidental firearm fatalities during hunting can be prevented by safer and more careful handling of weapons, including unloading weapons before transporting them; by replacing older weapons with more modern and safer ones; and by not allowing children to handle weapons. No shots should be fired until it is clarified that the target really is a game animal, and when hunting with rifles, the fields of fire should be clarified beforehand. Shooters at stand must be instructed not to leave their stands until explicitly told to do so. PMID:3605004

  11. Principal aquifers can contribute radium to sources of drinking water under certain geochemical conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, Zoltan; Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Hancock, Tracy Connell

    2012-01-01

    What are the most important factors affecting dissolved radium concentrations in principal aquifers used for drinking water in the United States? Study results reveal where radium was detected and how rock type and chemical processes control radium occurrence. Knowledge of the geochemical conditions may help water-resource managers anticipate where radium may be elevated in groundwater and minimize exposure to radium, which contributes to cancer risk. Summary of Major Findings: * Concentrations of radium in principal aquifers used for drinking water throughout the United States generally were below 5 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) for combined radium - radium-226 (Ra-226) plus radium-228 (Ra-228) - in public water supplies. About 3 percent of sampled wells had combined radium concentrations greater than the MCL. * Elevated concentrations of combined radium were more common in groundwater in the eastern and central United States than in other regions of the Nation. About 98 percent of the wells that contained combined radium at concentrations greater than the MCL were east of the High Plains. * The highest concentrations of combined radium were in the Mid-Continent and Ozark Plateau Cambro-Ordovician aquifer system and the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system. More than 20 percent of sampled wells in these aquifers had combined radium concentrations that were greater than or equal to the MCL. * Concentrations of Ra-226 correlated with those of Ra-228. Radium-226 and Ra-228 occur most frequently together in unconsolidated sand aquifers, and their presence is strongly linked to groundwater chemistry. * Three common geochemical factors are associated with the highest radium concentrations in groundwater: (1) oxygen-poor water, (2) acidic conditions (low pH), and (3) high concentrations of dissolved solids.

  12. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

  15. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

  17. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870.206 Section 870...Amount of Insurance § 870.206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an...

  18. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870.206 Section 870...Amount of Insurance § 870.206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an...

  19. The neurobiology of thalamic amnesia: Contributions of medial thalamus and prefrontal cortex to delayed conditional discrimination.

    PubMed

    Mair, Robert G; Miller, Rikki L A; Wormwood, Benjamin A; Francoeur, Miranda J; Onos, Kristen D; Gibson, Brett M

    2015-07-01

    Although medial thalamus is well established as a site of pathology associated with global amnesia, there is uncertainty about which structures are critical and how they affect memory function. Evidence from human and animal research suggests that damage to the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior, mediodorsal (MD), midline (M), and intralaminar (IL) nuclei contribute to different signs of thalamic amnesia. Here we focus on MD and the adjacent M and IL nuclei, structures identified in animal studies as critical nodes in prefrontal cortex (PFC)-related pathways that are necessary for delayed conditional discrimination. Recordings of PFC neurons in rats performing a dynamic delayed non-matching-to position (DNMTP) task revealed discrete populations encoding information related to planning, execution, and outcome of DNMTP-related actions and delay-related activity signaling previous reinforcement. Parallel studies recording the activity of MD and IL neurons and examining the effects of unilateral thalamic inactivation on the responses of PFC neurons demonstrated a close coupling of central thalamic and PFC neurons responding to diverse aspects of DNMTP and provide evidence that thalamus interacts with PFC neurons to give rise to complex goal-directed behavior exemplified by the DNMTP task. PMID:25616180

  20. Bad Jobs, Bad Health? How Work and Working Conditions Contribute to Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Burgard, Sarah A.; Lin, Katherine Y.

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we touch on a broad array of ways that work is linked to health and health disparities for individuals and societies. First focusing on the health of individuals, we discuss the health differences between those who do and do not work for pay, and review key positive and negative exposures that can generate health disparities among the employed. These include both psychosocial factors like the benefits of a high status job or the burden of perceived job insecurity, as well as physical exposures to dangerous working conditions like asbestos or rotating shift work. We also provide a discussion of the ways differential exposure to these aspects of work contributes to social disparities in health within and across generations. Analytic complexities in assessing the link between work and health for individuals, such as health selection, are also discussed. We then touch on several contextual level associations between work and the health of populations, discussing the importance of the occupational structure in a given society, the policy environment that prevails there, and the oscillations of the macroeconomy for generating societal disparities in health. We close with a discussion of four areas and associated recommendations that draw on this corpus of knowledge but would push the research on work, health and inequality toward even greater scholarly and policy relevance. PMID:24187340

  1. Water dynamics and groundwater contributions in a young mountain soil under different meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negm, Amro; Falocchi, Marco; Barontini, Stefano; Ranzi, Roberto; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater contribution to the soil-water content and to the evapotranspiration is a major uncertainty to assess the water balance. Particularly in mountain environments, where the soil and the depth of the water table are shallow, both percolation and water rise from the water table can happen. Aiming at better understanding these processes at the local scale, a micrometeorological station, equipped with both traditional sensors, an eddy covariance (EC) apparatus with a 20Hz sonic anemometer and infrared CO2 and H2O gas analyser, and four multiplexed TDR probes, was installed at Cividate Camuno (Oglio river basin, Central Italian Alps, Italy, 274ma.s.l.), in a mountain environment with complex topography and Alpine sublitoranean climate. The young, anthropised, soil upper layers are about 40cm deep and mainly covered by alfalfa (Medicago sativa), wild carrot (Daucus carota) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium). Field and laboratory tests were performed to characterise the soil hydraulic properties. Particularly the soil-water retention relationships were measured by means of a low- and a high-pressure Richards' apparatus, and the hydraulic conductivity at saturation of each soil layer was estimated by 2-dimensional, axis-symmetrical, inverse modelling of field infiltration tests from single ring infiltrometer. The measurements were performed during Summer 2012 and Summer 2013. The groundwater exchange was numerically estimated both in wet (Summer 2012) and in dry meteorlogical conditions (Summer 2013). Evapotranspiration was assessed by means of Penman-Monteith method, which was found to be in the range between EC-estimated fluxes and an indirect estimate based on the Bowen ratio correction for Summer 2012. The two seasons are meteorologically very different and it results also in the soil-water regime. During Summer 2012, the weather was relatively wet, the soil did not reach very small water contents, so that precipitation was able to percolate towards the groundwater table and the groundwater table to meaningfully contribute to the evapotranspirative fluxes. Summer 2013 was instead much drier, precipitation was not able to meaningfully change the water content of the lowest soil layer and to percolate toward the water table. As a consequence of the very small water contents of the soil, also a very small water rise had place.

  2. The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

  3. Accidental death involving professional fireworks.

    PubMed

    Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Bottoni, Edoardo; Cappelletti, Simone; Fiore, Paola Antonella; Ciallella, Costantino

    2014-01-01

    An interesting case of accidental death involving the explosion of professional fireworks in an apartment is described. The examination of the scene permitted to study several effects of the explosion on walls, ceiling, furniture and especially on a balcony where the victim was found. The external examination of the victim showed extensive thermal injuries, degloving injuries and extensive shrapnel wounds. The autopsy examination showed subarachnoid haemorrhage localized to the cerebellum, haemorrhage in the soft tissues of the neck and chest and fracture of one clavicle. Almost the entire surface of lungs showed blunt injuries and the liver showed tearing of parenchyma and multiple cavities. Histological analysis were carried out showing thickening of alveolar septae, enlargement of alveolar spaces and alveolar ruptures in lung sections while numerous, round, empty spaces were detected in the parenchyma of the liver. The examination of the scene and of the fragments found showed that at least eight pyrotechnical charges exploded on the balcony, in close proximity of the threshold with the living room of the apartment. According to the chemical findings, the charges were typical for professional use and were filled with a mixture of potassium perchlorate and aluminium. A conservative calculation results in more than 1.5 kg total mass of pyrotechnic composition exploding very close to the victim. PMID:24279979

  4. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a) (1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  5. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  6. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  7. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  8. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870....206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an automatic part of Basic and Option A insurance for employees. (2) There is no accidental death...

  9. Sequence Learning in Infancy: The Independent Contributions of Conditional Probability and Pair Frequency Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcovitch, Stuart; Lewkowicz, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to perceive sequences is fundamental to cognition. Previous studies have shown that infants can learn visual sequences as early as 2 months of age and it has been suggested that this ability is mediated by sensitivity to conditional probability information. Typically, conditional probability information has covaried with frequency…

  10. Dissociable hippocampal and amygdalar D1-like receptor contribution to discriminated Pavlovian conditioned approach learning.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewski, Matthew E; Ryals, Curtis

    2016-02-15

    Pavlovian conditioning is an elementary form of reward-related behavioral adaptation. The mesolimbic dopamine system is widely considered to mediate critical aspects of reward-related learning. For example, initial acquisition of positively-reinforced operant behavior requires dopamine (DA) D1 receptor (D1R) activation in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), and the ventral subiculum (vSUB). However, the role of D1R activation in these areas on appetitive, non-drug-related, Pavlovian learning is not currently known. In separate experiments, microinfusions of the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH-23390 (3.0nmol/0.5?L per side) into the amygdala and subiculum preceded discriminated Pavlovian conditioned approach (dPCA) training sessions. D1-like antagonism in all three structures impaired the acquisition of discriminated approach, but had no effect on performance after conditioning was asymptotic. Moreover, dissociable effects of D1-like antagonism in the three structures on components of discriminated responding were obtained. Lastly, the lack of latent inhibition in drug-treated groups may elucidate the role of D1-like in reward-related Pavlovian conditioning. The present data suggest a role for the D1 receptors in the amygdala and hippocampus in learning the significance of conditional stimuli, but not in the expression of conditional responses. PMID:26632336

  11. Inhibition of vesicular glutamate transporters contributes to attenuate methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    He, Zongsheng; Chen, Yuan; Dong, Huajin; Su, Ruibin; Gong, Zehui; Yan, Lingdi

    2014-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that glutamatergic system plays a crucial role in methamphetamine (METH) addiction. In the glutamatergic transmission, vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) are responsible for transporting glutamate into synaptic vesicles and affect the glutamate concentrations in the synaptic cleft. It is well documented that VGLUTs play an essential role in pathophysiology of several psychiatric and neurological diseases, however, whether VGLUTs also have a role in addiction caused by psychostimulant drugs is still unknown. The present study was underwent to investigate the effect of inhibition of VGLUTs on METH-induced induce conditioned place preference in rats. Rats were induced to conditioned place preference with METH (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection. Intracerebroventricular administration of 1.0 or 5.0?g Chicago sky blue 6B (CSB6B), a VGLUTs inhibitor, and 2.5h prior to METH was to observe its effect on METH-induced conditioned place preference in rats. The rats receiving METH showed stronger place preference at the dose of 1.0mg/kg than that of other doses. The intracerebroventricular administration of CSB6B (1.0, 5.0?g) 2.5h prior to the exposure to METH attenuated the acquisition of METH-induced conditioned place preference, while CSB6B itself had no effect on place preference. These results indicate that VGLUTs are involved in the effect of METH-induced conditioned place preference and may be a new target against METH addiction. PMID:24613241

  12. Dietary Proteins Contribute Little to Glucose Production, Even Under Optimal Gluconeogenic Conditions in Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Fromentin, Claire; Tomé, Daniel; Nau, Françoise; Flet, Laurent; Luengo, Catherine; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Sanders, Pascal; Fromentin, Gilles; Gaudichon, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Dietary proteins are believed to participate significantly in maintaining blood glucose levels, but their contribution to endogenous glucose production (EGP) remains unclear. We investigated this question using multiple stable isotopes. After overnight fasting, eight healthy volunteers received an intravenous infusion of [6,6-2H2]-glucose. Two hours later, they ingested four eggs containing 23 g of intrinsically, uniformly, and doubly [15N]-[13C]–labeled proteins. Gas exchanges, expired CO2, blood, and urine were collected over the 8 h following egg ingestion. The cumulative amount of dietary amino acids (AAs) deaminated over this 8-h period was 18.1 ± 3.5%, 17.5% of them being oxidized. The EGP remained stable for 6 h but fell thereafter, concomitantly with blood glucose levels. During the 8 h after egg ingestion, 50.4 ± 7.7 g of glucose was produced, but only 3.9 ± 0.7 g originated from dietary AA. Our results show that the total postprandial contribution of dietary AA to EGP was small in humans habituated to a diet medium-rich in proteins, even after an overnight fast and in the absence of carbohydrates from the meal. These findings question the respective roles of dietary proteins and endogenous sources in generating significant amounts of glucose in order to maintain blood glucose levels in healthy subjects. PMID:23274906

  13. Contribution of acetic acid to the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass under abiotic conditions.

    PubMed

    Trzcinski, Antoine P; Stuckey, David C

    2015-06-01

    Acetic acid was used in abiotic experiments to adjust the solution pH and investigate its influence on the chemical hydrolysis of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW). Soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) was used to measure the hydrolysis under oxidative conditions (positive oxidation-reduction potential values), and pH 4 allowed for 20% (±2%) of the COD added to be solubilized, whereas only 12% (±1%) was solubilized at pH7. Under reducing conditions (negative oxidation-reduction potential values) and pH 4, 32.3% (±3%) of the OFMSW was solubilized which shows that acidogenesis at pH 4 during the anaerobic digestion of solid waste can result in chemical hydrolysis. In comparison, bacterial hydrolysis resulted in 54% (±6%) solubilization. PMID:25794810

  14. The contribution of woody plant materials on the several conditions in a space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Katayama, Takeshi

    Woody plant materials have several utilization elements in our habitation environment on earth. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. Woody plants can produce an excess oxygen, woody materials for the living cabin, and provide a biomass by cultivating crops and other species of creatures. Tree material would become to be a tool in closed bio-ecosystems such as an environment in a space. We named the trees used as material for the experiment related to space environments “CosmoBon”, small tree bonsai. Japanese cherry tree, “Sakura”, is famous and lovely tree in Japan. One species of “Sakura”, “Mamezakura, Prunus incisa”, is not only lovely tree species, but also suitable tree for the model tree of our purpose. The species of Prunus incisa is originally grown in volcano environment. That species of Sakura is originally grown on Mt. Fuji aria, oligotrophic place. We will try to build the best utilization usage of woody plant under the space environment by “Mamezakura” as a model tree. Here, we will show the importance of uniformity of materials when we will use the tree materials in a space environment. We will also discuss that tree has a high possibility of utilization under the space environments by using our several results related to this research.

  15. Fate of accidental symmetries of the relativistic hydrogen atom in a spherical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hashimi, M. H.; Shalaby, A. M.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2015-11-01

    The non-relativistic hydrogen atom enjoys an accidental SO(4) symmetry, that enlarges the rotational SO(3) symmetry, by extending the angular momentum algebra with the Runge-Lenz vector. In the relativistic hydrogen atom the accidental symmetry is partially lifted. Due to the Johnson-Lippmann operator, which commutes with the Dirac Hamiltonian, some degeneracy remains. When the non-relativistic hydrogen atom is put in a spherical cavity of radius R with perfectly reflecting Robin boundary conditions, characterized by a self-adjoint extension parameter ?, in general the accidental SO(4) symmetry is lifted. However, for R =(l + 1) (l + 2) a (where a is the Bohr radius and l is the orbital angular momentum) some degeneracy remains when ? = ? or ? =2/R. In the relativistic case, we consider the most general spherically and parity invariant boundary condition, which is characterized by a self-adjoint extension parameter. In this case, the remnant accidental symmetry is always lifted in a finite volume. We also investigate the accidental symmetry in the context of the Pauli equation, which sheds light on the proper non-relativistic treatment including spin. In that case, again some degeneracy remains for specific values of R and ?.

  16. Fate of Accidental Symmetries of the Relativistic Hydrogen Atom in a Spherical Cavity

    E-print Network

    M. H. Al-Hashimi; A. M. Shalaby; U. -J. Wiese

    2015-04-16

    The non-relativistic hydrogen atom enjoys an accidental $SO(4)$ symmetry, that enlarges the rotational $SO(3)$ symmetry, by extending the angular momentum algebra with the Runge-Lenz vector. In the relativistic hydrogen atom the accidental symmetry is partially lifted. Due to the Johnson-Lippmann operator, which commutes with the Dirac Hamiltonian, some degeneracy remains. When the non-relativistic hydrogen atom is put in a spherical cavity of radius $R$ with perfectly reflecting Robin boundary conditions, characterized by a self-adjoint extension parameter $\\gamma$, in general the accidental $SO(4)$ symmetry is lifted. However, for $R = (l+1)(l+2) a$ (where $a$ is the Bohr radius and $l$ is the orbital angular momentum) some degeneracy remains when $\\gamma = \\infty$ or $\\gamma = \\frac{2}{R}$. In the relativistic case, we consider the most general spherically and parity invariant boundary condition, which is characterized by a self-adjoint extension parameter. In this case, the remnant accidental symmetry is always lifted in a finite volume. We also investigate the accidental symmetry in the context of the Pauli equation, which sheds light on the proper non-relativistic treatment including spin. In that case, again some degeneracy remains for specific values of $R$ and $\\gamma$.

  17. Accidental outcomes guide punishment in a "trembling hand" game.

    PubMed

    Cushman, Fiery; Dreber, Anna; Wang, Ying; Costa, Jay

    2009-01-01

    How do people respond to others' accidental behaviors? Reward and punishment for an accident might depend on the actor's intentions, or instead on the unintended outcomes she brings about. Yet, existing paradigms in experimental economics do not include the possibility of accidental monetary allocations. We explore the balance of outcomes and intentions in a two-player economic game where monetary allocations are made with a "trembling hand": that is, intentions and outcomes are sometimes mismatched. Player 1 allocates $10 between herself and Player 2 by rolling one of three dice. One die has a high probability of a selfish outcome, another has a high probability of a fair outcome, and the third has a high probability of a generous outcome. Based on Player 1's choice of die, Player 2 can infer her intentions. However, any of the three die can yield any of the three possible outcomes. Player 2 is given the opportunity to respond to Player 1's allocation by adding to or subtracting from Player 1's payoff. We find that Player 2's responses are influenced substantially by the accidental outcome of Player 1's roll of the die. Comparison to control conditions suggests that in contexts where the allocation is at least partially under the control of Player 1, Player 2 will punish Player 1 accountable for unintentional negative outcomes. In addition, Player 2's responses are influenced by Player 1's intention. However, Player 2 tends to modulate his responses substantially more for selfish intentions than for generous intentions. This novel economic game provides new insight into the psychological mechanisms underlying social preferences for fairness and retribution. PMID:19707578

  18. Accidental inflation from Kähler uplifting

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Westphal, Alexander; Wieck, Clemens; Jing, Shenglin E-mail: shenglin.jing@utoronto.ca E-mail: clemens.wieck@desy.de

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the possibility of realizing inflation with a subsequent dS vacuum in the Käahler uplifting scenario. The inclusion of several quantum corrections to the 4d effective action evades previous no-go theorems and allows for construction of simple and successful models of string inflation. The predictions of several benchmark models are in accord with current observations, i.e., a red spectral index, negligible non-gaussianity, and spectral distortions similar to the simplest models of inflation. A particularly interesting subclass of models are ''left-rolling'' ones, where the overall volume of the compactified dimensions shrinks during inflation. We call this phenomenon ''inflation by deflation'' (IBD), where deflation refers to the internal manifold. This subclass has the appealing features of being insensitive to initial conditions, avoiding the overshooting problem, and allowing for observable running ? ? 0.012 and enhanced tensor-to-scalar ratio r ? 10{sup ?5}. The latter results differ significantly from many string inflation models.

  19. Investigation of Thermal Equilibrium around an Accidental Event and Impact on Possibly Enclosed Surrounding Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Biswanath; Shah, Nitin; Choukekar, Ketan; Kapoor, Himanshu; Kumar, Uday; Das, Jotirmoy; Bhattacharaya, Ritendra; Vaghela, Hitensinh; Muralidhara, Srinivasa

    Complex and large cryogenic distribution systems are integral part of a fusion machine having superconducting magnets, cryopumps, etc. The various equipment of the cryogenic distribution system are interconnected via Cryogenic Transfer Lines (CTLs) to distribute cold helium to end users. During nominal operation of the fusion machine, helium inventory in CTLs could be in order of several tons. The cold helium present in CTLs could be released in surrounding volume due to accidental scenario. The present analysis, aims to estimate lowest temperature in the surrounding volume due to accidental scenario. The paper will describe simulation results and the test plan in a simulated condition.

  20. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOL. 15: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR TRIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, discussing sulfur trioxide (SO3), is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. SO3, a clear oily liquid or solid at typical ambient conditions, has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, w...

  1. Spatial variation in water quality within the water bodies of a Peak District catchment and the contribution of moorland condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, Tia; Walker, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Spatial variation in water quality within the water bodies of a Peak District catchment and the contribution of moorland condition Tia Crouch and Jonathan Walker (Moors for the Future Partnership) Upland locations are significant water supply sources providing over 70% of fresh water in Great Britain. However, the peatlands of the Peak District, Southern Pennines are highly contaminated with anthropogenically derived, atmospherically deposited pollutants, such as heavy metals. This is due to their location between the cities of Manchester and Sheffield, the centre of the 19th century English Industrial Revolution. These peatlands are also severely eroded; therefore erosion could be releasing these pollutants into the fluvial system, representing a threat to both aquatic ecosystems and drinking water supplies. These threats are regulated under the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Water Supply Regulations respectively. There are two aims of this project. The first aim is to identify spatial and temporal variability of water quality within the Bamford water treatment works (WTW) catchment. This was achieved by fortnightly spot sampling at eight of the tributaries into the reservoir system. The second aim is to assess the contribution of moorland condition to water quality within the Bamford WTW catchment. Similarly, this was achieved by fortnightly spot sampling at eight moorland streams, draining from a variety of peatland conditions (bare peat, restoration, intact and heather burn). Water samples were analysed for carbon (DOC, POC & TOC), pH, hardness and a suite of heavy metals, including copper, iron and zinc. In addition, stream temperature and stage height was recorded. Preliminary results highlight a number of issues within the Bamford WTW catchment: under the WFD streams are not achieving 'good' status for pH, copper and zinc, and under the Drinking Water Standards (DWS) streams are not achieving targets for aluminium, iron and colour. For example, the DWS for colour is 20 hazen units; however, mean values for streams within the Bamford WTW catchment range from 40 to 742 Hazen Units. Further analysis of the results will identify where spatial issues and priorities exist in space and time, as well as in relation to WFD objectives and DWS. The relationships between heavy metals and carbon (DOC, POC & TOC), pH, temperature and stage height will also be investigated, and the impacts of moorland restoration on carbon and heavy metals in water supplies will be discussed. Overall, this project is intended to provide evidence of the links between moorland restoration and management and DWS and WFD objectives; therefore, enabling continued support for moorland restoration work. This project was funded by the Environment Agency and Severn Trent Water Limited.

  2. Comparative analysis of near-present and future synoptic conditions and their contribution to precipitation in central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karacostas, Theodore S.; Bampzelis, Dimitrios; Karipidou, Symela; Pytharoulis, Ioannis; Tegoulias, Ioannis; Kartsios, Stergios; Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Pakalidou, Nikoletta

    2015-04-01

    The objective on this study is to identify and categorize the daily synoptic circulation patterns encountered between the two periods, in near-present (2001-2010) and future (2041-2050), over the greater area of central and northern Greece, under the "DAPHNE" project (www.daphne-meteo.gr). The followed up statistical analyses and comparisons are focus on the demonstration of the differences in the frequency of occurrences of the synoptic situations between the two time periods, aiming at mitigating drought in central Greece by means of Weather Modification. Actually, within the context of the project, the daily synoptic circulation patterns encountered during the near-present ten-year period are identified and classified according to Karacostas et al. (1992) synoptic classification, into ten distinct synoptic conditions, based on the isobaric level of 500hPa. A similar procedure is adopted for the future period 2041-2050, by developing the mid-tropospheric synoptic circulation patterns through the RegCM3 regional climate model, under the IPCC scenario A1B. Results indicate that certain differences exist between near-present and future frequency distribution of occurrences of the synoptic situations over the study area. The northwest (NW) and southwest (SW) synoptic circulation patterns remain the most frequent synoptic conditions observed for both examined periods. The low pressure system activity over the area exhibit significant decrease during the future period, as it is depicted from the inter-comparison of the frequencies of the closed low (L-2) and cut-off low (L-3) systems. On the other hand, the unorganized synoptic conditions, which are mostly identified as high-low patterns (H-L), appear to increase considerably. The frequencies of zonal flow (ZON) and those of synoptic conditions associated with the presence of high-pressure system over the area, that is (H-1) and (H-2), remain almost unchanged between the two periods. The impact of the aforementioned differences in the frequencies of the synoptic conditions during the future period is examined on a yearly and seasonal basis. The contribution of each synoptic condition on the annual precipitation amounts are estimated for the near-present period, which coupled with the altered frequencies of the synoptic conditions for the future period, result to the future projected annual precipitation amounts. Possible decrease in precipitation amounts is indicated during the future period, as a result of the reduction in the frequencies of certain synoptic conditions associated with high amount of precipitation during the near-present conditions. Acknowledgments: This research work is part of DAPHNE project (11SYN_8_1088_TPE) which is co-funded by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund) and Greek National Funds, through the action "COOPERATION 2011: Partnerships of Production and Research Institutions in Focused Research and Technology Sectors" in the framework of the operational programme "Competitiveness and Enterpreneurship" and Regions in Transition (OPC II, NSRF 2007-2013).

  3. Accidental supersymmetric dark matter and baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kozaczuk, Jonathan; Profumo, Stefano; Wainwright, Carroll L. E-mail: profumo@ucsc.edu

    2013-01-01

    We show that ''accidental'' supersymmetry is a beyond-the-Standard Model framework that naturally accommodates a thermal relic dark matter candidate and successful electroweak baryogenesis, including the needed strongly first-order character of the electroweak phase transition. We study the phenomenology of this setup from the standpoint of both dark matter and baryogenesis. For energies around the electroweak phase transition temperature, the low-energy effective theory is similar to the MSSM with light super-partners of the third-generation quarks and of the Higgs and gauge bosons. We calculate the dark matter relic abundance and the baryon asymmetry across the accidental supersymmetry parameter space, including resonant and non-resonant CP-violating sources. We find that there are regions of parameter space producing both the observed value of the baryon asymmetry and a dark matter candidate with the correct relic density and conforming to present-day constraints from dark matter searches. This scenario makes sharp predictions for the particle spectrum, predicting a lightest neutralino mass between 200 and 500 GeV, with all charginos and neutralinos within less than a factor 2 of the lightest neutralino mass and the heavy Higgs sector within 20–25% of that mass, making it an interesting target for collider searches. In addition, we demonstrate that successful accidental supersymmetric dark matter and baryogenesis will be conclusively tested with improvements smaller than one order of magnitude to the current performance of electron electric dipole moment searches and of direct dark matter searches, as well as with IceCube plus Deep Core neutrino telescope data.

  4. Poisoning from accidental ingestion of mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Barbato, M P

    1993-06-21

    Poisoning from the accidental ingestion of mushrooms is an uncommon cause of morbidity within Australia and unlike many other countries no deaths have yet been recorded. This review seeks to draw attention to the various syndromes associated with mushroom poisoning and their management, thereby helping to keep our good record intact. Although the number of toxic species is relatively small, the collection and ingestion of field varieties should be left to those absolutely certain of their quest. In cases of poisoning, identification of the offending mushroom is of paramount importance in the management. In suspected or known amatoxin poisoning prompt treatment favourably influences outcome. PMID:8326897

  5. Modeling downwind hazards after an accidental release of chlorine trifluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.A.; Cheng, Meng-Dawn

    1996-05-01

    A module simulating ClF{sub 3} chemical reactions with water vapor and thermodynamic processes in the atmosphere after an accidental release has been developed. This module was liked to the HGSYSTEM. Initial model runs simulate the rapid formation of HF and ClO{sub 2} after an atmospheric release of ClF{sub 3}. At distances beyond the first several meters from the release point, HF and ClO{sub 2} concentrations pose a greater threat to human health than do ClF{sub 3} concentrations. For most of the simulations, ClF{sub 3} concentrations rapidly fall below the IDLH. Fro releases occurring in ambient conditions with low relative humidity and/or ambient temperature, ClF{sub 3} concentrations exceed the IDLH up to almost 500 m. The performance of this model needs to be determined for potential release scenarios that will be considered. These release scenarios are currently being developed.

  6. Conditionals

    E-print Network

    von Fintel, Kai

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the classic accounts of the meaning of conditionals (material implication, strict implication, variably strict conditional) and discusses the difference between indicative and subjunctive/counterfactual ...

  7. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of...

  8. Experiences of Causing an Accidental Death: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassool, Sara B.; Nel, Pieter W.

    2012-01-01

    Accidentally killing or feeling responsible for another person's death constitutes an event that is different from many typical traumatic stressors in that the responsibility for causing the trauma is located in the person themselves, rather than another person or persons. Research exploring the perspective of those who have accidentally caused a…

  9. 21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... 1002.20 Section 1002.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... manufacturer: (1) The nature of the accidental radiation occurrence; (2) The location at which the accidental... occurrence, the nature and magnitude of their exposure and/or injuries and, if requested by the...

  10. Accidental Death and the Rule of Joint and Several Liability

    E-print Network

    MacLeod, W. Bentley; Currie, Janet; Carvell, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    malpractice cases only separately because tort reforms might a?ect deathmalpractice) are also intended to limit payouts by tortfeasors, but have little impact on accidental deaths.Malpractice 2-Year Lead of Above Tort Reform Variable Observations R-squared Log of Rate of Non-Auto Accidental Deaths,

  11. Clinical clues for head injuries amongst Malaysian infants: accidental or non-accidental?

    PubMed

    Thalayasingam, M; Veerakumarasivam, A; Kulanthayan, S; Khairuddin, F; Cheah, I G S

    2012-12-01

    Identifying the differences between infants with non-accidental head injuries (NAHI) and accidental head injuries (AHI) may help alert clinicians to recognize markers of abuse. A retrospective review of infants <1 year of age admitted to a tertiary referral centre in Malaysia over a two year period with a diagnosis of head injury or abnormal computed tomography head scans was conducted to identify the clinical features pointing towards a diagnosis of NAHI by comparing the socio-demographics, presenting complaints, clinical features and the extent of hospital investigations carried out. NAHI infants were more likely to be symptomatic, under a non-related caregiver's supervision, and presented with inconsistent or no known mechanism of injury. Subdural haemorrhages were more common in NAHI infants. The history, mechanism of injury, presenting signs and symptoms as well as the nature of the injuries sustained are all valuable clues as to whether a head injury sustained during infancy is likely to be accidental or not. PMID:22424957

  12. 29 CFR 778.215 - Conditions for exclusion of benefit-plan contributions under section 7(e)(4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specified or definitely determinable on an actuarial basis; or (ii) There must be both a definite formula for determining the amount to be contributed by the employer and a definite formula for determining... formula for determining the amount to be contributed by the employer and a provision for determining...

  13. 29 CFR 778.215 - Conditions for exclusion of benefit-plan contributions under section 7(e)(4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specified or definitely determinable on an actuarial basis; or (ii) There must be both a definite formula for determining the amount to be contributed by the employer and a definite formula for determining... formula for determining the amount to be contributed by the employer and a provision for determining...

  14. 29 CFR 778.215 - Conditions for exclusion of benefit-plan contributions under section 7(e)(4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specified or definitely determinable on an actuarial basis; or (ii) There must be both a definite formula for determining the amount to be contributed by the employer and a definite formula for determining... formula for determining the amount to be contributed by the employer and a provision for determining...

  15. 29 CFR 778.215 - Conditions for exclusion of benefit-plan contributions under section 7(e)(4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified or definitely determinable on an actuarial basis; or (ii) There must be both a definite formula for determining the amount to be contributed by the employer and a definite formula for determining... formula for determining the amount to be contributed by the employer and a provision for determining...

  16. 29 CFR 778.215 - Conditions for exclusion of benefit-plan contributions under section 7(e)(4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... specified or definitely determinable on an actuarial basis; or (ii) There must be both a definite formula for determining the amount to be contributed by the employer and a definite formula for determining... formula for determining the amount to be contributed by the employer and a provision for determining...

  17. [Psychological aspects of accidental poisoning in children].

    PubMed

    Trabach-Valadier, C; Floret, D

    1987-01-01

    The following points stand out from a semi-open questionnaire which was sent to the parents of 28 children hospitalized for accidental intoxication. Intoxications often occur in children who are hyperactive, curious, rebellious and have strong affective needs. Parents find it very difficult to set bans and limitations to their children, whose behaviour seems to be actively calling out for such restrictions. These children frequently put themselves in a situation of self-aggression, which shows the parents' inability to teach them to develop a vital self protective attitude from life's daily experience. Most often, the child is aware of transgressing a ban and in a few cases, intoxication seems to be a deliberate act on his part. It generally occurs when stress has been building up in the family, thus threatening the balance of the family. If it happens in a family where relationships are already deeply disturbed, it must be considered as a signal of alarm. It is then necessary to suggest that the family should undergo a psychotherapeutic course to help them to put an end to the deadly process in which they are involved. PMID:3448592

  18. Accidental Implant Screwdriver Ingestion: A Rare Complication during Implant Placement

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anshul; Baliga, Shridhar D

    2014-01-01

    One of the complications during a routine dental implant placement is accidental ingestion of the implant instruments, which can happen when proper precautions are not taken. Appropriate radiographs should be taken to locate the correct position of foreign body; usually the foreign body passes asymptomatically from gastrointestinal tract but sometimes it may lead to intestinal obstruction, perforations and impactions. The aim of this article is to report accidental ingestion of 19 mm long screw driver by a senile patient. PMID:25628702

  19. Non-accidental health impacts of wildfire smoke.

    PubMed

    Youssouf, Hassani; Liousse, Catherine; Roblou, Laurent; Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Salonen, Raimo O; Maesano, Cara; Banerjee, Soutrik; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2014-11-01

    Wildfires take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of wildfire frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. We conducted a systematic review of non-accidental health impacts of wildfire and incorporated lessons learned from recent experiences. Based on the literature, various studies have established the relationship between one of the major components of wildfire, particulate matter (particles with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) and cardiorespiratory symptoms in terms of Emergency Rooms visits and hospital admissions. Associations between wildfire emissions and various subclinical effects have also been established. However, few relationships between wildfire emissions and mortality have been observed. Certain segments of the population may be particularly vulnerable to smoke-related health risks. Among them, people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions, the elderly, smokers and, for professional reasons, firefighters. Potential action mechanisms have been highlighted. Overall, more research is needed to better understand health impact of wildfire exposure. PMID:25405597

  20. Non-Accidental Health Impacts of Wildfire Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Youssouf, Hassani; Liousse, Catherine; Roblou, Laurent; Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Salonen, Raimo O.; Maesano, Cara; Banerjee, Soutrik; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of wildfire frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. We conducted a systematic review of non-accidental health impacts of wildfire and incorporated lessons learned from recent experiences. Based on the literature, various studies have established the relationship between one of the major components of wildfire, particulate matter (particles with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) and cardiorespiratory symptoms in terms of Emergency Rooms visits and hospital admissions. Associations between wildfire emissions and various subclinical effects have also been established. However, few relationships between wildfire emissions and mortality have been observed. Certain segments of the population may be particularly vulnerable to smoke-related health risks. Among them, people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions, the elderly, smokers and, for professional reasons, firefighters. Potential action mechanisms have been highlighted. Overall, more research is needed to better understand health impact of wildfire exposure. PMID:25405597

  1. Probabilistic safety analysis for urgent situations following the accidental release of a pollutant in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armand, P.; Brocheton, F.; Poulet, D.; Vendel, F.; Dubourg, V.; Yalamas, T.

    2014-10-01

    This paper is an original contribution to uncertainty quantification in atmospheric transport & dispersion (AT&D) at the local scale (1-10 km). It is proposed to account for the imprecise knowledge of the meteorological and release conditions in the case of an accidental hazardous atmospheric emission. The aim is to produce probabilistic risk maps instead of a deterministic toxic load map in order to help the stakeholders making their decisions. Due to the urge attached to such situations, the proposed methodology is able to produce such maps in a limited amount of time. It resorts to a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) using wind fields interpolated from a pre-established database that collects the results from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. This enables a decoupling of the CFD simulations from the dispersion analysis, thus a considerable saving of computational time. In order to make the Monte-Carlo-sampling-based estimation of the probability field even faster, it is also proposed to recourse to the use of a vector Gaussian process surrogate model together with high performance computing (HPC) resources. The Gaussian process (GP) surrogate modelling technique is coupled with a probabilistic principal component analysis (PCA) for reducing the number of GP predictors to fit, store and predict. The design of experiments (DOE) from which the surrogate model is built, is run over a cluster of PCs for making the total production time as short as possible. The use of GP predictors is validated by comparing the results produced by this technique with those obtained by crude Monte Carlo sampling.

  2. Factors contributing to the degradation of poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) (PBO) fibers under elevated temperature and humidity conditions 

    E-print Network

    O'Neil, Joseph M

    2006-10-30

    The moisture absorption behavior of Zylon fibers was characterized in various high temperature and high humidity conditions in a controlled environment. The results of these thermal cycling tests show that PBO fibers not only absorb, but also retain...

  3. Distinct Contributions of the Basolateral Amygdala and the Medial Prefrontal Cortex to Learning and Relearning Extinction of Context Conditioned Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Vincent; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2008-01-01

    We studied the roles of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in learning and relearning to inhibit context conditioned fear (freezing) in extinction. In Experiment 1, pre-extinction BLA infusion of the NMDA receptor (NMDAr) antagonist, ifenprodil, impaired the development and retention of inhibition but…

  4. Assessing School Council Contribution to the Enabling Conditions for Instructional Capacity Building: "An Urban District in Kentucky"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talley, Wade Kenneth; Keedy, John L.

    2006-01-01

    This study identified the enabling conditions related to building instructional capacity created by the councils in three high-performance schools in an urban district. The authors collected the data through observation, interview, and document mining. School-level data were sorted inductively into themes through constant comparative analysis.…

  5. Effects of training condition on the contribution of specific items to relational processing in baboons (Papio papio).

    PubMed

    Maugard, Anaïs; Wasserman, Edward A; Castro, Leyre; Fagot, Joël

    2014-07-01

    Relational processing involves learning about the relationship between or among stimuli, transcending the individual stimuli, so that abstract knowledge generalizable to novel situations is acquired. Relational processing has been studied in animals as well as in humans, but little attention has been paid to the contribution of specific items to relational thinking or to the factors that may affect that contribution. This study assessed the intertwined effects of item and relational processing in nonhuman primates. Using a procedure that entailed both expanding and contracting sets of pictorial items, we trained 13 baboons on a two-alternative forced-choice task, in which they had to distinguish horizontal from vertical relational patterns. In Experiment 1, monkeys engaged in item-based processing with a small training set size, and they progressively engaged in relation-based processing as training set size was increased. However, in Experiment 2, overtraining with a small stimulus set promoted the processing of item-based information. These findings underscore similarities in how humans and nonhuman primates process higher-order stimulus relations. PMID:24352791

  6. Self-Rated Health as a Predictor of Disability Retirement – The Contribution of Ill-Health and Working Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pietiläinen, Olli; Laaksonen, Mikko; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2011-01-01

    Objective Self-rated health is a generic health indicator predicting mortality, many diseases, and need for care. We examined self-rated health as a predictor of subsequent disability retirement, and ill-health and working conditions as potential explanations for the association. Methods Self-rated health and the covariates were obtained from the Helsinki Health Study baseline mail surveys in 2000–2002 conducted among municipal employees aged 40–60 years (n?=?6525). Data for disability retirement events (n?=?625) along with diagnoses were linked from the Finnish Centre for Pensions, with a follow-up by the end of 2010. Hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using competing risks models. Results Less than good self-rated health predicted disability retirement due to all causes among both women (HR?=?4.60, 95% CI?=?3.84–5.51) and men (HR?=?3.83, 95% CI?=?2.64–5.56), as well as due to musculoskeletal diseases (HR?=?5.17, 95% CI?=?4.02–6.66) and mental disorders (HR?=?4.80, 95% CI?=?3.50–6.59) among women and men pooled. Ill-health and physical working conditions partly explained the found associations, which nevertheless remained after the adjustments. Among the measures of ill-health limiting long-standing illness explained the association most in all-cause disability retirement and disability retirements due to musculoskeletal diseases, whereas common mental disorders explained the association most in disability retirements due to mental health disorders. Among working conditions physical work load and hazardous exposures at work explained the association most, although much less than ill-health. Conclusions Self-rated health is a strong predictor of disability retirement. This can be partly explained by ill-health and working conditions. Poor self-rated health provides a useful marker for increased risk of work disability and subsequent disability retirement. PMID:21949830

  7. Class-conditional feature modeling for ignitable liquid classification with substantial substrate contribution in fire debris analysis.

    PubMed

    Lopatka, Martin; Sigman, Michael E; Sjerps, Marjan J; Williams, Mary R; Vivó-Truyols, Gabriel

    2015-07-01

    Forensic chemical analysis of fire debris addresses the question of whether ignitable liquid residue is present in a sample and, if so, what type. Evidence evaluation regarding this question is complicated by interference from pyrolysis products of the substrate materials present in a fire. A method is developed to derive a set of class-conditional features for the evaluation of such complex samples. The use of a forensic reference collection allows characterization of the variation in complex mixtures of substrate materials and ignitable liquids even when the dominant feature is not specific to an ignitable liquid. Making use of a novel method for data imputation under complex mixing conditions, a distribution is modeled for the variation between pairs of samples containing similar ignitable liquid residues. Examining the covariance of variables within the different classes allows different weights to be placed on features more important in discerning the presence of a particular ignitable liquid residue. Performance of the method is evaluated using a database of total ion spectrum (TIS) measurements of ignitable liquid and fire debris samples. These measurements include 119 nominal masses measured by GC-MS and averaged across a chromatographic profile. Ignitable liquids are labeled using the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E1618 standard class definitions. Statistical analysis is performed in the class-conditional feature space wherein new forensic traces are represented based on their likeness to known samples contained in a forensic reference collection. The demonstrated method uses forensic reference data as the basis of probabilistic statements concerning the likelihood of the obtained analytical results given the presence of ignitable liquid residue of each of the ASTM classes (including a substrate only class). When prior probabilities of these classes can be assumed, these likelihoods can be connected to class probabilities. In order to compare the performance of this method to previous work, a uniform prior was assumed, resulting in an 81% accuracy for an independent test of 129 real burn samples. PMID:26005858

  8. The airway sensory impact of nicotine contributes to the conditioned reinforcing effects of individual puffs from cigarettes?

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Nasir H.; Bechara, Antoine

    2005-01-01

    Puffs from cigarettes are the fundamental unit of smoking reward. Here, we examined the extent to which reward from puffs can be derived from the airway sensory effect of nicotine, in the absence of a direct central nervous system effect of nicotine. We did this by assessing the self-reported reward obtained from individual puffs from nicotinized, denicotinized and unlit cigarettes within 7 s of inhalation, which is before nicotine had an opportunity to reach the brain. We also assessed the self-reported strength of airway sensations elicited by the puffs. We found that nicotinized puffs were rated as both stronger and more rewarding than denicotinized and unlit puffs. We also found that the extent to which nicotine elicited reward was directly correlated with the extent to which nicotine elicited airway sensations. This indicates that the airway sensory effects of nicotine contribute to the reward from puffs, above and beyond the reward derived from the airway sensory effects of non-nicotine constituents. These findings have implications for the interpretation of studies that use puffs as experimental units to examine nicotine reward. They also have implications for the use of denicotinized and low nicotine cigarettes as aids to smoking cessation. PMID:15996724

  9. Self limiting features of accidental criticality in a solution system

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Experience with the SHEBA solution critical assembly during validation testing of accidental criticality alarm detectors provided several insights into the character of potential accidental excursions. Two observations were of particular interest. First, it is nearly impossible to maintain a solution system, particularly one employing low-enrichment material, in a constant state. If super-critical, the system will heat up, expand (or form bubbles), return to a sub-critical state, and shut down of its own accord without going into short period oscillations. Second, a very slow change in the system could produce a long ''pulse'' resulting in lengthy exposures, a high dose, but a low dose rate. The experiments dramatically contradicted the popular contention that accidental criticality is characterized by a blue flash, a clap of thunder, and violet expulsion of material. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic growth in accidentally injured patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Hongbiao; Wang, Ji; Wu, Jing; Liu, Xiaohong

    2013-03-01

    This study examined prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic growth in 180 accidentally injured patients of mainland China in their convalescence stage, investigating its relationships with demographic and accidental injury variables, personality, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and coping styles. Our results showed that posttraumatic growth (PTG) presented mostly in the domain of Relating to Others and indicated that PTG was significantly related to marital status, educational level, personality, coping styles, and PTSD symptoms. Avoidance of PTSD symptoms, Openness to experience, and positive coping were significant predictors of PTG. The findings emphasize that when promoting PTG of accidentally injured patients, healthcare providers should facilitate patients utilizing personal resources, understand PTG coexists with PTSD symptoms, and adjust interventions based on the coping styles the patients have adopted. PMID:22886703

  11. Glutamate Decarboxylase-Dependent Acid Resistance in Brucella spp.: Distribution and Contribution to Fitness under Extremely Acidic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Damiano, Maria Alessandra; Bastianelli, Daniela; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Köhler, Stephan; Cloeckaert, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Brucella is an expanding genus of major zoonotic pathogens, including at least 10 genetically very close species occupying a wide range of niches from soil to wildlife, livestock, and humans. Recently, we have shown that in the new species Brucella microti, the glutamate decarboxylase (Gad)-dependent system (GAD system) contributes to survival at a pH of 2.5 and also to infection in mice by the oral route. In order to study the functionality of the GAD system in the genus Brucella, 47 isolates, representative of all known species and strains of this genus, and 16 strains of the closest neighbor genus, Ochrobactrum, were studied using microbiological, biochemical, and genetic approaches. In agreement with the genome sequences, the GAD system of classical species was not functional, unlike that of most strains of Brucella ceti, Brucella pinnipedialis, and newly described species (B. microti, Brucella inopinata BO1, B. inopinata-like BO2, and Brucella sp. isolated from bullfrogs). In the presence of glutamate, these species were more acid resistant in vitro than classical terrestrial brucellae. Expression in trans of the gad locus from representative Brucella species in the Escherichia coli MG1655 mutant strain lacking the GAD system restored the acid-resistant phenotype. The highly conserved GAD system of the newly described or atypical Brucella species may play an important role in their adaptation to acidic external and host environments. Furthermore, the GAD phenotype was shown to be a useful diagnostic tool to distinguish these latter Brucella strains from Ochrobactrum and from classical terrestrial pathogenic Brucella species, which are GAD negative. PMID:25381237

  12. Correcting for accidental correlations in saturated avalanche photodiodes

    E-print Network

    Grieve, James A; Tang, Zhongkan; Ling, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a high-level numerical model for estimating rates of accidental correlations between a pair of passively quenched Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes operating in the saturated regime. By considering the recovery time of both the diodes and the detection circuit we introduce the concept of an "effective duty cycle" and show that it may be estimated by numeric simulation. The impact of effective duty cycle on the observed accidental rate is examined and we demonstrate that the updated model leads to an improved correction factor in actual experiments. This will improve the signal-to-noise ratio in applications depending on correlation measurements.

  13. Herb-induced cardiotoxicity from accidental aconitine overdose

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Sujata; Tan, Elaine Ching Ching; Tan, Hock Heng; Tay, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Patients who overdose on aconite can present with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. Aconite must be prepared and used with caution to avoid cardiotoxic effects that can be fatal. We herein describe a case of a patient who had an accidental aconite overdose but survived with no lasting effects. The patient had prepared Chinese herbal medication to treat his pain, which resulted in an accidental overdose of aconite with cardiotoxic and neurotoxic effects. The patient had ventricular tachycardia, bidirectional ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Following treatment with anti-arrhythmic medications, defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation, he made an uneventful recovery, with no further cardiac arrhythmias reported. PMID:26243980

  14. Scaling and gender behavior of road accidental dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian; Zou, Xiang-Xiang; Chen, Guang; Jiang, Xiong-Fei; Zhong, Li-Xin

    2014-12-01

    The probability distribution of the time intervals between two consecutive accidents is investigated, based on the road accidental records of the Great Britain. A universal description is obtained for different roads, by rescaling the probability distribution and time intervals. The scaling curve is found to deviate from the Gaussian distribution, but it is well fitted by a stretched exponential function. Long-range time correlation is revealed for the interevent series. Moreover, gender similarity is found for the small accidental intervals, while for the large intervals, the female drivers are observed to present a higher probability than the male drivers.

  15. Who Can Afford Health Care? Evaluating the Socio-Economic Conditions and the Ability to Contribute to Health Care in a Post-Conflict Area in DR Congo

    PubMed Central

    Gerstl, Sibylle; Sauter, Justin; Kasanda, Joseph; Kinzelbach, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Democratic Republic of the Congo is today one of the poorest countries in the world; the health status of the population ranks among the worst in Sub-Saharan Africa. Public health services charge user fees and drug prices. Since 2008, north-eastern Congo is facing a guerrilla war. Malteser International is assisting with free health care for internally displaced persons as well as the general population. Before the incursion the health system was based on user fees. The aim of this study was to determine the socio-economic conditions of the population and to assess their ability to contribute to health care. Methodology Heads of 552 randomly selected households in 23 clusters in two health zones were interviewed using a standardised questionnaire. Findings The demographic description and socio-economic conditions of the study population were homogenous. Major source of income was agriculture (57%); 47% of the households earned less than US$ 5.5/week. Ninety-two percent of the interviewed households estimated that they would be able to contribute to consultation fees (maximum amount of US$ 0.27) and 79% to the drug prices (maximum amount of US$ 1.10). Six percent opted for free consultations and 19% for free drugs. Conclusions Living conditions were very basic; the estimated income of the study population was low. Almost half of the population perceived their current living situation as fairly good/good. More than 90% of the study population estimated to be able to contribute to consultation fees and 80% to drug prices. As a result Malteser International suggested introducing flat-rates for health care services. Once the project ends, the population will have to pay again for their health service. One solution would be the introduction of a health care financing system with the goal to reach universal coverage to health care. PMID:24204819

  16. Relative contribution of shoot and ear photosynthesis to grain filling in wheat under good agronomical conditions assessed by differential organ ?13C

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Bragado, Rut; Molero, Gemma; Reynolds, Matthew P.; Araus, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    During grain filling in C3 cereals, the shoot (particularly the flag leaf) and the ear are believed to play major roles as sources of assimilates. However, both the cost and the intrusive nature of most of the methodologies available to investigate this have prevented conclusive results being obtained. This study compared the carbon isotope composition (?13C) in its natural abundance in mature kernels with the ?13C of the water-soluble fraction of the peduncle, glumes, and awns to assess the relative contribution of the shoot (understood as the whole set of photosynthetic organs below the peduncle) and ear to grain filling in a set of highly productive wheat lines from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Mexico, under good agronomic conditions. In overall terms, the contribution of the ear was greater in comparison with that of the shoot. The specific contribution of the flag leaf blade to grain filling was also assessed by comparing the ?13C of grains with the ?13C of the water-soluble fraction of the flag leaf and the awns. The contribution of the flag leaf was minor, ranging between 3 and 18%. Complementary analyses performed such as gas-exchange rates and the accumulated water-soluble carbohydrates in both organs and light intercepted by the canopy at different strata suggested that the ear has a photosynthetic capacity at least comparable to that of the flag leaf. In this sense, selection for a higher contribution of ear photosynthesis to grain yield in breeding programmes could be addressed with the use of stable isotopes. PMID:25053645

  17. Key-locked guard prevents accidental switch actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawthorne, K. C.

    1966-01-01

    Switch guard, which locks in place on a panel, protects individual switches from accidental activation. The guard consists of a cup to cover the switch lever, a standard screw lock tumbler, and a stud that mates with a threaded adapter in the panel.

  18. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...ignition. Each operator shall take steps to minimize the danger of accidental ignition of gas in any structure or area where...fire extinguisher must be provided. (b) Gas or electric welding or cutting may not be performed on pipe or on pipe...

  19. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...ignition. Each operator shall take steps to minimize the danger of accidental ignition of gas in any structure or area where...fire extinguisher must be provided. (b) Gas or electric welding or cutting may not be performed on pipe or on pipe...

  20. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...ignition. Each operator shall take steps to minimize the danger of accidental ignition of gas in any structure or area where...fire extinguisher must be provided. (b) Gas or electric welding or cutting may not be performed on pipe or on pipe...

  1. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...ignition. Each operator shall take steps to minimize the danger of accidental ignition of gas in any structure or area where...fire extinguisher must be provided. (b) Gas or electric welding or cutting may not be performed on pipe or on pipe...

  2. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...ignition. Each operator shall take steps to minimize the danger of accidental ignition of gas in any structure or area where...fire extinguisher must be provided. (b) Gas or electric welding or cutting may not be performed on pipe or on pipe...

  3. Experiences of causing an accidental death: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    Rassool, Sara B; Nel, Pieter W

    2012-10-01

    Accidentally killing or feeling responsible for another person's death constitutes an event that is different from many typical traumatic stressors in that the responsibility for causing the trauma is located in the person themselves, rather than another person or persons. Research exploring the perspective of those who have accidentally caused a death is extremely sparse. This study aimed to gain an insight into the lived experiences of people who have caused an accidental death. Five participants were recruited through an on-line advertisement; all were drivers directly involved in a road traffic accident that occurred unexpectedly, without intention and resulted in a person's death. An interpretive phenomenological approach was used to analyse data collected through semi-structured interviews. Three main themes emerged from the participants' accounts: trying to make sense of a life changing moment; struggling to cope with the trauma of causing a death, and a changed sense of self. These findings highlight the considerable and enduring trauma associated with causing an accidental death, and emphasise the need to develop appropriate interventions to help alleviate this psychological distress. PMID:24563930

  4. 49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.751 Prevention...

  5. Favorable alleles for stem water-soluble carbohydrates identified by association analysis contribute to grain weight under drought stress conditions in wheat.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiyu; Zhang, Bin; Li, Runzhi; Chang, Xiaoping; Jing, Ruilian

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint to crop distribution and productivity. Stem water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) buffer wheat grain yield against conditions unfavorable for photosynthesis during the grain filling stage. In this study, 262 winter wheat accessions and 209 genome-wide SSR markers were collected and used to undertake association analysis based on a mixed linear model (MLM). The WSC in different internodes at three growth stages and 1000-grain weight (TGW) were investigated under four environmental regimes (well-watered, drought stress during the whole growth period, and two levels of terminal drought stress imposed by chemical desiccation under the well-watered and drought stress during the whole growth period conditions). Under diverse drought stress conditions, WSC in lower internodes showed significant positive correlations with TGW, especially at the flowering stage under well-watered conditions and at grain filling under drought stress. Sixteen novel WSC-favorable alleles were identified, and five of them contributed to significantly higher TGW. In addition, pyramiding WSC favorable alleles was not only effective for obtaining accessions with higher WSC, but also for enhancing TGW under different water regimes. During the past fifty years of wheat breeding, WSC was selected incidentally. The average number of favorable WSC alleles increased from 1.13 in the pre-1960 period to 4.41 in the post-2000 period. The results indicate a high potential for using marker-assisted selection to pyramid WSC favorable alleles in improving WSC and TGW in wheat. PMID:25768726

  6. Hydrodynamic Conditions Influencing Cold-Water Coral Carbonate Mound Development (Challenger Mound, Porcupine Seabight, NE Atlantic): a Contribution to IODP Exp307

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierens, M.; Odonnell, R.; Stuut, J.; Titschack, J.; Dorschel, B.; Wheeler, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    Cold-water coral carbonate mounds are complex geo-biological systems, originating from the interplay of hydrodynamic, sedimentological and biological factors. As changes in hydrodynamic and sedimentary regime are assumed to be amongst the main controls on mound evolution, reconstruction of the hydrodynamic and palaeoclimatic microenvironment on-mound, compared to the background environmental conditions (as seen off- mound), contributes to the fundamental understanding of these intriguing features and the development of a cold- water coral carbonate mound development model. Challenger Mound, one of the large cold-water coral carbonate mounds along the eastern Porcupine Seabight continental margin (NE Atlantic, SW off Ireland), was successfully drilled during IODP Expedition 307, providing the first complete recovery of a continuous sedimentary sequence through a carbonate mound. High-resolution particle size analysis of the terrigenous sediment component is used as primary proxy for reconstructing the hydrodynamic conditions during mound development. First results indicate repeated shifts in hydrodynamic conditions during sediment deposition on Challenger Mound, from lower-energetic conditions to higher-energetic environments and visa versa, which might reflect environmental variation over interglacial-glacial timescales throughout the whole mound development period. In conjunction with other available data, this dataset provides insight in local current regimes and sediment dynamics, the specific role of cold-water corals in these complex geo-biological systems and the differentiation of different sediment contributors to the coral mound system and its surroundings.

  7. Fifteen years of preclinical and clinical experiences about biotherapy treatment of lesions induced by accidental irradiation and radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chapel, Alain; Francois, Sabine; Douay, Luc; Benderitter, Marc; Voswinkel, Jan

    2013-01-01

    High dose radiation exposures involving medical treatments or accidental irradiation may lead to extended damage to the irradiated tissue. Alleviation or even eradication of irradiation induced adverse events is therefore crucial. Because developments in cell therapy have brought some hope for the treatment of tissues damages induced by irradiation, the Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Safety contributed to establish the clinical guidelines for the management of accidentally irradiated victims and to provide the best supportive care to patients all over the world. In the past 15 years, we contributed to develop and test cell therapy for protection against radiation side effects in several animal models, and we proposed mechanisms to explain the benefit brought by this new therapeutic approach. We established the proof of concept that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) migrate to damaged tissues in the nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency immunotolerant mice model and in non-human primate after radiation exposure. We showed that the intravenous injection of MSCs sustains hematopoiesis after total body irradiation, improves wound healing after radiodermatitis and protects gut function from irradiation damages. Thanks to a tight collaboration with clinicians from several French hospitals, we report successful treatments of therapeutic/accidental radiation damages in several victims with MSC infusions for hematopoiesis correction, radio-induced burns, gastrointestinal disorders and protection homeostatic functions of gut management after radio-therapy. PMID:23951388

  8. Accidental pinhole and pinspeck cameras: Revealing the scene outside the picture

    E-print Network

    Torralba, Antonio

    We identify and study two types of “accidental” images that can be formed in scenes. The first is an accidental pinhole camera image. These images are often mistaken for shadows, but can reveal structures outside a room, ...

  9. Experiment 1 Accidentally the young woman snubbed the acquaintance/*vinegar...

    E-print Network

    Kuperberg, Gina

    Experiment 1 Accidentally the young woman snubbed the acquaintance/*vinegar... Accidentally the young woman packed the vinegar/*acquaintance... After clearing the table at the diner the busboy thanked the cook/*pots... After clearing the table

  10. Accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad y el riesgo de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa acerca de los riesgos del cáncer asociados con accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad. Incluye información para pacientes con cáncer que viven en una zona que puede haber sido afectada por un accidente en una planta nuclear.

  11. Transfer of metal(loid)s in a small vineyard catchment: contribution of dissolved and particulate fractions in river for contrasted hydrological conditions.

    PubMed

    Rabiet, M; Coquery, M; Carluer, N; Gahou, J; Gouy, V

    2015-12-01

    The use of inorganic pesticides in viticulture leads to the accumulation of metal(loid)s in soils which can be transferred to the hydro-systems (groundwater and surface water) via several processes. This study reports on the occurrence and behavior of metal(loid)s (Li, Al, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, and Ba), with a particular focus on Cu, Zn, and As, in a small stream draining a vineyard catchment. Base flow and flood events were monitored in order to assess the spatiotemporal variability of metal(loid) concentrations and to evaluate the contribution of the particulate fraction to the transfer of metal(loid)s according to the hydrological conditions. Results show that very different patterns of metal(loid)s were observed in the Morcille River according to the hydrological conditions. In base flow conditions, Cu and As were mainly transported in dissolved phase, which contributed to more than 70 and 80 %, respectively, of the total load during this period. On the contrary, during base flow, Zn was mainly transported as associated to particles (90 %). During the two storm events monitored, the particulate fraction was dominant, as its represented around 74-80 %, 97 %, and 50-70 % of the total Cu, Zn, and As load in the river, respectively. Thus, despite a weaker affinity for particles during floods (decrease of particulate content during floods), metal(loid)s were mainly brought as particles, given that high amounts of suspended particulate matter (up to 2031 mg/L) were mobilized. Finally, comprehensive fluxes estimations confirmed that floods were responsible for more than 90 % of the total Cu, Zn and 75 % for As load transiting in the Morcille River in August within a very short period of time (less than 17 %). PMID:26253185

  12. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 9. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF CHLORINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual discusses reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of chlorine. It identifies examples of potential causes of accidental releases that apply to processes that use chlorine, as well as measures that may be taken to reduce the accidental release risk. Such...

  13. Accidental Nuclear War: The Growing Peril. Part I [and] Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcombe, Alan, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Two volumes designed to increase awareness of accidental nuclear war dangers are presented. The first of 5 sections in volume I proposes that although accidental war is preventable, the current arms race and secrecy about accidents and false alarms increase the possibility of an accidental war. Section 2 posits that decreased decision-making time…

  14. 40 CFR 63.95 - Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accidental release prevention programs. 63.95 Section 63.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs. (a) A State submission for approval... (“federally-listed chemicals”) that an approvable State Accidental Release Prevention program is...

  15. Circumstances and factors associated with accidental deaths among children, adolescents and young adults in Cuiabá, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, Christine Baccarat de Godoy; Mello-Jorge, Maria Helena Prado de

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Analysis on accidents from the perspective of population segments shows there is higher incidence among children, adolescents and young adults. Since the characteristics and circunstances of the event are closely related to educational, economic, social and cultural issues, identifying them may contribute towards minimizing the causes, which are often fatal. The aim here was to identify the environmental, chemical, biological and cultural factors associated with deaths due to accidents among children, adolescents and young adults in Cuiabá, in 2009. DESIGN AND SETTING This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. RESULTS Thirty-nine accidental deaths of individuals aged 0 to 24 years were examined: 56.4% due to traffic accidents; 25.6%, drowning; 10.3%, aspiration of milk; 5.1%, falls; and 2.6%, accidentally triggering a firearm. Male victims predominated (82.1%). The presence of chemical, environmental and biological risk factors was observed in almost all of the homes. Regarding cultural factors and habits, a large proportion of the families had no idea whether accidents were foreseeable events and others did not believe that the family's habits might favor their occurrence. Delegation of household chores or care of younger siblings to children under the age of 10 was common among the families studied. CONCLUSION The results point towards the need to have safe and healthy behavioral patterns and environments, and to monitor occurrences of accidents, thereby structuring and consolidating the attendance provided for victims. PMID:24141293

  16. Chronic or accidental exposure of oysters to norovirus: is there any difference in contamination?

    PubMed

    Ventrone, Iole; Schaeffer, Julien; Ollivier, Joanna; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Pepe, Tiziana; Le Pendu, Jacques; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2013-03-01

    Bivalve molluscan shellfish such as oysters may be contaminated by human pathogens. Currently, the primary pathogens associated with shellfish-related outbreaks are noroviruses. This study was conducted to improve understanding of oyster bioaccumulation when oysters were exposed to daily contamination or one accidental contamination event, i.e., different modes of contamination. Oysters were contaminated with two representative strains of norovirus (GI.1 and GII.3) and then analyzed with real-time reverse transcription PCR. Exposure to a repeated virus dose for 9 days (mimicking a growing area subjected to frequent sewage contamination) led to an additive accumulation that was not significantly different from that obtained when the same total dose of virus was added all at once (as may happen after accidental sewage discharge). Similarly, bioaccumulation tests performed with mixed strains revealed additive accumulation of both viruses. Depuration may not be efficient for eliminating viruses; therefore, to prevent contaminated shellfish from being put onto the market, continuous sanitary monitoring must be considered. All climatic events or sewage failures occurring in production areas must be recorded, because repeated low-dose exposure or abrupt events may lead to similar levels of accumulation. This study contributes to an understanding of norovirus accumulation in oysters and provides suggestions for risk management strategies. PMID:23462089

  17. P5CDH affects the pathways contributing to Pro synthesis after ProDH activation by biotic and abiotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, Yanina S; Monteoliva, Mariela I; Fabro, Georgina; Grosso, Carola L; Laróvere, Laura E; Alvarez, María E

    2015-01-01

    Plants facing adverse conditions usually alter proline (Pro) metabolism, generating changes that help restore the cellular homeostasis. These organisms synthesize Pro from glutamate (Glu) or ornithine (Orn) by two-step reactions that share ?(1) pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) as intermediate. In the catabolic process, Pro is converted back to Glu using a different pathway that involves Pro dehydrogenase (ProDH), P5C dehydrogenase (P5CDH), and P5C as intermediate. Little is known about the coordination of the catabolic and biosynthetic routes under stress. To address this issue, we analyzed how P5CDH affects the activation of Pro synthesis, in Arabidopsis tissues that increase ProDH activity by transient exposure to exogenous Pro, or infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Wild-type (Col-0) and p5cdh mutant plants subjected to these treatments were used to monitor the Pro, Glu, and Orn levels, as well as the expression of genes from Pro metabolism. Col-0 and p5cdh tissues consecutively activated ProDH and Pro biosynthetic genes under both conditions. However, they manifested a different coordination between these routes. When external Pro supply was interrupted, wild-type leaves degraded Pro to basal levels at which point Pro synthesis, mainly via Glu, became activated. Under the same condition, p5cdh leaves sustained ProDH induction without reducing the Pro content but rather increasing it, apparently by stimulating the Orn pathway. In response to pathogen infection, both genotypes showed similar trends. While Col-0 plants seemed to induce both Pro biosynthetic routes, p5cdh mutant plants may primarily activate the Orn route. Our study contributes to the functional characterization of P5CDH in biotic and abiotic stress conditions, by revealing its capacity to modulate the fate of P5C, and prevalence of Orn or Glu as Pro precursors in tissues that initially consumed Pro. PMID:26284090

  18. P5CDH affects the pathways contributing to Pro synthesis after ProDH activation by biotic and abiotic stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rizzi, Yanina S.; Monteoliva, Mariela I.; Fabro, Georgina; Grosso, Carola L.; Laróvere, Laura E.; Alvarez, María E.

    2015-01-01

    Plants facing adverse conditions usually alter proline (Pro) metabolism, generating changes that help restore the cellular homeostasis. These organisms synthesize Pro from glutamate (Glu) or ornithine (Orn) by two-step reactions that share ?1 pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) as intermediate. In the catabolic process, Pro is converted back to Glu using a different pathway that involves Pro dehydrogenase (ProDH), P5C dehydrogenase (P5CDH), and P5C as intermediate. Little is known about the coordination of the catabolic and biosynthetic routes under stress. To address this issue, we analyzed how P5CDH affects the activation of Pro synthesis, in Arabidopsis tissues that increase ProDH activity by transient exposure to exogenous Pro, or infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Wild-type (Col-0) and p5cdh mutant plants subjected to these treatments were used to monitor the Pro, Glu, and Orn levels, as well as the expression of genes from Pro metabolism. Col-0 and p5cdh tissues consecutively activated ProDH and Pro biosynthetic genes under both conditions. However, they manifested a different coordination between these routes. When external Pro supply was interrupted, wild-type leaves degraded Pro to basal levels at which point Pro synthesis, mainly via Glu, became activated. Under the same condition, p5cdh leaves sustained ProDH induction without reducing the Pro content but rather increasing it, apparently by stimulating the Orn pathway. In response to pathogen infection, both genotypes showed similar trends. While Col-0 plants seemed to induce both Pro biosynthetic routes, p5cdh mutant plants may primarily activate the Orn route. Our study contributes to the functional characterization of P5CDH in biotic and abiotic stress conditions, by revealing its capacity to modulate the fate of P5C, and prevalence of Orn or Glu as Pro precursors in tissues that initially consumed Pro. PMID:26284090

  19. Contribution of the TRPV1 channel to salt taste quality in mice as assessed by conditioned taste aversion generalization and chorda tympani nerve responses

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kimberly R.; Treesukosol, Yada; Paedae, A. Brennan; Contreras, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    In rodents, at least two transduction mechanisms are involved in salt taste: 1) the sodium-selective epithelial sodium channel, blocked by topical amiloride administration, and 2) one or more amiloride-insensitive cation-nonselective pathways. Whereas electrophysiological evidence from the chorda tympani nerve (CT) has implicated the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel as a major component of amiloride-insensitive salt taste transduction, behavioral results have provided only equivocal support. Using a brief-access taste test, we examined generalization profiles of water-deprived C57BL/6J (WT) and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice conditioned (via LiCl injection) to avoid 100 ?M amiloride-prepared 0.25 M NaCl and tested with 0.25 M NaCl, sodium gluconate, KCl, NH4Cl, 6.625 mM citric acid, 0.15 mM quinine, and 0.5 M sucrose. Both LiCl-injected WT and TRPV1 KO groups learned to avoid NaCl+amiloride relative to controls, but their generalization profiles did not differ; LiCl-injected mice avoided the nonsodium salts and quinine suggesting that a TRPV1-independent pathway contributes to the taste quality of the amiloride-insensitive portion of the NaCl signal. Repeating the experiment but doubling all stimulus concentrations revealed a difference in generalization profiles between genotypes. While both LiCl-injected groups avoided the nonsodium salts and quinine, only WT mice avoided the sodium salts and citric acid. CT responses to these stimuli and a concentration series of NaCl and KCl with and without amiloride did not differ between genotypes. Thus, in our study, TRPV1 did not appear to contribute to sodium salt perception based on gustatory signals, at least in the CT, but may have contributed to the oral somatosensory features of sodium. PMID:23054171

  20. Potential contribution of planktonic components to ammonium cycling in the coastal area off central-southern Chile during non-upwelling conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Veronica; Morales, Carmen E.; Farías, Laura; Cornejo, Marcela; Graco, Michelle; Eissler, Yoanna; Cuevas, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    The potential contributions of different microbial components (<20 ?m) and metabolisms to ammonium cycling were assessed during non-upwelling conditions in a coastal area off Concepción (?36.5°S). Assays with specific inhibitors to estimate rates of ammonium consumption and production, and carbon assimilation associated with photolithotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic (nitrification) metabolisms in the water column were performed. Despite low water column concentrations of ammonium in wintertime, intense ammonium transformations were registered. Prokaryotes (or bacterioplankton) contributed most to ammonium generation rates over the entire water column; these rates increased with depth (0.4-3.1 ?M d -1). In surface waters (10 m depth), aerobic ammonium oxidation (potentially by Bacteria and Archaea) was the dominant consumption process (average 0.7 ?M d -1) whereas in the subsurface layer (20 and 50 m depth), unexpectedly, eukaryotes accounted for most of its consumption (average 2.1 ?M d -1). Nitrification oxidized an important proportion of the ammonium in both layers (from 25% to 100%) and provided regenerated nitrate. The integrated water column rates of chemosynthesis (0.005 g C m -2 d -1) represented a large proportion (51%) of the total dark carbon fixation during the non-upwelling season when integrated rates of photosynthesis are relatively low (0.42 g C m -2 d -1) and microbial food webs dominate the transfer of carbon within this coastal system.

  1. [Deep accidental hypothermia (24 degrees C). A case report].

    PubMed

    Kröll, W; Matzer, C; Schalk, H V; Tscheliessnigg, K H

    1988-12-01

    A 65 year old female patient was submitted to the ICU in deep accidental hypothermia, due to lying in cold water after intoxication with Melperon. Body temperature after submission was 24 degrees C; therefore rewarming was done by an extracorporal bypass. After successful rewarming, the further posttraumatic course was free of complications and the patient could be discharged 14 days after the event. PMID:3239731

  2. An alternative approach for computing seismic response with accidental eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xuanhua; Yin, Jiacong; Sun, Shuli; Chen, Pu

    2014-09-01

    Accidental eccentricity is a non-standard assumption for seismic design of tall buildings. Taking it into consideration requires reanalysis of seismic resistance, which requires either time consuming computation of natural vibration of eccentric structures or finding a static displacement solution by applying an approximated equivalent torsional moment for each eccentric case. This study proposes an alternative modal response spectrum analysis (MRSA) approach to calculate seismic responses with accidental eccentricity. The proposed approach, called the Rayleigh Ritz Projection-MRSA (RRP-MRSA), is developed based on MRSA and two strategies: (a) a RRP method to obtain a fast calculation of approximate modes of eccentric structures; and (b) an approach to assemble mass matrices of eccentric structures. The efficiency of RRP-MRSA is tested via engineering examples and compared with the standard MRSA (ST-MRSA) and one approximate method, i.e., the equivalent torsional moment hybrid MRSA (ETM-MRSA). Numerical results show that RRP-MRSA not only achieves almost the same precision as ST-MRSA, and is much better than ETM-MRSA, but is also more economical. Thus, RRP-MRSA can be in place of current accidental eccentricity computations in seismic design.

  3. Population trajectories for accidental versus planned colonisation of islands.

    PubMed

    Ruxton, Graeme D; Wilkinson, David M

    2012-09-01

    We modify an existing model of the population trajectory on an island after the first arrival of a group of hominins to compare the potential success rates of accidental arrival (e.g., on vegetation rafts following major floods or a tsunami) against planned colonisation by watercraft. Our model predicts that colonisation through the accidental arrival of a group of individuals on an island should be around half as likely to be successful as colonisation through the arrival of a planned voyaging party of the same size, but that this difference could be entirely counteracted by the infrequent arrival of small numbers of individuals by similar accidental circumstances in the centuries after the initial colonisation. We argue that our model investigations strengthen the plausibility that especially early island colonisation (such as Homo erectus on Flores) may have occurred as a result of highly anomalous natural events (such as a tsunami), and thus hominin colonisation of islands outside swimming range of continents should not be seen as necessarily indicating the existences of seafaring technologies and skills. PMID:22748511

  4. The Use of Conditional Probability Functions and Potential Source Contribution Functions to Identify Source Regions and Advection Pathways of Hydrocarbon Emissions in Houston, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, YuLong; Berkowitz, Carl M.

    2007-09-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the utility of conditional probability functions (CPFs), potential source contribution functions (PSCFs), and hierarchical clustering analysis to identify the source region and transport pathways of hydrocarbons measured at five photochemical assessment monitoring stations (PAMS) near the Houston ship channel from June to October 2003. Over 50 volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations were measured on the hourly collected samples. Routine surface observations of wind directions measured at each of the receptor sites were used extensively. We show that VOCs with similar CPF patterns likely have common transport pathways. This was established with the multivariate technique, which uses the hierarchical clustering analysis to allow clusters of groups of VOCs to form with similar CPF patterns. This method revealed that alkenes, and in particular those with geometric isomers such as cis-/trans-2-butene and cis-/trans-2-pentene, have similar CPF patterns. The alkane isomers often show CPF patterns among themselves, and similarly, aromatic compounds often show similar patterns among themselves too. We also show how trajectory information can be used in conjunction with the PSCF analysis to produce a graphic analysis suggesting specific source areas for a given VOC. The use of these techniques in the chemically and meteorologically complex environment of Houston, Texas, suggests its further utility in other areas with relatively simpler conditions.

  5. Emergency operational meteorological considerations during an accidental release of hazardous chemicals. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, P.; Galt, J.

    1991-08-01

    The accidental release of toxic chemicals into the atmosphere has always been of great concern among local emergency response authorities. Evacuation of persons in and around the affected area, the amount of chemical spilled, and atmospheric conditions governing the downwind concentrations are among some of the more pressing issues confronting local hazardous materials (HAZMAT) personnel. Recently, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has embarked upon a program to provide chemical dispersion models to local HAZMAT groups. Greater public awareness of the dangers of toxic chemicals will likely mandate greater involvement by a number of government agencies, including the National Weather Service (NWS). HAZMAT personnel have not yet fully utilized the services of NWS meteorologists. In the future, NWS meteorologists and meteorological technicians may be asked to provide weather data as well as initial and short range weather forecasts (including trajectory forecasts) to emergency response managers responsible for protecting people from accidental releases of toxic spills. While a wide number of dispersion models exist, many are very similar when it comes to the type of meteorological input required to run them. The paper focuses on the input so that meteorologists may be better informed when they are called upon to provide assistance during a hazardous chemical spill in their area.

  6. Accidental exposure to UV radiation produced by germicidal lamp: case report and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zaffina, Salvatore; Camisa, Vincenzo; Lembo, Marco; Vinci, Maria Rosaria; Tucci, Mario Graziano; Borra, Massimo; Napolitano, Antonio; Cannatà, Vittorio

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is known to cause both benefits and harmful effects on humans. The adverse effects mainly involve two target organs, skin and eye, and can be further divided into short- and long-term effects. The present case report describes an accidental exposure of two health-care workers to ultraviolet radiation produced by a germicidal lamp in a hospital pharmacy. The germicidal lamp presented a spectrum with an intense UV-C component as well as a modest UV-B contribution. Overexposure to UV-C radiation was over 100 times as large as the ICNIRP exposure limits. A few hours after the exposure, the two subjects reported symptoms of acute UV injury and both of them continued having significant clinical signs for over 2 years. In this study, we describe acute and potentially irreversible effects caused by high UV exposure. In addition, we present the results of risk assessment by occupational exposure to germicidal lamps. PMID:22458545

  7. Conditional Deletion of the Glutamate Transporter GLT-1 Reveals That Astrocytic GLT-1 Protects against Fatal Epilepsy While Neuronal GLT-1 Contributes Significantly to Glutamate Uptake into Synaptosomes

    PubMed Central

    Petr, Geraldine T.; Sun, Yan; Frederick, Natalie M.; Zhou, Yun; Dhamne, Sameer C.; Hameed, Mustafa Q.; Miranda, Clive; Bedoya, Edward A.; Fischer, Kathryn D.; Armsen, Wencke; Wang, Jianlin; Danbolt, Niels C.; Rotenberg, Alexander; Aoki, Chiye J.

    2015-01-01

    GLT-1 (EAAT2; slc1a2) is the major glutamate transporter in the brain, and is predominantly expressed in astrocytes, but at lower levels also in excitatory terminals. We generated a conditional GLT-1 knock-out mouse to uncover cell-type-specific functional roles of GLT-1. Inactivation of the GLT-1 gene was achieved in either neurons or astrocytes by expression of synapsin-Cre or inducible human GFAP-CreERT2. Elimination of GLT-1 from astrocytes resulted in loss of ?80% of GLT-1 protein and of glutamate uptake activity that could be solubilized and reconstituted in liposomes. This loss was accompanied by excess mortality, lower body weight, and seizures suggesting that astrocytic GLT-1 is of major importance. However, there was only a small (15%) reduction that did not reach significance of glutamate uptake into crude forebrain synaptosomes. In contrast, when GLT-1 was deleted in neurons, both the GLT-1 protein and glutamate uptake activity that could be solubilized and reconstituted in liposomes were virtually unaffected. These mice showed normal survival, weight gain, and no seizures. However, the synaptosomal glutamate uptake capacity (Vmax) was reduced significantly (40%). In conclusion, astrocytic GLT-1 performs critical functions required for normal weight gain, resistance to epilepsy, and survival. However, the contribution of astrocytic GLT-1 to glutamate uptake into synaptosomes is less than expected, and the contribution of neuronal GLT-1 to synaptosomal glutamate uptake is greater than expected based on their relative protein expression. These results have important implications for the interpretation of the many previous studies assessing glutamate uptake capacity by measuring synaptosomal uptake. PMID:25834045

  8. Hemizygous mutations in SNAP29 unmask autosomal recessive conditions and contribute to atypical findings in patients with 22q11.2DS

    PubMed Central

    McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Revil, Timothée; Nowakowska, Beata A; Suhl, Joshua; Bailey, Alice; Mlynarski, Elisabeth; Lynch, David R; Yan, Albert C; Bilaniuk, Larissa T; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Warren, Stephen T; Emanuel, Beverly S; Vermeesch, Joris R; Zackai, Elaine H; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A

    2013-01-01

    Background 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion disorder, affecting an estimated 1?:?2000–4000 live births. Patients with 22q11.2DS have a broad spectrum of phenotypic abnormalities which generally includes congenital cardiac abnormalities, palatal anomalies, and immunodeficiency. Additional findings, such as skeletal anomalies and autoimmune disorders, can confer significant morbidity in a subset of patients. 22q11.2DS is a contiguous gene DS and over 40 genes are deleted in patients; thus deletion of several genes within this region contributes to the clinical features. Mutations outside or on the remaining 22q11.2 allele are also known to modify the phenotype. Methods We utilised whole exome, targeted exome and/or Sanger sequencing to examine the genome of 17 patients with 22q11.2 deletions and phenotypic features found in <10% of affected individuals. Results and conclusions In four unrelated patients, we identified three novel mutations in SNAP29, the gene implicated in the autosomal recessive condition cerebral dysgenesis, neuropathy, ichthyosis and keratoderma (CEDNIK). SNAP29 maps to 22q11.2 and encodes a soluble SNARE protein that is predicted to mediate vesicle fusion at the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi membranes. This work confirms that the phenotypic variability observed in a subset of patients with 22q11.2DS is due to mutations on the non-deleted chromosome, which leads to unmasking of autosomal recessive conditions such as CEDNIK, Kousseff, and a potentially autosomal recessive form of Opitz G/BBB syndrome. Furthermore, our work implicates SNAP29 as a major modifier of variable expressivity in 22q11.2 DS patients. PMID:23231787

  9. Greenhouse-grown conditionally lethal tobacco plants obtained by expression of plastidic glutamine synthetase antisense RNA may contribute to biological safety.

    PubMed

    Migge; Becker

    2000-04-25

    A cDNA corresponding to plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS-2), an enzyme involved in photorespiration, was expressed in antisense orientation under the control of a leaf-specific soybean ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit gene promotor in transgenic tobacco to yield conditionally lethal plants. Three transgenic tobacco lines with decreased (at most 64%) foliar GS-2 activity were obtained. These plants grew normally when maintained in an atmosphere with a CO(2) partial pressure sufficiently high (300 Pa CO(2)) to suppress photorespiration. However, when photorespiration was initiated by the transfer of the plants to air (35 Pa CO(2)), ammonium accumulated in the leaves. With time, the transgenic plants exhibited severe chlorotic lesions and, eventually, the plants died. A stable atmosphere containing at least 300 Pa CO(2) can be established easily in the greenhouse but is unlikely to occur in a natural environment. Therefore, the transgenic tobacco plants with decreased leaf GS-2 activity may contribute to biological safety for production of desired proteins. PMID:10717316

  10. Numerical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport

    SciTech Connect

    Piskunov, V.N.; Aloyan, A.A.; Gerasimov, V.M.; Pinaev, V.S.; Golubev, A.I.; Yanilkin, Yu.V.; Ivanov, N.V.; Nikonov, S.N.; Kharchenko, A.I.

    1995-05-01

    Statement of work for contract 006 {open_quotes}Mathematical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport{close_quotes} implies that the final result of the activity within this task will be VNIIEF developed techniques which will provide for the prediction of the post-accidental environment. Report [1] presents the description of physical models and calculation techniques which were chosen by VNIIEF to accomplish this task. These techniques were analysed for their capabilities, the areas of their application were defined, modifications within contract 006 were described, the results of test and methodical calculations were presented. Moreover, the experimental data were analysed over the source parameters and contamination measurements which can be used in the comparison with the calculation results. Based an these data this report compares the calculation results obtained with VNIIEF calculation techniques with the LANL-presented experimental results. The calculations which statements and results are given in section 1, included the following processes: explosion cloud ascent dynamics and jet release origin; aerosols kinetics in the release source including composite particle origin in the explosion cloud caused by radioactive substance sorption an the soil particles; contaminant transport in atmosphere and their in-site fallout due to the accidental explosions and fires; atmospheric flow dynamics and industrial contamination transfer over the complicated terrain. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data. Section 2 presents the parameters for a typical source in the explosion accidents based an the experimental results and calculated data from Section 1, as well as contamination patterns were calculated with basic technique {open_quotes}Prognosis{close_quotes}.

  11. Carotid rete mirabile and pseudoxanthoma elasticum: an accidental association?

    PubMed

    Vasseur, M; Carsin-Nicol, B; Ebran, J M; Willoteaux, S; Martin, L; Lefthériotis, G

    2011-09-01

    We report the case of a young female patient with a transient amaurosis due to a carotid rete mirabile (CRM), a rare congenital carotid malformation, and pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), an inherited autosomal recessive systemic metabolic disorder characterised by fragmentation and mineralisation of elastic fibres in connective tissues (skin, eyes) and the vascular system. CRM is a rare form of intracranial carotid malformation whose association with PXE (6 cases at present) would appear not to be accidental. This observation suggests a new link between congenital arterial remodelling and the PXE. PMID:21723754

  12. Watching the Ps & Qs: editorial treatment of accidentals

    E-print Network

    Thorpe, James Ernest

    1971-01-01

    not show much in terest in putting the accidentals into any order himself. When the manuscript for the second edition of Lyrical Ballads was being made ready for printing, he sent part of it to Humphry Davy—a man whom he had never met, a chemist, a... lover of poetry recommended by Coleridge— and asked Davy to correct the punctuation and send the manuscript directly on to the printer: "So I venture to address you," wrote Wordsworth, "though I have not the happiness of being personally known to you...

  13. Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Thomas; Rentmeester, Landen; Judge, Bryan S.; Cohle, Stephen D.; Jones, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema. PMID:25436159

  14. Accidental sodium hypochlorite-induced skin injury during endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Serper, Ahmet; Ozbek, Murat; Calt, Semra

    2004-03-01

    A case of accidental skin injury caused by leakage of sodium hypochlorite solution from the rubber dam during root canal preparation is reported. After placement of a rubber dam and initiation of root canal treatment, the patient complained of a burning sensation with sodium hypochlorite irrigation. The complaints were ignored by the practitioner, and a skin rash developed on and around the patient's chin, followed by scab formation. The patient required medical treatment with topical Hamamelis virginiana extract for 2 weeks, with full recovery. PMID:15055439

  15. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, Terry R. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-04-01

    An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release.

  16. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-04-01

    An improvement is described in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release. 1 fig.

  17. Investigation of thermoluminescence properties of mobile phone screen displays as dosimeters for accidental dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrozik, Anna; Marczewska, B.; Bilski, P.; K?osowski, M.

    2014-11-01

    The rapid assessment of the radiation dose after unexpected exposure is a task of accidental dosimetry. In case of a radiological accident glasses originating from mobile phone screens, placed usually near the human body, could be used as emergency thermoluminescent (TL) personal dosimeters. The time between irradiation and TL readout is crucial and therefore preparation of the mobile phone screens and their readout conditions should be optimized. The influence of the samples etching, bleaching and selection of the optical filters based on measurement of the emission spectrum of irradiated glass samples during heating for different types of mobile phones were the subjects of our investigation. Obtained results showed that glasses extracted from different brands of mobile phones have different dosimetric properties but all of them give a luminescent signal which can be used to calculate the dose.

  18. Dynamic evaluation of environmental impact due to tritium accidental release from the fusion reactor.

    PubMed

    Nie, Baojie; Ni, Muyi; Jiang, Jieqiong; Wu, Yican

    2015-10-01

    As one of the key safety issues of fusion reactors, tritium environmental impact of fusion accidents has attracted great attention. In this work, the dynamic tritium concentrations in the air and human body were evaluated on the time scale based on accidental release scenarios under the extreme environmental conditions. The radiation dose through various exposure pathways was assessed to find out the potential relationships among them. Based on this work, the limits of HT and HTO release amount for arbitrary accidents were proposed for the fusion reactor according to dose limit of ITER. The dynamic results aim to give practical guidance for establishment of fusion emergency standard and design of fusion tritium system. PMID:26164282

  19. Rigorous Simulation of Accidental Leaks from High-Pressure Storage Vessels 

    E-print Network

    Alisha, -

    2014-07-07

    Several major industrial disasters involve accidental releases of hazardous chemicals from ruptured vessels or pipelines as consequence of equipment failures, maintenance errors, operational errors, cracks, corrosion, ...

  20. Accidental fatal lung injury by compressed air: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rayamane, Anand Parashuram; Pradeepkumar, M V

    2015-03-01

    Compressed air is being used extensively as a source of energy at industries and in daily life. A variety of fatal injuries are caused by improper and ignorant use of compressed air equipments. Many types of injuries due to compressed air are reported in the literature such as colorectal injury, orbital injury, surgical emphysema, and so on. Most of these injuries are accidental in nature. It is documented that 40 pounds per square inch pressure causes fatal injuries to the ear, eyes, lungs, stomach, and intestine. Openings of body are vulnerable to injuries by compressed air. Death due to compressed air injuries is rarely reported. Many cases are treated successfully by conservative or surgical management. Extensive survey of literature revealed no reports of fatal injury to the upper respiratory tract and lungs caused by compressed air. Here, we are reporting a fatal event of accidental death after insertion of compressed air pipe into the mouth. The postmortem findings are corroborated with the history and discussed in detail. PMID:25354226

  1. Preventing Accidental Ignition of Upper-Stage Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, John; Morgan, Herbert; Cooper, Michael; Murbach, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    A report presents a proposal to reduce the risk of accidental ignition of certain upper-stage rocket motors or other high energy hazardous systems. At present, mechanically in-line initiators are used for initiation of many rocket motors and/or other high-energy hazardous systems. Electrical shorts and/or mechanical barriers, which are the basic safety devices in such systems, are typically removed as part of final arming or pad preparations while personnel are present. At this time, static discharge, test equipment malfunction, or incorrect arming techniques can cause premature firing. The proposal calls for a modular out-of-line ignition system incorporating detonating-cord elements, identified as the donor and the acceptor, separated by an air gap. In the safe configuration, the gap would be sealed with two shields, which would prevent an accidental firing of the donor from igniting the system. The shields would be removed to enable normal firing, in which shrapnel generated by the donor would reliably ignite the acceptor to continue the ordnance train. The acceptor would then ignite a through bulkhead initiator (or other similar device), which would ignite the motor or high-energy system. One shield would be remotely operated and would be moved to the armed position when a launch was imminent or conversely returned to the safe position if the launch were postponed. In the event of failure of the remotely operated shield, the other shield could be inserted manually to safe the system.

  2. Laryngeal oedema caused by accidental ingestion of Oil of Wintergreen.

    PubMed

    Botma, M; Colquhoun-Flannery, W; Leighton, S

    2001-05-11

    Oil of Wintergreen (methyl salicylate) is a common ingredient for liniments, ointments and essential oils used in self-treatment of musculoskeletal pain. Its pleasant smell also encourages its use to flavour confectionery. The toxic potential of this preparation is not always fully appreciated by the general public and physicians. To appreciate the danger of this oil it can be compared to aspirin tablets (325 mg dose): one teaspoon (5 ml) of Oil of Wintergreen is equivalent to approximately 7000 mg of salicylate or 21.7 adult aspirin tablets. Ingestion of as little as 4 ml in a child can be fatal. Prevention of accidental ingestion of methyl salicylate containing products can be achieved by keeping the products out of reach of children, using child resistant bottles, restricting the size of the openings of the bottles, appropriate labeling on products and reducing the salicylate content. Immediate action should be taken to treat a patient with accidental poisoning and hospitalisation is needed for monitoring and treatment. The danger of this product should be fully appreciated by both physicians and the general public. We present a case of Oil of Wintergreen poisoning with development of laryngeal oedema as a complication, general information and management issues will also be discussed. PMID:11335011

  3. Long-Term Fate Mapping Using Conditional Lentiviral Vectors Reveals a Continuous Contribution of Radial Glia-Like Cells to Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aelvoet, Sarah-Ann; Pascual-Brazo, Jesus; Libbrecht, Sarah; Reumers, Veerle; Gijsbers, Rik; Van den Haute, Chris; Baekelandt, Veerle

    2015-01-01

    Newborn neurons are generated throughout life in two neurogenic regions, the subventricular zone and the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Stimulation of adult neurogenesis is considered as an attractive endogenous repair mechanism to treat different neurological disorders. Although tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, important questions remain unanswered, regarding the identity and the behavior of neural stem cells in the dentate gyrus. We previously showed that conditional Cre-Flex lentiviral vectors can be used to label neural stem cells in the subventricular zone and to track the migration of their progeny with non-invasive bioluminescence imaging. Here, we applied these Cre-Flex lentiviral vectors to study neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus with bioluminescence imaging and histological techniques. Stereotactic injection of the Cre-Flex vectors into the dentate gyrus of transgenic Nestin-Cre mice resulted in specific labeling of the nestin-positive neural stem cells. The labeled cell population could be detected with bioluminescence imaging until 9 months post injection, but no significant increase in the number of labeled cells over time was observed with this imaging technique. Nevertheless, the specific labeling of the nestin-positive neural stem cells, combined with histological analysis at different time points, allowed detailed analysis of their neurogenic potential. This long-term fate mapping revealed that a stable pool of labeled nestin-positive neural stem cells continuously contributes to the generation of newborn neurons in the mouse brain until 9 months post injection. In conclusion, the Cre-Flex technology is a valuable tool to address remaining questions regarding neural stem cell identity and behavior in the dentate gyrus. PMID:26600383

  4. Study of criteria influencing the success rate of DNA swabs in operational conditions: A contribution to an evidence-based approach to crime scene investigation and triage.

    PubMed

    Baechler, S

    2016-01-01

    DNA is nowadays swabbed routinely to investigate serious and volume crimes, but research remains scarce when it comes to determining the criteria that may impact the success rate of DNA swabs taken on different surfaces and situations. To investigate these criteria in fully operational conditions, DNA analysis results of 4772 swabs taken by the forensic unit of a police department in Western Switzerland over a 2.5-year period (2012-2014) in volume crime cases were considered. A representative and random sample of 1236 swab analyses was extensively examined and codified, describing several criteria such as whether the swabbing was performed at the scene or in the lab, the zone of the scene where it was performed, the kind of object or surface that was swabbed, whether the target specimen was a touch surface or a biological fluid, and whether the swab targeted a single surface or combined different surfaces. The impact of each criterion and of their combination was assessed in regard to the success rate of DNA analysis, measured through the quality of the resulting profile, and whether the profile resulted in a hit in the national database or not. Results show that some situations-such as swabs taken on door and window handles for instance-have a higher success rate than average swabs. Conversely, other situations lead to a marked decrease in the success rate, which should discourage further analyses of such swabs. Results also confirm that targeting a DNA swab on a single surface is preferable to swabbing different surfaces with the intent to aggregate cells deposited by the offender. Such results assist in predicting the chance that the analysis of a swab taken in a given situation will lead to a positive result. The study could therefore inform an evidence-based approach to decision-making at the crime scene (what to swab or not) and at the triage step (what to analyse or not), contributing thus to save resource and increase the efficiency of forensic science efforts. PMID:26590861

  5. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 10. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the control of accidental releases of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to the atmosphere. HCN has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 50 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of HCN...

  6. Accidental Durotomy in Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Frequency, Risk Factors, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Volz, Florian; Krüger, Marie T.; Kogias, Evangelos; Rölz, Roland; Sircar, Ronen; Hubbe, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the frequency, risk factors, and management of accidental durotomy in minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF). Methods. This single-center study retrospectively investigates 372 patients who underwent MIS TLIF and were mobilized within 24 hours after surgery. The frequency of accidental durotomies, intraoperative closure technique, body mass index, and history of previous surgery was recorded. Results. We identified 32 accidental durotomies in 514 MIS TLIF levels (6.2%). Analysis showed a statistically significant relation of accidental durotomies to overweight patients (body mass index ?25?kg/m2; P = 0.0493). Patient age older than 65 years tended to be a positive predictor for accidental durotomies (P = 0.0657). Mobilizing patients on the first postoperative day, we observed no durotomy-associated complications. Conclusions. The frequency of accidental durotomies in MIS TLIF is low, with overweight being a risk factor for accidental durotomies. The minimally invasive approach seems to minimize durotomy-associated complications (CSF leakage, pseudomeningocele) because of the limited dead space in the soft tissue. Patients with accidental durotomy can usually be mobilized within 24 hours after MIS TLIF without increased risk. The minimally invasive TLIF technique might thus be beneficial in the prevention of postoperative immobilization-associated complications such as venous thromboembolism. This trial is registered with DRKS00006135. PMID:26075294

  7. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 12. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the control of accidental releases of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to the atmosphere. SO2 has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 100 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of SO2 ...

  8. Involving Parents in Indicated Early Intervention for Childhood PTSD Following Accidental Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobham, Vanessa E.; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome…

  9. SEGURO DE ACCIDENTES Y RESPONSABILIDAD CIVIL PARA ALUMNOS DE LA UNIVERSIDAD DE MURCIA

    E-print Network

    Acacio, Manuel

    100.000 *Desplazamiento de un familiar por hospitalización superior a 5 días en el extranjero Hasta 1.500 grado, para alumnos desplazados en el extranjero Hasta 1.500 Gastos por pérdida de clases por accidente, más de 90 días, en España 1.500 Infortunio familiar por accidente de circulación del padre o la madre

  10. Accidental poisoning deaths in British children 1958-77.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, N C

    1980-01-01

    In the 20 years 1958-77 598 deaths were registered as due to accidental poisoning in British children under the age of 10-343 boys and 255 girls. Drugs caused 484 deaths, non-medicinal products 111, and plants three. The annual number of deaths reached a peak in 1964 but fell steadily thereafter; 16 deaths occurred in 1977. After 1970 tricyclic antidepressants replaced salicylates as the most commonly fatal poison. The next ten drugs most often recorded in 1970-7 were, in order, opiates (including diphenoxylate/atropine (Lomotil)), barbiturates, digoxin, orphenadrine (Disipal), quinine, potassium, iron, fenfluramine (Ponderax), antihistamines, and phenothiazines. In 20 years paracetamol caused one death, and before 1976 deaths caused by aspirin had fallen to fewer than two a year. Thus the introduction in 1976 and 1977 of safety packaging of these drugs can be expected to have little impact on the mortality from them in childhood. PMID:7427181

  11. Accidental low velocity atypical missile injury to the head.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh

    2008-12-01

    Missile injuries on the head are mostly due to firearms. Atypical missiles may be encountered in case of shrapnel of bomb explosions but rarely because of stones. The present case is a rare case where a stone propelled by the pressure from the rear wheel of a speeding truck on the highway, struck the head of a 7-year-old girl resulting in fatality. Reconstruction of the incident on the basis of history and postmortem findings throws some light on the mechanism. The case is unique as it is the first reported case of an accidental missile injury to the head resulting in fatality without any direct human involvement for propulsion of the projectile. PMID:19259020

  12. Delayed health sequelae of accidental exposure to bromine gas.

    PubMed

    Carel, R S; Belmaker, I; Potashnik, G; Levine, M; Blau, R

    1992-07-01

    The delayed health effects from accidental exposure to bromine vapors in a group of six people were evaluated. During the acute exposure, they had only some respiratory symptoms and skin burns of first to second degree involving small areas. All were treated in one hospital and released within 1-4 d. Six to 8 wk later, some still had health complaints such as cough, shortness of breath, chest tightness, eye irritation, headache, dizziness, fatigue, and memory, sleep, and sexual disturbances, but no objective laboratory or clinical evidence of effects. Mechanisms that might have led to manifestations of such complaints 1-2 mo after the accident are discussed and possible ways to alleviate similar situations are suggested. PMID:1629937

  13. 50 CFR 23.52 - What are the requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally destroyed CITES...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...accidentally destroyed CITES document? 23.52 Section 23...POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION...accidentally destroyed CITES document? (a) Purpose . A Management...Authority may issue a duplicate document, either a copy of the...

  14. 50 CFR 23.52 - What are the requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally destroyed CITES...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...accidentally destroyed CITES document? 23.52 Section 23...POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION...accidentally destroyed CITES document? (a) Purpose . A Management...Authority may issue a duplicate document, either a copy of the...

  15. 50 CFR 23.52 - What are the requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally destroyed CITES...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...accidentally destroyed CITES document? 23.52 Section 23...POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION...accidentally destroyed CITES document? (a) Purpose . A Management...Authority may issue a duplicate document, either a copy of the...

  16. 50 CFR 23.52 - What are the requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally destroyed CITES...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...accidentally destroyed CITES document? 23.52 Section 23...POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION...accidentally destroyed CITES document? (a) Purpose. A Management...Authority may issue a duplicate document, either a copy of the...

  17. 50 CFR 23.52 - What are the requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally destroyed CITES...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...accidentally destroyed CITES document? 23.52 Section 23...POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION...accidentally destroyed CITES document? (a) Purpose . A Management...Authority may issue a duplicate document, either a copy of the...

  18. Historical doses to the public from routine and accidental releases of tritium - Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1953-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S. R.; Raskob, W.

    2008-07-15

    Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 29,300 TBq of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; about 75% of this was released accidentally as gaseous tritium in 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 3,700 TBq gaseous tritium and about 2,800 TBq tritiated water vapor to the total. Mean annual doses (with 95% confidence intervals) to the most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Because time-dependent tritium models require detailed meteorological data that were unavailable for the large releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from experience with UFOTRI. Even with assumptions to assure that doses would not be underestimated, all doses from routine and accidental releases were below the level (3.6 mSv) at which adverse health effects have been documented, and most were below the current regulatory limit of 100 {mu}Sv per year from releases to the atmosphere. (authors)

  19. Historical Doses To The Public from Routine and Accidental Releases of Tritium - Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1953 - 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S; Raskob, W

    2007-08-15

    Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 29,300 TBq of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; about 75% of this was released accidentally as gaseous tritium in 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 3,700 TBq gaseous tritium and about 2,800 TBq tritiated water vapor to the total. Mean annual doses (with 95% confidence intervals) to the most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Because time-dependent tritium models require detailed meteorological data that were unavailable for the large releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from experience with UFOTRI. Even with assumptions to assure that doses would not be underestimated, all doses from routine and accidental releases were below the level (3.6 mSv) at which adverse health effects have been documented, and most were below the current regulatory limit of 100 {micro}Sv per year from releases to the atmosphere.

  20. Development of emergency response tools for accidental radiological contamination of French coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Duffa, Céline; Bailly du Bois, Pascal; Caillaud, Matthieu; Charmasson, Sabine; Couvez, Céline; Didier, Damien; Dumas, Franck; Fievet, Bruno; Morillon, Mehdi; Renaud, Philippe; Thébault, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident resulted in the largest ever accidental release of artificial radionuclides in coastal waters. This accident has shown the importance of marine assessment capabilities for emergency response and the need to develop tools for adequately predicting the evolution and potential impact of radioactive releases to the marine environment. The French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) equips its emergency response centre with operational tools to assist experts and decision makers in the event of accidental atmospheric releases and contamination of the terrestrial environment. The on-going project aims to develop tools for the management of marine contamination events in French coastal areas. This should allow us to evaluate and anticipate post-accident conditions, including potential contamination sites, contamination levels and potential consequences. In order to achieve this goal, two complementary tools are developed: site-specific marine data sheets and a dedicated simulation tool (STERNE, Simulation du Transport et du transfert d'Eléments Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin). Marine data sheets are used to summarize the marine environment characteristics of the various sites considered, and to identify vulnerable areas requiring implementation of population protection measures, such as aquaculture areas, beaches or industrial water intakes, as well as areas of major ecological interest. Local climatological data (dominant sea currents as a function of meteorological or tidal conditions) serving as the basis for an initial environmental sampling strategy is provided whenever possible, along with a list of possible local contacts for operational management purposes. The STERNE simulation tool is designed to predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination in seawater and marine species by incorporating spatio-temporal data. 3D hydrodynamic forecasts are used as input data. Direct discharge points or atmospheric deposition source terms can be taken into account. STERNE calculates Eulerian radionuclide dispersion using advection and diffusion equations established offline from hydrodynamic calculations. A radioecological model based on dynamic transfer equations is implemented to evaluate activity concentrations in aquatic organisms. Essential radioecological parameters (concentration factors and single or multicomponent biological half-lives) have been compiled for main radionuclides and generic marine species (fish, molluscs, crustaceans and algae). Dispersion and transfer calculations are performed simultaneously on a 3D grid. Results can be plotted on maps, with possible tracking of spatio-temporal evolution. Post-processing and visualization can then be performed. PMID:26032189

  1. Including fathers in preventing non-accidental head injury.

    PubMed

    Coles, Lisa; Collins, Lynne

    2009-04-01

    Health visitors identified fathers as a marginalised, difficult-to-reach group when aiming for universal implementation of a public health programme to prevent non-accidental head injury (NAHI) in babies. Follow-on research with 30 fathers from disadvantaged backgrounds, including some in prison, explored barriers and facilitating factors to preventing NAHI through focus groups and interviews. Fathers expressed both responsibility and helplessness in managing a baby, but many felt excluded from gaining skills and knowledge by healthcare staff. Barriers to implementing a prevention programme included a lack of knowledge about head injuries in babies and poor understanding of prevention as a reduction of risk factors. Fear of blame for a head injury could lead to injury concealment, indicating a taboo subject. Facilitators for fathers to learn about preventing head injuries in babies included concerns of their masculinity being at odds with the frailty of the newborn, recognition of fathers' needs to be valued in their own right, and a need for individualised plans for gaining information and increasing confidence. The modifiable barriers to prevention, from the fathers' perspectives, add to the theoretical and applied evidence base for the prevention of NAHI. PMID:19397079

  2. Mitigation of Lung Injury after Accidental Exposure to Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, J.; Jelveh, S.; Calveley, V.; Zaidi, A.; Doctrow, S. R.; Hill, R. P.

    2011-01-01

    There is a serious need to develop effective mitigators against accidental radiation exposures. In radiation accidents, many people may receive nonuniform whole-body or partial-body irradiation. The lung is one of the more radiosensitive organs, demonstrating pneumonitis and fibrosis that are believed to develop at least partially because of radiation-induced chronic inflammation. Here we addressed the crucial questions of how damage to the lung can be mitigated and whether the response is affected by irradiation to the rest of the body. We examined the widely used dietary supplement genistein given at two dietary levels (750 or 3750 mg/kg) to Fischer rats irradiated with 12 Gy to the lung or 8 Gy to the lung + 4 Gy to the whole body excluding the head and tail (whole torso). We found that genistein had promising mitigating effects on oxidative damage, pneumonitis and fibrosis even at late times (36 weeks) when drug treatment was initiated 1 week after irradiation and stopped at 28 weeks postirradiation. The higher dose of genistein showed no greater beneficial effect. Combined lung and whole-torso irradiation caused more lung-related severe morbidity resulting in euthanasia of the animals than lung irradiation alone. PMID:22013884

  3. Extracorporeal Rewarming From Accidental Hypothermia of Patient With Suspected Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Darocha, Tomasz; Kosi?ski, Sylweriusz; Jarosz, Anna; Drwila, Rafal

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a new approach to rewarming patients with severe hypothermia and hemodynamic instability. There are, however, many questions regarding qualification for this technique in case of suspected or confirmed trauma. A male with confirmed accidental hypothermia (25°C) and after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation from in-hospital cardiac arrest was subjected to a protocol of extracorporeal rewarming from profound hypothermia. Because of unclear history, a full trauma computed tomography was performed that showed pericerebral hematoma and signs of previously undergone right craniotomy, multiple right-sided rib fractures and the presence of intraperitoneal fluid. Based on repeated imaging and specialist consultation, no life-threatening injuries were identified and rewarming with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was safely performed. In a year follow-up, the patient was found to be alive, with no neurologic deficits. Although this case highlights the first successful utilization of extracorporeal rewarming in a trauma patient at our center there are several limitations to its widespread use PMID:26166091

  4. Lead excretion in milk of accidentally exposed dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Karyn; Higgins, William; Thompson, Belinda; Ebel, Joseph G

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure in dairy cattle is associated with economic losses due to mortality and treatment costs, but with production animals there is also risk to the human food chain. The first objective of this study was to quantify the Pb concentration in milk from Pb-exposed cattle. The second objective was to correlate blood and milk Pb concentrations from individual cows. The third objective was long-term monitoring to determine the duration of milk contamination after exposure ceased. A dairy herd of more than 100 cows was accidentally exposed to Pb-contaminated feed. Milk and blood were collected for Pb analysis. Serial collection of milk samples continued for 2.5 years. The initial concentration of Pb in bulk tank milk was 0.0999 mg l?¹. The highest milk Pb concentration from an individual cow was 0.4657 mg l?¹ and the highest blood Pb concentration was 1.216 mg l?¹. One milk sample collected at the end of the study (day 922) contained 0.0117 mg Pb l?¹ of Pb. The calculated relationship between milk (y) and blood (x) Pb concentration was ln(y) = 3.4(x) - 2.21 (R² = 0.98). PMID:24479959

  5. Assessment of accidental intakes of uranyl acetylacetonate (UAA)

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Briant, J.K.

    1993-12-01

    Uranyl acetylacetonate (UAA) is an organic complex of uranium used for military applications as a chemical catalyst in high explosives. It is prepared from depleted uranium metal (in lots of 5 kg to 7 kg) by dissolution in nitric acid, neutralization, and complexation with 2,4-pentanedione; the precipitate is dissolved in benzene and recrystallized, dried, ground, and packaged. About six workers at a small chemical company were exposed over a period of time to UAA powders during routine preparation and packaging of the uranium catalyst. The dissolution characteristics of the inhaled material were unknown and could not be determined from the published scientific literature. A 1.05-g sample of UAA powder was obtained from the responsible regulatory authority for further study to determine its chemical composition, and for dissolution in simulated lung fluid. We found the solubility of UAA to be equivalent to a mixture of 52% ICRP class D and 48% ICRP class W material. The annual limit on intake and the derived air concentration for radiological protection were estimated from this result for airborne exposure to UAA. A recycling biokinetic model was used to estimate both material-specific variations in urinary excretion rates and lung retention with time after accidental intakes. This study provides new information for evaluating future exposures to UAA.

  6. Accidental Intra-Arterial Injection of Diclofenac –Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jasdeep; Sharma, Pratibha; Khera, Aadhar; Singh, Puneet

    2015-01-01

    Diclofenac sodium is a very common drug used in medical practice for analgesia and is freely available over the counter without any medical prescription. The drug is also the most commonly used or misused by quacks working all over India. Many case reports have been published on upper limb catastrophe of unintentional intra-arterial injection of barbiturates, thiopental sodium, narcotics, and tranquilizers but only two cases of inadvertent intra-arterial injection of diclofenac have been reported till date. Potential serious complication of inadvertent intra-arterial injection of diclofenac sodium leading to gangrene has been recently reported in medical literature. It is a medical emergency and literature has shown that timely diagnosis with early intervention can salvage the limb. We hereby report a case of accidental intra-arterial injection of diclofenac sodium in the ulnar artery by a quack for pain abdomen leading to gangrene of the distal part of affected little, ring and part of middle finger of right hand. PMID:25738031

  7. Accidental deaths caused by electricity in Sweden, 1975-2000.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Richard; Bylund, Per-Olof; Eriksson, Anders

    2006-11-01

    This study analyzes accidental fatalities caused by electricity--at work and during leisure time--to evaluate risk factors, the role of alcohol, and to identify possible preventive strategies. In Sweden, data on fatalities by electrocution from 1975 through 2000 were collected from the National Cause-of-Death Register. Additional cases were found in the archives of The Swedish National Electrical Safety Board. Suicides and deaths by lightning were excluded. Two hundred and eighty-five deaths were found, including occupational (n=132), leisure time (n=151), and unknown (n=2). Most deaths were caused by aerial power lines, and the most common place for an electrical injury was a railway area or residential property. Postmortem blood from 20% (n=47) of the tested cases was found positive for alcohol, and these persons were killed mainly during leisure time. During the study period, the overall incidence of electricity-related fatalities has decreased, in spite of increased use of electricity. This indicates that safety improvements have been successful. PMID:17199625

  8. Inverse Modeling of Accidental Releases of Atmospheric Pollutants: New Developments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocquet, M.

    2007-12-01

    An account is given on new data assimilation techniques that have recently been used to identify the source of an accidental release of pollutant into the atmosphere, and forecast (possibly in real time) the subsequent dispersion plume. It could be a chemical cloud from an industrial site or a release of radionuclides from a nuclear power plant (from minor accident to core meltdown). These methods are not necessarily based on Gaussian hypotheses, for instance the source may be given as positive or bounded. In particular, the usual least squares cost function (4D-Var) is replaced with purposely devised functionals that are not necessarily quadratic. These methods have been applied successfully to the reconstruction of the Chernobyl accident, the Algeciras incident or the ETEX experiment, and outperform previous approaches. As far as state assimilation is concerned, the techniques have been applied a posteriori to the reconstruction of the ETEX plume, after all observations are acquired. The method has also been applied to the reconstruction of the dispersion plume, in the context of an emergency situation: the data have been assimilated sequentially as they arrived and a forecast is performed after each analysis. This provides with a picture of what could be achieved (forecast, risk assessment) in case of a real emergency with a Chemistry Transport Model and advanced data assimilation techniques. A second-order sensitivity study that applies to the possibly non- quadratic cost functions has also been carried out in the context of these reconstructions.

  9. High mortality due to accidental salinomycin intoxication in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Eisapour, Hamed; Erfani, Amir Mehdi; Kalantary, Amir Ali; Amoli, Jamileh Salar; Mozafari, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    In February 2012, 100% mortality was reported in a herd with 79 local sheep that were kept around of Abhar, Northwest of Iran. The ration for adult sheep was daily mixed (40 kg straw, 25 kg wheat and 2 kg Vit-C premix) and accidentally 1 500 g of salinomycin (Salinomycin 12% Premix; Aras Bazar Laboratories, Iran) had been added to the ration (22388 mg/kg = 22388 ppm) and overnight was fed to herd. At the morning, 78 sheep were founded dead and one of them showed convulsive seizures. Postmortem examination revealed pulmonary congestion and edema, hemorrhages in abomasum, large pale kidney and white streak lines in myocardium. Main histopathologic lesions were extensive subepicardial and intercardiomyofibers hemorrhages, extensive cardiomyolysis and myocarditis in heart, severe hyperemia and extensive acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in kidneys and focal necrosis and retention of bile cholangitis in the liver. In this study, on the basis of the history, observation of the ionophore remnant in the ration, clinical signs, gross and histopathological findings, acute salinomycin intoxication is definitely diagnosed. PMID:26109896

  10. Balanced Flow Measurement and Conditioning Technology (Balanced Orifice Plate 7,051,765 B1) for NASA Inventions and Contributions Board Invention of the Year Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the Balanced Flow Measurement (BFM) and Conditioning Technology, and makes the case for this as the NASA Invention of the Year. The BFM technology makes use of a thin, multi-hole orifice plate with holes sized and placed per a unique set of equations. It produces mass flow, volumetric flow,kinelic energy,or momentum BALANCE across the face of the plate. The flow is proportional.to the square root of upstream to downstream differential pressure. Multiple holes lead to smoother pressure measurement. Measures and conditions or can limit fluid flow. This innovation has many uses in and out of NASA.

  11. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE...

  12. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE...

  13. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE...

  14. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE...

  15. A case of accidental intrathecal injection of a large dose of ropivacaine during cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yan P; Chen, Hong F; Yang, Chen; Tian, Fu B; Huang, Shao Q

    2014-01-01

    Continuous spinal anesthesia may provide excellent labor analgesia. The incidence of accidental intrathecal injection of megadose of ropivacaine, as one of the possible complications during cesarean section, is very rare. Present case report provides reference to clinical practice. PMID:25232443

  16. Epilepsy, diabetes mellitus, and accidental injury at work

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith T; D’Angelo, Stefania; Harris, E Clare; Linaker, Cathy; Coggon, David

    2015-01-01

    Aims To assess the contribution of epilepsy and diabetes to occupational injury. Methods The Clinical Practice Research Datalink logs primary care data for 6% of the British population, coding all consultations and treatments. Using this we conducted a population-based case-control study, identifying patients aged 16-64 who had consulted over two decades for workplace injury, plus matched controls. By conditional logistic regression we assessed risks for diabetes and epilepsy overall, several diabetic complications and indices of poor control, occurrence of status epilepticus and treatment with hypoglycaemic and anti-epileptic agents. Results We identified 1,348 injury cases and 6,652 matched controls. 160 subjects (2%) had previous epilepsy, including 29 injury cases, while 199 (2.5%) had diabetes, including 77 with eye involvement and 52 with a record of poor control. Odds ratios (ORs) for occupational injury were close to unity, both in those with epilepsy (1.07) and diabetes (0.98) and in those prescribed anti-epileptic or hypoglycaemic treatments in the previous year (0.87 to 1.16). We found no evidence of any injury arising directly from a seizure and no-one had consulted about their epilepsy within 100 days before their injury consultation. Two cases and six controls had suffered status epilepticus (OR vs. never had epilepsy 1.61). Risks were somewhat higher for certain diabetic complications (OR 1.44), although lower among those with eye involvement (OR 0.70) or poor diabetic control (0.50). No associations were statistically significant. Conclusions No evidence was found that diabetes or epilepsy are important contributors to workplace injury in Britain. PMID:24964785

  17. Dose Calculation For Accidental Release Of Radioactive Cloud Passing Over Jeddah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, N. D.; Mayhoub, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    For the evaluation of doses after the reactor accident, in particular for the inhalation dose, a thorough knowledge of the concentration of the various radionuclide in air during the passage of the plume is required. In this paper we present an application of the Gaussian Plume Model (GPM) to calculate the atmospheric dispersion and airborne radionuclide concentration resulting from radioactive cloud over the city of Jeddah (KSA). The radioactive cloud is assumed to be emitted from a reactor of 10 MW power in postulated accidental release. Committed effective doses (CEDs) to the public at different distance from the source to the receptor are calculated. The calculations were based on meteorological condition and data of the Jeddah site. These data are: pasquill atmospheric stability is the class B and the wind speed is 2.4m/s at 10m height in the N direction. The residence time of some radionuclides considered in this study were calculated. The results indicate that, the values of doses first increase with distance, reach a maximum value and then gradually decrease. The total dose received by human is estimated by using the estimated values of residence time of each radioactive pollutant at different distances.

  18. Dose Calculation For Accidental Release Of Radioactive Cloud Passing Over Jeddah

    SciTech Connect

    Alharbi, N. D.; Mayhoub, A. B.

    2011-12-26

    For the evaluation of doses after the reactor accident, in particular for the inhalation dose, a thorough knowledge of the concentration of the various radionuclide in air during the passage of the plume is required. In this paper we present an application of the Gaussian Plume Model (GPM) to calculate the atmospheric dispersion and airborne radionuclide concentration resulting from radioactive cloud over the city of Jeddah (KSA). The radioactive cloud is assumed to be emitted from a reactor of 10 MW power in postulated accidental release. Committed effective doses (CEDs) to the public at different distance from the source to the receptor are calculated. The calculations were based on meteorological condition and data of the Jeddah site. These data are: pasquill atmospheric stability is the class B and the wind speed is 2.4m/s at 10m height in the N direction. The residence time of some radionuclides considered in this study were calculated. The results indicate that, the values of doses first increase with distance, reach a maximum value and then gradually decrease. The total dose received by human is estimated by using the estimated values of residence time of each radioactive pollutant at different distances.

  19. Macular hole surgery following accidental laser injury with a military rangefinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custis, Peter H.; Gagliano, Donald A.; Zwick, Harry; Schuschereba, Steven T.; Regillo, Carl D.

    1996-04-01

    An active duty marine corps service member had bilateral full thickness macular holes induced following accidental Q-switched laser exposure from a hand held Neodymium range finder (ANGVS-5). The right eye had a large hole nasal to the fovea, while the left eye had a much smaller hole closer to the fovea centralis. Over the 18 months following the injury, the left eye demonstrated mild progressive degradation in visual function, but retained 20/20 final visual acuity. In contrast, the hole in the right eye increased in size, developed a localized retinal detachment with cystic changes in the fovea, and had atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium. Within 6 months after injury, acuity declined to 20/100. Macular hole surgery was performed with a goal of sealing the edges of the hole in order to allow resolution of the localized detachment and cystic changes in the fovea. In spite of surgical techniques that are generally successful in the treatment of macular holes associated with other etiologies, the fundus findings remained unchanged and visual acuity declined to 20/400. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of macular hole surgery for this condition.

  20. Atmospheric entry of Mars-return nuclear-powered vehicles due to accidental termination of operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menees, Gene P.; Park, Chul

    1993-01-01

    The entry of nuclear reactors into Earth's atmosphere resulting from an accidental or inadvertent abort of a space vehicle powered by nuclear-thermal rockets is investigated. The study is made for a typical piloted Mars mission vehicle incapacitated by an accident or malfunction during the Earth-arrival phase of the Mars-return journey due to simultaneous, multiple failures of its component systems. A single accident/abort scenario resulting in three entry possibilities is considered for a nominal hyperbolic in-bound approach velocity of 8 km/sec. The most severe case involving a direct entry is then analyzed over a broad range of approach velocities extending to 12 km/sec to include sprint-type missions. The results indicate that the severe surface heating, stagnation pressures, and g-loads are greater than 150 kW/sq cm, 300 atm, and 800-g, respectively. The wall heat transfer rate exceeds the value that can be accommodated by a carbon heatshield through radiation equilibrium prior to sublimation at 5500 K. These conditions are beyond our previous experience in crew safety, structural design, and thermal protection.

  1. Fatal colchicine poisoning by accidental ingestion of Colchicum persicum: a case report.

    PubMed

    Amrollahi-Sharifabadi, Mohammad; Seghatoleslami, Ahmad; Amrollahi-Sharifabadi, Maryam; Bayani, Farajali; Mirjalili, Mahdi

    2013-12-01

    Colchicine poisoning can occur not only by taking dosage form but also by ingesting a plant containing colchicine. A 39-year-old man presented to the emergency room with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea 9 hours after ingestion of wild garlic. Symptoms attributed to food poisoning, and he received supportive cares and discharged. However, he was admitted to the hospital because of severe gastrointestinal presentations 4 hours later. He received treatments based on the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis. The patient was in a fair condition during 30 hours of hospitalization until he suddenly developed respiratory distress and unfortunately died with cardiopulmonary arrest. The deceased body referred to our legal medicine center for determining cause of death and investigating possible medical staff malpractices. Postmortem examination, autopsy, macropathology and micropathology study, and postmortem toxicological analysis were performed. All results were submitted to the medical committee office for decision. The unknown cause of death was disclosed after determination of colchicine in the plant and botanical identification as Colchicum persicum. The committee determined the most probable cause of death as acute cardiopulmonary complications induced by colchicine poisoning and the manner of death as accidental. The medical staff was acquitted of the malpractice. PMID:24196723

  2. Laboratory-Acquired Parasitic Infections from Accidental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Herwaldt, Barbara L.

    2001-01-01

    Parasitic diseases are receiving increasing attention in developed countries in part because of their importance in travelers, immigrants, and immunocompromised persons. The main purpose of this review is to educate laboratorians, the primary readership, and health care workers, the secondary readership, about the potential hazards of handling specimens that contain viable parasites and about the diseases that can result. This is accomplished partly through discussion of the occupationally acquired cases of parasitic infections that have been reported, focusing for each case on the type of accident that resulted in infection, the length of the incubation period, the clinical manifestations that developed, and the means by which infection was detected. The article focuses on the cases of infection with the protozoa that cause leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis), and African trypanosomiasis. Data about 164 such cases are discussed, as are data about cases caused by intestinal protozoa and by helminths. Of the 105 case-patients infected with blood and tissue protozoa who either recalled an accident or for whom the likely route of transmission could be presumed, 47 (44.8%) had percutaneous exposure via a contaminated needle or other sharp object. Some accidents were directly linked to poor laboratory practices (e.g., recapping a needle or working barehanded). To decrease the likelihood of accidental exposures, persons who could be exposed to pathogenic parasites must be thoroughly instructed in safety precautions before they begin to work and through ongoing training programs. Protocols should be provided for handling specimens that could contain viable organisms, using protective clothing and equipment, dealing with spills of infectious organisms, and responding to accidents. Special care should be exercised when using needles and other sharp objects. PMID:11585780

  3. Persistent Seroconversion after Accidental Eye Exposure to Calcifying Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Aho, Katja M.; McKay, David S.; Kajander, E. Olavi

    2007-01-01

    Biosafety of nanomaterials has attracted much attention recently. We report here a case where accidental human eye exposure to biogenic nanosized calcium phosphate in the form of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) raised a strong IgG immune response against proteins carried by CNP. The antibody titer has persisted over ten years at the high level. The IgG was detected by ELISA using CNPs propagated in media containing bovine and human serum as antigen. The exposure incident occurred to a woman scientist (WS) at a research laboratory in Finland at 1993. CNP, also termed "nanobacteria", is a unique self-replicating agent that has not been fully characterized and no data on biohazards were available at that time. Before the accident, her serum samples were negative for both CNP antigen and anti-CNP antibody using specific ELISA tests (Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland). The accident occurred while WS was harvesting CNP cultures. Due to a high pressure in pipetting, CNP pellet splashed into her right eye. Both eyes were immediately washed with water and saline. The following days there was irritation and redness in the right eye. These symptoms disappeared within two weeks without any treatment. Three months after the accident, blood and urine samples of WS were tested for CNP cultures (2), CNP-specific ELISA tests, and blood cell counts. Blood cell counts were normal, CNP antigen and culture tests were negative. A high IgG anti-CNP antibody titer was detected (see Figure). The antibodies of this person have been used thereafter as positive control and standard in ELISA manufacturing (Nano-Sero IgG ELISA, Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland).

  4. Acute health effects of accidental chlorine gas exposure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to report the course of an accidental release of chlorine gas that occurred in a factory in Gumi-si, South Korea, on March 5, 2013. We describe the analysis results of 2 patients hospitalized because of chlorine-induced acute health problems, as well as the clinical features of 209 non-hospitalized patients. Methods We analyzed the medical records of the 2 hospitalized patients admitted to the hospital, as well as the medical records and self-report questionnaires of 209 non-hospitalized patients completed during outpatient treatment. Results Immediately after the exposure, the 2 hospitalized patients developed acute asthma-like symptoms such as cough and dyspnea, and showed restrictive and combined pattern ventilatory defects on the pulmonary function test. The case 1 showed asthma-like symptoms over six months and diurnal variability in peak expiratory flow rate was 56.7%. In case 2, his FEV1 after treatment (93%) increased by 25% compared to initial FEV1 (68%). Both cases were diagnosed as chlorine-induced reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) on the basis of these clinical features. The most frequent chief complaints of the 209 non-hospitalized patients were headache (22.7%), followed by eye irritation (18.2%), nausea (11.2%), and sore throat (10.8%), with asymptomatic patients accounting for 36.5%. The multiple-response analysis of individual symptom revealed headache (42.4%) to be the most frequent symptom, followed by eye irritation (30.5%), sore throat (30.0%), cough (29.6%), nausea (27.6%), and dizziness (27.3%). Conclusions The 2 patients hospitalized after exposure to chlorine gas at the leakage site showed a clinical course corresponding to RADS. All of the 209 non-hospitalized patients only complained of symptoms of the upper airways and mucous membrane irritation. PMID:25852940

  5. Thylakoid FtsH protease contributes to photosystem II and cytochrome b6f remodeling in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Malnoë, Alizée; Wang, Fei; Girard-Bascou, Jacqueline; Wollman, Francis-André; de Vitry, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    FtsH is the major thylakoid membrane protease found in organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis. Here, we show that FtsH from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii forms heterooligomers comprising two subunits, FtsH1 and FtsH2. We characterized this protease using FtsH mutants that we identified through a genetic suppressor approach that restored phototrophic growth of mutants originally defective for cytochrome b6f accumulation. We thus extended the spectrum of FtsH substrates in the thylakoid membranes beyond photosystem II, showing the susceptibility of cytochrome b6f complexes (and proteins involved in the ci heme binding pathway to cytochrome b6) to FtsH. We then show how FtsH is involved in the response of C. reinhardtii to macronutrient stress. Upon phosphorus starvation, photosynthesis inactivation results from an FtsH-sensitive photoinhibition process. In contrast, we identified an FtsH-dependent loss of photosystem II and cytochrome b6f complexes in darkness upon sulfur deprivation. The D1 fragmentation pattern observed in the latter condition was similar to that observed in photoinhibitory conditions, which points to a similar degradation pathway in these two widely different environmental conditions. Our experiments thus provide extensive evidence that FtsH plays a major role in the quality control of thylakoid membrane proteins and in the response of C. reinhardtii to light and macronutrient stress. PMID:24449688

  6. The Contribution of Social Networks to the Health and Self-Management of Patients with Long-Term Conditions: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, David; Blickem, Christian; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Brooks, Helen; Kennedy, Anne; Richardson, Gerry; Rogers, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for the effectiveness of patient education programmes in changing individual self-management behaviour is equivocal. More distal elements of personal social relationships and the availability of social capital at the community level may be key to the mobilisation of resources needed for long-term condition self-management to be effective. Aim To determine how the social networks of people with long-term conditions (diabetes and heart disease) are associated with health-related outcomes and changes in outcomes over time. Methods Patients with chronic heart disease (CHD) or diabetes (n?=?300) randomly selected from the disease registers of 19 GP practices in the North West of England. Data on personal social networks collected using a postal questionnaire, alongside face-to-face interviewing. Follow-up at 12 months via postal questionnaire using a self-report grid for network members identified at baseline. Analysis Multiple regression analysis of relationships between health status, self-management and health-economics outcomes, and characteristics of patients' social networks. Results Findings indicated that: (1) social involvement with a wider variety of people and groups supports personal self-management and physical and mental well-being; (2) support work undertaken by personal networks expands in accordance with health needs helping people to cope with their condition; (3) network support substitutes for formal care and can produce substantial saving in traditional health service utilisation costs. Health service costs were significantly (p<0.01) reduced for patients receiving greater levels of illness work through their networks. Conclusions Support for self-management which achieves desirable policy outcomes should be construed less as an individualised set of actions and behaviour and more as a social network phenomenon. This study shows the need for a greater focus on harnessing and sustaining the capacity of networks and the importance of social involvement with community groups and resources for producing a more desirable and cost-effective way of supporting long term illness management. PMID:24887107

  7. Aerosol Direct, Indirect, Semidirect, and Surface Albedo Effects from Sector Contributions Based on the IPCC AR5 Emissions for Preindustrial and Present-day Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Menon, Surabi

    2012-01-01

    The anthropogenic increase in aerosol concentrations since preindustrial times and its net cooling effect on the atmosphere is thought to mask some of the greenhouse gas-induced warming. Although the overall effect of aerosols on solar radiation and clouds is most certainly negative, some individual forcing agents and feedbacks have positive forcing effects. Recent studies have tried to identify some of those positive forcing agents and their individual emission sectors, with the hope that mitigation policies could be developed to target those emitters. Understanding the net effect of multisource emitting sectors and the involved cloud feedbacks is very challenging, and this paper will clarify forcing and feedback effects by separating direct, indirect, semidirect and surface albedo effects due to aerosols. To this end, we apply the Goddard Institute for Space Studies climate model including detailed aerosol microphysics to examine aerosol impacts on climate by isolating single emission sector contributions as given by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) emission data sets developed for Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5. For the modeled past 150 years, using the climate model and emissions from preindustrial times to present-day, the total global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing is -0.6 W/m(exp 2), with the largest contribution from the direct effect (-0.5 W/m(exp 2)). Aerosol-induced changes on cloud cover often depends on cloud type and geographical region. The indirect (includes only the cloud albedo effect with -0.17 W/m(exp 2)) and semidirect effects (-0.10 W/m(exp 2)) can be isolated on a regional scale, and they often have opposing forcing effects, leading to overall small forcing effects on a global scale. Although the surface albedo effects from aerosols are small (0.016 W/m(exp 2)), triggered feedbacks on top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing can be 10 times larger. Our results point out that each emission sector has varying impacts by geographical region. For example, the single sector most responsible for a net positive radiative forcing is the transportation sector in the United States, agricultural burning and transportation in Europe, and the domestic emission sector in Asia. These sectors are attractive mitigation targets.

  8. Modelling the growth/no growth boundary of Zygosaccharomyces bailii in acidic conditions: a contribution to the alternative method to preserve foods without using chemical preservatives.

    PubMed

    Dang, T D T; Mertens, L; Vermeulen, A; Geeraerd, A H; Van Impe, J F; Debevere, J; Devlieghere, F

    2010-01-31

    The aim of the study was to develop mathematical models describing growth/no growth (G/NG) boundaries of the highly resistant food spoilage yeast-Zygosaccharomyces bailii-in different environmental conditions, taking acidified sauces as the target product. By applying these models, the stability of products with characteristics within the investigated pH, a(w) and acetic acid ranges can be evaluated. Besides, the well-defined no growth regions can be used in the development of guidelines regarding formulation of new shelf-stable foods without using chemical preservatives, which would facilitate the innovation of additive-free products. Experiments were performed at different temperatures and periods (22 degrees C for 45 and 60days, 30 degrees C for 45days) in 150 modified Sabouraud media characterized by high amount of sugars (glucose and fructose, 15% (w/v)), acetic acid (0.0-2.5% (v/v), 6 levels), pH (3.0-5.0, 5 levels) and a(w) (0.93-0.97, 5 levels). These time and temperature combinations were chosen as they are commonly applied for shelf-stable foods. The media were inoculated with ca. 4.5 log CFU/ml and yeast growth was monitored daily using optical density measurements. Every condition was examined in 20 replicates in order to yield accurate growth probabilities. Three separate ordinary logistic regression models were developed for different tested temperatures and incubation time. The total acetic acid concentration was considered as variable for all models. In general, when one intrinsic inhibitory factor became more stringent, the G/NG boundary shifted to less stressful conditions of the other two factors, resulting in enlarged no growth zones. Abrupt changes of growth probability often occurred around the transition zones (between growth and no growth regions), which indicates that minor variations in environmental conditions near the G/NG boundaries can cause a significant impact on the growth probability. When comparing growth after 45days between the two tested temperatures, an unexpected phenomenon was observed: the no growth region at 30 degrees C was larger than the one at 22 degrees C, though it is known that 30 degrees C is the optimal growth temperature for Z. bailii. These results show that lowering temperature does not always lead to a reduced growth of the yeast (i.e. more stable foods) and storing shelf-stable products at the higher temperature (30 degrees C) is not always the worst case. In addition, at 22 degrees C, there was no significant difference in no growth zones between the two incubation periods (45 and 60days), implying that the no growth zones remain unchanged if the experimental time is sufficiently long. PMID:19939483

  9. Contribution of Chromosomes 1HchS and 6HchS to Fertility Restoration in the Wheat msH1 CMS System under Different Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Almudena; Rodríguez-Suárez, Cristina; Martín, Azahara C.; Pistón, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Exploiting hybrid wheat heterosis has been long pursued to increase crop yield, stability and uniformity. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) systems based in the nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatible interactions are a classic way for hybrid seed production, but to date, no definitive system is available in wheat. The msH1 CMS system results from the incompatibility between the nuclear genome of wheat and the cytoplasmic genome of the wild barley Hordeum chilense. Fertility restoration of the CMS phenotype was first associated with the disomic addition of the short arm of chromosome 6H from H. chilense. In further studies it was observed that chromosome arm 1HchS was also implicated, and the combination of genes in both chromosome arms restored fertility more efficiently. In this work we aim to dissect the effect of each chromosome in fertility restoration when combined in different genomic backgrounds and under different environmental conditions. We propose a model to explain how restoration behaves in the msH1 system and generate valuable information necessary to develop an efficient system for hybrid wheat production. PMID:26192191

  10. Analysis of the Contribution of Wind Drift Factor to Oil Slick Movement under Strong Tidal Condition: Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Case

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Yang, Chan-Su; Oh, Jeong-Hwan; Ouchi, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model and Automatic Weather System (AWS) were used to generate tidal and wind fields respectively. Simulation results were then compared with 5 sets of spaceborne optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. From the present study, it was found that highest matching rate between the simulation results and satellite imagery was obtained with different values of the wind drift factor, and to first order, this factor was linearly proportional to the wind speed. Based on the results, a new modified empirical formula was proposed for forecasting the movement of oil slicks on the coastal area. PMID:24498094

  11. Analysis of the contribution of wind drift factor to oil slick movement under strong tidal condition: Hebei Spirit oil spill case.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Yang, Chan-Su; Oh, Jeong-Hwan; Ouchi, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model and Automatic Weather System (AWS) were used to generate tidal and wind fields respectively. Simulation results were then compared with 5 sets of spaceborne optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. From the present study, it was found that highest matching rate between the simulation results and satellite imagery was obtained with different values of the wind drift factor, and to first order, this factor was linearly proportional to the wind speed. Based on the results, a new modified empirical formula was proposed for forecasting the movement of oil slicks on the coastal area. PMID:24498094

  12. Contribution of Chromosomes 1HchS and 6HchS to Fertility Restoration in the Wheat msH1 CMS System under Different Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Almudena; Rodríguez-Suárez, Cristina; Martín, Azahara C; Pistón, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Exploiting hybrid wheat heterosis has been long pursued to increase crop yield, stability and uniformity. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) systems based in the nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatible interactions are a classic way for hybrid seed production, but to date, no definitive system is available in wheat. The msH1 CMS system results from the incompatibility between the nuclear genome of wheat and the cytoplasmic genome of the wild barley Hordeum chilense. Fertility restoration of the CMS phenotype was first associated with the disomic addition of the short arm of chromosome 6H from H. chilense. In further studies it was observed that chromosome arm 1HchS was also implicated, and the combination of genes in both chromosome arms restored fertility more efficiently. In this work we aim to dissect the effect of each chromosome in fertility restoration when combined in different genomic backgrounds and under different environmental conditions. We propose a model to explain how restoration behaves in the msH1 system and generate valuable information necessary to develop an efficient system for hybrid wheat production. PMID:26192191

  13. Neuropsychological and conditioned blocking performance in patients with schizophrenia: assessment of the contribution of neuroleptic dose, serum levels and dopamine D2-receptor occupancy.

    PubMed

    Oades, R D; Rao, M L; Bender, S; Sartory, G; Müller, B W

    2000-06-01

    Patients with schizophrenia show impairments of attention and neuropsychological performance, but the extent to which this is attributable to antipsychotic medication remains largely unexplored. We describe here the putative influence of the dose of antipsychotic medication (chlorpromazine equivalents, CPZ), the antipsychotic serum concentration of dopamine (DA) D2-blocking activity and the approximated central dopamine D2-receptor occupancy (DA D2-occupancy), on conditioned blocking (CB) measures of attention and performance on a neuropsychological battery, in 108 patients with schizophrenia (compared with 62 healthy controls). Antipsychotic serum concentration and D2-occupancy were higher in patients with a paranoid versus non-paranoid diagnosis, and in female versus male patients (independent of symptom severity). Controlling for D2-occupancy removed the difference between high CB in paranoid and impaired low CB in non-paranoid patients. Similar partial correlations for antipsychotic drug dose and serum levels of DA D2-blocking activity with performance of the trail-making and picture completion tests (negative) and the block-design task (positive) showed the functional importance of DA-related activity. High estimates of central DA D2-occupancy were related to impaired verbal fluency but were associated with improved recall of stories, especially in paranoid patients. This, the first study of its kind, tentatively imputes a role for DA D2-related activity in left frontal (e.g. CB, verbal fluency) and temporal lobe functions (verbal recall) as well as in some non-verbal abilities mediated more in the right hemisphere in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:11103886

  14. Aspergillus parasiticus SU-1 Genome Sequence, Predicted Chromosome Structure, and Comparative Gene Expression under Aflatoxin-Inducing Conditions: Evidence that Differential Expression Contributes to Species Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Josephine; Roze, Ludmila V.

    2014-01-01

    The filamentous fungi Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus produce the carcinogenic secondary metabolite aflatoxin on susceptible crops. These species differ in the quantity of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 produced in culture, in the ability to produce the mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid, and in morphology of mycelia and conidiospores. To understand the genetic basis for differences in biochemistry and morphology, we conducted next-generation sequence (NGS) analysis of the A. parasiticus strain SU-1 genome and comparative gene expression (RNA sequence analysis [RNA Seq]) analysis of A. parasiticus SU-1 and A. flavus strain NRRL 3357 (3357) grown under aflatoxin-inducing and -noninducing culture conditions. Although A. parasiticus SU-1 and A. flavus 3357 are highly similar in genome structure and gene organization, we observed differences in the presence of specific mycotoxin gene clusters and differential expression of specific mycotoxin genes and gene clusters that help explain differences in the type and quantity of mycotoxins synthesized. Using computer-aided analysis of secondary metabolite clusters (antiSMASH), we demonstrated that A. parasiticus SU-1 and A. flavus 3357 may carry up to 93 secondary metabolite gene clusters, and surprisingly, up to 10% of the genome appears to be dedicated to secondary metabolite synthesis. The data also suggest that fungus-specific zinc binuclear cluster (C6) transcription factors play an important role in regulation of secondary metabolite cluster expression. Finally, we identified uniquely expressed genes in A. parasiticus SU-1 that encode C6 transcription factors and genes involved in secondary metabolism and stress response/cellular defense. Future work will focus on these differentially expressed A. parasiticus SU-1 loci to reveal their role in determining distinct species characteristics. PMID:24951444

  15. Modeling the potential contribution of land cover changes to the late twentieth century Sahel drought using a regional climate model: impact of lateral boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guiling; Yu, Miao; Xue, Yongkang

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates the potential impact of "idealized-but-realistic" land cover degradation on the late twentieth century Sahel drought using a regional climate model (RCM) driven with lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) from three different sources, including one re-analysis data and two global climate models (GCMs). The impact of land cover degradation is quantified based on a large number of control-and-experiment pairs of simulations, where the experiment features a degraded land cover relative to the control. Two different approaches of experimental design are tested: in the 1st approach, the RCM land cover degradation experiment shares the same LBCs as the corresponding RCM control, which can be derived from either reanalysis data or a GCM; with the 2nd approach, the LBCs for the RCM control are derived from a GCM control, and the LBCs for the RCM land cover degradation experiment are derived from a corresponding GCM land cover degradation experiment. When the 1st approach is used, results from the RCM driven with the three different sources of LBCs are generally consistent with each other, indicating robustness of the model response against LBCs; when the 2nd approach is used, the RCM results show strong sensitivity to the source of LBCs and the response in the RCM is dominated by the response of the driving GCMs. The spatiotemporal pattern of the precipitation response to land cover degradation as simulated by RCM using the 1st approach closely resembles that of the observed historical changes, while results from the GCMs and the RCM using the 2nd approach bear less similarity to observations. Compared with the 1st approach, the 2nd approach has the advantage of capturing the impact on large scale circulation, but has the disadvantage of being influenced by the GCMs' internal variability and any potential erroneous response of the driving GCMs to land degradation. The 2nd approach therefore requires a large ensemble to reduce the uncertainties derived from the driving GCMs. All RCM experiments based on the 1st approach produce a predominantly dry signal in West Africa throughout the year, with a dipole pattern found in the peak monsoon season that features a slight increase of precipitation over the Guinea Coast and strong decrease in the north; a similar spatiotemporal distribution is found for temperature changes, with warming (cooling) coinciding with precipitation decrease (increase). The model precipitation changes in West Africa are dominated by evapotranspiration changes in the north and by atmospheric moisture convergence changes in the south; in temperature changes, surface warming due to the decrease of evaporative cooling dominates over the albedo-induced radiative cooling.

  16. Suicide in Peacekeepers: Risk Factors for Suicide versus Accidental Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoresen, Siri; Mehlum, Lars

    2006-01-01

    To investigate risk factors for suicide in veterans of peacekeeping, 43 suicides and 41 fatal accidents in Norwegian peacekeepers (1978 to 1995) were compared in a psychological autopsy study. Mental health problems were the most important risk factor for suicide. Both living alone and the break-up of a love relationship contributed uniquely to…

  17. Language and motor cortex response to comprehending accidental and intentional action sentences.

    PubMed

    Kana, Rajesh K; Ammons, Carla J; Doss, Constance F; Waite, Megan E; Kana, Bhumika; Herringshaw, Abbey J; Ver Hoef, Lawrence

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the meaning of others' actions involves mentally simulating those actions by oneself. Embodied theories of language espouse a prominent role for motor simulation in reading comprehension, especially when words, sentences, or narratives portray everyday actions. Inherent in these actions is the level of agency of the actor. Motor cortex activity in response to processing action verbs has been relatively well-established. What has been less explored, however, are: (1) the neural bases of determining whether an action is intentional or accidental (agency); and (2) whether agency influences level of motor simulation. This functional MRI study investigated how language and motor areas of the brain respond to sentences depicting intentional versus accidental action. 25 healthy adults read a series of sentences in the MRI scanner and determined whether the actions described were accidental or intentional. The main results include: (1) left hemisphere language areas (left inferior frontal gyrus, LIFG; left superior temporal gyrus, LSTG), premotor cortex (PM), and presupplementary motor area (pSMA) were strongly activated by both sentence types; (2) processing accidental action, relative to intentional action, elicited greater activity in LIFG, medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), and left amygdala; no statistically significant activity was found in the opposite contrast; and (3) greater percent signal change was observed in LIFG while processing accidental action and in right precentral gyrus for intentional action. The results of this study support language and motor region involvement in action sentence comprehension in accordance with embodiment theories. Additionally, it provides new insight into the linguistic, integrative, and emotional demands of comprehending accidental action, its underlying neural circuitry, and its relationship to intentionality bias: the predisposition to ascribe purpose to action. PMID:26300387

  18. Accidental dural puncture, postdural puncture headache, intrathecal catheters, and epidural blood patch: revisiting the old nemesis.

    PubMed

    Kaddoum, Roland; Motlani, Faisal; Kaddoum, Romeo N; Srirajakalidindi, Arvi; Gupta, Deepak; Soskin, Vitaly

    2014-08-01

    One of the controversial management options for accidental dural puncture in pregnant patients is the conversion of labor epidural analgesia to continuous spinal analgesia by threading the epidural catheter intrathecally. No clear consensus exists on how to best prevent severe headache from occurring after accidental dural puncture. To investigate whether the intrathecal placement of an epidural catheter following accidental dural puncture impacts the incidence of postdural puncture headache (PDPH) and the subsequent need for an epidural blood patch in parturients. A retrospective chart review of accidental dural puncture was performed at Hutzel Women's Hospital in Detroit, MI, USA for the years 2002-2010. Documented cases of accidental dural punctures (N = 238) were distributed into two groups based on their management: an intrathecal catheter (ITC) group in which the epidural catheter was inserted intrathecally and a non-intrathecal catheter (non-ITC) group that received the epidural catheter inserted at different levels of lumbar interspaces. The incidence of PDPH as well as the necessity for epidural blood patch was analyzed using two-tailed Fisher's exact test. In the non-ITC group, 99 (54 %) parturients developed PDPH in comparison to 20 (37 %) in the ITC [odds ratio (OR), 1.98; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.06-3.69; P = 0.03]. Fifty-seven (31 %) of 182 patients in the non-ITC group required an epidural blood patch (EBP) (data for 2 patients of 184 were missing). In contrast, 7 (13 %) of parturients in the ITC group required an EBP. The incidence of EBP was calculated in parturients who actually developed headache to be 57 of 99 (57 %) in the non-ITC group versus 7 of 20 (35 %) in the ITC group (OR, 2.52; 95 % CI, 0.92-6.68; P = 0.07). The insertion of an intrathecal catheter following accidental dural puncture decreases the incidence of PDPH but not the need for epidural blood patch in parturients. PMID:24347033

  19. Resuscitation from cardiopulmonary arrest during accidental hypothermia due to exhaustion and exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Bristow, G.; Smith, R.; Lee, J.; Auty, A.; Tweed, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    A 16-year-old boy with accidental hypothermia and cardiopulmonary arrest due to exhaustion and exposure was resuscitated after warming measures -- hot wet towels, hot water bottles, and hot water enemas and gastric lavage -- had increased his rectal temperature from 25.2 to 28.0 degrees C. Despite prolonged cardiopulmonary arrest, recovery was almost complete, with no evident cerebral damage. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation procedures should not be abandoned until the body temperature is more than 30 degrees C, because the prognosis in cases of accidental hypothermia without associated disease is excellent if cardiac function can be re-established. Images FIG. 1 PMID:880528

  20. 50 CFR 23.52 - What are the requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally destroyed CITES...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally destroyed CITES document? 23.52 Section 23.52 Wildlife and...) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Application..., or accidentally destroyed CITES document? (a) Purpose. A Management Authority may issue a...

  1. 50 CFR 23.52 - What are the requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally destroyed CITES...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally destroyed CITES document? 23.52 Section 23.52 Wildlife and...) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Application..., or accidentally destroyed CITES document? (a) Purpose. A Management Authority may issue a...

  2. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 2. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF CHLORINE (SCAQMD) (SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual discusses reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of chlorine. It identifies some of the potential causes of accidental releases that apply to the processes that use chlorine. It also identifies examples of potential causes, as well as measures that may...

  3. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 2. POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  4. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND...

  5. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND...

  6. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND...

  7. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND...

  8. 10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND...

  9. Carbon monoxide poisoning: an ancient and frequent cause of accidental death.

    PubMed

    Dubrey, Simon W; Chehab, Omar; Ghonim, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is both an ancient and current cause of inadvertent (accidental) death and more recently has emerged as a cause of suicide worldwide. This article describes the pathophysiology and epidemiology of this most toxic and frequently occult poison. PMID:25761806

  10. Accidental Discovery of Information on the User-Defined Social Web: A Mixed-Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chi-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Frequently interacting with other people or working in an information-rich environment can foster the "accidental discovery of information" (ADI) (Erdelez, 2000; McCay-Peet & Toms, 2010). With the increasing adoption of social web technologies, online user-participation communities and user-generated content have provided users the…

  11. IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS 1 The Accidental Tide Gauge: A GPS Reflection

    E-print Network

    Larson, Kristine

    IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS 1 The Accidental Tide Gauge: A GPS Reflection Case Study from records from a traditional tide gauge at Seldovia Harbor, 30 km away. The GPS and Seldovia differences in the tide over 30 km as it propagates up Kachemak Bay. For daily mean sea levels the agreement

  12. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 13: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF METHYL ISOCYANATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is one of a series of manuals addressing accidental releases of toxic chemicals. ethyl isocyanite (MIC) has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, making it a substantially acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accident...

  13. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 14: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF PHOSGENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, discussing phosgene, is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. Phosgene, a highly reactive and corrosive liquid that boils at room temperature has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (lDLH) conctntration of 2 ppm, ...

  14. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 13: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF METHYL ISOCYANATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is one of a series of manuals addressing accidental releases of toxic chemicals. Methyl isocyanite (MIC) has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, making it a substantially acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an acciden...

  15. Securing Wastewater Collection Systems from Accidental and Intentional Harm: a Cost-Benefit Analysis

    E-print Network

    Thornton, Mitchell

    Securing Wastewater Collection Systems from Accidental and Intentional Harm: a Cost-benefit analysis of adopting security countermeasures to reduce the incidence of sewer overflows in wastewater collection systems. We estimate the expected annual losses of wastewater systems due to large overflows

  16. SUMMARY OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF RADIOACTIVITY DETECTED OFF THE NEVADA TEST SITE, 1963-1986

    EPA Science Inventory

    Of the more than 450 underground nuclear explosives tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site from August 1963 (signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty) through the end of 1986, only 23 accidentally released radioactivity that was detectable beyond the boundary of the NTS. Of these ...

  17. New Tracers Identify Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids and Accidental Releases from Oil and Gas Operations

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Robert B.

    New Tracers Identify Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids and Accidental Releases from Oil and Gas fingerprints of fluids that return to the surface after high volume hydraulic fracturing of unconventional oil elemental and isotopic signatures (B/Cl, Li/Cl, 11 B, and 7 Li) useful for characterizing hydraulic

  18. Changes in Surface Charge Density of Blood Cells in Fatal Accidental Hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Szeremeta, Micha?; Petelska, Aneta Dorota; Koty?ska, Joanna; Pepi?ski, Witold; Naumowicz, Monika; Figaszewski, Zbigniew Artur; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate postmortem changes concerning electric charge of human erythrocytes and thrombocytes in fatal accidental hypothermia. The surface charge density values were determined on the basis of the electrophoretic mobility measurements of the cells conducted at various pH values of electrolyte solution. The surface charge of erythrocyte membranes after fatal accidental hypothermia increased compared to the control group within whole range of experimental pH values. Moreover, a slight shift of the isoelectric point of erythrocyte membranes towards high pH values was observed. The surface charge of thrombocyte membranes in fatal accidental hypothermia decreased at low pH compared to the control group. However, at pH range 4-9, the values increased compared to the control group. The isoelectric point of thrombocyte membranes after fatal accidental hypothermia was slightly shifted towards low pH values compared to the control group. The observed changes are probably connected with the partial destruction and functional changes of the blood cell structure. PMID:26364031

  19. 78 FR 79317 - Approval of Request for Delegation of Authority for Prevention of Accidental Release, North...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... mean Code of Federal Regulations (vi) The initials FR mean Federal Register (vii) The initials NDCC... (61 FR 31668, June 20, 1996). These regulations require owners and operators of stationary sources... Accidental Release, Clean Air Act Section 112(r) Program'' EPA-R08-OAR-2013-0330, 78 FR 66321 (Nov. 5,...

  20. Probabilistic margin evaluation on accidental transients for the ASTRID reactor project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquès, Michel

    2014-06-01

    ASTRID is a technological demonstrator of Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) under development. The conceptual design studies are being conducted in accordance with the Generation IV reactor objectives, particularly in terms of improving safety. For the hypothetical events, belonging to the accidental category "severe accident prevention situations" having a very low frequency of occurrence, the safety demonstration is no more based on a deterministic demonstration with conservative assumptions on models and parameters but on a "Best-Estimate Plus Uncertainty" (BEPU) approach. This BEPU approach ispresented in this paper for an Unprotected Loss-of-Flow (ULOF) event. The Best-Estimate (BE) analysis of this ULOFt ransient is performed with the CATHARE2 code, which is the French reference system code for SFR applications. The objective of the BEPU analysis is twofold: first evaluate the safety margin to sodium boiling in taking into account the uncertainties on the input parameters of the CATHARE2 code (twenty-two uncertain input parameters have been identified, which can be classified into five groups: reactor power, accident management, pumps characteristics, reactivity coefficients, thermal parameters and head losses); secondly quantify the contribution of each input uncertainty to the overall uncertainty of the safety margins, in order to refocusing R&D efforts on the most influential factors. This paper focuses on the methodological aspects of the evaluation of the safety margin. At least for the preliminary phase of the project (conceptual design), a probabilistic criterion has been fixed in the context of this BEPU analysis; this criterion is the value of the margin to sodium boiling, which has a probability 95% to be exceeded, obtained with a confidence level of 95% (i.e. the M5,95percentile of the margin distribution). This paper presents two methods used to assess this percentile: the Wilks method and the Bootstrap method ; the effectiveness of the two methods is compared on the basis of 500 simulations performed with theCATHARE2 code. We conclude that, with only 100 simulations performed with the CATHARE2 code, which is a number of simulations workable in the conceptual design phase of the ASTRID project where the models and the hypothesis are often modified, it is best in order to evaluate the percentile M5,95 of the margin to sodium boiling to use the bootstrap method, which will provide a slightly conservative result. On the other hand, in order to obtain an accurate estimation of the percentileM5,95, for the safety report for example, it will be necessary to perform at least 300 simulations with the CATHARE2 code. In this case, both methods (Wilks and Bootstrap) would give equivalent results.

  1. A simulation study of dispersion of air borne radionuclides from a nuclear power plant under a hypothetical accidental scenario at a tropical coastal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, C. V.; Venkatesan, R.

    Meteorological condition in coastal regions is diurnally variable and spatially heterogeneous due to complex topography, land-sea interface, etc. A wide range of dispersion conditions is possible on a given day in the coastal regions. In case of inadvertent accidental situations, though unlikely, it would be necessary to examine the potentially severe case among different dynamically occurring local atmospheric conditions for dispersion and its range of impact around a nuclear power plant for safety analysis. In this context, dispersion of air borne radioactive effluents during a hypothetical accidental scenario from a proposed prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) at an Indian coastal site, Kalpakkam, is simulated using a 3-D meso-scale atmospheric model MM5 and a random walk particle dispersion model FLEXPART. A simulation carried out for a typical summer day predicted the development of land-sea breeze circulation and thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) formation, which have been confirmed by meteorological observations. Analysis of dose distribution shows that the maximum dose for releases from a 100 m stack occurs at two places within 4 km distance during sea breeze/TIBL fumigation hours. Maximum dose also occurred during nighttime stable conditions. Results indicate that, on the day of present study, the highest concentrations occurred during periods of TIBL fumigation rather than during stable atmospheric conditions. Further, the area of impact (plume width at the surface) spreads up to a down wind distance of 4 km during fumigation condition. Simulation over a range of 25 km has shown turning of plume at the incidence of sea breeze circulation and two different dispersion patterns across the sea breeze front. These results are significant in comparison to the expected pattern shown by Gaussian plume model used for routine analysis.

  2. Accidental intracranial infusion of parenteral nutrition in a preterm neonate.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian, Amir; Manwaring, Jotham; Truong, Devon; McCarthy, Jeane; Rodriguez, Luis F; Carey, Carolyn M; Tuite, Gerald F

    2015-10-01

    Vascular access in the neonate can be challenging, especially in preterm infants. When other access is not available, superficial scalp veins can be safely used for vascular access. However, rare and potentially catastrophic complications can occur due to unique features of the neonatal skull and soft-tissue anatomy. The authors report a rare complication of vascular access in a preterm infant, which led to the direct infusion of parenteral nutrition into the intracranial space. The child had an excellent outcome after open drainage and irrigation of bilateral intracranial spaces and the spinal thecal sac. Relevant anatomy is illustrated, and an outcome-based literature review is presented on this rarely reported condition. Surgical and conservative management strategies are discussed, along with clinical and radiographic follow-up. Drainage and irrigation is advocated in patients with mass effect, viscous effusions, or declining neurological examination findings. PMID:26186357

  3. Modelling of accidental released toxic gases for emergency responders in Austria, Kosovo and Bulgaria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, Sirma; Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Gashi, Salih; Thaci, Bashkim; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Spassova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. A number of models for the prediction and simulation of hazard areas affected by accidental releases of toxic gases are available worldwide. Modelling accidental releases may be required for a variety of reasons: for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), for preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management (e.g. in the frame of the SEVESO directive). Depending on the demand and the particular purposes, the choice of the appropriate model is up to the authorities. The one year project was funded by the Austrian Science and research liaison Office (ASO, www.aso.zsi.at) as a part of the program: Research Cooperation and Networking between Austria, the public higher education institutions in Kosovo and South Eastern Europe. The project was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG, http://www.zamg.ac.at) in cooperation with the University of Prishtina (Kosovo, www.uni-pr.edu and the National Institute of meteorology and Hydrology (NIHM Bulgaria, www.meteo.bg). One of the main purposes of the project was to provide the both partners with basic knowledge in modelling with accidental release of toxic gases, based on the practical experience of the meteorologists from the ZAMG in the area. This knowledge can be used as scientific response to society driven current or upcoming problems especially in Kosovo. The activities involved know-how transfer on European standards and practice among the project partners, as well as joint efforts to adapt and disseminate the scientific methods and results in Kosovo. Within the project, the partners from Kosovo and Bulgaria were introduced to the atmospheric dispersion model (ALOHA - Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere) and proceeded several model runs based on reference scenarios for chemicals of concern. ALOHA is one of the tools developed by EPA's Office of Emergency Management (OEM) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office of Response and Restoration (NOAA), to assist front-line chemical emergency planners and responders. In the frame of the project the partners in Kosovo and Bulgaria also undertook first steps in establishing cooperation connections with decision makers for emergency response planning, fire brigades and chemical plants. This presentation focuses on basic issues and problems in handling with accidental release of toxic gases, as well as on communication difficulties among the emergency responders, modellers and authorities in the three countries.

  4. Accidental hypothermia and death from cold in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masatoshi; Tokudome, Shogo

    1991-12-01

    Hypothermia is considered a sericus problem in big cities. In order to clarify factors contributing to urban hypothermia and death from cold which will continue to be an issue in cities in the future, we analyzed autopsy reports recorded in the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office from 1974 to 1983. In a total of 18346 autopsy reports 157 deaths had been diagnosed as due to exposure to cold. Of these cases, the greatest number were males in their forties and fifties, and most of these were inebriated and/or homeless. Eighty-four perent of urban hypothermia cases occurred when the outdoor temperature was below 5°C, and 50% of deaths from cold occurred when the outdoor temperature was between 0° and 5°C. There were no incidences of death from cold when the minimum outdoor temperature had remained above 16°C. Seventy-four percent of deaths from cold occurred during the winter months of December, January and February, and most of the remaining deaths occurred in March and November. There were no deaths from cold from June to August. More than half of all deaths from cold occurred from 3.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m., with the peak occurring at 5.00 a.m. A blood alcohol concentration of over 2.5 mg/ml had often been found in those in their forties and fifties who had died from hypothermia, and autopsy had often revealed disorders of the liver, digestive system, and circulatory system. Chronic lesions of the liver, probably due to alcoholism, were found in many cases; few cases showed no evidence of alcoholism and these were significantly different from the former group.

  5. Accidental SUSY: enhanced bulk supersymmetry from brane back-reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, C. P.; van Nierop, L.; Parameswaran, S.; Salvio, A.; Williams, M.

    2013-02-01

    We compute how bulk loops renormalize both bulk and brane effective interactions for codimension-two branes in 6D gauged chiral supergravity, as functions of the brane tension and brane-localized flux. We do so by explicitly integrating out hyper- and gauge-multiplets in 6D gauged chiral supergravity compactified to 4D on a flux-stabilized 2D rugby-ball geometry, specializing the results of a companion paper, arXiv:1210.3753, to the supersymmetric case. While the brane back-reaction generically breaks supersymmetry, we show that the bulk supersymmetry can be preserved if the amount of brane- localized flux is related in a specific BPS-like way to the brane tension, and verify that the loop corrections to the brane curvature vanish in this special case. In these systems it is the brane-bulk couplings that fix the size of the extra dimensions, and we show that in some circumstances the bulk geometry dynamically adjusts to ensure the supersymmetric BPS-like condition is automatically satisfied. We investigate the robustness of this residual supersymmetry to loops of non-supersymmetric matter on the branes, and show that supersymmetry-breaking effects can enter only through effective brane-bulk interactions involving at least two derivatives. We comment on the relevance of this calculation to proposed applications of codimension-two 6D models to solutions of the hierarchy and cosmological constant problems.

  6. Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Polyurethane Foam for Use as Cask Impact Limiter in Accidental Drop Scenarios - 12099

    SciTech Connect

    Kasparek, Eva M.; Voelzke, Holger; Scheidemann, Robert; Zencker, Uwe

    2012-07-01

    Rigid, closed-cell polyurethane foams are frequently used as cask impact limiters in nuclear materials and hazardous waste transport due to their high energy-absorption potential. When assessing the cask integrity in accidental scenarios based on numerical simulations, a description of the foam damping properties is required for different strain rates and for a wide temperature range with respect to waste heat generation in conjunction with critical operating and environmental conditions. Implementation and adaption of a respective finite element material model strongly relies on an appropriate experimental data base. Even though extensive impact experiments were conducted e.g. in Sandia National Laboratories, Savannah River National Laboratory and by Rolls Royce plc, not all relevant factors were taken into account. Hence, BAM who is in charge of the mechanical evaluation of such packages within the approval procedure in Germany, incorporated systematic test series into a comprehensive research project aimed to develop numerical methods for a couple of damping materials. In a first step, displacement driven compression tests have been performed on confined, cubic specimens at five loading rates ranging from 0.02 mm/s to 3 m/s at temperatures between +90 deg. C and -40 deg. C. Materials include two different polyurethane foam types called FR3718 and FR3730 having densities of 280 kg/m{sup 3} and 488 kg/m{sup 3} from the product line-up of General Plastics Manufacturing Company. Their data was used to adapt an advanced plasticity model allowing for reliably simulating cellular materials under multi-axial compression states. Therefore, an automated parameter identification procedure had been established by combining an artificial neural network with local optimization techniques. Currently, the selected numerical material input values are validated and optimized by means of more complex loading configurations with the prospect of establishing methods applicable to impact limiters under severe accidental conditions. The reference data base is provided by experiments, where weights between 212 kg and 1200 kg have been dropped from heights between 1.25 m and 7 m on confined 10 cm cubic foam specimens. By presenting the deviations between experimental values and the corresponding output of finite element simulations, the potentials and restrictions of the resulting models are highlighted. Systematic compression tests on polyurethane foams had been performed at BAM test site within the framework of a research project on impact limiters for handling casks for radioactive waste. The experimental results had been used to adapt numerical models for simulating the behaviour of different foam types at different temperatures. The loading speed, however, turned out to have a major influence on their flow curves that can not be captured by simple strain-rate dependent multipliers. Especially for guided drop tests that come close to real accidental scenarios there is a significant gap between experimental and numerical results even when applying such advanced material models. Hence, the extensive data base is currently deployed for expanding the standard algorithms to include adequate dynamic hardening factors. (authors)

  7. Photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers enabled by an accidental Dirac point

    SciTech Connect

    Chua, Song Liang; Lu, Ling; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-12-02

    A photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser (PCSEL) includes a gain medium electromagnetically coupled to a photonic crystal whose energy band structure exhibits a Dirac cone of linear dispersion at the center of the photonic crystal's Brillouin zone. This Dirac cone's vertex is called a Dirac point; because it is at the Brillouin zone center, it is called an accidental Dirac point. Tuning the photonic crystal's band structure (e.g., by changing the photonic crystal's dimensions or refractive index) to exhibit an accidental Dirac point increases the photonic crystal's mode spacing by orders of magnitudes and reduces or eliminates the photonic crystal's distributed in-plane feedback. Thus, the photonic crystal can act as a resonator that supports single-mode output from the PCSEL over a larger area than is possible with conventional PCSELs, which have quadratic band edge dispersion. Because output power generally scales with output area, this increase in output area results in higher possible output powers.

  8. Marine oil spill risk mapping for accidental pollution and its application in a coastal city.

    PubMed

    Lan, Dongdong; Liang, Bin; Bao, Chenguang; Ma, Minghui; Xu, Yan; Yu, Chunyan

    2015-07-15

    Accidental marine oil spill pollution can result in severe environmental, ecological, economic and other consequences. This paper discussed the model of Marine Oil Spill Risk Mapping (MOSRM), which was constructed as follows: (1) proposing a marine oil spill risk system based on the typical marine oil spill pollution accidents and prevailing risk theories; (2) identifying suitable indexes that are supported by quantitative sub-indexes; (3) constructing the risk measuring models according to the actual interactions between the factors in the risk system; and (4) assessing marine oil spill risk on coastal city scale with GIS to map the overall risk. The case study of accidental marine oil spill pollution in the coastal area of Dalian, China was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The coastal areas of Dalian were divided into three zones with risk degrees of high, medium, and low. And detailed countermeasures were proposed for specific risk zones. PMID:26003383

  9. Observing accidental and intentional unusual actions is associated with different subregions of the medial frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Desmet, Charlotte; Brass, Marcel

    2015-11-15

    The literature on action observation revealed contradictory results regarding the activation of different subregions of the medial prefrontal cortex when observing unusual behaviour. Error observation research has shown that the posterior part of the medial prefrontal cortex is more active when observing unusual behaviour compared to usual behaviour while action understanding research has revealed some mixed results concerning the role of the anterior part of the medial prefrontal cortex during the observation of unusual actions. Here, we resolve this discrepancy in the literature by showing that different parts of the medial prefrontal cortex are active depending on whether an observed unusual behaviour is intentional or not. While the posterior medial prefrontal cortex is more active when we observe unusual accidental actions compared to unusual intentional actions, a more anterior part of the medial prefrontal cortex is more active when we observe unusual intentional actions compared to unusual accidental actions. PMID:26279209

  10. Update: Accidental drownings, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    Service members are at risk for unintentional drownings during training, occupational activities, and off-duty recreation. During 2005-2014, there were 1,193 incident episodes of accidental drowning with a rate of 8.4 per 100,000 person-years. Approximately one in six (n=162; 13.6%) of drowning episodes resulted in death. The overall incidence rate of accidental drowning decreased during the surveillance period; however, the death rate remained relatively stable. Incidence rates overall and death rates were relatively high among service members who were male, young, and in either the Navy or Marine Corps. The percentage of cases that were fatal was greatest among black, non-Hispanic service members. The results of this report may be useful to increase awareness regarding the ongoing risks and effects of drowning-related episodes among U.S. service members. PMID:26115168

  11. Gun burner injury: a peculiar accidental self-inflicted missile head injury.

    PubMed

    Komolafe, E O; Olateju, O S; Adeolu, A A

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this study was to report the pattern of unusual accidental missile head injuries from the use of the locally-manufactured Dane gun, which presented at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Six illustrative patients are presented, each with a peculiar injury. All the patients except one, who died prior to surgery, had wound debridement and elevation of associated fractures with removal of the metallic foreign body. With the exception of the patient that died prior to surgical intervention, all did well without noticeable neurological deficits. Missile injury to the head is increasing. Firearm-related death is also on the increase and our environment is not exempted. Accidental injuries from stray bullets are fairly common; however, self-inflicted injuries are usually due to the improper handling of firearms, particularly by novices, suicide attempts and faulty technology of locally made firearms. PMID:15327223

  12. Accidental Displacement of Third Molar into the Sublingual Space: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Robson Rodrigues; Botelho, Tessa Lucena; Franco, Ademir; Silva, Rhonan Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Successful extraction of third molars depends on preoperative diagnosis and planning. Gold standard preoperative examinations are performed through computed tomography, decreasing risks and avoiding potential accidents. The present report highlights the value of preoperative examinations in face of accidentally displaced third molars. Methods An 18-years-old female patient underwent a third mandibular molar extraction with a general dentist. Accidentally, the mandibular left third molar was displaced into the sublingual space, making necessary a second surgical step. The surgery was interrupted and the patient was referred to an expert in maxillofacial surgery. Results After 21 days awaiting an asymptomatic health status, the second surgical step was successfully performed using multislice computed tomography as preoperative imaging guide. Conclusions The present case report highlights the clinical usefulness of imaging planning and informed consents in face of legal and ethic potential complaints. PMID:25386232

  13. Accidental strangulation of a mentally retarded patient by a clothing collar: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hitosugi, Masahito; Yokoyama, Tomoko; Kido, Masahito; Kawato, Hitoshi; Matsushima, Kazumi; Nagai, Toshiaki; Tokudome, Shogo

    2006-07-01

    A 40-year-old mentally retarded woman died of accidental strangulation in a nursing home. She was found in a kneeling position with her hands on her knees and the collar of her clothing compressing the front and sides of the neck. Before the accident, a nurse had dressed the patient in one-piece overall-style pyjamas put on back to front so that she could not remove the garment herself. The post-mortem findings and reconstruction of the scene of death suggested that the patient had been strangled by the collar of her backward-facing clothing while in a kneeling position. Because patients with psychiatric illnesses may have a limited ability to recognize or communicate symptoms of physical danger, they must be closely monitored by knowledgeable medical and nursing staff. This case highlights the importance of preventing the accidental deaths of mentally retarded patients in nursing homes. PMID:16909650

  14. Serologic markers for hepatitis B among Marshallese accidentally exposed to fallout radiation in 1954

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Fields, H.A.; Engle, J.R.; Hadler, S.C.

    1986-10-01

    At least one serologic marker of prior hepatitis B infection (hepatitis B surface antigen, antibody to surface antigen, or antibody to core antigen) was found in 91.7% of 314 Marshallese tested. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenemia (3.3%) in a subpopulation that had resided on Rongelap Atoll at the time of accidental exposure to radioactive fallout from a thermonuclear test in 1954 did not differ significantly from the prevalence in a selected unexposed population (10.5%).

  15. Positive income shocks and accidental deaths among Cherokee Indians: a natural experiment

    PubMed Central

    Bruckner, Tim A; Brown, Ryan A; Margerison-Zilko, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies in low-income populations report the somewhat counterintuitive finding that positive income gains adversely affect adult health. The literature posits that receipt of a large portion of annual income increases, in the short term, risk-taking behaviour and/or the consumption of health-damaging goods. This work implies the hypothesis that persons with an unexpected gain in income will exhibit an elevated risk of accidental death—the fifth leading cause of death in the USA. We test this hypothesis directly by capitalizing on a natural experiment in which Cherokee Indians in rural North Carolina received discrete lump sum payments from a new casino. Methods We applied Poisson regression to the monthly count of accidental deaths among Cherokee Indians over 204 months spanning 1990–2006. We controlled for temporal patterns in accidental deaths (e.g. seasonality and trend) as well as changes in population size. Results As hypothesized, the risk of accidental death rises above expected levels during months of the large casino payments (relative risk?=?2.62; 95% confidence interval?=?1.54–4.47). Exploratory analyses of ethnographic interviews and behavioural surveys support that increased vehicular travel and consumption of health-damaging goods may account for the rise in accident proneness. Conclusions Although long-term income gains may improve health in this population, our findings indicate that acute responses to large income gains, in the short term, increase risk-taking and accident proneness. We encourage further investigation of natural experiments to identify causal economic antecedents of population health. PMID:21527447

  16. Discrete accidental symmetry for a particle in a constant magnetic field on a torus

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hashimi, M.H. Wiese, U.-J.

    2009-02-15

    A classical particle in a constant magnetic field undergoes cyclotron motion on a circular orbit. At the quantum level, the fact that all classical orbits are closed gives rise to degeneracies in the spectrum. It is well-known that the spectrum of a charged particle in a constant magnetic field consists of infinitely degenerate Landau levels. Just as for the 1/r and r{sup 2} potentials, one thus expects some hidden accidental symmetry, in this case with infinite-dimensional representations. Indeed, the position of the center of the cyclotron circle plays the role of a Runge-Lenz vector. After identifying the corresponding accidental symmetry algebra, we re-analyze the system in a finite periodic volume. Interestingly, similar to the quantum mechanical breaking of CP invariance due to the {theta}-vacuum angle in non-Abelian gauge theories, quantum effects due to two self-adjoint extension parameters {theta}{sub x} and {theta}{sub y} explicitly break the continuous translation invariance of the classical theory. This reduces the symmetry to a discrete magnetic translation group and leads to finite degeneracy. Similar to a particle moving on a cone, a particle in a constant magnetic field shows a very peculiar realization of accidental symmetry in quantum mechanics.

  17. A single accidental exposure may result in a chemical burn, primary sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kanerva, L; Tarvainen, K; Pinola, A; Leino, T; Granlund, H; Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Förström, L

    1994-10-01

    It is known from experimental studies that antigenic potency and the concentration of antigen determine whether exposure to an antigen will result in sensitization. A single accidental exposure to concentrated antigen may therefore induce primary sensitization. The purpose of this report was to collect clinical cases in which a single exposure had resulted in contact dermatitis suspected to be allergic. Only patients without previous relevant skin symptoms were included. Patch testing was used to demonstrate sensitization. 6 patients developed occupational allergic contact dermatitis from accidental exposure. Patch testing revealed allergy to diglycidylether of bisphenol A epoxy resin, polyfunctional aziridine hardener, methyl acrylate, phenol-formaldehyde resin, and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (Kathon LX), respectively. Furthermore, 2 patients developed allergic contact dermatitis from their first exposure to tear gas chemicals, namely omega-chloroacetophenone and ortho-chlorobenzylidene malonitrile. A single exposure can therefore induce both sensitization and subsequent allergic contact dermatitis without further exposure. The allergens described must be considered strong allergens. The skin should immediately be cleaned if an accidental splash with such an allergen has taken place. PMID:7842678

  18. Pathogen and nutrient pulsing and attenuation in "accidental" urban wetland networks along the Salt River in Phoenix, AZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palta, M. M.; Grimm, N. B.

    2013-12-01

    Increases in available nutrients and bacteria in urban streams are at the forefront of research concerns within the ecological and medical communities, and both pollutants are expected to become more problematic under projected changes in climate. Season, discharge, instream conditions (oxygen, water velocity), and weather conditions (antecedent moisture) all may influence loading rates to and the retention capabilities of wetlands fed by urban runoff and storm flow. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of these variables on nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) loading and attenuation along flow paths in urban wetland networks along the Salt River in Phoenix, AZ. Samples were collected for one year along flowpaths through wetlands that formed below six perennially flowing outfalls. Collection took place monthly during baseflow (dry season) conditions, and before and immediately following storm events, in the summer monsoon and winter rainy seasons. Water quality was assessed at the following points: immediately downstream of the outfall, mid-wetland, and downstream of the wetland. For determination of E. coli counts, samples were plated on coliform-selective media (Chromocult) and incubated for 24 hours. Plates were then used to enumerate E. coli. For determination of nutrient concentrations, samples were filtered and frozen until they could be analyzed by ion chromatography and automated wet chemistry. During both summer and winter, total discharge into the wetlands increased during storm events. Concentrations of PO43+, NH4+, and E. coli were significantly higher following storm events than during baseflow conditions, and post-storm peaks in concentration ('pulses') were higher during the summer monsoon than in winter storms. Pulses of pollutants during storms were highest when preceded by hot, dry conditions. NO3- was high in both base and stormflow. E. coli counts and nutrient concentrations dropped along flowpaths through the wetlands, indicating high attenuation capability even during storms. Attenuation of nutrients during baseflow appeared to be a function of microbial processing, while during stormflow, when water retention time in the wetlands was reduced, attenuation was likely explained by other factors, such as sediment adsorption. Potential tradeoffs emerged between removal of NO3- (highest under low dissolved oxygen) and E. coli (highest under high dissolved oxygen) during baseflow. Climate change models project increases in severe droughts and extreme precipitation events for the southwestern United States, which can lead to more sewage leakages and increases in contaminated runoff from impervious surfaces in urban areas. Wetlands are constructed or restored to mitigate microbial contamination of wastewater. Our research indicates that even "accidental" urban wetlands can serve to reduce downstream transport of nutrients and pathogens in storm and wastewater. However, wetland restoration or design targeting increased water retention time may increase the capability of accidental wetlands in this urban desert river channel to remove nutrients and pathogens from stormwater.

  19. Accidental Activists

    E-print Network

    Neumann, Erik

    2014-01-01

    cultivation. With medical marijuana legal in California, butadvocates for marijuana legalization and medical use. Andmarijuana comes from California, including both illegal operations and licensed medical

  20. Retinal photoreceptor focal disruption secondary to accidental Nd:YAG laser exposure.

    PubMed

    Milani, Paolo; Pierro, Luisa; Pece, Alfredo; Marino, Valerio; Scialdone, Antonio

    2011-10-01

    Retinal injuries caused by accidental laser exposure include retinal or vitreous hemorrhages, macular holes and edema. We describe the imaging of a bilateral macular lesion secondary to accidental Nd:YAG laser exposure. Observational case report. We performed color photography, fluorescein angiography and autofluorescence (AF) with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope, as well as time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). After accidental exposure to a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser, a patient experienced blurred vision in the left eye (LE) with visual acuity of 20/60. Color, fluorescein angiography and OCT imaging showed a retinal hemorrhage in the foveal area of the left eye and in the inferomacular region of the asymptomatic right eye. Steroid therapy was then administered, and 5 days later there was rapid improvement with progressive re-absorption of the hemorrhages and functional recovery. At 6 month follow-up, visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes with unremarkable biomicroscopy, except for focal foveal retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy in the LE. In comparison to previous hemorrhages, OCT could visualize focal disruption of the photoreceptor IS/OS junction in both eyes. Due to different macular pigment distribution and lesion localization, 787 nm near-infrared AF depicted a small hypofluorescent spot in both eyes, whilst at 488 nm AF a black spot became evident in the right eye only. Despite the re-absorption of foveal hemorrhage and the functional recovery, AF and OCT imaging highlighted the persistence of small focal disruptions of the photoreceptor outer segments and RPE. PMID:22002418

  1. Apoptosis and accidental cell death in cultured human keratinocytes after thermal injury.

    PubMed

    Matylevitch, N P; Schuschereba, S T; Mata, J R; Gilligan, G R; Lawlor, D F; Goodwin, C W; Bowman, P D

    1998-08-01

    The respective roles of apoptosis and accidental cell death after thermal injury were evaluated in normal human epidermal keratinocytes. By coupling the LIVE/DEAD fluorescence viability assay with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method and ultrastructural morphology, these two processes could be distinguished. Cells were grown on glass coverslips with a microgrid pattern so that the results of several staining procedures performed sequentially could be visualized in the same cells after heating at temperatures of up to 72 degrees C for 1 second. After exposure to temperatures of 58 to 59 degrees C, cells died predominantly by apoptosis; viable cells became TUNEL positive, indicating degradation of DNA. After exposure to temperatures of 60 to 66 degrees C, both TUNEL-positive viable cells and TUNEL-positive nonviable cells were observed, indicating that apoptosis and accidental cell death were occurring simultaneously. Cells died almost immediately after exposure to temperatures above 72 degrees C, presumably from heat fixation. The fluorescent mitochondrial probe MitoTracker Orange indicated that cells undergoing apoptosis became TUNEL positive before loss of mitochondrial function. Nucleosomal fragmentation of DNA analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gel electrophoresis occurred after exposure to temperatures of 58 to 59 degrees C. The characteristic morphological findings of cells undergoing apoptosis, by transmission electron microscopy, included cellular shrinkage, cytoplasmic budding, and relatively intact mitochondria. Depending on temperature and time of exposure, normal human epidermal keratinocytes may die by apoptosis, accidental cell death, or heat fixation. PMID:9708816

  2. A chemical energy source for modeling the accidental energy release in a nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kolegov, L.E.; Vyskubenko, B.A.; Koksharov, V.V.

    1993-12-31

    Results are presented for experiments performed with the module chemical energy source for dynamic load simulation. Such a source allows one to vary in a wide range the value and the time scale of accidental energy release. The source is based on combustion of solid explosive charge ignited by the hot products of combustion of hydrogen-air mixtures. The charge and the mixture are placed in a thin wall cylinder, and the gaseous combustion products expand the cylinder radially providing high pressure load.

  3. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, K.W. ); Koopman, R.P. )

    1989-06-01

    This report is one of several work products generated by the Industry Cooperative HF Mitigation/Assessment Program. This ad hoc industry program began in late 1987 to study and test techniques for mitigating accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and alkylation unit acid (AUA) and to better estimate ambient impacts from such releases. The hazards of HF have long been recognized. Standard operating practices focused on minimizing the possibility of a release and mitigating the effects if a release should occur. These practices are continually monitored and improved to maximize safety protection based on the available technical data. This recent program targeted further improvements based on new technical data.

  4. POISONING BY META-ISOSYSTOX IN SPRAYMEN AND IN ACCIDENTALLY EXPOSED PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Hegazy, M. R.

    1965-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-six patients poisoned by the organic phosphorus insecticide Metaisosystox were investigated. Hiccough and extrapyramidal manifestations were noticed in some patients. Serum cholinesterase levels showed an initial fall and then a rise above normal. The fall of cholinesterase was marked in patients who were exposed for relatively long periods but not in patients accidentally exposed for short times. The rise in serum cholinesterase is thought to be a compensatory protective mechanism. Correlation between serum cholinesterase levels and symptomatology was absent in some patients but present in the majority. Cholinesterase inhibition may not be the only mechanism by which organic phosphorus compounds cause poisoning.

  5. Accidental hijab pin ingestion in Muslim women: an emerging endoscopic emergency?

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Jason; Patel, Neeral; Boulton, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Ingested foreign body is an infrequent indication for emergency endoscopy in the adult gastroenterology practice. We describe the clinical features and endoscopic management of the first four cases of accidental ingestion of hijab pins by Muslim women in our unit, all presenting within a 12-month period. The pins were all successfully retrieved without any complications. In this report, we review published guidelines and the current literature, as well as discussing the approach (conservative vs proactive endoscopic retrieval) and timing of endoscopic treatment. The Muslim community may need to be alerted to the potential health hazard of hijab pins. PMID:24390968

  6. Simulation of accidental spills of cryogenic hydrogen in a residential area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtchen, U.; Marinescu-Pasoi, L.; Verfondern, K.; Nickel, V.; Sturm, B.; Dienhart, B.

    There is almost no knowledge about what happens when liquid hydrogen is accidentally spilled between buildings. This paper reports experiments on LH 2 pool formation and gas dispersion after the release of about 650 1 of liquid hydrogen within one minute into an environment similar to a residential area. The cloud disappeared quickly without an ignition. Comparable experiments were made using propane instead of hydrogen. Therisks associated with cryogenic hydrogen were found to be not greater than those associated with many commonly accepted fossil fuels. The results will serve for the improvement of the estimation of accident effects and protective measures.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Suicide, Accidental, and Undetermined Cause of Death Classification

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Douglas; Coon, Hilary; McGlade, Erin; Callor, W; Byrd, Josh; Viskochil, Joseph; Bakian, Amanda; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah; Grey, Todd; McMahon, William

    2015-01-01

    Suicide determination is not standardized across medical examiners, and many suspected suicides are later classified as accidental or undetermined. The present study investigated patterns between these three groups using a Medical Examiner database and 633 structured interviews with next of kin. There were similarities across all three classification groups, including rates of mental illness and psychiatric symptoms. Those classified suicide were more likely to be male, to have died in a violent fashion, and have a stronger family history of suicide. Physical pain was very common, but acute pain vs. chronic pain distinguished the suicide group. PMID:25057525

  8. An uncommon case of severe accidental hypothermia in an urban setting

    PubMed Central

    Meytes, Vadim; Schulberg, Steven P.; Amaturo, Michael; Kilaru, Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Accidental hypothermia is an uncommon presentation in urban settings. Here we present a patient admitted with a core temperature of 26.6°C (80°F) and a serum potassium of 8.5 mmol/l who subsequently went into cardiac arrest. After > 90 min of active cardiopulmonary resuscitation and peak serum potassium of >12 mmol/l, the patient had a spontaneous return of circulation. The patient's hospital course was complicated by compartment syndrome of his forearm; however, he was discharged home without any lasting neurological damage. PMID:26664726

  9. Mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Stevens, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    A mathematical model was constructed for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included. 25 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. Accidental discharge of a Halon 1301 total flooding fire extinguishing system

    SciTech Connect

    Sass-Kortsak, A.M.; Holness, D.L.; Stopps, G.J.

    1985-11-01

    An accidental discharge of a total flooding Halon 1301 fire extinguishing system is described. The release of the Halon was accompanied by a sudden very loud noise, considerable air turbulence and a dense fog, resulting in worker anxiety and loss of visibility. The workers in the area at the time of the discharge reported higher frequencies of lightheadedness, headache, nasal complaints and disorientation than those entering the area later. Halon 1301 usually is regarded as having a low toxicity, although at concentrations above those used in occupied spaces, effects on consciousness and cardiac rhythm have been reported. In the present report no significant illness or injury due to the Halon exposure was found. A fine oily deposit found on horizontal surfaces in the area subsequent to the discharge consisted of mineral oil and iron, suggesting that this material was scoured out of the piping as the Halon discharged. The disorientation and anxiety produced by an accidental discharge can be minimized through education programs designed to ensure that personnel know what to expect and how to abort the discharge if it results from a false alarm. Situations leading to triggering of fire detectors by events other than fires should be investigated and reduced.

  11. A fatal accidental subarachnoid injection of lidocaine and levobupivacaine during a lumbar paravertebral block.

    PubMed

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Tritapepe, Luigi; Montana, Angelo; Indorato, Francesca; Zaami, Simona; Romano, Guido

    2015-11-01

    Paravertebral block (PVB) is the technique of injecting a local anesthetic solution alongside the vertebral column, close to where the spinal nerves emerge, resulting in unilateral somatic and sympathetic nerve blockade. Here is reported a fatal case involving a 60-year-old woman with spondylitis arthropathy, who developed cardiac and respiratory arrest 40min after receiving an accidental subarachnoid injection (L5-S1 bilaterally) of depomedrol lidocaine and levobupivacaine. A complete autopsy including histological and toxicological analyses was performed in order to establish the cause of death. Liquid/liquid extraction (LLE) and GC-MS analysis were performed according to a previously published method. Lidocaine and bupivacaine were detected both in blood, at concentrations of 14.8mg/L and 13.3mg/L respectively, and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at concentrations of 287.1mg/L and 464.2mg/L respectively. Both lidocaine and bupivacaine were also detected in the urine. The toxicological findings along with the autopsy allowed us to establish that the accidental subarachnoid injection of lidocaine and levobupivacaine had led to a progressive hypotension and normovolaemic shock caused by a severe ganglionic block, determining the patient's death. PMID:26332046

  12. C-Safe Image Gallery from the Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions

    DOE Data Explorer

    The University of Utah created an alliance with the DOE Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program to form the Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions (C-SAFE). The Center focuses specifically on providing state-of-the-art, science-based tools for the numerical simulation of accidental fires and explosions, especially within the context of handling and storage of highly flammable materials. The objective of C-SAFE is to provide a system comprising a problem-solving environment in which fundamental chemistry and engineering physics are fully coupled with non-linear solvers, optimization, computational steering, visualization and experimental data verification. The availability of simulations using this system will help to better evaluate the risks and safety issues associated with fires and explosions. The scientific images at this website provide technical views of various flame types and configurations (http://www.csafe.utah.edu/Information/summary.html). See also the Container Dynamics presentations at http://www.csafe.utah.edu/Teams/ContainerDynamics/cd_presentations.html.

  13. A case of pediatric age anticholinergic intoxication due to accidental Datura stramonium ingestion admitting with visual hallucination.

    PubMed

    ?anl?da?, Burçin; Derinöz, Ok?an; Y?ld?z, Nagehan

    2014-01-01

    Datura stramonium (DS) is a hallucinogenic plant that can produce anticholinergic toxicity because of its significant concentrations of toxic alkaloids, such as atropine, hyoscyamine, and scopolamine. DS grows in both rural and urban areas in Turkey. Clinical findings of toxicity are similar to those of atropine toxicity. DS abuse is common among adolescents because of its hallucinatory effects. However, accidental DS poisoning from contaminated food is very rare. Accidental poisonings are commonly seen among children. Children are more prone to the toxic effects of atropine; ingestion of even a small amount can cause serious central nervous system symptoms. Treatment is supportive; antidote treatment is given rarely. An eight-year-old male with accidental DS poisoning who presented to the Pediatric Emergency Department with aggression, agitation, delirium, and visual hallucinations is reported. PMID:25341608

  14. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Zafren, Ken; Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Danzl, Daniel F; Brugger, Hermann; Sagalyn, Emily B; Walpoth, Beat; Weiss, Eric A; Auerbach, Paul S; McIntosh, Scott E; Némethy, Mária; McDevitt, Marion; Dow, Jennifer; Schoene, Robert B; Rodway, George W; Hackett, Peter H; Bennett, Brad L; Grissom, Colin K

    2014-12-01

    To provide guidance to clinicians, the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of victims of accidental hypothermia. The guidelines present the main diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and provide recommendations for the management of hypothermic patients. The panel graded the recommendations based on the quality of supporting evidence and the balance between benefits and risks/burdens according the criteria published by the American College of Chest Physicians. The guidelines also provide suggested general approaches to the evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia that incorporate specific recommendations. PMID:25443771

  15. A simplified method of preventing implant hex drive from aspiration or accidental swallowing during stage two implant recovery

    PubMed Central

    Ratnaditya, Akurati; Ravuri, Srinivas; Tadi, Durga Prasad; Kandregula, Chaitanya Ram; Kopuri, Rajkumar Chowdary; Pentakota, Venkata Girish

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To prevent accidental ingestion of implant hex dive. Materials and Methods: Dental floss which is used to stabilize the hex drive is tied to the operator's finger ring to overcome sudden aspiration of fallen instrument. Results: It showed excellent grip of the instrument during stage two uncover time and also saved operators time. Conclusions: Accidental aspiration or swallowing of the dental instruments during routine implant surgeries can be prevented by tying the implant instruments to the operator's ring with silk ligatures or dental floss. PMID:25452923

  16. Evidence-Based Management Of Accidental Hypothermia In The Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Rischall, Megan L; Rowland-Fisher, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Accidental hypothermia is defined as an unintentional drop in core body temperature below 35°C. It can present in any climate and in any season, as it is not always a result of environmental exposure; underlying illnesses or coexisting pathology can play important roles. Although there is some variability in clinical presentation, hypothermia produces a predictable pattern of physiologic responses and clinical manifestations, and effective treatment has yielded many impressive survival case reports. Treatment strategies focus on prevention of further heat loss, volume resuscitation, implementation of appropriate rewarming techniques, and management of cardiac dysrhythmia. Rewarming may be passive or active and/or internal or external, depending on severity and available resources. This issue focuses on methods of effective rewarming and prevention of further morbidity and mortality. PMID:26655247

  17. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, K.W.; Koopman, R.P.

    1989-06-01

    This report is one of several work products generated by the Industry Cooperative HF Mitigation/Assessment Program. This ad hoc industry program began in late 1987 to study and test techniques for mitigating accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and alkylation unit acid (AUA) and to better estimate ambient impacts from such releases. The hazards of HF have long been recognized. Standard operating practices focused on minimizing the possibility of a release and mitigating the effects if a release should occur. These practices are continually monitored and improved to maximize safety protection based on the available technical data. This recent program targeted further improvements based on new technical data. This document, Volume 6, provides selected still photographs of tests and test facilities as Appendix H of the report. 107 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Accidental Inclusions Following Blast Injury in Esthetical Zones: Ablation by a Hydrosurgery System

    PubMed Central

    Siemers, Frank; Mauss, Karl L.; Liodaki, Eirini; Ottomann, Christian; Bergmann, Philipp A.; Mailänder, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In case of blast injuries, traumatic tattoos can result from accidental inclusions of intradermal pigmented particles. To avoid these tattoos, especially in esthetical areas like the head and neck region and the hands, the primary goal in our treatment is to remove all particles and foreign bodies. Superficial foreign bodies can easily be removed by brushes or dermabrasion. Deeper lesions are a challenge for plastic surgeons, because they are not so easily removed. Ablation by a water jet surgical tool, the Versajet-system (Smith & Nephew Inc, Andover, MA), enables the removal of nearly all particles and foreign bodies, which sustained a blast injury of the face or the hands. Aim of this paper is to describe the method of using this hydrosurgery system in blast injuries in esthetical zones and its advantages by presenting cases of two patients of us. PMID:22848777

  19. Urban Early Adolescent Narratives on Sexuality: Accidental and Intentional Influences of Family, Peers, and the Media

    PubMed Central

    McKamey, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the ways that early adolescents talked, interacted, and made references to events in their individual and collective lives during photography-based focus groups about sexuality and relationships. Twenty-three participants (10 boys and 13 girls) were recruited from three urban schools participating in a comprehensive sex education impact evaluation in the Northeast. We analyzed conversational narratives that were elicited in a group process while sharing photos of important people, contexts, and situations, showcasing participants’ exploration of sexuality and relationships. Our analysis revealed four main themes: (a) direct and indirect family communication about sexuality, (b) accidental and intentional Internet usage, (c) shared and contested peer knowledge, and (d) school as a direct and indirect learning context. Implications and future directions for practice, research, and policy are explored. PMID:22983141

  20. A biological/medical review of alien tick species (Acari: Ixodida) accidentally transferred to Poland.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Chmura, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Alien tick species of the genera Ixodes, Amblyomma, Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus are sporadically transferred to the territories of the Central European countries. A biological-medical review of the following alien tick species transferred to Poland is presented: Ixodes eldaricus, Ixodes festai, Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma exornatumn, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma transversale, Amblyomma varanense, Hyalomma aegyptium, Hyalomma marginatum, Rhipicephalus rossicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The transfers of tick species out of the areas of natural distribution are divided into natural transfers (e.g., migration of ticks on hosts) and accidental transfers (e.g., resulting from the transport of livestock animals, trade in exotic animals, and transfers on animals during travel). It is important to monitor occurrence of unknown tick species on hosts in Poland. PMID:24930246

  1. Spermatogenesis and reproductive performance following human accidental exposure to bromine vapor.

    PubMed

    Potashnik, G; Carel, R; Belmaker, I; Levine, M

    1992-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate spermatogenesis and reproductive performance among 8 men and their spouses following accidental exposure to bromine vapor. Of the three cases with oligo-terato-asthenozoospermia (OTA), one had been diagnosed prior to and unrelated to the event. Mild OTA and unimpaired reproductive performance characterized the other two cases. Plasma levels of the follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were normal in all men. One first-trimester abortion and one late abortion (due to chorioamnionitis) occurred among the 5 pregnancies conceived shortly after the accident. Results of the present study suggest a mild degree of spermatogenic suppression and impaired reproductive performance following paternal exposure to bromine vapor during the above described accident. However, due to the small size of the study cohort, a confidential cause-result linkage could not be established. PMID:1591474

  2. Fatal myeloencephalopathy due to accidental intrathecal vincristin administration: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Dettmeyer, R; Driever, F; Becker, A; Wiestler, O D; Madea, B

    2001-10-15

    We report on two fatal cases of accidental intrathecal vincristine instillation in a 5-year old girl with recurrent acute lymphoblastic leucemia and a 57-year old man with lymphoblastic lymphoma. The girl died seven days, the man four weeks after intrathecal injection of vincristine. Clinically, the onset was characterized by the signs of opistothonus, sensory and motor dysfunction and ascending paralysis. Histological and immunohistochemical investigations (HE-LFB, CD-68, Neurofilament) revealed degeneration of myelin and axons as well as pseudocystic transformation in areas exposed to vincristine, accompanied by secondary changes with numerous prominent macrophages. The clinical course and histopathological results of the two cases are presented. A review of all reported cases in the literature is given. A better controlled regimen for administering vincristine and intrathecal chemotherapy is recommended. PMID:11587867

  3. Accidental beam loss in superconducting accelerators: Simulations, consequences of accidents and protective measures

    SciTech Connect

    Drozhdin, A.; Mokhov, N.; Parker, B.

    1994-02-01

    The consequences of an accidental beam loss in superconducting accelerators and colliders of the next generation range from the mundane to rather dramatic, i.e., from superconducting magnet quench, to overheating of critical components, to a total destruction of some units via explosion. Specific measures are required to minimize and eliminate such events as much as practical. In this paper we study such accidents taking the Superconducting Supercollider complex as an example. Particle tracking, beam loss and energy deposition calculations were done using the realistic machine simulation with the Monte-Carlo codes MARS 12 and STRUCT. Protective measures for minimizing the damaging effects of prefire and misfire of injection and extraction kicker magnets are proposed here.

  4. Simulation of accidental UF/sub 6/ releases in support of the safety analysis effort

    SciTech Connect

    Just, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The safety analysis of the US uranium enrichment facilities requires that postulated accidental releases of UF/sub 6/ be simulated. In order to predict the human health consequences of a postulated UF/sub 6/ release, two types of information are needed: (1) predicted toxicant concentrations and exposure durations at pertinent locations (calculated by a dispersion model), and (2) toxicity data which support the assessment of the human health consequences of a known exposure to a mixture of UF/sub 6/ and UF/sub 6/ hydrolysis products. This report describes the development of a Gaussian dispersion model for simulating UF/sub 6/ dispersion and the plans for developing a puff dispersion model.

  5. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher.

  6. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, D.E. . Fluid Mechanics and Wind Engineering Lab.)

    1989-06-01

    Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The large scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher.

  7. A precise calculation of delayed coincidence selection efficiency and accidental coincidence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jing-Yi; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Shao-Min

    2015-05-01

    A precise background evaluation model is proposed to address the complex data structure of the delayed coincidence method, which is widely used in reactor electron-antineutrino oscillation experiments. In this model, effects from the muon veto, uncorrelated random background, and background are all studied analytically, simplifying the estimation of the systematic uncertainties of signal efficiency and accidental background rate. The results of the calculations are validated numerically with a number of simulation studies and also applied and validated in the recent Daya Bay hydrogen-capture based oscillation measurement. Supported by Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2013CB834302), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11235006, 11475093), Tsinghua University Initiative Scientific Research Program (2012Z02161), and Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education.

  8. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Engle, J.R.; Harper, J.A.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Regional scale atmospheric dispersion simulation of accidental releases of radionuclides from Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, C. V.; Venkatesan, R.; Baskaran, R.; Rajagopal, V.; Venkatraman, B.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the results of regional scale atmospheric dispersion simulation of accidental emission of radionuclides from the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor, Japan following the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event on 11 March 2011. The objective was to study the temporal behaviour of plume trajectory, concentration, deposition and radiation dose pattern over an 80 km range around the reactor. The time-varying meteorological parameters during the release period were simulated with a multi-scale nested atmospheric model WRF ARW and the trajectory, plume dispersion were computed with Lagrangian Particle Dispersion models HYSPLIT, FLEXPART using the available information on accidental source term. The simulations indicated that the wind flow over Japan during the release period was driven by the large scale extra-tropical westerly waves and associated low pressure systems. In the lower levels, the flow was influenced by the local topography/sea breeze causing occasional landward wind shift on the east coast of Japan. Simulated airflow trajectories revealed that the plume stayed over the ocean by westerly winds on most days and the radioactivity dispersed over sea surface. Landward trajectories were found on a few days due to southeasterly, easterly and northeasterly flow (15-17, 19-21 March 2011) during which much of the radionuclides deposited over the land region. The hotspot of depositions occurred over east Pacific Ocean near to Japan. Over the land relatively high depositions were simulated in a narrow zone of 20 km width and 80 km length in the northwest sector in agreement with monitor data. Simulations showed wet depositions over the land to be higher than the dry depositions during 12-30 March due to occurrence of rainfall on some days. Comparison of activity deposition and air dose values with available observations confirmed that the plume pattern in a finer length scale around the site could be simulated realistically and agree with the measurements within the limitations of the uncertainty in source term.

  10. Probability Analysis for Accidental Impact on Mars by the Micro-Spacecraft Procyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funase, Ryu; Yano, Hajime; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro; Ozaki, Naoya; Nakajima, Shintaro; Shimizu, Yukio

    This paper analyzes the impact probability on Mars for the 50kg-class micro-spacecraft PROCYON (PRoximate Object Close flYby with Optical Navigation) in 50 years after its launch. PROCYON, which is mainly developed by the University of Tokyo and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), has two missions: the first is the technology demonstration of a micro-spacecraft bus system for deep space exploration and the second is proximity operation by Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as the closest flyby distance from a target asteroid is aimed around 30 kilometer. The spacecraft is scheduled to be launched together with Japan’s second asteroid sample return spacecraft "Hayabusa-2" at the end of 2014. Initially PROCYON will be inserted into an Earth resonant trajectory that allows the spacecraft to cruise back to the Earth by solar electric propulsion leveraging. The Earth gravity assist, which is scheduled at the end of 2015, will enable the spacecraft to expand a number of candidate NEAs for flyby operations. At the time of the writing, its candidate NEAs include "2000 DP107", "2010 LJ14" and "2002 AJ29". A miniature ion thruster is mounted on the spacecraft to provide 300muN of thrust with specific impulse of 1200 seconds for deep space maneuver before Earth gravity assist. Considering a small amount of its fuel (about 2 kg of Xenon propellant), PROCYON has no possibility to impact directly on Mars without Earth gravity assist. However, if PROCYON successfully obtains large enough delta-V by the Earth gravity assist at the end of 2015, a possibility of accidental impact on Mars cannot be neglected in order to comply the COSPAR planetary protection requirements for forward contamination. In this paper, we calculate the possibility of accidental impact on Mars after the Earth gravity assist. As the result we conclude that the possibility of Mars impact is negligible within 50 years after its launch.

  11. Accidental ingestion or aspiration of foreign objects at Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital over last 4 years.

    PubMed

    Hisanaga, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Sato, Toru; Yajima, Yasutomo; Morinaga, Kazuki; Ohata, Hitoshi; Hirata, SoIchiro; Mamiya, Hideki; Kinumatsu, Takashi; Yakushiji, Takashi; Hagita, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cases of accidental ingestion or aspiration occurring at Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital over the last 4 years in order to determine how the incidence of such events could be reduced. Forty cases of accidents occurring at our hospital over a 4-year period commencing in 2008 (representing 27% of the total number of accidents) included accidental ingestion in 39 patients and aspiration in one. Most of these accidents occurred during the removal or placement of restorations or prosthetics, and the ingested objects were mostly crowns and inlays. Accidental ingestion or aspiration occurred more frequently in the right molar region and when procedures were conducted by practitioners with less than 1 to 7 years of experience, and especially 1 to 3 years only. A higher rate of such accidents was observed in male patients in their 50s to 70s. The conventional safety procedures developed by the Medical Risk Management Team should be adhered to wherever possible. Furthermore, we propose the following measures based on the present results: accident prevention training for students and clinical trainees; improvement of the in-hospital manual; personal coaching for those breaching the guidelines of the safety manual; and raising awareness of the need for greater care in preventing incidents of accidental ingestion or aspiration at the Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital. PMID:24717931

  12. Fading test using the SAAD-POSL method for retrospective accidental dosimetry of building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. J.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.; Hong, D. G.

    2015-11-01

    Fading test using the single aliquot additive dose method with pulsed optically stimulated luminescence (SAAD-POSL method) was applied to core-disc samples extracted from heated red brick, tile, roof-tile, and toilet porcelain after X-ray and beta irradiation. From thermoluminescence measurements of each material, the optimal preheat condition of the SAAD-POSL method was first determined as 170 °C for 10 s. Fading characteristics of core-disc samples of heated red brick obtained using the SAAD-POSL method were similar to those of quartz grains (90-250 ?m) obtained using the SAR-OSL method, regardless of the differences in the sample and radiation type. Fading evaluations of the core-disc samples of these building materials two weeks after irradiation showed that the equivalent dose (ED) decreased between 5% and 42%. The results indicate that the fading characteristics will be able to contribute to a more accurate estimation of the ED value using the SAAD-POSL method.

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Sleepiness and Accidental Risk in 36140 Regularly Registered Highway Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Pierre; Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Taillard, Jacques; Canel, Annick; Sagaspe, Patricia; Bioulac, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a frequent neurodevelopmental disorder that increases accidental risk. Recent studies show that some patients with ADHD can also suffer from excessive daytime sleepiness but there are no data assessing the role of sleepiness in road safety in patients with ADHD. We conducted an epidemiological study to explore sleep complaints, inattention and driving risks among automobile drivers. Methods and Findings From August to September 2014, 491186 regular highway users were invited to participate in an Internet survey on driving habits. 36140 drivers answered a questionnaire exploring driving risks, sleep complaints, sleepiness at the wheel, ADHD symptoms (Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale) and distraction at the wheel. 1.7% of all drivers reported inattention-related driving accidents and 0.3% sleep-related driving accidents in the previous year. 1543 drivers (4.3%) reported ADHD symptoms and were more likely to report accidents than drivers without ADHD symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.24, [1.03–1.51], p < .021). 14.2% of drivers with ADHD symptoms reported severe excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale >15) versus 3.2% of drivers without ADHD symptoms and 20.5% reported severe sleepiness at the wheel versus 7.3%. Drivers with ADHD symptoms reported significantly more sleep-related (adjusted OR = 1.4, [1.21–1.60], p < .0001) and inattention-related (adjusted OR = 1.9, [1.71–2.14], p<0001) near misses than drivers without ADHD symptoms. The fraction of near-misses attributable to severe sleepiness at the wheel was 4.24% for drivers without ADHD symptoms versus 10,35% for drivers with ADHD symptoms. Conclusion Our study shows that drivers with ADHD symptoms have more accidents and a higher level of sleepiness at the wheel than drivers without ADHD symptoms. Drivers with ADHD symptoms report more sleep-related and inattention-related near misses, thus confirming the clinical importance of exploring both attentional deficits and sleepiness at the wheel in these drivers. Road safety campaigns should be improved to better inform drivers of these accidental risks. PMID:26376078

  14. Plutino (15810) 1994 JR1, an accidental quasi-satellite of Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.

    2012-11-01

    In the Solar system, quasi-satellites move in a 1:1 mean motion resonance going around their host body like a retrograde satellite but their mutual separation is well beyond the Hill radius and the trajectory is not closed as they orbit the Sun, not the host body. Although they share the semi-major axis and the mean longitude of their host body, their eccentricity and inclination may be very different. So far, minor bodies temporarily trapped in the quasi-satellite dynamical state have been identified around Venus, the Earth, the dwarf planet (1) Ceres, the large asteroid (4) Vesta, Jupiter and Saturn. Using computer simulations, Tiscareno & Malhotra have predicted the existence of a small but significant population of minor bodies moving in a 1:1 mean motion resonance with Pluto. Here we show using N-body calculations that the plutino (15810) 1994 JR1 is currently an accidental quasi-satellite of Pluto and it will remain as such for nearly 350 000 years. By accidental we mean that the quasi-satellite phase is triggered (or terminated) not by a direct gravitational influence in the form of a discrete close encounter, but as a result of a resonance. The relative mean longitude of the plutino (15810) 1994 JR1 circulates with a superimposed libration resulting from the oscillation of the orbital period induced by the 2:3 mean motion resonance with Neptune. These quasi-satellite episodes are recurrent with a periodicity of nearly 2 Myr. This makes the plutino (15810) 1994 JR1 the first minor body moving in a 1:1 mean motion resonance with Pluto and the first quasi-satellite found in the trans-Neptunian region. It also makes Pluto the second dwarf planet, besides Ceres, to host a quasi-satellite. Our finding confirms that the quasi-satellite resonant phase is not restricted to small bodies orbiting major planets but is possible for dwarf planets/asteroids too. Moreover, the plutino (15810) 1994 JR1 could be considered as a possible secondary target for NASA's Pluto-Kuiper Belt Mission New Horizons after the main Pluto flyby in 2015. This opens the possibility of studying at first hand and for the first time a minor body in the quasi-satellite dynamical state.

  15. ALARA approach to the radiological control of foodstuffs following an accidental release

    SciTech Connect

    Lombard, J.; Coulon, R.; Despres, A.

    1988-06-01

    This article presents a methodology based on two complementary approaches, thus allowing a selection of maximal concentration in foodstuffs for determining appropriate countermeasures. The first approach is based on a minimal and maximal per capita intervention level and takes into account the annual intake of each product. The second one is based on a cost-benefit analysis, comparing the advantages of a countermeasure concerning those products presenting a contamination higher than a given maximal concentration (in terms of reduction of cost of the detriment associated with the risk), with its drawbacks (in terms of cost of the products) in order to select the ''ALARA'' maximal concentration. This second approach is used as a complement to the first one. The results obtained through these two approaches are given for four products (milk, meat, fresh vegetables, and corn) and two nuclides (Cs-137 and I-131). These are presented for various scenarios: one or various products contaminated by one or various radionuclides. It is concluded that these two approaches are complementary, the first one being related to individual risk and the second to collective risk. Therefore, these approaches are both of interest in the context of the elaboration of modalities for the radiological control of foodstuffs following an accidental release and both methods may be useful for determining appropriate countermeasures.

  16. New tracers identify hydraulic fracturing fluids and accidental releases from oil and gas operations.

    PubMed

    Warner, N R; Darrah, T H; Jackson, R B; Millot, R; Kloppmann, W; Vengosh, A

    2014-11-01

    Identifying the geochemical fingerprints of fluids that return to the surface after high volume hydraulic fracturing of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs has important applications for assessing hydrocarbon resource recovery, environmental impacts, and wastewater treatment and disposal. Here, we report for the first time, novel diagnostic elemental and isotopic signatures (B/Cl, Li/Cl, ?11B, and ?7Li) useful for characterizing hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids (HFFF) and distinguishing sources of HFFF in the environment. Data from 39 HFFFs and produced water samples show that B/Cl (>0.001), Li/Cl (>0.002), ?11B (25-31‰) and ?7Li (6-10‰) compositions of HFFF from the Marcellus and Fayetteville black shale formations were distinct in most cases from produced waters sampled from conventional oil and gas wells. We posit that boron isotope geochemistry can be used to quantify small fractions (?0.1%) of HFFF in contaminated fresh water and likely be applied universally to trace HFFF in other basins. The novel environmental application of this diagnostic isotopic tool is validated by examining the composition of effluent discharge from an oil and gas brine treatment facility in Pennsylvania and an accidental spill site in West Virginia. We hypothesize that the boron and lithium are mobilized from exchangeable sites on clay minerals in the shale formations during the hydraulic fracturing process, resulting in the relative enrichment of boron and lithium in HFFF. PMID:25327769

  17. Challenges and promises for nurse education curriculum development in Kosovo: results of an "accidental ethnography".

    PubMed

    Goepp, Julius G; Johnson, Tiesha D; Maddow, Charles L

    2008-05-01

    Kosovo's infrastructure was devastated by armed conflict through the 1990s; in 1999 a visiting inter-disciplinary team described healthcare services as being in "disarray". Several collaborative programs were initiated to enhance delivery of emergency medical (EM) services. Our inter-disciplinary team traveled to Kosovo in 2004 to evaluate EM physician education and training. A brief renewed outbreak of hostilities created a mass casualty incident. An "accidental ethnography" focused on nurse education was conducted by team members during and after the event. Results indicated low levels of professionalization of nurses as indicated by expressions of professional self-identity and self-esteem, autonomy, and submission to patriarchal attitudes. Undergraduate nurse education is restricted to a diploma program and one foreign training project, one graduate degree program exists abroad, and no national board examination exists. Nurses' social location is described as marginalized and disenfranchised, and retention of nurses is a persistent problem. Based on these observations we outline an inter-professional curriculum development program to foster professionalization of Kosovar nurses through a synthesis of participatory action research with elements of grounded theory and standard curriculum development methodologies. The collaborative, emancipatory, and empowering nature of PAR is described in the context of professionalizing nurse education programs. PMID:17825956

  18. Methodology for evaluation of possible consequences of accidental atmospheric releases of hazardous matter.

    PubMed

    Mahura, A; Baklanov, A; Sørensen, J Havskov

    2003-01-01

    Sites exist with high levels of risk of accidental atmospheric releases. These releases can be hazardous nuclear, chemical, and biological matter. Such accidents may occur during transport of waste, or they may be due to natural hazards, human errors, terror acts or various operations at high risk. Considering the operation of lifting and transport of the sunken Kursk nuclear submarine as an example, a methodology for risk assessment is described. This methodology includes two approaches: (1) probabilistic analysis of possible atmospheric transport pathways using trajectory modelling, and (2) evaluation of possible contamination and consequences using real-time operational atmospheric dispersion modelling. The first approach can be applied in advance of an operation during the preparation stage, the second in real time during the operation stage. For the cases considered in this study, the results of trajectory modelling are supported by the operational dispersion modelling, i.e., the westerly flow is dominant during fall occurring 79% of the time. Hence, September-October 2001 was more appropriate for the lifting and transport of the Kursk nuclear submarine in comparison with summer months, when atmospheric transport toward the populated regions of the Kola and Scandinavian Peninsulas was dominant. The suggested methodology may be applied to any potentially dangerous object involving a risk of atmospheric release of hazardous material of nuclear, chemical or biological nature. PMID:12593432

  19. Evaluation of health effects in Sequoyah Fuels Corporation workers from accidental exposure to uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R. ); Swint, M.J.; Kathren, R.L. )

    1990-05-01

    Urine bioassay measurements for uranium and medical laboratory results were studied to determine whether there were any health effects from uranium intake among a group of 31 workers exposed to uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and hydrolysis products following the accidental rupture of a 14-ton shipping cylinder in early 1986 at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation uranium conversion facility in Gore, Oklahoma. Physiological indicators studied to detect kidney tissue damage included tests for urinary protein, casts and cells, blood, specific gravity, and urine pH, blood urea nitrogen, and blood creatinine. We concluded after reviewing two years of follow-up medical data that none of the 31 workers sustained any observable health effects from exposure to uranium. The early excretion of uranium in urine showed more rapid systemic uptake of uranium from the lung than is assumed using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30 and Publication 54 models. The urinary excretion data from these workers were used to develop an improved systemic recycling model for inhaled soluble uranium. We estimated initial intakes, clearance rates, kidney burdens, and resulting radiation doses to lungs, kidneys, and bone surfaces. 38 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, K.W. ); Koopman, R.P. )

    1989-07-01

    Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher. 6 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Accidental Water Pollution Risk Analysis of Mine Tailings Ponds in Guanting Reservoir Watershed, Zhangjiakou City, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Renzhi; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zhijiao; Borthwick, Alistair; Zhang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Over the past half century, a surprising number of major pollution incidents occurred due to tailings dam failures. Most previous studies of such incidents comprised forensic analyses of environmental impacts after a tailings dam failure, with few considering the combined pollution risk before incidents occur at a watershed-scale. We therefore propose Watershed-scale Tailings-pond Pollution Risk Analysis (WTPRA), designed for multiple mine tailings ponds, stemming from previous watershed-scale accidental pollution risk assessments. Transferred and combined risk is embedded using risk rankings of multiple routes of the “source-pathway-target” in the WTPRA. The previous approach is modified using multi-criteria analysis, dam failure models, and instantaneous water quality models, which are modified for application to multiple tailings ponds. The study area covers the basin of Gutanting Reservoir (the largest backup drinking water source for Beijing) in Zhangjiakou City, where many mine tailings ponds are located. The resultant map shows that risk is higher downstream of Gutanting Reservoir and in its two tributary basins (i.e., Qingshui River and Longyang River). Conversely, risk is lower in the midstream and upstream reaches. The analysis also indicates that the most hazardous mine tailings ponds are located in Chongli and Xuanhua, and that Guanting Reservoir is the most vulnerable receptor. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses are performed to validate the robustness of the WTPRA method. PMID:26633450

  2. Game theory of pre-emptive vaccination before bioterrorism or accidental release of smallpox.

    PubMed

    Molina, Chai; Earn, David J D

    2015-06-01

    Smallpox was eradicated in the 1970s, but new outbreaks could be seeded by bioterrorism or accidental release. Substantial vaccine-induced morbidity and mortality make pre-emptive mass vaccination controversial, and if vaccination is voluntary, then there is a conflict between self- and group interests. This conflict can be framed as a tragedy of the commons, in which herd immunity plays the role of the commons, and free-riding (i.e. not vaccinating pre-emptively) is analogous to exploiting the commons. This game has been analysed previously for a particular post-outbreak vaccination scenario. We consider several post-outbreak vaccination scenarios and compare the expected increase in mortality that results from voluntary versus imposed vaccination. Below a threshold level of post-outbreak vaccination effort, expected mortality is independent of the level of response effort. A lag between an outbreak starting and a response being initiated increases the post-outbreak vaccination effort necessary to reduce mortality. For some post-outbreak vaccination scenarios, even modest response lags make it impractical to reduce mortality by increasing post-outbreak vaccination effort. In such situations, if decreasing the response lag is impossible, the only practical way to reduce mortality is to make the vaccine safer (greater post-outbreak vaccination effort leads only to fewer people vaccinating pre-emptively). PMID:25926701

  3. Design of a monitoring network over France in case of a radiological accidental release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abida, Rachid; Bocquet, Marc; Vercauteren, Nikki; Isnard, Olivier

    The Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (France) is planning the set-up of an automatic nuclear aerosol monitoring network over the French territory. Each of the stations will be able to automatically sample the air aerosol content and provide activity concentration measurements on several radionuclides. This should help monitor the French and neighbouring countries nuclear power plants set. It would help evaluate the impact of a radiological incident occurring at one of these nuclear facilities. This paper is devoted to the spatial design of such a network. Here, any potential network is judged on its ability to extrapolate activity concentrations measured on the network stations over the whole domain. The performance of a network is quantitatively assessed through a cost function that measures the discrepancy between the extrapolation and the true concentration fields. These true fields are obtained through the computation of a database of dispersion accidents over one year of meteorology and originating from 20 French nuclear sites. A close to optimal network is then looked for using a simulated annealing optimisation. The results emphasise the importance of the cost function in the design of a network aimed at monitoring an accidental dispersion. Several choices of norm used in the cost function are studied and give way to different designs. The influence of the number of stations is discussed. A comparison with a purely geometric approach which does not involve simulations with a chemistry-transport model is performed.

  4. Accidental Rivaroxaban Overdose in a Patient with Pulmonary Embolism: Some Lessons for Managing New Oral Anticoagulants

    PubMed Central

    Sajkov, Dimitar; Gallus, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Rivaroxaban is an orally active direct factor Xa inhibitor used to treat venous thromboembolism with approved starting dose of 15 mg twice-daily. We present a case of an accidental overdose in a patient with pulmonary thromboembolism, when the patient received two 150 mg doses of rivaroxaban, instead of 15 mg as prescribed, given 12 hours apart. This error was recognised ten minutes after the second dose, when 50 gm oral activated charcoal was given. Rivaroxaban was stopped and rivaroxaban concentrations, INR, and APTT were monitored. The overdose was uncomplicated and 15 mg twice-daily rivaroxaban was restarted on day two. Apparently unlikely and potentially hazardous dispensing errors do happen. Each oral anticoagulant has a different dosing schedule. In our patient, the prescription for 15 mg twice-daily rivaroxaban was misread as 150 mg twice-daily (a correct dose for dabigatran in atrial fibrillation). Such errors are preventable. Prompt administration of activated charcoal under monitoring of a specific rivaroxaban assay can greatly help management of unusual situations like this one. PMID:26279635

  5. 'Battered pets': non-accidental physical injuries found in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Munro, H M; Thrusfield, M V

    2001-06-01

    Records of 243 cases of non-accidental injury (NAI) in dogs, and 182 cases in cats, submitted by a sample of small animal practitioners in the UK, revealed a wide range of injuries. These included bruises, fractures, repetitive injuries, burns and scalds, stab and incised wounds, poisoning, asphyxiation and drowning (which showed remarkable similarities to NAI in children), as well as sexual abuse and injuries specifically caused by firearms. Traumatic skeletal injuries in the dogs were more commonly found in the anterior part of the skeleton, in comparison with those resulting from road traffic accidents. Young male dogs and young cats were particularly at risk of NAI. A moderately increased risk was identified in the Staffordshire bull terrier, cross-breed dogs and the domestic shorthaired cat, whereas the Labrador retriever showed a decreased risk. No single injury or group of injuries, when divorced from the circumstances surrounding a suspect case, could be considered to indicate, conclusively, NAI. Repetitive injuries, however, were highly suggestive of NAI. PMID:11440397

  6. Accidental intoxication of the infant-juvenile population in households: profiles of emergency care.

    PubMed

    Brito, Jackeline Gonçalves; Martins, Christine Baccarat de Godoy

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Analyzing profiles of intoxication and accidental poisoning of infant-juvenile population (0-24 years) in the household, treated at a reference facility for Emergency and Primary Care, during the year 2013. METHOD A descriptive, cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed using Epi-Info, by way of simple and bivariate analyzes. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (protocol 405.578). RESULTS There were 45 intoxications, with a prevalence of males (60.0%), aged 1-4 years (71.1%). Among children under one, there was a higher frequency of pesticide poisoning (66.6%), between the ages of 1-4 by cleaning products (34.4%), and between 5-9 years of age by pharmacological substances (66.6%). The primary assistance was provided only at health institutions, with hospital admissions in 24.4% of the cases. CONCLUSION The importance of prevention through legislation is evident, in order to ensure greater safety in packaging of various products, and community awareness to eliminate risks in the household environment. PMID:26107696

  7. Review of accidental safety studies for the European HCPB test blanket system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccaccini, L. V.; Ciattaglia, S.; Meyder, R.; Jin, X.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a review of safety studies for accidental sequences in the European solid breeder test blanket module (TBM) system. These studies are the starting point for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report of ITER, under preparation to get the construction permit first and then later the operation licence. In general the reduced inventory of activation products and tritium associated with the TBM system makes the impact of this test system almost negligible on the overall safety risk of ITER. Nevertheless, the possibility of jeopardizing the ITER safety concept has been analysed in connection to the consequences of specific accident sequences, e.g. the pressurization of the vacuum vessel due to the He coolant blow-down, the hydrogen production from the Be-steam reaction, the possible interconnection between the port cell and the vacuum vessel causing air ingress and the necessity to assure heat removal in the short and long periods. In the frame of this assessment, three LOCA sequences have been selected as representative of accidents judged to cover all scenarios envisaged in Cat II to IV events involving the TBM, namely, in-vessel LOCA, ex-vessel LOCA and in-box LOCA.

  8. Thermoluminescence properties of irradiated commercial color pencils for accidental retrospective dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Meriç, Niyazi; ?ahiner, Eren; Bari?, Aytaç; Polymeris, George S

    2015-05-01

    Color pencils are widely used mostly in kindergartens, in schools and could be found in all houses with families having young children. Their wide spread use in modern times as well as their chemical composition, consisting mostly of Si and Al, constitute two strong motivations towards exploiting their use as accidental retrospective thermoluminescent dosimeters. The present manuscript reports on the study of colored pencils manufactured by a commercial brand in China which is very common throughout Turkey. The preliminary results discussed in the present work illustrated encouraging characteristics, such as the presence of a trapping level giving rise to natural TL in a temperature range that is sufficiently high. Specific thermoluminescence features of this peak, such as glow peak shape and analysis, anomalous fading, thermal quenching, reproducibility, linearity and recovery ability to low attributed doses were studied. The results suggest that the color pencils could be effectively used in the framework of retrospective thermoluminescent dosimetry with extreme caution, based on multiple aliquot protocols. PMID:25746917

  9. Accidental bilateral Q-switched neodymium laser exposure: treatment and recovery of visual function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwick, Harry; Stuck, Bruce E.; Dunlap, Weldon; Scales, David K.; Lund, David J.; Ness, James W.

    1998-05-01

    A 21 year old female was accidentally exposed in both eyes when she looked into the 10 cm exit aperture of a military laser designator emitting 1064 nm q-switched (30 ns) pulses at a 10 pulse per second rate. Steroid therapy (methylprednisolone sodium succinate) was initiated within 6 hours post exposure. Initial ophthalmoscopic observation revealed small contained macular hemorrhages in each eye. Fluorescein angiography (FA) showed minimal leakage. Visual acuity was 20/100 and 20/60 in OD and OS respectively. Contrast sensitivity in both eyes was depressed across all spatial frequencies by more than 1.5 log units. At four weeks post exposure, no significant macular scarring was apparent and visual acuity returned to 20/25 in both eyes. Contrast sensitivity had improved to normal levels with a peak at 3 cycles/degree. At one year post exposure, visual acuity was 20/13 in both eyes and measures of contrast sensitivity were within normal limits. During the course of recovery, the patient's fixation shifted from a slightly superior temporal site back to the central foveal region. The foveal lesion sites were still evident by ophthalmoscopy and Amsler grid measurements but were deemed functional when the patient placed small targets generated by the scanning laser ophthalmoscope in the lesion site for discrimination. This outcome indicates remarkable recovery of visual function and suggests that early administration of steroids may assist in preserving the natural neural recovery process of the photoreceptor matrix by minimizing intraretinal scar formation.

  10. A fatality due to an accidental methadone substitution in a dental cocktail.

    PubMed

    Kupiec, Thomas C; Kemp, Philip; Raj, Vishnu; Kemp, Jesse

    2011-09-01

    A 6-year-old male child was scheduled for a dental procedure requiring conscious sedation. Prior to the procedure, the child was administered a dental cocktail containing chloral hydrate, hydroxyzine, and methadone. After returning from the dentist, the child appeared groggy and was allowed to sleep. A few hours later, he was found unresponsive, and following resuscitation attempts at a local medical center, he was pronounced dead. Toxicological analyses of femoral blood indicated the presence of hydroxyzine at less than 0.54 ?g/mL, trichloroethanol (TCE) at 8.3 ?g/mL, and methadone at 0.51 ?g/mL. No meperidine was detected. The cause of death was reported to be due to the toxic effects of methadone. The toxicological analysis was corroborated by the analysis of the contents of the dental cocktail, which revealed the presence of hydroxyzine, chloral hydrate, and methadone. Residue from a control sample obtained from the same pharmacy, but administered to a different subject, was found to contain hydroxyzine, chloral hydrate, and meperidine. This report represents the first known fatality due to accidental substitution of methadone in a dental cocktail. PMID:21871161

  11. Failure Criteria for Evaluating Accidental Drops of Fuel Containers at INTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G. K.

    1998-10-01

    This report presents a failure criterion that has been developed for use in evaluating fuel containers at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for accidental drop events. The criterion would typically be used in dynamic finite element analyses using the ABA-QUS/Explicit program. The failure criterion used in the past is generally considered to substantially underestimate the strength and ductility of the materials involved. The new criterion is intended to be more realistic, allowing for more accurate impact analyses. The criterion is based on the distortion energy theory, which is considered to be appropriate for the ductile materials typically used in fuel containers. Also addressed in development of the criterion were the effects of strain rate and hydrostatic stress. The importance of these factors, however, is highly dependent on the material used. Three materials specifically addressed in this study were stainless steel, aluminum, and lead. The criterion is presented in the form of guidelines and recommendations that are based on material data obtained from the literature. The most significant difference between these and the previous criterion is that ductile materials are allowed to strain to much higher levels before they are considered to fail.

  12. Modeling acute health risks associated with accidental releases of toxic gases

    SciTech Connect

    Haskin, F.E.; Ding, C.; Summa, K.J.; Young, M.

    1996-09-01

    CHEM{_}MACCS has been developed from the radiological accident consequence code, MACCS, to perform probabilistic calculations of potential off-site consequences of the accidental atmospheric release of hazardous chemicals. The principal phenomena considered in CHEM{_}MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways, and early and latent health effects. CHEM{_}MACCS provides the following capabilities: (1) statistical weather sampling data (8,760 hourly data points per year), (2) population dose and health effect risk calculations based on site-specific population data, (3) health effects calculations including the consideration of potential site specific mitigative actions (evacuation and shielding), and (4) modeling of multiple release segments. Three different sample problems are contained in this report to show how to use CHEM{_}MACCS. Three test problems are run to compare CHEM{_}MACCS and D2PC. The doses versus the downwind centerline distances from the source for the given doses are in very close agreement.

  13. Accidental Water Pollution Risk Analysis of Mine Tailings Ponds in Guanting Reservoir Watershed, Zhangjiakou City, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Renzhi; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zhijiao; Borthwick, Alistair; Zhang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Over the past half century, a surprising number of major pollution incidents occurred due to tailings dam failures. Most previous studies of such incidents comprised forensic analyses of environmental impacts after a tailings dam failure, with few considering the combined pollution risk before incidents occur at a watershed-scale. We therefore propose Watershed-scale Tailings-pond Pollution Risk Analysis (WTPRA), designed for multiple mine tailings ponds, stemming from previous watershed-scale accidental pollution risk assessments. Transferred and combined risk is embedded using risk rankings of multiple routes of the "source-pathway-target" in the WTPRA. The previous approach is modified using multi-criteria analysis, dam failure models, and instantaneous water quality models, which are modified for application to multiple tailings ponds. The study area covers the basin of Gutanting Reservoir (the largest backup drinking water source for Beijing) in Zhangjiakou City, where many mine tailings ponds are located. The resultant map shows that risk is higher downstream of Gutanting Reservoir and in its two tributary basins (i.e., Qingshui River and Longyang River). Conversely, risk is lower in the midstream and upstream reaches. The analysis also indicates that the most hazardous mine tailings ponds are located in Chongli and Xuanhua, and that Guanting Reservoir is the most vulnerable receptor. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses are performed to validate the robustness of the WTPRA method. PMID:26633450

  14. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Accidental releases of Hydrogen Flouride (HF) can result in initally dense, highly reactive and corrosive clouds. These clouds will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol and droplets which can be transported significant distances downwind before lower hazard levels of HF concentration are reached. Previous experiments were performed to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher. 8 refs., 69 figs., 49 tabs.

  15. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1980-December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Rittmaster, R.S.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report updates, for 1980 through 1982, the results of continuing medical surveillance of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in March 1954. The originally exposed Marshallese population comprised 64 persons on Rongelap Atoll who each received, on the average, an estimated 190 rads of absorbed external gamma radiation, 18 on Ailingnae Atoll who received 110 rads, and 159 on Utirik who received 11 rads. There were, in addition, 3 persons in utero on Rongelap, 1 person in utero on Ailingnae, and 8 persons in utero on Utirik who are considered exposed. The recipients of primary medical care include exposed and comparison populations as well as a rather large number of additional beneficiaries who are seen on a humanitarian basis of practical need and resource availability. In recent years, about 1400 people have been seen annually. This report, however, deals with four clearly defined groups: the remaining individuals who were exposed to radioactive fallout on Rongelap, Ailingnae, and Utirik in 1954 (including those in utero), and a comparison population of individuals from Rongelap who were unexposed. The number of persons now in each exposure category are 51, 12, 116, and 137, respectively. 100 references, 4 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

  16. Accidental cloning of a single-photon qubit in two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Ide, Toshiki; Hofmann, Holger F.

    2007-06-15

    The information encoded in the polarization of a single photon can be transferred to a remote location by two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation. However, the finite entanglement used in the teleportation causes random changes in photon number. If more than one photon appears in the output, the continuous-variable teleportation accidentally produces clones of the original input photon. In this paper, we derive the polarization statistics of the N-photon output components and show that they can be decomposed into an optimal cloning term and completely unpolarized noise. We find that the accidental cloning of the input photon is nearly optimal at experimentally feasible squeezing levels, indicating that the loss of polarization information is partially compensated by the availability of clones.

  17. Successful Thrombolysis and Spasmolysis of Acute Leg Ischemia after Accidental Intra-arterial Injection of Dissolved Flunitrazepam Tablets

    SciTech Connect

    Radeleff, B. Stampfl, U.; Sommer, C.-M.; Bellemann, N.; Hyhlik-Duerr, A.; Weber, M.-A.; Boeckler, D.; Kauczor, H.-U.

    2011-10-15

    A 37-year-old man with known intravenous drug abuse presented in the surgical ambulatory care unit with acute leg ischemia after accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets into the right femoral artery. A combination of anticoagulation, vasodilatation, and local selective and superselective thrombolysis with urokinase was performed to salvage the leg. As a result of the severe ischemia-induced pain, the patient had to be monitored over the complete therapy period on the intensive care unit with permanent administration of intravenous fluid and analgetics. We describe the presenting symptoms and the interventional technique, and we discuss the recent literature regarding the management of accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets.

  18. The pathophysiological mechanisms of the onset of death through accidental hypothermia and the presentation of “The little match girl” case

    PubMed Central

    JEICAN, IONU? ISAIA

    2014-01-01

    Hypothermia and death caused by hypothermia may be found in a number of fiction works, mainly in novels. In the well-known story “The Little Match Girl” by Hans Christian Andersen, one can notice that the descriptions of the phenomena occurring before the girl’s death are in fact a literary presentation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of the onset of death through accidental hypothermia. This essay presents the medical aspects of the story written by Andersen. PMID:26527999

  19. Reducing the loss of vaccines from accidental freezing in the cold chain: The experience of continuous temperature monitoring in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, John; Lydon, Patrick; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Accidental freezing of vaccines is a growing threat and a real risk for national immunization programs when the potency of many vaccines can be compromised if these are exposed to sub-zero temperatures in the cold chain. In Tunisia, this issue is compounded by using sub-standard domestic cold chain equipment instead of equipping the program with medical refrigerators designed specifically for storing vaccines and temperature sensitive pharmaceuticals. Against this backdrop, this paper presents the findings of a demonstration project conducted in Tunisia in 2012 that tested the impact of introducing several freeze prevention solutions to mitigate the risk of accidental freezing of vaccines. The main finding is that, despite the continued use of underperforming domestic refrigerators, continuous temperature monitoring using new technologies combined with other technological interventions significantly reduced the prevalence of accidental exposure to freezing temperatures. These improvements were noticed for cold chain storage at regional, district and health center levels, and during the transport legs that were part of the demonstration conducted in the regions of Kasserine in the South-Eastern part of Tunisia. Subsequent to introducing these freeze prevention solutions, the incidence of freeze alarms was reduced and the percent of time the temperatures dropped below the 2 °C recommended threshold. The incidence of freeze alarms at health center level was reduced by 40%. Lastly, the solutions implemented reduced risk of freezing during transport from 13.8% to 1.7%. Although the solution implemented is not optimal in the longer term because domestic refrigerators are used extensively in district stores and health centers, the risk of accidental freezing is significantly reduced by introducing the practice of continuous temperature monitoring as a standard. The management of the cold chain equipment was strengthened as a result which helps protect the potency of vaccines to the areas of most difficult access. PMID:25444810

  20. [Radioecological situation in the impact zone of the accidental underground nuclear explosion "Kraton-3" in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)].

    PubMed

    Sobakin, P I; Gerasimov, Ya R; Chevychelov, A P; Perk, A A; Goryachenkova, T A; Novikov, A P

    2014-01-01

    The paper reports on the results of a ground walking gamma- and gamma-spectrometric survey made in the impact zone of the accidental underground nuclear explosion "Kraton-3". Patterns of migration, 137Cs, 90Sr and Pu distribution in the soil-vegetable cover of the northern taiga on permafrost are considered. Radioeco- logical situation within the territory surveyed is noted as unfavorable. PMID:25980291

  1. Triple oxygen and sulfur isotope analyses of sulfate extracted from voluminous volcanic ashes in the Oligocene John Day Formation: insight into dry climate conditions and ozone contribution to supereruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Workman, J.; Bindeman, I. N.; Martin, E.; Retallack, G.; Palandri, J. L.; Weldon, N.

    2014-12-01

    Large volume pyroclastic silicic eruptions emit hundreds of megatons of SO2 into the troposphere and stratosphere that is oxidized into sulfuric acid (H2SO4) by a variety of reactions with mass independent oxygen signatures (MIF), ?17O>0. Sulfuric acid is then preserved as gypsum in parental volcanic deposits. Diagenic effects are mass dependent and can dilute, but otherwise do not affect MIF ratios. Pleistocene Yellowstone and Bishop tuffs and modern volcanic eruptions preserved under arid climate conditions in North American playa lakes, preserve small amounts of volcanic sulfate as gypsum. This gypsum's ?17O>0, in combination with isotopic variations of ?18O, ?33S and ?34S is distinct from sedimentary sulfate and reveals its original MIF sulfate isotopic signal and the effect of super eruptions on the atmosphere, and ozone consumption in particular. We use linear algebraic equations to resolve volcanic versus sedimentary (MIF=0) sources. We have found that many large volume ignimbrites have very high initial ?17O in volcanic sulfate that can only be acquired from reaction with stratospheric ozone. We here investigate nine thick (>2 m) ash beds ranging in age from ~33-23 Ma in the John Day Formation of central Oregon, including massive 28.6 Ma Picture Gorge tuff of newly identified Crooked River supercaldera. The 28.6 Ma Picture Gorge tuff (PGT) has the highest measured ?17O of 3.5‰, and other tuffs (Tin Roof, Biotite, Deep Creek) have +1.3 to 3.4‰ ?17O excesses. Sulfate from modern smaller tropospheric eruptions studied for comparison have a resolvable 0.4‰ range consistent with liquid-phase based H2O2 oxidation. The PGT is coeval with the ignimbrite flare-up in western N. America, the 28-29 Ma eruption of the 5000 km3 Fish Canyon tuff and the 28 Ma Never Summer Field eruption in Nebraska-Colorado that have the highest measured ?17O of 6‰ (Bao et al. 2003). We speculate on the climatic/atmospheric effects of these multiple ~28 Ma supereruptions in the N America semiarid paleoclimate. The strong mass independent signal of the 28-29 Ma ignimbrite flare-up suggests these super eruptions must have reached well into the stratosphere to record interactions with ozone and peroxide or created dry fog tropospheric conditions.

  2. Toxic vapor cloud impacts from accidental releases of anhydrous ammonia and nitrogen dioxide at the ICPP NO sub x Abatement Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, M.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report evaluates potential atmospheric and human health impacts that may result from accidental releases of anhydrous ammonia and nitrogen dioxide at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) NO{sub x} Abatement Facility. Excess process gas releases are evaluated using a traditional Gaussian puff model. Dense two-phase aerosol releases from an 18,000 gallon liquefied ammonia storage tank and a 6,000 gallon tanker truck accident are evaluated using the refined vapor dispersion model, SLAB. The SLAB results are also compared to those using the neutral-buoyancy puff model. A SLAB sensitivity analysis is presented which examines various combinations of ambient temperatures and wind speeds in order to determine worst-case downwind air concentrations. The results from the storage tank releases indicated that potentially serious ammonia concentrations (greater than 1000 ppm) could result at downwind distances ranging from 150 meters (relief valve malfunction) to approximately 3 kilometers (catastrophic tank failure). The tank failure scenario produced concentrations that could be rapidly fatal (greater than 5000 ppm) out to 1.3 kilometers. Under worst-case meteorological dispersion conditions, recognized exposure limits (IDLH, TLV-STEL) were exceeded for very large distances (greater than 15 kilometers).

  3. Toxic vapor cloud impacts from accidental releases of anhydrous ammonia and nitrogen dioxide at the ICPP NO{sub x} Abatement Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, M.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report evaluates potential atmospheric and human health impacts that may result from accidental releases of anhydrous ammonia and nitrogen dioxide at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) NO{sub x} Abatement Facility. Excess process gas releases are evaluated using a traditional Gaussian puff model. Dense two-phase aerosol releases from an 18,000 gallon liquefied ammonia storage tank and a 6,000 gallon tanker truck accident are evaluated using the refined vapor dispersion model, SLAB. The SLAB results are also compared to those using the neutral-buoyancy puff model. A SLAB sensitivity analysis is presented which examines various combinations of ambient temperatures and wind speeds in order to determine worst-case downwind air concentrations. The results from the storage tank releases indicated that potentially serious ammonia concentrations (greater than 1000 ppm) could result at downwind distances ranging from 150 meters (relief valve malfunction) to approximately 3 kilometers (catastrophic tank failure). The tank failure scenario produced concentrations that could be rapidly fatal (greater than 5000 ppm) out to 1.3 kilometers. Under worst-case meteorological dispersion conditions, recognized exposure limits (IDLH, TLV-STEL) were exceeded for very large distances (greater than 15 kilometers).

  4. Assessment of methodologies for analysis of the dungeness B accidental aircraft crash risk.

    SciTech Connect

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2010-09-01

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has requested Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to review the aircraft crash methodology for nuclear facilities that are being used in the United Kingdom (UK). The scope of the work included a review of one method utilized in the UK for assessing the potential for accidental airplane crashes into nuclear facilities (Task 1) and a comparison of the UK methodology against similar International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) methods (Task 2). Based on the conclusions from Tasks 1 and 2, an additional Task 3 would provide an assessment of a site-specific crash frequency for the Dungeness B facility using one of the other methodologies. This report documents the results of Task 2. The comparison of the different methods was performed for the three primary contributors to aircraft crash risk at the Dungeness B site: airfield related crashes, crashes below airways, and background crashes. The methods and data specified in each methodology were compared for each of these risk contributors, differences in the methodologies were identified, and the importance of these differences was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. The bases for each of the methods and the data used were considered in this assessment process. A comparison of the treatment of the consequences of the aircraft crashes was not included in this assessment because the frequency of crashes into critical structures is currently low based on the existing Dungeness B assessment. Although the comparison found substantial differences between the UK and the three alternative methodologies (IAEA, NRC, and DOE) this assessment concludes that use of any of these alternative methodologies would not change the conclusions reached for the Dungeness B site. Performance of Task 3 is thus not recommended.

  5. A Case Report: Cytogenetic Dosimetry after Accidental Radiation Exposure during (192)Ir Industrial Radiography Testing.

    PubMed

    Beinke, C; Ben-Shlomo, A; Abend, M; Port, M

    2015-07-01

    The accidental gamma radiation exposure of an industrial radiography worker and the cytogenetic examination of the worker's blood lymphocytes are described here. The exposure of the worker was due to a malfunction at the entrance into the depleted uranium-shielding device of a (192)Ir source during operation. Because the source was sealed no additional beta radiation exposure was assumed. The worker's thermoluminescent dosimeter indicated an absorbed dose of 0.078 Sv, which presumably took place in December 2013. No clinical symptoms were reported in the case history after the potential exposure to radiation. Four months after the incident it was decided that biological dosimetry using dicentric chromosome and micronucleus analysis would be performed to follow radiation protection aspects and to clarify the radiation dose uncertainties for the exposed worker. Micronucleus frequency was not increased above the laboratory's control value of micronucleus background frequency of unexposed individuals. However, the observed dicentric frequency (0.003 dicentric/cell) differs significantly from the laboratory's background level of dicentric chromosomes in unexposed individuals (0.0007 dicentric/cell). Dicentric analysis in 2,048 metaphase cells resulted in an estimated dose of no more than 0.181 Gy (95% upper confidence level), not less than 0.014 Gy (95% lower confidence level) and a mean dose of 0.066 Gy (photon-equivalent whole-body exposure) based on interpolation from the laboratory's calibration curve for (60)Co gamma radiation. Since overdispersion of dicentric chromosomes (u = 9.78) indicated a heterogeneous (partial-body) exposure, we applied the Dolphin method and estimated an exposure of 2.1 Sv affecting 21% of the body volume. Because the overdispersion of dicentric chromosomes was caused by only one heavily damaged cell containing two dicentrics, it is possible that this was an incidental finding. In summary, a radiation overexposure of the radiography worker must be assumed and this case considered as a potential partial-body exposure scenario. PMID:26151173

  6. Atmospheric dispersion of ammonia accidentally released from the 242-A Evaporator, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Daling, P.M.; Lavender, J.C.

    1997-11-01

    Two errors have been identified in the authorization basis for the 242-A Evaporator at the Hanford Site. These errors, which appear in the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Final Safety Analysis Report analysis of ammonia gas concentrations accidentally released from the 242-A Evaporator, are: (1) the vessel ventilation system flow rate used in the previous calculations is a factor of ten higher than the actual flow rate, and (2) the previous calculations did not account for the ammonia source term reduction that would occur via condensation of ammonia vapors, which will remove a large fraction of the ammonia from the exhaust gas stream. The purpose of this document is to correct these errors and recalculate the maximum ground-level concentrations of ammonia released to the environment as a result of potential errors in blending Evaporator feed. The errors offset each other somewhat, so it is unlikely that the 242-A Evaporator has operated outside its current authorization basis. However, the errors must be corrected and the results incorporated into a revision of the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Safety Analysis Report, WHC-SD-WM-SAR-023. An EPA-approved atmospheric dispersion model, SCREEN3, was used to recalculate the maximum ground-level concentrations of ammonia that would be released from the 242-A Evaporator as a result of a feed-blending error. The results of the re-analysis of the 242-A Evaporator`s ammonia release scenario are as follows. The onsite receptor 100 m away from the release point (242-A vessel vent stack) is projected to be exposed to a maximum ground-level concentration of ammonia of 8.3 ppm. The maximally-exposed offsite receptor, located at the nearest Hanford Site boundary 16 km away from the 242-A vessel vent stack, will be exposed to a maximum ground-level concentration of 0.11 ppm ammonia.

  7. General weather conditions and precipitation contributing to the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River and Red River of the North Basins, December 2010 through July 2011: Chapter B in 2011 floods of the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.; Chase, Katherine J.; Loss, Gina R.

    2013-01-01

    Excessive precipitation produced severe flooding in the Mississippi River and Red River of the North Basins during spring and summer 2011. The 2011 flooding was caused by weather conditions that were affected in part by a La Niña climate pattern. During the 2010–11 climatological winter (December 2010–February 2011), several low pressure troughs from the Rocky Mountains into the Ohio River subbasin produced large amounts of precipitation. Precipitation was above normal to record amounts in parts of the Missouri River, Red River of the North, and upper Mississippi River subbasins, and mostly normal to below normal in the Ohio River and lower Mississippi River subbasins. During the 2011 climatological spring (March–May 2011), a large low pressure trough over the continental States and a high pressure ridge centered in the vicinity of the Gulf of Mexico combined to produce storms with copious precipitation along frontal boundaries across the Central States. Rain totals recorded during the April 18–28, 2011, precipitation event were more than 8 inches at several locations, while an impressive total of 16.15 inches was recorded at Cape Girardeau, Missouri. Several locations in the Missouri River subbasin had rainfall totals that were nearly one-third to one-half of their 1971–2000 normal annual amounts during a May 16–31, 2011, precipitation event. During June and July, thunderstorm development along frontal boundaries resulted in areas of heavy rain across the Missouri River, Red River of the North, and upper Mississippi River subbasins, while rainfall in the lower Mississippi River subbasin was mostly below normal.

  8. Chromosomal Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 150 babies is born with a chromosomal condition. Down syndrome is an example of a chromosomal condition. Because ... all pregnant women be offered prenatal tests for Down syndrome and other chromosomal conditions. A screening test is ...

  9. Biotic mortality factors affecting emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are highly dependent on life stage and host tree crown condition.

    PubMed

    Jennings, D E; Duan, J J; Shrewsbury, P M

    2015-10-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is a serious invasive forest pest in North America responsible for killing tens to hundreds of millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced in the 1990 s. Although host-plant resistance and natural enemies are known to be important sources of mortality for EAB in Asia, less is known about the importance of different sources of mortality at recently colonized sites in the invaded range of EAB, and how these relate to host tree crown condition. To further our understanding of EAB population dynamics, we used a large-scale field experiment and life-table analyses to quantify the fates of EAB larvae and the relative importance of different biotic mortality factors at 12 recently colonized sites in Maryland. We found that the fates of larvae were highly dependent on EAB life stage and host tree crown condition. In relatively healthy trees (i.e., with a low EAB infestation) and for early instars, host tree resistance was the most important mortality factor. Conversely, in more unhealthy trees (i.e., with a moderate to high EAB infestation) and for later instars, parasitism and predation were the major sources of mortality. Life-table analyses also indicated how the lack of sufficient levels of host tree resistance and natural enemies contribute to rapid population growth of EAB at recently colonized sites. Our findings provide further evidence of the mechanisms by which EAB has been able to successfully establish and spread in North America. PMID:26072908

  10. Long-term environmental fate of perfluorinated compounds after accidental release at Toronto airport.

    PubMed

    Awad, Emily; Zhang, Xianming; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Petro, Steve; Crozier, Patrick W; Reiner, Eric J; Fletcher, Rachael; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Braekevelt, Eric

    2011-10-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS; a perfluorinated compound or PFC), its salts, and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride have recently been listed in Annex B of the Stockholm Convention due to their widespread presence, persistence, and toxicity. Because of the persistent nature of PFCs, it is generally presumed that the impact of direct discharges of these chemicals on a receiving environment would be long-lasting. However, long-term environmental fate studies based on field measurements are rare. We examined spatial and long-term (9 year) temporal trends of PFCs in water, sediment, fish, and fish liver collected in 2003, 2006, and 2009 from 10 locations spanning ?20 km in Etobicoke and Spring Creeks, where an accidental release of fire fighting foam containing PFOS from nearby Toronto International Airport occurred in 2000. Even a decade after the spill, sediment PFOS concentrations are still elevated in Spring Creek Pond which received the foam discharge; however, the major impact is relatively localized likely due to the stormwater management nature of the pond and the diluting effect of Etobicoke Creek. Fish and fish liver PFOS concentrations at a Spring Creek location downstream of Spring Creek Pond declined by about 70 and 85%, respectively, between 2003 and 2009. PFOS in water at locations further downstream in Etobicoke Creek have declined by >99.99% since the spill; however, the 2009 water and fish levels were ?2-10 times higher than upstream locations likely due to the long-term impact of the spill as well as urbanization. The decrease in the upstream PFOS concentrations likely reflects the reduction of PFOS sources due to phased out production by 3M and regulations on the use of PFOS in fire fighting foams. Field-based sediment/water distribution coefficients (K(D)) and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) were calculated from environmental measurements. Log K(D) values were 0.54-1.65 for perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs) and 1.00-1.85 for perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs). Log BAF(fish) ranged from 1.85 to 3.24 for PFASs and 0.88-3.47 for PFCAs, whereas log BAF(fish liver) ranged from 2.1-4.3 for PFASs and 1.0-5.0 for PFCAs. PMID:21774496

  11. The quest for an intermediate-scale accidental axion and further ALPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, A. G.; Machado, A. C. B.; Nishi, C. C.; Ringwald, A.; Vaudrevange, P.

    2014-06-01

    The recent detection of the cosmic microwave background polarimeter experiment BICEP2 of tensor fluctuations in the B-mode power spectrum basically excludes all plausible axion models where its decay constant is above 1013 GeV. Moreover, there are strong theoretical, astrophysical, and cosmological motivations for models involving, in addition to the axion, also axion-like particles (ALPs), with decay constants in the intermediate scale range, between 109 GeV and 1013 GeV. Here, we present a general analysis of models with an axion and further ALPs and derive bounds on the relative size of the axion and ALP photon (and electron) coupling. We discuss what we can learn from measurements of the axion and ALP photon couplings about the fundamental parameters of the underlying ultraviolet completion of the theory. For the latter we consider extensions of the Standard Model in which the axion and the ALP(s) appear as pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons from the breaking of global chiral U(1) (Peccei-Quinn (PQ)) symmetries, occurring accidentally as low energy remnants from exact discrete symmetries. In such models, the axion and the further ALP are protected from disastrous explicit symmetry breaking effects due to Planck-scale suppressed operators. The scenarios considered exploit heavy right handed neutrinos getting their mass via PQ symmetry breaking and thus explain the small mass of the active neutrinos via a seesaw relation between the electroweak and an intermediate PQ symmetry breaking scale. For a number of explicit models, we determine the parameters of the low-energy effective field theory describing the axion, the ALPs, and their interactions with photons and electrons, in terms of the input parameters, in particular the PQ symmetry breaking scales. We show that these models can accommodate simultaneously an axion dark matter candidate, an ALP explaining the anomalous transparency of the universe for ?-rays, and an ALP explaining the recently reported 3.55 keV gamma line from galaxies and clusters of galaxies, if the respective decay constants are of intermediate scale. Moreover, they do not suffer severely from the domain wall problem.

  12. Abusive head trauma and accidental head injury: a 20-year comparative study of referrals to a hospital child protection team

    PubMed Central

    John, Simon; Vincent, Andrea L; Reed, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Aim To describe children referred for suspected abusive head trauma (AHT) to a hospital child protection team in Auckland, New Zealand. Methods Comparative review of demographics, histories, injuries, investigations and diagnostic outcomes for referrals under 15?years old from 1991 to 2010. Results Records were available for 345 children. Referrals increased markedly (88 in the first decade, 257 in the second), but the diagnostic ratio was stable: AHT 60%, accidental or natural 29% and uncertain cause 11%. The probability of AHT was similar regardless of socio-economic status or ethnicity. In children under 2?years old with accidental head injuries (75/255, 29%) or AHT (180/255, 71%), characteristics of particular interest for AHT included no history of trauma (88/98, 90%), no evidence of impact to the head (84/93, 90%), complex skull fractures with intracranial injury (22/28, 79%), subdural haemorrhage (160/179, 89%) and hypoxic ischaemic injury (38/39, 97%). In children over 2?years old, these characteristics did not differ significantly between children with accidental head injuries (21/47, 45%) and AHT (26/47, 55%). The mortality of AHT was higher in children over 2?years old (10/26, 38%) than under 2?years (19/180, 11%). Conclusions The striking increase in referrals for AHT probably represents increasing incidence. The decision to refer a hospitalised child with a head injury for assessment for possible AHT should not be influenced by socio-economic status or ethnicity. Children over 2?years old hospitalised for AHT are usually injured by mechanisms involving impact and should be considered at high risk of death. PMID:26130384

  13. A screening tool to prioritize public health risk associated with accidental or deliberate release of chemicals into the atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Chemical Events Working Group of the Global Health Security Initiative has developed a flexible screening tool for chemicals that present a risk when accidentally or deliberately released into the atmosphere. The tool is generic, semi-quantitative, independent of site, situation and scenario, encompasses all chemical hazards (toxicity, flammability and reactivity), and can be easily and quickly implemented by non-subject matter experts using freely available, authoritative information. Public health practitioners and planners can use the screening tool to assist them in directing their activities in each of the five stages of the disaster management cycle. PMID:23517410

  14. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  15. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-12-31

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  16. A screening tool to prioritize public health risk associated with accidental or deliberate release of chemicals into the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Blakey, David H; Lafontaine, Marc; Lavigne, Jocelyn; Sokolowski, Danny; Philippe, Jean-Marc; Sapori, Jean-Marc; Biederbick, Walter; Horre, Regine; Marzi, Willi B; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Kuroki, Yumiko; Namera, Akira; Okumura, Tetsu; Yamamoto, Miyako; Yashiki, Mikio; Blain, Peter G; Russell, David R; Cibulsky, Susan M; Jett, David A

    2013-01-01

    The Chemical Events Working Group of the Global Health Security Initiative has developed a flexible screening tool for chemicals that present a risk when accidentally or deliberately released into the atmosphere. The tool is generic, semi-quantitative, independent of site, situation and scenario, encompasses all chemical hazards (toxicity, flammability and reactivity), and can be easily and quickly implemented by non-subject matter experts using freely available, authoritative information. Public health practitioners and planners can use the screening tool to assist them in directing their activities in each of the five stages of the disaster management cycle. PMID:23517410

  17. A mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I of the project: early effects of inhaled radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.

    1980-06-01

    The report presents a mathematical model for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included.

  18. Contributions of groundwater conditions to soil and water salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Ramsis B.; Otto, Claus J.; Fitzpatrick, Robert W.

    Salinization is the process whereby the concentration of dissolved salts in water and soil is increased due to natural or human-induced processes. Water is lost through one or any combination of four main mechanisms: evaporation, evapotranspiration, hydrolysis, and leakage between aquifers. Salinity increases from catchment divides to the valley floors and in the direction of groundwater flow. Salinization is explained by two main chemical models developed by the authors: weathering and deposition. These models are in agreement with the weathering and depositional geological processes that have formed soils and overburden in the catchments. Five soil-change processes in arid and semi-arid climates are associated with waterlogging and water. In all represented cases, groundwater is the main geological agent for transmitting, accumulating, and discharging salt. At a small catchment scale in South and Western Australia, water is lost through evapotranspiration and hydrolysis. Saline groundwater flows along the beds of the streams and is accumulated in paleochannels, which act as a salt repository, and finally discharges in lakes, where most of the saline groundwater is concentrated. In the hummocky terrains of the Northern Great Plains Region, Canada and USA, the localized recharge and discharge scenarios cause salinization to occur mainly in depressions, in conjunction with the formation of saline soils and seepages. On a regional scale within closed basins, this process can create playas or saline lakes. In the continental aquifers of the rift basins of Sudan, salinity increases along the groundwater flow path and forms a saline zone at the distal end. The saline zone in each rift forms a closed ridge, which coincides with the closed trough of the groundwater-level map. The saline body or bodies were formed by evaporation coupled with alkaline-earth carbonate precipitation and dissolution of capillary salts. Résumé La salinisation est le processus par lequel la concentration des sels dissous dans l'eau et les sols s'accroît sous l'effet de processus naturels ou anthropiques. L'eau est perdue par l'une ou l'autre combinaison de quatre principaux mécanismes : l'évaporation, l'évapotranspiration, l'hydrolyse et la drainance entre aquifères. La salinité augmente depuis les limites des bassins jusqu'au fond des vallées et le long des axes d'écoulement souterrain. La salinisation est expliquée au moyen de deux principaux modèles chimiques développés par les auteurs : l'altération et le dépôt. Ces modèles sont en accord avec les processus géologiques d'altération et de dépôt qui ont formé les sols et qui recouvrent les bassins versants. Cinq processus d'évolution de sols sous climats aride et semi-aride sont associés à l'eau et à des formations aquifères. Dans tous les cas présentés, l'eau souterraine est le principal agent géologique qui transporte, accumule et dépose les sels. A l'échelle de petits bassins versants dans le sud et dans l'ouest de l'Australie, l'eau est consommée par évapotranspiration et par hydrolyse. L'eau souterraine salée coule le long des berges de rivières et s'accumule dans des paléochenaux, qui fonctionnent comme des zones de stockage de sels, et finalement s'écoule dans des lacs, où la plupart des eaux salées se concentrent. Dans les formations bosselées des grandes plaines du nord du Canada et des États-Unis, des scénarios d'alimentation et de décharge localisées conduisent la salinisation à se produire surtout dans les dépressions, en association avec la formation de sols et d'infiltrations salins. A l'échelle régionale dans les bassins fermés, ce processus peut être à l'origine de playas ou de lacs salés. Dans les aquifères continentaux des bassins de rift du Soudan, la salinité augmente le long des axes d'écoulement souterrain et forme ainsi une zone saline à leur extrémité. La zone saline de chaque rift constitue une crête, qui coïncide avec le creux piézométrique. Le ou les ensembles salins se sont formés par évaporation couplée

  19. Measuring ICT Use and Contributing Conditions in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderlinde, Ruben; Aesaert, Koen; van Braak, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) use became of major importance for primary schools across the world as ICT has the potential to foster teaching and learning processes. ICT use is therefore a central measurement concept (dependent variable) in many ICT integration studies. This data paper presents two datasets (2008 and 2011) that…

  20. Model-Independent Analysis of Tri-bimaximal Mixing: A Softly-Broken Hidden or an Accidental Symmetry?

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, Carl H.; Rodejohann, Werner; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst.

    2008-04-01

    To address the issue of whether tri-bimaximal mixing (TBM) is a softly-broken hidden or an accidental symmetry, we adopt a model-independent analysis in which we perturb a neutrino mass matrix leading to TBM in the most general way but leave the three texture zeros of the diagonal charged lepton mass matrix unperturbed. We compare predictions for the perturbed neutrino TBM parameters with those obtained from typical SO(10) grand unified theories with a variety of flavor symmetries. Whereas SO(10) GUTs almost always predict a normal mass hierarchy for the light neutrinos, TBM has a priori no preference for neutrino masses. We find, in particular for the latter, that the value of |U{sub e3}| is very sensitive to the neutrino mass scale and ordering. Observation of |U{sub e3}|{sup 2} > 0.001 to 0.01 within the next few years would be incompatible with softly-broken TBM and a normal mass hierarchy and would suggest that the apparent TBM symmetry is an accidental symmetry instead. No such conclusions can be drawn for the inverted and quasi-degenerate hierarchy spectra.

  1. Optimisation of the digital radiographic imaging of suspected non-accidental injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offiah, Amaka

    Aim: To optimise the digital (radiographic) imaging of children presenting with suspected non-accidental injury (NAI). Objectives: (i) To evaluate existing radiographic quality criteria, and to develop a more suitable system if these are found to be inapplicable to skeletal surveys obtained in suspected NAI. (ii) To document differences in image quality between conventional film-screen and the recently installed Fuji5000R computed radiography (CR) system at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, (iii) To document the extent of variability in the standard of skeletal surveys obtained in the UK for suspected NAI. (iv) To determine those radiographic parameters which yield the highest diagnostic accuracy, while still maintaining acceptable radiation dose to the child, (v) To determine how varying degrees of edge-enhancement affect diagnostic accuracy. (vi) To establish the accuracy of soft compared to hard copy interpretation of images in suspected NAI. Materials and Methods: (i) and (ii) Retrospective analysis of 286 paediatric lateral spine radiographs by two observers based on the Commission of European Communities (CEC) quality criteria, (iii) Review of the skeletal surveys of 50 consecutive infants referred from hospitals throughout the United Kingdom (UK) with suspected NAI. (iv) Phantom studies. Leeds TO. 10 and TO. 16 test objects were used to compare the relationship between film density, exposure parameters and visualisation of object details, (iv) Clinical study. Anteroposterior and lateral post mortem skull radiographs of six consecutive infants were obtained at various exposures. Six observers independently scored the images based on visualisation of five criteria, (v) and (vi) A study of diagnostic accuracy in which six observers independently interpreted 50 radiographs from printed copies (with varying degrees of edge-enhancement) and from a monitor. Results: The CEC criteria are useful for optimisation of imaging parameters and allow the detection of differences in quality of film-screen and digital images. There is much variability in the quality and number of radiographs performed as part of skeletal surveys in the UK for suspected NAI. The Leeds test objects are either not sensitive enough (TO. 10) or perhaps over sensitive (TO. 16) for the purposes of this project. Furthermore, the minimum spatial resolution required for digital imaging in NAI has not been established. Therefore the objective interpretation of phantom studies is difficult. There is scope for reduction of radiation dose to children with no effect on image quality. Diagnostic accuracy (fracture detection) in suspected NAI is generally low, and is not affected by image display modality. Conclusions: The CEC quality criteria are not applicable to the assessment of clinical image quality. A national protocol for skeletal surveys in NAI is required. Dedicated training, close supervision, collaboration and consistent exposure of radiologists to cases of NAI should improve diagnostic accuracy. The potential exists for dose reduction when performing skeletal surveys in children and infants with suspected NAI. Future studies should address this issue.

  2. Impact assessment of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accidental emission on the Barents Sea ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matishov, Gennady; Ilyin, Gennady; Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Usiagina, Irina; Pavelskaya, Elena

    2013-04-01

    The traces of emissions from the Fukushima-1 NPP in atmospheric aerosols of the Kola Peninsula near the Barents Sea coast were detected by radiation monitoring stations of the Murmansk Division of the Hydrometeorological Survey MDHMS in the end of March 2011. From the end of March 2011 until April 20, 131I, 134Cs, 132Te, 137Cs radioisotopes were observed in the atmospheric air. The major role was played by 131I isotope; its peak concentrations were (140-220)×10-6 Bq/m3, and it was recorded for several days (March 30-April 1), then radioactivity decreased. 134Cs, 132Te, and 137Cs isotopes were recorded episodically. The supply of radionuclides from accidental emissions into the atmosphere of the Kola Peninsula did not cause significant changes in gamma-radiation dose rates EDR. This value remained within the limits of the average long-term norm, and continued so during the following months 2011. Possible dry and humid precipitation of radionuclides within the water catchment area and in the marine basin did not influence on radioecological state in both coastal and off-shore parts of the Barents Sea. Short-lived isotopes as 131I, 134Cs, and 132Te, which might confidently indicate a trace from the Fukushima-1 NPP, have not been recorded in the samples. In 2011-1012 volumetric activity of 137Cs and 90Sr in water of the Barents Sea (section VI along the meridian 33° 30' N) varied in the range of 1.3-2.5 and 3.4-6.3 Bq/m3, respectively. Radioactive contamination of bottom sediments in the Barents Sea was very low. The specific activity of 137Cs varied from 1 to 8 Bq/kg, the activity of 90Sr did not exceed 4 Bq/kg. Investigations of macrophyte algae showed extremely low concentrations of artificial radionuclides. The specific activity of 137Cs in most samples was at the level of trace concentrations, from 0.2 to 1.5 Bq/kg of dry mass. The content of 90Sr in algae changed in the range of 0.4-4.1 Bq/kg of dry mass. In soft tissues of bivalves Mytilus edulis collected on littoral of bays, the specific activity of 137Cs did not exceed the trace quantity as well (less than 0.5 Bq/kg of raw mass). The latest radioecological studies of the Barents Sea commercial fish showed that all investigated species (such as Atlantic cod, long rough dab, spotted wolffish) contain less than 0.2 Bq/kg of 137Cs. Thus spectrum of artificial radioisotopes and their radioactivity level in both abiotic and biotic components of the Barents Sea ecosystem have not changed after the Fukushima accident. Compared to the data of recent years, these characteristics are stable; within the background limits owing to the global circulation of radionuclides. This work was supported by the international project CEEPRA (project no. 01/2010/007/KO130) implemented within the frame of Kolarctic program.

  3. Accidental Predissociation: A Special Case of Photo-Induced Isotope Fractionation Effect and Possible Occurrence in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2009-12-01

    Photo-Induced Isotope Fractionation Effects (PHIFE) are known to produce isotopic frac-tionation in some photo-dissociating molecules (1-2). The PHIFE formalism is based on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and the Reflection Principle. The isotopic fractionation arises principally from the spectral shift induced by the small difference in zero point energy between isotopologues and the contraction of the wave function due to isotopic substitution, consequently, the associated isotopic fractionations depends on the reduced mass of the isotopically substi-tuted species. The PHIFE formalism is only applicable to the molecules which undergo direct photo-dissociation that possess continuous absorption spectra. Simple molecules (N2, O2, CO) however do not follow a direct dissociation pathway and dissociate through an indirect process termed predissociation, which occurs when the molecule is excited to a quasi-bound state energetically above the dissociation continuum. The PHIFE formalism is not applicable when the absorption spectra are discrete. The assumption that the lightest isotopologues are preferentially predissociated is only valid for restricted predissociation cases. There is a special case of predissociation known as ‘accidental predissociation’ (3), which takes place through an intermediate bound state in two steps (i) leakage to an intermediate bound state (coupled through spin orbit interaction) and, (ii) predissociation to a third quasi-bound state from the intermediate state. Line broadening at an accidental predissociation is a function of the magnitude of coupling matrix elements and the linewidths are strongly influenced by isotopic substitution (4). An anomalous isotopic effect in accidental predissociation was spectroscopically observed in CO (5), N2 (4) and BeH (6). We measured the isotopic fractionation for the first time in two accidental predissociating states of CO through VUV photodissociation using the 9.0.2 beamline at ALS (7-8). In light of these data, anomalous isotopic fractionations associated with accidental predissociation will be discussed for the CO and N2. These fractionations are important as VUV-photodissociation of CO and N2 have been invoked in solar nebula (self-shielding, (9-10)) to explain the observed iso-topic signatures in different solar system objects neglecting these isotope effects during photo-dissociation. References: 1. Y. L. Yung, C. E. Miller, Science 278, 1778 (1997). 2. S. Chakraborty, S. K. Bhattacharya, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 2164 (2003). 3. H. Lefebvre-Brion, R. W. Field, The Spectra and Dynamics of Diatomic Molecules. (Elsevier Academic Press, 2004). 4. A. J. Lorquet, J. C. Lorquet, Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 138 (1974). 5. W. Ubachs, I. Velchev, P. Cacciani, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 547 (2000). 6. H. Lefebvre-Brion, R. Colin, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 65, 33 (1977). 7. S. Chakraborty, M. Ahmed, T. L. Jackson, M. H. Thiemens, Science 321, 1328 (2008). 8. S. Chakraborty, M. Ahmed, T. L. Jackson, M. H. Thiemens, Science 324, 4 (2009). 9. R. N. Clayton, Nature 415, 860 (2002). 10. J. R. Lyons, E. D. Young, Nature 435, 317 (2005).

  4. Impact of Model Resolution and Snow Cover Modification on the Performance of Weather Forecasting and Research (WRF) Models of Winter Conditions that Contribute to Ozone Pollution in the Uintah Basin, Eastern Utah, Winter 2013. Trang T. Tran, Marc Mansfield and Seth Lyman Bingham Research Center, Utah State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, T. T.; Mansfield, M. L.; Lyman, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Uintah Basin of Eastern Utah, USA, has experienced winter ozone pollution events with ozone concentrations exceeding the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 75 ppb. With a total of four winter seasons of ozone sampling, winter 2013 is the worst on record for ozone pollution in the basin. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from oil and gas industries and other activities provide the precursors for ozone formation. The chemical mechanism of ozone formation is non-linear and complicated depending on the availability of VOCs and NOx. Moreover, meteorological conditions also play an important role in triggering ozone pollution. In the Uintah Basin, high albedo due to snow cover, a 'bowl-shaped' terrain, and strong inversions that trap precursors within the boundary layer are important factors contributing to ozone pollution. However, these local meteorological phenomena have been misrepresented by recent numerical modeling studies, probably due to misrepresenting the snow cover and complex terrain of the basin. In this study, Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations are performed on a model domain covering the entire Uintah Basin for winter 2013 (Dec 2012 - Mar 2013) to test the impacts of several grid resolutions (e.g., 4000, 1300 and 800m) and snow cover modification on performance of models of the local weather conditions of the basin. These sensitivity tests help to determine the best model configurations to produce appropriate meteorological input for air-quality simulations.

  5. CONTRIBUTED Green Cloud Computing

    E-print Network

    Tucker, Rod

    CONTRIBUTED P A P E R Green Cloud Computing: Balancing Energy in Processing, Storage, and Transport to energy consumption and cloud computing seems to be an alternative to office-based computing. By Jayant computing is rapidly expanding as an alternative to conventional office-based computing. As cloud computing

  6. ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Leisure Activity and Cognitive Decline

    E-print Network

    AD (mean age, 79 years; 56.2% Hispanic and 31.1% African American). Main Outcome Measures: Change conditions before clinical disease ex- pression; however, relatively advanced neuropathologic diseaseORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Leisure Activity and Cognitive Decline in Incident Alzheimer Disease

  7. Evidence Theory Based Uncertainty Quantification in Radiological Risk due to Accidental Release of Radioactivity from a Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingale, S. V.; Datta, D.

    2010-10-01

    Consequence of the accidental release of radioactivity from a nuclear power plant is assessed in terms of exposure or dose to the members of the public. Assessment of risk is routed through this dose computation. Dose computation basically depends on the basic dose assessment model and exposure pathways. One of the exposure pathways is the ingestion of contaminated food. The aim of the present paper is to compute the uncertainty associated with the risk to the members of the public due to the ingestion of contaminated food. The governing parameters of the ingestion dose assessment model being imprecise, we have approached evidence theory to compute the bound of the risk. The uncertainty is addressed by the belief and plausibility fuzzy measures.

  8. The symmetric Tamm-Dancoff q-oscillator: the representation, quasi-Fibonacci nature, accidental degeneracy and coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Won Sang; Gavrilik, A. M.; Kachurik, I. I.; Rebesh, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we propose a symmetric q-deformed Tamm-Dancoff (S-TD) oscillator algebra and study its representation, coordinate realization, and main properties. In particular, the non-Fibonacci (more exactly, quasi-Fibonacci) nature of the S-TD oscillator is established, the possibility of relating it to a certain p,q-deformed oscillator family is shown, and the occurrence of pairwise accidental degeneracy is proven. We also find the coherent state for the S-TD oscillator and show that it satisfies a completeness relation. The main advantage of the S-TD model over the usual Tamm-Dancoff oscillator is that due to the q\\leftrightarrow {{q}^{-1}} symmetry, it admits not only real, but also complex (phase-like) values of the deformation parameter q.

  9. Evidence Theory Based Uncertainty Quantification in Radiological Risk due to Accidental Release of Radioactivity from a Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ingale, S. V.; Datta, D.

    2010-10-26

    Consequence of the accidental release of radioactivity from a nuclear power plant is assessed in terms of exposure or dose to the members of the public. Assessment of risk is routed through this dose computation. Dose computation basically depends on the basic dose assessment model and exposure pathways. One of the exposure pathways is the ingestion of contaminated food. The aim of the present paper is to compute the uncertainty associated with the risk to the members of the public due to the ingestion of contaminated food. The governing parameters of the ingestion dose assessment model being imprecise, we have approached evidence theory to compute the bound of the risk. The uncertainty is addressed by the belief and plausibility fuzzy measures.

  10. Immunological abnormalities 17 years after accidental exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, A M; Wild, G; Ward, J D; Ward, A M

    1988-01-01

    Eighteen workers were reviewed 17 years after accidental exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin). Clinical assessment showed that they were in good health. A study of several biochemical and immunological parameters in these subjects and in 15 carefully matched controls showed no difference in serum concentrations of hepatic enzymes between exposed workers and controls. Although mean serum concentrations of cholesterol and triglyceride were higher in exposed subjects than in controls, the results did not reach statistical significance. Antinuclear antibodies and immune complexes were detected significantly more frequently in the peripheral blood of workers exposed to dioxin. There was no significant difference between exposed workers and controls in the number of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, and helper and suppressor T cell counts in peripheral blood, but the number of natural killer cells identified by the monoclonal antibody Leu-7 was significantly higher in workers exposed to dioxin. PMID:3264183

  11. Symmetric Tamm-Dancoff q-oscillator: representation, quasi-Fibonacci nature, accidental degeneracy and coherent states

    E-print Network

    Won Sang Chung; A. M. Gavrilik; I. I. Kachurik; A. P. Rebesh

    2014-06-12

    In this paper we propose a symmetric q-deformed Tamm-Dancoff (S-TD) oscillator algebra and study its representation, coordinate realization, and main properties. In particular, the non-Fibonacci (more exactly, quasi-Fibonacci) nature of S-TD oscillator is established, the possibility of relating it to certain p,q-deformed oscillator family shown, the occurrence of the pairwise accidental degeneracy proven. We also find the coherent state for the S-TD oscillator and show that it satisfies completeness relation. Main advantage of the S-TD model over usual Tamm-Dancoff oscillator is that due to (qq^{-1})- symmetry it admits not only real, but also complex (phase-like) values of the deformation parameter q.

  12. An integrated decision model for the application of airborne sensors for improved response to accidental and terrorist chemical vapor releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapitan, Loginn

    This research created a new model which provides an integrated approach to planning the effective selection and employment of airborne sensor systems in response to accidental or intentional chemical vapor releases. The approach taken was to use systems engineering and decision analysis methods to construct a model architecture which produced a modular structure for integrating both new and existing components into a logical procedure to assess the application of airborne sensor systems to address chemical vapor hazards. The resulting integrated process model includes an internal aggregation model which allowed differentiation among alternative airborne sensor systems. Both models were developed and validated by experts and demonstrated using appropriate hazardous chemical release scenarios. The resultant prototype integrated process model or system fills a current gap in capability allowing improved planning, training and exercise for HAZMAT teams and first responders when considering the selection and employment of airborne sensor systems. Through the research process, insights into the current response structure and how current airborne capability may be most effectively used were generated. Furthermore, the resultant prototype system is tailorable for local, state, and federal application, and can potentially be modified to help evaluate investments in new airborne sensor technology and systems. Better planning, training and preparedness exercising holds the prospect for the effective application of airborne assets for improved response to large scale chemical release incidents. Improved response will result in fewer casualties and lives lost, reduced economic impact, and increased protection of critical infrastructure when faced with accidental and intentional terrorist release of hazardous industrial chemicals. With the prospect of more airborne sensor systems becoming available, this prototype system integrates existing and new tools into an effective process for the selection and employment of airborne sensors to better plan, train and exercise ahead of potential chemical release events.

  13. Clean Air Act Title III accidental emission release risk management program, and how it applies to landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbard, C.S.

    1999-07-01

    On June 20, 1996, EPA promulgated regulations pursuant to Title III of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 (Section 112(r)(7) of the CAA). The rule, contained in 40 CFR Part 68, is called Accidental Release Prevention Requirements: Risk Management Programs, and is intended to improve accident prevention and emergency response practices at facilities that store and/or use hazardous substances. Methane is a designated highly hazardous chemical (HHC) under the rule. The rule applies to facilities that have 10,000 pounds of methane or more in any process, roughly equivalent to about 244,000 cubic feet of methane. The US EPA has interpreted this threshold quantity as applying to landfill gas within landfills. This paper presents an overview of the Accidental Release Prevention regulations, and how landfills are affected by the requirements. This paper describes methodologies for calculating the threshold quantity of landfill gas in a landfill. Methane is in landfill gas as a mixture. Because landfill gas can burn readily, down to concentrations of about five percent methane, the entire landfill gas mixture must be treated as the regulated substance, and counts toward the 10,000-pound threshold. It is reasonable to assume that the entire landfill gas collection system, active or passive, is filled with landfill gas, and that a calculation of the volume of the system would be a calculation of the landfill gas present in the process on the site. However, the US EPA has indicated that there are some instances in which pore space gas should be included in this calculation. This paper presents methods available to calculate the amount of pore space gas in a landfill, and how to determine how much of that gas might be available for an explosion. The paper goes through how to conduct the release assessment to determine the worst-case hazard zone around the landfill.

  14. Evolution of N-species Kimura/voter models towards criticality, a surrogate for general models of accidental pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Peyman; Stollenwerk, Nico

    2012-09-01

    In models for accidental pathogens, with the paradigmatic epidemiological system of bacterial meningitis, there was evolution towards states exhibiting critical fluctuations with power law behaviour observed [1]. This is a model with many possibly pathogenic strains essentially evolving independently to low pathogenicity. A first and previous study had shown that in the limit of vanishing pathogenicity there are critical fluctuations with power law distributions observed, already when only two strains interact [2]. This earlier version of a two strain model was very recently reinvestigated [3] and named as Stollenwerk-Jansen model (SJ). Muñoz et al. demonstrated that this two-strain model for accidental pathogens is in the universality class of the so-called voter model. Though this model clearly shows criticality, its control parameter, the pathogenicity, is not self-tuning towards criticality. However, the multi-strain version mentioned above [1] is well evolving towards criticality, as well as a spatially explicit version of this, shown in [4] p. 155. These models of multi-strain type including explicitly mutations of the pathogenicity can be called SJ-models of type II [5]. Since the original epidemiological model is of SIRYX-type, the evolution to zero pathogenicity is slow and perturbed by large population noise. In the present article we now show on the basis of the notion of the voter-model universality classes the evolution of n-voter models with mutaion towards criticality, now much less perturbed by population noise, hence demonstrating a clear mechanism of self-organized criticality in the sense of [6, 7]. The present results have wide implications for many diseases in which a large proportion of infections is asymptomatic, meaning that the system has already evolved towards an average low pathogenicity. This holds not only for the original paradigmatic case of bacterial meningitis, but was reecently also suggested for example for dengue fever (DENFREE project).

  15. Accidental cold-related injury leading to hospitalization in northern Sweden: an eight-year retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cold injuries are rare but important causes of hospitalization. We aimed to identify the magnitude of cold injury hospitalization, and assess causes, associated factors and treatment routines in a subarctic region. Methods In this retrospective analysis of hospital records from the 4 northernmost counties in Sweden, cases from 2000-2007 were identified from the hospital registry by diagnosis codes for accidental hypothermia, frostbite, and cold-water drowning. Results were analyzed for pre-hospital site events, clinical events in-hospital, and complications observed with mild (temperature 34.9 - 32°C), moderate (31.9 - 28°C) and severe (<28°C), hypothermia as well as for frostbite and cold-water drowning. Results From the 362 cases, average annual incidences for hypothermia, frostbite, and cold-water drowning were estimated to be 3.4/100 000, 1.5/100 000, and 0.8/100 000 inhabitants, respectively. Annual frequencies for hypothermia hospitalizations increased by approximately 3 cases/year during the study period. Twenty percent of the hypothermia cases were mild, 40% moderate, and 24% severe. For 12%, the lowest documented core temperature was 35°C or higher, for 4% there was no temperature documented. Body core temperature was seldom measured in pre-hospital locations. Of 362 cold injury admissions, 17 (5%) died in hospital related to their injuries. Associated co-factors and co-morbidities included ethanol consumption, dementia, and psychiatric diagnosis. Conclusions The incidence of accidental hypothermia seems to be increasing in this studied sub-arctic region. Likely associated factors are recognized (ethanol intake, dementia, and psychiatric diagnosis). PMID:24460844

  16. 78 FR 6149 - Final Interim Staff Guidance Assessing the Radiological Consequences of Accidental Releases of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ...approach in modeling the movement of radioactivity and in assessing the radiological impacts...tank failure and mechanism for the radioactivity to reach groundwater or surface water...hydro-geologic conditions of the site where radioactivity is assumed to enter groundwater...

  17. Introduction and Motivation Our Contribution

    E-print Network

    Mohassel, Payman

    Introduction and Motivation Our Contribution Summary Efficient Polynomial Operations in the Shared PKC 2006 1 / 19 #12;Introduction and Motivation Our Contribution Summary Outline 1 Introduction and Motivation Secure Multiparty Computation Motivation 2 Our Contribution Overview Protocols 2 / 19 #12

  18. Avicenna's contribution to cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Chamsi-Pasha, Mohammed A.R.; Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Ibn Sina, known in the West as Avicenna, was the most famous and influential of all the Islamic philosopher-scientists. His most important medical works are the Canon of Medicine medical encyclopedia and a treatise on cardiac drugs. His Canon of Medicine remained the standard text in both the East and West until the 16th century. Avicenna's description of cardiac diseases was logically presented perhaps for the first time in the history of medicine. Avicenna was the first to describe carotid sinus hypersensitivity, which presents with vasovagal syncope. He was a pioneer in pulsology and the first correct explanation of pulsation was given by Avicenna, after he refined Galen's theory of the pulse. Besides, he discussed the action of available drugs on the heart in details and mentioned their indications and contraindications. In conclusion, Avicenna made important contributions to cardiology. This article describes some of his contributions in this field. PMID:24678465

  19. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  20. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 3. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE (SCAQMD) (SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a strategy (being considered by the South Coast Air Quality Management District--SCAQMD--of Southern California) for reducing the risk of a major accidental air release of toxic chemicals. The strategy, intended to guide both industry and communities, consist...

  1. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 6. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE (SCAQMD) (SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual summarizes information that will aid in identifying and controlling release hazards specific to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) of southern California. The SCAQMD has been considering a strategy for reducing the risk of a major accidental air r...

  2. Follow-Up Skeletal Surveys for Suspected Non-Accidental Trauma: Can a More Limited Survey Be Performed without Compromising Diagnostic Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonik, Arvind; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Rogers, Kristen K.; Coulter, Kevin P.; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Follow-up skeletal surveys have been shown to improve the rate of fracture detection in suspected cases of non-accidental trauma (NAT). As these studies are performed in a particularly radiosensitive population, it is important to evaluate if all of the (approximately 20) radiographs obtained at repeat skeletal survey are clinically…

  3. Jesuits' Contribution to Meteorology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udías, Agustín

    1996-10-01

    Starting in the middle of the nineteenth century, as part of their scientific tradition, Jesuits founded a considerable number of meteorological observatories throughout the world. In many countries, Jesuits established and maintained the first meteorological stations during the period from 1860 to 1950. The Jesuits' most important contribution to atmospheric science was their pioneer work related to the study and forecast of tropical hurricanes. That research was carried out at observatories of Belén (Cuba), Manila (Philippines), and Zikawei (China). B. Viñes, M. Decheyrens, J. Aigué, and C.E. Deppermann stood out in this movement.

  4. CONTRIBUTED Adaptive Networks

    E-print Network

    Sayed, Ali

    and to continually learn and adapt to track drifts in the data and models. Under reasonable technical conditions and data statistical moments. Classical results for single-agent adaptation and learning are recovered | Adaptation; big data; centralized strategies; consensus strategies; diffusion of information; diffusion strat

  5. A CASE STUDY OF CHLORINE TRANSPORT AND FATE FOLLOWING A LARGE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R.; Hunter, C.; Werth, D.; Whiteside, M.; Chen, K.; Mazzola, C.

    2012-08-01

    A train derailment that occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina during the early morning hours of 06 January, 2005 resulted in the prompt release of approximately 60 tons of chlorine to the environment. Comprehensive modeling of the transport and fate of this release was performed including the characterization of the initial three-phased chlorine release, a detailed determination of the local atmospheric conditions acting to generate, disperse, and deplete the chlorine vapor cloud, the establishment of physical exchange mechanisms between the airborne vapor and local surface waters, and local aquatic dilution and mixing.

  6. PEAR - public exposure from accidental releases: software package EI-028-S86

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    PEAR is a digital computer program developed to calculate radiation doses to an individual or population in the path of a plume of airborne radioactive materials released into the atmosphere following an accident at a nuclear facility. The code uses the methodology described in the CSA standard N288.2 Guidelines for calculation of radiation doses to the public from a release of airborne radioactive material under accident conditions in nuclear facilities. The code calculates internal and external dose equivalent (to organs and effective) and factors in the specific meteorological and topographical conditions of the site and the specific characteristics of the releases. It deals with 38 radionuclides and with mixtures of radioisotopes. The code is useful for the evaluation of the effects of postulated accidents (such as in the safety reports) and as a real time analysis tool for emergency planning exercises and actual accidents, should they occur. It is relatively easy to run as it is based on a strong interaction between the computer and the user and has easy access to data files.

  7. Defined contribution health benefits.

    PubMed

    Fronstin, P

    2001-03-01

    This Issue Brief discusses the emerging issue of "defined contribution" (DC) health benefits. The term "defined contribution" is used to describe a wide variety of approaches to the provision of health benefits, all of which have in common a shift in the responsibility for payment and selection of health care services from employers to employees. DC health benefits often are mentioned in the context of enabling employers to control their outlay for health benefits by avoiding increases in health care costs. DC health benefits may also shift responsibility for choosing a health plan and the associated risks of choosing a plan from employers to employees. There are three primary reasons why some employers currently are considering some sort of DC approach. First, they are once again looking for ways to keep their health care cost increases in line with overall inflation. Second, some employers are concerned that the public "backlash" against managed care will result in new legislation, regulations, and litigation that will further increase their health care costs if they do not distance themselves from health care decisions. Third, employers have modified not only most employee benefit plans, but labor market practices in general, by giving workers more choice, control, and flexibility. DC-type health benefits have existed as cafeteria plans since the 1980s. A cafeteria plan gives each employee the opportunity to determine the allocation of his or her total compensation (within employer-defined limits) among various employee benefits (primarily retirement or health). Most types of DC health benefits currently being discussed could be provided within the existing employment-based health insurance system, with or without the use of cafeteria plans. They could also allow employees to purchase health insurance directly from insurers, or they could drive new technologies and new forms of risk pooling through which health care services are provided and financed. DC health benefits differ from DC retirement plans. Under a DC health plan, employees may face different premiums based on their personal health risk and perhaps other factors such as age and geographic location. Their ability to afford health insurance may depend on how premiums are regulated by the state and how much money their employer provides. In contrast, under a DC retirement plan, employers' contributions are based on the same percentage of income for all employees, but employees are not subject to paying different prices for the same investment. PMID:11291165

  8. Accidental injection of patent blue dye during gynaecological surgery: Lack of knowledge constitutes a system error.

    PubMed

    Laukaityte, Edita; Bruyère, Marie; Bull, Amanda; Benhamou, Dan

    2015-02-01

    The authors report a case in which an intravenous injection of Patent Blue V dye instead of Indigo Carmine was given during routine gynaecological surgery. The patient presented with temporary arterial (spurious) desaturation and skin discoloration over a 48-hour period. Pharmacological differences between these dyes are described. Root cause analysis based on the ALARM (Association of Litigation and Risk Management) model is presented. The authors emphasise that use of this model should not be limited solely to describing and correcting well known systems errors such as working conditions or teamwork and communication. Furthermore, they conclude that insufficient knowledge must also be recognised as a systems error and as such should be sought out and corrected using similar strategies to those used to discover other contributory factors, without allocation of blame to any individual. PMID:25829317

  9. Consequence analysis for accidental releases of toxic substances in a complex terrain with shoreline in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Ghim, Y.S.; Oh, H.S.; Moon, K.C.

    1999-07-01

    Offsite consequences resulting from various scenarios involving release of toxic substances in the Yochon Industrial Estate located in the Yosu Peninsula with complex terrain and intricate shorelines are estimated using ALOHA (Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres) and RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System). ALOHA analyses by assuming the worst-case release scenarios for selected chemicals in the worst-case and alternative meteorological conditions indicate the impact on several thousand people in the nearby area. RAMS simulation is performed in order to consider the influence of terrain and shoreline. Receptors behind the terrain, 5 to 6 km distant from the source, also show high concentration when the wind blows to the terrain as well as receptors in front of the terrain in the nearby area. With considering the diurnal variations of meteorological variables, it is predicted that complicated wind patterns with low speeds could cause high concentration over the entire area adjacent to the Estate.

  10. Accidental potassium dichromate poisoning. Toxicokinetics of chromium by ICP-MS-CRC in biological fluids and in hair.

    PubMed

    Goullé, J P; Saussereau, E; Grosjean, J; Doche, C; Mahieu, L; Thouret, J M; Guerbet, M; Lacroix, C

    2012-04-10

    Intoxications by chromium (Cr) compounds are very life threatening and often lethal. After oral ingestion of 2 or 3g of hexavalent Cr (Cr(VI)), gastrointestinal injury, but also hepatic and renal failure, often occurs which each leads to a fatal outcome in most patients. Cellular toxicity is associated with mitochondrial and lysosomal injury by biologically Cr(VI) reactive intermediates and reactive oxygen species. After Cr(VI) has been absorbed, there is not much that can be done except to control the main complications as the treatment is only symptomatic. The biotransformation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) reduces the toxicity because the trivalent form does not cross cellular membranes as rapidly. In fact, more than 80% of Cr(VI) is cleared in urine as Cr(III). We report the case of a 58-year-old male patient who was admitted to hospital after accidental oral ingestion of a 30 g/L potassium dichromate (the estimated amount of ingested Cr is about 3g). ICP-MS equipped with a collision/reaction cell (CRC) and validated methods were used to monitor plasma (P), red blood cells (RBCs), urine (U) and hair chromium. For urine the results were expressed per gram of creatinine. After 7 days in the intensive care unit, the patient was discharged without renal or liver failure. P, RBC and U were monitored during 49 days. During this period Cr decreased respectively from 2088 ?g/L to 5 ?g/L, 631 ?g/L to 129 ?g/L and 3512 ?g/g to 10 ?g/g. The half-life was much shorter in P than in RBC as the poison was more quickly cleared from the P than from the RBC, suggesting a cellular trapping of the metal. Hair was collected 2 months after the intoxication. We report a very rare case of survival after accidental Cr poisoning which has an extremely poor prognosis and usually leads to rapid death. For the first time, this toxicokinetic study highlights a sequestration of chromium in the RBC and probably in all the cells. PMID:22024652

  11. Estimating outdoor and indoor dust lead levels from accidental bridge repair containment releases

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.T.; Conway, R.F.

    1999-07-01

    A 1998 New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) environmental impact statement (EIS) evaluated the proposed removal of deteriorated lead paint from NYCDOT-owned bridges. The EIS health risk assessment quantified the potential impact of particulate releases on blood lead levels among members of the public living and working near affected bridges. The risk assessment consisted of a fate and transport component and an exposure-dose component. The fate and transport component, modeled using the EPA's Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) model, calculated the impact of paint removal activities on ambient air lead concentrations and dust lead deposition rates. The exposure-dose component, modeled using EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model, the Bowers et al. Adult Lead model, and the O'Flaherty lead model, calculated the impact of additional lead in air, street dust, interior house dust, and soil on blood lead levels, a conventional measure of body lead burden. The analysis was complicated because the ISC3 model provides a dust lead deposition rate ({micro}g/m{sup 2}-day), while the IEUBK, Bowers et al., and O'Flaherty models demand as input specification of dust lead concentrations ({micro}g lead per g dust). This paper describes a model developed for the EIS that quantifies long term average dust lead concentrations associated with typical bridge containment releases, and short term dust lead concentration spikes following worst case release events associated with bridge repair containment structure failures. The model reflects the influence of both lead and other debris associated with bridge repair activities, the contribution of background debris to street dust, and the impact of rainfall on removal of both lead and other material from the street dust reservoir.

  12. Accumulation of plutonium in mammalian wildlife tissues following dispersal by accidental-release tests.

    PubMed

    Johansen, M P; Child, D P; Caffrey, E A; Davis, E; Harrison, J J; Hotchkis, M A C; Payne, T E; Ikeda-Ohno, A; Thiruvoth, S; Twining, J R; Beresford, N A

    2016-01-01

    We examined the distribution of plutonium (Pu) in the tissues of mammalian wildlife inhabiting the relatively undisturbed, semi-arid former Taranaki weapons test site, Maralinga, Australia. The accumulation of absorbed Pu was highest in the skeleton (83% ± 6%), followed by muscle (10% ± 9%), liver (6% ± 6%), kidneys (0.6% ± 0.4%), and blood (0.2%). Pu activity concentrations in lung tissues were elevated relative to the body average. Foetal transfer was higher in the wildlife data than in previous laboratory studies. The amount of Pu in the gastrointestinal tract was highly elevated relative to that absorbed within the body, potentially increasing transfer of Pu to wildlife and human consumers that may ingest gastrointestinal tract organs. The Pu distribution in the Maralinga mammalian wildlife generally aligns with previous studies related to environmental exposure (e.g. Pu in humans from worldwide fallout), but contrasts with the partitioning models that have traditionally been used for human worker-protection purposes (approximately equal deposition in bone and liver) which appear to under-predict the skeletal accumulation in environmental exposure conditions. PMID:25910926

  13. A case study of chlorine transport and fate following a large accidental release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Robert L.; Hunter, Charles H.; Werth, David W.; Whiteside, Morgana T.; Chen, Kuo-Fu; Mazzola, Carl A.

    2012-12-01

    A train derailment that occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina during the early morning hours of 06 January, 2005 resulted in the prompt release of approximately 60 tons of chlorine to the environment. Comprehensive modeling of the transport and fate of this release was performed including the characterization of the initial three-phased chlorine release, a detailed determination of the local atmospheric conditions acting to generate, disperse, and deplete the chlorine vapor cloud, the establishment of physical exchange mechanisms between the airborne vapor and local surface waters, and local aquatic dilution and mixing.Previous studies of large chlorine releases have concluded that depletion of the resulting vapor cloud through physical and chemical reactions with sunlight, atmospheric constituents, and local surfaces can significantly reduce the areal extent over which the vapor poses a toxicological hazard. For Graniteville, modeling results were the most consistent with available data on human health effects, animal and fish mortality, and vegetation damage when an effective deposition velocity in the lower end of a range of values commonly cited in other studies (1 cm s-1) was applied. This relatively small deposition is attributed to a lack of sunlight, a limited uptake in vegetation due to rapid stomatal damage, and the limited presence of nearby man-made structures. Explicit simulations of chlorine deposition into adjacent surface waters were based on a modified Henry's Law approach and resulted in the transfer of an estimated 21 kg of chlorine into these waters.

  14. Simulation de l'ecoulement dans un parc d'eoliennes situees sur un terrain accidente

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kasmi, Amina

    L'objectif principal de cette these est la modelisation de l'ecoulement de la couche limite atmospherique dans un parc eolien sur un terrain complexe. Pour ce faire, trois domaines distincts ont ete abordes: caracteristiques de la couche limite atmospherique, aerodynamique des eoliennes et modelisation du terrain complexe. Ainsi l'objectif global de la these a ete divise a trois objectifs specifiques. Le premier objectif specifique est de demontrer l'efficacite du modele de turbulence propose base sur le modele de turbulence RNG, combinee avec les equations du tenseur de Reynolds moyennees dans le temps (RANS) pour simuler l'ecoulement turbulent moyen sur les collines et les vallees bidimensionnelles de formes analytiques et de pentes variables, et aussi, sur le terrain complexe tridimensionnel Blashaval. Le deuxieme objectif specifique de la these est de proposer un nouveau modele de turbulence pour simuler l'ecoulement axisymetrique a travers une eolienne a axe horizontal. Pour valider le modele propose, des resultats sont presentes pour les eoliennes experimentales Nibe B, Danwin 180/23, et MOD-0A. Le dernier objectif specifique est d'appliquer le modele de turbulence propose pour la simulation de l'ecoulement tridimensionnel a travers une eolienne immergee dans une couche limite atmospherique sous diverses conditions de stabilite thermique.

  15. ORIGINAL PAPER Fertilizer vs. organic matter contributions to nitrogen

    E-print Network

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    ORIGINAL PAPER Fertilizer vs. organic matter contributions to nitrogen leaching in cropping systems the fate of fertilizer N and (2) evaluated the contribution of fertilizer and soil organic matter (SOM) to N leaching under the typical cropping conditions of the Pampas. Fertilizer N was applied as 15 N

  16. Accidental methadone intoxication masquerading as asthma exacerbation with respiratory arrest in a six-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Orel

    2015-05-01

    A 6-year-old boy is brought to the emergency department of a level 1 trauma center by emergency medical services (EMS) for presumed asthma exacerbation with subsequent unresponsiveness and transient bradycardia. The initial physician exam was remarkable for an unresponsive child, with diffusely diminished breath sounds bilaterally, accompanied by diffuse wheezing, as well as pinpoint pupils. This last observation led to the recommendation to attempt a dose of naloxone for a possible overdose prior to proceeding with intubation for the altered mental status. The child had a brisk response to the naloxone, was subsequently placed on a naloxone drip, and admitted to the hospital. Initial provider thoughts were that the naloxone had worked on an accidental overdose of over-the-counter dextromethorphan containing medication. These suspicions were later proven incorrect after mass spectrometry yielded a positive methadone presence in the urine. The child was ultimately discharged home with ongoing input from child protective services, without further medical complications. The increased utilization of methadone for the treatment of both opioid withdrawal, as well as for chronic pain management demands, heightened awareness of the clinicians, as cases such as this will continue to appear. PMID:26058121

  17. Accidental Release of Chlorine from a Storage Facility and an On-Site Emergency Mock Drill: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Soman, Ambalathumpara Raman; Sundararaj, Gopalswamy

    2015-01-01

    In the current industrial scenario there is a serious need for formulating strategies to handle hazardous substances in the safest way. Manufacture, storage, and use of hazardous substances pose a serious risk to industry, people, and the environment. Accidental release of toxic chemicals can lead to emergencies. An emergency response plan (ERP) is inevitable to minimize the adverse effects of such releases. The on-site emergency plan is an integral component of any process safety and risk management system. This paper deals with an on-site emergency response plan for a chlorine manufacturing industry. It was developed on the basis of a previous study on chlorine release and a full scale mock drill has been conducted for testing the plan. Results indicated that properly trained personnel can effectively handle each level of incidents occurring in the process plant. As an extensive guideline to the district level government authorities for off-site emergency planning, risk zone has also been estimated with reference to a chlorine exposure threshold of 3?ppm. PMID:26171416

  18. Accidental spills at sea--risk, impact, mitigation and the need for co-ordinated post-incident monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Mark F; Law, Robin J

    2010-06-01

    A fully integrated and effective response to an oil or chemical spill at sea must include a well planned and executed post-incident assessment of environmental contamination and damage. While salvage, rescue and clean-up operations are generally well considered, including reviews and exercises, the expertise, resources, networks and logistical planning required to achieve prompt and effective post-spill impact assessment and monitoring are not generally well established. The arrangement and co-ordination of post-incident monitoring and impact assessment need to consider sampling design, biological effects, chemical analysis and collection/interpretation of expert local knowledge. This paper discusses the risks, impacts and mitigation options associated with accidental spills and considers the importance of pre-considered impact assessment and monitoring programmes in the wider response cycle. The PREMIAM (Pollution Response in Emergencies: Marine Impact Assessment and Monitoring; www.premiam.org) project is considered as an example of an improved approach to the planning, co-ordination and conduct of post-incident monitoring. PMID:20381098

  19. Unsupervised invariance learning of transformation sequences in a model of object recognition yields selectivity for non-accidental properties

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Sarah M.; Serre, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Non-accidental properties (NAPs) correspond to image properties that are invariant to changes in viewpoint (e.g., straight vs. curved contours) and are distinguished from metric properties (MPs) that can change continuously with in-depth object rotation (e.g., aspect ratio, degree of curvature, etc.). Behavioral and electrophysiological studies of shape processing have demonstrated greater sensitivity to differences in NAPs than in MPs. However, previous work has shown that such sensitivity is lacking in multiple-views models of object recognition such as Hmax. These models typically assume that object processing is based on populations of view-tuned neurons with distributed symmetrical bell-shaped tuning that are modulated at least as much by differences in MPs as in NAPs. Here, we test the hypothesis that unsupervised learning of invariances to object transformations may increase the sensitivity to differences in NAPs vs. MPs in Hmax. We collected a database of video sequences with objects slowly rotating in-depth in an attempt to mimic sequences viewed during object manipulation by young children during early developmental stages. We show that unsupervised learning yields shape-tuning in higher stages with greater sensitivity to differences in NAPs vs. MPs in agreement with monkey IT data. Together, these results suggest that greater NAP sensitivity may arise from experiencing different in-depth rotations of objects. PMID:26500528

  20. Sensory impairments, problems of balance and accidental injury at work – a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith; D’Angelo, Stefania; Harris, E Clare; Linaker, Cathy; Coggon, David

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Sensory impairments are becoming increasingly common in the workforces of Western countries. To assess their role in occupational injury, and that of disorders of balance, we undertook a case-control study. Methods Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, which documents all medical consultations, referrals, and diagnoses in primary care for 6% of the British population, we identified 1,348 working-aged patients who had consulted medical services over a 22-year period for workplace injury (cases) and 6,652 age-, sex- and practice-matched controls. Risks were assessed by conditional logistic regression, for earlier recorded diagnoses of visual impairment, common eye diseases, hearing loss, perforated ear drum, non-acute otitis media, and disorders of balance. Results In all, 173 (2.2%) subjects had an earlier eye problem, 792 (9.9%) an ear problem (including 336 with impaired hearing and 482 with non-acute otitis media), and 266 (3.3%) a disorder of balance. No associations were found with glaucoma, cataract, retinal disorders, or perforation of the ear drum specifically, but adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were moderately elevated for eye and ear problems more generally, and higher where there was a record of blindness or partial sight (OR 1.90, 95%CI 1.05-3.44) or non-acute otitis media (OR 2.04, 95%CI 1.64-2.54). Risks for non-acute otitis media and for disorders of balance were particularly elevated for consultations in the 12 months preceding injury consultation (OR 2.70, 95%CI 1.58-4.62 and 1.77, 95%CI 1.01-3.11 respectively). Conclusions Problems of vision, impairments of hearing, and disorders of balance all may carry moderately increased risks of occupational injury. PMID:25523936

  1. Partitioning of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorohexanesulfonate in the aquatic environment after an accidental release of aqueous film forming foam at Schiphol Amsterdam Airport.

    PubMed

    Kwadijk, Christiaan J A F; Kotterman, Michiel; Koelmans, Albert A

    2014-08-01

    In summer 2008, an accidental release of aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) took place at Schiphol Amsterdam Airport (The Netherlands). After the release, water, fish, and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs). In situ perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) sediment-water distribution factor (KD ) values, bioaccumulation factor (BAF) values, and biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) values showed a remarkable agreement among reference and impacted sites, 10 wk after the incident as well as after 3 yr. PMID:24729487

  2. EMSL Contribution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Allison A.

    2008-12-01

    This Contribution Plan is EMSL’s template for achieving our vision of simultaneous excellence in all aspects of our mission as a national scientific user facility. It reflects our understanding of the long-term stewardship we must work toward to meet the scientific challenges faced by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the nation. During the next decade, we will implement the strategies contained in this Plan, working closely with the scientific community, our advisory committees, DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research, and other key stakeholders. This Plan is fully aligned with the strategic plans of DOE, its Office of Science, and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). We recognize that shifts in science and technology, national priorities, and resources made available through the Federal budget process create planning uncertainties and, ultimately, a highly dynamic planning environment. Accordingly, this Plan should be viewed as a living document and we continually evaluate the changing needs and opportunities posed by our stakeholders (i.e., DOE, users, staff, advisory committees), work closely with them to understand and respond to those changes, and align our strategy accordingly. This Plan is organized around two sections. Section 1 describes our vision and four strategic outcomes: 1) Scientific Innovation, 2) Capabilities that Transform Science, 3) Outstanding Management and Operations, and Engaged and Proactive Users. These outcomes provide the framework for seven critical actions we must take during the next 3 to 5 years: 1) Establishing leadership in EMSL science themes, 2) building and deploying transformational capabilities, 3) integrating computation with experiment, 4) ensuring EMSL’s workforce meets the scientific challenges of the future, 5) creating partnerships, 6) attracting and engaging users in EMSL’s long-term strategy, and 7) building a research infrastructure that meets emerging scientific needs. Section 2 describes EMSL’s detailed business plan, including an analysis of opportunity, organizational investments, and actionable milestones.

  3. 26 CFR 1.401(m)-1 - Employee contributions and matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Certain contributions not treated as employee contributions. The term employee contributions does not include designated Roth contributions, repayment of loans, rollover contributions, repayment of distributions described in section...

  4. 26 CFR 1.401(m)-1 - Employee contributions and matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Certain contributions not treated as employee contributions. The term employee contributions does not include designated Roth contributions, repayment of loans, rollover contributions, repayment of distributions described in section...

  5. 26 CFR 1.401(m)-1 - Employee contributions and matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Certain contributions not treated as employee contributions. The term employee contributions does not include designated Roth contributions, repayment of loans, rollover contributions, repayment of distributions described in section...

  6. 26 CFR 1.401(m)-1 - Employee contributions and matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Certain contributions not treated as employee contributions. The term employee contributions does not include designated Roth contributions, repayment of loans, rollover contributions, repayment of distributions described in section...

  7. 26 CFR 1.401(m)-1 - Employee contributions and matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Certain contributions not treated as employee contributions. The term employee contributions does not include designated Roth contributions, repayment of loans, rollover contributions, repayment of distributions described in section...

  8. Follow-up study of abnormal biological indicators and gene expression in the peripheral blood of three accidentally exposed persons

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Cuiping; Tian, Rong; Liu, Huifang; Wang, Haiyan; Wei, Jinping; Guo, Jianping; Guo, Fengling; Li, Shufang

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify biomarkers for early diagnosis and/or for therapeutic targets in the delayed health effects of ionizing radiation, we analyzed the subgroups of lymphocytes, serum protein levels and gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood of three 60Co ?-ray accidentally exposed persons during the three years after irradiation. Flow cytometry analyses and agarose gel electrophoresis were applied to investigate the subgroups of lymphocytes and the composition of serum proteins, respectively. Gene expression profiling was obtained using a whole genome gene expression chip assay. Both the percentage of CD4+ T lymphocytes and the ratio of Th to Ts were reduced compared with the normal control values. The percentage of albumin decreased whereas beta globulin increased. There were 285 up-regulated and 446 down-regulated genes in irradiated samples relative to the control samples. The expression of KDR, CEACAM8 and OSM was validated by RT-PCR. The majority of the differentially expressed genes encode proteins associated with the immune response, inflammation, oncogenesis, cell structure, oxidative stress, neuro-hormone regulation, reproduction, susceptibility to psychiatric disorders, or transcriptional regulation. We have identified a number of promising novel candidates that have potential for serving as biomarkers for delayed damage. Furthermore, the changes in the immunological indicator CD4+ T cells, and the ratio of CD4+ T to CD8+ T cells may be biomarkers for the prediction of delayed damage by ionizing radiation. The findings of our study are useful for forming a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying the delayed effects of ionizing radiation. PMID:23559597

  9. Serotonin in fear conditioning processes.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Elizabeth P

    2015-01-15

    This review describes the latest developments in our understanding of how the serotonergic system modulates Pavlovian fear conditioning, fear expression and fear extinction. These different phases of classical fear conditioning involve coordinated interactions between the extended amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortices. Here, I first define the different stages of learning involved in cued and context fear conditioning and describe the neural circuits underlying these processes. The serotonergic system can be manipulated by administering serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists, as well as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and these can have significant effects on emotional learning and memory. Moreover, variations in serotonergic genes can influence fear conditioning and extinction processes, and can underlie differential responses to pharmacological manipulations. This research has considerable translational significance as imbalances in the serotonergic system have been linked to anxiety and depression, while abnormalities in the mechanisms of conditioned fear contribute to anxiety disorders. PMID:25078294

  10. Boundary stability under nonequilibrium conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hackney, S.A.; Plichta, M.R.; Lee, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a tremendous advance in the basic understanding of interfacial structure at equilibrium. However, the contributions of interfaces to the overall behavior of a material in service (in a power plant or nuclear reactor) occurs under conditions far from equilibrium. This research program is focused on understanding the interaction of nonequilibrium conditions with the equilibrium microstructure of the interface, the net result being increased knowledge of design parameters for materials and materials interfaces to be exposed to the nonequilibrium conditions so prevalent in energy generation systems. To this end, the research program, Boundary Stability Under Nonequilibrium Conditions studies the microscopic behavior of interfaces under the experimentally and theoretically simulated conditions of stress and thermal fatigue, compositional inhomogeneities, and gradients in capillarity forces. 3 figs.

  11. Variation in contributions to teaching by meerkats.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Alex

    2008-08-01

    Recent evidence from cooperative insect, bird and mammal societies has challenged the assumption that teaching is restricted to humans. However, little is known about the factors affecting the degree to which individuals in such societies contribute to teaching. Here, I examine variation in contributions to teaching in meerkats, where older group members teach pups to handle difficult prey. I show that investment in teaching varies with characteristics of pups, helpers, groups and ecological conditions. Although prior experience in caring for pups did not significantly influence teaching behaviour, younger helpers, which were still investing in growth, contributed less to teaching than older individuals. This suggests that, in common with other cooperative activities, contributions to teaching vary with the costs experienced by individual group members. However, in contrast to other forms of helping in meerkats, I detected no effects of nutritional state on teaching, suggesting that it carries relatively low costs. In species where individuals can potentially gain direct or indirect fitness benefits from facilitating learning in others, low costs divided among multiple group members may help tip the balance towards selection for teaching. PMID:18445555

  12. The Accidental Artist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischman, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Adapted from the 1998 Anne Carroll Moore Lecture, relates the background of Newbery Medal winner, Paul Fleischman, and his travel adventures, mostly by bicycle, that lead to him becoming a writer and influenced the content of his work. (LRW)

  13. Accidental Bowel Leakage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cause gas and diarrhea in some people. Some artificial sweeteners can cause diarrhea. Some people have trouble absorbing fatty foods. Spicy foods can irritate the stomach lining, as can alcohol and caffeine. ... patients, an artificial anal sphincter can be implanted. If the colon, ...

  14. Accidental Bowel Leakage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What dietary changes are helpful if I have diarrhea? Certain foods can cause diarrhea. Dairy products and foods that contain gluten, a ... wheat, rye, and barley, can cause gas and diarrhea in some people. Some artificial sweeteners can cause ...

  15. SEQUENTIAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO PUBLIC GOODS

    E-print Network

    Nisan, Noam

    Chapter 1 SEQUENTIAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO PUBLIC GOODS I examine games involving private contributions to a public good and show that less of the public good will be supplied if agents move se­ quentially than good least will win. If each agent chooses the rate at which he will subsidize the other agent

  16. Behavior of accidentally released radiocesium in soil-water environment: Looking at Fukushima from a Chernobyl perspective.

    PubMed

    Konoplev, A; Golosov, V; Laptev, G; Nanba, K; Onda, Y; Takase, T; Wakiyama, Y; Yoshimura, K

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative characteristics of dissolved and particulate radiocesium wash-off from contaminated watersheds after the FDNPP accident are calculated based on published monitoring data. Comparative analysis is provided for radiocesium wash-off parameters and distribution coefficients, Kd, between suspended matter and water in rivers and surface runoff on Fukushima and Chernobyl contaminated areas for the first years after the accidents. It was found that radiocesium distribution coefficient in Fukushima rivers is essentially higher (1-2 orders of magnitude) than corresponding values for rivers and surface runoff within the Chernobyl zone. This can be associated with two factors: first, the high fraction of clays in the predominant soils and sediments of the Fukushima area and accordingly a higher value of the radiocesium Interception Potential, RIP, in general, and secondly the presence of water insoluble glassy particles containing radiocesium in the accidental fallout at Fukushima. It was found also that normalized dissolved wash-off coefficients for Fukushima catchments are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than corresponding values for the Chernobyl zone. Normalized particulate wash-off coefficients are comparable for Fukushima and Chernobyl. Results of the investigation of radiocesium's ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) vertical distribution in soils of the close-in area of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP - Okuma town and floodplain of the Niida river are presented. The radiocesium migration in undisturbed forest and grassland soils at Fukushima contaminated area has been shown to be faster as compared to the Chernobyl 30-km zone during the first three years after the accidents. This may be associated with higher annual precipitation (by about 2.5 times) in Fukushima as compared to the Chernobyl zone, as well as the differences in the soil characteristics and temperature regime throughout a year. Investigation and analysis of Fukushima's radiocesium distribution in soils of Niida river catchment revealed accumulation zones of contaminated sediments on its floodplain. Average sediment deposition rates varied from 0.3 to 3.3 cm/year. PMID:26143175

  17. Severe hypotension and water intoxication developed after an accidental oxytocin overdose in a morbidly obese patient undergoing cesarean section -A case report-

    PubMed Central

    In, Jang Hyeok; Choi, Jin Woo; Jung, Hong Soo; Lee, Jung-Ah; Joo, Jin-Deok; Kim, Dae-Woo; Park, Ju-Seon

    2011-01-01

    We present a 32-year-old, extremely obese, pregnant woman who developed severe hypotension and water intoxication after an accidental injection of large bolus of oxytocin during cesarean section under general anesthesia. The patient was initially thought to have an amniotic fluid embolism because of the abrupt hemodynamic changes developed immediately after fetal delivery and lack of recognition of medication error. It is highly recommended that careful attention should be paid not only to the possibility of hemodynamic deterioration and water intoxication if oxytocin is given rapidly in excessive doses, but to the confirmation of the proper use of the drug before it is injected. PMID:21602981

  18. Small intestine perforation due to accidental press-through package ingestion in an elderly patient with Lewy body dementia and recurrent cardiopulmonary arrest.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Tsuyoshi; Tokumaru, Aya M; Harada, Kazumasa

    2015-01-01

    An octogenarian with Lewy body dementia presented to our hospital in cardiac arrest and was successfully resuscitated. Although he had abdominal pain the previous day, small bowel wall oedema and ascites were the only abnormalities noted on abdominal CT. Despite treatment with catecholamines and antimicrobials, he died of recurrent cardiopulmonary arrest later the same day. An autopsy showed that the patient's death was the result of a small bowel perforation caused by accidental ingestion of a press-through package (PTP). Precautions regarding PTP use and improved packaging design are necessary to prevent PTP ingestion, especially in elderly patients with dementia. PMID:26678691

  19. 22 CFR 203.6 - IPVO conditions of registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2) Has its headquarters in the same country. (b) Condition No. 2 (Private) . Is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) and solicits and receives cash contributions from the general public. (c) Condition No. 3 (Voluntary) . Is a...

  20. 22 CFR 203.6 - IPVO conditions of registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2) Has its headquarters in the same country. (b) Condition No. 2 (Private) . Is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) and solicits and receives cash contributions from the general public. (c) Condition No. 3 (Voluntary) . Is a...

  1. 22 CFR 203.6 - IPVO conditions of registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2) Has its headquarters in the same country. (b) Condition No. 2 (Private). Is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) and solicits and receives cash contributions from the general public. (c) Condition No. 3 (Voluntary). Is a...

  2. 22 CFR 203.6 - IPVO conditions of registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2) Has its headquarters in the same country. (b) Condition No. 2 (Private) . Is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) and solicits and receives cash contributions from the general public. (c) Condition No. 3 (Voluntary) . Is a...

  3. 22 CFR 203.6 - IPVO conditions of registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2) Has its headquarters in the same country. (b) Condition No. 2 (Private) . Is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) and solicits and receives cash contributions from the general public. (c) Condition No. 3 (Voluntary) . Is a...

  4. loss-of-function mutant flies, showing that JAK signaling may, under some conditions, contribute to TotA induc-tion. However, the Tot genes are induced by a varietyis necessary and sufficient for TotA induction. Not only

    E-print Network

    Guo, Ming

    , contribute to TotA induc- tion. However, the Tot genes are induced by a varietyis necessary and sufficient for TotA induction. Not only TotA, but also TotM, TotC, and probably the other Turan- of different stress a general requirement for Relish in Tot gene induction. An interesting question is whether Upd3 anddirect

  5. Atmospheric Methane Contributions From Fractured Bedrock Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrin, D. L.

    2013-05-01

    Groundwater is not normally considered as an important contributor of atmospheric methane because the organic carbon content of aquifers is too low to sustain significant methanogenesis. Also, groundwater-generated methane partitions into the gas phase of the overlying soil, where it either dissolves in the pore water or is oxidized to carbon dioxide by methanotrophs. There are, however, localized conditions (related to human activities and hydrogeologic conditions) under which atmospheric contributions of groundwater-generated methane occur at the ground surface. Storing and transporting liquid petroleum products in the subsurface has resulted in the local introduction of high concentrations of degradable organic carbon and the creation of redox conditions that favor methanogenesis over more oxidative biodegradation pathways. Groundwater overlain by fractured bedrock, rather than by unconsolidated porous media, creates a situation where CH4 migrates through discrete fractures, thus limiting the soil volume and the surface area available for methanotrophic activity. The spatial distribution of methane in thin surface soils overlying bedrock suggests that CH4 migrates via fracture networks and that CH4 oxidation is a factor of about 50 less than that measured in typical unconsolidated soils. Atmospheric flux rates associated with contaminated bedrock aquifers were on the order of several grams of carbon (as CH4) per square meter, which is less than that reported for well documented sources (e.g., rice paddies) and probably represents a minor worldwide contribution. Nonetheless, these aquifers can represent an important localized source, can shift soils from a sink to a source of methane, and can permit petroleum products to load carbon (as biogenic CH4 and CO2) to the atmosphere without ever being combusted.

  6. 75 FR 43799 - Employee Contribution Elections and Contribution Allocations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ..., the Agency published a proposed rule with request for comments in the Federal Register (75 FR 34388... ``Automatic Contribution Arrangements'' 74 FR 8200, 8206 (February 24, 2009). The TSP must follow applicable... / Tuesday, July 27, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD 5...

  7. Conceptual Conditioning: Mechanisms Mediating Conditioning Effects on Pain.

    PubMed

    Jepma, Marieke; Wager, Tor D

    2015-11-01

    Classical conditioning can profoundly modify subsequent pain responses, but the mechanisms that drive this effect are unresolved. In pain-conditioning studies, cues are typically conditioned to primary aversive reinforcers; hence, subsequent pain modulation could reflect learned precognitive associations (i.e., those involving neural plasticity independent of expectations and other forms of conceptual thought) or conceptual expectancies. We isolated conceptual contributions using a thermal pain-conditioning procedure in which different conditioned stimulus (CS) cues were repeatedly paired with symbolic representations of high and low noxious heat. In a subsequent test phase, identical noxious stimuli evoked larger skin conductance responses (SCRs) and pain ratings when preceded by CS cues associated with high temperature than by those associated with low temperature. These effects were mediated by participants' self-reported expectancies. CS cues associated with high temperature also evoked larger anticipatory SCRs than did CS cues associated with low temperature, but larger anticipatory SCRs predicted smaller subsequent heat-evoked SCRs. These results provide novel evidence that conditioned modulation of pain physiology can be acquired through purely conceptual processes, and that self-reported expectancies and physiological threat responses have opposing effects on pain. PMID:26381506

  8. Recent Langley helicopter acoustics contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Homer G.; Pao, S. P.; Powell, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    The helicopter acoustics program at NASA Langley has included technology for elements of noise control ranging from sources of noise to receivers of noise. The scope of Langley contributions for about the last decade is discussed. Specifically, the resolution of two certification noise quantification issues by subjective acoustics research, the development status of the helicopter system noise prediction program ROTONET are reviewed and the highlights from research on blade rotational, broadband, and blade vortex interaction noise sources are presented. Finally, research contributions on helicopter cabin (or interior) noise control are presented. A bibliography of publications from the Langley helicopter acoustics program for the past 10 years is included.

  9. Charm contribution to bulk viscosity

    E-print Network

    M. Laine; Kiyoumars A. Sohrabi

    2015-02-24

    In the range of temperatures reached in future heavy ion collision experiments, hadronic pair annihilations and creations of charm quarks may take place within the lifetime of the plasma. As a result, charm quarks may increase the bulk viscosity affecting the early stages of hydrodynamic expansion. Assuming thermalization, we estimate the charm contribution to bulk viscosity within the same effective kinetic theory framework in which the light parton contribution has been computed previously. The time scale at which this physics becomes relevant is related to the width of the transport peak associated with the trace anomaly correlator, and is found to be 600 MeV.

  10. Conditional entropy and Landauer principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiuchiú, D.; Diamantini, M. C.; Gammaitoni, L.

    2015-08-01

    The Landauer principle describes the minimum heat produced by an information-processing device. Recently a new term has been included in the minimum heat production: it is called conditional entropy and takes into account the microstates content of a given logic state. Usually this term is assumed to be zero in bistable symmetric systems thanks to the strong hypothesis used to derive the Landauer principle. In this paper we show that conditional entropy can be nonzero even for bistable symmetric systems and that it can be expressed as the sum of three different terms related to the probabilistic features of the device. The contribution of the three terms to conditional entropy (and thus to the minimum heat production) is then discussed for the case of bit reset.

  11. B. F. Skinner's contributions to applied behavior analysis

    E-print Network

    Morris, Edward K.; Smith, Nathaniel G.; Altus, Deborah E.

    2005-01-01

    from a number of sources: the empiricist philosopher Francis Ba con (1620/1960; Smith, 1996); Claude Bernard, the father of experimental medicine (1865/1949; see Thompson, 1984); the Nobel laureate physiologist Ivan P. Pavlov (1927; see Catania... of psychoanalysis based on Pavlov's (1927) research on conditioned reflexes and Hull's (1943) drive-reduction the ory of instrumental conditioning (see Dollard & Miller, 1950; Miller & Dol lard, 1943). These theories and this re search contributed in important...

  12. CONTRIBUTED Progress Towards the First

    E-print Network

    Tentzeris, Manos

    , Fellow IEEE ABSTRACT | This paper discusses the evolution towards the first integrated radio and paper substrates for the first time ever. The first sections highlight the unique capabilities of inkjetCONTRIBUTED P A P E R Progress Towards the First Wireless Sensor Networks Consisting of Inkjet

  13. Design Editorial Industrial Research Contributions

    E-print Network

    Papalambros, Panos

    Journal of Mechanical Design Editorial Industrial Research Contributions Would authors working in industry be welcome contributors to JMD? The answer is an emphatic "yes, indeed!" but the reality is that authors from industry are a small minority relative to authors from academia. There are some real reasons

  14. Processed foods: contributions to nutrition.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David

    2014-06-01

    Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers. PMID:24760975

  15. Switchgrass cultivars alter microbial contribution to deep soil C

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial, cellulosic biofuel feedstock capable of growing under a wide variety of climatic conditions on land marginally suited to cultivated crops. Due to its perennial nature and deep rooting characteristics, switchgrass contributes to soil C sequestration ...

  16. Moderate Point: Balanced Entropy and Enthalpy Contributions in Soft Matter

    E-print Network

    Yanting Wang

    2015-11-20

    Here I define soft matter as materials working in the vicinity of a moderate point, at which the system has balanced entropy and enthalpy contributions and the order parameter fluctuation maximizes. Moreover, the maximization of the associated response function explains their sensitivity to thermal conditions.

  17. Contributed Paper Climate Change, Multiple Stressors, and the Decline

    E-print Network

    Rohr, Jason

    Contributed Paper Climate Change, Multiple Stressors, and the Decline of Ectotherms JASON R. ROHR to be causing declines of ectothermic vertebrates, but there is little evidence that climatic conditions of amphibians and perhaps other ectothermic vertebrates. Keywords: amphibian decline, atrazine, climate change

  18. Fault Contribution Trees for Product Families Dingding Lu *

    E-print Network

    Lutz, Robyn R.

    fault tree (SFT) the use of Boolean logic to describe the combinations of nodes that may contribute to a particular root hazard or failure. The FCT is different from a SFT in that: · The nodes of the FCT are features (commonalities or variabilities) rather than events or conditions as in the SFT. · Lower nodes

  19. Contribution of anthropogenic warming to California drought during 20122014

    E-print Network

    Smerdon, Jason E.

    Contribution of anthropogenic warming to California drought during 2012­2014 A. Park Williams1 of calculations, California drought conditions were record breaking in 2014, but probably not record breaking likelihood of extreme California droughts. 1. Introduction During 2012­2014, drought in California (CA

  20. Contribution of galactose and fructose to glucose homeostasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the contributions of galactose and fructose to glucose formation, 6 subjects (26 +/- 2 years old; body mass index, 22.4 +/-0.2 kg/m2) (mean +/- SE) were studied during fasting conditions. Three subjects received a primed constant intravenous infusion of[6,6-2H2] glucose for 3 hours foll...

  1. Transient global amnesia associated with accidental high-frequency stimulation of the right hippocampus in deep brain stimulation for segmental dystonia.

    PubMed

    Baezner, Hansjörg; Blahak, Christian; Capelle, H Holger; Schrader, Christoph; Lütjens, Götz; Krauss, Joachim K

    2013-01-01

    We report on a 66-year-old woman with segmental dystonia treated with chronic bilateral deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus, in whom accidental high-voltage, high-frequency stimulation induced an episode of transient global amnesia (TGA) via an electrode contact which was misplaced in the right hippocampus. A possible mechanism underlying this TGA episode may have been the inhibition of local neuronal activity or fiber activation by high current density via direct electrical stimulation of hippocampal structures. While a unifying etiology of TGA has not been proven so far, our case demonstrates a possible link between focal electrical stimulation of hippocampal structures and the full clinical picture of the syndrome. PMID:23969701

  2. ONERA's contribution to space environment standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maget, Vincent; Ecoffet, Robert; Roussel, Jean-Francois

    Ever since its creation in 1967, the Space Environment Department (DESP) at ONERA's objective has been to evaluate the environmental conditions of space missions and prevent the damage they may cause. The DESP studies and models the different components of the space mission environment (mainly charged particles) and evaluates the associated risks with on-board experiments and simulations on the ground. As the reference expert in space environment for both the French Space Agency and European space industries, the DESP has been named as the French representative in the ISO TC20 / SC14 / WG4 working group. In parallel to this contribution, the DESP is also involved in WG1 (Design engineering and production) and WG6 (Materials and Processes),as well as in the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS) committee dedicated to Space Environment standards (ECSS-10.04C). The purpose of this presentation is, first, to detail the ONERA’s contributions to space environment standardizations (its role as well as the standards developed at ONERA). In a second step, I shall also present some on-going works such as data assimilation and specifications model for other planets (Jupiter and Saturn) conducted at ONERA, in order to prepare the next generation standards and anticipate Space community needs.

  3. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

  4. Accidental nuclear war: Modifications to superpower arsenals and to procedures for handling them could substantially reduce the risk of unintended Armageddon

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, B.G.; Kendall, H.W.

    1990-12-01

    If nuclear war breaks out in the coming decade or two, it will probably be by accident. The threat of a cold-blooded, calculated first strike is vanishing, but beneath the calm surface of constructive diplomacy among the traditional nuclear rivals lurks the danger of unpremeditated use of nuclear weapons. The accidental, unauthorized or inadvertent use of these weapons has become the most plausible path to nuclear war. Both superpowers, as well as France, Great Britain and China - long-standing members of the nuclear club - are potential sources of accidental missile launch. The emergence of fledgling nuclear powers such as India, Pakistan and Israel - some armed with ballistic missiles - pushes nuclear safeguards even closer to the top of the international security agenda. The chances of unwanted nuclear war would be reduced significantly if tamper proof, coded locks were installed on all nuclear weapons and if methods were put in place to disarm nuclear forces even after launch. In addition, the US and the Soviet Union should reduce their reliance on the dangerous policy of launch on warning and reduce the launch readiness of their nuclear forces. The social and political upheavals in the Soviet Union underscore fears of unintended nuclear war. Civil turmoil raises the possibility that rebellious ethnic groups or splinter organizations could capture nuclear weapons. Other, deeper fault lines run through the whole of Soviet society and may be capable of cracking the foundations of its nuclear command system. Although the US faces no such civil unrest, the country's system of nuclear command carries some risk that nuclear weapons might be used contrary to the intentions of legitimate authorities.

  5. Townes' contribution to nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmire, Elsa

    2015-03-01

    In honour of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Nobel Prize in Physics, this talk introduced the contributions of Nicholas Basov and Alexei Prokhorov, who shared the prize with Charles Townes. The talk then detailed the quantum electronics research of Townes, particularly at MIT, which was related to nonlinear optics. The years from 1961 to 1968 were particularly exciting, as the ruby laser enabled a wide variety of new physics to be discovered and explored.

  6. CONTRIBUTED A Microtransceiver for UHF

    E-print Network

    Kuhn, William B.

    CONTRIBUTED P A P E R A Microtransceiver for UHF Proximity Links Including Mars Surface Tugnawat, Member IEEE, and Xin He ABSTRACT | A low-volume low-mass low-power ultra-high- frequency radio , mass of less than 50 grams, and power consumption of 50 mW on receive and 100 mW, 300 mW, or 3 W

  7. Oil-spill risk analysis: Cook inlet outer continental shelf lease sale 149. Volume 2: Conditional risk contour maps of seasonal conditional probabilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.R.; Marshall, C.F.; Anderson, C.M.; Lear, E.M.

    1994-08-01

    The Federal Government has proposed to offer Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lands in Cook Inlet for oil and gas leasing. Because oil spills may occur from activities associated with offshore oil production, the Minerals Management Service conducts a formal risk assessment. In evaluating the significance of accidental oil spills, it is important to remember that the occurrence of such spills is fundamentally probabilistic. The effects of oil spills that could occur during oil and gas production must be considered. This report summarizes results of an oil-spill risk analysis conducted for the proposed Cook Inlet OCS Lease Sale 149. The objective of this analysis was to estimate relative risks associated with oil and gas production for the proposed lease sale. To aid the analysis, conditional risk contour maps of seasonal conditional probabilities of spill contact were generated for each environmental resource or land segment in the study area. This aspect is discussed in this volume of the two volume report.

  8. Pursuing the Pavlovian Contributions to Induction in Rats Responding for 1% Sucrose Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Huls, Amber; Kulland, Ashley

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated whether Pavlovian conditioning contributes, in the form of the response operandum serving as a conditioned stimulus, to the increase in the rate of response for 1% liquid-sucrose reinforcement when food-pellet reinforcement is upcoming. Rats were exposed to conditions in which sign tracking for 1% sucrose was…

  9. Uniform General Conditions and Supplementary General Conditions

    E-print Network

    and Other Laws Governing Construction 8 Article 3. General Responsibilities of Owner and Contractor 11Uniform General Conditions and Supplementary General Conditions for Construction and Design Contracts 2013 Amended #12;2 | P a g e Table of Contents Article 1. Definitions 3 Article 2. Wage Rates

  10. 5 CFR 890.501 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Government contributions. 890.501 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Contributions and Withholdings § 890.501 Government contributions. (a) The Government contribution toward subscription charges under all health benefits plans,...

  11. 5 CFR 890.501 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Government contributions. 890.501 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Contributions and Withholdings § 890.501 Government contributions. (a) The Government contribution toward subscription charges under all health benefits plans,...

  12. Nobel Prizes: Contributions to Cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize’s history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male. PMID:25945466

  13. Compositeness Condition for Dynamically Induced Gauge Theories

    E-print Network

    Akama, K; Akama, Keiichi; Hattori, Takashi

    1997-01-01

    We show that the compositeness condition for the induced gauge boson in the four-fermion interaction theory actually works beyond the one-loop approximation. The next-to-leading contributions are calculated, and turn out to be reasonably suppressed, so that the leading-order approximation is justified.

  14. IDS contribution to ITRF2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valette, J.; Lemoine, F.; Ferrage, P.; Altamimi, Z.; Willis, P.; Stepanek, P.; Otten, M.; Govind, R.; Kuzin, S.; Le Bail, K.; Moore, P.; Yaya, P.; Soudarin, L.

    2009-12-01

    The International DORIS Service (IDS), in operation since 2003, submitted three sets of solutions to ITRF2005 from the IGN/JPL, LEGOS/CLS, and INASAN analysis centers, but no DORIS technique combination. Since that time new analysis centers have become operational including the Geodetic Observatory Pecny (GOP), the European Space Operations Center (ESOC), Geoscience Australia (GAU), the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSC), and the University of Newcastle (NCL). These analysis centers run different software, including Gypsy (IGN & INASAN), GINS (LCA), Bernese (GOP), NAPEOS (ESOC), GEODYN (Geoscience Australia and NASA GSFC) and FAUST (NCL). In order to contribute to ITRF2008, seven analysis centers processed DORIS data from TOPEX/Poseidon, SPOT2, SPOT3, SPOT4, SPOT5, and ENVISAT from 1992 to 2008, producing weekly SINEX solutions or normal equations. The weekly SINEX files from seven AC’s were processed with the CATREF software. Three iterations of an IDS weekly combined time series were completed. The IDS-1, and IDS-2 combinations were preliminary station-only solutions. In the final combination, IDS-3, both stations and the Earth Orientation Paramters (EOP’s) were adjusted. Between each of the IDS combinations, the combination strategy (station filtering, outliers, weighting, scale or geocenter contributions) was improved and the AC’s SINEX series were refined. Some series were extended in data span while others were recomputed to correct anomalies or to improve the quality of the submissions, based on feedback from the combination analyses and intercenter comparisons. For example in IDS-1, both the GAU and GSC solutions were affected by a 20 mm scale offset that was removed in IDS-2 and IDS-3 after the application of improved troposphere modelling in the GEODYN software. The analysis for IDS-1 showed a higher station position WRMS in the vicinity of the high solar flux periods (late 2001-2002). Consequently for IDS-2, several AC’s (LCA, GAU, GSC) recomputed their orbits to estimate drag coefficients more frequently to mitigate this effect. The analysis of the frequency and amplitude of geocenter and scale signals was used to define the AC contributions to geocenter and scale in the final combination IDS-3. The comparisons of IDS-3 w.r.t. ITRF2008 are presented. Future prospects and plans for the IDS DORIS analyses are discussed.

  15. Accidental release of chlorine in Chicago: Coupling of an exposure model with a Computational Fluid Dynamics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, E. Y.; Colman Lerner, J. E.; Porta, A.; Jacovkis, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The adverse health effects of the release of hazardous substances into the atmosphere continue being a matter of concern, especially in densely populated urban regions. Emergency responders need to have estimates of these adverse health effects in the local population to aid planning, emergency response, and recovery efforts. For this purpose, models that predict the transport and dispersion of hazardous materials are as necessary as those that estimate the adverse health effects in the population. In this paper, we present the results obtained by coupling a Computational Fluid Dynamics model, FLACS (FLame ACceleration Simulator), with an exposure model, DDC (Damage Differential Coupling). This coupled model system is applied to a scenario of hypothetical release of chlorine with obstacles, such as buildings, and the results show how it is capable of predicting the atmospheric dispersion of hazardous chemicals, and the adverse health effects in the exposed population, to support decision makers both in charge of emergency planning and in charge of real-time response. The results obtained show how knowing the influence of obstacles in the trajectory of the toxic cloud and in the diffusion of the pollutants transported, and obtaining dynamic information of the potentially affected population and of associated symptoms, contribute to improve the planning of the protection and response measures.

  16. Carl Neumann's Contributions to Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlote, Karl-Heinz

    2004-09-01

    I examine the publications of Carl Neumann (1832 1925) on electrodynamics, which constitute a major part of his work and which illuminate his approach to mathematical physics. I show how Neumann contributed to physics at an important stage in its development and how his work led to a polemic with Hermann Helmholtz (1821 1894). Neumann advanced and extended the ideas of the Königsberg school of mathematical physics. His investigations were aimed at founding a mathematically exact physical theory of electrodynamics, following the approach of Carl G.J. Jacobi (1804 1851) on the foundation of a physical theory as outlined in Jacobi’s lectures on analytical mechanics. Neumann’s work also shows how he clung to principles that impeded him in appreciating and developing new ideas such as those on field theory that were proposed by Michael Faraday (1791 1867) and James Clerk Maxwell (1831 1879).

  17. Magmatic contributions to hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muffler, L. J. Patrick; Hedenquist, Jeffrey W.; Kesler, Stephen E.; Izawa, Eiji

    Although there is agreement that many hydrothermal systems in the upper crust derive their thermal energy from magmas, debate continues over the extent to which magmas contribute water, metals, and sulfur to hydrothermal systems. A multidisciplinary seminar was held November 10-16, 1991, in Ebino and Kagoshima, Japan, to establish current understanding about this topic and to explore the major unanswered questions and the most promising research directions. The thirty-eight participants were from Japan (eighteen), the U.S. (thirteen), Canada and New Zealand (two each), and England, the Philippines, and Russia (one each). Disciplines represented were volcanology, geochemistry (volcanic-gas, water, isotopes, experimental, and modeling), igneous petrology, geothermal geology, economic geology, fluid-inclusion study, geophysics, and physical modeling.

  18. Possible NASA Contributions to HEAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    A four-year experiment (HEAT) has been proposed (one summer in the field, 2005) to determine the sources and causes for the enhanced cloud-to-ground lightning over Houston, Texas, in association with simultaneous experiments by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC). Houston is the third most populous city in the United States and the region contains 50% of the petroleum refining capacity of the United States. Recent studies covering the period 1989-2000 document a 50% increase of cloud-to-ground lightning in the Houston area as compared to background values, which is second in flash density only to the Tampa Bay, Florida area. It is suggested that the elevated flash densities could result from several factors, including, 1) the convergence due to the urban heat island effect and complex sea breeze, and 2) the increasing levels of air pollution from anthropogenic sources producing numerous small droplets and thereby suppressing mean droplet size. The latter effect would enable more cloud water to reach the mixed phase region where it is involved in the formation of precipitation and the separation of electric charge, leading to an enhancement of lightning. The primary goals of HEAT are to examine the effects of (1) pollution, (2) the urban heat island, and (3) the complex coastline, on storms and lightning characteristics in the Houston area. The project is a multi- agency effort and will employ numerous observing capabilities and expertise. Dr. Shepherd has been asked to serve as a possible co- investigator to contribute expertise in areas related to urban impacts on precipitation variability. Dr. Shepherd is also a key NASA representative in the interagency effort. This presentation will provide an overview of recent NASA research focused on urban rainfall in Houston and offer potential NASA capabilities that could contribute to HEAT.

  19. Original Contribution Effect Modification by Community Characteristics on the Short-term Effects of

    E-print Network

    Dominici, Francesca

    Original Contribution Effect Modification by Community Characteristics on the Short-term Effects, number of ozone monitors, weather, and use of air conditioning. Their study included data on 98 US urban

  20. Global emissions of refrigerants HCFC-22 and HFC-134a: Unforeseen seasonal contributions

    E-print Network

    Xiang, Bin

    HCFC-22 (CHClF[subscript 2]) and HFC-134a (CH[subscript 2]FCF[subscript 3]) are two major gases currently used worldwide in domestic and commercial refrigeration and air conditioning. HCFC-22 contributes to stratospheric ...

  1. 12 CFR 1291.2 - Required annual AHP contributions; allocation of contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required annual AHP contributions; allocation... GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS' AFFORDABLE HOUSING PROGRAM § 1291.2 Required annual AHP contributions; allocation of contributions. (a) Annual AHP contributions. Each Bank shall contribute annually...

  2. 12 CFR 1291.2 - Required annual AHP contributions; allocation of contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Required annual AHP contributions; allocation... GOALS AND MISSION FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS' AFFORDABLE HOUSING PROGRAM § 1291.2 Required annual AHP contributions; allocation of contributions. (a) Annual AHP contributions. Each Bank shall contribute annually...

  3. 26 CFR 1.401(m)-1 - Employee contributions and matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Employee contributions and matching contributions.... § 1.401(m)-1 Employee contributions and matching contributions. (a) General nondiscrimination rules—(1... not satisfy section 401(a) for a plan year unless the amount of employee contributions and...

  4. Landscape Thresholds and the Condition of Northeastern Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic impacts to northeastern estuaries have been well documented and many researchers have quantified the associations between broad scale human land uses in contributing landscapes and impacted estuarine condition. However, associations alone are not adequate for ident...

  5. Methane emissions and contaminant degradation rates at sites affected by accidental releases of denatured fuel-grade ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihota, Natasha J.; Mayer, K. Ulrich; Toso, Mark A.; Atwater, Joel F.

    2013-08-01

    The recent increase in the use of denatured fuel-grade ethanol (DFE) has enhanced the probability of its environmental release. Due to the highly labile nature of ethanol (EtOH), it is expected to rapidly biodegrade, increasing the potential for inducing methanogenic conditions in the subsurface. As environmental releases of DFE can be expected to occur at the ground surface or in the vadose zone (e.g., due to surficial spills from rail lines or tanker trucks and leaking underground storage tanks), the potential for methane (CH4) generation at DFE spill sites requires evaluation. An assessment is needed because high CH4 generation rates may lead to CH4 fluxes towards the ground surface, which is of particular concern if spills are located close to human habitation—related to concerns of soil vapor intrusion (SVI). This work demonstrates, for the first time, the measurement of surficial gas release rates at large volume DFE spill sites. Two study sites, near Cambria and Balaton, in MN are investigated. Total carbon emissions at the ground surface (summing carbon dioxide (CO2) and CH4 emissions) are used to quantify depth-integrated DFE degradation rates. Results from both sites demonstrate that substantial CO2 and CH4 emissions do occur—even years after a spill. However, large total carbon fluxes, and CH4 emissions in particular, were restricted to a localized area within the DFE source zone. At the Balaton site, estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 5 and 174 ?mol m- 2 s- 1, and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 9 ?mol m- 2 s- 1. At the Cambria site estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 8 and 500 ?mol m- 2 s- 1, and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 393 ?mol m- 2 s- 1. Substantial CH4 accumulation, coupled with oxygen (O2) depletion, measured in samples collected from custom-designed gas collection chambers at the Cambria site suggests that the development of explosion or asphyxiation hazards is possible in confined spaces above a rapidly degrading DFE release. However, the results also indicate that the development of such hazards is locally constrained, will require a high degree of soil moisture, close proximity to the source zone, a good connection between the soil and the confined space, and poorly aerated conditions.

  6. 5 CFR 1600.22 - Maximum employee contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...participant may make traditional contributions and Roth contributions during the same year...tax-deferred employee contributions and Roth contributions cannot exceed the applicable...tax-deferred employee contributions and Roth contributions made to both accounts...

  7. 5 CFR 1600.22 - Maximum employee contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...participant may make traditional contributions and Roth contributions during the same year...tax-deferred employee contributions and Roth contributions cannot exceed the applicable...tax-deferred employee contributions and Roth contributions made to both accounts...

  8. Skin conditions of musicians.

    PubMed

    Adams, R M

    2000-01-01

    Although skin conditions among musicians are uncommon, when they do occur, they may cause considerable discomfort and disability. The pattern of the condition very often indicates the instrument played. PMID:10664874

  9. Modality, rationalism, and conditionals

    E-print Network

    Decker, Jason (Jason Andrew)

    2007-01-01

    This thesis consists of three interconnected papers on apriority, modality, and conditionals. In "Playground Conditionals," I look at three philosophical debates, each of which turns on the epistemic status of a certain ...

  10. Cost of crashes related to road conditions, United States, 2006.

    PubMed

    Zaloshnja, Eduard; Miller, Ted R

    2009-10-01

    This is the first study to estimate the cost of crashes related to road conditions in the U.S. To model the probability that road conditions contributed to the involvement of a vehicle in the crash, we used 2000-03 Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) data, the only dataset that provides detailed information whether road conditions contributed to crash occurrence. We applied the logistic regression results to a costed national crash dataset in order to calculate the probability that road conditions contributed to the involvement of a vehicle in each crash. In crashes where someone was moderately to seriously injured (AIS-2-6) in a vehicle that harmfully impacted a large tree or medium or large non-breakaway pole, or if the first harmful event was collision with a bridge, we changed the calculated probability of being road-related to 1. We used the state distribution of costs of fatal crashes where road conditions contributed to crash occurrence or severity to estimate the respective state distribution of non-fatal crash costs. The estimated comprehensive cost of traffic crashes where road conditions contributed to crash occurrence or severity was $217.5 billion in 2006. This represented 43.6% of the total comprehensive crash cost. The large share of crash costs related to road design and conditions underlines the importance of these factors in highway safety. Road conditions are largely controllable. Road maintenance and upgrading can prevent crashes and reduce injury severity. PMID:20184840

  11. Intercomparison of oil spill prediction models for accidental blowout scenarios with and without subsea chemical dispersant injection.

    PubMed

    Socolofsky, Scott A; Adams, E Eric; Boufadel, Michel C; Aman, Zachary M; Johansen, Øistein; Konkel, Wolfgang J; Lindo, David; Madsen, Mads N; North, Elizabeth W; Paris, Claire B; Rasmussen, Dorte; Reed, Mark; Rønningen, Petter; Sim, Lawrence H; Uhrenholdt, Thomas; Anderson, Karl G; Cooper, Cortis; Nedwed, Tim J

    2015-07-15

    We compare oil spill model predictions for a prototype subsea blowout with and without subsea injection of chemical dispersants in deep and shallow water, for high and low gas-oil ratio, and in weak to strong crossflows. Model results are compared for initial oil droplet size distribution, the nearfield plume, and the farfield Lagrangian particle tracking stage of hydrocarbon transport. For the conditions tested (a blowout with oil flow rate of 20,000 bbl/d, about 1/3 of the Deepwater Horizon), the models predict the volume median droplet diameter at the source to range from 0.3 to 6mm without dispersant and 0.01 to 0.8 mm with dispersant. This reduced droplet size owing to reduced interfacial tension results in a one to two order of magnitude increase in the downstream displacement of the initial oil surfacing zone and may lead to a significant fraction of the spilled oil not reaching the sea surface. PMID:26021288

  12. 31 CFR 548.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing or medicine, may be made by,...

  13. 31 CFR 546.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Control pursuant to this part, no charitable contribution of funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions to relieve human suffering, such as food, clothing, or medicine, may be made by,...

  14. Georgius Agricola's contributions to hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Isabel F.

    2015-04-01

    Georgius Agricola's 1546 book De Ortu et Causis Subterraneorum (On the Source and Causes of What is Underground) was the first European work since antiquity to focus on hydrology and helped to shape the thought of Nicolaus Steno, Pierre Perrault, A.G. Werner, and other important figures in the history of hydrology and geology. De Ortu contains the first known expressions of numerous concepts important in modern hydrology: erosion as an active process, groundwater movement through pores and fissures, hydrofracturing, water-rock reaction, and others. The concepts of groundwater origins, movement, and nature in De Ortu were also the foundation for the theories of ore deposit formation for which Agricola is better known. In spite of their importance, most of Agricola's contributions to the study of groundwater are unrecognized today because De Ortu, alone of his major works, has never been translated out of Latin and no existing vernacular summary of it is longer than two pages. This article presents the first detailed description of Agricola's work on hydrology and discusses the derivation and impact of his ideas.

  15. Eight-year follow-up study of three individuals accidentally exposed to (60)Co radiation: Chromosome aberration and micronucleus analysis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Li; He, Ling; Wang, Yan; Du, Liqing; Xu, Chang; Liu, Qiang; Fan, Feiyue

    2015-06-01

    We assessed dose levels and the persistence of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in three individuals in the 8 year following accidental (60)Co radiation exposure. Venous blood samples were collected and used for analyses: traditional chromosome aberration (CA) measurement, G-banding, and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. For CA analysis, we scored dicentric chromosomes (dic) and rings (r) in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The radiation doses (Gy) suffered by the individuals were estimated as: 1.79-2.43 (A), 2.36-2.86 (B), 1.58-1.82 (C), based on CA analysis; and 1.8-2.34 (A), 2.52-2.98 (B), 1.53-1.77 (C), based on CBMN frequencies. G-banding analysis was used to record translocations (t), inversions (inv), and deletions (del). Following the accident, unstable CAs reduced gradually, but stable aberrations persisted. Unstable CAs and CBMN may be valuable biomarkers for dose estimation shortly after high-dose radiation accidents, while stable aberrations may be more useful for assessing long-term effects. PMID:26046971

  16. Use of natural radionuclides to determine the time range of the accidental melting of an orphan radioactive source in a steel recycling plant.

    PubMed

    Cantaluppi, Chiara; Ceccotto, Federica; Cianchi, Aldo

    2012-02-01

    In the rare event that an orphan radioactive source is melted in an Electric Arc Furnace steel recycling plant, the radionuclides present are partitioned in the different products, by-products and waste. As a consequence of an unforeseen melting of a radiocesium source, cesium radioisotopes can be found in the dust, together with many natural radionuclides from the decay of radon and thoron, which are present in the atmosphere, picked up from the off-gas evacuation system and associated with the dust of the air filtration system ("baghouse"). In this work we verified that the activity concentration of ²¹²Pb in this dust is essentially constant in a specific factory so that it is possible to use it to date back to the time of the accidental melting of the orphan radioactive source. The main features of this method are described below, together with the application to a particular case in which this method was used for dating the moment in which the dust was contaminated with ¹³?Cs. PMID:22103976

  17. A case study of pollutants transported from HPCL (vishakhapatnam) accidental fire through synergy of flexpart model and ground-based instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wankhede, Tushar

    Tushar Wankhede*, Harish Gadhavi, Amit K. Pandit National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), Gadanki-517112, Chittoor, A.P. *tushar1771@gmail.com, Mobile: +91-8297152481 A fire at Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL) in Vishakhapatnam (17.70 ?N, 83.24?E) resulted from a gas leak in the salt water cooling tower system. This led to the release of various pollutants like hydrocarbons, black carbon, carbon mono-oxide and carbon dioxide etc(other gases) in just 44 min of fire in system a very huge amount of particles were emitted. The transport of these pollutants has been studied through FLEXPART which is a Lagrangian particle dispersion model having wide range of applications in atmospheric transport modeling. FLEXPART simulation of this accidental fire shows the direction and sensitivity of dispersed pollutants from its source. It was observed that the pollutants reached Gadanki, a rural site located at 13.45 ?N, 79.18 ?E in Southern-India. The concentration of pollutant obtained from FLEXPART output we are comparing with ground based instruments data collected at the observation site (Indian Climate Observatory Network-ICON, NARL Gadanki). This case-study provides significant information about the life-time of dispersed pollutants and their long-range transport pattern under the influence of small weather variability en-route from source to receptor. The detailed work of FLEXPART for the Long range transport of the particles will be presented later on in conference.

  18. Trends of Non-Accidental, Cardiovascular, Stroke and Lung Cancer Mortality in Arkansas Are Associated with Ambient PM2.5 Reductions

    PubMed Central

    Chalbot, Marie-Cecile G.; Jones, Tamara A.; Kavouras, Ilias G.

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular and stroke mortality rates in Arkansas are among the highest in the USA. The annual trends of stroke and cardiovascular mortality are barely correlated to smoking cessation; while the prevalence of risk factors such as obesity; cholesterol and hypertension increased over the 1979–2007 period. The study determined the effect of chronic exposure to PM2.5 on non-accidental; cardiovascular; stroke and lung cancer mortality in Arkansas over the 2000–2010 period using the World Health Organization’s log-linear health impact model. County chronic exposures to PM2.5 were computed by averaging spatially-resolved gridded concentrations using PM2.5 observations. A spatial uniformity was observed for PM2.5 mass levels indicating that chronic exposures were comparable throughout the state. The reduction of PM2.5 mass levels by 3.0 ?g/m3 between 2000 and 2010 explained a significant fraction of the declining mortality. The effect was more pronounced in southern and eastern rural Arkansas as compared to the rest of the state. This study provides evidence that the implementation of air pollution regulations has measurable effects on mortality even in regions with high prevalence of major risk factors such as obesity and smoking. These outcomes are noteworthy as efforts to modify the major risk factors require longer realization times. PMID:25050652

  19. Inflation of Conditional Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koriat, Asher; Fiedler, Klaus; Bjork, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors report 7 experiments indicating that conditional predictions--the assessed probability that a certain outcome will occur given a certain condition--tend to be markedly inflated. The results suggest that this inflation derives in part from backward activation in which the target outcome highlights aspects of the condition that are…

  20. Possible Russian Contribution to the ERNP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, Vladimir; Kent, Peter

    1998-09-01

    This paper, and the following five papers, were presented during the NAV 97 Conference held at Church House, Westminster, London on 11th and 12th November 1997. A full listing of the Conference, and how to obtain a copy of the proceedings, is shown on Page 279.The Government of the Russian Federation has made available, subject to certain conditions, the GLONASS satellite radionavigation system for civil use. Useof the system is free and there is no intention to introduce coding or to cause any deterioration to the accuracy of the signals. Discussions are currently taking place between the European Commission and the Russian Federation on cooperation concerning the implementation of a navigation satellite system for civil purposes. Discussions are also taking place between interested European Governments and the Russian Federation into the possibility of developing joint Chayka/Loran-C chains wherever this is feasible, and in particular, to cover the Barents Sea, the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea. The development of a concept on integration of radionavigation systems would probably be a significant contribution to the European Radionavigation Plan.

  1. 5 CFR 891.401 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Government contributions. 891.401 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Contributions and Withholdings § 891.401 Government... receive a Government contribution toward his or her cost of coverage for: (A) A private health...

  2. 5 CFR 891.401 - Government contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Government contributions. 891.401 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Contributions and Withholdings § 891.401 Government... receive a Government contribution toward his or her cost of coverage for: (A) A private health...

  3. Other Concerns & Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... difficulties that interfere with friendships. 3 How does ADHD interfere with peer relationships? Exactly how ADHD contributes ... that interfere with getting along with others. Having ADHD does not mean a child won’t have ...

  4. IDS contribution to ITRF2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valette, Jean-Jacques; Lemoine, Frank G.; Ferrage, Pascale; Yaya, Philippe; Altamimi, Zuheir; Willis, Pascal; Soudarin, Laurent

    2010-12-01

    For the first time, the International DORIS Service (IDS) has produced a technique level combination based on the contributions of seven analysis centers (ACs), including the European Space Operations Center (ESOC), Geodetic Observatory Pecny (GOP), Geoscience Australia (GAU), the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the Institut Géographique National (IGN), the Institute of Astronomy, Russian Academy of Sciences (INASAN, named as INA), and CNES/CLS (named as LCA). The ACs used five different software packages to process the DORIS data from 1992 to 2008, including NAPEOS (ESA), Bernese (GOP), GEODYN (GAU, GSC), GIPSY/OASIS (INA), and GINS (LCA). The data from seven DORIS satellites, TOPEX/Poseidon, SPOT-2, SPOT-3, SPOT-4, SPOT-5, Envisat and Jason-1 were processed and all the analysis centers produced weekly SINEX files in either variance-covariance or normal equation format. The processing by the analysis centers used the latest GRACE-derived gravity models, forward modelling of atmospheric gravity, updates to the radiation pressure modelling to improve the DORIS geocenter solutions, denser parameterization of empirically determined drag coefficients to improve station and EOP solutions, especially near the solar maximum in 2001-2002, updated troposphere mapping functions, and an ITRF2005-derived station set for orbit determination, DPOD2005. The CATREF software was used to process the weekly AC solutions, and produce three iterations of an IDS global weekly combination. Between the development of the initial solution IDS-1, and the final solution, IDS-3, the ACs improved their analysis strategies and submitted updated solutions to eliminate troposphere-derived biases in the solution scale, to reduce drag-related degradations in station positioning, and to refine the estimation strategy to improve the combination geocenter solution. An analysis of the frequency content of the individual AC geocenter and scale solutions was used as the basis to define the scale and geocenter of the IDS-3 combination. The final IDS-3 combination has an internal position consistency (WRMS) that is 15 to 20 mm before 2002 and 8 to 10 mm after 2002, when 4 or 5 satellites contribute to the weekly solutions. The final IDS-3 combination includes solutions for 130 DORIS stations on 67 different sites of which 35 have occupations over 16 years (1993.0-2009.0). The EOPs from the IDS-3 combination were compared with the IERS 05 C04 time series and the RMS agreement was 0.24 mas and 0.35 mas for the X and Y components of polar motion. The comparison to ITRF2005 in station position shows an agreement of 6 to 8 mm RMS in horizontal and 10.3 mm in height. The RMS comparison to ITRF2005 in station velocity is at 1.8 mm/year on the East component, to 1.2 mm/year in North component and 1.6 mm/year in height.

  5. Satellite Contributions to Global Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2009-01-01

    By providing a global view with a level playing field (no region missed because of unfavorable surface conditions or political boundaries), satellites have made major contributions to improved monitoring and understanding of our constantly changing planet. The global view has allowed surprising realizations like the relative sparsity of lightning strikes over oceans and the large-scale undulations on the massive Antarctic ice sheet. It has allowed the tracking of all sorts of phenomena, including aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, as they move with the atmospheric circulation and impact weather and human health. But probably nothing that the global view allows is more important in the long term than its provision. of unbiased data sets to address the issue of global change, considered by many to be among the most important issues facing humankind today. With satellites we can monitor atmospheric temperatures at all latitudes and longitudes, and obtain a global average that lessens the likelihood of becoming endlessly mired in the confusions brought about by the certainty of regional differences. With satellites we can monitor greenhouse gases such as CO2 not just above individual research stations but around the globe. With satellites we can monitor the polar sea ice covers, as we have done since the late 1970s, determining and quantifying the significant reduction in Arctic sea ice and the slight growth in Antarctic sea ice over that period, With satellites we can map the full extent and changes in the Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletions that were first identified from using a single ground station; and through satellite data we have witnessed from afar land surface changes brought about by humans both intentionally, as with wide-scale deforestation, and unintentionally, as with the decay of the Aral Sea. The satellite data are far from sufficient for all that we need in order to understand the global system and forecast its changes, as we also need sophisticated climate models, in situ process studies, and data sets that extend back well before the introduction of satellite technology. Nonetheless, the repetitive, global view provided by satellites is contributing in a major way to our improved recognition of how the Earth im changing, a recognition that is none too soon in view of the magnitude of the impacts that humans can now have.

  6. Contribution of laser ranging to Earth's sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exertier, Pierre; Bonnefond, Pascal; Deleflie, Florent; Barlier, François; Kasser, Michel; Biancale, Richard; Ménard, Yves

    2006-11-01

    Satellite and Lunar Laser Ranging (SLR and LLR, respectively) are based on a direct measurement of a distance by exactly measuring the time transit of a laser beam between a station and a space target. These techniques have proven to be very efficient methods for contributing to the tracking of both artificial satellites and the Moon, and for determining accurately their orbit and the associated geodynamical parameters, although hampered by the non-worldwide coverage and the meteorological conditions. Since more than 40 years, the French community (today 'Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur', CNES, 'Observatoire de Paris', and IGN) is largely involved in the technological developments as well as in the scientific achievements. The role of the laser technique has greatly evolved thanks to the success of GPS and DORIS; the laser technique teams have learnt to focus their effort in fields where this technique is totally specific and irreplaceable. The role of SLR data in the determination of terrestrial reference systems and in the modelling of the first terms of the gravity field (including the terrestrial constant GM that defines the scale of orbits) has to be emphasized, which is of primary importance in orbitography, whatever the tracking technique used. In addition, the role of LLR data (with two main stations, at Mac Donald (United States) and Grasse (France), since 30 years) has been of particular importance for improving solar system ephemeris and contributing to some features of fundamental physics (equivalence principle). Today, the role of the SLR technique is ( i) to determine and to maintain the scale factor of the global terrestrial reference frame, ( ii) to strengthen the vertical component (including velocity) of the positioning, which is crucial for altimetry missions and tectonic motions, ( iii) to locate the geocenter with respect to the Earth's crust, ( iv) to avoid any secular and undesirable drift of geodetic systems thanks to a very good accuracy. Now, the future of this technique is to enlarge the technical capability of laser ranging stations for long distances, that is the tracking of space targets orbiting through the Solar System. In addition, the laser technique should participate into time transfer experiments and improve, with mobile systems like the FTLRS and the new SLR2000 concept, the coverage of the international laser network (ILRS). To cite this article: P. Exertier et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  7. Common skin conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Ridley, M.; Safranek, M.

    1992-01-01

    Four common conditions: acne, psoriasis, eczema and urticaria are considered. Guidance is given on appropriate topical and systematic treatment for the different types and degrees of these conditions, with notes on management in general and criteria for referral to hospital outpatient departments. Where there are different types of the condition, with varying aetiology, for example in urticaria and eczema, management of the common types is outlined. PMID:1345156

  8. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2006, 20(2), 429435 2006 National Strength & Conditioning Association

    E-print Network

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    and move the spinal column as a whole. Examples include the rectus abdominis and the external oblique (22). The local muscles also contribute to maintaining stiffness along the spinal column. The mul- tifidus & Conditioning Association THE EFFECTS OF STABILITY BALL TRAINING ON SPINAL STABILITY IN SEDENTARY INDIVIDUALS

  9. Nonparametric conditional estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    Many nonparametric regression techniques (such as kernels, nearest neighbors, and smoothing splines) estimate the conditional mean of Y given X = chi by a weighted sum of observed Y values, where observations with X values near chi tend to have larger weights. In this report the weights are taken to represent a finite signed measure on the space of Y values. This measure is studied as an estimate of the conditional distribution of Y given X = chi. From estimates of the conditional distribution, estimates of conditional means, standard deviations, quantiles and other statistical functionals may be computed. Chapter 1 illustrates the computation of conditional quantiles and conditional survival probabilities on the Stanford Heart Transplant data. Chapter 2 contains a survey of nonparametric regression methods and introduces statistical metrics and von Mises' method for later use. Chapter 3 proves some consistency results. Chapter 4 provides conditions under which the suitably normalized errors in estimating the conditional distribution of Y have a Brownian limit. Using von Mises' method, asymptotic normality is obtained for nonparametric conditional estimates of compactly differentiable statistical functionals.

  10. 26 CFR 1.401(m)-1 - Employee contributions and matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Employee contributions and matching... Plans, Etc. § 1.401(m)-1 Employee contributions and matching contributions. (a) General... defined contribution plan does not satisfy section 401(a) for a plan year unless the amount of...

  11. 26 CFR 1.401(m)-1 - Employee contributions and matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Employee contributions and matching... Plans, Etc. § 1.401(m)-1 Employee contributions and matching contributions. (a) General... defined contribution plan does not satisfy section 401(a) for a plan year unless the amount of...

  12. 26 CFR 1.401(m)-1 - Employee contributions and matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employee contributions and matching... Plans, Etc. § 1.401(m)-1 Employee contributions and matching contributions. (a) General... defined contribution plan does not satisfy section 401(a) for a plan year unless the amount of...

  13. Mechanisms Contributing to the Induction and Storage of Pavlovian Fear Memories in the Lateral Amygdala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongbeom; Pare, Denis; Nair, Satish S.

    2013-01-01

    The relative contributions of plasticity in the amygdala vs. its afferent pathways to conditioned fear remain controversial. Some believe that thalamic and cortical neurons transmitting information about the conditioned stimulus (CS) to the lateral amygdala (LA) serve a relay function. Others maintain that thalamic and/or cortical plasticity is…

  14. 77 FR 44670 - Information Collection Activities: National Historic Landmarks (NHL) Condition Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ...regarding the condition of designated landmarks. A questionnaire will be designed and used to collect information...condition data. Regional NPS staff contributed to the design of the questionnaire that is the subject of this request. II....

  15. 22 CFR 203.3 - U.S. PVO conditions of registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2) Has its headquarters in the United States. (b) Condition No. 2 (Private). Is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) and solicits and receives cash contributions from the U.S. general public. (c) Condition No. 3 (Voluntary)....

  16. 22 CFR 203.3 - U.S. PVO conditions of registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2) Has its headquarters in the United States. (b) Condition No. 2 (Private). Is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) and solicits and receives cash contributions from the U.S. general public. (c) Condition No. 3 (Voluntary)....

  17. 22 CFR 203.3 - U.S. PVO conditions of registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2) Has its headquarters in the United States. (b) Condition No. 2 (Private). Is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) and solicits and receives cash contributions from the U.S. general public. (c) Condition No. 3 (Voluntary)....

  18. 22 CFR 203.3 - U.S. PVO conditions of registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2) Has its headquarters in the United States. (b) Condition No. 2 (Private). Is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) and solicits and receives cash contributions from the U.S. general public. (c) Condition No. 3 (Voluntary)....

  19. 22 CFR 203.3 - U.S. PVO conditions of registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2) Has its headquarters in the United States. (b) Condition No. 2 (Private). Is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) and solicits and receives cash contributions from the U.S. general public. (c) Condition No. 3 (Voluntary)....

  20. Monitoring perfluorinated surfactants in biota and surface water samples following an accidental release of fire-fighting foam into Etobicoke Creek.

    PubMed

    Moody, Cheryl A; Martin, Jonathan W; Kwan, Wai Chi; Muir, Derek C G; Mabury, Scott A

    2002-02-15

    Perfluorinated surfactants have emerged as priority environmental contaminants due to recent reports of their detection in environmental and biological matrices as well as concerns regarding their persistence and toxicity. In June 2000, 22000 L of fire retardant foam containing perfluorinated surfactants was accidentally released at L. B. Pearson International Airport, Toronto, ON, and subsequently entered into Etobicoke Creek, a tributary to Lake Ontario. A suite of analytical tools that include liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and 19F NMR were employed to characterize fish (common shiner, Notropus cornutus) and surface water samples collected following the discharge of the perfluorinated material. Total perfluoroalkanesulfonate (4, 6, and 8 carbons) concentrations in fish liver samples ranged from 2.00 to 72.9 microg/g, and total perfluorocarboxylate (5-14 carbons) concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 1.02 microg/g. In addition to fish samples, total perfluoroalkanesulfonate (6 and 8 carbons) concentrations were detected in creek water samples by LC/MS/MS over a 153 day sampling period with concentrations ranging from <0.017 to 2260 microg/L; perfluorooctanoate concentrations (<0.009-11.3 microg/L) were lower than those observed for the perfluoroalkane-sulfonates. By 19F NMR, the total perfluorinated surfactant concentrations in surface water samples ranged from < 10 to 17000 microg/L. A bioaccumulation factor range of 6300-125000 was calculated for perfluorooctanesulfonate, based on concentrations in fish liver and surface water. The residence time of perfluorooctanesulfonate in Etobicoke Creek as well as the high bioaccumulation in fish liver suggests that perfluorinated surfactants will persist and bioaccumulate following release into the aquatic environment. PMID:11883418

  1. Learning Conditions, Members' Motivation and Satisfaction: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimas, Isabel Dórdio; Rebelo, Teresa; Lourenço, Paulo Renato

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to contribute to the clarification of the conditions under which teams can be successful, especially those related to team learning. To attain this goal, in the present study, the mediating role played by team members' motivation on the relationship between team learning conditions (shared learning beliefs…

  2. Cell Reports A Conditional System to Specifically Link

    E-print Network

    Straight, Aaron

    years, methods allowing manipulation of genes of in- terest within living organisms have enabled control. As a result, conditional gene disruption has become a critical tool for understanding gene.0/). SUMMARY Conditional gene deletion in mice has contributed immensely to our understanding of many

  3. Conditioning laboratory cats to handling and transport.

    PubMed

    Gruen, Margaret E; Thomson, Andrea E; Clary, Gillian P; Hamilton, Alexandra K; Hudson, Lola C; Meeker, Rick B; Sherman, Barbara L

    2013-10-01

    As research subjects, cats have contributed substantially to our understanding of biological systems, from the development of mammalian visual pathways to the pathophysiology of feline immunodeficiency virus as a model for human immunodeficiency virus. Few studies have evaluated humane methods for managing cats in laboratory animal facilities, however, in order to reduce fear responses and improve their welfare. The authors describe a behavioral protocol used in their laboratory to condition cats to handling and transport. Such behavioral conditioning benefits the welfare of the cats, the safety of animal technicians and the quality of feline research data. PMID:24051643

  4. Sleep Disturbances in Patients with Medical Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Jayesh; Prpich, Galina; Jillani, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    Sleep-wake cycle disturbances are prevalent in patients with medical conditions and frequently present as part of a symptom cluster. Sleep disturbances impair functioning and quality of life, decrease adherence to treatments of the primary medical condition, and increase morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of sleep disturbances in these patients involves alterations in immune and neuroendocrine function and shares common pathophysiologic pathways with comorbidities such as fatigue and depression. Emphasis is placed on the evaluation and management of medical and psychiatric comorbidities and other factors contributing to sleep problems. Primary treatments include cognitive-behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy. PMID:26600111

  5. Estimation of foreign versus domestic contributions to Taiwan's air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jen-Ping; Yang, Cheng-En; Tsai, I.-Chun

    2015-07-01

    Based on the analysis of observational data obtained over a period of 17 years, this study developed a novel approach estimating long-term changes in the relative contributions of domestic and foreign sources to air pollution levels over the island of Taiwan. The contribution from foreign sources was calculated using data measured at selected coastal monitoring stations under specific meteorological conditions. The domestic contribution was derived by subtracting the foreign contribution from the overall concentration, which was calculated with island-wide monitoring station data averaged using Thiessen polygon area weighting. The trends of mean CO, NO, NO2 and SO2 concentrations in Taiwan were -2.1%, -3.3%, -1.4% and 0% yr-1; while the background concentrations varied by -1.0%, 5.7%, 3.8% and 6.6% yr-1, respectively. These figures suggest that the efforts of Taiwan in reducing air pollution are largely being negated by foreign contributions. Ozone showed a steady increase of 3.3% yr-1, and a portion of this was associated with a 1.0% yr-1 increase in background values. Local and background PM10 concentrations did not show significant long-term trends, but rather strong inter-annual variations associated with dust storm activity in East Asia. The domestic fractions of NO and NO2 respectively decreased from 90% and 85% in 1994 to less than 60% and 70% in 2010. In contrast, the domestic fraction of SO2 decreased from 82% in 1994 to 27% in 2010. The domestic fraction of CO exhibited no obvious trend due to concurrent decreases in local and background contributions. Background O3 values tended to drop across Taiwan due to the titration effect from domestic NO emissions, and the fraction of domestic O3 titration decreased from 50% in the mid-90s to 25% in 2010.

  6. Traits Contributing to the Autistic Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Steer, Colin D.; Golding, Jean; Bolton, Patrick F.

    2010-01-01

    Background It is increasingly recognised that traits associated with autism reflect a spectrum with no clear boundary between typical and atypical behaviour. Dimensional traits are needed to investigate the broader autism phenotype. Methods and Principal Findings Ninety-three individual measures reflecting components of social, communication and repetitive behaviours characterising autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) were identified between the ages of 6 months and 9 years from the ALSPAC database. Using missing value imputation, data for 13,138 children were analysed. Factor analysis suggested the existence of 7 factors explaining 85% of the variance. The factors were labelled: verbal ability, language acquisition, social understanding, semantic-pragmatic skills, repetitive-stereotyped behaviour, articulation and social inhibition. Four factors (1, 3, 5 and 7) were specific to ASD being more strongly associated with this phenotype than other co-morbid conditions while other factors were more associated with learning difficulties and specific language impairment. Nevertheless, all 7 factors contributed independently to the explanation of ASD (p<0.001). Exploration of putative genetic causal factors such as variants in the CNTNAP2 gene showed a varying pattern of associations with these traits. An alternative predictive model of ASD was derived using four individual measures: the coherence subscale of the Children's Communication Checklist (9y), the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (91 m), repetitive behaviour (69 m) and the sociability subscale of the Emotionality Activity and Sociability measure (38 m). Although univarably these traits performed better than some factors, their combined explanations of ASD were similar (R2?=?0.48). Conclusions and Significance These results support the fractional nature of ASD with different aetiological origins for these components despite pleiotropic genetic effects being observed. These traits are likely to be useful in the exploration of ASD. PMID:20838614

  7. The soil physics contributions of Edgar Buckingham

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimmo, J.R.; Landa, E.R.

    2005-01-01

    During 1902 to 1906 as a soil physicist at the USDA Bureau of Soils (BOS), Edgar Buckingham originated the concepts of matric potential, soil-water retention curves, specific water capacity, and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K) as a distinct property of a soil. He applied a formula equivalent to Darcy's law (though without specific mention of Darcy's work) to unsaturated flow. He also contributed significant research on quasi-empirical formulas for K as a function of water content, water flow in capillary crevices and in thin films, and scaling. Buckingham's work on gas flow in soils produced paradigms that are consistent with our current understanding. His work on evaporation elucidated the concept of self-mulching and produced sound and sometimes paradoxical generalizations concerning conditions that favor or retard evaporation. Largely overshadowing those achievements, however, is that he launched a theory, still accepted today, that could predict transient water content as a function of time and space. Recently discovered documents reveal some of the arguments Buckingham had with BOS officials, including the text of a two-paragraph conclusion of his famous 1907 report on soil water, and the official letter documenting rejection of that text. Strained interpersonal relations motivated the departure of Buckingham and other brilliant physicists (N.E. Dorsey, F.H. King, and Lyman Briggs) from the BOS during 1903 to 1906. Given that Buckingham and his BOS colleagues had been rapidly developing the means of quantifying unsaturated flow, these strained relations probably slowed the advancement of unsaturated flow theory. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  8. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Condition report compiles several available data sets from different agencies and areas of the country and summarizes them to present a broad baseline picture of the condition of coastal waters. Although data sets presented in this report do not cover all coa...

  9. FLUE GAS CONDITIONING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a survey of available flue gas conditioning agents and user experience. Many existing chemicals have been used as conditioning agents in power plants or have been studied in the laboratory as potential agents. The particle collection efficiency of an e...

  10. Condition Assessment Information System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-09-16

    CAIS2000 records, tracks and cost maintenance deficiencies associated with condition assessments of real property assets. Cost information is available for 39,000 items in the currenht RS Means, Facilities Construction Manual. These costs can, in turn, be rolled by by asset to produce the summary condition of an asset or site.

  11. Charming penguin contributions to B => K ?

    E-print Network

    C. Isola; M. Ladisa; G. Nardulli; T. N. Pham; P. Santorelli

    2001-04-10

    We present calculations of the charming-penguin long-distance contributions to B => K \\pi decays due to intermediate charmed meson states. Our calculation is based on the Chiral Effective Lagrangean for light and heavy mesons, corrected for the hard pion and kaon momenta. We find that the charming-penguin contributions increase significantly the B => K \\pi decay rates in comparison with the short-distance contributions, giving results in better agreement with experimental data.

  12. Measuring the contribution of atmospheric scatter to laser eye dazzle.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Craig A; Rickman, J Michael; Freeman, David A; Manka, Michael A; McLin, Leon N

    2015-09-01

    An experiment has been conducted to determine the contribution of atmospheric scatter to the severity of the dazzle experienced by a human under illumination from a visible laser. A 15 W 532 nm laser was propagated over a 380 m outdoor range in San Antonio, Texas, over nine data collection sessions spanning June and July 2014. A narrow acceptance angle detector was used to measure scattered laser radiation within the laser beam at different angles from its axis. Atmospheric conditions were logged via a local weather station, and air quality data were taken from a nearby continuous air monitoring station. The measured laser irradiance data showed very little variation across the sessions and a single fitting equation was derived for the atmospheric scatter function. With very conservative estimates of the scatter from the human eye, atmospheric scatter was found to contribute no more than 5% to the overall veiling luminance across the scene for a human observer experiencing laser eye dazzle. It was concluded that atmospheric scatter does not make a significant contribution to laser eye dazzle for short-range laser engagements in atmospheres of good to moderate air quality, which account for 99.5% of conditions in San Antonio, Texas. PMID:26368879

  13. Contribution to the benchmark for ternary mixtures: Transient analysis in microgravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Ahadi, Amirhossein; Ziad Saghir, M

    2015-04-01

    We present a transient experimental analysis of the DCMIX1 project conducted onboard the International Space Station for a ternary tetrahydronaphtalene, isobutylbenzene, n-dodecane mixture. Raw images taken in microgravity environment using the SODI (Selectable Optical Diagnostic) apparatus which is equipped with two wavelength diagnostic were processed and the results were analyzed in this work. We measured the concentration profile of the mixture containing 80% THN, 10% IBB and 10% nC12 during the entire experiment using an advanced image processing technique and accordingly we determined the Soret coefficients using an advanced curve-fitting and post-processing technique. It must be noted that the experiment has been repeated five times to ensure the repeatability of the experiment. PMID:25916230

  14. 44 CFR 361.4 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS REDUCTION ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Earthquake Hazards Reduction Assistance Program § 361.4 Matching contributions. (a) All...

  15. 44 CFR 361.4 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS REDUCTION ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Earthquake Hazards Reduction Assistance Program § 361.4 Matching contributions. (a) All...

  16. 44 CFR 361.4 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS REDUCTION ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Earthquake Hazards Reduction Assistance Program § 361.4 Matching contributions. (a) All...

  17. 44 CFR 361.4 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS REDUCTION ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Earthquake Hazards Reduction Assistance Program § 361.4 Matching contributions. (a) All...

  18. 44 CFR 361.4 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS NATIONAL EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS REDUCTION ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Earthquake Hazards Reduction Assistance Program § 361.4 Matching contributions. (a) All...

  19. Avoidance of a Landau pole by flat contributions in QED

    SciTech Connect

    Klaczynski, Lutz; Kreimer, Dirk

    2014-05-15

    We consider massless Quantum Electrodynamics in the momentum scheme and carry forward an approach based on Dyson–Schwinger equations to approximate both the ?-function and the renormalized photon self-energy (Yeats, 2011). Starting from the Callan–Symanzik equation, we derive a renormalization group (RG) recursion identity which implies a non-linear ODE for the anomalous dimension and extract a sufficient but not necessary criterion for the existence of a Landau pole. This criterion implies a necessary condition for QED to have no such pole. Solving the differential equation exactly for a toy model case, we integrate the corresponding RG equation for the running coupling and find that even though the ?-function entails a Landau pole it exhibits a flat contribution capable of decreasing its growth, in other cases possibly to the extent that such a pole is avoided altogether. Finally, by applying the recursion identity, we compute the photon propagator and investigate the effect of flat contributions on both spacelike and timelike photons. -- Highlights: •We present an approach to approximate both the ?-function and the photon self-energy. •We find a sufficient criterion for the self-energy to entail the existence of a Landau pole. •We study non-perturbative ‘flat’ contributions that emerge within the context of our approach. •We discuss a toy model and how it is affected by flat contributions.

  20. Short Circuit Current Contribution for Different Wind Turbine Generator Types

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Samaan, Nader A.; Gevorgian, Vahan; Li, Jun; Pasupulati, Subbaiah

    2010-09-28

    An important aspect of wind power plant (WPP) impact studies is to evaluate the short circuit (SC) current contribution of the plant into the transmission network under different fault conditions. This task can be challenging to protection engineers due to the topology differences between different types of wind turbine generators (WTGs) and the conventional generating units. This paper represents simulation results for short circuit current contribution for different types of WTGs obtained through transient analysis using generic WTG models. The obtained waveforms are analyzed to explain the behavior, such as peak values and rate of decay, of the WTG. The effect of fault types and location, and the effect of the control algorithms of power converters on SC current contribution are investigated. It is shown that the response of the WPP to faults will vary based on the type of the installed WTGs. While in Type 1 and Type 2 WTGs, short circuit current will be determined by the physical characteristics of the induction generator, the contribu-tion of Type 3 and Type 4 WTG will be mostly characterized by the power converters control algorithms which are usually considered proprietary information by the wind turbine manufacturers.

  1. PRESSURE INTEGRITY OF 3013 CONTAINER UNDER POSTULATED ACCIDENT CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rawls, G.

    2010-02-01

    A series of tests was carried out to determine the threshold for deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT), structural loading, and structural response of the Department of Energy 3013 storage systems for the case of an accidental explosion of evolved gas within the storage containers. Three experimental fixtures were used to examine the various issues and three mixtures consisting of either stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen, stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen with added nitrogen, or stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen with an added nitrogen-helium mixture were tested. Tests were carried out as a function of initial pressure from 1 to 3.5 bar and initial temperature from room temperature to 150 C. The elevated temperature tests resulted in a slight increase in the threshold pressure for DDT. The elevated temperature tests were performed to ensure the test results were bounding. Because the change was not significant the elevated temperature data are not presented in the paper. The explosions were initiated with either a small spark or a hot surface. Based on the results of these tests under the conditions investigated, it can be concluded that DDT of a stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen mixture (and mixtures diluted with nitrogen and helium) within the 3013 containment system does not pose a threat to the structural integrity of the outer container.

  2. Heat, Mass and Aerosol Transfers in Spray Conditions for Containment Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcheron, Emmanuel; Lemaitre, Pascal; Nuboer, Amandine; Vendel, Jacques

    TOSQAN is an experimental program undertaken by the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surété Nucleaire (IRSN) in order to perform thermal hydraulic containment studies. The TOSQAN facility is a large enclosure devoted to simulating typical accidental thermal hydraulic flow conditions in nuclear Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) containment. The TOSQAN facility, which is highly instrumented with non-intrusive optical diagnostics, is particularly adapted to nuclear safety CFD code validation. The present work is devoted to studying the interaction of a water spray injection used as a mitigation means in order to reduce the gas pressure and temperature in the containment, to produce gases mixing and washout of fission products. In order to have a better understanding of heat and mass transfers between spray droplets and the gas mixture, and to analyze mixing effects due to spray activation, we performed detailed characterization of the two-phase flow.

  3. Anatomical and physiological factors contributing to chronic muscle pain.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Nicholas S; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2014-01-01

    Chronic muscle pain remains a significant source of suffering and disability despite the adoption of pharmacologic and physical therapies. Muscle pain is mediated by free nerve endings distributed through the muscle along arteries. These nerves project to the superficial dorsal horn and are transmitted primarily through the spinothalamic tract to several cortical and subcortical structures, some of which are more active during the processing of muscle pain than other painful conditions. Mechanical forces, ischemia, and inflammation are the primary stimuli for muscle pain, which is reflected in the array of peripheral receptors contributing to muscle pain-ASIC, P2X, and TRP channels. Sensitization of peripheral receptors and of central pain processing structures are both critical for the development and maintenance of chronic muscle pain. Further, variations in peripheral receptors and central structures contribute to the significantly greater prevalence of chronic muscle pain in females. PMID:24633937

  4. Contribution of Chlorophyll Fluorescence to the Reflectance of Corn Foliage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Petya K. Entcheva; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Corp, L. A.; McMurtrey, J. E.; Kim, M. S.; Chappelle, E. W.; Butcher, L. M.; Ranson, K. Jon (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    To assess the contribution of chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) to apparent reflectance (Ra) in the red/far-red, spectra were collected on a C4 agricultural species (corn, Zea Mays L.) under conditions ranging from nitrogen deficiency to excess. A significant contribution of ChlF to Ra was observed, with on average 10-25% at 685nm and 2-6% at 740nm of Ra being due to ChlF. Higher ChlF was consistently measured from the abaxial leaf surface as compared to the adaxial. Using 350-665nm excitation, the study confirms the trends in three ChlF ratios established previously by active F technology, suggesting that the ChlF utility this technology has developed for monitoring vegetation physiological status is likely applicable also under natural solar illumination.

  5. Wildfire contribution to world-wide desertification.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neary, D.; Wittenberg, L.; Bautista, S.; Ffolliott, P.

    2009-04-01

    Wildfire is a natural phenomenon that began with the development of terrestrial vegetation in a lightning-filled atmosphere. Sediments from the Carboniferous Period (307-359 million years before the present) contain evidence of charcoal from post-fire ash slurry flows. As human populations developed in the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs, mankind transformed fire into one of its oldest tools. Human and natural ignited fires from lightning altered and steered the trajectories of ecosystem development in most parts of the world. Humans are now the primary source of forest and grass fire ignitions throughout the world. As human populations have increased and industrialized in the past two centuries, fire ignitions and burned areas have increased due to both sheer numbers of people and anthropogenic changes in the global climate. Recent scientific findings have bolstered the hypothesis that climate change is resulting in fire seasons starting earlier, lasting longer, burning greater areas, and being more severe Computer models point to the Western U.S., Mediterranean nations and Brazil as "hot spots" that will get extremes at their worst. The climatic change to drier and warmer conditions has the potential to aggravate wildfire conditions, resulting in burning over longer seasons, larger areas of vegetation conflagration, and higher fire severities. Wildfire is now driving desertification in some of the forest lands in the western United States. The areas of wildfire in the Southwest USA have increased dramatically in the past two decades from <10,000 ha yr-1 in the early 20th Century to over 230,000 ha yr-1 in the first decade of the 21st Century. Individual wildfires are now larger and produce higher severity burns than in the past. A combination of natural drought, climate change, excessive fuel loads, and increased ignition sources have produced the perfect conditions for fire-induced desertification. Portugal suffered the worst and second worst wildfire seasons in a three-year period (2003 - 2005). In 2005, 338,262 ha of forest land burned. This was a 77% increase over the 10-year burn average of 189,500 ha. Desertification is about the loss of the land's proper hydrologic function, biological productivity, and other ecosystem services as a result of human activities and climate change. It affects one third of the earth's surface and over a billion people. In the past, desertification was considered a problem of only arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas. However, humid zones can undergo desertification with the wrong combination of human impacts. The Amazon region is an example of where forest harvesting, shifting cut and burn agriculture, and large-scale grazing are producing desertification of a tropical rain forest on a large scale. Some of the environmental consequences of wildfires are vegetation destruction, plant species and type shifts, exotic plant invasions, wildlife habitat destruction, soil erosion, floods, watershed function decline, water supply disruption, and air pollution. All of these are immediate impacts. Some impacts will persist beyond the careers and lifetimes of individuals. Small, isolated areas do not produce noticeable desertification. But, the cumulative effect of multiple, large area, and adjacent fires can be landscape-level desertification. This paper examines wildfire contributions to desertification in regions of the world that are prone to wildfire and climate change.

  6. Cerebellar contributions to different phases of visceral aversive extinction learning.

    PubMed

    Kattoor, Joswin; Thürling, Markus; Gizewski, Elke R; Forsting, Michael; Timmann, Dagmar; Elsenbruch, Sigrid

    2014-02-01

    The cerebellum is increasingly recognized to contribute to non-motor functions, including cognition and emotion. Although fear conditioning has been studied for elucidating the pathophysiology of anxiety, the putative role of the cerebellum is still unknown. Fear conditioning could also be important in the etiology of chronic abdominal pain which often overlaps with anxiety. Hence, in this exploratory analysis, we investigated conditioned anticipatory activity in the cerebellum in a visceral aversive fear conditioning paradigm using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We extended and reanalyzed a previous dataset for different learning phases, i.e., acquisition, extinction, and reinstatement, utilizing an advanced normalizing method of the cerebellum. In 30 healthy humans, visual conditioned stimuli (CS(+)) were paired with painful rectal distensions as unconditioned stimuli (US), while other visual stimuli (CS(-)) were presented without US. During extinction, all CSs were presented without US, whereas during reinstatement, a single, unpaired US was presented. During acquisition, posterolateral cerebellar areas including Crus I, Crus II, and VIIb and parts of the dentate nucleus were activated in response to the CS(+) compared to the CS(-). During extinction, activation related to CS(+) presentation was detected in Crus I, Crus II, IV, V, VI, VIIb, IX, and vermis. Neural correlates of reinstatement were found in Crus I, Crus II, IV, V, and IX. We could show for the first time that the cerebellum is involved in abdominal pain-related associative learning processes. Together, these findings contribute to our understanding of the cerebellum in aversive learning and memory processes relevant to the pathophysiology of chronic abdominal pain. PMID:23925594

  7. Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

  8. Louis Guttman's Contributions to Classical Test Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Donald W.; Williams, Richard H.; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Ross, Donald

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on Louis Guttman's contributions to the classical theory of educational and psychological tests, one of the lesser known of his many contributions to quantitative methods in the social sciences. Guttman's work in this field provided a rigorous mathematical basis for ideas that, for many decades after Spearman's initial work,…

  9. Capabilities and Contributions of Unwed Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Robert I.

    2010-01-01

    Young, minority, and poorly educated fathers in fragile families have little capacity to support their children financially and are hard-pressed to maintain stability in raising those children. In this article, Robert Lerman examines the capabilities and contributions of unwed fathers, how their capabilities and contributions fall short of those…

  10. Centennial Lecture I: History and Contributions of

    E-print Network

    . In cluded in the list were such notables as Addison E. Verrill, Louis Agassiz, Theodore Gill, and George, also contributed property and funds. Money was also provided by Alexander Agassiz. Baird noted in 1885 that "The col leges in question and Mr. Agassiz made their contributions with the understand ing that

  11. 77 FR 27365 - Inventions and Contributions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... Awards for Scientific and Technical Contributions , were published at 25 FR 1312 on February 13, 1960... aeronautical and space activities. Final amendments to these regulations were published at 67 FR 31119 on May 9... ADMINISTRATION 14 CFR Part 1240 RIN 2700-AD51 Inventions and Contributions AGENCY: National Aeronautics and...

  12. Notes from an Accidental Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Carol Ann

    2011-01-01

    Reflecting on her 40 year-long "happenstance" career in teaching--a field she had as a child vowed to avoid--Carol Ann Tomlinson describes five personal practices that have helped her and her colleagues achieve an effective, personally meaningful practice. She shares stories from her professional journey that illuminate these elements of a…

  13. Accidental salinomycin intoxication in calves

    PubMed Central

    Omidi, Arash; Aslani, Mohammad R.; Movassaghi, Ahmad R.; Mohri, Mehrdad; Dadfar, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-four 10- to 16-week-old calves in a dairy herd in Birjand, Iran, inadvertently received an excessive dose of salinomycin mixed with barley grain. There was 58% mortality within 10 d. The calves had high serum AST, LDH, and CK activities; histopathologic lesions in myocardium, liver, and kidneys; and clinical signs associated with acute and congestive heart failure. PMID:21197208

  14. Serendipity: Accidental Discoveries in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Royston M.

    1989-06-01

    Many of the things discovered by accident are important in our everyday lives: Teflon, Velcro, nylon, x-rays, penicillin, safety glass, sugar substitutes, and polyethylene and other plastics. And we owe a debt to accident for some of our deepest scientific knowledge, including Newton's theory of gravitation, the Big Bang theory of Creation, and the discovery of DNA. Even the Rosetta Stone, the Dead Sea Scrolls, and the ruins of Pompeii came to light through chance. This book tells the fascinating stories of these and other discoveries and reveals how the inquisitive human mind turns accident into discovery. Written for the layman, yet scientifically accurate, this illuminating collection of anecdotes portrays invention and discovery as quintessentially human acts, due in part to curiosity, perserverance, and luck.

  15. Accidental inflation in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linde, Andrei; Westphal, Alexander

    2008-03-01

    We show that inflation in type IIB string theory driven by the volume modulus can be realized in the context of the racetrack-based Kallosh-Linde model (KL) of moduli stabilization. Inflation here arises through the volume modulus slow-rolling down from a flat hilltop or inflection point of the scalar potential. This situation can be quite generic in the landscape, where by uplifting one of the two adjacent minima one can turn the barrier either into a flat saddle point or into an inflection point supporting eternal inflation. The resulting spectral index is tunable in the range of 0.93 \\lesssim n_{\\mathrm {s}} \\lesssim 1 , and there is only negligible production of primordial gravitational waves r<10-6. The flatness of the potential in this scenario requires fine-tuning, which may be justified taking into account the exponential reward by volume factors preferring the regions of the universe with the maximal amount of slow-roll inflation. This consideration leads to a tentative prediction of the spectral index ns?0.95 or 0.93, depending on whether the potential has a symmetry \\varphi \\to-\\varphi or not.

  16. Redox Fluctuations Increase the Contribution of Lignin to Soil Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, S. J.; Silver, W. L.; Timokhin, V.; Hammel, K.

    2014-12-01

    Lignin mineralization represents a critical flux in the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, yet little is known about mechanisms and environmental factors controlling lignin breakdown in mineral soils. Hypoxia has long been thought to suppress lignin decomposition, yet variation in oxygen (O2) availability in surface soils accompanying moisture fluctuations could potentially stimulate this process by generating reactive oxygen species via coupled biotic and abiotic iron (Fe) redox cycling. Here, we tested the impact of redox fluctuations on lignin breakdown in humid tropical forest soils during ten-week laboratory incubations. We used synthetic lignins labeled with 13C in either of two positions (aromatic methoxyl and propyl C?) to provide highly sensitive and specific measures of lignin mineralization not previously employed in soils. Four-day redox fluctuations increased the percent contribution of methoxyl C to soil respiration, and cumulative methoxyl C mineralization was equivalent under static aerobic and fluctuating redox conditions despite lower total C mineralization in the latter treatment. Contributions of the highly stable C? to mineralization were also equivalent in static aerobic and fluctuating redox treatments during periods of O2 exposure, and nearly doubled in the fluctuating treatment after normalizing to cumulative O2 exposure. Oxygen fluctuations drove substantial net Fe reduction and oxidation, implying that reactive oxygen species generated during abiotic Fe oxidation likely contributed to the elevated contribution of lignin to C mineralization. Iron redox cycling provides a mechanism for lignin breakdown in soils that experience conditions unfavorable for canonical lignin-degrading organisms, and provides a potential mechanism for lignin depletion in soil organic matter during late-stage decomposition. Thus, close couplings between soil moisture, redox fluctuations, and lignin breakdown provide potential a link between climate variability and the biochemical composition of soil organic matter with important implications for soil C budgets.

  17. Climatic Conditions in Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevan, Simon M.; Howes, John D.

    1980-01-01

    Presents an overview of research on the ways in which classroom thermal environment, lighting conditions, ion state, and electromagnetic and air pollution affect learning and the performance of students and teachers. (SJL)

  18. Aerobic Conditioning Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Neil R.

    1980-01-01

    An aerobic exercise class that focuses on the conditioning of the cardiovascular and muscular systems is presented. Students complete data cards on heart rate, pulse, and exercises to be completed during the forty minute course. (CJ)

  19. Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... might be linked to other conditions, such as cerebral palsy, muscle weakness disorders, autism, or other nervous system ... be related to existing medical problems such as cerebral palsy. Doctors rarely have to treat pigeon-toed feet. ...

  20. Pavement condition data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zaniewski, J.P.; Hudson, S.W.; Hudson, W.R.

    1987-07-01

    This paper describes a computer methodology for analyzing pavement condition data to define inputs for pavement management systems. This system of programs was developed during a Federal Highway Administration research project. In the project, eight state highway departments were studied to determine the types of pavement condition data collected, procedures used for collecting data, the inputs to the states' pavement management systems, and computer programs used by the states to analyze raw pavement condition data. Several of the programs were assembled into the Method for Analyzing Pavement Condition, MAPCON, during a project performed at Pennsylvania State University. These and other existing or new programs (a total of 18) were identified, tested, modified, and incorporated onto a MS/DOS microcomputer system. MAPCON guides the user through selection of analysis method, raw data entry, and data analysis.