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1

Framework for preventing accidental falls in hospitals - management plan for ADL, medication and medical conditions.  

PubMed

Prevention and reduction of medical accidents is essential. Among medical accidents, accidental falls remain a serious problem. While "assessment score sheets" have already been used in hospitals to prevent accidental falls, satisfactory results have not actually been achieved. In this study, we aim to establish a methodology for preventing accidental falls. We consider that the 'management plan' for each patient includes three factors. A plan of instructions for patients on actions they can take for safety in their ADL (Activities of Daily Living) is essential as a base. Second, a plan to keep up with any short term change in a patient's state is needed, because the state of a hospitalized patient will usually be temporarily affected by medication and changing medical conditions. We develop a model for preventing accidental falls, which enable us to design appropriate management plan for each patient. Then, we develop a prototype system based on the designed model. Finally, we address the result of verification of the model, by applying the prototype system into actual cases in hospitals. PMID:19592884

Kato, Shogo; Tsuru, Satoko; Iizuka, Yoshinori

2009-01-01

2

Prediction of work functioning following accidental injury: The contribution of PTSD symptom severity and other established risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses to a mail survey were used to investigate the contribution of PTSD symptom severity to work functioning in 69 previously employed adult survivors of accidental injury approximately 8 months post?hospitalization. Associations of PTSD symptom severity with other established risk factors for poor work functioning were also examined. Participants were initially divided into three groups based on PTSD symptom severity

Lynda R. Matthews; Darien Chinnery

2005-01-01

3

On the corrosion behavior of zircaloy-4 in spent fuel pools under accidental conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After zircaloy cladding tubes have been subjected to irradiation in the reactor core, they are stored temporarily in spent fuel pools. In case of an accident, the integrity of the pool may be affected and the composition of the coolant may change drastically. This was the case in Fukushima Daiichi in March 2011. Successive incidents have led to an increase in the pH of the coolant and to chloride contamination. Moreover, water radiolysis may occur owing to the remnant radioactivity of the spent fuel. In this study, we propose to evaluate the corrosion behavior of oxidized Zr-4 (in autoclave at 288 °C for 32 days) in function of the pH and the presence of chloride and radical forms. The generation of radicals is achieved by the sonolysis of the solution. It appears that the increase in pH and the presence of radicals lead to an increase in current densities. However, the current densities remain quite low (depending on the conditions, between 1 and 10 ?A cm-2). The critical parameter is the presence of chloride ions. The chloride ions widely decrease the passive range of the oxidized samples (the pitting potential is measured around +0.6 V (vs. SCE)). Moreover, if the oxide layer is scratched or damaged (which is likely under accidental conditions), the pitting potential of the oxidized sample reaches the pitting potential of the non-oxidized sample (around +0.16 V (vs. SCE)), leaving a shorter stable passive range for the Zr-4 cladding tubes.

Lavigne, O.; Shoji, T.; Sakaguchi, K.

2012-07-01

4

Excluding medical and haematological conditions as a cause of bruising in suspected non-accidental injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mistaken diagnosis of child abuse can occur in a number of medical conditions, many of which can be readily diagnosed by experienced paediatricians. Bleeding disorders offer a greater challenge, especially when court proceedings may demand their exclusion. Some of these disorders are rare but more prevalent in areas which have a high incidence of consanguinity. We advocate two stages

A M B Minford; E M Richards

2010-01-01

5

[Accidental hypothermia].  

PubMed

Uncertainty exists on how to treat patients suffering from accidental hypothermia and on the optimal transport decisions. The aim of this review is to provide an updated evidence-based reference for the pre-hospital and in-hospital management of patients with accidental hypothermia and for the transport decisions required to facilitate treatment. Advances in the efficiency and availability of rewarming techniques have improved the prognosis for patients presenting with hypothermia. For hypothermic patients with a core body temperature ??28?°C without cardiac instability there is increasing evidence to support the use of active external and minimally invasive rewarming techniques (e.g. chemical, electrical or forced air heating packs, blankets and warm parenteral fluids). Hypothermic patients with cardiac instability (i.e. systolic blood pressure

Brugger, H; Putzer, G; Paal, P

2013-08-09

6

Acute accidental phosgene poisoning.  

PubMed

Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:22602834

Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

2012-04-02

7

Contribution of Medical Conditions to Passenger Vehicle Crashes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is a growing concern about risks associated with driving for people with known medical conditions. However, the association between having a chronic medical condition and being involved in a motor vehicle crash remains controversial. This analysis a...

R. Hanna

2009-01-01

8

[Accidental acetaminophen overdose].  

PubMed

Acetaminophen is an OTC medication and amongst the most used pain relievers. It is the analgesic of first choice in pregnancy. Because of its low therapeutic index, accidental and suicidal acetaminophen intoxication is one of the most common causes of acute liver failure. Thus, face-to-face counselling of patients on the proper use of acetaminophen is essential for drug safety. PMID:18661913

Hamwi, Iyas; Picksak, Gesine; Stichtenoth, Dirk O

2008-06-01

9

Supersymmetry and accidental degeneracy  

SciTech Connect

Accidental degeneracies are explained as arising from an underlying supersymmetry associated with the superalgebra osp(2/2,R) circle plus so (3) when the quantum-mechanical potential is a general superposition of a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator potential, a 1/r/sup 2/-potential and a constant one. Recent supersymmetric model hamiltonians are discussed within the general context.

Celka, P.; Hussin, V.

1987-06-01

10

Accidental firearm fatalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of a total of 624 consecutive gunshot autopsies from Münster and Hamburg, Germany, 32 cases (5.1%) were accidental. The accidents were self-inflicted in 3 cases while another person fired the gun in the remaining 29 cases. More than half of the victims were younger than 25 years and 75% were male. A single gunshot injury was present in all

B. Karger; E. Billeb; E. Koops

2002-01-01

11

Inflammatory Factors Contribute to Depression and Its Comorbid Conditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New perspectives have emerged regarding the processes associated with depressive disorders and their many comorbid conditions. Particular attention has been paid to the potential role of inflammatory factors in promoting these illnesses. These inflammatory responses include those elicited by pathogenic stimuli, as well as sterile inflammatory processes, such as those related to severe or chronic stress. These diverse challenges may activate common processes in which cytokines, which are inflammatory signaling molecules, provoke the dysregulation of several growth factors, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, fibroblast growth factor–2, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and erythropoietin. The result of such dysregulation favors the development of depressive disorders and their comorbid illnesses, such as heart disease, diabetes, autoimmune conditions, and poststroke depression.

Hymie Anisman (Carleton University;Department of Neuroscience REV); Shawn Hayley (Carleton University;Department of Neuroscience REV)

2012-10-02

12

The Accidental Scientist: Cooking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Another great Web site from the Exploratorium in San Francisco (last mentioned in the August 16, 2002 NSDL MET Report), The Accidental Scientist: Cooking is the first in a series of "Web-based projects focusing on the science behind everyday life." Offering a mind-boggling array of food-related information and activities, foodies and science-lovers alike should find this Web site extremely engaging. Life science-related material includes an exploration of taste and smell; the biological properties of meat; microbe action in pickling, fermentation, and leavening; and much more. The site's other features not directly related to the life sciences shouldn't be missed. Users can find recipes and cooking tips, fun projects, and live Web casts starting in November 2002 that explore the science and culture of cooking, "just in time for picking up cooking tips for the holiday season."

1969-12-31

13

Accidental hæmorrhage: Abruptio placentæ  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIS condition may be defined as hmmorrhage resulting from the separation of a normally situated placenta between the end of ~he second trimester of pregnan.cy and the end of the second stage of labour, but we have also seen the condition in all its gravity at an even earlier date. This separation of the placenta is often associated with a

F. Geoghegan

1954-01-01

14

Urban contribution of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants to streams during differing flow conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 2001, 76 water samples were collected upstream and downstream of select towns and cities in Iowa during high-, normal- and low-flow conditions to determine the contribution of urban centers to concentrations of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) in streams under varying flow conditions. The towns ranged in population from approximately 2000 to 200000. Overall, one or more OWCs were detected in 98.7% of the samples collected, with 62 of the 105 compounds being found. The most frequently detected compounds were metolachlor (pesticide), cholesterol (plant and animal sterol), caffeine (stimulant), ??-sitosterol (plant sterol) and 1,7-dimethylxanthine (caffeine degradate). The number of OWCs detected decreased as streamflow increased from low- (51 compounds detected) to normal- (28) to high-flow (24) conditions. Antibiotics and other prescription drugs were only frequently detected during low-flow conditions. During low-flow conditions, 15 compounds (out of the 23) and ten compound groups (out of 11) detected in more than 10% of the streams sampled had significantly greater concentrations in samples collected downstream than in those collected upstream of the urban centers. Conversely, no significant differences in the concentrations were found during high-flow conditions. Thus, the urban contribution of OWCs to streams became progressively muted as streamflow increased. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kolpin, D. W.; Skopec, M.; Meyer, M. T.; Furlong, E. T.; Zaugg, S. D.

2004-01-01

15

Urban contribution of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants to streams during differing flow conditions.  

PubMed

During 2001, 76 water samples were collected upstream and downstream of select towns and cities in Iowa during high-, normal- and low-flow conditions to determine the contribution of urban centers to concentrations of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) in streams under varying flow conditions. The towns ranged in population from approximately 2000 to 200,000. Overall, one or more OWCs were detected in 98.7% of the samples collected, with 62 of the 105 compounds being found. The most frequently detected compounds were metolachlor (pesticide), cholesterol (plant and animal sterol), caffeine (stimulant), beta-sitosterol (plant sterol) and 1,7-dimethylxanthine (caffeine degradate). The number of OWCs detected decreased as streamflow increased from low- (51 compounds detected) to normal- (28) to high-flow (24) conditions. Antibiotics and other prescription drugs were only frequently detected during low-flow conditions. During low-flow conditions, 15 compounds (out of the 23) and ten compound groups (out of 11) detected in more than 10% of the streams sampled had significantly greater concentrations in samples collected downstream than in those collected upstream of the urban centers. Conversely, no significant differences in the concentrations were found during high-flow conditions. Thus, the urban contribution of OWCs to streams became progressively muted as streamflow increased. PMID:15207578

Kolpin, Dana W; Skopec, Mary; Meyer, Michael T; Furlong, Edward T; Zaugg, Steven D

2004-07-26

16

Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures  

SciTech Connect

Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. 64 refs., 3 tabs.

Cardis, E. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

1996-05-01

17

A nonlinear probabilistic method and contribution analysis for machine condition monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Health degradation assessment from normal to failure condition of machine part or system is a key element in condition-based maintenance (CBM) system. This paper proposes a generative topographic mapping (GTM) and contribution analysis-based method to perform machine health degradation assessment and monitoring. GTM-based negative likelihood probability (NLLP) is developed to offer a comprehensible indication for quantifying machine health states. A Bayesian-inference-based probability (BIP) calculation method is further developed to analyze the failure probability of the monitored machine or component. A variable replacing-based contribution analysis method is developed to discover potential features that are effective for the detection and assessment of machine health degradation in its whole life. The experimental results on a turbine engine simulation system and a bearing testbed illustrate plausibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods.

Yu, Jianbo

2013-05-01

18

A new insight into the contribution of environmental conditions to tropical cyclone activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The changes of tropical cyclone (TC) activities in response to influencing environmental conditions have been paid more and more attention to in recent years. The potential contributions of single and multivariate environmental variables to annual TC frequency and intensity from 1970 to 2009 are investigated in this study. Instead of using correlation coefficient that assumes a set of samples satisfying the normal distribution, a quantitative measurement is formulated based on the information theory. The results show that dynamic environmental variables play an important role in variations of TC activities over the western North Pacific, North Atlantic, and eastern Pacific. These dynamic factors include wind shear between 850 and 200 hPa and 850-hPa relative vorticity. However, the effects of thermal factors on TC activities are distinct over different basins. The thermal environmental variables only have significant contributions to TC frequency and intensity over the eastern Pacific as well as to TC frequency over the North Atlantic. It is found that the primary factors influencing TC activities are indeed not the same over different basins because of the differences in atmospheric conditions and their changes across different areas. The effects of dynamic variables should be considered more in the regions such as the western North Pacific where the thermal conditions are always satisfied.

Wang, Yuan; Song, Jinjie; Wu, Rongsheng

2013-06-01

19

When are burns not accidental?  

PubMed Central

One hundred and ninety five children aged up to 6 years with burns and scalds (30 non-accidental and 165 accidental) were studied retrospectively. The history, presentation, and other typical injuries assisted the diagnosis of abuse. Scalds accounted for 81% of accidents and 25% of the cases of abuse, and burns for 17% and 44%, respectively. Scalds usually followed spillage from kitchen containers in accidents and forced tap water immersion in cases of abuse. Burns in cases of both accidents and abuse resulted from contact with a wide range of household appliances, including room heaters. Attention is drawn to the back of the hand as an important site in cases of abuse, as well as the legs, buttocks, and feet. It is speculated that the low level of reporting of this form of child abuse reflects failure of diagnosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4

Hobbs, C J

1986-01-01

20

Accidental intrathecal administration of vincristine.  

PubMed

We describe a case of accidental intrathecal administration of vincristine in a 33-year-old man with clinical diagnosis of acute lymphocytic leukemia. The patient died 20 days after receiving the drug. Clinically, the patient developed acute ascending paralysis with motor and sensory dysfunctions, and respiratory failure. Neuropathological investigation revealed lesions in spinal cord, roots, and cerebellum characterized by rarefaction of the neuropil, axonal, and myelin degeneration, accompanied by macrophagic infiltration. PMID:19935391

D'Addario, Adriana; Galuppo, Juan; Navari, Carlos; Schultz, Marcelo; Cuello, Nélida; Troncoso, Juan C; Riudavets, Miguel Angel

2010-03-01

21

Can Canister Containment Be Maintained After Accidental Drop Events?  

SciTech Connect

The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) has pursued a number of structural testing projects that are intended to provide data that can be used to substantiate the position that U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canisters, made from austenitic stainless steels, can maintain containment after an accidental drop event and that plastic finite element methods can be used to accurately predict the structural response of canister configurations not specifically tested. In particular, drop tests of full-scale canisters and material impact testing at varying strain rates reflecting accidental drop conditions have been completed or are in progress. This paper provides insights to conclusions achieved to date and what efforts are planned to fully address the pertinent issues necessary to demonstrate the safety of DOE SNF canisters subjected to accidental drop events.

D. K. Morton; S. D. Snow; T. E. Rahl; R. K. Blandford; T. J. Hill

2006-05-01

22

Estimation of the Ionosphere and Plasmasphere Contribution to the GPS TEC under Solar Minimum Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plasmaspheric electron content (PEC) was estimated by comparison GPS observations and FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC radio occultation (RO) measurements at the extended solar minimum of cycle 23/24. GPS observations provide information about values of vertical total electron content (TEC) up to the metricconverterProductID20,200 km20,200 km. FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC now provides unprecedented global coverage of GPS RO measurements. Depending on the state of the constellation, COSMIC has been producing 1,500 -- 2,500 good soundings of the ionosphere and atmosphere per day, uniformly distributed around the globe. This number of RO is much higher than even before. In this study, COSMIC RO data for different seasons corresponded to equinoxes and solstices of 2007-2009 (March, June, September and December) were analyzed. All selected COSMIC RO electron density profiles were integrated up to the height of metricconverterProductID700 km700 km (altitude of COSMIC satellites), in that way the estimates of ionospheric electron content (IEC) were retrieved on a global scale. The final IGS combined global ionospheric maps (GIMs) were used to calculate the global maps of monthly medians of TEC values. As a result there were analyzed global distributions of GPS TEC and IEC estimates corresponded to the monthly median values for different seasons of 2007-2009. We consider the quantitative differences PEC = TEC -- IEC as a measure of the contribution of the PEC to GPS TEC. In order to analyze seasonal behaviour of PEC contribution to GPS TEC at the different regions we selected several specific points with coordinates, corresponded to the approximate positions of different, mid-latitude and low-latitude, ionospheric sounding stations. Such points were selected at Northern America, European and Asian regions, Southern America, Southern Africa and country-regionplaceAustralia. For each specific points GPS TEC, COSMIC IEC and PEC estimates were analyzed. Results of our comparative study revealed that for mid-latitude stations PEC estimates varied weakly with the time of a day and reached the value of several TECU (3-5 TECU) for the condition of solar minimum. Percentage contribution of PEC to GPS TEC indicates the clear dependence from the time and varies from a minimum of about 25-30% during day-time to the value of more than 60% at night-time. The presented results are compared with TEC, PEC and IEC estimates retrieved by Standard Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model (SPIM, http://ftp.izmiran.ru/pub/izmiran/SPIM/).

Zakharenkova, Irina; Cherniak, Iurii; Krankowski, Andrzej; Shagimuratov, Irk; Sieradzki, Rafal

2012-07-01

23

Conditioned contribution of peripheral cocaine actions to cocaine reward and cocaine-seeking.  

PubMed

Cocaine has actions in the peripheral nervous system that reliably precede--and thus predict--its soon-to-follow central rewarding effects. In cocaine-experienced animals, the peripheral cocaine signal is relayed to the central nervous system, triggering excitatory input to the ventral tegmental origin of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, the system that mediates the rewarding effects of the drug. We used cocaine methiodide, a cocaine analog that does not cross the blood-brain barrier, to isolate the peripheral actions of cocaine and determine their central and behavioral effects in animals first trained to lever-press for cocaine hydrochloride (the centrally acting and abused form of the drug). We first confirmed with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry that cocaine methiodide causes rapid dopamine release from dopamine terminals in cocaine hydrochloride-trained rats. We then compared the ability of cocaine hydrochloride and cocaine methiodide to establish conditioned place preferences in rats with self-administration experience. While cocaine hydrochloride established stronger place preferences, cocaine methiodide was also effective and its effectiveness increased (incubated) over weeks of cocaine abstinence. Cocaine self-administration was extinguished when cocaine methiodide or saline was substituted for cocaine hydrochloride in the intravenous self-administration paradigm, but cocaine hydrochloride and cocaine methiodide each reinstated non-rewarded lever-pressing after extinction. Rats extinguished by cocaine methiodide substitution showed weaker cocaine-induced reinstatement than rats extinguished by saline substitution. These findings suggest that the conditioned peripheral effects of cocaine can contribute significantly to cocaine-induced (but not stress-induced) cocaine craving, and also suggest the cocaine cue as an important target for cue-exposure therapies for cocaine addiction. PMID:23535778

Wang, Bin; You, Zhi-Bing; Oleson, Erik B; Cheer, Joseph F; Myal, Stephanie; Wise, Roy A

2013-03-27

24

Informal sanctions and conditional cooperation: A natural experiment on voluntary contributions to a public good  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a natural experiment, this paper studies the impact of an informal sanctioning mechanism on individuals' voluntary contribution to a public good. Cross-country skiers' actual cash contributions in two ski resorts, one with and one without an informal sanctioning system, are used. I find the contributing share to be higher in the informal sanctioning system (79 percent) than in the

Tobias Heldt

25

5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870.206 Section 870...Amount of Insurance § 870.206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an...

2013-01-01

26

21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

2013-04-01

27

Funding a New Bridge in Rural Vietnam: A field experiment on conditional cooperation and default contributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to provide public goods is essential for economic and social development, yet there is very limited empirical evidence regarding contributions to a real local public good in developing countries. This paper analyzes a field experiment where 200 households in rural Vietnam could make real contributions to an archetypical public good, a bridge. In particular, we study the role

Fredrik Carlsson; Olof Johansson-Stenman; Nam Pham Khanh

2011-01-01

28

Simulations of accidental coal immersion.  

PubMed

Coal is currently becoming an increasingly interesting fossil energy resource and that is the reason why its maritime transport, and hence the risk of collier accidents, increase. In this work, the environmental impact of an accidental coal immersion at sea is studied: the physicochemical effects are estimated using innovative experimental setups--a laboratory seawater canal called "polludrome" is used to evaluate the behaviour of coal particles submitted to a seawater flow, and a specifically designed tub is used to study the physicochemical consequences induced when coal is introduced into continuously renewed seawater. When coal is introduced into seawater, the most easily visible consequences are physical: fine coal particles reduce the daylight penetration up to 100% and move along with the flow, and coal chunks accumulate on the floor. Chemical effects are also measured: humic matters are dissolved from coal into seawater (up to 2 mg L(-1)), but no release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is evidenced. Some inorganic compounds are dissolved, among which manganese, whose concentrations can reach 1 microg L(-1). Fortunately, the results show that the environmental impact of this type of accident would remain limited. PMID:17964611

Jaffrennou, Cathy; Giamarchi, Philippe; Cabon, Jean-Yves; Stephan, Ludovic; Burel-Deschamps, Laure; Bautin, François; Thomas, Annabelle; Dumont, Julien; Le Floch, Stéphane

2007-10-26

29

Ten Tips to Prevent an Accidental Overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Ten Tips to Prevent an Accidental Overdose Search the Consumer Updates Section Always use the cup, syringe, or ...

30

Accidental Human Infection with 'Plasmodium cynomolgi bastianellii'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 31-year-old Chinese female technician accidentally acquired Plasmodium cynomolgi bastianellii while working in the laboratory. She developed mild symptoms of sore throat, cough, occasional nightsweats, dizziness and fever. Her spleen was enlarged but th...

J. H. Cross M. Y. Hsu-Kuo J. C. Lien

1973-01-01

31

An examination of NMDA receptor contribution to conditioned responding evoked by the conditional stimulus effects of nicotine  

PubMed Central

Rationale Research using a drug discriminated goal-tracking (DGT) task showed that the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) channel blocker MK-801 (dizocilpine) reduced the nicotine-evoked conditioned response (CR). Objectives Given the unknown mechanism of the effect, Experiment 1 replicated the MK-801 results and included tests with NMDA receptor ligands. Experiments 2a and 2b tested whether MK-801 pretreatment blocked DGT via a state-dependency effect. Methods In Experiment 1, adult male Sprague–Dawley rats received intermittent access to liquid sucrose following nicotine (0.4 mg base/kg); no sucrose was delivered on intermixed saline sessions. Conditioning was indicated by increased anticipatory dipper entries (goal-tracking) on nicotine compared to saline sessions. Antagonism and/or substitution tests were conducted with MK-801, phencyclidine, CGP 39551, d-CPPene (SDZ EAA 494), Ro 25,6981, L-701,324, ACPC, and NMDA. In Experiment 2a, rats received nicotine and sucrose on every session—no intermixed saline sessions without sucrose. Tests combined MK-801 or the non-competitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, mecamylamine with either nicotine or saline. Experiment 2b had sucrose delivered on saline sessions and no sucrose on intermixed nicotine sessions followed by MK-801 antagonism tests of the saline CS. Results MK-801 and phencyclidine dose-dependently attenuated the CR in Experiment 1. Ro-25,6981 enhanced the CR, but did not substitute for nicotine. Other ligands showed inconsistent effects. In Experiment 2a, MK-801 pretreatment reduced goal-tracking when given before nicotine and saline test sessions; mecamylamine pretreatment had no effect. In Experiment 2b, MK-801 dose-dependently attenuated the saline-evoked CR. Conclusions Combined, the results suggest that MK-801 blocks discriminated goal-tracking by virtue of state-changing properties.

Murray, Jennifer E.; Walker, Andrew W.; Polewan, Robert J.; Bevins, Rick A.

2011-01-01

32

Contribution of Lewy Body Inclusions to Dementia in Patients With and Without Alzheimer Disease Neuropathological Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Lewy bodies (LBs) are intraneuronal inclu- sions in the brain that have been increasingly recog- nized as neuropathological lesions with relevance not only to Parkinson disease but also to Alzheimer disease. How- ever, the degree to which the density of LBs in the brain contributes to the severity of dementia has not been clear. Objective: To determine the degree

Vahram Haroutunian; Michael Serby; Dushyant P. Purohit; Daniel P. Perl; Deborah Marin; Melinda Lantz; Richard C. Mohs; Kenneth L. Davis

2000-01-01

33

The contribution of condensation to the water cycle under high-mountain conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the interaction between condensation, precipitation and evaporation as an integral part of the water cycle under high-mountain conditions. This paper focuses on methods of identification and measurement of condensation under natural conditions in high alpine valleys by example of the Dischma in eastern Switzerland. The role of different vegetation zones in transferring water from and to

Carmen de Jong

2005-01-01

34

Accidental nuclear war: the contribution of artificial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AI community is seriously considering what all the military sponsorship would do to the prospect of being able to carry out basic research without, at the same time, putting the whole of our planet's population at risk. The SDI proposals of a defence shield that completely protects a nation from offensive missiles pose so many technical questions concerning the

M. Yazdani; B. Whitby

1987-01-01

35

Differential contribution of some cortical sites to the formation of memory traces supporting fear conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work was to assess the role of some cortical sites of the rat (the prefrontal, PFC, frontal, FC, parietal,\\u000a PAC, and perirhinal, PC, cortices) in the acquisition of classical fear conditioning (CS and context conditioned freezing).\\u000a Using the reversible ablation technique the sites were inactivated with lidocaine (LIDO), administered before the one-trial\\u000a training session. The

Benedetto Sacchetti; Elisabetta Baldi; Carlo Ambrogi Lorenzini; Corrado Bucherelli

2002-01-01

36

Prefrontal cortical contributions during discriminative fear conditioning, extinction, and spontaneous recovery in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined the roles played by the ventromedial orbital prefrontal cortex (OPFC) and the infralimbic\\/prelimbic\\u000a prefrontal cortex (I\\/P PFC) during discriminative fear conditioning. The first experiment included nine rats with bilateral\\u000a lesions to the I\\/P PFC, an additional nine with OPFC lesions, and eight sham lesion controls. Behavioural analysis was conducted\\u000a using a discriminative fear conditioning to context task

Erin L. Zelinski; Nancy S. Hong; Amanda V. Tyndall; Brett Halsall; Robert J. McDonald

2010-01-01

37

Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shallow, RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)- contaminated aquifer at Naval Submarine Base Bangor has been characterized as predominantly manganese-reducing, anoxic with local pockets of oxic conditions. The potential contribution of microbial RDX degradation to localized decreases observed in aquifer RDX concentrations was assessed in sediment microcosms amended with (U- 14 C) RDX. Greater than 85% mineralization of 14 C-RDX to 14 CO2

Paul M. Bradley; Richard S. Dinicola

38

Dietary proteins contribute little to glucose production, even under optimal gluconeogenic conditions in healthy humans.  

PubMed

Dietary proteins are believed to participate significantly in maintaining blood glucose levels, but their contribution to endogenous glucose production (EGP) remains unclear. We investigated this question using multiple stable isotopes. After overnight fasting, eight healthy volunteers received an intravenous infusion of [6,6-²H?]-glucose. Two hours later, they ingested four eggs containing 23 g of intrinsically, uniformly, and doubly [¹?N]-[¹³C]-labeled proteins. Gas exchanges, expired CO?, blood, and urine were collected over the 8 h following egg ingestion. The cumulative amount of dietary amino acids (AAs) deaminated over this 8-h period was 18.1 ± 3.5%, 17.5% of them being oxidized. The EGP remained stable for 6 h but fell thereafter, concomitantly with blood glucose levels. During the 8 h after egg ingestion, 50.4 ± 7.7 g of glucose was produced, but only 3.9 ± 0.7 g originated from dietary AA. Our results show that the total postprandial contribution of dietary AA to EGP was small in humans habituated to a diet medium-rich in proteins, even after an overnight fast and in the absence of carbohydrates from the meal. These findings question the respective roles of dietary proteins and endogenous sources in generating significant amounts of glucose in order to maintain blood glucose levels in healthy subjects. PMID:23274906

Fromentin, Claire; Tomé, Daniel; Nau, Françoise; Flet, Laurent; Luengo, Catherine; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Sanders, Pascal; Fromentin, Gilles; Gaudichon, Claire

2012-12-28

39

Contributions to The Estimation of Mixed-State Conditionally Heteroscedastic Latent Factor Models: A Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed-State conditionally heteroscedastic latent factor models attempt to describe a complex nonlinear dynamic system with a succession of linear latent factor models indexed by a switching variable. Unfortunately, despite the framework's simplicity ex- act state and parameter estimation are still intractable because of the interdependency across the latent factor volatility processes. Recently, a broad class of learning and inference algorithms

Mohamed Saidane; Christian Lavergne

40

Bivariate empirical mode decomposition and its contribution to wind turbine condition monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accessing difficulties and harsh environments require more advanced condition monitoring techniques to ensure the high availability of offshore wind turbines. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) has been shown to be a promising technique for meeting this need. However, EMD was developed for one-dimensional signals, unable to carry out an information fusion function which is of importance to reach a reliable condition monitoring conclusion. Therefore, bivariate empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) is investigated in this paper to assess whether it could be a better solution for wind turbine condition monitoring. The effectiveness of the proposed technique in detecting machine incipient fault is compared with EMD and a recently developed wavelet-based ‘energy tracking’ technique. Experiments have shown that the proposed BEMD-based technique is more convenient than EMD for processing shaft vibration signals, and more powerful than EMD and wavelet-based techniques in terms of processing the non-stationary and nonlinear wind turbine condition monitoring signals and detecting incipient mechanical and electrical faults.

Yang, Wenxian; Court, Richard; Tavner, Peter J.; Crabtree, Christopher J.

2011-07-01

41

Contribution of macrophages to enhanced regenerative capacity of dorsal root Ganglia sensory neurons by conditioning injury.  

PubMed

Although the central branches of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons do not spontaneously regenerate, a conditioning peripheral injury can promote their regeneration. A potential role of macrophages in axonal regeneration was proposed, but it has not been critically addressed whether macrophages play an essential role in the conditioning injury model. After sciatic nerve injury (SNI) in rats, the number of macrophages in DRGs gradually increased by day 7. The increase persisted up to 28 d and was accompanied by upregulation of inflammatory mediators, including oncomodulin. A macrophage deactivator, minocycline, reduced the macrophage number and expressions of the inflammatory mediators. Molecular signatures of conditioning effects were abrogated by minocycline, and enhanced regenerative capacity was substantially attenuated both in vitro and in vivo. Delayed minocycline infusion abrogated the SNI-induced long-lasting heightened neurite outgrowth potential, indicating a role for macrophages in the maintenance of regenerative capacity. Intraganglionic cAMP injection also resulted in an increase in macrophages, and minocycline abolished the cAMP effect on neurite outgrowth. However, conditioned media (CM) from macrophages treated with cAMP did not exhibit neurite growth-promoting activity. In contrast, CM from neuron-macrophage cocultures treated with cAMP promoted neurite outgrowth greatly, highlighting a requirement for neuron-macrophage interactions for the induction of a proregenerative macrophage phenotype. The growth-promoting activity in the CM was profoundly attenuated by an oncomodulin neutralizing antibody. These results suggest that the neuron-macrophage interactions involved in eliciting a proregenerative phenotype in macrophages may be a novel target to induce long-lasting regenerative processes after axonal injuries in the CNS. PMID:24048840

Kwon, Min Jung; Kim, Jinha; Shin, Haeyoung; Jeong, Soo Ryeong; Kang, Young Mi; Choi, Jun Young; Hwang, Dong Hoon; Kim, Byung Gon

2013-09-18

42

A Contribution to the Study of the Tracking Phenomenon in Solid Dielectric Materials uder Moist Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

IEC\\/TC15 is preparing a new edition of Publication 112 concerning a method for determining the comparative tracking index(CTI) of solid insulating materials under moist conditions; the Electrical Engineering Dept., University of Genoa, has performed a set of tests on this subject. A short description of the aims, of the procedure, and of the apparatus used for the tests reported in

L. Centurioni; G. Coletti; A. Operto

1977-01-01

43

Accidental degeneracies in nonlinear quantum deformed systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a multi-parameter nonlinear deformed algebra for quantum confined systems that includes many other deformed models as particular cases. We demonstrate that such systems exhibit the property of accidental pairwise energy level degeneracies. We also study, as a special case of our multi-parameter deformation formalism, the extension of the Tamm-Dancoff cutoff deformed oscillator and the occurrence of accidental pairwise degeneracy in the energy levels of the deformed system. As an application, we discuss the case of a trigonometric Rosen-Morse potential, which is successfully used in models for quantum confined systems, ranging from electrons in quantum dots to quarks in hadrons.

Aleixo, A. N. F.; Balantekin, A. B.

2011-09-01

44

Contribution of realistic soil moisture initial conditions to boreal summer climate predictability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal climate forecasts mainly rely on the atmospheric sensitivity to its lower boundary conditions and on their own predictability. Besides sea surface temperature (SST), soil moisture (SM) may be an additional source of climate predictability particularly during boreal summer in the mid-latitudes. In this work, we investigate the role of SM initial conditions on near-surface climate predictability during ten boreal summer seasons using three complementary ensembles of AMIP-type simulations performed with the Arpège-Climat atmospheric general circulation model. First we have conducted an assessment of the SM predictability itself through a comparison of simple empirical SM models with Arpège-Climat. The statistical and dynamical models reveal similar SM prediction skill patterns but the Arpège-Climat reaches higher scores suggesting that it is at least suitable to explore the influence of SM initialization on atmospheric predictability. Then we evaluate the relationships between SM predictability and some near surface atmospheric predictability. While SM initialization obviously improves the predictability of land surface evaporation, it has no systematic influence on the precipitation and near surface temperature skills. Nevertheless, the summer hindcast skill is clearly improved during specific years and over certain regions (mainly north America and eastern Europe in the Arpège-Climat model), when and where the SM forcing is sufficiently widespread and strong. In this case, a significant impact is also found on the occurrence of heat waves and heavy rains, whose predictability at the seasonal timescale is a crucial challenge for years to come.

Conil, S.; Douville, H.; Tyteca, S.

2009-01-01

45

Fornix and retrosplenial contribution to a hippocampo-thalamic circuit underlying conditional learning.  

PubMed

Rats with combined bilateral lesions of the retrosplenial cortex and the fornix or rats with unilateral lesions to the anterior thalamus and the hippocampus, made in opposite hemispheres (disconnection preparation), and combined with unilateral damage of the retrosplenial cortex in either hemisphere, were tested on a spatial-visual conditional learning task in which they learned arbitrary associations between stimuli and the scene in which they were embedded. All experimental groups were impaired in comparison with normal animals. The more severe deficits occurred when (1) both the fornix and the retrosplenial cortex were damaged bilaterally thus depriving the hippocampus both from subcortical interactions via the fornix and retrosplenial-mediated interactions and (2) when, in the crossed lesion preparation, the unilateral retrosplenial lesion was made in the hemisphere with the intact hippocampus, again because this lesion would be maximally disconnecting the hippocampus from functional interaction with the anterior thalamic nucleus and retrosplenial-mediated input. PMID:20060426

Dumont, Julie R; Petrides, Michael; Sziklas, Viviane

2010-01-07

46

Differential contribution of hippocampal circuits to appetitive and consummatory behaviors during operant conditioning of behaving mice.  

PubMed

Operant conditioning is a type of associative learning involving different and complex sensorimotor and cognitive processes. Because the hippocampus has been related to some motor and cognitive functions involved in this type of learning (such as object recognition, spatial orientation, and associative learning tasks), we decided to study in behaving mice the putative changes in strength taking place at the hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses during the acquisition and performance of an operant conditioning task. Mice were chronically implanted with stimulating electrodes in the Schaffer collaterals and with recording electrodes in the hippocampal CA1 area and trained to an operant task using a fixed-ratio (1:1) schedule. We recorded the field EPSPs (fEPSPs) evoked at the CA3-CA1 synapse during the performance of appetitive (going to the lever, lever press) and consummatory (going to the feeder, eating) behaviors. In addition, we recorded the local field potential activity of the CA1 area during similar behavioral displays. fEPSPs evoked at the CA3-CA1 synapse presented larger amplitudes for appetitive than for consummatory behaviors. This differential change in synaptic strength took place in relation to the learning process, depending mainly on the moment in which mice reached the selected criterion. Thus, selective changes in CA3-CA1 synaptic strength were dependent on both the behavior display and the learning stage. In addition, significant changes in theta band power peaks and their corresponding discrete frequencies were noticed during these behaviors across the sequence of events characterizing this type of associative learning but not during the acquisition process. PMID:23392660

Jurado-Parras, M Teresa; Sánchez-Campusano, Raudel; Castellanos, Nazareth P; del-Pozo, Francisco; Gruart, Agnès; Delgado-García, José M

2013-02-01

47

Accidental poisoning of children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

There were 7142 cases of accidental poisoning in children admitted to all Riyadh Governmental Hospitals during the five years period (1983-87). Household products were the most common poisoning agent, accounting for 59% of all cases. This was followed by drugs (39%), and plants (2%). Children aged one to two years were the most affected. The fatality rate was 0.1%. This study indicates that improved living conditions, proper storage of the drugs and chemicals as well as health education of parents will help in reducing the incidence of poisoning. PMID:2513406

Al-Sekait, M A

1989-12-01

48

Accidental Injury and Young Australian Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Details types and causes of accidental injury to young children. Notes that of the average 5,000 accidents per day nationwide, falls account for the greatest number. Concludes with four cautions: check for hazards in child's environs; think safety at home; lobby and advocate for safer toys, furniture, and equipment; and report defects and…

Juan, Stephen

1995-01-01

49

Noncommercial, accidental water transport (boating) fatalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of non-commercial accidental water transport (boating) fatalities was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Fla., during the years 1980–1984. A total of 23 cases were collected and analyzed as to the age, race, sex, and the cause of death of the victim along with the blood

Arthur R. Copeland

1986-01-01

50

Contribution of multiangular geometry conditions on the photometric characterization of granular surface samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work aims at assessing the consequences and limitations on the determination of the photometric properties of granular samples in the visible domain when considering a restrained multiangular dataset versus a dense set of reflectance measurements spanning the whole bidirectional space. This is of particular interest for orbital spectrophotometric studies, given the limited number of multiangular observations that a spaceborne optical instrument is usually allowed to make. For this purpose, comprehensive sets of multiangular configurations measured on several materials have been inverted by means of Hapke's modeling, then progressively depleted and inverted again. The materials were selected from Shepard and Helfenstein's work (2007) and chosen for their variety in terms of photometric behaviors (backscattering and forward-scattering), reflectance levels, grain sizes and shapes. This study shows that, for a given range of angles, the factor that appears critical to constrain photometric inversions is the regular coverage of the bidirectional space in incidence, emission, azimuth, and consequently phase angles. Provided this condition is met, the number of considered configurations is not of the essence and reliable photometric estimates can be produced with a limited set of angular configurations. However, one must bear in mind that the present conclusions are reached with a range of phase angle comprised between 25 and 130° and for a given set of particulate materials, which despite its diversity is likely not representative of all situations. While there clearly are naturally occurring geological samples for which it is possible to retrieve meaningful information with the photometric angular range considered here, types of samples may exist for which this range is not adequate to properly reveal the physical characteristics of the constitutive particles. More laboratory work is currently underway (see Souchon et al., this workshop) with the support of the ISEP facility (Imaging Spectrogoniometer for Planetary Exploration) operating at the Midi-Pyrénées Observatory, Toulouse, France and documenting the optical and photometric properties of natural rocky surfaces and soils on their reflectance properties, when measured from the crystal to the macroscopic scale (200 x 200 mm).

Daydou, Y.; Pinet, P.; Souchon, A.; Chevrel, S.

2012-04-01

51

Self Limiting Features of Accidental Criticality in a Solution System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experience with the SHEBA solution critical assembly during validation testing of accidental criticality alarm detectors provided several insights into the character of potential accidental excursions. Two observations were of particular interest. First, ...

R. E. Malenfant

1988-01-01

52

Coroners' records of accidental deaths.  

PubMed Central

This study set out to provide a description of the children involved in fatal accidents and to ascertain which deaths might have been prevented and by what means. The records from a convenience sample of four coroners (jurisdictions of Inner North London, Birmingham, Bedfordshire, and Ipswich) of inquests opened in 1984-8 on children aged under 15 killed in accidents were reviewed for information on the deceased, the accident, and the injuries sustained. Altogether 225 records (150 boys, 75 girls) were examined. Accidents to pedestrians were the commonest cause of death (81 cases), and road safety engineering measures were the most likely means by which most fatalities might have been prevented. The records frequently omitted information on social circumstances, family structure, ethnic group, or the use of safety equipment. Cooperative coroners can contribute to child safety as their records are rich in information about accidents. This could be made available to parties interested in accident prevention, including community paediatricians.

Levene, S

1991-01-01

53

Accidental Infection of Laboratory Worker with Vaccinia  

PubMed Central

We report the accidental needlestick inoculation of a laboratory worker with vaccinia virus. Although the patient had previously been vaccinated against smallpox, severe lesions appeared on the fingers. Western blot and polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism were used to analyze the virus recovered from the lesions. The vaccinia virus–specific immunoglobulin G levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our study supports the need for vaccination for laboratory workers that routinely handle orthopoxvirus.

Tuyama, Mari; Kato, Sayuri E.M.; Castro, Ana Paula V.; Njaine, Brian; Peralta, Regina H.; Peralta, M.; Damaso, Clarissa R.A.; Barroso, Paulo F.

2003-01-01

54

Fatal accidental inhalation of bromochlorodifluoromethane (Halon 1211).  

PubMed

Bromochlorodifluoromethane (Halon 1211) is a widely used fire extinguishing agent. Several cases of sudden death in teenagers associated with BCF abuse have been reported. BCF is used as a fire extinguisher in battle tanks. Two young previously healthy male soldiers were accidentally exposed to BCF in a battle tank. The tank driver died, but the gunner survived the event with no medial complications. It is concluded that BCF should be used in confined chambers only after the evacuation of all personnel. PMID:1675103

Lerman, Y; Winkler, E; Tirosh, M S; Danon, Y; Almog, S

1991-03-01

55

Macular pucker following accidental laser burn  

SciTech Connect

A case of an accidental exposure to a high intensity Q-switched infrared laser beam is described. A paramacular burn, splinter hemorrhages on the disc margin, and vitreous hemorrhage were the initial findings. Later, a paramacular pucker developed, causing reduction in visual acuity to 6/12. Microvascular accident on the disc margin is assumed to be the cause of a paracentral scotoma located fairly far from the image area.

Glovinsky, Y.; Regenbogen, L.; Bartov, E.; Blumenthal, M.; Moisseieve, Y.

1982-01-01

56

Accidental exposure to sarin: vision effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two men were accidentally exposed to vapors of sarin, a cholinesterase inhibitor and extremely toxic nerve gas. Diagnosis\\u000a was confirmed by depressed cholinesterase activity, and fixed extremely miotic pupils. No other signs or symptoms developed\\u000a and neither man required treatment. Recovery to normal cholinesterase activity was gradual over a 90-day period. Pupillary\\u000a reflexes were not detectable until 11 days after

Roy H. Rengstorff

1985-01-01

57

Forced Air Speeds Rewarming in Accidental Hypothermia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To compare the rates of rewarming of forced-air and passive insulation as a treatment for accidental hypothermia. Methods: We carried out a prospective, randomized clinical trial in two urban, university-affiliated emergency departments. Our subjects were 16 adult hypothermia victims with core temperatures less than 32°C. A convective cover inflated with air at about 43°C (forced-air group) or cotton

Mark T Steele; Michael J Nelson; Daniel I Sessler; Lesa Fraker; Brad Bunney; William A Watson; William A Robinson

1996-01-01

58

Adverse events in humans associated with accidental exposure to the livestock brucellosis vaccine RB51  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine, is an attenuated live bacterial vaccine that was licensed conditionally by the Center for Veterinary Biologics, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA, on 23 February 1996, for vaccination of cattle in the United States. Accidental human inoculations can occur during vaccination of cattle, and previous live Brucella vaccines designed for cattle have

David A Ashford; Jennifer di Pietra; Jairam Lingappa; Christopher Woods; Heather Noll; Bridget Neville; Robbin Weyant; Sandra L Bragg; Richard A Spiegel; Jordan Tappero; Bradley A Perkins

2004-01-01

59

Accidental systemic exposure to sodium hypochlorite (Chlorox) during hemodialysis.  

PubMed

A case of accidental exposure of a patient undergoing hemodialysis to a sodium hypochlorite solution is reported. A 61-year-old woman was completing a hemodialysis treatment when routine cleaning of the hemodialysis machine was started. Approximately two liters of undiluted sodium hypochlorite cleaning solution (Chlorox) was added to the dialysis bath, soaking the membrane fibers. For less than two minutes the Chlorox-soaked membrane was in contact with the blood returning to the patient. This accident led to massive hemolysis, hyperkalemia, cyanosis, and cardiopulmonary arrest. Hemolysis may have been caused by the hypertonic solution, rapid exothermic protein degradation, alkaline degradation, or another mechanism. The sudden rise and fall in the concentrations of serum electrolytes and subsequent hyperkalemia was the most probable cause for the cardiac arrest. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was started, the patient was intubated, given oxygen, sodium bicarbonate, atropine, dopamine, and isoproterenol. Sodium thiosulfate 5 g was administered by a nasogastric tube approximately 25 minutes after the cardiac arrest as a neutralizing reducing agent. The patient's condition stabilized, and she recovered after a week of hospitalization. Cleaning solutions used in the routine cleaning of hemodialysis machinery represent potentially toxic agents. Hemodialysis procedures should ensure that cleaning and sterilizing solutions cannot accidentally come into contact with a dialysis machine that is still connected to the patient. PMID:7294048

Hoy, R H

1981-10-01

60

Contribution of Transcription Factor Binding Site Motif Variants to Condition-Specific Gene Expression Patterns in Budding Yeast  

PubMed Central

It is now experimentally well known that variant sequences of a cis transcription factor binding site motif can contribute to differential regulation of genes. We characterize the relationship between motif variants and gene expression by analyzing expression microarray data and binding site predictions. To accomplish this, we statistically detect motif variants with effects that differ among environments. Such environmental specificity may be due to either affinity differences between variants or, more likely, differential interactions of TFs bound to these variants with cofactors, and with differential presence of cofactors across environments. We examine conservation of functional variants across four Saccharomyces species, and find that about a third of transcription factors have target genes that are differentially expressed in a condition-specific manner that is correlated with the nucleotide at variant motif positions. We find good correspondence between our results and some cases in the experimental literature (Reb1, Sum1, Mcm1, and Rap1). These results and growing consensus in the literature indicates that motif variants may often be functionally distinct, that this may be observed in genomic data, and that variants play an important role in condition-specific gene regulation.

Rest, Joshua S.; Bullaughey, Kevin; Morris, Geoffrey P.; Li, Wen-Hsiung

2012-01-01

61

Spinal transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 channel contributes to central pain hypersensitivity in various pathophysiological conditions in the rat.  

PubMed

The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) ion channel is expressed on nociceptive primary afferent neurons. On the proximal nerve ending within the spinal dorsal horn, TRPA1 regulates transmission to spinal interneurons, and thereby pain hypersensitivity. Here we assessed whether the contribution of the spinal TRPA1 channel to pain hypersensitivity varies with the experimental pain model, properties of test stimulation or the behavioral pain response. The antihypersensitivity effect of intrathecally (i.t.) administered Chembridge-5861528 (CHEM; a selective TRPA1 channel antagonist; 5-10?g) was determined in various experimental models of pain hypersensitivity in the rat. In spinal nerve ligation and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation models, i.t. CHEM attenuated mechanical hypersensitivity. Capsaicin-induced secondary (central) but not primary (peripheral) mechanical hypersensitivity was also reduced by i.t. administration of CHEM or A-967079, another TRPA1 channel antagonist. Formalin-induced secondary mechanical hypersensitivity, but not spontaneous pain, was suppressed by i.t. CHEM. Moreover, mechanical hypersensitivity induced by cholekystokinin in the rostroventromedial medulla was attenuated by i.t. pretreatment with CHEM. Independent of the model, the antihypersensitivity effect induced by i.t. CHEM was predominant on responses evoked by low-intensity stimuli (?6g). CHEM (10?g i.t.) failed to attenuate pain behavior in healthy controls or mechanical hypersensitivities induced by i.t. administrations of a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, or NMDA or 5-HT(3) receptor agonists. Conversely, i.t. administration of a TRPA1 channel agonist, cinnamon aldehyde, induced mechanical hypersensitivity. The results indicate that the spinal TRPA1 channel exerts an important role in secondary (central) pain hypersensitivity to low-intensity mechanical stimulation in various pain hypersensitivity conditions. The spinal TRPA1 channel provides a promising target for the selective attenuation of a central mechanism contributing to pathophysiological pain. PMID:21211906

Wei, Hong; Koivisto, Ari; Saarnilehto, Marja; Chapman, Hugh; Kuokkanen, Katja; Hao, Bin; Huang, Jin-Lu; Wang, Yong-Xiang; Pertovaara, Antti

2011-01-05

62

Sudden death following accidental ingestion of chlormequat.  

PubMed

A 59-year-old white male accidentally ingested a mouthful of a plant growth chemical, Cycocel, containing 11.8% of the active ingredient (2-chloroethyl)trimethylammonium chloride (chlormequat). He was seen by a family physician and then transferred to a hospital where he died as a result of ventricular fibrillation, which progressed to asystole. Postingestion symptoms were typical of cholinergic crisis and included salivation, diaphoresis, bradycardia, visual disturbances, and seizure. Autopsy findings showed marked pulmonary edema, coronary atherosclerosis, atheromata of aorta, and localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Toxicological analyses of biological samples showed the presence of chlormequat in the stomach contents and urine. PMID:2395350

Winek, C L; Wahba, W W; Edelstein, J M

63

Arabidopsis TNL-WRKY domain receptor RRS1 contributes to temperature-conditioned RPS4 auto-immunity.  

PubMed

In plant effector-triggered immunity (ETI), intracellular nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (NLR) receptors are activated by specific pathogen effectors. The Arabidopsis TIR (Toll-Interleukin-1 receptor domain)-NLR (denoted TNL) gene pair, RPS4 and RRS1, confers resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) strain DC3000 expressing the Type III-secreted effector, AvrRps4. Nuclear accumulation of AvrRps4, RPS4, and the TNL resistance regulator EDS1 is necessary for ETI. RRS1 possesses a C-terminal "WRKY" transcription factor DNA binding domain suggesting that important RPS4/RRS1 recognition and/or resistance signaling events occur at the nuclear chromatin. In Arabidopsis accession Ws-0, the RPS4(Ws) /RRS1(Ws) allelic pair governs resistance to Pst/AvrRps4 accompanied by host programed cell death (pcd). In accession Col-0, RPS4(Col) /RRS1(Col) effectively limits Pst/AvrRps4 growth without pcd. Constitutive expression of HA-StrepII tagged RPS4(Col) (in a 35S:RPS4-HS line) confers temperature-conditioned EDS1-dependent auto-immunity. Here we show that a high (28°C, non-permissive) to moderate (19°C, permissive) temperature shift of 35S:RPS4-HS plants can be used to follow defense-related transcriptional dynamics without a pathogen effector trigger. By comparing responses of 35S:RPS4-HS with 35S:RPS4-HS rrs1-11 and 35S:RPS4-HS eds1-2 mutants, we establish that RPS4(Col) auto-immunity depends entirely on EDS1 and partially on RRS1(Col) . Examination of gene expression microarray data over 24 h after temperature shift reveals a mainly quantitative RRS1(Col) contribution to up- or down-regulation of a small subset of RPS4(Col) -reprogramed, EDS1-dependent genes. We find significant over-representation of WRKY transcription factor binding W-box cis-elements within the promoters of these genes. Our data show that RRS1(Col) contributes to temperature-conditioned RPS4(Col) auto-immunity and are consistent with activated RPS4(Col) engaging RRS1(Col) for resistance signaling. PMID:24146667

Heidrich, Katharina; Tsuda, Kenichi; Blanvillain-Baufumé, Servane; Wirthmueller, Lennart; Bautor, Jaqueline; Parker, Jane E

2013-10-17

64

Arabidopsis TNL-WRKY domain receptor RRS1 contributes to temperature-conditioned RPS4 auto-immunity  

PubMed Central

In plant effector-triggered immunity (ETI), intracellular nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (NLR) receptors are activated by specific pathogen effectors. The Arabidopsis TIR (Toll-Interleukin-1 receptor domain)-NLR (denoted TNL) gene pair, RPS4 and RRS1, confers resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) strain DC3000 expressing the Type III-secreted effector, AvrRps4. Nuclear accumulation of AvrRps4, RPS4, and the TNL resistance regulator EDS1 is necessary for ETI. RRS1 possesses a C-terminal “WRKY” transcription factor DNA binding domain suggesting that important RPS4/RRS1 recognition and/or resistance signaling events occur at the nuclear chromatin. In Arabidopsis accession Ws-0, the RPS4Ws/RRS1Ws allelic pair governs resistance to Pst/AvrRps4 accompanied by host programed cell death (pcd). In accession Col-0, RPS4Col/RRS1Col effectively limits Pst/AvrRps4 growth without pcd. Constitutive expression of HA-StrepII tagged RPS4Col (in a 35S:RPS4-HS line) confers temperature-conditioned EDS1-dependent auto-immunity. Here we show that a high (28°C, non-permissive) to moderate (19°C, permissive) temperature shift of 35S:RPS4-HS plants can be used to follow defense-related transcriptional dynamics without a pathogen effector trigger. By comparing responses of 35S:RPS4-HS with 35S:RPS4-HS rrs1-11 and 35S:RPS4-HS eds1-2 mutants, we establish that RPS4Col auto-immunity depends entirely on EDS1 and partially on RRS1Col. Examination of gene expression microarray data over 24 h after temperature shift reveals a mainly quantitative RRS1Col contribution to up- or down-regulation of a small subset of RPS4Col-reprogramed, EDS1-dependent genes. We find significant over-representation of WRKY transcription factor binding W-box cis-elements within the promoters of these genes. Our data show that RRS1Col contributes to temperature-conditioned RPS4Col auto-immunity and are consistent with activated RPS4Col engaging RRS1Col for resistance signaling.

Heidrich, Katharina; Tsuda, Kenichi; Blanvillain-Baufume, Servane; Wirthmueller, Lennart; Bautor, Jaqueline; Parker, Jane E.

2013-01-01

65

Modeling downwind hazards after an accidental release of chlorine trifluoride  

SciTech Connect

A module simulating ClF{sub 3} chemical reactions with water vapor and thermodynamic processes in the atmosphere after an accidental release has been developed. This module was liked to the HGSYSTEM. Initial model runs simulate the rapid formation of HF and ClO{sub 2} after an atmospheric release of ClF{sub 3}. At distances beyond the first several meters from the release point, HF and ClO{sub 2} concentrations pose a greater threat to human health than do ClF{sub 3} concentrations. For most of the simulations, ClF{sub 3} concentrations rapidly fall below the IDLH. Fro releases occurring in ambient conditions with low relative humidity and/or ambient temperature, ClF{sub 3} concentrations exceed the IDLH up to almost 500 m. The performance of this model needs to be determined for potential release scenarios that will be considered. These release scenarios are currently being developed.

Lombardi, D.A.; Cheng, Meng-Dawn

1996-05-01

66

Experiences of Causing an Accidental Death: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Accidentally killing or feeling responsible for another person's death constitutes an event that is different from many typical traumatic stressors in that the responsibility for causing the trauma is located in the person themselves, rather than another person or persons. Research exploring the perspective of those who have accidentally caused a…

Rassool, Sara B.; Nel, Pieter W.

2012-01-01

67

CONTROL AND MITIGATION SYSTEMS FOR ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF TOXIC CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses control and mitigation systems for accidental releases of toxic chemicals. A review of the control/mitigation system data base developed during an EPA study reveals that the major control measure employed by industry for accidental releases is routine process ...

68

Control and mitigation systems for accidental releases of toxic chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses control and mitigation systems for accidental releases of toxic chemicals. A review of the control\\/mitigation system data base developed during an EPA study reveals that the major control measure employed by industry for accidental releases is routine process inspections. For control devices, flares and scrubbers were found to be the control systems of choice for handling such

E. R. Krishnan; P. W. Utrecht; J. C. Bare

1988-01-01

69

Circumstances of Accidental Poisoning in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Of 377 children with accidental poisoning, the commonest ages were 1, 2, and 3. The most important contributory factor was that the poison was kept in an inappropriate place. Most containers were closed, but the children found them easy to open. In some cases the container itself was unsuitable for the contents. The frequency of poisoning in childhood might be reduced in six main ways: (1) a reduction in the quantity of drugs kept in the home; (2) the provision of drug cupboards; (3) the provision of containers that are difficult for children to open, or individually foil-wrapping tablets; (4) making tablets less attractive to children; (5) clear identification of potential poisons; and (6) increasing parental awareness of the circumstances under which poisoning occurs. A plea is made for further sociomedical research into the prevention of poisoning.

Jackson, R. H.; Walker, J. H.; Wynne, N. A.

1968-01-01

70

Plutonium contamination from accidental release or simply fallout: study of soils at Palomares (Spain).  

PubMed

The activity concentration of plutonium in an environmental sample does not usually constitute sufficient information to determine if it is due only to fallout. Alpha and gamma spectrometry are used here conjointly in the study of environmental soil samples to distinguish between samples showing plutonium contamination due to fallout exclusively, and samples contaminated with plutonium from another source. The method was applied to soil samples collected in Palomares (Spain), where an accidental release of aerosols contaminated with plutonium occurred. The two contributions (fallout and accidentally released plutonium) were separated by means of the activity ratios between various radionuclides present in the samples analyzed. The fallout level was estimated from the 239 + 240Pu/137Cs activity ratio. For samples showing contamination due to the accident, the 238Pu/239 + 240Pu and 239Pu/240Pu activity ratios were also calculated to determine the grade of plutonium of this contamination. PMID:11398375

Rubio Montero, P; Martín Sánchez, A

2001-01-01

71

An experimental test of the contributions and condition dependence of microstructure and carotenoids in yellow plumage coloration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of structural and pigmentary components is responsible for many of the colour displays of animals. Despite the ubiquity of this type of coloration, neither the relative contribution of structures and pigments to variation in such colour displays nor the relative effects of extrinsic factors on the structural and pigment-based components of such colour has been determined. Understanding the

Matthew D. Shawkey; Geoffrey E. Hill; Kevin J. McGraw; Wendy R. Hood; Kristal Huggins

2006-01-01

72

The contribution of negative reproductive experiences and chronic medical conditions to depression and pain among Israeli women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of 302 Israeli women sought to investigate the associations among stressful reproductive experiences (e.g. fertility problems, abortions, and traumatic births), chronic medical conditions, pain, and depression. The specific aims of the study were to examine (1) the effect of stressful reproductive experiences, chronic medical conditions, and pain on depressive symptoms and (2) the effect of stressful reproductive experiences,

Orly Sarid; Dorit Segal-Engelchin; Julie Cwikel

2011-01-01

73

Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.  

PubMed

Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ?100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies. PMID:22349318

Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

2012-02-20

74

[Psychological aspects of accidental poisoning in children].  

PubMed

The following points stand out from a semi-open questionnaire which was sent to the parents of 28 children hospitalized for accidental intoxication. Intoxications often occur in children who are hyperactive, curious, rebellious and have strong affective needs. Parents find it very difficult to set bans and limitations to their children, whose behaviour seems to be actively calling out for such restrictions. These children frequently put themselves in a situation of self-aggression, which shows the parents' inability to teach them to develop a vital self protective attitude from life's daily experience. Most often, the child is aware of transgressing a ban and in a few cases, intoxication seems to be a deliberate act on his part. It generally occurs when stress has been building up in the family, thus threatening the balance of the family. If it happens in a family where relationships are already deeply disturbed, it must be considered as a signal of alarm. It is then necessary to suggest that the family should undergo a psychotherapeutic course to help them to put an end to the deadly process in which they are involved. PMID:3448592

Trabach-Valadier, C; Floret, D

1987-01-01

75

conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time scheduling is both based on a broad theoretical background and available through a multitude of tools and infrastructures. The central input parameters to this discipline are the demand for execution time and the real- time conditions given as deadlines or periods. The former has attracted a lot of research efforts, mainly in the scope of worst case execution time

Dieter Z

76

Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 1 Is Localized in Brain Regions with High Synaptic Density and Contributes to Fear Conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acid-sensing ion channel, ASIC1, contributes to synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and to hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. To explore the role of ASIC1 in brain, we examined the distribution of ASIC1 protein. Surprisingly, although ASIC1 was present in the hippocampal circuit, it was much more abundant in several areas outside the hippocampus. ASIC1 was enriched in areas with strong excitatory

John A. Wemmie; Candice C. Askwith; Ejvis Lamani; Martin D. Cassell; John H. Freeman Jr; Michael J. Welsh

2003-01-01

77

Accidental transection of flexometallic endotracheal tube during partial maxillectomy  

PubMed Central

We report a rare case of an 18-year-old female patient in whom accidental sectioning of flexometallic endotracheal tube occurred during partial maxillectomy for mass lesion under general anaesthesia. She was managed successfully by tracheostomy.

Ladi, Sushma D; Aphale, Shubhada

2011-01-01

78

Accidental transection of flexometallic endotracheal tube during partial maxillectomy.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of an 18-year-old female patient in whom accidental sectioning of flexometallic endotracheal tube occurred during partial maxillectomy for mass lesion under general anaesthesia. She was managed successfully by tracheostomy. PMID:21808404

Ladi, Sushma D; Aphale, Shubhada

2011-05-01

79

10 CFR 70.52 - Reports of accidental criticality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material Control, Records, Reports and Inspections § 70.52 Reports of accidental criticality. (a)...

2013-01-01

80

How to safely apply the LVTSCR for CMOS whole-chip ESD protection without being accidentally triggered on  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the lateral SCR devices used in CMOS on-chip ESD protection circuits are reviewed. Such SCR devices had been found to be accidentally triggered on by noise pulses when the ICs are in the normal operating condition. A cascode design is therefore proposed to safely apply the low voltage triggered SCR (LVTSCR) devices for whole-chip ESD protection in

Ming-Dou Ker; Hun-Hsien Chang

1998-01-01

81

Imitation of Intentional and Accidental Actions by Children with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether children with autism (CWA) would selectively imitate intentional, as opposed to accidental actions, an\\u000a experimenter demonstrated either an “intentional” and an “accidental” action or two “intentional” actions on the same toy\\u000a [Carpenter, Akhtar, & Tomasello (1998a) Infant Behavior and Development, 21, 315–330]. CWA tended to imitate the experimenter exactly. Children with developmental delay and older typically developing

Barbara D’Entremont; Aimée Yazbek

2007-01-01

82

Infrasonic signals from an accidental chemical explosion  

SciTech Connect

A series of large accidental explosions occurred at a chemical plant in Henderson, Nevada on May 4, 1988. The explosions were produced by the ignition of stores of ammonium perchlorate produced for solid rocket fuel at the Pacific Engineering and Production Co. This material, prior to the incident, had been believed to be non- explosive. The blasts destroyed the plant and caused one death. There was a series of explosions over a period of time with two major explosions which we will identify as A at 18:53:34 (all times herein will be given in C.U.T.) and B at 18:57:35. Signals from events A and B as well as smaller events were detected by the infrasound arrays operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at St. George, Utah (distance 159 km) and at Los Alamos, N.M. (distance 774 km). The Henderson explosions present an interesting and challenging set of infrasound observations. The case may be unique in providing two very large sources separated in time by only four minutes. To fully understand the propagation details will require further analysis and probably a modeling effort. The understanding of the St. George signals in the context of Lamb waves would be valuable for a better understanding of this mode of propagation. The improved understanding of long range infrasonic propagation is now especially important in the context of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). A portion of the plan for CTBT monitoring includes a global distribution of sixty infrasound arrays to provide for the monitoring of signals in as uniform a way as possible. It is expected that under this global network many signals and interpretation questions of the type described here will be encountered. Investigations of propagation over the ranges of hundreds to thousands of kilometers will be highly desired.

Mutschlecner, J.P.; Whitaker, R.W.

1996-12-31

83

Adverse events in humans associated with accidental exposure to the livestock brucellosis vaccine RB51.  

PubMed

Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine, is an attenuated live bacterial vaccine that was licensed conditionally by the Center for Veterinary Biologics, Veterinary Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA, on 23 February 1996, for vaccination of cattle in the United States. Accidental human inoculations can occur during vaccination of cattle, and previous live Brucella vaccines designed for cattle have been known to cause brucellosis in humans. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established passive surveillance for accidental inoculation with the RB51 vaccine in the United States to determine if this veterinary vaccine is associated with human disease, to describe the circumstances of accidental inoculation, to evaluate the potential efficacy of post-exposure chemoprophylaxis, and to develop recommendations for post-exposure management following exposure to RB51. Reports were received from 26 individuals. Accidental exposure to RB51 occurred by needle stick injury in 21 people (81%), conjunctival spray exposure in four (15%), and spray exposure of an open wound in one (4%) individual. At least one systemic symptom was reported in 19 (73%) people, including three (12%) who reported persistent local reactions with systemic involvement. One case required surgery, and B. abortus strain RB51 was isolated from the wound of that individual. Seven cases reported no adverse event associated with accidental exposure. Nine cases reported previous exposure to Brucella vaccines, including one case who also reported a previous diagnosis of brucellosis following exposure to S19 vaccine. Accidental needle stick injuries and conjunctival or open wound exposures of humans with the RB51 vaccine are associated with both local and systemic adverse events in the United States that are consistent with brucellosis; however, it remains undetermined if strain RB51 vaccine can cause systemic brucellosis in humans. Early culture attempts on those exposed and developing disease in the future and serologic diagnostic assays for anti-RB-51 antibodies are needed to define if these adverse events are due to RB51 and to define appropriate prophylaxis regimens. PMID:15308369

Ashford, David A; di Pietra, Jennifer; Lingappa, Jairam; Woods, Christopher; Noll, Heather; Neville, Bridget; Weyant, Robbin; Bragg, Sandra L; Spiegel, Richard A; Tappero, Jordan; Perkins, Bradley A

2004-09-01

84

Distinct Contributions of the Basolateral Amygdala and the Medial Prefrontal Cortex to Learning and Relearning Extinction of Context Conditioned Fear  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We studied the roles of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in learning and relearning to inhibit context conditioned fear (freezing) in extinction. In Experiment 1, pre-extinction BLA infusion of the NMDA receptor (NMDAr) antagonist, ifenprodil, impaired the development and retention of inhibition but…

Laurent, Vincent; Westbrook, R. Frederick

2008-01-01

85

A simulation study of dispersion of air borne radionuclides from a nuclear power plant under a hypothetical accidental scenario at a tropical coastal site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meteorological condition in coastal regions is diurnally variable and spatially heterogeneous due to complex topography, land–sea interface, etc. A wide range of dispersion conditions is possible on a given day in the coastal regions. In case of inadvertent accidental situations, though unlikely, it would be necessary to examine the potentially severe case among different dynamically occurring local atmospheric conditions for

C. V. Srinivas; R. Venkatesan

2005-01-01

86

Relative contributions of archaea and bacteria to microbial ammonia oxidation differ under different conditions during agricultural waste composting.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the relative contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) to nitrification during agricultural waste composting. The AOA and AOB amoA gene abundance and composition were determined by quantitative PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), respectively. The results showed that the archaeal amoA gene was abundant throughout the composting process, while the bacterial amoA gene abundance decreased to undetectable level during the thermophilic and cooling stages. DGGE showed more diverse archaeal amoA gene composition when the potential ammonia oxidation (PAO) rate reached peak values. A significant positive relationship was observed between the PAO rate and the archaeal amoA gene abundance (R²=0.554; P<0.001), indicating that archaea dominated ammonia oxidation during the thermophilic and cooling stages. Bacteria were also related to ammonia oxidation activity (R²=0.503; P=0.03) especially during the mesophilic and maturation stages. PMID:21843932

Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Jiachao; Chen, Yaoning; Yu, Zhen; Yu, Man; Li, Hui; Liu, Zhifeng; Chen, Ming; Lu, Lunhui; Hu, Chunxiao

2011-07-27

87

Nursing's contribution to research about parenting children with complex chronic conditions: An integrative review, 2002 to 2012.  

PubMed

Children with complex chronic conditions (CCC) need extensive, costly care, usually provided at home by parents. These children often rely on technology to survive or avoid complications. Children with CCC receive nursing care in hospital, community, and home settings. An integrative review of 22 nursing studies, from 2002 to 2012, of parenting for children with CCC was conducted to synthesize nursing research addressing parenting a child with a CCC and identify promising areas for future inquiry and development of supportive interventions and policies. Criteria for sampling in these studies were reviewed, and an updated definition for children with CCC is offered to replace an outdated definition of "medically fragile" children. Findings include the extensive impacts of providing complex care at home, including the tension between the difficulties and recognition of the rewards of providing that care. Disruptions occurred in emotional, role development, social, and moral realms. PMID:23809600

Rehm, Roberta S

2013-06-27

88

Contributions to the evaluation of observability performance in difficult ambient conditions, for observation equipment during night and day  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to establish an evaluation method of the observability performance for equipment that enables day and night vision (using thermal cameras, gated image intensification and CCD cameras using L3V based on e2v technology). This is done by modelling of experimental results of simulation setup in the lab. Starting from the predictive evaluation procedures of the observation, the paper analyses the relevance of method to establish the limits in the utilization of the above- mentioned equipment, from the point of view of the observation probability, in difficult ambient conditions, such as reduced illumination level or aerosol curtains. Moreover, the present work compares subjective factors that can influence the prediction by the participants on the experiments (age, training, decision time) and objective factors (contrast between background and image, resolution of the observation system and image noise).

Borcan, Octavia Violeta C.; Spulber, Catalin A.

2009-09-01

89

Glutamate receptor antagonist infusions into the basolateral and medial amygdala reveal differential contributions to olfactory vs. context fear conditioning and expression  

PubMed Central

The basolateral amygdala's involvement in fear acquisition and expression to visual and auditory stimuli is well known. The involvement of the basolateral and other amygdala areas in fear acquisition and expression to stimuli of other modalities is less certain. We evaluated the contribution of the basolateral and medial amygdala to olfactory and to context fear and fear conditioning by infusing into these areas the NMDA receptor antagonist AP5, the AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist NBQX, or vehicle prior to either odor-shock pairings or fear-potentiated startle testing. Pre-training AP5 infusions into the basolateral amygdala disrupted fear conditioning to the odor but not the context conditioned stimulus (CS). Pre-test NBQX infusions disrupted fear-potentiated startle to the odor but not context CS. Neither compound blocked fear conditioning when infused into the medial amygdala prior to training, but pre-test NBQX infusions did block fear-potentiated startle. The results confirm and extend recent findings suggesting a role for the basolateral amygdala in olfactory fear and fear conditioning, reveal an unexpected dissociation of the basolateral amygdala's involvement in discrete cue versus context fear and fear conditioning, and implicate for the first time the medial amygdala in fear-potentiated startle.

Walker, David L.; Paschall, Gayla Y.; Davis, Michael

2005-01-01

90

An unusual cause of accidental hanging in a toddler.  

PubMed

Accidental hanging in children, although uncommon, has been reported worldwide. We report a case of a toddler who was brought to our hospital with an alleged history of hanging with his head trapped in-between the railings of a balcony. He became unconscious and developed seizures secondary to asphyxial injury and survived. Hanging is an important cause of homicidal and suicidal injury in adults, but in children, it is usually accidental, leading to death because of asphyxia as a result of partial or complete hanging. There is paucity of data in Indian literature regarding accidental hanging injuries in children. According to available data from western countries, strangulation ranks fourth among the causes of unintentional injury in children younger than 1 year after roadside accidents, drowning, and burns. The unique mode of hanging in this child has prompted us to report this case. PMID:22940895

Muthukrishnan, Lakshmi; Raman, Radhika; Nagaraju, Kuravi

2012-09-01

91

Accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance.  

PubMed

Orthodontic appliances that become dislodged can cause problems in the airway or the gastrointestinal tract. Accidental ingestion of an appliance during a chair-side procedure or because of inadequate retention of the appliance can create a medical emergency with potentially serious complications, including death from aspiration of the foreign body. This article reports the accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance. The ease with which removable appliances can become dislodged if retention is inadequate is discussed, and some serious complications that can arise are described. Precautions the orthodontist can take to prevent such accidents are presented. PMID:21195285

Rohida, Neeraj S; Bhad, Wasundhara A

2011-01-01

92

Hydrodynamic Conditions Influencing Cold-Water Coral Carbonate Mound Development (Challenger Mound, Porcupine Seabight, NE Atlantic): a Contribution to IODP Exp307  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold-water coral carbonate mounds are complex geo-biological systems, originating from the interplay of hydrodynamic, sedimentological and biological factors. As changes in hydrodynamic and sedimentary regime are assumed to be amongst the main controls on mound evolution, reconstruction of the hydrodynamic and palaeoclimatic microenvironment on-mound, compared to the background environmental conditions (as seen off- mound), contributes to the fundamental understanding of these intriguing features and the development of a cold- water coral carbonate mound development model. Challenger Mound, one of the large cold-water coral carbonate mounds along the eastern Porcupine Seabight continental margin (NE Atlantic, SW off Ireland), was successfully drilled during IODP Expedition 307, providing the first complete recovery of a continuous sedimentary sequence through a carbonate mound. High-resolution particle size analysis of the terrigenous sediment component is used as primary proxy for reconstructing the hydrodynamic conditions during mound development. First results indicate repeated shifts in hydrodynamic conditions during sediment deposition on Challenger Mound, from lower-energetic conditions to higher-energetic environments and visa versa, which might reflect environmental variation over interglacial-glacial timescales throughout the whole mound development period. In conjunction with other available data, this dataset provides insight in local current regimes and sediment dynamics, the specific role of cold-water corals in these complex geo-biological systems and the differentiation of different sediment contributors to the coral mound system and its surroundings.

Thierens, M.; Odonnell, R.; Stuut, J.; Titschack, J.; Dorschel, B.; Wheeler, A. J.

2007-12-01

93

Critical limb ischemia after accidental subcutaneous infusion of sulprostone  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 34-year-old patient was treated with constant intravenous infusion of sulprostone because of postpartum hemorrhage from a hypotonic uterus. The arm in which sulprostone had been infused was painful 23 h after infusion. A day later, the arm was found to be blueish, edematous and extremely painful as a result of arterial spasm. The vasospasm was probably caused by accidental

Yvonne W. C. M. de Koning; Peter W. Plaisier; I. Leng Tan; Fred K. Lotgering

1995-01-01

94

Non-accidental injury: a review of the radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   There have been many descriptions of the radiological features of non-accidental injury since John Caffey introduced the\\u000a concept of inflicted injury and initially described some of the patterns of injury. Since then, our understanding of the radiologically\\u000a detectable injuries has increased. This article provides a review of our current understanding of the lesions.

H. Carty; Alder Hey

1997-01-01

95

An Accidental Sect: How War Made Belief in Sierra Leone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idealists consider beliefs cause wars. Realists consider wars cause beliefs. The war in Sierra Leone offers some scope to test between these two views. The main rebel faction, the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) was, sociologically speaking, an accidental sect. It lost its original ideologues at an early stage, and absorbed others with a different orientation as a result of military

Paul Richards

2006-01-01

96

Accidental salinomycin intoxication of Angora goats in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports for the first time accidental intoxication of Angora goats with salinomycin contaminated feed in Turkey. Clinical, laboratory and postmortem findings are described. Angora goats were examined clinically and biochemical analysis of blood, electrocardiogram and histopathological examinations were carried out. The feed was shown to contain 680ppm\\/kg of salinomycin.

Z. T Agaoglu; Y Akgul; I Keles; S Ugras; A Aksoy; A Cinar

2002-01-01

97

The accidental transgressor: morally-relevant theory of mind.  

PubMed

To test young children's false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N = 162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered three tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an "accidental transgressor" task, which measured a morally-relevant false belief theory of mind (MoToM). Children who did not pass false belief ToM were more likely to attribute negative intentions to an accidental transgressor than children who passed false belief ToM, and to use moral reasons when blaming the accidental transgressor. In Experiment 2, children (N = 46) who did not pass false belief ToM viewed it as more acceptable to punish the accidental transgressor than did participants who passed false belief ToM. Findings are discussed in light of research on the emergence of moral judgment and theory of mind. PMID:21377148

Killen, Melanie; Lynn Mulvey, Kelly; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah; Woodward, Amanda

2011-03-04

98

ACCIDENTAL HYPOTHERMIA AMONG THE ELDERLY: AN EDUCATIONAL PREVENTION PROGRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidental hypothermia, the unintentional drop in body temperature below 95 Fahrenheit from exposure to the cold, poses a significant health threat to people over 65. Faced with rising fuel costs and appeals to conserve energy, many older Americans may set their thermostats below 70 F and thus increase their risk of becoming hypothermia victims. This paper discusses the problem of

Marc B. Goldstein

1982-01-01

99

Resilience Assessment of Critical Infrastructures: From Accidental to Malicious Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interdependencies within and between critical infrastructures are also widely recognized as an important vulnerability source of these infrastructures as they give rise to multiple error propagation channels that make them more prone to exposure to accidental as well as to malicious threats. Consequently the impact of infrastructure components failures and their severity can be exacerbated and are generally much

Mohamed Kaâniche

2011-01-01

100

Analysis of operator's behaviour under accidental transients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since 1979, EDF has been conducting intensive test campaigns on full-scale PWR simulators in order to study and improve the operators behaviour under incident as well as accident conditions. This paper presents some results obtained during tests carried o...

M. Llory D. Lemaitre C. Griffon-Fouco B. Meslin

1992-01-01

101

Chronic or accidental exposure of oysters to norovirus: is there any difference in contamination?  

PubMed

Bivalve molluscan shellfish such as oysters may be contaminated by human pathogens. Currently, the primary pathogens associated with shellfish-related outbreaks are noroviruses. This study was conducted to improve understanding of oyster bioaccumulation when oysters were exposed to daily contamination or one accidental contamination event, i.e., different modes of contamination. Oysters were contaminated with two representative strains of norovirus (GI.1 and GII.3) and then analyzed with real-time reverse transcription PCR. Exposure to a repeated virus dose for 9 days (mimicking a growing area subjected to frequent sewage contamination) led to an additive accumulation that was not significantly different from that obtained when the same total dose of virus was added all at once (as may happen after accidental sewage discharge). Similarly, bioaccumulation tests performed with mixed strains revealed additive accumulation of both viruses. Depuration may not be efficient for eliminating viruses; therefore, to prevent contaminated shellfish from being put onto the market, continuous sanitary monitoring must be considered. All climatic events or sewage failures occurring in production areas must be recorded, because repeated low-dose exposure or abrupt events may lead to similar levels of accumulation. This study contributes to an understanding of norovirus accumulation in oysters and provides suggestions for risk management strategies. PMID:23462089

Ventrone, Iole; Schaeffer, Julien; Ollivier, Joanna; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Pepe, Tiziana; Le Pendu, Jacques; Le Guyader, Françoise S

2013-03-01

102

Potential contribution of planktonic components to ammonium cycling in the coastal area off central-southern Chile during non-upwelling conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential contributions of different microbial components (<20 ?m) and metabolisms to ammonium cycling were assessed during non-upwelling conditions in a coastal area off Concepción (˜36.5°S). Assays with specific inhibitors to estimate rates of ammonium consumption and production, and carbon assimilation associated with photolithotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic (nitrification) metabolisms in the water column were performed. Despite low water column concentrations of ammonium in wintertime, intense ammonium transformations were registered. Prokaryotes (or bacterioplankton) contributed most to ammonium generation rates over the entire water column; these rates increased with depth (0.4-3.1 ?M d-1). In surface waters (10 m depth), aerobic ammonium oxidation (potentially by Bacteria and Archaea) was the dominant consumption process (average 0.7 ?M d-1) whereas in the subsurface layer (20 and 50 m depth), unexpectedly, eukaryotes accounted for most of its consumption (average 2.1 ?M d-1). Nitrification oxidized an important proportion of the ammonium in both layers (from 25% to 100%) and provided regenerated nitrate. The integrated water column rates of chemosynthesis (0.005 g C m-2 d-1) represented a large proportion (51%) of the total dark carbon fixation during the non-upwelling season when integrated rates of photosynthesis are relatively low (0.42 g C m-2 d-1) and microbial food webs dominate the transfer of carbon within this coastal system.

Molina, Veronica; Morales, Carmen E.; Farías, Laura; Cornejo, Marcela; Graco, Michelle; Eissler, Yoanna; Cuevas, Luis A.

2012-01-01

103

[Accidental out-of-hospital deliveries.  

PubMed

Unexpected out-of-hospital delivery accounts for 0.5% of the total number of delivery in France. The parturient is placed under constant multiparametric monitoring. Fetus heart rate is monitored thanks to fetal doppler. A high concentration mask containing a 50-to-50 percent mix of O2 and NO performs analgesia. Assistance of mobile pediatric service can be required under certain circumstances such as premature birth, gemellary pregnancy, maternal illness or fetal heart rate impairment. Maternal efforts should start only when head reaches the pelvic floor, only if the rupture of the membranes is done and the dilation is completed. The expulsion should not exceed 30min. Episiotomy should not be systematically performed. A systematic active management of third stage of labour is recommended. Routine care such as warming and soft drying can be performed when the following conditions are fulfilled: clear amniotic liquid, normal breathing, crying and a good tonus. Every 30seconds assessment of heart rate, breathing quality and muscular tonus then guide the care. The redaction of birth certificate is a legal obligation and rests with the attending doctor. PMID:23773899

Bouet, P-E; Chabernaud, J-L; Duc, F; Khouri, T; Leboucher, B; Riethmuller, D; Descamps, P; Sentilhes, L

2013-06-14

104

Modulating Accidental Fermi Resonance: What a Difference a Neutron Makes.  

PubMed

Vibrational reporters have shown significant promise as sensitive probes of local environments in proteins and nucleic acids. The utility of two potential vibrational probes, the cyanate and azide groups in phenyl cyanate and 3-azidopyridine, respectively, has been hindered by accidental Fermi resonance. Anharmonic coupling, between the fundamental -OCN or -N(3) asymmetric stretch vibration with a near resonant combination band, results in an extremely broad and complex absorption profile for each of these probes. A total of eight phenyl cyanate and six 3-azidopyridine isotopomers were synthesized and studied. Isotopic editing effectively modulated the accidental Fermi resonance - the absorption profiles of several isotopomers were greatly simplified while others remained complex. The origins of the observed profiles are discussed. Addition of a single neutron to the middle atom of the oscillator converted the absorption profile to essentially a single band resulting from either the cyanate or azide asymmetric stretch vibration. PMID:21769311

Lipkin, Jacob S; Song, Rui; Fenlon, Edward E; Brewer, Scott H

2011-06-27

105

Modulating Accidental Fermi Resonance: What a Difference a Neutron Makes  

PubMed Central

Vibrational reporters have shown significant promise as sensitive probes of local environments in proteins and nucleic acids. The utility of two potential vibrational probes, the cyanate and azide groups in phenyl cyanate and 3-azidopyridine, respectively, has been hindered by accidental Fermi resonance. Anharmonic coupling, between the fundamental –OCN or –N3 asymmetric stretch vibration with a near resonant combination band, results in an extremely broad and complex absorption profile for each of these probes. A total of eight phenyl cyanate and six 3-azidopyridine isotopomers were synthesized and studied. Isotopic editing effectively modulated the accidental Fermi resonance — the absorption profiles of several isotopomers were greatly simplified while others remained complex. The origins of the observed profiles are discussed. Addition of a single neutron to the middle atom of the oscillator converted the absorption profile to essentially a single band resulting from either the cyanate or azide asymmetric stretch vibration.

Lipkin, Jacob S.; Song, Rui; Fenlon, Edward E.; Brewer, Scott H.

2011-01-01

106

Accidental Electric Shock during Pregnancy: Reflection on a Case  

PubMed Central

Objectives Data on fetal effects following accidental electric shock during pregnancy are scarce. We report on a case of accidental maternal electric shock associated with benign fetal arrhythmia in a woman at 28 weeks' gestation. Study Design Case report. Results Although electrocution involving low-voltage, low-frequency current has been associated with fatal cardiac arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities, two protective parameters in the present case likely reduced the fetal injury: the dry skin at the site of current entry and the hand-to-hand pathway of current flow. Conclusion Because the pathophysiology of electric injury is altered during pregnancy, assessment of fetal well-being should be prompted no matter how trivial an incident may appear.

Awwad, Johnny; Hannoun, Antoine; Fares, Farah; Ghazeeri, Ghina

2013-01-01

107

Parental substance abuse and accidental death in children.  

PubMed

In this report, the authors present two cases of accidental death in children of addicted parents. In the first case, the child was left unattended at home while the mother went out to buy cocaine. She was arrested and detained with no mention of the unsupervised child. The cause of death in this case was determined to be starvation and dehydration. In the second case, a child mistakenly received a methadone suppository by her father instead of an antipyretic suppository. Toxicological analysis of the femoral blood revealed methadone at a concentration of 1.2 mg/L. The cause of death was determined to be methadone intoxication. The literature is reviewed and discussed. We report these cases to illustrate the risk of harm to children from illicit drugs and prescription medications at home and because there is no mention of accidental death in children following a methadone suppository administration in the current literature. PMID:20345788

Palmiere, Cristian; Staub, Christian; La Harpe, Romano; Mangin, Patrice

2010-03-15

108

Neurological diseases and accidental falls of the aged  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the influence of central and peripheral neurological diseases on the incidence of accidental falls of the aged. Design: 1. Case-control study with cross-section at two years and 2. prospective study in a follow-up up to seven years thereafter. Setting: Sample of a population study including all 589 inhabitants older than 70 years in three rural communities. Participants:

Pirjo Syrjälä; Heikki Luukinen; Juhani Pyhtinen; Uolevi Tolonen

2003-01-01

109

Assessment of accidental refinery wastewater discharge: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physicochemical qualities of an accidental discharge of refinery liquid waste, water, and soil sediment of that effluent-receiving\\u000a water body (canal) were investigated. Analyses of the discharge, qualities of water, and sediment of the canal showed high\\u000a parametric concentrations. Investigations revealed that the discharge took place form the spent caustic that was generated\\u000a from the caustic wash tower of Fluidized

Amitava Bandyopadhyay

2011-01-01

110

Accidental laboratory infection with Treponema pallidum, Nichols strain.  

PubMed

This case report describes a laboratory-acquired infection with Treponema pallidum, Nichols strain. The specific details of the accidental exposure are presented, along with a description of the clinical observations. This infection indicates that the rabbit adapted Nichols strain of T pallidum retains its capability to infect humans. In addition, aerosols of concentrated preparations of these organisms, generated within the laboratory, represent a definite biohazard. PMID:1010772

Fitzgerald, J J; Johnson, R C; Smith, M

1976-12-01

111

[Accidental retinectomy in block excision for cystic epithelial ingrowth].  

PubMed

A 3.5-year-old girl suffered from a penetrating injury of the left eye. One and a half years later epithelial ingrowth was detected. Although block-excision was performed in the usual manner without technical problems the retina was excised accidentally. Histology revealed that the retina had been massively displaced in anterior direction prior to surgery because of fibrovascular proliferations. PMID:9235397

Rohrbach, J M; Derse, M; Wohlrab, T M

1997-04-01

112

The contribution of nano- and micro-planktonic assemblages in the surface layer (0 30 m) under different hydrographic conditions in the upwelling area off Concepción, central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the highly productive region off central Chile, the structure and temporal and spatial variability of planktonic assemblages, and the factors that determine changes in this structure are poorly understood. In the region, wind-driven upwelling, heating by solar radiation and freshwater inputs are highly seasonal processes, which, together with higher frequency events, can promote changes in the planktonic communities, especially in the upper layer. This study focuses on the structure of nano- through to micro-planktonic assemblages (2 200 ?m) of unicellular organisms (protists) in surface waters (0 30 m) during different hydrographic conditions. Samples were taken from a fixed shelf station off Concepción (COPAS time series Station 18) on eight occasions between September 2003 and August 2004. The nano-plankton flagellate-dominated fraction was numerically important during the whole period. Maxima in flagellate abundance and biomass occurred during the upwelling period (November April samplings) but these maxima appear to be unrelated to the degree of water column stratification. The micro-plankton diatom-dominated fraction was usually the largest component in terms of biomass during the study period and the diatoms made important numerical contributions during the upwelling period, with maxima in abundance and biomass when water column stability was lowest. The dominant genera and morphotypes in each functional group were found throughout the study period, with maxima in abundance and biomass co-occurring under similar environmental upwelling conditions. The mean macro-nutrient concentrations (nitrate and silicate) were relatively high in the top 30 m during both upwelling and non-upwelling periods, and did not explain the maxima in plankton or functional group replacements. The persistence of the dominant taxa in the planktonic assemblages suggests a high degree of flexibility, though probably not at the specific level, to withstand the highly variable environmental conditions in this upwelling area.

Anabalón, V.; Morales, C. E.; Escribano, R.; Angélica Varas, M.

2007-11-01

113

"Dead in hot bathtub" phenomenon: accidental drowning or natural disease?  

PubMed

Sudden death in a hot bathtub occurs frequently in Japan, particularly among elderly people. This retrospective report describes the epidemiologic circumstances and physical findings at autopsy. In total, 268 victims were found unconscious or dead during tub bathing. After postmortem examination, the manner of death was judged as natural cause in 191 (71.2%) and accidental drowning in 63 (23.5%) cases. Mean age (SD) was 72.1 (15.2) years with no significant difference between males and females. A seasonal difference was evident: the winter displayed the highest frequency. Drowning water inhalation, which was confirmed in 72% of victims, was absent in the others. The most common observations on postmortem examination were cardiac ischemic changes and cardiomegaly. Water inhalation signs were evident in a significantly fewer victims exhibiting these factors. In contrast, inhalational findings were observed more frequently in victims with other backgrounds such as alcohol intake, mobility disturbance, and history of epilepsy. Annual mortality in Japan from accidental drowning in persons aged older than 75 years is 33 deaths per 100,000 population. However, this number may be considerably underestimated as pathologists tend to regard lack of water inhalation as indicating a natural cause of death. Confusion in diagnosis remains consequent to the accidental and natural aspects of "dead in hot bathtub" phenomenon. PMID:23629407

Satoh, Fumiko; Osawa, Motoki; Hasegawa, Iwao; Seto, Yoshihisa; Tsuboi, Akio

2013-06-01

114

Hybridization between crops and wild relatives: the contribution of cultivated lettuce to the vigour of crop-wild hybrids under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency conditions.  

PubMed

With the development of transgenic crop varieties, crop-wild hybridization has received considerable consideration with regard to the potential of transgenes to be transferred to wild species. Although many studies have shown that crops can hybridize with their wild relatives and that the resulting hybrids may show improved fitness over the wild parents, little is still known on the genetic contribution of the crop parent to the performance of the hybrids. In this study, we investigated the vigour of lettuce hybrids using 98 F(2:3) families from a cross between cultivated lettuce and its wild relative Lactuca serriola under non-stress conditions and under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency. Using single nucleotide polymorphism markers, we mapped quantitative trait loci associated with plant vigour in the F(2:3) families and determined the allelic contribution of the two parents. Seventeen QTLs (quantitative trait loci) associated with vigour and six QTLs associated with the accumulation of ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)) were mapped on the nine linkage groups of lettuce. Seven of the vigour QTLs had a positive effect from the crop allele and six had a positive effect from the wild allele across treatments, and four QTLs had a positive effect from the crop allele in one treatment and from the wild allele in another treatment. Based on the allelic effect of the QTLs and their location on the genetic map, we could suggest genomic locations where transgene integration should be avoided when aiming at the mitigation of its persistence once crop-wild hybridization takes place. PMID:22660630

Uwimana, Brigitte; Smulders, Marinus J M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Hartman, Yorike; van Tienderen, Peter H; Jansen, Johannes; McHale, Leah K; Michelmore, Richard W; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Visser, Richard G F

2012-06-04

115

Water deficit effects on solute contribution to osmotic adjustment as a function of leaf ageing in three durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars performing differently in arid conditions.  

PubMed

A greenhouse study was carried out using three durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivars differing in their field performances under arid conditions (Kabir 1, poor yield stability; Omrabi 5, high yield stability and Haurani, landrace well adapted to drought). Water stress was imposed by withholding water at the seedling stage. Water potential (Psi(w)), relative water content (RWC), stomatal resistance (SR), and changes in solute concentrations were quantified: (1) as a function of leaf development during the stress period; and (2) in young expanded and growing leaves harvested at the end of the stress treatment. Psi(w), RWC and SR were almost unaffected by leaf age in controls. In contrast, solute concentrations appeared to vary in the course of leaf development. During the stress treatment, Psi(w) and RWC decreased and SR increased in all cultivars; the changes were most often largest in Omrabi 5, lowest in Haurani and intermediate in Kabir 1. Water stress also increased sugar and proline concentrations and decreased nitrate levels. Young expanded and growing leaves differed in terms of Psi(w), RWC and osmotic adjustment (OA). The capacity of OA was greater in growing than in expanded leaves, especially in the two cultivars best adapted to aridity, and allowed turgor maintenance in these genotypes. Sugars were the main solutes that contributed to OA particularly in growing leaves followed by proline and then quaternary ammonium compounds. The contributions of these organic solutes to OA tended to be higher in Omrabi 5 and in Haurani than in Kabir 1. Inorganic solutes, however, did not seem to play an important role in OA despite their high proportion in total solutes. PMID:11448742

Bajji, M; Lutts, S; Kinet, J -M.

2001-03-01

116

Emergency operational meteorological considerations during an accidental release of hazardous chemicals. Technical memo  

SciTech Connect

The accidental release of toxic chemicals into the atmosphere has always been of great concern among local emergency response authorities. Evacuation of persons in and around the affected area, the amount of chemical spilled, and atmospheric conditions governing the downwind concentrations are among some of the more pressing issues confronting local hazardous materials (HAZMAT) personnel. Recently, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has embarked upon a program to provide chemical dispersion models to local HAZMAT groups. Greater public awareness of the dangers of toxic chemicals will likely mandate greater involvement by a number of government agencies, including the National Weather Service (NWS). HAZMAT personnel have not yet fully utilized the services of NWS meteorologists. In the future, NWS meteorologists and meteorological technicians may be asked to provide weather data as well as initial and short range weather forecasts (including trajectory forecasts) to emergency response managers responsible for protecting people from accidental releases of toxic spills. While a wide number of dispersion models exist, many are very similar when it comes to the type of meteorological input required to run them. The paper focuses on the input so that meteorologists may be better informed when they are called upon to provide assistance during a hazardous chemical spill in their area.

Mueller, P.; Galt, J.

1991-08-01

117

Long-term availability of Tc deposited on soil after accidental releases  

SciTech Connect

Considerable uncertainties are associated with the transfer of Tc from soil to plant. Mathematical models built to simulate that transfer generally use a single value derived from short-term experiments. Recent observations have, however, given a clear indication that the soil-to-plant transfer varies with time, depending on the biogeochemical cycling of this element. The long-term behavior of Tc in soils accidentally contaminated has been studied for 4 y in lysimeters exposed to natural climatic conditions. An important fraction of the deposit (70%) is rapidly removed from the 20-cm plow layer with a half-time of 54 +/- 2 d; the remaining fraction tends to persist in the soil for long periods of time (half-time = 30 +/- 16 y). Immediately after the deposit, the plant-to-soil concentration ratios are very high (about 400); they decrease to six 3 y after the contamination. The shape of the evolution of the contamination measured in grass after an accidental deposit is best-fitted to a sum of two exponential functions; the environmental half-times estimated for the two components are about 30 d and 2 to 3 y, respectively.

Vandecasteele, C.M.; Dehut, J.P.; Van Laer, S.; Deprins, D.; Myttenaere, C. (Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium))

1989-08-01

118

X-box binding protein 1 contributes to induction of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic cycle under hypoxic conditions.  

PubMed

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), like other herpesviruses, has two stages to its life cycle: latency and lytic replication. KSHV is required for development of Kaposi's sarcoma, a tumor of endothelial origin, and is associated with the B-cell tumor primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and the plasmablastic variant of multicentric Castleman's disease, all of which are characterized by predominantly latent KSHV infection. Recently, we and others have shown that the activated form of transcription factor X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1) is a physiological trigger of KSHV lytic reactivation in PEL. Here, we show that XBP-1s transactivates the ORF50/RTA promoter though an ACGT core containing the XBP-1 response element, an element previously identified as a weakly active hypoxia response element (HRE). Hypoxia induces the KSHV lytic cycle, and active HREs that respond to hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha are present in the ORF50/RTA promoter. Hypoxia also induces active XBP-1s, and here, we show that both transcription factors contribute to the induction of RTA expression, leading to the production of infectious KSHV under hypoxic conditions. PMID:19403667

Dalton-Griffin, Lucy; Wilson, Sam J; Kellam, Paul

2009-04-29

119

X-Box Binding Protein 1 Contributes to Induction of the Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Lytic Cycle under Hypoxic Conditions?  

PubMed Central

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), like other herpesviruses, has two stages to its life cycle: latency and lytic replication. KSHV is required for development of Kaposi's sarcoma, a tumor of endothelial origin, and is associated with the B-cell tumor primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and the plasmablastic variant of multicentric Castleman's disease, all of which are characterized by predominantly latent KSHV infection. Recently, we and others have shown that the activated form of transcription factor X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1) is a physiological trigger of KSHV lytic reactivation in PEL. Here, we show that XBP-1s transactivates the ORF50/RTA promoter though an ACGT core containing the XBP-1 response element, an element previously identified as a weakly active hypoxia response element (HRE). Hypoxia induces the KSHV lytic cycle, and active HREs that respond to hypoxia-inducible factor 1? are present in the ORF50/RTA promoter. Hypoxia also induces active XBP-1s, and here, we show that both transcription factors contribute to the induction of RTA expression, leading to the production of infectious KSHV under hypoxic conditions.

Dalton-Griffin, Lucy; Wilson, Sam J.; Kellam, Paul

2009-01-01

120

Numerical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport  

SciTech Connect

Statement of work for contract 006 {open_quotes}Mathematical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport{close_quotes} implies that the final result of the activity within this task will be VNIIEF developed techniques which will provide for the prediction of the post-accidental environment. Report [1] presents the description of physical models and calculation techniques which were chosen by VNIIEF to accomplish this task. These techniques were analysed for their capabilities, the areas of their application were defined, modifications within contract 006 were described, the results of test and methodical calculations were presented. Moreover, the experimental data were analysed over the source parameters and contamination measurements which can be used in the comparison with the calculation results. Based an these data this report compares the calculation results obtained with VNIIEF calculation techniques with the LANL-presented experimental results. The calculations which statements and results are given in section 1, included the following processes: explosion cloud ascent dynamics and jet release origin; aerosols kinetics in the release source including composite particle origin in the explosion cloud caused by radioactive substance sorption an the soil particles; contaminant transport in atmosphere and their in-site fallout due to the accidental explosions and fires; atmospheric flow dynamics and industrial contamination transfer over the complicated terrain. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data. Section 2 presents the parameters for a typical source in the explosion accidents based an the experimental results and calculated data from Section 1, as well as contamination patterns were calculated with basic technique {open_quotes}Prognosis{close_quotes}.

Piskunov, V.N.; Aloyan, A.A.; Gerasimov, V.M.; Pinaev, V.S.; Golubev, A.I.; Yanilkin, Yu.V.; Ivanov, N.V.; Nikonov, S.N.; Kharchenko, A.I. [and others

1995-05-01

121

[Accidental staining of corneal nerves by methylene blue].  

PubMed

A 10-year-old child presented after accidental exposure of the left eye to a blue hair dye containing methylene blue. Mild ocular surface changes and a selective blue staining of the usually invisible corneal nerve fibre bundles were present. Corneal sensitivity was reduced. Despite copious lubrication a transient neurotrophic keratitis developed which did not resolve until corneal sensitivity became normal 2 weeks later. Association of mild chemical burns with neurotrophic keratitis is unusual but is of high clinical relevance as keratitis is a vision-threatening complication. PMID:23288315

Peter, S; Reichart, E; Poyntner, L; Mennel, S

2013-09-01

122

Accidental asphyxial deaths involving infants and young children.  

PubMed

Forty-five cases of accidental asphyxial deaths in infants and young children below 2 years of age are described. The mechanism involved, the available historical information, and the possible preventive measures are discussed. Dangers such as bed- and tub-sharing, diaper and cleaning pails, plastic wrappers, balloons, small beds, toys on strings, broken or poorly designed cribs, and poorly positioned adult beds must be brought to the attention of the parent as consumer. The public heatlh considerations and the educational aspects relating to the community at large are cornerstones in the effort to reduce these tragic and untimely deaths. PMID:956739

Sturner, W Q; Spruill, F G; Smith, R A; Lene, W J

1976-07-01

123

Environmental gas displacement: three accidental deaths in the workplace.  

PubMed

The authors describe three accidental deaths resulting from occupational hazards involving environmental gas alterations. One involved the displacement of oxygen caused by leakage of liquid nitrogen during the installation of a magnetic resonance imaging system. Two involved elevated environmental carbon dioxide concentrations: dry ice sublimation in a walk-in refrigerator in a research laboratory, and activation of a carbon dioxide fire alarm-extinguisher system by a woman locked in a bank vault. The autopsy findings, scene investigations, and certifications of these deaths, as related to the mechanisms of death, are discussed. PMID:11953489

Gill, James R; Ely, Susan F; Hua, Zhongxue

2002-03-01

124

[Biological effects and risks of accidental radionuclide uptake].  

PubMed

This review presents the actual state of knowledge about medical dangers of a radioactive fall-out. Concepts for the estimation of accidental incorporation, as well as effects and risks that are known to occur after incorporation of radionuclides are discussed. Special attention is paid to the following topics: effect of radioiodine on the thyroid gland, effect of radio-cesium on whole body burden, alpha-emitting particles (plutonium) with deposition in the airways, association of osteotrope radionuclides (strontium) with malignomas of the skeleton and finally prophylaxis with iodine to prevent damage of the thyroid. PMID:3554876

Fueger, G F

1986-01-01

125

Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium  

DOEpatents

An improvement is described in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release. 1 fig.

Galloway, T.R.

1980-04-01

126

Forensic aspects of 40 accidental autoerotic deaths in Northern Germany.  

PubMed

Between 1983 and 2003, 40 accidental autoerotic fatalities have been investigated. in the Institute of Legal Medicine in Hamburg. Only 50% (n=20) were autopsied (13 legal autopsies, 6 for scientific purposes and 1 for an insurance company). All the victims were males, aged between 13 and 79 years (among them five children and adolescents, the deceased mainly between 20 and 40 years). The paraphiliacs utilized a great range of devices and props as fetishism, sexual aids or pain-stimulating agents, like intimate feminine garments, ropes, chains, bondages, locks, pornographic magazines, condoms, rubber items, and chemical anaesthetics. The cause of death was strangulation in 20 cases (17 x hanging, 3 x ligature strangulation), 11 x suffocation (8 x under plastic bags, 3 x with face-masks, 2 x thoracic compression, 1 x positional asphyxia, and 1 x cocaine intoxication). Five cases without autopsy remained unclear because of missing morphological and toxicological findings; it could not be differentiated between asphyxiation/intoxication/natural disease, although the scene characteristics seemed to be typical for autoerotic deaths. It is emphasized that the findings at the scene, the morphological and toxicological examination of the dead body (full autopsy as prerequisite) by experienced investigators and the personal history of the deceased have to be evaluated very carefully and intensely to reconstruct the accidental fatal autoerotic course accurately and undoubtedly (to exclude the possibility of sexual homicide, neglected killing, or suicide). PMID:15694733

Janssen, W; Koops, E; Anders, S; Kuhn, S; Püschel, K

2005-01-17

127

Accidental Beam Losses and Protection in the LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At top energy (proton momentum 7 TeV/c) with nominal beam parameters, each of the two LHC proton beams has a stored energy of 350 MJ threatening to damage accelerator equipment in case of accidental beam loss. It is essential that the beams are properly extracted onto the dump blocks in case of failure since these are the only elements that can withstand full beam impact. Although the energy stored in the beams at injection (450 GeV/c) is about 15 times smaller compared to top energy, the beams must still be properly extracted in case of large accidental beam losses. Failures must be detected at a sufficiently early stage and initiate a beam dump. Quenches and power converter failures will be detected by monitoring the correct functioning of the hardware systems. In addition, safe operation throughout the cycle requires the use of beam loss monitors, collimators and absorbers. Ideas of detection of fast beam current decay, monitoring of fast beam position changes and monitoring of fast magnet current changes are discussed, to provide the required redundancy for machine protection.

Schmidt, R.; Working Group On Machine Protection

2005-06-01

128

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. Uncertainties in the meteorological input together with incorrect estimates of the source play a critical role for the model results. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation gives a short introduction to the project and presents the results of task 1 (meteorological input). The results of task 2 are presented by Stenzel and Baumann-Stanzer in this session. For the aim of this project, the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) was used. INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) data were calculated with 1 km horizontal resolution and based on the weather forecast model ALADIN. The meteorological field's analysis with INCA include: Temperature, Humidity, Wind, Precipitation and Cloudiness. In the frame of the project INCA data were compared with measurements conducted at traffic-near sites. INCA analysis and very short term forecast fields (up to 6 hours) are found to be an advanced possibility to provide on-line meteorological input for the model package used by the fire brigade. Nevertheless a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is required - especially in the case of very slow wind speeds, very stable atmospheric condition, and flow deflection by buildings in the urban area or by complex topography.

Baumann-Stanzer, K.; Stenzel, S.

2009-04-01

129

Procedures, placement, and risks of further abuse after Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo investigate outcome, management, and prevention in Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation.DESIGNAscertainment through British Paediatric Surveillance Unit and questionnaires to responding paediatricians.SETTINGThe UK and Republic of Ireland, September 1992 to August 1994.SUBJECTSChildren under 14 years diagnosed with the above.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURESPlacement and child protection measures for victims and siblings; morbidity and reabuse rates for victims; abuse

P Davis; R J McClure; K Rolfe; N Chessman; S Pearson; J R Sibert; R Meadow

1998-01-01

130

Involving Parents in Indicated Early Intervention for Childhood PTSD Following Accidental Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome…

Cobham, Vanessa E.; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

2012-01-01

131

Two Cases of Accidental Injection of Epinephrine into a Digit Treated with Subcutaneous Phentolamine Injections  

PubMed Central

Accidental injection into the digit from an epinephrine autoinjection device can cause discoloration, pain, and paresthesias. Although loss of digit is rare, treatment in the emergency department is commonly aimed at vasodilation of the affected tissue. We report two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into the digits that were successfully treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injection with no adverse events.

Bodkin, Ryan P.; Acquisto, Nicole M.; Wiegand, Timothy J.

2013-01-01

132

Accidental unilateral and incomplete strangulation injury in a patient while traveling on a bicycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chunni (a piece of cloth worn around the neck by many Indian women) is a well recognized accidental ligature around the neck. We report a rare case of accidental strangulation with chunni where the patient was pillion rider on bicycle; in spite of very common of use of bicycle to best our knowledge this kind of injury has not been

Amit Agrawal; Sudhir Ninave; Tripti Srivastava; Anil Sunkara; Sachin Agrawal

2009-01-01

133

[Spontaneous breathing and stable hemodynamics during severe accidental hypothermia (22 degrees C)].  

PubMed

We present a case of severe accidental hypothermia (core temperature 22 degrees C) after a suicide attempt. The initial symptoms and the pre-hospital and hospital treatment are discussed. Additionally, different rewarming strategies for patients with severe accidental hypothermia are compared. PMID:15645385

Radke, O; Bräuer, A; Mielck, F; Hanekop, G G; Baryalei, M; Kettler, D; Quintel, M

2005-01-01

134

Accidental blood exposure: risk and prevention in interventional radiology  

PubMed Central

There is a growing concern about the transmission of bloodborne pathogens during medical procedures among health care workers and patients. Over the last three decades, radiological services have undergone many changes with the introduction of new modalities. One of these new disciplines is interventional radiology (IR) which deals with procedures such as arteriography, image-guided biopsies, intravascular catheter insertions, angioplasty and stent placements. Despite these developments, the potential for accidental blood exposure and exposure to other infectious material continues to exist. Therefore, it is important for all radiologists who perform invasive procedures to observe specific recommendations for infection control. In this review, we look at the different policies for protection and universal standards on infection control.

Vijayananthan, A; Tan, LH; Owen, A; Bhat, R; Edwards, R; Robertson, I; Moss, JG; Nicholls, R

2006-01-01

135

Evolution Towards Critical Fluctuations in a System of Accidental Pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some time ago a model for accidental pathogens was developed to describe large fluctuations in the epidemiology of some diseases where the pathogen mostly lives with its host as a commensal and only rarely causes disease, leading to a disadvantage of the mutants which cause disease more often. By now the simplest version of this scenario is known as Stollenwerk-Jansen (SJ) model, showing that the critical exponents of the large fluctuations are of the type of the voter model (which by itself has an evolutionary biologists predecessor) but no further attempt was made there to investigate in more detail the mechanism leading the system to evolve towards small pathogenicity. We investigate an extended version of the SJ model, the SJ model version II in which we find the system to evolve to low pathogenicity causing large critical fluctuations without tuning the control parameter, a self-organization of criticality.

Ghaffari, Peyman; Jansen, Vincent; Stollenwerk, Nico

2011-09-01

136

Accidental low velocity atypical missile injury to the head.  

PubMed

Missile injuries on the head are mostly due to firearms. Atypical missiles may be encountered in case of shrapnel of bomb explosions but rarely because of stones. The present case is a rare case where a stone propelled by the pressure from the rear wheel of a speeding truck on the highway, struck the head of a 7-year-old girl resulting in fatality. Reconstruction of the incident on the basis of history and postmortem findings throws some light on the mechanism. The case is unique as it is the first reported case of an accidental missile injury to the head resulting in fatality without any direct human involvement for propulsion of the projectile. PMID:19259020

Chattopadhyay, Saurabh

2008-12-01

137

An analysis of aircraft exhaust plumes form accidental encounters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of data obtained during the second Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-II) was made with emphasis on aircraft exhaust plumes accidentally encountered during the mission. Twenty spikes were found with peak NO(y) increments greater than or equal to 1 ppbv. The examination of CO and CO2 indicated that there was only one NO(y) spike having clearly corresponding spikes of both CO and CO2 and another four with unambigious CO2 spikes. No significant increases were found for CH4 and N2O for these 5 spikes. The ratio of the excess CO2 and NO(y) compares well with the ratio of published subsonic aircraft emission indices. The study of the selected spikes from the DC-8 and another two spikes observed during other missions shows that the odd nitrogen other than NO(x) accounts for a very small percentage of the NO(y) increase associated with the observed spikes.

Zheng, J.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Ridley, B. A.; Liu, S. C.; Sachse, G. W.; Anderson, B. E.; Collins, J. E., Jr.

1994-11-01

138

Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at the IPNS  

SciTech Connect

Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenetic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

Campos Torres, M.M.

1995-02-01

139

Accidental firearm fatalities in North Carolina, 1976-80.  

PubMed

All accidental gunshot fatalities in North Carolina were reviewed for the years 1976-80. There were 210 cases, of which 94 were self-inflicted and 116 were inflicted by others. Young white males predominated as victims, 31 per cent under the age of 15. Sixty-five per cent of the accidents occurred in the home and 18 per cent occurred in rural, "hunting" locations. Forty-one per cent of the cases involved shotguns, 39 per cent involved handguns, and 16 per cent, rifles. Sixteen per cent of the accidents involved children playing with guns and 14 per cent involved dropped or mishandled weapons. During the same period, there were 2,553 suicides and 2,509 homicides by firearm. Gunshot fatalities are an important American public health problem. PMID:3740337

Morrow, P L; Hudson, P

1986-09-01

140

Accidental firearm fatalities in North Carolina, 1976-80.  

PubMed Central

All accidental gunshot fatalities in North Carolina were reviewed for the years 1976-80. There were 210 cases, of which 94 were self-inflicted and 116 were inflicted by others. Young white males predominated as victims, 31 per cent under the age of 15. Sixty-five per cent of the accidents occurred in the home and 18 per cent occurred in rural, "hunting" locations. Forty-one per cent of the cases involved shotguns, 39 per cent involved handguns, and 16 per cent, rifles. Sixteen per cent of the accidents involved children playing with guns and 14 per cent involved dropped or mishandled weapons. During the same period, there were 2,553 suicides and 2,509 homicides by firearm. Gunshot fatalities are an important American public health problem.

Morrow, P L; Hudson, P

1986-01-01

141

Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at IPNS  

SciTech Connect

Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose rates ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2,850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

Torres, M.M.C.

1996-05-01

142

Accidental firearm fatalities and injuries among recreational hunters.  

PubMed

Injuries and fatalities from recreational hunting accidents have been studied much less than firearm accidents occurring in urban populations. The available data indicate that hunting accidents may account for a significant number of unintentional firearm accidents in areas outside commonly studied urban settings. Legislative efforts to control handgun availability can be expected to have little impact on hunting accident statistics. The development of automatic firearm safety devices, promotion of hunter safety programs, and greater participation by the medical community in preventive measures may impact the problem. Similar efforts have already been influential in reducing other forms of accidental injury through promotion of seat-belt use, local motorcycle helmet laws, use of infant car seats, and, most recently, regulations regarding all-terrain vehicles. PMID:2650592

Carter, G L

1989-04-01

143

Detection of non-accidental injuries presenting at emergency departments  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate whether cases of possible non-accidental injury as identified using five risk indicators give rise to any subjective concerns of child abuse. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by the triage nurse and attending doctor for every child attending the general hospitals of the North Western Health Board, with an injury, during a six month period. The questionnaires included an assessment of subjective concerns about the injury occurrence and five risk indicators of child abuse. Results: Children presenting with an injury who had two or more positive indicators failed to raise subjective concerns in the attending emergency department staff. Conclusions: The introduction of a policy of identifying positive indicators from the five risk indicators of child abuse needs additional computer support within emergency departments.

McKinney, A; Lane, G; Hickey, F

2004-01-01

144

[Emergency measures in accidental exposure to ionizing radiation].  

PubMed

The present paper is intended to provide any physician with a basic information and recommendations on how to behave with individuals who have been irradiated and/or contaminated (or believed to have been exposed), either in the case of a broad nuclear accident or a limited accidental exposure (e.g. occupational). Emphasis is put on the emergency measures to be taken as well as on their relative priority. Information is also provided in order to allow any physician to assess the magnitude and the severity of the exposure on the basis of early clinical symptoms and reactions. This would enable him to sort out the patients and to orientate them towards the appropriate specialized centre, or on the other hand, to reassure the patients. The information and recommendations are presented, purposely, in a concise and schematic way in order to facilitate, when needed, a quick and easy reading. PMID:8570985

Smeesters, P; Frühling, J; Wambersie, A

1995-12-01

145

[Lethal bleeding after accidental swallowing of a wooden meat skewer].  

PubMed

Fistulas into the large vessels are a rare cause of intestinal bleeding. In some cases they are caused by transmural perforation after the accidental swallowing of a sharp foreign body like a bone or a fish bone. We report about a 79-year-old patient who had swallowed a fragment of a wooden meat skewer which induced a perforation of the oesophagus and aorta walls. The patient was admitted to the hospital with signs of severe gastrointestinal bleeding. The emergency endoscopic examination confirmed the cause of the bleeding, but the patient died during the intervention from haemorrhagic shock. The forensic autopsy confirmed the clinical suspicion of an aorto-oesophageal fistula. PMID:19662587

Sauer, B M; Staritz, M; Perdekamp, M Grosse

2009-08-06

146

Assessment of hazard of chemical accidental releases triggered by floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the number of accidents happened, when floods trigger the releases of hazardous materials and following environment contamination. Baia Mare (Romania), Spolana Neratovice (Czech Republic) and hurricane Katrina (USA) are well known examples. The importance of this kind of phenomenon as a type of so called NATECH events is expressed among others in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which reorganises water conservation in Europe. It requires programmes of protection measures to be drawn up not later than 2009, and in sub-article 11 (3) l b) to prevent and/or reduce the impact of accidental pollution incidents, for example as a result of floods. Effective measures demand the assessment of hazard and risk of accidental release triggered by floods and there is a need for the method which can be used for these purposes. Such a method is still missing and this is why the basic method for hazard assessment has been developed. Simple indexes-based method is composed of three segments (natural risks, technological risks and combined risk) and it has flexible, modular structure. First segment estimates the probability of flooding of installation, the second, based on the reference scenarios estimates the possibility of release of chemicals and the third classify consequences. The work on refining of parameters and method continues. Method can be used in prevention of major accidents in the framework of the Council Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances (Seveso II directive) and can help to complete the safety studies in classified establishments.

Simonova, M.; Danihelka, P.

2009-04-01

147

Glutamate Receptor Antagonist Infusions into the Basolateral and Medial Amygdala Reveal Differential Contributions to Olfactory vs. Context Fear Conditioning and Expression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The basolateral amygdala's involvement in fear acquisition and expression to visual and auditory stimuli is well known. The involvement of the basolateral and other amygdala areas in fear acquisition and expression to stimuli of other modalities is less certain. We evaluated the contribution of the basolateral and medial amygdala to olfactory and…

Walker, David L.; Paschall, Gayla Y.; Davis, Michael

2005-01-01

148

Hepatic Cytochrome P450 2E1 Level Rather Than Cecal Condition Contributes to Induction of Early Stage of the Alcoholic Liver Damage in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal condition and ethanol toxicity have been discussed as predictors of alcoholic liver damage. In this study, we investigated the association of hepatic antioxidant enzymes and cecal condition, including intestinal bac- teria estimated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), in the early stage of alcoholic fatty liver. Three liquid isocaloric diets, control (CT) diet, ethanol (ET) diet, or ethanol

Naoto Hashimoto; Hiroyuki Sekiguchi; Akira Masunaka; Katsuichi Saito; Hiroaki Yamauchi; Takahiro Noda; Kyu-Ho Han; Michihiro Fukushima

2009-01-01

149

Prevention Reference Manual: Control Technologies. Volume 1. Prevention and Protection Technologies for Controlling Accidental Releases of Air Toxics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before ...

D. S. Davis G. B. DeWolf J. D. Quass

1987-01-01

150

Precipitation of Nb in Ferrite After Austenite Conditioning. Part II: Strengthening Contribution in High-Strength Low-Alloy (HSLA) Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Often, Nb contributes to the strength of a microalloyed steel beyond the expected level because of the grain size strengthening resulting from thermomechanical processing. Two different mechanisms are behind this phenomenon, and both of them have to do with the amount of Nb remaining in solution after hot rolling. The first of them is the increase of the hardenability of the steel as a result of Nb, and the second one is the fine precipitation of NbC in ferrite. Three Nb microalloyed steels were thermomechanically processed in the laboratory and coiled at different temperatures to investigate the effect of Nb content on the tensile properties. The extra strength was linearly related to the Nb remaining in solution after the hot working. The maximum contribution from Nb was reached for a coiling temperature of 873 K (600 °C).

Altuna, M. A.; Iza-Mendia, Amaia; Gutiérrez, I.

2012-12-01

151

In Vitro Analog of Operant Conditioning in Aplysia. II. Modifications of the Functional Dynamics of an Identified Neuron Contribute to Motor Pattern Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, an analog of operant conditioning was developed using the buccal ganglia of Aplysia, the probabilistic occur- rences of a specific motor pattern (i.e., pattern I), a contingent reinforcement (i.e., stimulation of the esophageal nerve), and monotonic stimulation of a peripheral nerve (i.e., n.2,3). This analog expressed a key feature of operant conditioning (i.e., selective enhancement of the probability of

Romuald Nargeot; Douglas A. Baxter; John H. Byrne

1999-01-01

152

Historical doses to the public from routine and accidental releases of tritium - Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1953-2005  

SciTech Connect

Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 29,300 TBq of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; about 75% of this was released accidentally as gaseous tritium in 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 3,700 TBq gaseous tritium and about 2,800 TBq tritiated water vapor to the total. Mean annual doses (with 95% confidence intervals) to the most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Because time-dependent tritium models require detailed meteorological data that were unavailable for the large releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from experience with UFOTRI. Even with assumptions to assure that doses would not be underestimated, all doses from routine and accidental releases were below the level (3.6 mSv) at which adverse health effects have been documented, and most were below the current regulatory limit of 100 {mu}Sv per year from releases to the atmosphere. (authors)

Peterson, S. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Raskob, W. [Institut fuer Kern und Energietechnik IKET, Bau 433, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Technik und Umwelt, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2008-07-15

153

In-depth analysis of accidental oil spills from tankers in the context of global spill trends from all sources.  

PubMed

This study gives a global overview of accidental oil spills from all sources (> or =700t) for the period 1970-2004, followed by a detailed examination of trends in accidental tanker spills. The present analysis of the number and volume of tanker spills includes temporal and spatial spill trends, aspects of spill size distribution as well as trends of key factors (i.e., flag state, hull type, tanker age, accident cause and sensitivity of location). Results show that the total number and volume of tanker spills have significantly decreased since the 1970s, which is in contrast to increases in maritime transport of oil and to popular perceptions following recent catastrophic events. However, many spills still occur in ecologically sensitive locations because the major maritime transport routes often cross the boundaries of the Large Marine Ecosystems, but the substantially lower total spill volume is an important contribution to potentially reduce overall ecosystem impacts. In summary, the improvements achieved in the past decades have been the result of a set of initiatives and regulations implemented by governments, international organizations and the shipping industry. PMID:16942835

Burgherr, Peter

2006-07-21

154

Physics effects of accidental submersion of space power reactors in water  

SciTech Connect

A major safety concern for nuclear reactors in space power applications is the effect of accidental submersion of the reactors in water. Such a situation might be postulated, for example, as a consequence of a launch pad accident. The classes of reactors proposed most frequently for use in space are fast spectrum reactors, for which submersion results in a softened core neutron spectrum caused by the displacement of the liquid metal coolant by the water. The softened spectrum alters the neutron balance in the core - neutron capture and fission are increased while leakage from the core is reduced. Water outside the submerged core introduces an increased number of reflected thermalized neutrons into the core. The net effect is a function of the specific features of the reactor design (composition, size, etc.) and can be positive or negative depending upon the contributions of the individual effects. Analysis of the magnitude of the effect requires an accurate evaluation of the individual components. At present a designer must rely on detailed calculations performed after key design parameters are settled to determine the effects of submersion. The purpose of our work is to develop generic features of the submersion phenomenon to provide designers a means to an a priori knowledge of the impact of potential design choices on submersion reactivity.

Bhattacharyya, S.K.; Lell, R.M.

1985-01-01

155

Sheltering--a protective measure following an accidental atmospheric release from a nuclear power plant.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of sheltering the population for reducing radiological effects following an accidental release of radioactivity at a nuclear power plant was investigated. Different levels of respiratory protection and the administration of a thyroid blocking agent were also studied as possible complements to sheltering. Specific conditions were assumed, concerning the high protection factors of regular buildings and the high availability of civil defense shelters. Computations were performed by means of a probabilistic consequence model, which allows a comprehensive description of exposure modes and processes dealing with the implementation of sheltering and which takes into account a broad range of radiological effects. Sheltering, even in regular buildings, was found to be efficient in reducing early fatalities and other non-stochastic effects. However, it was shown that respiratory protection is also needed in order to alleviate stochastic effects and that, for this purpose, expedient individual filtration methods may be satisfactory. Under the conditions studied, sheltering was found to be preferable in most cases over evacuation, as the main immediate protective measure, unless evacuation can be carried out before the radioactive cloud reaches the populated area. PMID:3378897

Koch, J; Tadmor, J

1988-06-01

156

Accidental deaths caused by electricity in Sweden, 1975-2000.  

PubMed

This study analyzes accidental fatalities caused by electricity--at work and during leisure time--to evaluate risk factors, the role of alcohol, and to identify possible preventive strategies. In Sweden, data on fatalities by electrocution from 1975 through 2000 were collected from the National Cause-of-Death Register. Additional cases were found in the archives of The Swedish National Electrical Safety Board. Suicides and deaths by lightning were excluded. Two hundred and eighty-five deaths were found, including occupational (n=132), leisure time (n=151), and unknown (n=2). Most deaths were caused by aerial power lines, and the most common place for an electrical injury was a railway area or residential property. Postmortem blood from 20% (n=47) of the tested cases was found positive for alcohol, and these persons were killed mainly during leisure time. During the study period, the overall incidence of electricity-related fatalities has decreased, in spite of increased use of electricity. This indicates that safety improvements have been successful. PMID:17199625

Lindström, Richard; Bylund, Per-Olof; Eriksson, Anders

2006-11-01

157

Chemical causes of the typical burnt smell after accidental fires.  

PubMed

The components responsible for the typical burnt smell that occurs after accidental fires (e.g. in buildings) were identified. For this purpose, samples of odorous materials were taken from different real fire sites. Their volatile fractions were analysed by means of thermal desorption, headspace analysis and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Measurements performed with SPME gave the highest number of analytes as well as the highest signal intensities. A divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane SPME fibre was found to be the most suitable for this task. To distinguish the odour-active compounds from the ca. 1,400 identified volatiles concentrated by SPME, an olfactory detection port was attached to the GC/MS and the column effluent was assessed by panellists. The results revealed that eleven odorous compounds were present in most of the investigated samples: acetophenone, benzyl alcohol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzldehyde, 2-methoxyphenol, 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol, 2-methylphenol, 3-methylphenol, 4-methylphenol and naphthalene. Their odour activities were confirmed in additional olfactory experiments, and the relative ratios of these eleven compounds were determined. Based on these ratios, standard solutions that presented an intense odour with typical characteristics of the burnt smell were produced. PMID:19730832

Heitmann, Katharina; Wichmann, Hubertus; Bahadir, Müfit

2009-11-01

158

[Gonococcal vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls: sexual abuse or accidental transmission?].  

PubMed

Vulvovaginitis is the most frequent gynecologic pathology among prepubertal females. An infectious cause is found in 30% of cases and is highly associated with the presence of vaginal discharge upon examination. Neisseria gonorrhoeae may be one of the causative agents. Since N. gonorrhoeae is a common sexually transmitted disease, sexual abuse should be considered in the pediatric setting. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl with N. gonorrhoeae vulvovaginitis. Her previous history, multiple interviews with the patient and her parents, and clinical examination showed no evidence or signs of sexual abuse. Both parents presented gonorrhea, urethritis for the father and vaginitis for the mother. The discrepancy between pediatric evaluation and the presence of a bacterium associated with sexually transmitted disease led us to consider other means of contamination. Previous studies have shown that other routes of transmission are possible but are often neglected. Hence, contamination can be transmitted by the hands or mostly through passive means (towels, rectal thermometer, etc.). Many epidemics have been noted in group settings with young girls with no evidence of sexual transmission. Therefore, we concluded that this patient's infection was likely an accidental transmission within her family. The acknowledgement of these transmission routes is very important in order to avoid misguided suspicion of sexual abuse and the possible traumatic family and psychosocial consequences. PMID:23219271

Daval-Cote, M; Liberas, S; Tristan, A; Vandenesch, F; Gillet, Y

2012-12-04

159

Assessment of accidental intakes of uranyl acetylacetonate (UAA)  

SciTech Connect

Uranyl acetylacetonate (UAA) is an organic complex of uranium used for military applications as a chemical catalyst in high explosives. It is prepared from depleted uranium metal (in lots of 5 kg to 7 kg) by dissolution in nitric acid, neutralization, and complexation with 2,4-pentanedione; the precipitate is dissolved in benzene and recrystallized, dried, ground, and packaged. About six workers at a small chemical company were exposed over a period of time to UAA powders during routine preparation and packaging of the uranium catalyst. The dissolution characteristics of the inhaled material were unknown and could not be determined from the published scientific literature. A 1.05-g sample of UAA powder was obtained from the responsible regulatory authority for further study to determine its chemical composition, and for dissolution in simulated lung fluid. We found the solubility of UAA to be equivalent to a mixture of 52% ICRP class D and 48% ICRP class W material. The annual limit on intake and the derived air concentration for radiological protection were estimated from this result for airborne exposure to UAA. A recycling biokinetic model was used to estimate both material-specific variations in urinary excretion rates and lung retention with time after accidental intakes. This study provides new information for evaluating future exposures to UAA.

Fisher, D.R.; Briant, J.K.

1993-12-01

160

[Arachnoid cyst and tension headache: symptom or accidental finding?].  

PubMed

We report a 34 year old male patient presenting with occipital headache and bilateral shoulder and neck pain. Cranial MRT discloses a large arachnoid cyst ventral to the medulla oblongata. The cyst displaces the caudal medulla oblongata dorsally to an angle of almost 90 degrees without causing myelopathy. Physical examination reveals normal neurological findings without any sign of brainstem lesions or lesions of the medulla oblongata. Orthopedic evaluation shows mild functional abnormalities as expected in tension headache. Multiple electrophysiologic investigations such as motor-, somatosensory-, and acoustic-evoked potentials, masseter and brain stem reflexes, and electromyography of the left M. trapezius were performed and reveal normal results. MR-angiography discloses displacement of the left vertebral artery to the right without stenosis.We discuss the possibility of a causal connection between the cystic lesion and the reported symptoms. Considering the findings based on a review of the available literature we conclude that the pain syndrome is very likely unrelated to the arachnoid cyst. The latter is herewith an accidental finding in a patient with tension headache, and underlines the importance of thoroughfull clinical examination to avoid unnecessary diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. PMID:12192439

Lorenz, M; Niedermaier, N; Lowitzsch, K

2002-08-01

161

Management of profound accidental hypothermia with cardiorespiratory arrest.  

PubMed Central

Complete recovery following rapid rewarming is described in three tourists who were admitted in a state of profound hypothermia with total cardiorespiratory arrest (rectal temperature ranging from 19 to 24 C). In all three patients, respiration and circulation had ceased during the rescue operation. Rapid core rewarming was achieved by thoracotomy and continuous irrigation of the pericardial cavity with warm fluids in one patient, whereas in the other two patients rewarming was accomplished with extracorporeal circulation using femoro-femoral bypass. In the first patient, the heart could not be defibrillated earlier than 90 minutes following thoracotomy; in the other patients rewarming was attained very rapidly, and within half an hour after institution of bypass, resuscitation of the heart was successful. The patients fully recovered their intellectual and physical abilities, despite the prolonged periods of circulatory arrest lasting from 2 1/2 to 4 hours. We conclude that rapid core rewarming is the adequate therapy for profound accidental hypothermia with circulatory arrest or low cardiac output. If feasible extracorporeal circulation represents the method of choice because it combines the advantage of immediate central rewarming with the benefit of efficient circulatory support, the heart is rewarmed before the shell, thus preventing the "rewarming shock" due to peripheral vasodilatation. Resuscitative efforts should be promptly initiated and vigorously pursued, even in the state of clinical death; in profound hypothermia neurologic examination is inconclusive regarding prognosis.

Althaus, U; Aeberhard, P; Schupbach, P; Nachbur, B H; Muhlemann, W

1982-01-01

162

Mitigation of Lung Injury after Accidental Exposure to Radiation  

PubMed Central

There is a serious need to develop effective mitigators against accidental radiation exposures. In radiation accidents, many people may receive nonuniform whole-body or partial-body irradiation. The lung is one of the more radiosensitive organs, demonstrating pneumonitis and fibrosis that are believed to develop at least partially because of radiation-induced chronic inflammation. Here we addressed the crucial questions of how damage to the lung can be mitigated and whether the response is affected by irradiation to the rest of the body. We examined the widely used dietary supplement genistein given at two dietary levels (750 or 3750 mg/kg) to Fischer rats irradiated with 12 Gy to the lung or 8 Gy to the lung + 4 Gy to the whole body excluding the head and tail (whole torso). We found that genistein had promising mitigating effects on oxidative damage, pneumonitis and fibrosis even at late times (36 weeks) when drug treatment was initiated 1 week after irradiation and stopped at 28 weeks postirradiation. The higher dose of genistein showed no greater beneficial effect. Combined lung and whole-torso irradiation caused more lung-related severe morbidity resulting in euthanasia of the animals than lung irradiation alone.

Mahmood, J.; Jelveh, S.; Calveley, V.; Zaidi, A.; Doctrow, S. R.; Hill, R. P.

2011-01-01

163

Accidental hanging by a sweater: an unusual case.  

PubMed

An accidental atypical hanging with the collar of a sweater is reported. A 67-year-old man was found dead in the sitting position with the collar of his sweater hanging off the brake handle of a motorcycle. Autopsy findings revealed a ligature mark on the surface of the neck; hemorrhages in the sternohyoid muscles; submucosal hemorrhages in the left greater horn of the hyoid bone; a large degree of submucosal petechial hemorrhages in the larynx, oral mucosa, and palpebral conjunctivae; and dark-red liquid blood with little clotting in the heart cavities. The alcohol levels in the blood and urine were 2.84 mg/ml and 3.52 mg/ml, respectively. It was concluded that the man had died from hanging by the sweater, and it was speculated that when he became inebriated, he might have lost consciousness and then fell with the collar of his sweater hanging from the brake handle of the motorcycle. PMID:12040269

Nurhantari, Yudha; Asano, Migiwa; Nushida, Hideyuki; Nagasaki, Yasushi; Kudo, Risa; Nakagawa, Kanako; Adachi, Junko; Ueno, Yasuhiro

2002-06-01

164

Postobstructive pulmonary edema following accidental near-hanging  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 14 Final Diagnosis: Postobstructive pulmonary edenma Symptoms: Chest indrawing • bilateral pulmonary crepitations • tachypnea Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Controlled ventilatory support • positive end expiratory pressure Specialty: Intensive care Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Postobstructive pulmonary edema (POPE) is a life-threatening complication that occurs after the relief of an upper airway obstruction. POPE occurs rarely in children, primarily after non-lethal hanging. Case Report: We report the case of a 14-year-old girl who developed POPE after accidental near hanging. She had chest in-drawing, the SpO2 was 81% on room air, and pulmonary auscultation revealed bilateral crepitations. The chest x-ray showed bilateral diffuse infiltrates consistent with pulmonary edema. The intensive care management consisted of controlled ventilatory support with high-level positive end expiratory pressure. On the third day of hospitalization, the patient was weaned from the ventilator and extubated with a full recovery. Conclusions: This case confirms the importance of early recognition of POPE and the value of adapted treatment, which can lead to a favorable outcome and full recovery in cases of near hanging.

Berdai, Adnane Mohamed; Labib, Smael; Harandou, Mustapha

2013-01-01

165

Trans-arterial and trans-venous interventional radiology for an elderly patient with life-threatening pelvic injury after accidental falling due to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction A 79-year man, admitted to our emergency department after accidental falling with syncope, had pelvic fractures and complete atrioventricular (AV) block. Case presentation He received transvenous pacer placement for complete AV block and required hemodynamic stability. His heart rate was successfully controlled. However, secondary deterioration of his hemodynamics concerning of pelvic fractures was occurred and immediate trancatheter arterial embolization was performed. Final angiography showed no findings of bleeding and he was discharged intensive care unit in good condition. Conclusion Combined transarterial and transvenous interventional radiology is an effective and safety resuscitation technique for an elderly with secondary life-threatening injury after accidental falling due to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia.

Arai, Takao; Ohta, Shoichi

2009-01-01

166

TECHNICAL SUPPORT TO THE SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT TOXIC CHEMICAL ACCIDENTAL AIR RELEASES  

EPA Science Inventory

The South Coast Air Quality Management District requested technical support toward developing a regulatory approach for controlling potential accidental air releases of toxic chemicals. The report provides some of the technical input and describes other support efforts. These eff...

167

10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE...

2013-01-01

168

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 8. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN FLUORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a chemical specific manual for hydrogen fluoride (HF). It summarizes information to aid regulators and industry personnel in identifying and controlling release hazards associated with HF. Reducing the risk associated with accidental release of HF involves identifyi...

169

Dosimetric Properties of Textile Fibers: Application of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Dosimetry to an Accidental gamma Irradiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dosimetric properties of some twenty textile fibers have been studied in order to develop a method for determining the dose received in the case of an accidental gamma irradiation. Three textile fibers having properties most closely satisfying our nee...

V. Kamenopoulou

1987-01-01

170

Modeling the atmospheric dispersion of accidentally released heavy gases from photovoltaic cell manufacturing facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many hazardous gases used in the photovoltaic cell industry are heavier than air. Following an accidental release, their dispersion in air, differs from the dispersion of a neutrally buoyant gas and, as such, it requires special consideration. This report...

V. M. Fthenakis

1986-01-01

171

Analysis for Plasma Protein Biomarkers Following an Accidental Human Exposure to Sulfur Mustard.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following an accidental human exposure to a vesicating agent, plasma samples were analyzed for specific biomarkers of sulfur mustard. One individual suffered chemical burns over 6.5% of the body surface area and required hospitalization; the second indivi...

A. R. Woolfitt B. R. Capacio J. R. Barr J. R. Smith W. D. Korte

2008-01-01

172

Transient lower limb pain following accidental thoracic subarachnoid insertion of an epidural catheter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient sensory disturbances, including dysesthesia or neurologic deficits in the lower extremities or buttocks have been\\u000a described as complications of neuraxial anesthesia. We report a case of transient lower limb pain following the accidental\\u000a placement of an epidural catheter into the thoracic subarachnoid space. A 31-year-old woman was scheduled to undergo laparoscopic\\u000a myomectomy. An epidural catheter was accidentally inserted subarachnoid

Masaki Fuyuta; Yoshihiro Takasugi; Masahiro Morimoto; Toru Shirai; Mitsuo Morimoto; Yoshihisa Koga

2009-01-01

173

HAZDIG: a new software package for assessing the risks of accidental release of toxic chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

HAZDIG (HAZardous DIspersion of Gases) is a user-friendly PC- based software for generating scenarios for the emissions and gaseous dispersion of hazardous chemicals. It can simulate accidental as well as normal release but has been specifically developed as a tool for studying accidental release of hazardous chemicals and the consequences. HAZDIG is made-up of five main modules—data, release scenario generation,

Faisal I. Khan; S. A. Abbasi

1999-01-01

174

Aerosol direct, indirect, semidirect, and surface albedo effects from sector contributions based on the IPCC AR5 emissions for preindustrial and present-day conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anthropogenic increase in aerosol concentrations since preindustrial times and its net cooling effect on the atmosphere is thought to mask some of the greenhouse gas-induced warming. Although the overall effect of aerosols on solar radiation and clouds is most certainly negative, some individual forcing agents and feedbacks have positive forcing effects. Recent studies have tried to identify some of those positive forcing agents and their individual emission sectors, with the hope that mitigation policies could be developed to target those emitters. Understanding the net effect of multisource emitting sectors and the involved cloud feedbacks is very challenging, and this paper will clarify forcing and feedback effects by separating direct, indirect, semidirect and surface albedo effects due to aerosols. To this end, we apply the Goddard Institute for Space Studies climate model including detailed aerosol microphysics to examine aerosol impacts on climate by isolating single emission sector contributions as given by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) emission data sets developed for Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5. For the modeled past 150 years, using the climate model and emissions from preindustrial times to present-day, the total global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing is -0.6 W/m2, with the largest contribution from the direct effect (-0.5 W/m2). Aerosol-induced changes on cloud cover often depends on cloud type and geographical region. The indirect (includes only the cloud albedo effect with -0.17 W/m2) and semidirect effects (-0.10 W/m2) can be isolated on a regional scale, and they often have opposing forcing effects, leading to overall small forcing effects on a global scale. Although the surface albedo effects from aerosols are small (0.016 W/m2), triggered feedbacks on top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing can be 10 times larger. Our results point out that each emission sector has varying impacts by geographical region. For example, the single sector most responsible for a net positive radiative forcing is the transportation sector in the United States, agricultural burning and transportation in Europe, and the domestic emission sector in Asia. These sectors are attractive mitigation targets.

Bauer, Susanne E.; Menon, Surabi

2012-01-01

175

Laboratory-acquired parasitic infections from accidental exposures.  

PubMed

Parasitic diseases are receiving increasing attention in developed countries in part because of their importance in travelers, immigrants, and immunocompromised persons. The main purpose of this review is to educate laboratorians, the primary readership, and health care workers, the secondary readership, about the potential hazards of handling specimens that contain viable parasites and about the diseases that can result. This is accomplished partly through discussion of the occupationally acquired cases of parasitic infections that have been reported, focusing for each case on the type of accident that resulted in infection, the length of the incubation period, the clinical manifestations that developed, and the means by which infection was detected. The article focuses on the cases of infection with the protozoa that cause leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis), and African trypanosomiasis. Data about 164 such cases are discussed, as are data about cases caused by intestinal protozoa and by helminths. Of the 105 case-patients infected with blood and tissue protozoa who either recalled an accident or for whom the likely route of transmission could be presumed, 47 (44.8%) had percutaneous exposure via a contaminated needle or other sharp object. Some accidents were directly linked to poor laboratory practices (e.g., recapping a needle or working barehanded). To decrease the likelihood of accidental exposures, persons who could be exposed to pathogenic parasites must be thoroughly instructed in safety precautions before they begin to work and through ongoing training programs. Protocols should be provided for handling specimens that could contain viable organisms, using protective clothing and equipment, dealing with spills of infectious organisms, and responding to accidents. Special care should be exercised when using needles and other sharp objects. PMID:11585780

Herwaldt, B L

2001-10-01

176

Laboratory-Acquired Parasitic Infections from Accidental Exposures  

PubMed Central

Parasitic diseases are receiving increasing attention in developed countries in part because of their importance in travelers, immigrants, and immunocompromised persons. The main purpose of this review is to educate laboratorians, the primary readership, and health care workers, the secondary readership, about the potential hazards of handling specimens that contain viable parasites and about the diseases that can result. This is accomplished partly through discussion of the occupationally acquired cases of parasitic infections that have been reported, focusing for each case on the type of accident that resulted in infection, the length of the incubation period, the clinical manifestations that developed, and the means by which infection was detected. The article focuses on the cases of infection with the protozoa that cause leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis), and African trypanosomiasis. Data about 164 such cases are discussed, as are data about cases caused by intestinal protozoa and by helminths. Of the 105 case-patients infected with blood and tissue protozoa who either recalled an accident or for whom the likely route of transmission could be presumed, 47 (44.8%) had percutaneous exposure via a contaminated needle or other sharp object. Some accidents were directly linked to poor laboratory practices (e.g., recapping a needle or working barehanded). To decrease the likelihood of accidental exposures, persons who could be exposed to pathogenic parasites must be thoroughly instructed in safety precautions before they begin to work and through ongoing training programs. Protocols should be provided for handling specimens that could contain viable organisms, using protective clothing and equipment, dealing with spills of infectious organisms, and responding to accidents. Special care should be exercised when using needles and other sharp objects.

Herwaldt, Barbara L.

2001-01-01

177

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - utility for the fire brigades.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios”), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Viennese fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program of the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. For the purpose of our study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Trace (Safer System), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer). A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed, with the models above, in order to predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. Furthermore, the application of the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in case of toxic release was investigated. INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) data are calculated operationally with 1 km horizontal resolution and based on the weather forecast model ALADIN. The meteorological field's analysis with INCA include: Temperature, Humidity, Wind, Precipitation, Cloudiness and Global Radiation. In the frame of the project INCA data were compared with measurements from the meteorological observational network, conducted at traffic-near sites in Vienna. INCA analysis and very short term forecast fields (up to 6 hours) are found to be an advanced possibility to provide on-line meteorological input for the model package used by the fire brigade. Since the input requirements differ from model to model, and the outputs are based on unequal criteria for toxic area and exposure, a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is required - especially in the case of slow wind speeds, stable atmospheric condition, and flow deflection by buildings in the urban area or by complex topography.

Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

2009-09-01

178

Macular hole surgery following accidental laser injury with a military rangefinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An active duty marine corps service member had bilateral full thickness macular holes induced following accidental Q-switched laser exposure from a hand held Neodymium range finder (ANGVS-5). The right eye had a large hole nasal to the fovea, while the left eye had a much smaller hole closer to the fovea centralis. Over the 18 months following the injury, the left eye demonstrated mild progressive degradation in visual function, but retained 20/20 final visual acuity. In contrast, the hole in the right eye increased in size, developed a localized retinal detachment with cystic changes in the fovea, and had atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium. Within 6 months after injury, acuity declined to 20/100. Macular hole surgery was performed with a goal of sealing the edges of the hole in order to allow resolution of the localized detachment and cystic changes in the fovea. In spite of surgical techniques that are generally successful in the treatment of macular holes associated with other etiologies, the fundus findings remained unchanged and visual acuity declined to 20/400. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of macular hole surgery for this condition.

Custis, Peter H.; Gagliano, Donald A.; Zwick, Harry; Schuschereba, Steven T.; Regillo, Carl D.

1996-04-01

179

Dose Calculation For Accidental Release Of Radioactive Cloud Passing Over Jeddah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the evaluation of doses after the reactor accident, in particular for the inhalation dose, a thorough knowledge of the concentration of the various radionuclide in air during the passage of the plume is required. In this paper we present an application of the Gaussian Plume Model (GPM) to calculate the atmospheric dispersion and airborne radionuclide concentration resulting from radioactive cloud over the city of Jeddah (KSA). The radioactive cloud is assumed to be emitted from a reactor of 10 MW power in postulated accidental release. Committed effective doses (CEDs) to the public at different distance from the source to the receptor are calculated. The calculations were based on meteorological condition and data of the Jeddah site. These data are: pasquill atmospheric stability is the class B and the wind speed is 2.4m/s at 10m height in the N direction. The residence time of some radionuclides considered in this study were calculated. The results indicate that, the values of doses first increase with distance, reach a maximum value and then gradually decrease. The total dose received by human is estimated by using the estimated values of residence time of each radioactive pollutant at different distances.

Alharbi, N. D.; Mayhoub, A. B.

2011-12-01

180

Dose Calculation For Accidental Release Of Radioactive Cloud Passing Over Jeddah  

SciTech Connect

For the evaluation of doses after the reactor accident, in particular for the inhalation dose, a thorough knowledge of the concentration of the various radionuclide in air during the passage of the plume is required. In this paper we present an application of the Gaussian Plume Model (GPM) to calculate the atmospheric dispersion and airborne radionuclide concentration resulting from radioactive cloud over the city of Jeddah (KSA). The radioactive cloud is assumed to be emitted from a reactor of 10 MW power in postulated accidental release. Committed effective doses (CEDs) to the public at different distance from the source to the receptor are calculated. The calculations were based on meteorological condition and data of the Jeddah site. These data are: pasquill atmospheric stability is the class B and the wind speed is 2.4m/s at 10m height in the N direction. The residence time of some radionuclides considered in this study were calculated. The results indicate that, the values of doses first increase with distance, reach a maximum value and then gradually decrease. The total dose received by human is estimated by using the estimated values of residence time of each radioactive pollutant at different distances.

Alharbi, N. D.; Mayhoub, A. B. [Physics Dept., Sciences Faculty for Girls, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

2011-12-26

181

Atmospheric entry of Mars-return nuclear-powered vehicles due to accidental termination of operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The entry of nuclear reactors into Earth's atmosphere resulting from an accidental or inadvertent abort of a space vehicle powered by nuclear-thermal rockets is investigated. The study is made for a typical piloted Mars mission vehicle incapacitated by an accident or malfunction during the Earth-arrival phase of the Mars-return journey due to simultaneous, multiple failures of its component systems. A single accident/abort scenario resulting in three entry possibilities is considered for a nominal hyperbolic in-bound approach velocity of 8 km/sec. The most severe case involving a direct entry is then analyzed over a broad range of approach velocities extending to 12 km/sec to include sprint-type missions. The results indicate that the severe surface heating, stagnation pressures, and g-loads are greater than 150 kW/sq cm, 300 atm, and 800-g, respectively. The wall heat transfer rate exceeds the value that can be accommodated by a carbon heatshield through radiation equilibrium prior to sublimation at 5500 K. These conditions are beyond our previous experience in crew safety, structural design, and thermal protection.

Menees, Gene P.; Park, Chul

1993-06-01

182

Mu Opioid Receptors on Primary Afferent Nav1.8 Neurons Contribute to Opiate-Induced Analgesia: Insight from Conditional Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

Opiates are powerful drugs to treat severe pain, and act via mu opioid receptors distributed throughout the nervous system. Their clinical use is hampered by centrally-mediated adverse effects, including nausea or respiratory depression. Here we used a genetic approach to investigate the potential of peripheral mu opioid receptors as targets for pain treatment. We generated conditional knockout (cKO) mice in which mu opioid receptors are deleted specifically in primary afferent Nav1.8-positive neurons. Mutant animals were compared to controls for acute nociception, inflammatory pain, opiate-induced analgesia and constipation. There was a 76% decrease of mu receptor-positive neurons and a 60% reduction of mu-receptor mRNA in dorsal root ganglia of cKO mice. Mutant mice showed normal responses to heat, mechanical, visceral and chemical stimuli, as well as unchanged morphine antinociception and tolerance to antinociception in models of acute pain. Inflammatory pain developed similarly in cKO and controls mice after Complete Freund’s Adjuvant. In the inflammation model, however, opiate-induced (morphine, fentanyl and loperamide) analgesia was reduced in mutant mice as compared to controls, and abolished at low doses. Morphine-induced constipation remained intact in cKO mice. We therefore genetically demonstrate for the first time that mu opioid receptors partly mediate opiate analgesia at the level of Nav1.8-positive sensory neurons. In our study, this mechanism operates under conditions of inflammatory pain, but not nociception. Previous pharmacology suggests that peripheral opiates may be clinically useful, and our data further demonstrate that Nav1.8 neuron-associated mu opioid receptors are feasible targets to alleviate some forms of persistent pain.

Karchewski, Laurie; Gardon, Olivier; Matifas, Audrey; Filliol, Dominique; Becker, Jerome A. J.; Wood, John N.; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Gaveriaux-Ruff, Claire

2013-01-01

183

Mu opioid receptors on primary afferent nav1.8 neurons contribute to opiate-induced analgesia: insight from conditional knockout mice.  

PubMed

Opiates are powerful drugs to treat severe pain, and act via mu opioid receptors distributed throughout the nervous system. Their clinical use is hampered by centrally-mediated adverse effects, including nausea or respiratory depression. Here we used a genetic approach to investigate the potential of peripheral mu opioid receptors as targets for pain treatment. We generated conditional knockout (cKO) mice in which mu opioid receptors are deleted specifically in primary afferent Nav1.8-positive neurons. Mutant animals were compared to controls for acute nociception, inflammatory pain, opiate-induced analgesia and constipation. There was a 76% decrease of mu receptor-positive neurons and a 60% reduction of mu-receptor mRNA in dorsal root ganglia of cKO mice. Mutant mice showed normal responses to heat, mechanical, visceral and chemical stimuli, as well as unchanged morphine antinociception and tolerance to antinociception in models of acute pain. Inflammatory pain developed similarly in cKO and controls mice after Complete Freund's Adjuvant. In the inflammation model, however, opiate-induced (morphine, fentanyl and loperamide) analgesia was reduced in mutant mice as compared to controls, and abolished at low doses. Morphine-induced constipation remained intact in cKO mice. We therefore genetically demonstrate for the first time that mu opioid receptors partly mediate opiate analgesia at the level of Nav1.8-positive sensory neurons. In our study, this mechanism operates under conditions of inflammatory pain, but not nociception. Previous pharmacology suggests that peripheral opiates may be clinically useful, and our data further demonstrate that Nav1.8 neuron-associated mu opioid receptors are feasible targets to alleviate some forms of persistent pain. PMID:24069332

Weibel, Raphaël; Reiss, David; Karchewski, Laurie; Gardon, Olivier; Matifas, Audrey; Filliol, Dominique; Becker, Jérôme A J; Wood, John N; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Gaveriaux-Ruff, Claire

2013-09-12

184

Mig-14 plays an important role in influencing gene expression of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, which contributes to cell invasion under hyperosmotic conditions.  

PubMed

mig-14 is a horizontally acquired host-induced virulence gene in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. The molecular function of mig-14 is still unknown; sequence analysis showed that mig-14 shared homology with the helix-loop-helix motif of the AraC family of transcriptional regulatory proteins. In our previous microarray-based studies, mig-14 was upregulated at the early stage of high osmotic stress, indicating a potential role under this condition. Therefore, we compared growth and the global transcriptional difference between wild-type and mig-14 mutant strains to identify the role of Mig-14. The results showed that growth of mig-14 mutant strain was clearly slower than that of the wild-type strain, and 148 genes showed significant differences in expression between these two strains under upshift high osmotic treatment for 30 min. In total, 77 genes and 71 genes in the mig-14 mutant strain were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. Genes involved in invasion, virulence, flagellation, motility and chemotaxis of Salmonella were downregulated. Thus, cell invasion abilities of these two strains were further analyzed. The results confirmed that activities of mig-14 were important for cell invasion. PMID:23911675

Sheng, Xiumei; Zhang, Hong; Xia, Qiufeng; Xu, Shungao; Xu, Huaxi; Huang, Xinxiang

2013-07-31

185

Temporal and regional variations in accidental deaths of elderly people in Japan.  

PubMed

To ascertain the characteristics of accidental deaths of elderly people in urban and rural areas, we analyzed the deaths of elderly people over the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, in three geographic areas: nationwide, in the 23 wards of the metropolis of Tokyo, and in Saga prefecture. In addition, to assess the regional variation in accidental deaths of the elderly, we aggregated the numbers of accidental deaths of elderly people for each of Japan's prefectures in the year 2009 and categorized the deaths by accident type. The results showed that nationwide, deaths due to threats to breathing, falls, and drowning and submersion are increasing, while deaths due to transport accidents are decreasing, indicating a need for measures to prevent deaths from accidents other than transport accidents. In the urban areas of Tokyo's 23 wards, there is an increasing incidence of deaths due to falls, which is likely due to the high number of structures such as buildings and railway stations that elderly people need to negotiate. In urban areas, measures to reduce the incidence of accidental deaths need to focus on improving the physical environment to help prevent falls. In the rural locality of Saga prefecture, increasing numbers of elderly people are dying by drowning and submersion. The results of analysis of accidents in all prefectures of Japan by accident type show that the causes of accidental deaths of elderly people vary regionally, suggesting that accident prevention measures for elderly people need to consider the characteristics of the locality. PMID:23812406

Kibayashi, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Ryo; Nakao, Ken-Ichiro

2013-06-28

186

CONTROVERSIES IN NEUROIMAGING: NON-ACCIDENTAL HEAD TRAUMA (NAHT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this issue of Gyrations, the impor- tance of a multi-disciplinary team ap- proach to suspected NAHT is stressed. Contributing authors share their unique training and wealth of clinical experi- ence. Dr. Lori Frasier reflects upon the way the neuroradiologist can enhance her active clinical practice as a pediatri- cian heading a busy child protective ser- vice. Dr. Stephen Boos

Gary L. Hedlund

187

Evolution of epileptic encephalopathy in an infant with non-accidental head injury.  

PubMed

A 5-month-old child, previously healthy, was hospitalized with frequent episodes of tonic seizures. The seizures were controlled with antiepileptic medication. However, the parents did not continue medications after discharge from the hospital. The child was admitted several times with breakthrough seizures. Over time the seizures became refractory to treatment. Neurometabolic work up and imaging studies for uncontrolled seizures revealed non-accidental head injury (shaken baby syndrome) as the underlying cause. His first EEG was normal and changed from normal to an epileptic encephalopathy pattern during his several admissions for uncontrolled seizures. From a normal child at the first admission, the child was severely regressed at the last admission. The present paper highlights the evolution of EEG changes in a child with non-accidental head injuries. This report also highlights considering non-accidental head injury as the underlying cause in younger children presenting with unexplained epileptic encephalopathy. PMID:23887218

Koul, Roshan; Poothrikovil, Rajesh; Al-Azri, Faisal; Al-Sadoon, Muna

2013-07-01

188

Innocent intentions: a correlation between forgiveness for accidental harm and neural activity.  

PubMed

Contemporary moral psychology often emphasizes the universality of moral judgments. Across age, gender, religion and ethnicity, people's judgments on classic dilemmas are sensitive to the same moral principles. In many cases, moral judgments depend not only on the outcome of the action, but on the agent's beliefs and intentions at the time of action. For example, we blame agents who attempt but fail to harm others, while generally forgiving agents who harm others accidentally and unknowingly. Nevertheless, as we report here, there are individual differences in the extent to which observers exculpate agents for accidental harms. Furthermore, we find that the extent to which innocent intentions are taken to mitigate blame for accidental harms is correlated with activation in a specific brain region during moral judgment. This brain region, the right temporo-parietal junction, has been previously implicated in reasoning about other people's thoughts, beliefs, and intentions in moral and non-moral contexts. PMID:19467357

Young, Liane; Saxe, Rebecca

2009-04-05

189

Robust accidental nodes and zeros and critical quasiparticle scaling in iron-based multiband superconductors.  

SciTech Connect

We study multigap superconductivity, with strong angular variations of one of the gaps, as appropriate for certain iron-based high-temperature superconductors. We solve the gap equations of this model and find that the nodes or zeros in the gap function present at T{sub c} - although purely accidental - typically survive down to T = 0. Based on this result, we investigate the line of quantum transitions at which gap zeros first appear. The peculiar 'zero-point' quantum critical scaling emanating from this line dominates quasiparticle thermodynamics and transport properties over much of the phase diagram and supplants more familiar forms of scaling associated with the accidental nodes.

Stanev, V.; Alexandrov, B. S.; Nikolic, P.; Tesanovic, Z. (Materials Science Division); (Los Alamos Nat. Lab.); (George Mason Univ.); (Johns Hopkins Univ.)

2011-07-19

190

The current state of non-accidental head injury in Arkansas.  

PubMed

Child maltreatment syndrome (CMS) and non-accidental head injury (NAHI) are frequent causes of death and disability with national incidences reported as high as 24.6 per 100,000 children. At this time the true incidence of CMS is unknown in Arkansas. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the severity of non-accidental head injury and increase awareness in the state of Arkansas. This paper is the first in a planned series to determine the incidence, risk factors, presentation, best effective treatment strategies and outcomes of CMS and NAHI in Arkansas. PMID:23451407

Phillips, Blake C; Farst, Karen; Aitken, Mary E; Albert, Gregory

2013-02-01

191

49 CFR 192.195 - Protection against accidental overpressuring.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...201. (b) Additional requirements for distribution systems. Each distribution system that is supplied from a source of gas...service conditions that will be experienced in normal operation of the system, and that could...

2012-10-01

192

49 CFR 192.195 - Protection against accidental overpressuring.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...201. (b) Additional requirements for distribution systems. Each distribution system that is supplied from a source of gas...service conditions that will be experienced in normal operation of the system, and that could...

2011-10-01

193

36 CFR 1230.16 - How does NARA handle allegations of unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How does NARA handle allegations of unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration...ALTERATION, OR DESTRUCTION OF RECORDS § 1230.16 How does NARA handle allegations of unlawful or accidental removal, defacing,...

2011-07-01

194

36 CFR 1230.16 - How does NARA handle allegations of unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How does NARA handle allegations of unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration...ALTERATION, OR DESTRUCTION OF RECORDS § 1230.16 How does NARA handle allegations of unlawful or accidental removal, defacing,...

2012-07-01

195

Social and Temperamental Influences on Children's Overestimation of Their Physical Abilities: Links to Accidental Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined social and temperamental influences on children's judgments about their physical abilities and relations between temperamental characteristics, ability overestimation, and accidental injuries. Six- and 8-year-olds first observed a peer succeed or fail on a set of physical tasks and then made judgments about their ability to perform those same physical tasks. At both ages, children who first watched

Jodie M. Plumert; David C. Schwebel

1997-01-01

196

Hollywood piracy in China: An accidental case of US public diplomacy in the globalization age?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Challenging existing approaches and assumptions, this essay identifies the phenomenon of Hollywood piracy in China as an agent of American expansion in the region, amplifying the distribution of US popular culture artifacts. This accidental, yet relevant public diplomacy occurrence thrives outside the control of central governments, driven by transnational profit oriented entities, both legal (Hollywood studios producing and distributing entertainment

Paolo Sigismondi

2009-01-01

197

A probabilistic risk assessment for accidental releases from nuclear power plants in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. At present, over 200 nuclear power reactors for commercial electricity production are operational in Europe. An integrated assessment of probabilistic cancer mortality risks due to possible accidental releases from the European

Harry Slaper; Roelf Blaauboer

1998-01-01

198

Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning presenting without a history of exposure: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Carbon monoxide poisoning is easy to diagnose when there is a history of exposure. When the exposure history is absent, or delayed, the diagnosis is more difficult and relies on recognising the importance of multi-system disease. We present a case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. CASE PRESENTATION: A middle-aged man, who lived alone in his mobile home was found

Luke Bennetto; Louise Powter; Neil J Scolding

2008-01-01

199

Back from the dead: extracorporeal rewarming of severe accidental hypothermia victims in accident and emergency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe accidental hypothermia in an urban environment is usually associated with drug or alcohol abuse or serious illness in elderly or debilitated patients. In the presence of cardiovascular instability, extracorporeal rewarming by cardiopulmonary bypass is the gold standard of treatment of such patients. Three cases of profound hypothermia with circulatory collapse are presented. Each was successfully resuscitated to a full

A J Ireland; V L Pathi; R Crawford; I W Colquhoun

1997-01-01

200

The Woodstruck Deed The Documentation of Accidental Defloration among the Jews of Early Modern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “woodstruck” (mukat ets) deed, a Hebrew document that officially records the accidental defloration of a young girl, appears in sixteenth-century Italy, in a block of deeds recorded by Jewish notaries in Rome, in a rabbinic responsum and in the record book of the Padua community. Prior to that, there is no record of such an instrument anywhere in Jewish

David Malkiel

2006-01-01

201

Recent developments in modelling mitigation of accidental releases of hazardous gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process safety management guidelines suggest that a facility operator should investigate and document a plan for installing systems to detect, contain or mitigate accidental releases if such systems are not already in place. In addition, proposed EPA 112(r) regulations would require such investigation. This paper illustrates how mathematical modelling can aid such an evaluation. It describes how the HGSPRAY and

V. M. Fthenakis; D. N. Blewitt

1995-01-01

202

Water-spray systems for mitigating accidental indoor releases of water-soluble gasesq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-spray systems have been designed for mitigating accidental outdoor releases of water-soluble gases. This paper describes the new application of water systems to mitigating indoor releases. The performance of spray systems is studied by using models of atmospheric release and spray mitigation, having adjusted them for the indoor environment. A case study is presented of a mitigation system for a

Vasilis M. Fthenakis

203

Asthma-like syndrome in school children after accidental exposure to xylene and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: We assessed the signs and symptoms, pulmonary function changes and residual chemical body burden of school children in the vicinity of an accidental exposure to volatile xylene and methyl- ene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). Methods: After the exposure episode, children with significant symptoms after MDI exposure (e.g., dizziness, nausea, sore throat, and breathing difficulties) were sent to nearby

Ren-Long Jan; Shin-Hong Chen; Ho-Yuan Chang; Hui-Jung Yeh; Chi-Chang Shieh; Jiu-Yao Wang

204

Presence of periorbital and conjunctival petechial hemorrhages in accidental pediatric drowning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathological findings of drowning are variable and non-specific. Petechial hemorrhages involving the periorbital region and the conjunctiva have been described in many causes of death, but are thought to be exceedingly uncommon in cases of drowning. However, such studies have not specifically addressed the pediatric population. The current study retrospectively examined 79 cases of accidental pediatric drowning for the

Gino R. Somers; David A. Chiasson; Glenn P. Taylor

2008-01-01

205

Coincidence-counting corrections for accidental coincidences, set dead time and intrinsic dead time.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An equation is derived for calculating the radioactivity of a source from the results of coincidence counting, taking into account dead-time losses and accidental coincidences. The corrections allow for the extension of the set dead time in the (beta) cha...

H. A. Wyllie

1991-01-01

206

Peripheral Zonal Hepatic Necrosis Caused by Accidental Ingestion of Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatal massive peripheral zonal hepatic necrosis developed in a 47-year-old man who accidentally ingested a solution of methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) in dimethyl phtalate. Such solutions contain about 10% active oxygen. The clinical course was characterized by temporary cardiac arrest, abdominal burns, severe metabolic acidosis, rapid hepatic failure, rhabdomyolysis and respiratory insufficiency. A fatal outcome resulted 4 d afterwards

P. J. Karhunen; I. Ojanperä; K. Lalu; E. Vuori

1990-01-01

207

Assessment of structures subjected to accidental actions using crisp and uncertain fragility functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An application of fragility functions to the assessment of potential damage due to an accidental action is analysed. The assessment is carried out as an estimation of the probability of a foreseeable damage event (damage probability). This probability is expressed as a mean value of a fragility function developed for the damage event under study. A Bayesian prior (posterior) distribution

Egidijus R. Vaidogas; Virmantas Juocevi?ius

2009-01-01

208

Modeling the atmospheric dispersion of accidentally released heavy gases from photovoltaic cell manufacturing facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many hazardous gases used in the photovoltaic cell industry are heavier than air. Following an accidental release, their dispersion in air, differs from the dispersion of a neutrally buoyant gas and, as such, it requires special consideration. This report reviews and evaluates basic theoretical models and selected computer codes. Model results also are compared with experimental data. Dispersion of selected

Fthenakis

1986-01-01

209

Accidental beam loss in superconducting accelerators: Simulations, consequences of accidents and protective measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consequences of an accidental beam loss in superconducting accelerators and colliders of the next generation range from the mundane to rather dramatic, i.e., from superconducting magnet quench, to overheating of critical components, to a total destruction of some units via explosion. Specific measures are required to minimize and eliminate such events as much as practical. In this paper we

A. Drozhdin; N. Mokhov; B. Parker

1994-01-01

210

Infantile Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: Diagnostic Features and Differentiation from Non-accidental Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is rare, but associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. After a baby, subsequently proven to have HSE, had initially been diagnosed as non-accidental injury (NAI), we reviewed the clinical features and radiology of infants with HSE recently diagnosed by our laboratory.Methods: Screening of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples sent to Oxford for HSV polymerase

J. Kurtz; P. Anslow

2003-01-01

211

[Accidental asymptomatic infections with hephatitis B virus and testing on HBV markers of healthcare personnel].  

PubMed

Healthcare personnel is being highly exposed to the professional risk of Hephatitis B virus infection by accidental professional injuries, where direct contact with patients blood occurs. Number of researches indicate significance and role of accidental injuries, especially over injection needles, which is leading cause for professional HBV infections occurence. HBsAg has capability to provoke imune system if applied to a man, to HBs anti-bodies production achieving thus protection from Hephatitis B Virus. Recombinant vaccine against viruse Hephatitis B achieves high imunology protection. It is considered that appereance of anti-HBs titre >10 mlU/ml upon received three doses of vaccine provides reliable protection from HBV infection. Aim of the work is to prove rates of asymptomatic HBV infection amongst healthcare personnel and other employees in Sarajevo Healthcare Institution, and to research occurence and rate of anti-HBs titre at vaccinated Healthcare personnel in Sarajevo Healthcare Institution one month upon received third dose of vaccine. Out of 980 examinees 4, or 0.41%, had acute HBV infection within research period, 10 or 1.02% examinees had chronical accidental HBV infection, 18 or 1.83 % out of 980 examinees had previous asymptomatic HBV infection, as the consequence of accidental injury. Results of these researches indicated that 82.76 % or 96 healthcare workers has had reliable protection from HB virus infection one month upon third vaccine dose against HBV, since achieved titres where higher than 10 mlU/ml. PMID:18669231

Saci?, Enes; Saci?, Dzana

2008-01-01

212

Reducing the Risk of Accidental Death Due to Vehicle-Related Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) from motor vehicles cause several hundred accidental fatal poisonings annually in the United States. The circumstances that could lead to fatal poisonings in residential settings with motor vehicles as the source of CO were explored. The risk of death in a garage (volume = 90 m) and a single-family dwelling (400 m) was evaluated using

Linsey C. Marr; Glenn C. Morrison; William W. Nazaroff; Robert A. Harley

1998-01-01

213

Forensic significance of conduction system abnormalities as a precise cause of accidental death  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the pathology findings of the cardiac conduction system in 42 human autopsies who were considered to have died an accidental death. Abnormalities in serial sections of the conduction system were found in seven and of these three had an accessory pathway in the conduction system. In one of these there was mild Ebstein's anomaly (ME), two had fibromuscular

N. Nishida; N. Ikeda; K. Kudo; A. Tsuji; A. Kiyoshima

2002-01-01

214

Infant homicide and accidental death in the United States, 1940–2005: ethics and epidemiological classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential ethical issues can arise during the process of epidemiological classification. For example, unnatural infant deaths are classified as accidental deaths or homicides. Societal sensitivity to the physical abuse and neglect of children has increased over recent decades. This enhanced sensitivity could impact reported infant homicide rates. Infant homicide and accident mortality rates in boys and girls in the USA

Jack E Riggs; Gerald R Hobbs

2011-01-01

215

Accidental Jorge Lobo's disease in a worker dealing with Lacazia loboi infected mice: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Jorge Lobo's disease (Lacaziosis) is a subcutaneous infection of humans living in the Amazon region of Latin America, and in dolphins inhabiting the east coastal areas of the United States. The disease mainly affects people from rural areas living or working in close contact with vegetation and aquatic environments. Most patients refer having developed lesions after accidental trauma with plant thorns or insect bites. Inter-human transmission has never been confirmed suggesting that Lacazia loboi is acquired from environmental propagules. Case presentation We report the case of a 41-year-old woman from São Paulo, Brazil, a non-endemic area of Jorge Lobo's disease, with L. loboi skin infection most likely accidentally acquired while manipulating experimentally infected mice in the laboratory. Conclusion Because many patients with Jorge Lobo's disease do not recall accidental skin trauma before their infections, the possibility of accidentally acquired Jorge Lobo's disease through unnoticed broken skin should be considered during the clinical investigation of nodular skin diseases in people who have contact with the fungus or who live in endemic areas. This is the second report of animal to human transmission of this disease.

2009-01-01

216

Simulation of Accidental UF sub 6 Releases in Support of the Safety Analysis Effort.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The safety analysis of the US uranium enrichment facilities requires that postulated accidental releases of UF sub 6 be simulated. In order to predict the human health consequences of a postulated UF sub 6 release, two types of information are needed: (1)...

R. A. Just

1986-01-01

217

Estimation of vulnerable zones due to accidental release of toxic materials resulting in dense gas clouds.  

PubMed

Heavy gas dispersion models have been developed at IIT (hereinafter referred as IIT heavy gas models I and II) with a view to estimate vulnerable zones due to accidental (both instantaneous and continuous, respectively) release of dense toxic material in the atmosphere. The results obtained from IIT heavy gas models have been compared with those obtained from the DEGADIS model [Dense Gas Dispersion Model, developed by Havens and Spicer (1985) for the U.S. Coast Guard] as well as with the observed data collected during the Burro Series, Maplin Sands, and Thorney Island field trials. Both of these models include relevant features of dense gas dispersion, viz., gravity slumping, air entrainment, cloud heating, and transition to the passive phase, etc. The DEGADIS model has been considered for comparing the performance of IIT heavy gas models in this study because it incorporates most of the physical processes of dense gas dispersion in an elaborate manner, and has also been satisfactorily tested against field observations. The predictions from IIT heavy gas models indicate a fairly similar trend to the observed values from Thorney Island, Burro Series, and Maplin experiments with a tendency toward overprediction. There is a good agreement between the prediction of IIT Heavy Gas models I and II with those from DEGADIS, except for the simulations of IIT heavy gas model-I pertaining to very large release quantities under highly stable atmospheric conditions. In summary, the performance of IIT heavy gas models have been found to be reasonably good both with respect to the limited field data available and various simulations (selected on the basis of relevant storages in the industries and prevalent meteorological conditions performed with DEGADIS). However, there is a scope of improvement in the IIT heavy gas models (viz., better formulation for entrainment, modification of coefficients, transition criteria, etc.). Further, isotons (nomograms) have been prepared by using IIT heavy gas models for chlorine, which provide safe distance for various storage amounts for 24 meteorological scenarios prevalent in the entire year. These nomograms are prepared such that a nonspecialist can use them easily for control and management in case of an emergency requiring the evacuation of people in the affected region. These results can also be useful for siting and limiting the storage quantities. PMID:1947349

Singh, M P; Mohan, M; Panwar, T S; Chopra, H V

1991-09-01

218

Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of risk screening and early intervention comparing child- and family-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy for PTSD in children following accidental injury  

PubMed Central

Background Accidental injury represents the most common type of traumatic event to which a child or adolescent may be exposed, with a significant number of these children going on to experience posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, very little research has examined potential interventions for the treatment of PTSD in these children. The present trial aims to evaluate and compare child- and family-focused versions of a cognitive-behavioural early intervention for PTSD following accidental injury. Methods/Design The principal clinical question under investigation is the efficacy of an early, trauma-focused cognitive-behavioural intervention for the treatment of PTSD in children following accidental injury. Specifically, we compare the efficacy of two active treatments (child-focused and family-focused CBT) and a waitlist control (no therapy) to determine which is associated with greater reductions in psychological and health-related outcome measures over time. The primary outcome will be a reduction in trauma symptoms on a diagnostic interview in the active treatments compared to the waitlist control and greater reductions in the family-compared to the child-focused condition. In doing so, this project will also trial a method of stepped screening and assessment to determine those children requiring early intervention for PTSD following accidental injury. Discussion The present trial will be one of the first controlled trials to examine a trauma-focused CBT, early intervention for children experiencing PTSD following accidental injury (as opposed to other types of traumatic events) and the first within a stepped care approach. In addition, it will provide the first evidence comparing the efficacy of child and family-focused interventions for this target group. Given the significant number of children and adolescents exposed to accidental injury, the successful implementation of this protocol has considerable implications. If efficacious, this early intervention will assist in reducing symptoms of traumatic stress as well as preventing chronic disorder and disability in children experiencing acute PTSD following accidental injury. Trial Registration Controlled-trials.com: ISRCTN79049138

2010-01-01

219

Preventing accidental transmission of human transmissible spongifom encephalopathies.  

PubMed

The mechanism by which humans became infected with the BSE agent is discussed, and the matter of potential person-to person transmission of TSEs through contagion or medical procedures is considered. There is some discussion regarding the current evidence relating to whether or not the blood of humans infected with TSEs is infectious. Considerable emphasis is placed on the fact that TSE agents are known to be relatively resistant to decontamination by procedures that are effective with conventional micro-organisms, including (under worst-case conditions) the autoclaving procedures used to sterilise surgical instruments. Methods for providing additional re-assurance with regard to the safety of instruments are described. Safety in the pathology laboratory is discussed extensively because TSE agents are not inactivated by the usual processes used to fix tissues, and such laboratories will receive fixed tissues that are still highly infectious as far as TSE agents are concerned. PMID:14522866

Taylor, David M

2003-01-01

220

Source, dispersion and combustion modelling of an accidental release of hydrogen in an urban environment.  

PubMed

Hydrogen is likely to be the most important future energy carrier, for many stationary and mobile applications, with the potential to make significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions especially if renewable primary energy sources are used to produce the hydrogen. A safe transition to the use of hydrogen by members of the general public requires that the safety issues associated with hydrogen applications have to be investigated and fully understood. In order to assess the risks associated with hydrogen applications, its behaviour in realistic accident scenarios has to be predicted, allowing mitigating measures to be developed where necessary. A key factor in this process is predicting the release, dispersion and combustion of hydrogen in appropriate scenarios. This paper illustrates an application of CFD methods to the simulation of an actual hydrogen explosion. The explosion occurred on 3 March 1983 in a built up area of central Stockholm, Sweden, after the accidental release of approximately 13.5 kg of hydrogen from a rack of 18 interconnected 50 l industrial pressure vessels (200 bar working pressure) being transported by a delivery truck. Modelling of the source term, dispersion and combustion were undertaken separately using three different numerical tools, due to the differences in physics and scales between the different phenomena. Results from the dispersion calculations together with the official accident report were used to identify a possible ignition source and estimate the time at which ignition could have occurred. Ignition was estimated to occur 10s after the start of the release, coinciding with the time at which the maximum flammable hydrogen mass and cloud volume were found to occur (4.5 kg and 600 m(3), respectively). The subsequent simulation of the combustion adopts initial conditions for mean flow and turbulence from the dispersion simulations, and calculates the development of a fireball. This provides physical values, e.g. maximum overpressure and far-field overpressure that may be used as a comparison with the known accident details to give an indication of the validity of the models. The simulation results are consistent with both the reported near-field damage to buildings and persons and with the far-field damage to windows. The work was undertaken as part of the European Integrated Hydrogen Project-Phase 2 (EIHP2) with partial funding from the European Commission via the Fifth Framework Programme. PMID:14623417

Venetsanos, A G; Huld, T; Adams, P; Bartzis, J G

2003-12-12

221

A simulation study of dispersion of air borne radionuclides from a nuclear power plant under a hypothetical accidental scenario at a tropical coastal site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorological condition in coastal regions is diurnally variable and spatially heterogeneous due to complex topography, land-sea interface, etc. A wide range of dispersion conditions is possible on a given day in the coastal regions. In case of inadvertent accidental situations, though unlikely, it would be necessary to examine the potentially severe case among different dynamically occurring local atmospheric conditions for dispersion and its range of impact around a nuclear power plant for safety analysis. In this context, dispersion of air borne radioactive effluents during a hypothetical accidental scenario from a proposed prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) at an Indian coastal site, Kalpakkam, is simulated using a 3-D meso-scale atmospheric model MM5 and a random walk particle dispersion model FLEXPART. A simulation carried out for a typical summer day predicted the development of land-sea breeze circulation and thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) formation, which have been confirmed by meteorological observations. Analysis of dose distribution shows that the maximum dose for releases from a 100 m stack occurs at two places within 4 km distance during sea breeze/TIBL fumigation hours. Maximum dose also occurred during nighttime stable conditions. Results indicate that, on the day of present study, the highest concentrations occurred during periods of TIBL fumigation rather than during stable atmospheric conditions. Further, the area of impact (plume width at the surface) spreads up to a down wind distance of 4 km during fumigation condition. Simulation over a range of 25 km has shown turning of plume at the incidence of sea breeze circulation and two different dispersion patterns across the sea breeze front. These results are significant in comparison to the expected pattern shown by Gaussian plume model used for routine analysis.

Srinivas, C. V.; Venkatesan, R.

222

[Diagnosis of the risk of accidental falls in the elderly].  

PubMed

The steep increase in the incidence of hip fractures and other fall-related fractures with advancing age is caused by an age-associated combination of increased fall frequency, typical fall mechanisms and reduced bone strength. This article reviews the current knowledge related to fall risk factors and fall mechanisms. Non-syncopal falls during normal daily activities are predominantly age-associated occurrences with serious consequences. 5% of all falls cause fractures, another 10 to 15% lead to a variety of further injuries. The most serious consequences of the geriatric fall syndrome are fractures of hip, humerus, wrist and pelvis. Fear of falling and self limitation of physical activity are self imposed psychological impairments. There is a pathological cascade from age-associated gait and balance disorders to locomotor falls and further to fall-related fractures. Significantly increased fall risk caused by gait and balance disorders can be considered as a distinct chronic pathological condition. It is strongly age-related and definitely has a multifactorial origin. The term "age-associated multifactorial gait disorder" has been coined for this condition. Assessing fracture risk requires evaluating fall risk, fall mechanisms and bone strength. Older people with gait and balance disorders fall mostly sideways, and the impact of such a fall from standing height generates enough force to break an older non-osteoporotic femur. Osteoporosis can decrease bone strength beyond the age-related grade, and is one of the several most important risk factors for fractures. Prospective studies have consistently found the following independent risk factors for non-syncopal falls: 1. Muscle power of lower extremities, 2. Lateral postural stability, 3. Clinical evaluation of gait, 4. Visual impairment, 5. Four or more different medications or certain psychotropic drugs, 6. Cognitive impairment, and 7. History of falling. The fall-related neuromuscular status can be adequately assessed by three diagnostic procedures: The chair rising test represents muscle power, and has proven its relevance for both fall risk and deterioration of mobility and functional independence. Measurement of lateral postural stability can be done by tandem manoeuvres. Clinical evaluation of gait should focus on the regularity of gait as a cyclic event. The fall risk status of an individual depends strongly on the number of the independent risk factors that one accumulates. Both prevention and therapy must focus on each of these individual risk factors. Preventing falls and its consequences is imperative for successful aging. PMID:12185951

Runge, M

2002-07-01

223

Accidental release of hydrogen from a cryogenic tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid hydrogen at 20 K was harmlessly released at Turin’s Porta Susa station over a period of seven hours on 9 July 1991 through the safety valve of a dewar-type tank on a railway wagon following the loss of the vacuum between its two walls. Commercially available programs were unable to model this type of release in the unusual conditions in which this hydrogen had been stored. A model illustrating the course of the accident was therefore worked out. A start was made by examining the changes in the physical and thermodynamic properties of the hydrogen progress in the dewar to find out how long it had taken to build up the pressure needed to open the safety valve. Owing to the complex geometry of the insulating layer in the interspace of the dewar on which the liquefaction of the air took place, the heat exchange coefficient could not be determined a priori. It was therefore assumed and subsequently quantified by means of an iterative process. The thermodynamic data were then used to examine the outflow of the hydrogen from the venting line. Flow dynamic calculations showed that the hydrogen was entirely lost through the safety valve and that pressure losses along the approx. 3-m line were negligible. The model also showed that the speed of the outflow was subsonic. The speed evaluated will enable the dispersion of the hydrogen and hence the areas at risk to be evaluated in the subsequent stages of the study.

Cancelli, C.; Demichela, M.; Piccinini, N.

2005-07-01

224

Accidental ingestion of BiTine ring and a note on inefficient ring separation forceps  

PubMed Central

Background: Accidental ingestion of medium-to-large instruments is relatively uncommon during dental treatment but can be potentially dangerous. A case of BiTine ring ingestion is presented with a note on inefficient ring separation forceps. Case description: A 28-year-old male patient accidentally ingested the BiTine ring (2 cm diameter, 0.5 cm outward projections) while it was being applied to a distoproximal cavity in tooth # 19. The ring placement forceps were excessively flexible; bending of the beaks towards the ring combined with a poor no-slippage mechanism led to sudden disengagement of the ring and accelerated movement towards the pharynx. We followed the patient with bulk forming agents and radiographs. Fortunately the ring passed out without any complications. Clinical implications: Checking equipment and methods is as important as taking precautions against any preventable medical emergency. It is the responsibility of the clinician to check, verify and then use any instrument/equipment.

Baghele, Om Nemichand; Baghele, Mangala Om

2011-01-01

225

Bitter pill to swallow: a case of accidental poisoning with digitalis purpurea  

PubMed Central

While digitoxicity secondary to therapeutic use is frequent, due to its distinctive appearance and unpleasant taste accidental ingestion of digitalis purpurea (foxglove) is uncommon. This report relates the case of two previously healthy individuals who inadvertently consumed significant quantities of digitalis in its plant form. Both men presented in first-degree atrioventricular block and had digoxin levels of 4.9 ?g/litre, but were otherwise stable and made unremarkable recoveries with repeated dose activated charcoal.

Mitchell, Andrew

2010-01-01

226

Predicting accidental falls in people with multiple sclerosis — a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate accidental falls and near fall incidents in people with multiple sclerosis with respect to clinical variables and the predictive values of four tests.Design: A longitudinal, multi-centred cohort study with prospectively collected falls.Procedures: Self-reported incidents during the three months following a standardized test procedure.Subjects: Seventy-six people with multiple sclerosis and an Expanded Disability Status Scale score between 3.5

Y. Nilsagård; Cecilia Lundholm; E. Denison; L. G. Gunnarsson

2009-01-01

227

Accidental inhalation injury of phosgene gas leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome.  

PubMed

Irritant gas exposure may lead to significant respiratory distress as is seen in the present case of 25 year old male worker who suffered accidental phosgene inhalation. He remained asymptomatic for six hours but later landed up in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in the hospital and required ventilatory support. No investigative feature is diagnostic of the nature of irritant gas. Similarly there is no antidote available to the phosgene. Only timely administered supportive management may lead to successful outcome. PMID:23580841

Kumar, Anand; Chaudhari, Sudhir; Kush, Luv; Kumar, Suraj; Garg, Atul; Shukla, Anurag

2012-05-01

228

Maternal and Infant Characteristics Associated With Accidental Suffocation and Strangulation in Bed in US Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify maternal and infant characteristics associated with accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed (ASSB) in\\u000a US infants. Using 2000–2002 US linked infant birth and death certificate cohort files, we compared ASSB deaths to survivors.\\u000a Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) from logistic regression were used to analyze associations between selected maternal and infant\\u000a characteristics and ASSB mortality. During 2000–2002, 1,064 infants

Michelle M. Carlberg; Carrie K. Shapiro-Mendoza; Michael Goodman

229

Accidental PUVA burns, vitiligo and atopic diathesis resulting in prurigo nodularis: a logical but undocumented rarity.  

PubMed

Vitiligo is a dreaded disease in India due to its social and cultural consequences. PUVA and PUVAsol are the main treatment modalities for vitiligo vulgaris. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of accidental PUVA burns eventuating in prurigo nodularis lesions to be reported in a female patient who was undergoing home PUVA therapy. The itch is so prominent and disabling that the focus of the patient has shifted from treating her vitiligo to ameliorating the pruritus. PMID:23197209

Verma, Shyam Bhanushankar; Wollina, Uwe

230

Non-accidental subdural haemorrhage in Hong Kong: incidence, clinical features, management and outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  We aim to identify the incidence and the characteristics of non-accidental subdural haemorrhage in Hong Kong in children under the age of 5 years.Method  Eighteen children aged below 5 years presented with subdural haemorrhage without a history of significant trauma were studied. Clinical features and the work-up process for probable child abuse were analysed.Results  Sixteen combined case conferences were held, and eleven cases were

David T. F. Sun; X. L. Zhu; W. S. Poon

2006-01-01

231

The management of accidental dural puncture in pregnant women: what does an obstetrician need to know?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) also known as spinal (or post-spinal) headache still remains a disabling complication\\u000a of needle insertion into the subarachnoid space. Pregnant women are at particular risk of dural puncture, and the subsequent\\u000a headache, because of sex, young age, and the widespread application of regional anesthesia. Accidental dural puncture complicating\\u000a epidural anesthesia varies in incidence from 0.19 to

Krzysztof M. Kuczkowski

2007-01-01

232

Non-accidental injury: confusion with temporary brittle bone disease and mild osteogenesis imperfecta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate diagnosis of non-accidental injury (NAI) can be reached in the majority of cases by careful appraisal of the social\\u000a and family history, combined with painstaking clinical roentgenographic and other imaging evaluations. Careful review of the\\u000a scientific literature clearly indicates that collagen analysis to exclude mild forms of osteogenesis imperfecta, especially\\u000a type IV, is recommended only in rare cases in

Deborah S. Ablin; Shashikant M. Sane

1997-01-01

233

Serologic markers for hepatitis B among Marshallese accidentally exposed to fallout radiation in 1954  

SciTech Connect

At least one serologic marker of prior hepatitis B infection (hepatitis B surface antigen, antibody to surface antigen, or antibody to core antigen) was found in 91.7% of 314 Marshallese tested. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenemia (3.3%) in a subpopulation that had resided on Rongelap Atoll at the time of accidental exposure to radioactive fallout from a thermonuclear test in 1954 did not differ significantly from the prevalence in a selected unexposed population (10.5%).

Adams, W.H.; Fields, H.A.; Engle, J.R.; Hadler, S.C.

1986-10-01

234

Accidental section of the ulnar nerve in the wrist during arthroscopy.  

PubMed

Arthroscopy of the wrist is a frequently performed procedure. Its role in diagnosis and treatment is significant. The complications of arthroscopy are well known and are described in the literature. We describe a case of accidental section of the ulnar nerve during repair of the triangular fibrocartilage complex during arthroscopy. The nerve section was caused by the trocar used for drainage in the 6U portal. We propose to establish the injury mechanism and describe a safe procedure for this examination. PMID:21820268

Nguyen, Minh Khanh; Bourgouin, Stéphane; Gaillard, Christophe; Butin, Christophe; Guilhem, Kevin; Levadoux, Michel; Legré, Régis

2011-08-04

235

Positive income shocks and accidental deaths among Cherokee Indians: a natural experiment  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies in low-income populations report the somewhat counterintuitive finding that positive income gains adversely affect adult health. The literature posits that receipt of a large portion of annual income increases, in the short term, risk-taking behaviour and/or the consumption of health-damaging goods. This work implies the hypothesis that persons with an unexpected gain in income will exhibit an elevated risk of accidental death—the fifth leading cause of death in the USA. We test this hypothesis directly by capitalizing on a natural experiment in which Cherokee Indians in rural North Carolina received discrete lump sum payments from a new casino. Methods We applied Poisson regression to the monthly count of accidental deaths among Cherokee Indians over 204 months spanning 1990–2006. We controlled for temporal patterns in accidental deaths (e.g. seasonality and trend) as well as changes in population size. Results As hypothesized, the risk of accidental death rises above expected levels during months of the large casino payments (relative risk?=?2.62; 95% confidence interval?=?1.54–4.47). Exploratory analyses of ethnographic interviews and behavioural surveys support that increased vehicular travel and consumption of health-damaging goods may account for the rise in accident proneness. Conclusions Although long-term income gains may improve health in this population, our findings indicate that acute responses to large income gains, in the short term, increase risk-taking and accident proneness. We encourage further investigation of natural experiments to identify causal economic antecedents of population health.

Bruckner, Tim A; Brown, Ryan A; Margerison-Zilko, Claire

2011-01-01

236

A risk assessment method for accidental releases from nuclear power plants in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present over 200 nuclear power reactors are operational. The question\\u000araised is to what extent possible accidents with nuclear power reactors\\u000apose a risk for the European population. In this report a method is\\u000adescribed for evaluating the probability of death due to stochastic\\u000aeffects, combining the probability of accidental releases with the\\u000aconsequences in terms of the excess

Slaper H; Blaauboer RO; Eggink GJ

2007-01-01

237

Genotypic and Phenotypic Modifications of Neisseria meningitidis after an Accidental Human Passage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scientist in our laboratory was accidentally infected while working with Z5463, a Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A strain. She developed severe symptoms (fever, meningism, purpuric lesions) that fortunately evolved with antibiotic treatment to complete recovery. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis confirmed that the isolate obtained from the blood culture (Z5463BC) was identical to Z5463, more precisely to a fourth subculture of this

Hélène Omer; Graham Rose; Keith A. Jolley; Eric Frapy; Jean-Ralph Zahar; Martin C. J. Maiden; Stephen D. Bentley; Colin R. Tinsley; Xavier Nassif; Emmanuelle Bille; Olivier Neyrolles

2011-01-01

238

Involving parents in indicated early intervention for childhood PTSD following accidental injury.  

PubMed

Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome research in this area. This review focuses on two key issues within the child PTSD literature--namely the role of parents in treatment and the timing of intervention. The issue of parental involvement in the treatment of child PTSD is a question that is increasingly being recognized as important. In addition, the need to find a balance between providing early intervention to at risk youth while avoiding providing treatment to those youth who will recover spontaneously has yet to be addressed. This paper outlines the rationale for and the development of a trauma-focused CBT protocol with separate parent and child programs, for use with children and adolescents experiencing PTSD following an accidental injury. The protocol is embedded within an indicated intervention framework, allowing for the early identification of youth at risk within a medical setting. Two case studies are presented in order to illustrate key issues raised in the review, implementation of the interventions, and the challenges involved. PMID:22983482

Cobham, Vanessa E; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

2012-12-01

239

The EPA's process safety management program for preventing accidental chemical releases (40 CFR 68)  

SciTech Connect

Section 304, Chemical Process Safety Management,'' of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 required the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to develop a complete integrated process safety management program regulation. In February 1992, OSHA published rule 29 CFR 1910.119, Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals''. The 1990 CAA Amendment section 112(r), Prevention of Accidental Releases'', required the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish measures for owners and operators of facilities processing or handling hazardous materials to prevent accidental releases of regulated substances and other extremely hazardous substances to the air. Additionally, it required the consequence of releases to be minimized by focusing preventative measures on those chemicals that pose the greatest risk. Section 112(r) begins with a general duty clause requiring owners and operators to: identify hazards that may result from releases; design and maintain a safe facility; and minimize the consequences of releases when they occur. The major difference between the two regulations concerns the areas affected by the potential release of a regulated substance. The OSHA 29 CFR 1910.119 regulation limits the concern to incidents that could result in an exposure to employees within the boundaries of the facility. The proposed EPA 40 CFR regulation will address significant accidental releases that have a potential for off-site effects on humans and the environment. The provisions of the new EPA regulation would require additional resources and increase the formal documentation and record keeping requirements beyond those of the older OSHA regulation.

Brown, C.A.; Sharma, P. (Brown and Root Petroleum and Chemicals Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-04-01

240

Accidental poisoning in childhood: five year urban population study with 15 year analysis of fatality.  

PubMed Central

Patterns of accidental poisoning in children are changing dramatically. A five year population study (1977-81) was undertaken in urban children from Brisbane (population 1 000 000). A total of 2098 children were poisoned during this period with only one fatality, which represents a dramatic reduction in mortality. Over the past 15 years (1968-82) 13 children have died from accidental poisoning from this population, and two were murdered with drugs. A study of secular trends has indicated that peak incidence occurred in 1979, and the rate has been falling progressively since. The current age corrected rate of poisoning is 393 per 100 000 children per year (0-5 year olds). The rank order of poisons, drugs, and chemicals causing hospital admission and death is: petroleum distillates 13%; antihistamines 9%; benzodiazepines 9%; bleach and detergents 7%; and aspirin 6%. The ratio of fatalities to ingestions requiring hospital admission was calculated to give an index of a practical danger of noxious agents to which children are currently exposed and the rank order is: cardiotoxic drugs, one fatality to 25 ingestions; tricyclic antidepressants, one to 44; sympathomimetic drugs, one to 54; caustic soda, one to 68; aspirin, one fatality to 350 ingestions. Accidental poisoning of children leading to death has been reduced because patterns of drug prescriptions have changed, packaging of dangerous drugs has been made safer, and substances such as kerosene have been coloured blue.

Pearn, J; Nixon, J; Ansford, A; Corcoran, A

1984-01-01

241

Infant homicide and accidental death in the United States, 1940-2005: ethics and epidemiological classification.  

PubMed

Potential ethical issues can arise during the process of epidemiological classification. For example, unnatural infant deaths are classified as accidental deaths or homicides. Societal sensitivity to the physical abuse and neglect of children has increased over recent decades. This enhanced sensitivity could impact reported infant homicide rates. Infant homicide and accident mortality rates in boys and girls in the USA from 1940 to 2005 were analysed. In 1940, infant accident mortality rates were over 20 times greater than infant homicide rates in both boys and girls. After about 1980, when the ratio of infant accident mortality rates to infant homicide rates decreased to less than five, and the sum of infant accident and homicide rates became relatively constant, further decreases in infant accident mortality rates were associated with increases in reported infant homicide rates. These findings suggest that the dramatic decline of accidental infant mortality and recent increased societal sensitivity to child abuse may be related to the increased infant homicide rates observed in the USA since 1980 rather than an actual increase in societal violence directed against infants. Ethical consequences of epidemiological classification, involving the principles of beneficence, non-maleficence and justice, are suggested by observed patterns in infant accidental deaths and homicides in the USA from 1940 to 2005. PMID:21450748

Riggs, Jack E; Hobbs, Gerald R

2011-03-30

242

Shape measurement tools in footwear analysis: A statistical investigation of accidental characteristics over time.  

PubMed

Presence of accidental characteristics on footwear strengthens the linkage of a given piece of footwear to a footwear impression left at a crime-scene. Thus an understanding of rate of appearance and disappearance of these characteristics is of importance. Artificial cut-marks, 1-3mm in depth, were cut into outsoles of 11 pairs of athletic shoes. Loss of these cut-marks and acquisition of new accidental characteristics/wear patterns were monitored over a seven-week time-span. Feature-vector methods were used to acquire multivariate data on wear/acquisition rates. A repeatability study indicated the feature vector method could detect small differences among shoes relative to measurement uncertainty. The shoes displayed a strong retention of artificial cut-marks over the study interval. Net rate of wear was 0.1% of the textured area of the shoe per week, predominantly in the heel and ball area. Results indicate accidental characteristics can reasonably be expected to persist over time. PMID:24053869

Sheets, H David; Gross, Susan; Langenburg, Glenn; Bush, Peter J; Bush, Mary A

2013-08-07

243

75 FR 8411 - Office of New Reactors: Interim Staff Guidance on Assessing the Consequences of an Accidental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Release of Radioactive Materials From Liquid Waste Tanks; Reopening of Comment Period...Release of Radioactive Materials from Liquid Waste Tanks'' (Agencywide Documents...of accidental releases of radioactive liquid on existing or likely future uses of...

2010-02-24

244

Ocular and cerebral trauma in non-accidental injury in infancy: underlying mechanisms and implications for paediatric practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To determine the sites, mechanisms, and clinical significance of injuries to the eyes and brains of children with non-accidental injuries in relation to differing levels of trauma. METHODS: A forensic pathological study of injuries in the eyes and brains of 23 consecutive children dying of non-accidental injuries over a 4 year period (1988-92) under the jurisdiction of Yorkshire and

M A Green; G Lieberman; C M Milroy; M A Parsons

1996-01-01

245

In-depth analysis of accidental oil spills from tankers in the context of global spill trends from all sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study gives a global overview of accidental oil spills from all sources (?700t) for the period 1970–2004, followed by a detailed examination of trends in accidental tanker spills. The present analysis of the number and volume of tanker spills includes temporal and spatial spill trends, aspects of spill size distribution as well as trends of key factors (i.e., flag

Peter Burgherr

2007-01-01

246

Intracranial impalement with entrance site in the mandibular region: postmortem elucidation of an accidental fall on a wooden plant stick.  

PubMed

A 78-year-old woman with a history of transient ischemic attacks was found in the doorway of her house in a somnolent and unresponsive condition. In the right mandibular region, a small skin wound was localized, which was surgically treated. Six days after admission to the hospital, an exploratory craniotomy was performed because of abnormal CT findings. Apart from tissue lesions and hemorrhages a small bone fragment was detected in the right cerebral cortex, which was removed. After 11 days in hospital, the patient died from failure of central regulatory functions. At the forensic autopsy, a 15 cm long wound track running upward from the skin wound in the right mandibular region through the bony skull base to the right parietal lobe of the brain was noted. Apparently, the surgically removed bone fragment had been displaced from the right middle cranial fossa. The site of the incident in the deceased's house was inspected again and a bamboo pole used to stabilize a potted plant standing on the floor was found and sent to the trace evidence laboratory. Analysis showed blood and tissue deposits from the victim. On the basis of all the findings and the circumstances of the case, a fatal impalement injury caused by an accidental fall could be assumed. PMID:21515006

Perdekamp, Markus Grosse; Weisser, Hans-Joachim; Pollak, Stefan; Thierauf, Annette

2011-04-23

247

Factors That May Contribute to Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... to Eating Disorders Factors That May Contribute to Eating Disorders Eating disorders are complex conditions that arise from a combination ... issues that can contribute to the development of eating disorders. NEDA acknowledges that there may be a difference ...

248

Accidental Discoveries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The students will understand that science theories change in the face of new evidence, but those changes can be slow in coming. To download the lesson plan as a pdf, see the document below. Students willResearch scientific discoveries that happened by accident in the past and learn how gamma-rays were discovered by 20th century scientists

2010-01-01

249

Apoptosis and accidental cell death in cultured human keratinocytes after thermal injury.  

PubMed

The respective roles of apoptosis and accidental cell death after thermal injury were evaluated in normal human epidermal keratinocytes. By coupling the LIVE/DEAD fluorescence viability assay with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method and ultrastructural morphology, these two processes could be distinguished. Cells were grown on glass coverslips with a microgrid pattern so that the results of several staining procedures performed sequentially could be visualized in the same cells after heating at temperatures of up to 72 degrees C for 1 second. After exposure to temperatures of 58 to 59 degrees C, cells died predominantly by apoptosis; viable cells became TUNEL positive, indicating degradation of DNA. After exposure to temperatures of 60 to 66 degrees C, both TUNEL-positive viable cells and TUNEL-positive nonviable cells were observed, indicating that apoptosis and accidental cell death were occurring simultaneously. Cells died almost immediately after exposure to temperatures above 72 degrees C, presumably from heat fixation. The fluorescent mitochondrial probe MitoTracker Orange indicated that cells undergoing apoptosis became TUNEL positive before loss of mitochondrial function. Nucleosomal fragmentation of DNA analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gel electrophoresis occurred after exposure to temperatures of 58 to 59 degrees C. The characteristic morphological findings of cells undergoing apoptosis, by transmission electron microscopy, included cellular shrinkage, cytoplasmic budding, and relatively intact mitochondria. Depending on temperature and time of exposure, normal human epidermal keratinocytes may die by apoptosis, accidental cell death, or heat fixation. PMID:9708816

Matylevitch, N P; Schuschereba, S T; Mata, J R; Gilligan, G R; Lawlor, D F; Goodwin, C W; Bowman, P D

1998-08-01

250

Endoscopic removal of an endodontic file accidentally swallowed: clinical and legal approaches.  

PubMed

The use of a rubber dam is an essential procedure when treating root canals, and not using it may compromise the success of the treatment, as well as the patient's health. This report presents a case in which a K-file was accidentally swallowed during an endodontic procedure, performed without the use of a rubber dam. Given the absence of immediate clinical complications, the subject underwent a chest radiograph. The file was located at the oesophagogastric junction and was later removed by endoscopy. In addition to the clinical repercussions, this example also illustrates the ethical-legal aspects of this type of accident. PMID:21771188

Silva, Rhonan F; Martins, Emerson C; Prado, Felippe B; Júnior, Jacy R C; Júnior, Eduardo D

2009-12-15

251

Forecasting consequences of accidental release: how reliable are current assessment models  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on uncertainties in model output used to assess accidents. We begin by reviewing the historical development of assessment models and the associated interest in uncertainties as these evolutionary processes occurred in the United States. This is followed by a description of the sources of uncertainties in assessment calculations. Types of models appropriate for assessment of accidents are identified. A summary of results from our analysis of uncertainty is provided in results obtained with current methodology for assessing routine and accidental radionuclide releases to the environment. We conclude with discussion of preferred procedures and suggested future directions to improve the state-of-the-art of radiological assessments.

Rohwer, P.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; Miller, C.W.

1983-01-01

252

Accidental ingestion of molar band and its management: maintenance is better than management.  

PubMed

Ingestion of a broken part of fixed orthodontic appliance is a potential complication during orthodontic treatment. We report a case of accidental ingestion of molar band and its subsequent diagnosis followed by endoscopic retrieval method. Although prevention of such incidence is the best method at the same time management of such an event is also crucial. The objective of this paper is to draw attention to the potentially serious complications that can occur if preventive techniques are not practiced and also the management of such event. PMID:23476819

Naragond, Appasaheb; Kenganal, Smitha; Rajasigamani, K; Kumar, N Sathish

2013-02-06

253

Non-accidental chlorpyrifos poisoning-an unusual cause of profound unconsciousness.  

PubMed

Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus anticholinesterase insecticide, and organophosphate intoxication can induce symptoms such as miosis, urination, diarrhea, diaphoresis, lacrimation, excitation of central nervous system, salivation, and consciousness disturbance (MUDDLES). Although accidental poisoning of children with drugs and chemicals is a common cause for consciousness disturbance in children, the possibility of deliberate poisoning is rarely considered. We report on a healthy 5-year 6-month-old boy with recurrent organophosphate intoxication. Reports of chlorpyrifos intoxication in children are quite rare. This case report demonstrates decision-making process and how to disclose deliberate chlorpyrifos poisoning of the toddler by the stepmother, another example of Munchausen syndrome by proxy. PMID:19763618

Lee, Jiun-Chang; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Lin, Jainn-Jim; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Wu, Chang-Teng

2009-09-08

254

POISONING BY META-ISOSYSTOX IN SPRAYMEN AND IN ACCIDENTALLY EXPOSED PATIENTS  

PubMed Central

One hundred and twenty-six patients poisoned by the organic phosphorus insecticide Metaisosystox were investigated. Hiccough and extrapyramidal manifestations were noticed in some patients. Serum cholinesterase levels showed an initial fall and then a rise above normal. The fall of cholinesterase was marked in patients who were exposed for relatively long periods but not in patients accidentally exposed for short times. The rise in serum cholinesterase is thought to be a compensatory protective mechanism. Correlation between serum cholinesterase levels and symptomatology was absent in some patients but present in the majority. Cholinesterase inhibition may not be the only mechanism by which organic phosphorus compounds cause poisoning.

Hegazy, M. R.

1965-01-01

255

Information–provision intervention for children and their parents following pediatric accidental injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  This study evaluated an early intervention for children and their parents following pediatric accidental injury.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Information booklets provided to participants within 72 h of the initial trauma detailed common responses to trauma, the common\\u000a time course of symptoms, and suggestions for minimizing any post-trauma distress. Following admission for traumatic injuries\\u000a sustained in motor vehicle accidents, falls and sporting injuries a

Justin Kenardy; Katie Thompson; Robyne Le Brocque; Katherine Olsson

2008-01-01

256

[Postmortem detection of accidental methadone intoxication in a 10-year-old girl].  

PubMed

Intoxications in children still account for a large part of the cases reported to poison control centres. Among drug intoxications, substitution drugs have gained in importance lately. Careless storage of take-home medications puts children living in the same household at risk. The authors report on a fatal case of a 10-year-old girl who died from intoxication with methadone belonging to a carer. The accidental intoxication had not been diagnosed at the hospital where the girl was treated for suspected meningitis. The question of medical malpractice is discussed. PMID:23878896

Thierauf, Annette; Vogt, Susanne; Pollak, Stefan; Perdekamp, Markus Grosse

257

Morphological study of the relation between accidental hypothermia and acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed Central

There is a recognised but poorly understood association between hypothermia and acute pancreatitis. A histological study of the pancreas was made in eight patients with accidental hypothermia who had evidence of pancreatitis at necropsy. From an analysis of the patterns of parenchymal necrosis in the pancreas it was thought that there were at least three possible mechanisms for the relation between hypothermia and pancreatitis. Firstly, that ischaemic pancreatitis may result from the "microcirculatory shock" of hypothermia. Secondly, that both hypothermia and pancreatitis may be secondary to alcohol abuse: and finally, that severe pancreatitis may be the primary disease and that hypothermia results from the patients' social circumstances. Images

Foulis, A K

1982-01-01

258

Streamflow Conditions in the Guadalupe River Basin, South-Central Texas, Water Years 1987-2006. An Assessment of Streamflow Gains and Losses and Relative Contribution of Major Springs to Streamflow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Edwards Aquifer Authority, assessed available streamflow data in the Guadalupe River Basin to determine streamflow gains and losses and the relative contribution of flow from major springsComal Springs, ...

D. J. Ockerman R. N. Slattery

2008-01-01

259

Accidental fatal poisoning of a dog by Dieffenbachia picta (dumb cane).  

PubMed

A single case of accidental fatal poisoning by Dieffenbachia picta, (dumb cane) (Araceae) in a 9-y-old female Poodle is described. Clinical signs included severe, locally extensive erosive/ulcerative glossitis accompanied by marked dyspnea of acute onset. The animal did not respond to emergency procedures to relieve severe respiratory distress; fatal asphyxiation ensued from edema of the glottis a few hours after the first clinical signs were observed. According to the owner, the dog had access to a tall, potted dumb cane plant and chewed the thick stem of the plant intensely. The owner did not authorize a necropsy of the animal. The diagnosis of Dieffenbachia picta poisoning was based on the history of accidental consumption of dumb cane and clinical signs. A comparison of this single case with other reports of dumb cane poisoning suggests that dogs poisoned by Dieffenbachia species usually recover uneventfully with conservative management and that death from asphyxiation is a rare but possible consequence of this intoxication. Severe edematous swelling of the glottis with occlusion of the larynx airway passage can occur in those cases in which large amounts of sap are quickly squeezed from the plant during intense chewing. Death would occur if owners do not seek veterinary care immediately and if emergency procedures are not instituted on time. PMID:14513888

Loretti, Alexandre Paulino; da Silva Ilha, Marcia Regina; Ribeiro, Rita Elaine Streda

2003-10-01

260

Accidental discharge of a Halon 1301 total flooding fire extinguishing system  

SciTech Connect

An accidental discharge of a total flooding Halon 1301 fire extinguishing system is described. The release of the Halon was accompanied by a sudden very loud noise, considerable air turbulence and a dense fog, resulting in worker anxiety and loss of visibility. The workers in the area at the time of the discharge reported higher frequencies of lightheadedness, headache, nasal complaints and disorientation than those entering the area later. Halon 1301 usually is regarded as having a low toxicity, although at concentrations above those used in occupied spaces, effects on consciousness and cardiac rhythm have been reported. In the present report no significant illness or injury due to the Halon exposure was found. A fine oily deposit found on horizontal surfaces in the area subsequent to the discharge consisted of mineral oil and iron, suggesting that this material was scoured out of the piping as the Halon discharged. The disorientation and anxiety produced by an accidental discharge can be minimized through education programs designed to ensure that personnel know what to expect and how to abort the discharge if it results from a false alarm. Situations leading to triggering of fire detectors by events other than fires should be investigated and reduced.

Sass-Kortsak, A.M.; Holness, D.L.; Stopps, G.J.

1985-11-01

261

Accidental insertion of biliary endoprosthesis in the portal vein: A case report.  

PubMed

Accidental insertion of a biliary endoprosthesis in the portal vein is exceptional. We report this rare complication observed in a liver transplant recipient. A sixty-year-old woman underwent liver transplantation for cirrhosis due to primary Budd-Chiari syndrome. Two months after the transplantation, she presented with jaundice. Abdominal ultrasound and biliary MRI identified a short stricture of the common bile duct. A biliary endoprosthesis was inserted leading to partial regression of the jaundice and normalization of liver enzymes. Two months later the patient complained of abdominal pain. Liver tests were perturbed. Abdominal computed tomography showed partial migration of the prosthesis in the duodenum. Endoscopy was performed to remove the prosthesis and replace it with another. The patient rapidly developed right upper quadrant pain with fever. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography showed the prosthesis in the portal vein. The biliary endoprosthesis was accidentally inserted in the portal vein. The presence of a postoperative portobiliary fistula was the cause of this complication. Surgical removal was successful and the postoperative outcome was uneventful. PMID:21295538

Miloudi, N; Hefaiedh, R; Mzoughi, Z; Ben Abid, S; Mestiri, H; Ghorbel, A; Khalfallah, T

2011-02-01

262

Non-accidental fatal head injury in small children--a clinico-pathological correlation.  

PubMed

Non-accidental head injury leading to massive intracranial trauma has been identified as a leading cause of death in small children. In a typical case, a child usually below the age of one year is violently shaken, leading to rupture of the connecting veins between the dura mater and the brain substance with variable degrees of bleeding into the subdural space resulting in increased intracranial pressure. The accompanying venous thrombosis affecting the vessels of the brain substance leads to cerebral hypoxia and cellular death. In this study conducted throughout the year 1999, all children below the age of 3 years who were admitted to Hospital Kuala Lumpur and had died due to non-accidental injuries were included. Postmortems, including histopathological studies, were conducted to determine the most likely mechanisms of the injuries. Ten cases were identified for the whole year. In 2 cases, both below one year of age, the features presented showed evidence of violent shaking of the infants. In 6 other cases whose average age was 13 (range 4-24) months, there were evidences of direct trauma and violent shaking. In the last two cases, aged 24 and 33 months respectively, there was only evidence of direct trauma on the heads without being shaken. This study shows that death due to intracranial trauma caused by shaking with or without direct impact is the most frequent cause of mortality in abused children. Death due to direct impact between the head and another object is a less frequent occurrence. PMID:15559164

Nooraudah, A R; Mohd Sham, K; Zahari, N; Fauziah, K

2004-06-01

263

The use of commercial glass as a potential gamma accidental dosimeter through the absorption spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various types of commercial glass (ordinary windows, cathode ray tubes, glass kitchenware) have been studied as potential accidental radiation dosimeters. The proposed method utilizes the changes in the glasses' absorption spectra as a result of irradiation.A 60Co gamma irradiation cell has been used to irradiate samples with doses ranging from 5 to 200 Gy. The transmittance was measured using a photospectrometer (UV-visible spectrometry).The results demonstrate that the transmittance spectra of most of the glass samples change in linear proportion to the exposure dose. Moreover, the study considers the fading effect on the absorption spectra of the irradiated samples for fading times up to 100 days at room temperature.The results of this work demonstrate that several widely used types of glass can be used as high-dose accidental dosimeters for doses ranging between 8 and 200 Gy. A reasonable calibration line can be established for any irradiated glass sample by heating, re-irradiating with standard doses and measuring the related absorption coefficient.Further investigations are needed to decrease the minimum detectable dose of the proposed method and to study the effect of glass composition on radiation response.

Kharita, M. H.; Yousef, S.; Bakr, S.

2012-05-01

264

Spontaneous hematologic recovery from bone marrow aplasia after accidental tenfold overdosage with radiophosphorus  

SciTech Connect

Two patients with polycythemia vera received intravenously an accidental tenfold overdosage of radiophosphorus therapy (60 and 50 mCi 32P, respectively). In both patients, the occurrence of hemorrhagic complications 3 wk after the 32P medication led to detection of the error and referral to our hospital. Upon admission they showed an agranulocytosis, severe thrombocytopenia, and bone marrow aplasia. In both cases, spontaneous recovery of the hematopoiesis was observed from day 40 posttreatment onward. In one patient, a slow but ultimately complete normalization of blood counts and marrow morphology took place, whereas in the other, a mild thrombocytopenia persists. Nearly 5 yr after the accidental overdosage, both patients are clinically well. Symptoms of polycythemia vera have not reappeared up to now. Attempts were made to evaluate the radiation dose absorbed by the bone marrow. In the first patient, the daily 32P excretion was determined from day 22 to day 60, whereas in the other patient a whole body count was performed on day 78 after administration. From these results, an approximate cumulative bone marrow dose of 10 Sv (1000 rem) could be calculated.

Gmuer, J.; Bischof, B.; Coninx, S.; Bucher, U.; Poretti, G.; Henrichs, K.; Kaul, A.; Roedler, H.D.; Buettner, K.; Frick, P.G.

1983-04-01

265

Corrections for the effects of accidental coincidences, Compton scatter, and object size in positron emission mammography (PEM) imaging  

SciTech Connect

Positron emission mammography (PEM) has begun to show promise as an effective method for the detection of breast lesions. Due to its utilization of tumor-avid radiopharmaceuticals labeled with positron-emitting radionuclides, this technique may be especially useful in imaging of women with radiodense or fibrocystic breasts. While the use of these radiotracers affords PEM unique capabilities, it also introduces some limitations. Specifically, acceptance of accidental and Compton-scattered coincidence events can decrease lesion detectability. The authors studied the effect of accidental coincidence events on PEM images produced by the presence of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose in the organs of a subject using an anthropomorphic phantom. A delayed-coincidence technique was tested as a method for correcting PEM images for the occurrence of accidental events. Also, a Compton scatter correction algorithm designed specifically for PEM was developed and tested using a compressed breast phantom.

Raymond Raylman; Stanislaw Majewski; Randolph Wojcik; Andrew Weisenberger; Brian Kross; Vladimir Popov

2001-06-01

266

The ATLAS Beam Condition and Beam Loss Monitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary goal of ATLAS Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) and Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) is to protect the ATLAS Inner Detector against damaging LHC beam incidents by initiating beam abort in case of beam failures. Poly-crystalline Chemical Vapour Deposition (pCVD) diamond was chosen as the sensor material for both systems. ATLAS BCM will provide real-time monitoring of instantaneous particle rates close to the interaction point (IP) of ATLAS spectrometer. Using fast front-end and signal processing electronics the time-of-flight and pulse amplitude measurements will be performed to distinguish between normal collisions and background events due to natural or accidental beam losses. Additionally, BCM will also provide coarse relative luminosity information. A second system, the ATLAS BLM, is an independent system which was recently added to complement the BCM. It is a current measuring system and was partially adopted from the BLM system developed by the LHC beam instrumentation group with pCVD diamond pad sensors replacing the ionisation chambers. The design of both systems and results of operation in ATLAS framework during the commissioning with cosmic rays will be reported in this contribution.

Dolenc, I.

2010-04-01

267

Treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia associated with accidental pegylated asparaginase push in a child with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

Asparaginase treatment is associated with several adverse effects, including allergy, thromboembolic events, acute pancreatitis, altered liver function, and hyperglycemia. In addition, asparaginase can cause abnormalities in lipid metabolism, predominantly hypercholesterolemia and -triglyceridemia. Herein, we report on the case of a 5-year-old male presenting with acute severe hypertriglyceridemia caused by accidental pegylated asparaginase push during treatment of relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Hypertriglyceridemia did not occur after appropriate administrations of pegylated asparaginase before and after accidental drug infusions, so we speculate that the rate of pegylated asparaginase administration may have an effect on the serum triglyceride level. PMID:22149271

Malbora, Baris; Avci, Zekai; Ozbek, Namik

2011-12-13

268

PAVAN: an atmospheric-dispersion program for evaluating design-basis accidental releases of radioactive materials from nuclear power stations  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a user's guide for the NRC computer program, PAVAN, which is a program used by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to estimate downwind ground-level air concentrations for potential accidental releases of radioactive material from nuclear facilities. Such an assessment is required by 10 CFR Part 100 and 10 CFR Part 50. The program implements the guidance provided in Regulatory Guide 1.145, Atmospheric Dispersion Models for Potential Accident Consequence Assessments at Nuclear Power Plants. Using joint frequency distributions of wind direction and wind speed by atmospheric stability, the program provides relative air concentration (X/Q) values as functions of direction for various time periods at the exclusion area boundary (EAB) and the outer boundary of the low population zone (LPZ). Calculations of X/Q values can be made for assumed ground-level releases (e.g., through building penetrations and vents) or elevated releases from free-standing stacks. Various options may be selected by the user. They can account for variation in the location of release points, additional plume dispersion due to building wakes, plume meander under low wind speed conditions, and adjustments to consider non-straight trajectories. It computes an effective plume height using the physical release height which can be reduced by inputted terrain features. It cannot handle multiple emission sources. A description of the main program and all subroutines is provided. Also included as appendices are a complete listing of the program and two test cases with the required data inputs and the resulting program outputs.

Bander, T.J.

1982-11-01

269

An experimental study on the uptake factor of tungsten oxide particles resulting from an accidentally dropped storage container.  

PubMed

A test procedure was developed and verified to measure the airborne concentrations of particles of different sizes (0.5-20 ?m) within the vicinity of a dropped container when a significant portion of the tungsten oxide powder (simulating uranium oxide) is ejected from the container. Tests were carried out in a full-scale stainless steel environmental chamber with an interior volume of 24.1 m(3). Thirty-two drop tests were performed, covering variations in dropping height, room air movement, landing scenario, and lid condition. Assuming a breathing rate of 1.2 m(3)/hr, the uptake factor during the first 10 min was calculated to be between 1.13 × 10(-9) and 1.03 × 10(-7) in reference to the amount loaded; or between 6.44 × 10(-8) and 3.55 × 10(-4) in reference to the amount spilled. Results provide previously unavailable data for estimating the exposure and associated risk to building occupants in the case of an accidental dropping of heavy powder containers. The test data show that for spills larger than 0.004 g, the power-law correlation between the spill uptake factor and the spilled mass (i.e., SUF = 2.5 × 10(-5) × Spill_Mass(-0.667)) established from the test data is smaller and a more accurate estimate than the constant value of 10(-3) assumed in the Department of Energy Nuclear Material Packaging Manual. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplementary resource: an online supplementary table of all cumulative uptake amounts at 10 min for all test data.]. PMID:23679340

Gao, Zhi; Zhang, J S; Byington, Jerry G A

2013-01-01

270

Accidental intakes of remedies from complementary and alternative medicine in children--analysis of data from the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre.  

PubMed

The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in Switzerland is rather high, and therefore, the occurrence of accidental intakes of CAM remedies by children and associated intoxications is to be expected. In the present study, the inquiries to the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre that took place from 1998 until 2007 and concerned accidental, unintended intakes of CAM remedies by children were analysed. Inquiries for information were performed by concerned care-givers, physicians, pharmacists and others in case of acute accidental intake of CAM remedies. Feedbacks from physicians about paediatric patients with acute intoxication possibly associated with the accidental ingestion of CAM remedies were as well considered. During the study period, 3,158 accidental intakes of CAM remedies (1,015 of herbal and 2,143 of homeopathic remedies) were reported, corresponding to 8.6% of all reported accidental intakes of pharmaceutical products by children. No significant increase of the yearly number of accidental intakes of CAM remedies was detected during the study period. There was no accidental intake of CAM remedies leading to severe signs or symptoms. Concerning the herbal remedies, three intoxications of moderate and 28 of minor severity were reported. Nine children with intoxication from homeopathic remedies were reported, with minor symptoms only. All other accidental intakes of CAM remedies did not lead to intoxications and evolved without manifestations. The data show that accidental, unintended intake of CAM remedies happened in children, but developed mostly harmlessly. Comparing herbal with homeopathic remedies, accidental intakes with homeopathic remedies were more common, but intoxications associated with manifestations were observed more frequently with herbal remedies. PMID:19823869

Zuzak, Tycho Jan; Rauber-Lüthy, Christine; Simões-Wüst, Ana Paula

2009-10-13

271

Legal update. Definition of accident--accidental death and dismemberment--alcohol-related automobile collision--foreseeability of death as result of driving while intoxicated.  

PubMed

LaAsmar v. Phelps Dodge Corp. Life, Accidental Death & Dismemberment & Dependent Life Ins. Plan, 605 F3d 789, 2010 WL 1794437(10th Cir. 2010). A death caused by an alcohol-related automobile collision qualifies as an "accident" that would require payment of accidental death and dismemberment plan benefits. PMID:21879612

2011-01-01

272

Accidental inclusions following blast injury in esthetical zones: ablation by a hydrosurgery system.  

PubMed

In case of blast injuries, traumatic tattoos can result from accidental inclusions of intradermal pigmented particles. To avoid these tattoos, especially in esthetical areas like the head and neck region and the hands, the primary goal in our treatment is to remove all particles and foreign bodies. Superficial foreign bodies can easily be removed by brushes or dermabrasion. Deeper lesions are a challenge for plastic surgeons, because they are not so easily removed. Ablation by a water jet surgical tool, the Versajet-system (Smith & Nephew Inc, Andover, MA), enables the removal of nearly all particles and foreign bodies, which sustained a blast injury of the face or the hands. Aim of this paper is to describe the method of using this hydrosurgery system in blast injuries in esthetical zones and its advantages by presenting cases of two patients of us. PMID:22848777

Siemers, Frank; Mauss, Karl L; Liodaki, Eirini; Ottomann, Christian; Bergmann, Philipp A; Mailänder, Peter

2012-07-26

273

Survival After Accidental Extrahepatic Distribution of Y90 Microspheres to the Mesentery During a Radioembolization Procedure  

SciTech Connect

We present the acute management and outcome of a patient after an accidental mesenteric distribution of Y90 microspheres during radioembolization (RE). This report describes and highlights: (1) the incidence of a significant reflux during a RE session while injecting into a replaced right hepatic artery from the superior mesenteric artery, (2) the appearance of diffuse mesenteric Y90 distribution in bremsstrahlung-imaging, (3) the management protocol with the radiation protection agent amifostine, (4) the development of typical adverse effects in the expected time window, and (5) survival of the patient without long-term sequelae. This report should sensitize physicians to this particular problem and may help to avoid as well as manage similar radioembolization incidences.

Sabet, Amir; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Schaefer, Nico [University Hospital, Department of Surgery (Germany); Wilhelm, Kai; Schueller, Heinrich [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Radiation Oncology (Germany); Ezziddin, Samer, E-mail: samer.ezziddin@ukb.uni-bonn.de [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Germany)

2012-08-15

274

A Case of Hydroxychloroquine Induced Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis Confirmed by Accidental Oral Provocation  

PubMed Central

Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a clinical reaction pattern that is principally drug induced and this is characterized by acute, nonfollicular sterile pustules on a background of edematous erythema. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been widely used to treat rheumatic and dermatologic diseases and HCQ has been reported to be an uncommon cause of AGEP. A 38-year-old woman with a 1-year history of dermatomyositis and polyarthralgia was treated with HCQ due to a lack of response to a previous medication. Three weeks after starting HCQ therapy, the pustular skin lesion developed and then this resolved after the HCQ was withdrawn and steroid treatment was started. A similar pustular eruption developed after HCQ was accidentally readministered.

Park, Jae-Jeong; Yun, Sook Jung; Lee, Jee-Bum; Kim, Seong-Jin; Won, Young Ho

2010-01-01

275

Pseudoreflux and detrusor overactivity due to accidental ureteral catheterization during cytometry in a pediatric patient.  

PubMed

We present the case of a 9-year-old girl with a neurogenic bladder who had accidental ureteral cannulation with the vesical catheter during cytometry. This is the first reported pediatric case described of this complication, the four prior cases all being in adults. The signs and symptoms of ureteral catheterization differed significantly in this patient from the adult cases. In our patient, malpositioning of the vesical catheter yielded a misleading pressure profile of primarily rhythmic pressure increases suggestive of severe detrusor overactivity and vesicoureteral reflux on fluoroscopy. The reading, however, actually reflected ureteric filling and peristalsis, and these findings resolved when the catheter was properly repositioned. This case highlights the possibility of inadvertent ureteral catheterization, and that, while rare, this complication should be kept in mind when new or unexpected DO or VUR is observed upon filling cystometry. PMID:23022154

Wolff, Gillian F; Smith, Phillip P

2012-09-27

276

Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984  

SciTech Connect

March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Adams, W.H.; Engle, J.R.; Harper, J.A.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

1986-01-01

277

Accidental or intentional exposure to ionizing radiation: biodosimetry and treatment options.  

PubMed

The potential risk of accidental and especially intentional radiation exposure in the form of a terrorist attack is growing. The dangers are potentially devastating. There is an urgent need for building a greater infrastructure for teaching and research in this area. Medical contingency planning and preparedness is also essential. Such planning should include an examination of our current resources, projected medical needs, management guidelines, and personnel training. Exposure to whole-body irradiation can induce acute radiation syndrome, with the resultant damage to hematopoiesis and immune suppression. In addition, acute toxicity to the skin, gut, and central nervous system are also prevalent. Complex injuries such as burns, multi-organ injury, and trauma will increase the morbidity and mortality from acute radiation syndrome. Our ability to understand and rapidly obtain data on the absorbed dose and have access to radiation mitigators are of critical importance if we are to have a beneficial impact in the exposed population. PMID:17379083

Chao, Nelson J

2007-04-01

278

Association of a circulating immunosuppressive polypeptide with operative and accidental trauma.  

PubMed Central

The serum from 109 traumatized patients was examined for immunosuppressive activity which might explain diminished host immune responsiveness following operative or accidental injury. Twenty-eight fo 31 (90%) severely tralmatized patients, 25 of 60 (42%) moderately traumatized patients, and 0 of 18 minimally traumatized patients developed serum which suppressed the response of normal human lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin. The degree and duration of serum immunosuppressive activity paralleled the severity of the clinical course but did not correlate with serum cortisol or barbiturate levels. Suppressive sera were not cytotoxic. The immunosuppressive factor(s) was contained in a low molecular weight (less than 10,000 daltons) peptide fraction and was present in 5--10 times the amount recoverable from normal serum. By size and activity the trauma serum factor resembled immunoregulatory alpha globulin, a naturally-occurring serum inhibitor of T-lymphocyte reactions. Thus, depressed immunoreactivity following trauma may be due in part to high concentrations of an endogenous immunosuppressive polypeptide.

Constantian, M B; Menzoian, J O; Nimberg, R B; Schmid, K; Mannick, J A

1977-01-01

279

Fatal myeloencephalopathy due to accidental intrathecal vincristin administration: a report of two cases.  

PubMed

We report on two fatal cases of accidental intrathecal vincristine instillation in a 5-year old girl with recurrent acute lymphoblastic leucemia and a 57-year old man with lymphoblastic lymphoma. The girl died seven days, the man four weeks after intrathecal injection of vincristine. Clinically, the onset was characterized by the signs of opistothonus, sensory and motor dysfunction and ascending paralysis. Histological and immunohistochemical investigations (HE-LFB, CD-68, Neurofilament) revealed degeneration of myelin and axons as well as pseudocystic transformation in areas exposed to vincristine, accompanied by secondary changes with numerous prominent macrophages. The clinical course and histopathological results of the two cases are presented. A review of all reported cases in the literature is given. A better controlled regimen for administering vincristine and intrathecal chemotherapy is recommended. PMID:11587867

Dettmeyer, R; Driever, F; Becker, A; Wiestler, O D; Madea, B

2001-10-15

280

Self-induced fatal air embolism: accidental autoerotic death or suicide?  

PubMed

Autoeroticism comprises behavior deviations aimed at producing sexual gratification through the manipulation of one's own body. The use of asphyxia and the induction of pain (masochism) are well-known examples. "Atypical forms" of such behaviors have appeared in the literature as isolated cases. Fatal air embolism is most common in women (causing abortion), being very rare in men (urethral trauma). The authors present a probable case of air embolism associated with signs of autoeroticism, instrumented by the delivery of air through a system formed by a compressor (typical of those used in refrigerators), a syringe barrel, a segment of latex tubing (tourniquet), and a needle, which was found inserted into the glans penis of an adult male. The hypothesis of accidental death was chosen due to the findings at the scene. The body was decomposing when found, which hampered the conduction of examinations. PMID:23305178

Modelli, Manoel E S; Rodrigues, Maciel S; Castro, Bruno Z M; Corrêa, Rodrigo S

2013-01-01

281

Urban Early Adolescent Narratives on Sexuality: Accidental and Intentional Influences of Family, Peers, and the Media.  

PubMed

In this paper, we examine the ways that early adolescents talked, interacted, and made references to events in their individual and collective lives during photography-based focus groups about sexuality and relationships. Twenty-three participants (10 boys and 13 girls) were recruited from three urban schools participating in a comprehensive sex education impact evaluation in the Northeast. We analyzed conversational narratives that were elicited in a group process while sharing photos of important people, contexts, and situations, showcasing participants' exploration of sexuality and relationships. Our analysis revealed four main themes: (a) direct and indirect family communication about sexuality, (b) accidental and intentional Internet usage, (c) shared and contested peer knowledge, and (d) school as a direct and indirect learning context. Implications and future directions for practice, research, and policy are explored. PMID:22983141

Charmaraman, Linda; McKamey, Corinne

2011-05-26

282

Treatment of accidental high dose intraventricular mezlocillin application by cerebrospinal fluid exchange  

PubMed Central

An accidental high dose of intraventricular mezlocillin was given during antibiotic treatment for pneumonia in a patient admitted because of severe traumatic brain injury and occlusive hydrocephalus. Because of serial epileptic seizures not responsive to antiepileptic drug treatment, CSF exchange was performed. The CSF was drained through a ventricular catheter, while mock CSF was infused into the lumbar subarachnoid space. The patient soon recovered to her clinical status previous to intraventricular mezlocillin application. Side effects of CSF exchange were not seen. Under continued antiepileptic medication no more seizures occurred. It is concluded that high doses of intraventricular mezlocillin have proconvulsive effects. In this patient CSF exchange was a suitable means of preventing putatively permanent impairment of brain function caused by serial epileptic seizures due to intraventricular mezlocillin application.??

Kristof, R.; Clusmann, H.; Koehler, W.; Fink, K.; Schramm, J.

1998-01-01

283

Urban Early Adolescent Narratives on Sexuality: Accidental and Intentional Influences of Family, Peers, and the Media  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we examine the ways that early adolescents talked, interacted, and made references to events in their individual and collective lives during photography-based focus groups about sexuality and relationships. Twenty-three participants (10 boys and 13 girls) were recruited from three urban schools participating in a comprehensive sex education impact evaluation in the Northeast. We analyzed conversational narratives that were elicited in a group process while sharing photos of important people, contexts, and situations, showcasing participants’ exploration of sexuality and relationships. Our analysis revealed four main themes: (a) direct and indirect family communication about sexuality, (b) accidental and intentional Internet usage, (c) shared and contested peer knowledge, and (d) school as a direct and indirect learning context. Implications and future directions for practice, research, and policy are explored.

McKamey, Corinne

2012-01-01

284

The effectiveness of a multidisciplinary QI activity for accidental fall prevention: Staff compliance is critical  

PubMed Central

Background Accidental falls among inpatients are a substantial cause of hospital injury. A number of successful experimental studies on fall prevention have shown the importance and efficacy of multifactorial intervention, though success rates vary. However, the importance of staff compliance with these effective, but often time-consuming, multifactorial interventions has not been fully investigated in a routine clinical setting. The purpose of this observational study was to describe the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary quality improvement (QI) activity for accidental fall prevention, with particular focus on staff compliance in a non-experimental clinical setting. Methods This observational study was conducted from July 2004 through December 2010 at St. Luke’s International Hospital in Tokyo, Japan. The QI activity for in-patient falls prevention consisted of: 1) the fall risk assessment tool, 2) an intervention protocol to prevent in-patient falls, 3) specific environmental safety interventions, 4) staff education, and 5) multidisciplinary healthcare staff compliance monitoring and feedback mechanisms. Results The overall fall rate was 2.13 falls per 1000 patient days (350/164331) in 2004 versus 1.53 falls per 1000 patient days (263/172325) in 2010, representing a significant decrease (p?=?0.039). In the first 6?months, compliance with use of the falling risk assessment tool at admission was 91.5% in 2007 (3998/4368), increasing to 97.6% in 2010 (10564/10828). The staff compliance rate of implementing an appropriate intervention plan was 85.9% in 2007, increasing to 95.3% in 2010. Conclusion In our study we observed a substantial decrease in patient fall rates and an increase of staff compliance with a newly implemented falls prevention program. A systematized QI approach that closely involves, encourages, and educates healthcare staff at multiple levels is effective.

2012-01-01

285

Accidental oil spill due to grounding: Summary of model test results. Summary report, Jan-Jun 92  

SciTech Connect

The International Maritime Organization (IMO) sponsored model tests to help in their evaluation of accidental oil spillage from a Mid-Deck Tanker (MDT) and from a Double Hull Tanker (DHT) Design. These tests were conducted at Tsukuba Institute, Japan, and at the Carderock Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center. The test results are explained herein and their significance is summarized.

Karafiath, G.

1992-06-01

286

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report for Nebraska: Cattle Rancher Hospitalized After Accidental Injection of Micotil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 41-year-old cattle rancher became seriously ill as a result of an accidental injection of an animal antibiotic known as Micotil 300 which has no known antidote. On November 16, 2004, the rancher was preparing to vaccinate two calves with a 20 cc plastic...

2005-01-01

287

Accidentally Spilled Gas-Oil in a Shoreline Sediment on Spitsbergen: Natural Fate and Enhancement of Biodegradation,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The oil soluble fertilizer Inipol EAP22 has been used on shore as a treatment agent after an accidental marine gas oil contamination on Spitsbergen. A 60% increase in the biodegradation of the aliphatic fraction was obtained as a maximum. Due to the high ...

P. Sveum

1987-01-01

288

ESTIMATE OF HAZARD PRODUCED BY ACCIDENTAL RELEASE OF GASEOUS FISSION PRODUCTS FROM AN ORR FUSED SALT CAPSULE EXPERIMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accidental release of gaseous fission products from an ORR fused salt ; capsule, containing 26 mg. of U²³⁵, was postulated and the resuiting hazard ; estimated by calculating the maximum external and internal dose an individual ; could receive from exposure to the gaseous fission products and their decay ; products. Assuming all the contained gaseous fission produets are

R. E. Adams; W. E. Browning

1959-01-01

289

Ocular and cerebral trauma in non-accidental injury in infancy: underlying mechanisms and implications for paediatric practice.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To determine the sites, mechanisms, and clinical significance of injuries to the eyes and brains of children with non-accidental injuries in relation to differing levels of trauma. METHODS: A forensic pathological study of injuries in the eyes and brains of 23 consecutive children dying of non-accidental injuries over a 4 year period (1988-92) under the jurisdiction of Yorkshire and Humberside coroners. RESULTS: Sixteen children died from cerebral injuries and seven died from non-cerebral causes. There were high incidences of retinal detachment (63%) and subhyaloid (75%), intraretinal (75%), and perineural (68%) haemorrhages in CNS deaths. Local subhyaloid haemorrhages and retinal detachment were more common at the periphery and optic disc than at the equator. There was a strong correlation between CNS and eye trauma scores in all 23 children (r = 0.7551, p < 0.0001). Ranking of injuries by severity suggests progressively more trauma required for (a) subdural haemorrhage, (b) subhyaloid, intraretinal, perineural haemorrhages, and (c) retinal detachment. At highest trauma levels choroidal and vitreous haemorrhages were associated with additional cerebral lacerations, intracerebral and subarachnoid haemorrhages. CONCLUSIONS: In non-accidental (and probably accidental) infantile head injury the earliest eye injuries (coinciding with subdural haemorrhage) could be missed if indirect ophthalmoscopy is not performed. Retinal detachment and multiple (particularly choroidal/vitreous) haemorrhages may indicate additional cerebral lacerations and/or intracerebral haemorrhage. Vitreous traction is the likely cause of intraocular pathology.

Green, M A; Lieberman, G; Milroy, C M; Parsons, M A

1996-01-01

290

Statistical discrimination of footwear: a method for the comparison of accidentals on shoe outsoles inspired by facial recognition techniques.  

PubMed

In the field of forensic footwear examination, it is a widely held belief that patterns of accidental marks found on footwear and footwear impressions possess a high degree of "uniqueness." This belief, however, has not been thoroughly studied in a numerical way using controlled experiments. As a result, this form of valuable physical evidence has been the subject of admissibility challenges. In this study, we apply statistical techniques used in facial pattern recognition, to a minimal set of information gleaned from accidental patterns. That is, in order to maximize the amount of potential similarity between patterns, we only use the coordinate locations of accidental marks (on the top portion of a footwear impression) to characterize the entire pattern. This allows us to numerically gauge how similar two patterns are to one another in a worst-case scenario, i.e., in the absence of a tremendous amount of information normally available to the footwear examiner such as accidental mark size and shape. The patterns were recorded from the top portion of the shoe soles (i.e., not the heel) of five shoe pairs. All shoes were the same make and model and all were worn by the same person for a period of 30 days. We found that in 20-30 dimensional principal component (PC) space (99.5% variance retained), patterns from the same shoe, even at different points in time, tended to cluster closer to each other than patterns from different shoes. Correct shoe identification rates using maximum likelihood linear classification analysis and the hold-one-out procedure ranged from 81% to 100%. Although low in variance, three-dimensional PC plots were made and generally corroborated the findings in the much higher dimensional PC-space. This study is intended to be a starting point for future research to build statistical models on the formation and evolution of accidental patterns. PMID:19895540

Petraco, Nicholas D K; Gambino, Carol; Kubic, Thomas A; Olivio, Dayhana; Petraco, Nicholas

2009-11-05

291

Late accidental dislodgement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube: an underestimated burden on patients and the health care system  

PubMed Central

Background Since its introduction in 1980, the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube has become an efficient means of providing long-term enteral access. Conveniently, the soft inner bumper allows PEG removal with relatively minimal external traction. Consequently, a major complication is accidental dislodgement, from which significant morbidity may occur. Clinicians have perhaps underestimated and underappreciated this complication, not only in the acute setting but over the lifetime of the PEG tube. Methods A retrospective analysis of PEG placements conducted at the authors’ institution identified all PEG tubes placed between July 1, 2007 and July 1, 2010 by one faculty surgeon. Patient charts were reviewed for 30-day mortality, complications, and subsequent management. Patients were reviewed until intentional removal of the PEG, cessation of records, or patient mortality. Results A total of 563 PEGs were identified. The 30-day mortality rate was 7.8% (44/563), and the 7-day early accidental dislodgement rate was 4.1% (23/563). The total lifetime accidental PEG dislodgement rate was 12.8% (72/563). Of the 72 dislodged PEGs, 49 occurred after discharge from rehabilitation or nursing facilities. The vast majority required an emergency department visit, a level 3 surgical consultation, a replacement gastrostomy tube, and a radiographic confirmation of tube positioning, resulting in charges totaling an average of $1,200. Conclusion Many large PEG reviews report an early accidental dislodgement rate of 0.6% to 4.0%. The most clinically significant accidental removals occur in the first 7 days after placement, and open gastrostomy may cause obvious morbidity. The early dislodgement rate in this study (4.1%) is consistent with those currently reported. However, if cases are followed longitudinally, a significantly higher rate of late dislodgement (12.8%) is seen. Frequently placed into neurologically impaired or elderly patients, the PEGs that dislodge months and years later require expensive management. The late removal complication and its associated costs are overlooked and underestimated.

Newhook, Timothy; Schirmer, Bruce; Sawyer, Robert G.

2012-01-01

292

Relative Contributions of Zeaxanthin-Related and Zeaxanthin-Unrelated Types of `High-Energy-State' Quenching of Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Spinach Leaves Exposed to Various Environmental Conditions 1  

PubMed Central

We have identified two rapidly relaxing components of non-photochemical fluorescence quenching which suggests that dissipative processes occur in two different sites in the photochemical system of leaves. Under a variety of treatment conditions involving different leaf temperatures, photon flux densities (PFD), exposure times, and in the presence of 5% CO2 or 2% O2, no CO2, the components of nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching were characterized with respect to their sensitivity to dithiothreitol (DTT, which completely inhibits zeaxanthin formation), the effect on instantaneous fluorescence, and the rapidity of relaxation upon darkening. Under most circumstances the DTT-sensitive component (associated with a quenching of instantaneous fluorescence and correlated with zeaxanthin) represented the majority of the rapidly relaxing portion of fluorescence quenching. A DTT-insensitive (zeaxanthin-independent) component, which also relaxed rapidly upon darkening but was not associated with a quenching of instantaneous fluorescence, became proportionally greater in an atmosphere of 2% O2 and no CO2, at elevated leaf temperatures, and to some degree during the induction of photosynthesis (1 minute after the onset of illumination). A third component which was also DTT-insensitive and was sustained upon darkening, was largely suppressed in 2% O2, O% CO2. We conclude that, under conditions favorable for photosynthesis, energy dissipation occurred mainly in the chlorophyll antennae whereas, under conditions less favorable for photosynthesis, a second dissipation process, probably in or around the reaction center of photosystem II, also developed. Furthermore, evidence is presented that the zeaxanthin-associated dissipation process prevents sustained inactivation of photochemistry by excessive light.

Adams, William W.; Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Winter, Klaus

1990-01-01

293

Plutino (15810) 1994 JR1, an accidental quasi-satellite of Pluto  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Solar system, quasi-satellites move in a 1:1 mean motion resonance going around their host body like a retrograde satellite but their mutual separation is well beyond the Hill radius and the trajectory is not closed as they orbit the Sun, not the host body. Although they share the semi-major axis and the mean longitude of their host body, their eccentricity and inclination may be very different. So far, minor bodies temporarily trapped in the quasi-satellite dynamical state have been identified around Venus, the Earth, the dwarf planet (1) Ceres, the large asteroid (4) Vesta, Jupiter and Saturn. Using computer simulations, Tiscareno & Malhotra have predicted the existence of a small but significant population of minor bodies moving in a 1:1 mean motion resonance with Pluto. Here we show using N-body calculations that the plutino (15810) 1994 JR1 is currently an accidental quasi-satellite of Pluto and it will remain as such for nearly 350 000 years. By accidental we mean that the quasi-satellite phase is triggered (or terminated) not by a direct gravitational influence in the form of a discrete close encounter, but as a result of a resonance. The relative mean longitude of the plutino (15810) 1994 JR1 circulates with a superimposed libration resulting from the oscillation of the orbital period induced by the 2:3 mean motion resonance with Neptune. These quasi-satellite episodes are recurrent with a periodicity of nearly 2 Myr. This makes the plutino (15810) 1994 JR1 the first minor body moving in a 1:1 mean motion resonance with Pluto and the first quasi-satellite found in the trans-Neptunian region. It also makes Pluto the second dwarf planet, besides Ceres, to host a quasi-satellite. Our finding confirms that the quasi-satellite resonant phase is not restricted to small bodies orbiting major planets but is possible for dwarf planets/asteroids too. Moreover, the plutino (15810) 1994 JR1 could be considered as a possible secondary target for NASA's Pluto-Kuiper Belt Mission New Horizons after the main Pluto flyby in 2015. This opens the possibility of studying at first hand and for the first time a minor body in the quasi-satellite dynamical state.

de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.

2012-11-01

294

Examining the contribution of infant walkers to childhood poisoning.  

PubMed

Parents frequently utilize baby walkers in their infants of approximately 5-15 mo of age and create opportunities for traumatic accidents. Healthcare professionals have tried to increase awareness of their dangers; despite this, between 1986 and 1991 reported walker-related accidents rose 45%. We determined if walkers were a significant contributor to childhood poisonings and what toxins were encountered most commonly. A 14-mo prospective study in a regional poison information center determined the prevalence of accidental pediatric poisonings in children aged 5-15 mo old who suffered their exposure while in a baby walker. The regional poison information center managed 7.058 poisoning exposures, 2.8% of which occurred while the child was in an infant walker. The mean age was 8.25 mo (range 5-14 mo), with 96% less than 12 mo. Substances involved were: plants 56.7%, cleaning products 9.9%, cosmetics 5.5%, construction supplies 5.0%, cigarettes 4.5%, topicals 4.5%, oral medications 2.0%, chalk 2.0% and miscellaneous 9.9%. The majority (95%) of children were asymptomatic. Infant walkers contributed substantially less to infant poisonings than was anticipated. Despite the innocuous nature of exposures, a vulnerable population was exposed to potential poisons within reach of their grasp. Baby walker injuries are not limited to trauma, and accidental poisonings should be included in the admonitions that accompany their use. PMID:10670086

Mroz, L S; Krenzelok, E P

2000-02-01

295

Is your office prepared for an accidental needlestick or other unexpected exposure incident?  

PubMed

Recommendations and mandatory guidelines for preventing and managing needlestick incidents and other accidental exposures to bloodborne pathogens in healthcare facilities have been published by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for more than 2 decades. Over the years, the incidence of official enforcement actions has declined and a complacency about the standards may have evolved in some dental offices. Some practitioners may not have written an occupational exposure incident protocol or made appropriate arrangements for medical laboratory testing and postexposure medical evaluation following an unexpected needlestick or other exposure incident in the office. When an unexpected event occurs, practitioners may become confused regarding the steps to be taken, and may turn to their local dental society or fellow practitioners for guidance. The provided information may or may not be complete, accurate and/or current. Implementation of periodic personnel training to prevent exposure incidents is extremely important and could ultimately save a dental practice thousands of dollars in expenses related to the occurrence of even one exposure incident, as well as save the life and/or career of a dental healthcare provider. This article does not comprehensively detail all infection control and bloodborne pathogen transmission prevention requirements for dental offices. Rather, the article provides suggestions for dental practitioners regarding the step by step management of exposure incidents, and provides resource information for additional steps that can be taken towards prevention, improved office compliance, and improved litigation protection. PMID:20162939

Alexander, Roger E; Limes, Sharon

2010-01-01

296

Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A zero-refractive-index metamaterial is one in which waves do not experience any spatial phase change, and such a peculiar material has many interesting wave-manipulating properties. These materials can in principle be realized using man-made composites comprising metallic resonators or chiral inclusions, but metallic components have losses that compromise functionality at high frequencies. It would be highly desirable if we could achieve a zero refractive index using dielectrics alone. Here, we show that by employing accidental degeneracy, dielectric photonic crystals can be designed and fabricated that exhibit Dirac cone dispersion at the centre of the Brillouin zone at a finite frequency. In addition to many interesting properties intrinsic to a Dirac cone dispersion, we can use effective medium theory to relate the photonic crystal to a material with effectively zero permittivity and permeability. We then numerically and experimentally demonstrate in the microwave regime that such dielectric photonic crystals with reasonable dielectric constants manipulate waves as if they had near-zero refractive indices at and near the Dirac point frequency.

Huang, Xueqin; Lai, Yun; Hang, Zhi Hong; Zheng, Huihuo; Chan, C. T.

2011-08-01

297

Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials.  

PubMed

A zero-refractive-index metamaterial is one in which waves do not experience any spatial phase change, and such a peculiar material has many interesting wave-manipulating properties. These materials can in principle be realized using man-made composites comprising metallic resonators or chiral inclusions, but metallic components have losses that compromise functionality at high frequencies. It would be highly desirable if we could achieve a zero refractive index using dielectrics alone. Here, we show that by employing accidental degeneracy, dielectric photonic crystals can be designed and fabricated that exhibit Dirac cone dispersion at the centre of the Brillouin zone at a finite frequency. In addition to many interesting properties intrinsic to a Dirac cone dispersion, we can use effective medium theory to relate the photonic crystal to a material with effectively zero permittivity and permeability. We then numerically and experimentally demonstrate in the microwave regime that such dielectric photonic crystals with reasonable dielectric constants manipulate waves as if they had near-zero refractive indices at and near the Dirac point frequency. PMID:21623377

Huang, Xueqin; Lai, Yun; Hang, Zhi Hong; Zheng, Huihuo; Chan, C T

2011-05-29

298

Failure Criteria for Evaluating Accidental Drops of Fuel Containers at INTEC  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a failure criterion that has been developed for use in evaluating fuel containers at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for accidental drop events. The criterion would typically be used in dynamic finite element analyses using the ABA-QUS/Explicit program. The failure criterion used in the past is generally considered to substantially underestimate the strength and ductility of the materials involved. The new criterion is intended to be more realistic, allowing for more accurate impact analyses. The criterion is based on the distortion energy theory, which is considered to be appropriate for the ductile materials typically used in fuel containers. Also addressed in development of the criterion were the effects of strain rate and hydrostatic stress. The importance of these factors, however, is highly dependent on the material used. Three materials specifically addressed in this study were stainless steel, aluminum, and lead. The criterion is presented in the form of guidelines and recommendations that are based on material data obtained from the literature. The most significant difference between these and the previous criterion is that ductile materials are allowed to strain to much higher levels before they are considered to fail.

Miller, G. K.

1998-10-01

299

Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1980-December 1982  

SciTech Connect

This report updates, for 1980 through 1982, the results of continuing medical surveillance of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in March 1954. The originally exposed Marshallese population comprised 64 persons on Rongelap Atoll who each received, on the average, an estimated 190 rads of absorbed external gamma radiation, 18 on Ailingnae Atoll who received 110 rads, and 159 on Utirik who received 11 rads. There were, in addition, 3 persons in utero on Rongelap, 1 person in utero on Ailingnae, and 8 persons in utero on Utirik who are considered exposed. The recipients of primary medical care include exposed and comparison populations as well as a rather large number of additional beneficiaries who are seen on a humanitarian basis of practical need and resource availability. In recent years, about 1400 people have been seen annually. This report, however, deals with four clearly defined groups: the remaining individuals who were exposed to radioactive fallout on Rongelap, Ailingnae, and Utirik in 1954 (including those in utero), and a comparison population of individuals from Rongelap who were unexposed. The number of persons now in each exposure category are 51, 12, 116, and 137, respectively. 100 references, 4 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Rittmaster, R.S.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

1984-01-01

300

Methodology for evaluation of possible consequences of accidental atmospheric releases of hazardous matter.  

PubMed

Sites exist with high levels of risk of accidental atmospheric releases. These releases can be hazardous nuclear, chemical, and biological matter. Such accidents may occur during transport of waste, or they may be due to natural hazards, human errors, terror acts or various operations at high risk. Considering the operation of lifting and transport of the sunken Kursk nuclear submarine as an example, a methodology for risk assessment is described. This methodology includes two approaches: (1) probabilistic analysis of possible atmospheric transport pathways using trajectory modelling, and (2) evaluation of possible contamination and consequences using real-time operational atmospheric dispersion modelling. The first approach can be applied in advance of an operation during the preparation stage, the second in real time during the operation stage. For the cases considered in this study, the results of trajectory modelling are supported by the operational dispersion modelling, i.e., the westerly flow is dominant during fall occurring 79% of the time. Hence, September-October 2001 was more appropriate for the lifting and transport of the Kursk nuclear submarine in comparison with summer months, when atmospheric transport toward the populated regions of the Kola and Scandinavian Peninsulas was dominant. The suggested methodology may be applied to any potentially dangerous object involving a risk of atmospheric release of hazardous material of nuclear, chemical or biological nature. PMID:12593432

Mahura, A; Baklanov, A; Sørensen, J Havskov

2003-01-01

301

Response of Microorganisms to an Accidental Gasoline Spillage in an Arctic Freshwater Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

The response of microorganisms to an accidental spillage of 55,000 gallons of leaded gasoline into an Arctic freshwater lake was studied. Shifts in microbial populations were detected after the spillage, reflecting the migration pattern of the gasoline, enrichment for hydrocarbon utilizers, and selection for leaded-gasoline-tolerant microorganisms. Ratios of gasoline-tolerant/utilizing heterotrophs to “total” heterotrophs were found to be a sensitive indicator of the degree of hydrocarbon contamination. Respiration rates were elevated in the highly contaminated area, but did not reflect differences between moderately and lightly contaminated areas. Hydrocarbon biodegradation potential experiments showed that indigenous microorganisms could extensively convert hydrocarbons to CO2. In situ measurement of gasoline degradation showed that, if untreated, sediment samples retained significant amounts of gasoline hydrocarbons including “volatile components” at the time the lake froze for the winter. Nutrient addition and bacterial inoculation resulted in enhanced biodegradative losses, significantly reducing the amount of residual hydrocarbons. Enhanced biodegradation, however, resulted in the appearance of compounds not detected in the gasoline. Since the contaminated lake serves as a drinking water supply, treatment to enhance microbial removal of much of the remaining gasoline still may be advisable.

Horowitz, A.; Atlas, R. M.

1977-01-01

302

Mechanical airway obstruction caused by accidental aspiration of part of a ballpoint pen.  

PubMed

The authors present three cases of death in children aged 4, 9, and 10 years, respectively, that were first thought to be caused by herbal or other poisonings but at autopsy were found to be caused by airway obstruction from aspiration of ballpoint pen parts. Aspiration of a foreign body is a leading cause of accidental death in children, but the circumstances in these cases were unique. In the first case, a 4-year-old child died shortly after a visit to a traditional healer. The child's mother blamed him for the death and fatally assaulted him. The second case was a 9-year-old who died at school. Case 3 was a 10-year-old who collapsed while playing with a ballpoint pen in her mouth. In the latter two cases, the relatives alleged poisoning. At autopsy, there was no evidence of trauma, disease, or poisoning in all three cases. Ballpoint pen parts were present in the larynx, carina, and left main bronchus, respectively. Features of "asphyxial" death were present, and included subconjunctival hemorrhages, subendocardial hemorrhages, and congestion of the face and internal organs. These deaths are preventable by education of children, parents, and teachers. Ballpoint pen manufacturers should also modify the design of these pens to improve their safety. PMID:11111798

Bhana, B D; Gunaselvam, J G; Dada, M A

2000-12-01

303

Hemorrhage of a cavernous malformation associated with accidental electrocution: Case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background: Cavernous malformations (CMs) are the second most common intracranial vascular lesions. They typically present after hemorrhage or as incidental findings. Several risk factors have been identified for hemorrhage, however, electrocution as a cause has not been described. We performed a literature review of electrocution associated with CM hemorrhage and of the mechanisms of pathological injury in the central nervous system (CNS) secondary to electrocution. We found no cases of hemorrhage of CMs associated with electrocution. Case Description: A 19-year-old male electrician was accidentally electrocuted with 277 V of alternating current (AC) at a job site. He suffered no trauma or physical injuries and reported no immediate abnormal findings. He then experienced progressive nausea, emesis, and lethargy until he presented to the emergency department (ED) where it was discovered that he had a left thalamic/midbrain hemorrhage with hydrocephalus. His hydrocephalus was treated and he began to improve. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of his head demonstrated characteristic features of a CM. Conclusions: There are several proposed mechanisms in the literature by which electrocution may cause CNS damage. It is conceivable that given the pathology of CMs and the proposed mechanisms of electrical injury, these lesions may have an increased risk of hemorrhage as result of electrocution and we are reporting the first case of such an association.

Gallati, Christopher P.; Silberstein, Howard J.; Meyers, Steven P.

2012-01-01

304

Testing for osteogenesis imperfecta in cases of suspected non-accidental injury  

PubMed Central

To evaluate if laboratory testing for osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) identifies children unrecognised by clinical examination in instances where non-accidental injury (NAI) is suspected as the likely cause of fracture, we carried out a retrospective review of available medical records and biochemical test results from 262 patients. Cultured fibroblasts were received for biochemical testing for OI from children in whom the diagnosis of NAI was suspected. Eleven of the samples had alterations in the amount or structure of type I collagen synthesised, consistent with the diagnosis of OI, and in 11 others we could not exclude OI. Referring physicians correctly identified children with OI in six of the 11 instances established by biochemical studies, did not identify OI by clinical examination in three, and there was inadequate clinical information to know in two others. Biochemical testing was inconclusive in 11 infants in whom the diagnosis of OI could not be excluded, none of whom were thought to be affected by the referring clinicians. Four children believed to have OI by clinical examination had normal biochemical studies, a false positive clinical diagnosis attributed, in large part, to the use of scleral hue (a feature that is age dependent) as a major diagnostic criterion. Given the inability to identify all children with OI by clinical examination in situations of suspected NAI, laboratory testing for OI (and other genetic predispositions for fractures) is a valuable adjunct in discerning the basis for fractures and may identify a small group of children with previously undiagnosed OI.

Marlowe, A; Pepin, M; Byers, P

2002-01-01

305

Rewarming for accidental hypothermia in an urban medical center using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Accidental hypothermia complicated by cardiac arrest carries a high mortality rate in urban areas. For moderate hypothermia cases conventional rewarming methods are usually adequate, however in severe cases extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is known to provide the most efficient rewarming with complete cardiopulmonary support. We report a case of severe hypothermia complicated by prolonged cardiac arrest successfully resuscitated using ECMO. Case Report: A 45 year old female was brought to our emergency department with a core body temperature <25°C. Shortly after arrival she had witnessed cardiac arrest in the department. Resuscitative efforts were started immediately including conventional rewarming techniques, followed by ECMO support. ECMO was used successfully in this case to resuscitate this patient from prolonged arrest (3.5 hours) when conventional techniques likely would have failed. After a prolonged hospital course this patient was discharged with her baseline mental and physical capacities intact. Conclusions: This case demonstrates the advantages of advanced internal rewarming techniques, such as ECMO, for quick and efficient rewarming of severely hypothermic patients. This case supports the use of ECMO in severely hypothermic patients as the standard of care.

Morley, David; Yamane, Kentaro; O'Malley, Rika; Cavarocchi, Nicholas C.; Hirose, Hitoshi

2013-01-01

306

[Accidental decrease in the air flow during air/oxygen sevoflurane anesthesia].  

PubMed

We describe our experience of an accidental decrease in the air flow during air/oxygen sevoflurane anesthesia. According to the malfunction of an air compressor system, dehydration of the compressed air was inadequate, and the wet air was delivered to the anesthesia machine. The moisture was formed at a flow control valve to cause a gradual decrease in the air flow. The low-pressure alarm did not work at that time, because the pressure of the air supply was normal. There are two types of medical air, one is produced from the ambient air by air compressor system and another is the synthetic air which is a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen. Although the synthetic air is always dry and clean, the former contains dust, bacteria, and moisture. There is a possibility that all of these particles cannot be excluded before use. Accordingly, we must check the air compressor system routinely when a source of the compressed air is used. PMID:10885247

Okuyama, M; Nakamura, I; Kemmotsu, O

2000-06-01

307

Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride  

SciTech Connect

Accidental releases of Hydrogen Flouride (HF) can result in initally dense, highly reactive and corrosive clouds. These clouds will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol and droplets which can be transported significant distances downwind before lower hazard levels of HF concentration are reached. Previous experiments were performed to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher. 8 refs., 69 figs., 49 tabs.

Not Available

1989-06-01

308

[Epidemiology of accidental falls from heights among children, Paris Region, May to September 2005].  

PubMed

Summary: A survey conducted between May and September 2005 in the Paris Region collected 67 cases of accidental "falls from heights" among the children under the age of 15. Most of the injured children were under the age of 6 (72%), the majority were boys (72%). More than half of the children's families were from extra-European origin, mostly from Sub-Saharan Africa. In 32% of the cases, the fall occurred as the opening had a protection. A piece of furniture was in place beneath the window or was disposed by the child in 55% of the cases; 33% of the children climbed the parapet or the opening. In third of the falls, there was an adult present with the child in the room. Seven children died (10%) and eight (12%) had sequelae. The risk of fall due to the lack of surveillance is not enough known by adults. It is therefore recommended to organise prevention campaigns. To prevent falls, one should revise the regulations for building the parapet and the mechanisms for opening the windows. PMID:17294756

Thélot, B; Rigou, A; Bonaldi, C; Ricard, C; Meyer, P

2006-12-01

309

Accidental firearm injury in childhood--a predictor of social and medical outcome?  

PubMed

This paper reports register data on a consecutive series of 141 children and teenagers hospitalized due to firearm injuries during a 21-year period in a community with restrictive firearm laws. Most of the injuries were minor and hospitalization was short. Shot by an air gun resulting in an eye injury was the most frequent reason for hospitalization. The patients hospitalized due to firearm injuries were compared with a control group composed of 141 individuals matched pair-wise for sex and age. The total morbidity during the follow-up period of on average 10 years was higher among patients compared with controls concerning both somatic diseases and injuries. All cases of severe psychopathology were found in the patient group. Criminality was higher among patients compared with controls and the former were younger at the time of the first crime compared with the latter. This study indicates that, irrespective of firearm laws, young people suffering from firearm injuries, even if the injury is classified as accidental, run a higher risk of becoming psychosocially disadvantaged and criminal as adults. This makes preventative measures highly necessary not only from a societal point of view, but also to avoid individual suffering in this high-risk group of youngsters. PMID:9426991

Ponzer, S; Bergman, B; Brismar, B; Johansson, S E

1997-09-01

310

Evaluation of health effects in Sequoyah Fuels Corporation workers from accidental exposure to uranium hexafluoride  

SciTech Connect

Urine bioassay measurements for uranium and medical laboratory results were studied to determine whether there were any health effects from uranium intake among a group of 31 workers exposed to uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and hydrolysis products following the accidental rupture of a 14-ton shipping cylinder in early 1986 at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation uranium conversion facility in Gore, Oklahoma. Physiological indicators studied to detect kidney tissue damage included tests for urinary protein, casts and cells, blood, specific gravity, and urine pH, blood urea nitrogen, and blood creatinine. We concluded after reviewing two years of follow-up medical data that none of the 31 workers sustained any observable health effects from exposure to uranium. The early excretion of uranium in urine showed more rapid systemic uptake of uranium from the lung than is assumed using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30 and Publication 54 models. The urinary excretion data from these workers were used to develop an improved systemic recycling model for inhaled soluble uranium. We estimated initial intakes, clearance rates, kidney burdens, and resulting radiation doses to lungs, kidneys, and bone surfaces. 38 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

Fisher, D.R. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Swint, M.J.; Kathren, R.L. (Hanford Environmental Health Foundation, Richland, WA (USA))

1990-05-01

311

Can we prevent accidental injury to adolescents? A systematic review of the evidence.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: As part of the Department of Health strategy The Health of the Nation, a systematic review of published and unpublished literature relating to the effectiveness of interventions in reducing accidental injury in the population aged 15-24 years was carried out. METHODS: The literature was reviewed under the standard setting headings of road, work, home, and sports and leisure, and graded for quality of evidence and strength of recommendation using a scale published in the UK national epidemiologically based needs assessment programme. RESULTS: The most effective measures appear to be legislative and regulatory controls in road, sport, and workplace settings. Environmental engineering measures on the road and in sports have relatively low implementation costs and result in fewer injuries at all ages. There is little evidence that purely educational measures reduced injuries in the short term. Community based approaches may be effective in all age groups, and incentives to encourage safer behaviour hold promise but require further evaluation. The potential of multifactorial approaches seems greater than narrowly based linear approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Few interventions to reduce injury in adolescents have been rigorously evaluated using good quality randomised controlled trials, and where such evidence is available, fewer have been shown to be definitely worthwhile. Many studies relied on surrogate measures rather than actual injury rates, and substantial issues relating to the efficacy or implementation of preventive measures in adolescent and young adult populations remain unresolved.

Munro, J.; Coleman, P.; Nicholl, J.; Harper, R.; Kent, G.; Wild, D.

1995-01-01

312

Accidental autoerotic death by volatile substance abuse or nonsexually motivated accidents?  

PubMed

In contrast to typical autoerotic fatalities, when death is due to asphyxia mostly by mechanical compression of the neck, atypical autoerotic accidental deaths (AADs) involve sexual self-stimulation by other means such as electrocution or inhalation of chemical agents. Especially in lethal cases of volatile substance abuse (VSA), a differentiation between suicide or sexually or nonsexually motivated accident is often complicated in practical casework. Considering the small number of AADs involving chemical substance abuse reported in the literature, the number of unreported cases seems to be very high. We report about 5 lethal cases of VSA; analysis was performed using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). When headspace sampling is not performed at autopsy, the analysis of volatile substances can be very complicated. In 2 cases, an AAD was diagnosed considering findings at the scene, reconstruction of the event, and discussion of the circumstances of the death. These findings demonstrate the importance of VSA in atypical autoerotic asphyxia. Therefore, in cases of suspected lethal inhalational intoxications, as a matter of principle, headspace asservation should be performed at autopsy and an autoerotic motivational background should be taken into consideration for differential diagnosis. PMID:16738444

Musshoff, Frank; Padosch, Stephan A; Kroener, Lars A; Madea, Burkhard

2006-06-01

313

[Analysis of accidental deaths in mountain tourism and sport according to statistics from the Republic of Kabardino-Balkariia].  

PubMed

Lethal cases in mountain tourism and sports in the Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria were studied for 1978-1995. A total of 152 accidental deaths were analysed. Most of the victims were males under 30 years of age. The greatest number of the accidents took place on Monday, in July and August. Many amateur visitors from abroad were among the victims. The main cause of death in the mountains of Kabardino-Balkaria for the 18 years studied was multitrauma of the body (69.7%). Hypothermia and obturation asphyxia with snow and compression asphyxia due to snowbreak account for 11.8 and 13.2% deaths, respectively; lightning killed 4%. Combination of high mountain hypoxia with exacerbated chronic somatic disease or hypothermia caused death in 1% victims. The authors propose how to improve forensic-medical expert examination of accidental death and safety in the mountains. PMID:16944690

Mechukaev, A M; Mechukaev, A A

314

Accidental cloning of a single-photon qubit in two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The information encoded in the polarization of a single photon can be transferred to a remote location by two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation. However, the finite entanglement used in the teleportation causes random changes in photon number. If more than one photon appears in the output, the continuous-variable teleportation accidentally produces clones of the original input photon. In this paper, we derive the polarization statistics of the N -photon output components and show that they can be decomposed into an optimal cloning term and completely unpolarized noise. We find that the accidental cloning of the input photon is nearly optimal at experimentally feasible squeezing levels, indicating that the loss of polarization information is partially compensated by the availability of clones.

Ide, Toshiki; Hofmann, Holger F.

2007-06-01

315

Accidental self-removal of a flap—a rare complication of laser in situ keratomileusis surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To report a rare complication in which the patient accidentally removed the laser in situ keratomileusis corneal flap.METHODS: Interventional case report. A 35-year-old woman underwent uncomplicated laser in situ keratomileusis surgery. Ten days after surgery, she inserted a soft contact lens into the right eye to improve her vision. She tried to remove the contact lens, but had pain

M. S. Sridhar; Christopher J. Rapuano; Elisabeth J. Cohen

2001-01-01

316

Late accidental dislodgement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube: an underestimated burden on patients and the health care system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Since its introduction in 1980, the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube has become an efficient means of providing\\u000a long-term enteral access. Conveniently, the soft inner bumper allows PEG removal with relatively minimal external traction.\\u000a Consequently, a major complication is accidental dislodgement, from which significant morbidity may occur. Clinicians have\\u000a perhaps underestimated and underappreciated this complication, not only in the acute

Laura H. Rosenberger; Timothy Newhook; Bruce Schirmer; Robert G. Sawyer

317

The Role of Hazardousness and Regulatory Practice in the Accidental Release of Chemicals at U.S. Industrial Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of an analysis of the accident history data reported under section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act Amendments. These data provide a fairly complete record of the consequences of reportable accidental releases occurring during the time frame 1995-1999 in the U.S. chemical industry and covering 77 toxic and 63 flammable substances subject to the provisions

Michael R. Elliott; Paul R. Keindorfer; Robert A. Lowe

2003-01-01

318

Multiple thoracic vertebral compression fractures caused by non-accidental injury: case report with radiological–pathological correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a 21-month-old boy with multiple contiguous thoracic vertebral compression fractures involving eight vertebral bodies, attributable to non-accidental injury. No subluxation was associated, however, there was extensive injury to the upper cervical and lower lumbar regions of the spinal cord. Anterosuperior beaking, thought to represent a previous injury, was evident in a mid-lumbar vertebra. Clinical examination revealed bilateral retinal

Eilish L. Twomey; Kriengkrai Iemsawatdikul; Boyd G. Stephens; Charles A. Gooding

2004-01-01

319

Selective binding of nuclear alpha-synuclein to the PGC1alpha promoter under conditions of oxidative stress may contribute to losses in mitochondrial function: implications for Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Alpha-synuclein has been reported to be present in the nucleus and levels enhanced by oxidative stress. Herein, we sought to investigate the mechanistic role of nuclear alpha-synuclein. We found that alpha-synuclein nuclear localization coincided with enhanced chromatin binding both in an in vitro and a corresponding in vivo brain oxidative stress model previously characterized by our laboratory as well as in PD brain tissues. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-on-chip analysis of alpha-synuclein:promoter binding in response to oxidative stress in vitro revealed that binding occurs at several promoters belonging to a range of functional categories including transcriptional regulation. Interestingly, given the important role of mitochondrial dysfunction in PD, this included binding to the promoter for the master mitochondrial transcription activator, PGC1alpha in vitro, in vivo, and in human brain tissue with age and PD. To test the possible mechanistic impact of alpha-synuclein PGC1alpha promotor binding, we assessed PGC1alpha promoter activity, mRNA, and protein levels and expression of candidate PGC1alpha-target genes in our in vitro model. All were found to be reduced in conjunction with increased levels of aberrant mitochondrial morphology and impaired mitochondrial function. Exogenous PGC1alpha expression was found to attenuate alpha-synuclein-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent neurotoxicity in vitro. Our data suggests that nuclear alpha-synuclein localization under conditions of oxidative stress may impact on mitochondrial function in part via the protein’s capacity to act as a transcriptional modulator of PGC1alpha. This represents a novel role for alpha-synuclein as it relates to mitochondrial dysfunction in PD.

Siddiqui, Almas; Chinta, Shankar J.; Mallajosyula, Jyothi K.; Rajagopolan, Subramanian; Hanson, Ingrid; Rane, Anand; Andersen, Julie K.

2012-01-01

320

Injuries due to falls from a considerable height. A comparative analysis from injuries and clinical course after international or accidental fall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a The aim of this study was to compare the outcome and clinical course of multiple trauma patients with accidental or intentional\\u000a (suicide related) fall from heights > 4 m. 211 patients with an injury severity score (ISS) > 17 were assigned to the following\\u000a groups: I: intentional fall, n = 94; A: accidental fall, n = 117) and ISS

M. Aufmkolk; G. Voggenreiter; M. Majetschak; F. Neudeck; K. P. Schmit-Neuerburg; U. Obertacke

1999-01-01

321

Conditioned hunger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Made a methodological analysis of the conditioned hunger problem. Independent measures were taken to determine if the necessary and sufficient conditions to establish a conditioned hunger response had been satisfied. In 2 experiments, using 20 male Long-Evans rats in each, the attempt to establish these conditions was not successful, and in neither case was conditioned hunger demonstrated. The methodological evaluations

Richard W. Cravens; K. Edward Renner

1969-01-01

322

Appendix: Additional Contributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of contributions to the Symposium was so high that only the review and invited talks have found place, in the form of articles, in this volume. This Appendix lists all these additional contributions (oral and posters) which are not present as articles. The abstracts of all contributions were published in a booklet produced by the Local Organizing Committee and are available at the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS). More information on these contributions (PowerPoint presentations and/or articles) have been made public in the Internet web site of the conference (http://cab.inta-csic.es/molecular_universe/).

2011-12-01

323

Cytometry in cell necrobiology: analysis of apoptosis and accidental cell death (necrosis).  

PubMed

The term cell necrobiology is introduced to comprise the life processes associated with morphological, biochemical, and molecular changes which predispose, precede, and accompany cell death, as well as the consequences and tissue response to cell death. Two alternative modes of cell death can be distinguished, apoptosis and accidental cell death, generally defined as necrosis. The wide interest in necrobiology in many disciplines stems from the realization that apoptosis, whether it occurs physiologically or as a manifestation of a pathological state, is an active mode of cell death and a subject of complex regulatory processes. A possibility exists, therefore, to interact with the regulatory machinery and thereby modulate the cell's propensity to die in response to intrinsic or exogenous signals. Flow cytometry appears to be the methodology of choice to study various aspects of necrobiology. It offers all the advantages of rapid, multiparameter analysis of large populations of individual cells to investigate the biological processes associated with cell death. Numerous methods have been developed to identify apoptotic and necrotic cells and are widely used in various disciplines, in particular in oncology and immunology. The methods based on changes in cell morphology, plasma membrane structure and transport function, function of cell organelles, DNA stability to denaturation, and endonucleolytic DNA degradation are reviewed and their applicability in the research laboratory and in the clinical setting is discussed. Improper use of flow cytometry in analysis of cell death and in data interpretation also is discussed. The most severe errors are due to i) misclassification of nuclear fragments and individual apoptotic bodies as single apoptotic cells, ii) assumption that the apoptotic index represents the rate of cell death, and iii) failure to confirm by microscopy that the cells classified by flow cytometry as apoptotic or necrotic do indeed show morphology consistent with this classification. It is expected that flow cytometry will be the dominant methodology for necrobiology. PMID:9000580

Darzynkiewicz, Z; Juan, G; Li, X; Gorczyca, W; Murakami, T; Traganos, F

1997-01-01

324

Maternal and infant characteristics associated with accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed in US infants.  

PubMed

To identify maternal and infant characteristics associated with accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed (ASSB) in US infants. Using 2000-2002 US linked infant birth and death certificate cohort files, we compared ASSB deaths to survivors. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) from logistic regression were used to analyze associations between selected maternal and infant characteristics and ASSB mortality. During 2000-2002, 1,064 infants died from ASSB, resulting in an ASSB mortality rate of 9.2 per 100,000 live births. Most ASSB deaths (71%) occurred before an infant reached 4 months old. Maternal factors associated with an increased risk of ASSB were younger age (using maternal age of 25-29 years as reference aOR 2.6 for mothers <20 years old and 1.6 for mothers 20-24 years old), lower educational attainment (aOR 4.3 for <12 years and 3.3 for 12 years compared to ?16 years), multiparity (aOR 1.7, 2.2, and 3.5 for parity 2, 3, and 4 or higher, respectively) and smoking during pregnancy (aOR 2.8). Compared to non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks (aOR 1.8) and American Indians (aOR 1.8) were more likely to have an ASSB death. Being male and born preterm were also associated with a higher ASSB mortality risk. Younger, less educated, mulitparous, non-Hispanic black or American Indian women and their families who smoke during their pregnancy and deliver male or preterm infants, may need more intense safe sleeping education during the infant's first year of life, especially during the first 4 months of age. PMID:21769585

Carlberg, Michelle M; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Goodman, Michael

2012-11-01

325

Exposure analysis of accidental release of mercury from compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs).  

PubMed

Mercury release after breakage of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) has recently become an issue of public health concern, especially in the case of early life infants. Preliminary, screening type calculations have indicated that there is potential for increased intake of mercury vapor by inhalation after breakage of a CFL. Several experimental and computational studies have shown that, when modeling the breakage of a CFL, the room space must be segregated into different zones, according to the potential of mercury vapor to accumulate in them after accidental release. In this study, a detailed two-zone model that captures the physicochemical processes that govern mercury vapor formation and dispersion in the indoor environment was developed. The mercury fate model was coupled to a population exposure model that accounts for age and gender-related differences in time-activity patterns, as well as country differences in body weight and age distribution. The parameters above are used to determine the intake through inhalation (gas phase and particles) and non-dietary ingestion (settled dust) for each age, gender group and ethnicity. Results showed that the critical period for intake covers the first 4h after the CFL breaks and that room air temperature significantly affects the intake rate. Indoor air concentration of mercury vapor may exceed toxicological thresholds of concern such as the acute Reference Exposure Limit (REL) for mercury vapor set by the Environmental Protection Agency of California. Ingestion intake through hand-to-mouth behavior is significant for infants and toddlers, counting for about 20% of the overall intake. Simple risk reduction measures including increased indoor ventilation followed by careful clean-up of the accident site, may limit dramatically the estimated health risk. PMID:22863806

Sarigiannis, D A; Karakitsios, S P; Antonakopoulou, M P; Gotti, A

2012-08-02

326

Toxic vapor cloud impacts from accidental releases of anhydrous ammonia and nitrogen dioxide at the ICPP NO sub x Abatement Facility  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates potential atmospheric and human health impacts that may result from accidental releases of anhydrous ammonia and nitrogen dioxide at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) NO{sub x} Abatement Facility. Excess process gas releases are evaluated using a traditional Gaussian puff model. Dense two-phase aerosol releases from an 18,000 gallon liquefied ammonia storage tank and a 6,000 gallon tanker truck accident are evaluated using the refined vapor dispersion model, SLAB. The SLAB results are also compared to those using the neutral-buoyancy puff model. A SLAB sensitivity analysis is presented which examines various combinations of ambient temperatures and wind speeds in order to determine worst-case downwind air concentrations. The results from the storage tank releases indicated that potentially serious ammonia concentrations (greater than 1000 ppm) could result at downwind distances ranging from 150 meters (relief valve malfunction) to approximately 3 kilometers (catastrophic tank failure). The tank failure scenario produced concentrations that could be rapidly fatal (greater than 5000 ppm) out to 1.3 kilometers. Under worst-case meteorological dispersion conditions, recognized exposure limits (IDLH, TLV-STEL) were exceeded for very large distances (greater than 15 kilometers).

Abbott, M.L.

1992-04-01

327

Long-term environmental fate of perfluorinated compounds after accidental release at Toronto airport.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS; a perfluorinated compound or PFC), its salts, and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride have recently been listed in Annex B of the Stockholm Convention due to their widespread presence, persistence, and toxicity. Because of the persistent nature of PFCs, it is generally presumed that the impact of direct discharges of these chemicals on a receiving environment would be long-lasting. However, long-term environmental fate studies based on field measurements are rare. We examined spatial and long-term (9 year) temporal trends of PFCs in water, sediment, fish, and fish liver collected in 2003, 2006, and 2009 from 10 locations spanning ?20 km in Etobicoke and Spring Creeks, where an accidental release of fire fighting foam containing PFOS from nearby Toronto International Airport occurred in 2000. Even a decade after the spill, sediment PFOS concentrations are still elevated in Spring Creek Pond which received the foam discharge; however, the major impact is relatively localized likely due to the stormwater management nature of the pond and the diluting effect of Etobicoke Creek. Fish and fish liver PFOS concentrations at a Spring Creek location downstream of Spring Creek Pond declined by about 70 and 85%, respectively, between 2003 and 2009. PFOS in water at locations further downstream in Etobicoke Creek have declined by >99.99% since the spill; however, the 2009 water and fish levels were ?2-10 times higher than upstream locations likely due to the long-term impact of the spill as well as urbanization. The decrease in the upstream PFOS concentrations likely reflects the reduction of PFOS sources due to phased out production by 3M and regulations on the use of PFOS in fire fighting foams. Field-based sediment/water distribution coefficients (K(D)) and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) were calculated from environmental measurements. Log K(D) values were 0.54-1.65 for perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs) and 1.00-1.85 for perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs). Log BAF(fish) ranged from 1.85 to 3.24 for PFASs and 0.88-3.47 for PFCAs, whereas log BAF(fish liver) ranged from 2.1-4.3 for PFASs and 1.0-5.0 for PFCAs. PMID:21774496

Awad, Emily; Zhang, Xianming; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Petro, Steve; Crozier, Patrick W; Reiner, Eric J; Fletcher, Rachael; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Braekevelt, Eric

2011-07-20

328

Contributions of groundwater conditions to soil and water salinization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinization is the process whereby the concentration of dissolved salts in water and soil is increased due to natural or human-induced processes. Water is lost through one or any combination of four main mechanisms: evaporation, evapotranspiration, hydrolysis, and leakage between aquifers. Salinity increases from catchment divides to the valley floors and in the direction of groundwater flow. Salinization is explained by two main chemical models developed by the authors: weathering and deposition. These models are in agreement with the weathering and depositional geological processes that have formed soils and overburden in the catchments. Five soil-change processes in arid and semi-arid climates are associated with waterlogging and water. In all represented cases, groundwater is the main geological agent for transmitting, accumulating, and discharging salt. At a small catchment scale in South and Western Australia, water is lost through evapotranspiration and hydrolysis. Saline groundwater flows along the beds of the streams and is accumulated in paleochannels, which act as a salt repository, and finally discharges in lakes, where most of the saline groundwater is concentrated. In the hummocky terrains of the Northern Great Plains Region, Canada and USA, the localized recharge and discharge scenarios cause salinization to occur mainly in depressions, in conjunction with the formation of saline soils and seepages. On a regional scale within closed basins, this process can create playas or saline lakes. In the continental aquifers of the rift basins of Sudan, salinity increases along the groundwater flow path and forms a saline zone at the distal end. The saline zone in each rift forms a closed ridge, which coincides with the closed trough of the groundwater-level map. The saline body or bodies were formed by evaporation coupled with alkaline-earth carbonate precipitation and dissolution of capillary salts. Résumé La salinisation est le processus par lequel la concentration des sels dissous dans l'eau et les sols s'accroît sous l'effet de processus naturels ou anthropiques. L'eau est perdue par l'une ou l'autre combinaison de quatre principaux mécanismes : l'évaporation, l'évapotranspiration, l'hydrolyse et la drainance entre aquifères. La salinité augmente depuis les limites des bassins jusqu'au fond des vallées et le long des axes d'écoulement souterrain. La salinisation est expliquée au moyen de deux principaux modèles chimiques développés par les auteurs : l'altération et le dépôt. Ces modèles sont en accord avec les processus géologiques d'altération et de dépôt qui ont formé les sols et qui recouvrent les bassins versants. Cinq processus d'évolution de sols sous climats aride et semi-aride sont associés à l'eau et à des formations aquifères. Dans tous les cas présentés, l'eau souterraine est le principal agent géologique qui transporte, accumule et dépose les sels. A l'échelle de petits bassins versants dans le sud et dans l'ouest de l'Australie, l'eau est consommée par évapotranspiration et par hydrolyse. L'eau souterraine salée coule le long des berges de rivières et s'accumule dans des paléochenaux, qui fonctionnent comme des zones de stockage de sels, et finalement s'écoule dans des lacs, où la plupart des eaux salées se concentrent. Dans les formations bosselées des grandes plaines du nord du Canada et des États-Unis, des scénarios d'alimentation et de décharge localisées conduisent la salinisation à se produire surtout dans les dépressions, en association avec la formation de sols et d'infiltrations salins. A l'échelle régionale dans les bassins fermés, ce processus peut être à l'origine de playas ou de lacs salés. Dans les aquifères continentaux des bassins de rift du Soudan, la salinité augmente le long des axes d'écoulement souterrain et forme ainsi une zone saline à leur extrémité. La zone saline de chaque rift constitue une crête, qui coïncide avec le creux piézométrique. Le ou les ensembles salins se sont formés par évaporation couplée

Salama, Ramsis B.; Otto, Claus J.; Fitzpatrick, Robert W.

329

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades. Sirma Stenzel, Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. For hazard prediction and simulation of the hazard zones a number of air dispersion models are available. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for display the results, they are easy to use and can operate fast and effective during stress situations. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. There are also possibilities for model direct coupling to automatic meteorological stations, in order to avoid uncertainties in the model output due to insufficient or incorrect meteorological data. Another key problem in coping with accidental toxic release is the relative width spectrum of regulations and values, like IDLH, ERPG, AEGL, MAK etc. and the different criteria for their application. Since the particulate emergency responders and organizations require for their purposes unequal regulations and values, it is quite difficult to predict the individual hazard areas. There are a quite number of research studies and investigations coping with the problem, anyway the end decision is up to the authorities. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). One of the main tasks of this project was 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation introduces the project models used and presents the results of task 2. The results of task 1 are presented by Baumann-Stanzer and Stenzel in this session. For the purpose of this study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAFER System, SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer), COMPAS. A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed in order to reliably predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. The models simulated the accidental release from the mentioned above gases and estimates the potential toxic areas. Since the inputs requirement differ from model to model, and the outputs are based on different criteria for toxic areas and exposure, a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is needed.

Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

2009-04-01

330

Pilot study of perioperative accidental durotomy: does the period of postoperative bed rest reduce the incidence of complication?  

PubMed

Introduction. An accidental durotomy is a recognised and not infrequent complication of lumbar spine surgery, and may lead to postoperative low-pressure headaches, pseudomeningocele and CSF leak. Conventional postoperative management involves a period of flat bed rest. There is no agreement as to the need for and duration of postoperative bed rest. This study aims to determine whether the duration of flat bed rest alters the rate of these complications. Materials and methods. This is a retrospective study. All patients who underwent surgery for degenerative spinal disease between May 2010 and May 2011 were reviewed. All patients who incurred an accidental durotomy and who were repaired using fibrin glue were included in this study. Their notes were reviewed for evidence of complications for a minimum of 12 months after surgery. The following complications were identified: postural headache, pseudomeningocele, CSF leak wound infection, subdural haematoma. Results. Eight hundred and eighty-nine patients underwent lumbar spine surgery. Sixty-one (6.8%) patients suffered an accidental durotomy and were repaired with fibrin glue. Twenty-six patients were mobilised on the first postoperative day, 9 patients on the second, and a further 26 patients were mobilised on the third postoperative day or later. The overall incidence of complications related to the durotomy was 18%. There was no statistical significance between the day of mobilisation and the rate of complication (p = 0.433). Conclusion. A longer period of mandatory bed rest does not decrease the rate of complications. Patients should be mobilised as soon as they can. This could potentially reduce the length of hospital stay and the cost of aftercare. PMID:23724795

Low, Jacob Chen Ming; von Niederhäusern, Belinda; Rutherford, Scott A; King, Andrew T

2013-06-01

331

A screening tool to prioritize public health risk associated with accidental or deliberate release of chemicals into the atmosphere  

PubMed Central

The Chemical Events Working Group of the Global Health Security Initiative has developed a flexible screening tool for chemicals that present a risk when accidentally or deliberately released into the atmosphere. The tool is generic, semi-quantitative, independent of site, situation and scenario, encompasses all chemical hazards (toxicity, flammability and reactivity), and can be easily and quickly implemented by non-subject matter experts using freely available, authoritative information. Public health practitioners and planners can use the screening tool to assist them in directing their activities in each of the five stages of the disaster management cycle.

2013-01-01

332

Falls related to accidental deactivation of deep brain stimulators in patients with Parkinson's disease living in long term care facilities.  

PubMed

This case series highlights three patients with Parkinson's disease residing at nursing home facilities whose deep brain stimulators were accidentally deactivated for varying lengths of time, which was associated with an increase in falls. In all three cases, neither the patients nor the caregivers were aware of the random deactivations/reactivations. We propose a specific care plan for these patients that includes further education of caregivers regarding deep brain stimulators and regular checks of the review device, especially when there is concern about a patient's mobility or balance that is out of character. PMID:23031264

Tousi, Babak; Wilson, Kathy

2012-09-30

333

A screening tool to prioritize public health risk associated with accidental or deliberate release of chemicals into the atmosphere.  

PubMed

The Chemical Events Working Group of the Global Health Security Initiative has developed a flexible screening tool for chemicals that present a risk when accidentally or deliberately released into the atmosphere. The tool is generic, semi-quantitative, independent of site, situation and scenario, encompasses all chemical hazards (toxicity, flammability and reactivity), and can be easily and quickly implemented by non-subject matter experts using freely available, authoritative information. Public health practitioners and planners can use the screening tool to assist them in directing their activities in each of the five stages of the disaster management cycle. PMID:23517410

Blakey, David H; Lafontaine, Marc; Lavigne, Jocelyn; Sokolowski, Danny; Philippe, Jean-Marc; Sapori, Jean-Marc; Biederbick, Walter; Horre, Regine; Marzi, Willi B; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Kuroki, Yumiko; Namera, Akira; Okumura, Tetsu; Yamamoto, Miyako; Yashiki, Mikio; Blain, Peter G; Russell, David R; Cibulsky, Susan M; Jett, David A

2013-03-21

334

Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

Conard, R.A.

1991-12-31

335

Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

Conard, R.A.

1991-01-01

336

Social interaction in young children with inflicted and accidental traumatic brain injury: relations with family resources and social outcomes.  

PubMed

Core social interaction behaviors were examined in young children 0-36 months of age who were hospitalized for accidental (n = 61) or inflicted (n = 64) traumatic brain injury (TBI) in comparison to typically developing children (n = 60). Responding to and initiating gaze and joint attention (JA) were evaluated during a semi-structured sequence of social interactions between the child and an examiner at 2 and 12 months after injury. The accidental TBI group established gaze less often and had an initial deficit initiating JA that resolved by the follow-up. Contrary to expectation, children with inflicted TBI did not have lower rates of social engagement than other groups. Responding to JA was more strongly related than initiating JA to measures of injury severity and to later cognitive and social outcomes. Compared to complicated-mild/moderate TBI, severe TBI in young children was associated with less responsiveness in social interactions and less favorable caregiver ratings of communication and social behavior. JA response, family resources, and group interacted to predict outcomes. Children with inflicted TBI who were less socially responsive and had lower levels of family resources had the least favorable outcomes. Low social responsiveness after TBI may be an early marker for later cognitive and adaptive behavior difficulties. PMID:23507345

Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Prasad, Mary R; Mendez, Donna; Barnes, Marcia A; Swank, Paul

2013-03-18

337

[Statistical survey of medico-legal activities for the murderous and accidental death (40 cases) by use of fire arms].  

PubMed

A total number of judicial autopsies conducted in the Department of Legal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine during the period of Jan 1963 and Mar 1987 was recorded 1,157 cases including 40 cases caused by the fire arms. This indicates 3.4% of total numbers of death resulting from subject accidents, and the outline thereof is following. 1) Murder case-35, accidental case-5, suicide case-none. 2) Lethal weapons used for the murder: Pistol-26 cases, hunting gun-8 cases, joint use of illicitly hand-made fowling piece and pistol-1 case. All 5 accidental cases of the above were caused by wrong use of hunting guns. 3) The age of victims: Thirties-17 cases, Forties-10 cases, Fifties-4 cases, Teens-4 cases. Twenties-3 cases, one year and downward and from sixty years up-1 case respectively. 4) The entry wound and exit wound caused by the use of fire arms and other several matters in regard to medico-legal investigations and views thereof were taken up in consideration from various angles. PMID:2629473

Tsuda, R; Ito, Y; Inoue, T; Hara, M

1989-03-01

338

Model-Independent Analysis of Tri-bimaximal Mixing: A Softly-Broken Hidden or an Accidental Symmetry?  

SciTech Connect

To address the issue of whether tri-bimaximal mixing (TBM) is a softly-broken hidden or an accidental symmetry, we adopt a model-independent analysis in which we perturb a neutrino mass matrix leading to TBM in the most general way but leave the three texture zeros of the diagonal charged lepton mass matrix unperturbed. We compare predictions for the perturbed neutrino TBM parameters with those obtained from typical SO(10) grand unified theories with a variety of flavor symmetries. Whereas SO(10) GUTs almost always predict a normal mass hierarchy for the light neutrinos, TBM has a priori no preference for neutrino masses. We find, in particular for the latter, that the value of |U{sub e3}| is very sensitive to the neutrino mass scale and ordering. Observation of |U{sub e3}|{sup 2} > 0.001 to 0.01 within the next few years would be incompatible with softly-broken TBM and a normal mass hierarchy and would suggest that the apparent TBM symmetry is an accidental symmetry instead. No such conclusions can be drawn for the inverted and quasi-degenerate hierarchy spectra.

Albright, Carl H.; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab; Rodejohann, Werner; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst.

2008-04-01

339

Impact assessment of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accidental emission on the Barents Sea ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traces of emissions from the Fukushima-1 NPP in atmospheric aerosols of the Kola Peninsula near the Barents Sea coast were detected by radiation monitoring stations of the Murmansk Division of the Hydrometeorological Survey MDHMS in the end of March 2011. From the end of March 2011 until April 20, 131I, 134Cs, 132Te, 137Cs radioisotopes were observed in the atmospheric air. The major role was played by 131I isotope; its peak concentrations were (140-220)×10-6 Bq/m3, and it was recorded for several days (March 30-April 1), then radioactivity decreased. 134Cs, 132Te, and 137Cs isotopes were recorded episodically. The supply of radionuclides from accidental emissions into the atmosphere of the Kola Peninsula did not cause significant changes in gamma-radiation dose rates EDR. This value remained within the limits of the average long-term norm, and continued so during the following months 2011. Possible dry and humid precipitation of radionuclides within the water catchment area and in the marine basin did not influence on radioecological state in both coastal and off-shore parts of the Barents Sea. Short-lived isotopes as 131I, 134Cs, and 132Te, which might confidently indicate a trace from the Fukushima-1 NPP, have not been recorded in the samples. In 2011-1012 volumetric activity of 137Cs and 90Sr in water of the Barents Sea (section VI along the meridian 33° 30' N) varied in the range of 1.3-2.5 and 3.4-6.3 Bq/m3, respectively. Radioactive contamination of bottom sediments in the Barents Sea was very low. The specific activity of 137Cs varied from 1 to 8 Bq/kg, the activity of 90Sr did not exceed 4 Bq/kg. Investigations of macrophyte algae showed extremely low concentrations of artificial radionuclides. The specific activity of 137Cs in most samples was at the level of trace concentrations, from 0.2 to 1.5 Bq/kg of dry mass. The content of 90Sr in algae changed in the range of 0.4-4.1 Bq/kg of dry mass. In soft tissues of bivalves Mytilus edulis collected on littoral of bays, the specific activity of 137Cs did not exceed the trace quantity as well (less than 0.5 Bq/kg of raw mass). The latest radioecological studies of the Barents Sea commercial fish showed that all investigated species (such as Atlantic cod, long rough dab, spotted wolffish) contain less than 0.2 Bq/kg of 137Cs. Thus spectrum of artificial radioisotopes and their radioactivity level in both abiotic and biotic components of the Barents Sea ecosystem have not changed after the Fukushima accident. Compared to the data of recent years, these characteristics are stable; within the background limits owing to the global circulation of radionuclides. This work was supported by the international project CEEPRA (project no. 01/2010/007/KO130) implemented within the frame of Kolarctic program.

Matishov, Gennady; Ilyin, Gennady; Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Usiagina, Irina; Pavelskaya, Elena

2013-04-01

340

Incoherent scatter radar contributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contributions of the incoherent scatter radar technique to knowledge of the neutral upper atmosphere of the earth in general and the development of the CIRA 1986 model in particular are discussed. Incoherent radar scattering involves the transmission of a radio wave into the atmosphere and the reception of the energy scattered by the free electrons illuminated by the wave. Attention is given to the chronology of radar contributions to the development of upper atmosphere models, the ion energy balance and continuity equations, exospheric temperatures, and studies of the lower thermosphere.

Oliver, W. L.; Alcayde, D.; Bauer, P.

341

Can Decentralization Contribute to \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decentralization is one of the essential institutional reform efforts pursued in developing countries. It is intended to contribute to further democratization, to more effective development, and to good governance. The experiences in Uganda's decentralization efforts inform us that decentralization is a long-term learning process for various stakeholders, whose views are not necessarily congruent over the process. On the one hand,

Fumihiko SAITO

342

Contributions of Henrik Lundegårdh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Henrik Lundegårdh made major contributions in the field of ecology and plant physiology from 1912 to 1969. His early work at Hallands Väderö in the Kattegat pioneered quantitative approaches to plant ecology and laid the understanding of carbon dioxide exchange in natural communities which is still useful today in global carbon accounting. Very early on in this work he invented

Anthony William; Derek Larkum

2003-01-01

343

42 CFR 35.62 - Acceptance of contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...contributions of money or personal property which are donated for the general benefit of all patients within the hospital or station (or a ward or unit thereof) without further specification or conditions as to use. Contributions tendered subject to conditions by...

2012-10-01

344

Abstracts of contributed papers  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

Not Available

1994-08-01

345

Contributions of Henrik Lundegårdh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Henrik Lundegårdh made major contributions in the field of ecology and plant physiology from 1912 to 1969. His early work\\u000a at Hallands Väderö in the Kattegat pioneered quantitative approaches to plant ecology and laid the understanding of carbon\\u000a dioxide exchange in natural communities which is still useful today in global carbon accounting. Very early on in this work\\u000a he invented

Anthony William Derek Larkum; Derek Larkum

2003-01-01

346

The effect of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug on two important predictors for accidental falls: Postural balance and manual reaction time. A randomized, controlled pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidental falls in older individuals are a major health and research topic. Increased reaction time and impaired postural balance have been determined as reliable predictors for those at risk of falling and are important functions of the central nervous system (CNS). An essential risk factor for falls is medication exposure. Amongst the medications related to accidental falls are the non-steroidal

Judith Hegeman; Bart Nienhuis; Bart van den Bemt; Vivian Weerdesteyn; Jacques van Limbeek; Jacques Duysens

2011-01-01

347

Accidental overdosing with intraspinal morphine caused by misprogrammation of a Synchromed pump: a report of two cases.  

PubMed

Spinally administered opioids must be a last step in the therapeutical arsenal of chronic benigne pain. It is an invasive technique not free from adverse effects. Two chronic pain patients received an implantable Synchromed pump for treatment with spinal opiates after a trial period of resp. 3.5 and 5.5 months. Due to a misprogrammation (both on the same day) they received very high doses of spinal opiates. This caused relatively few side effects, which did not seem to require immediate treatment. A short time development of tolerance to life threatening side-effects has been proven by this accidental administration of high-dose intraspinal opiates. It is critical that care providers are knowledgeable and well-trained about implantable infusion systems. Programmation and refills must always be performed with care. PMID:9259873

Belmans, L; Van Buyten, J P; Vanduffel, L; Vueghs, P; Adriaensen, H

1997-01-01

348

Evidence Theory Based Uncertainty Quantification in Radiological Risk due to Accidental Release of Radioactivity from a Nuclear Power Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consequence of the accidental release of radioactivity from a nuclear power plant is assessed in terms of exposure or dose to the members of the public. Assessment of risk is routed through this dose computation. Dose computation basically depends on the basic dose assessment model and exposure pathways. One of the exposure pathways is the ingestion of contaminated food. The aim of the present paper is to compute the uncertainty associated with the risk to the members of the public due to the ingestion of contaminated food. The governing parameters of the ingestion dose assessment model being imprecise, we have approached evidence theory to compute the bound of the risk. The uncertainty is addressed by the belief and plausibility fuzzy measures.

Ingale, S. V.; Datta, D.

2010-10-01

349

Evidence Theory Based Uncertainty Quantification in Radiological Risk due to Accidental Release of Radioactivity from a Nuclear Power Plant  

SciTech Connect

Consequence of the accidental release of radioactivity from a nuclear power plant is assessed in terms of exposure or dose to the members of the public. Assessment of risk is routed through this dose computation. Dose computation basically depends on the basic dose assessment model and exposure pathways. One of the exposure pathways is the ingestion of contaminated food. The aim of the present paper is to compute the uncertainty associated with the risk to the members of the public due to the ingestion of contaminated food. The governing parameters of the ingestion dose assessment model being imprecise, we have approached evidence theory to compute the bound of the risk. The uncertainty is addressed by the belief and plausibility fuzzy measures.

Ingale, S. V. [New Arts, Science and Commerce College, Ahmednagar (MS)-414 001 (India); Datta, D. [Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

2010-10-26

350

Recursive conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce an any-space algorithm for exact inference in Bayesian networks, called recursive conditioning. On one extreme, recursive conditioning takes O(n) space and O(n exp(w log n)) time— where n is the size of a Bayesian network and w is the width of a given elimination order—therefore, establishing a new complexity result for linear-space inference in Bayesian networks. On the

Adnan Darwiche

2001-01-01

351

Guillaume dupuytren: his life and surgical contributions.  

PubMed

Guillaume Dupuytren (1777-1835) was one of the most influential surgeons of the past. He described and popularized many conditions, including Dupuytren disease, which continues to carry his name. This article reviews Guillaume Dupuytren's life and his contributions in surgery. PMID:23998192

Holzer, Lukas A; de Parades, Vincent; Holzer, Gerold

2013-08-30

352

Corrosion behavior of steels in flowing lead–bismuth under abnormal conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project IP EUROTRANS, domain DEMETRA, is primary focused on the study of the technology of the interaction between steels and heavy liquid metals. The characterization of the metal response to sudden changes, simulating accidental conditions in liquid lead–bismuth eutectic was carried out. This paper reports the results of two hot-spot simulations with two different oxygen concentrations (10?8wt%, 10?6wt%). Each

A. Doubkova; F. Di Gabriele; P. Brabec; E. Keilova

2008-01-01

353

Tank waste isotope contributions  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the results of a calculation to determine the relative contribution of selected isotopes to the inhalation and ingestion doses for a postulated release of Hanford tank waste. The fraction of the dose due to {sup 90}Sr, {sup 90}Y, {sup 137}Cs and the alpha emitters for single shell solids and liquids, double shell solids and liquids, aging waste solids and liquids and all solids and liquids. An effective dose conversion factor was also calculated for the alpha emitters for each composite of the tank waste.

VANKEUREN, J.C.

1999-08-26

354

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 6. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE (SCAQMD) (SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual summarizes information that will aid in identifying and controlling release hazards specific to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) of southern California. The SCAQMD has been considering a strategy for reducing the risk of a major accidental air r...

355

Follow-Up Skeletal Surveys for Suspected Non-Accidental Trauma: Can a More Limited Survey Be Performed without Compromising Diagnostic Information?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Follow-up skeletal surveys have been shown to improve the rate of fracture detection in suspected cases of non-accidental trauma (NAT). As these studies are performed in a particularly radiosensitive population, it is important to evaluate if all of the (approximately 20) radiographs obtained at repeat skeletal survey are clinically…

Sonik, Arvind; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Rogers, Kristen K.; Coulter, Kevin P.; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.

2010-01-01

356

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 3. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE (SCAQMD) (SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses a strategy (being considered by the South Coast Air Quality Management District--SCAQMD--of Southern California) for reducing the risk of a major accidental air release of toxic chemicals. The strategy, intended to guide both industry and communities, consist...

357

Incorporation of Therapeutic Interventions in Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Human Clinical Case Reports of Accidental or Intentional Overdosing with Ethylene Glycol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylene glycol is a high production volume chemical used in the manufacture of resins and fibers, antifreeze, deicing fluids, heat transfer and hydraulic fluids. Although occupational uses of ethylene glycol have not been associated with adverse effects, there are case reports where humans have either intentionally or accidentally ingested large quantities of ethylene glycol, primarily from antifreeze. The acute toxicity

Rick A. Corley; K. E. McMartin

2005-01-01

358

Sports-related injuries in childrenA study of their characteristics, frequency, and severity, with comparison to other types of accidental injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1981 to 1982, within a 1 year period, details were recorded of children aged 0 to 15 years and 3 months, who were treated for accidental injury in a French health care district; 789 sports-related accidents were regis tered, representing 11 % of all accidents. Sports areas were the leading sites of accident among children over age 12. Out-of-school

Anne Tursz; Monique Crost

1986-01-01

359

Accidental fatal ingestion of colchicine-containing leaves – toxicological and histological findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 65year old woman had collected some plant leaves, cooked them in water and ate this mash with honey. A few hours after consumption first symptoms of intoxication like sickness, stomach aches and diarrhoea appeared. Her condition deteriorated, she was admitted to hospital, became comatose and finally died due to a multiorgan failure. The plants she had collected were identified

Heike Wollersen; Freidoon Erdmann; Manfred Risse; Reinhard Dettmeyer

2009-01-01

360

Closeout of IE Bulletin 80-05: vacuum condition resulting in damage to low-pressure tanks which may contain primary-system water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In early 1977, low pressure tanks at the Trojan and Rancho Seco Nuclear Stations buckled because of accidental conditions resulting from a partial vacuum. Both of these damaged tanks released radioactive gases. IE Circular 77-10 was issued on July 15, 1977 to caution PWR facility personnel about providing adequate protection for low pressure tanks which may contain primary system water.

W. J. Foley; A. Hennick

1983-01-01

361

Probabilities of Ground Impact Conditions of the New Horizons Spacecraft and RTG for Near Launch Pad Accidents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Pluto New Horizons mission's safety effort, assessment of accidental ground impacts of the spacecraft (SC) and its components, including the radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG), near the launch pad are of particular interest as they determine the severity of the mechanical insult to the hardware. Two configurations are studied: the SC with RTG joined to the third stage STAR™ 48B solid rocket motor [Launch Vehicle (LV) payload], and the RTG joined to the RTG mounting fixture but separated from the SC after an at-altitude destruct action. The objective of the analyses conducted is to determine the probabilities of impact orientation and average impact velocity of these configurations for a near launch pad accident These are of interest because of the possibility that the STAR 48B solid rocket motor could impact on top of the RTG, and because the RTG/RTG mounting fixture impact orientations probabilities and velocities directly affect the mechanical response of the internal GPHS modules. The probabilities of impact orientation and impact velocity of the LV payload as a function of mission elapsed time at thrust termination are determined using a six degree of freedom motion simulation computer program coupled with a Monte Carlo method. The motion simulation accounts for the LV payload aerodynamic properties, mass properties, and the initial flight conditions (?t, ?, V, q and r). Baseline conditions for position, direction, velocity and angular rates, are obtained from the mission timeline information for the Atlas V 551 launch vehicle. The results from this new and unique approach contributed information to safety assessments for the launch approval process. As the environments associated with the RTG/RTG mounting fixture impact orientations probabilities and velocities were less severe than earlier assumptions, this contributed to a reduction in the estimated risk for the Pluto mission.

McGrath, Brian E.; Frostbutter, Dave A.; Chang, Yale

2007-01-01

362

When does a conceptual framework become a theory? Reflections from an accidental theorist.  

PubMed

In this short paper I reflect on the application of a program logic modeling approach to visualizing evaluation theory as it relates to practical participatory evaluation (PPE). The work of Hansen, Alkin and associates presented in this volume is well-thought out, carefully done, rigorous, and important. I found that their application of the approach resonated well with my understanding of PPE with a few notable exceptions. Specifically, the essence of the partnership aspect of the approach was underemphasized as was stakeholders' role in augmenting the credibility of evaluation findings and PPEs contribution to conceptual use. I then reminisce about the development and evolution of the participatory evaluation framework that we have been working with for so many years. I raise the point that we think of it as a theoretical framework to bound inquiry, not as an evaluation theory per se, which raises an interesting question: when does a theoretical framework become a theory? PMID:22497774

Cousins, J Bradley

2012-03-21

363

Accidental hypoglycaemia caused by an arterial flush drug error: a case report and contributory causes analysis.  

PubMed

In 2008, the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) issued a Rapid Response Report concerning problems with infusions and sampling from arterial lines. The risk of blood sample contamination from glucose-containing arterial line infusions was highlighted and changes in arterial line management were recommended. Despite this guidance, errors with arterial line infusions remain common. We report a case of severe hypoglycaemia and neuroglycopenia caused by glucose contamination of arterial line blood samples. This case occurred despite the implementation of the practice changes recommended in the 2008 NPSA alert. We report an analysis of the factors contributing to this incident using the Yorkshire Contributory Factors Framework. We discuss the nature of the errors that occurred and list the consequent changes in practice implemented on our unit to prevent recurrence of this incident, which go well beyond those recommended by the NPSA in 2008. PMID:24006897

Gupta, K J; Cook, T M

2013-09-05

364

Asteroid impact ejecta units overlain by iron-rich sediments in 3.5 2.4 Ga terrains, Pilbara and Kaapvaal cratons: Accidental or cause effect relationships?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The significance of temporal and spatial associations between asteroid/comet impact ejecta units and overlying iron-rich sediments, including banded iron-formation (BIF), jaspilite and ferruginous shale, observed in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia and the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB), Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa, is considered. Such associations include (1) 3470.1 ± 1.9 Ma impact spherule units and tsunami-type breccia overlain by jaspilite in the Antarctic Chert Member, central Pilbara Craton; (2) 3258 ± 3 Ma impact spherule unit (S2) in the BGB overlain by BIF, jaspilite and ferruginous shale; (3) 3243 ± 4 Ma impact unit (S3) in the BGB overlain by iron-rich sediments (Ulundi Formation); (4) two formations of BIF and ferruginous shale at the base (Nimmingarra Iron Formation) and lower part (Paddy Market Formation) of the Gorge Creek Group, central Pilbara Craton, which overlie 3235 ± 3 Ma felsic volcanics along a boundary correlated with the BGB-S3 unit; (5) 2629 ± 5 Ma impact spherule unit and tsunami-type deposit overlain by BIF and ferruginous shale (Marra Mamba Iron Formation), central Pilbara Craton; (5) 2481 ± 4 Ma spherule unit intercalated at the lower part of the Dales Gorge Iron Member of the Brockman Iron Formation, Hamersley Basin, and possible equivalents in the Kuruman Formation, western Transvaal. No significant thicknesses of iron-rich sediments are known to overlie carbonate-hosted impact ejecta units, including the Bee Gorge Member (BGM) of the Wittenoom Formation (2561 ± 8 Ma), Carawine Dolomite (eastern Hamersley Basin, Pilbara Craton), Monteville Formation and Reivilo Formation (Griqualand West Basin, Transvaal Group), or the Graensco Vallen spherule occurrence (southwest Greenland). The juxtaposition between impact ejecta units and overlying BIF and jaspilite may be accidental or purely related to preservation of these units in below-wave-base environments. Alternatively, this association may hint at enrichment of seawater in soluble iron under low-oxygen atmosphere/hydrosphere conditions due to enhanced denudation of mafic volcanic terrains uplifted/exposed through impact-induced tectonic movements and/or impact-triggered mafic volcanic and hydrothermal activity. The general absence of iron-rich sediments above carbonate-hosted impact ejecta units may be attributed to lack of Fe enrichment or to pH and Eh conditions unsuitable for the precipitation of iron oxides. The near-absence of BIF in high-energy shallow water environments overlying impact ejecta units may reflect retardation of colloidal/chemical sedimentation in such environments. A systematic association between impact ejecta and iron-rich sediments, if confirmed, may yield useful stratigraphic tracers in the search for impact signatures in early Precambrian terrains.

Glikson, Andrew

2006-06-01

365

Conditional Probability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by the Department of Statistics at Yale University gives an explanation, a definition and an example of conditional probability. Topics include the probabilities of intersections of events and Bayes' formula. Overall, this is a great resource for any mathematics classroom studying statistics.

Lacey, Michelle

2008-12-23

366

Chemical composition of burnt smell caused by accidental fires: environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the odors typical of fires has recently been deciphered. Basically the constituents are mixtures of acetophenone, benzyl alcohol, hydroxylated derivatives of benzaldehyde, methoxylated and/or alkylated phenols and naphthalene. This finding makes it possible to develop objective, practical analytic measurement methods for the burnt smell as a contribution to improving fire damage assessment and remediation monitoring. With the aid of an artificially produced burnt smell and a panel of testers the odor detection threshold of a test mixture was determined olfactometrically to 2 ?g m?³. Using a defined burnt-smell atmosphere in a test chamber, analytical methods with active sampling, the adsorbents XAD 7 and TENAX TA, and GC/MS measurement were then optimized and tested with a view to being able to carry out sensitive quantitative measurement of burnt smells. A further practical method with particular application to the qualitative characterization of this odor is based on the use of a new SPME (solid-phase microextraction) field sampler with DVB/CAR/PDMS (divinylbenzene/Carboxen™/polydimethylsiloxane) fibers. PMID:20947130

Heitmann, K; Wichmann, H; Bahadir, M; Gunschera, J; Schulz, N; Salthammer, T

2010-10-13

367

Potential risks of accidental introduction of Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) to Australia and New Zealand: effects of climatic conditions and suitability of native plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. The potential risk of establishment Asian gypsy moth (AGM) (Lymantria dispar) in Australia and New Zealand was assessed from a study of the insect's host range and potential distribution. Asian gypsy moth is known for its extreme polyphagy, as shown by over 650 species of known potential hosts. In New Zealand, viable eggs of AGM have been continuously

M. Matsuki; M. Kay; J. Serin; R. Floyd; John K. Scott

368

Accidental potassium dichromate poisoning. Toxicokinetics of chromium by ICP-MS-CRC in biological fluids and in hair.  

PubMed

Intoxications by chromium (Cr) compounds are very life threatening and often lethal. After oral ingestion of 2 or 3g of hexavalent Cr (Cr(VI)), gastrointestinal injury, but also hepatic and renal failure, often occurs which each leads to a fatal outcome in most patients. Cellular toxicity is associated with mitochondrial and lysosomal injury by biologically Cr(VI) reactive intermediates and reactive oxygen species. After Cr(VI) has been absorbed, there is not much that can be done except to control the main complications as the treatment is only symptomatic. The biotransformation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) reduces the toxicity because the trivalent form does not cross cellular membranes as rapidly. In fact, more than 80% of Cr(VI) is cleared in urine as Cr(III). We report the case of a 58-year-old male patient who was admitted to hospital after accidental oral ingestion of a 30 g/L potassium dichromate (the estimated amount of ingested Cr is about 3g). ICP-MS equipped with a collision/reaction cell (CRC) and validated methods were used to monitor plasma (P), red blood cells (RBCs), urine (U) and hair chromium. For urine the results were expressed per gram of creatinine. After 7 days in the intensive care unit, the patient was discharged without renal or liver failure. P, RBC and U were monitored during 49 days. During this period Cr decreased respectively from 2088 ?g/L to 5 ?g/L, 631 ?g/L to 129 ?g/L and 3512 ?g/g to 10 ?g/g. The half-life was much shorter in P than in RBC as the poison was more quickly cleared from the P than from the RBC, suggesting a cellular trapping of the metal. Hair was collected 2 months after the intoxication. We report a very rare case of survival after accidental Cr poisoning which has an extremely poor prognosis and usually leads to rapid death. For the first time, this toxicokinetic study highlights a sequestration of chromium in the RBC and probably in all the cells. PMID:22024652

Goullé, J P; Saussereau, E; Grosjean, J; Doche, C; Mahieu, L; Thouret, J M; Guerbet, M; Lacroix, C

2011-10-22

369

Business Contributions to Community Service.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study, which examines and describes 1989 contributions by Oregon businesses to community service, found that contributions patterns of small businesses differed from those of large businesses. Small businesses gave more than large businesses based on ...

P. Frishkoff

1991-01-01

370

Contributions to Khovanov Homology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Khovanov homology ist a new link invariant, discovered by M. Khovanov, and used by J. Rasmussen to give a combinatorial proof of the Milnor conjecture. In this thesis, we give examples of mutant links with different Khovanov homology. We prove that Khovanov's chain complex retracts to a subcomplex, whose generators are related to spanning trees of the Tait graph, and we exploit this result to investigate the structure of Khovanov homology for alternating knots. Further, we extend Rasmussen's invariant to links. Finally, we generalize Khovanov's categorifications of the colored Jones polynomial, and study conditions under which our categorifications are functorial with respect to colored framed link cobordisms. In this context, we develop a theory of Carter--Saito movie moves for framed link cobordisms.

Wehrli, Stephan M.

2008-10-01

371

EMSL Contribution Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Contribution Plan is EMSL’s template for achieving our vision of simultaneous excellence in all aspects of our mission as a national scientific user facility. It reflects our understanding of the long-term stewardship we must work toward to meet the scientific challenges faced by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the nation. During the next decade, we will implement the strategies contained in this Plan, working closely with the scientific community, our advisory committees, DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research, and other key stakeholders. This Plan is fully aligned with the strategic plans of DOE, its Office of Science, and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). We recognize that shifts in science and technology, national priorities, and resources made available through the Federal budget process create planning uncertainties and, ultimately, a highly dynamic planning environment. Accordingly, this Plan should be viewed as a living document and we continually evaluate the changing needs and opportunities posed by our stakeholders (i.e., DOE, users, staff, advisory committees), work closely with them to understand and respond to those changes, and align our strategy accordingly. This Plan is organized around two sections. Section 1 describes our vision and four strategic outcomes: 1) Scientific Innovation, 2) Capabilities that Transform Science, 3) Outstanding Management and Operations, and Engaged and Proactive Users. These outcomes provide the framework for seven critical actions we must take during the next 3 to 5 years: 1) Establishing leadership in EMSL science themes, 2) building and deploying transformational capabilities, 3) integrating computation with experiment, 4) ensuring EMSL’s workforce meets the scientific challenges of the future, 5) creating partnerships, 6) attracting and engaging users in EMSL’s long-term strategy, and 7) building a research infrastructure that meets emerging scientific needs. Section 2 describes EMSL’s detailed business plan, including an analysis of opportunity, organizational investments, and actionable milestones.

Campbell, Allison A.

2008-12-01

372

Incorporation of Therapeutic Interventions in Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Human Clinical Case Reports of Accidental or Intentional Overdosing with Ethylene Glycol  

SciTech Connect

Ethylene glycol is a high production volume chemical used in the manufacture of resins and fibers, antifreeze, deicing fluids, heat transfer and hydraulic fluids. Although occupational uses of ethylene glycol have not been associated with adverse effects, there are case reports where humans have either intentionally or accidentally ingested large quantities of ethylene glycol, primarily from antifreeze. The acute toxicity of ethylene glycol in humans and animals and can proceed through three stages, each associated with a different metabolite: central nervous system depression (ethylene glycol), cardiopulmonary effects associated with metabolic acidosis (glycolic acid) and ultimately renal toxicity (oxalic acid), depending upon the total amounts consumed and effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model developed in a companion paper (Corley et al., 2004) was refined in this study to include clinically relevant treatment regimens for ethylene glycol poisoning such as hemodialysis or metabolic inhibition with either ethanol or fomepizole. Such modifications enabled the model to describe several human case reports which included analysis of ethylene glycol and/or glycolic acid. Such data and model simulations provide important confirmation that the PBPK model developed previously can adequately describe the pharmacokinetics of ethylene glycol in humans following low, occupational or environmentally relevant inhalation exposures, as well as massive oral doses even under conditions where treatments have been employed that markedly affect the disposition of ethylene glycol and glycolic acid. By integrating the case report data sets with controlled studies in this PBPK model, it was demonstrated that fomepizole, if administered early enough in a clinical situation, can be more effective than ethanol or hemodialysis in preventing the metabolism of ethylene glycol to more toxic metabolites. Hemodialysis remains an important option, however, if treatment is instituted after a significant amount of EG is metabolized or if renal toxicity has occurred. The validated PBPK model was also used to compare internal dose surrogates associated with ethylene glycol toxicity in rats and humans. These simulations indicate that following occupational or environmental exposures, humans are unlikely to achieve blood levels of glycolic acid that have been associated with developmental toxicity in rats.

Corley, Rick A.; McMartin, K. E.

2005-05-16

373

Quantifying magnetite magnetofossil contributions to sedimentary magnetizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under suitable conditions, magnetofossils (the inorganic remains of magnetotactic bacteria) can contribute to the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) of sediments. In recent years, magnetofossils have been shown to be preserved commonly in marine sediments, which makes it essential to quantify their importance in palaeomagnetic recording. In this study, we examine a deep-sea sediment core from offshore of northwestern Western Australia. The magnetic mineral assemblage is dominated by continental detritus and magnetite magnetofossils. By separating magnetofossil and detrital components based on their different demagnetization characteristics, it is possible to quantify their respective contributions to the sedimentary NRM throughout the Brunhes chron. In the studied core, the contribution of magnetofossils to the NRM is controlled by large-scale climate changes, with their relative importance increasing during glacial periods when detrital inputs were low. Our results demonstrate that magnetite magnetofossils can dominate sedimentary NRMs in settings where they are preserved in significant abundances.

Heslop, David; Roberts, Andrew P.; Chang, Liao; Davies, Maureen; Abrajevitch, Alexandra; De Deckker, Patrick

2013-11-01

374

Accidental and deliberate microbiological contamination in the feed and food chains--how biotraceability may improve the response to bioterrorism.  

PubMed

A next frontier of the global food safety agenda has to consider a broad spectrum of bio-risks, such as accidental and intentional contaminations in the food and feed chain. In this article, the background for the research needs related to biotraceability and response to bioterrorism incidents are outlined. Given the current scale of international trade any response need to be considered in an international context. Biotraceability (e.g. the ability to use downstream information to point to processes or within a particular food chain that can be identified as the source of undesirable agents) is crucial in any food-born outbreak and particular in the response to bioterrorism events. In the later case, tested and proven biotraceability improves the following: (i) international collaboration of validated tracing tools and detection methods, (ii) multi-disciplinary expertise and collaboration in the field of food microbiology and conceptual modeling of the food chain, (iii) sampling as a key step in biotracing (iv) optimized sample preparation procedures, including laboratory work in Biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratories, (v) biomarker discovery for relevant tracing and tracking applications, and (vi) high-throughput sequencing using bio-informatic platforms to speed up the characterization of the biological agent. By applying biotraceability, the response phase during a bioterrorism event may be shortened and is facilitated for tracing the origin of biological agent contamination. PMID:21093084

Knutsson, Rickard; van Rotterdam, Bart; Fach, Patrick; De Medici, Dario; Fricker, Martina; Löfström, Charlotta; Agren, Joakim; Segerman, Bo; Andersson, Gunnar; Wielinga, Peter; Fenicia, Lucia; Skiby, Jeffrey; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

2010-10-21

375

Successful treatment of severe accidental hypothermia with cardiac arrest for a long time using cardiopulmonary bypass - report of a case  

PubMed Central

Accidental hypothermia is defined as an unintentional decrease in body temperature to below 35°C, and cases in which temperatures drop below 28°C are considered severe and have a high mortality rate. This study presents the case of a 57-year-old man discovered drifting at sea who was admitted to our hospital suffering from cardiac arrest. Upon admittance, an electrocardiogram indicated asystole, and the patient's temperature was 22°C. Thirty minutes of standard CPR and external rewarming were ineffective in raising his temperature. However, although he had been in cardiac arrest for nearly 2 h, it was decided to continue resuscitation, and a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was initiated. CPB was successful in gradually rewarming the patient and restoring spontaneous circulation. After approximately 1 month of rehabilitation, the patient was subsequently discharged, displaying no neurological deficits. The successful recovery in this case suggests that CPB can be considered a useful way to treat severe hypothermia, particularly in those suffering from cardiac arrest.

2012-01-01

376

Weathering of primary minerals and mobility of major elements in soils affected by an accidental spill of pyrite tailing.  

PubMed

In the present work, soil profiles were sampled 40 days and three years after an accidental pyrite tailing spill from the Aznalcóllar mine (S Spain) in order to figure out the effects of the acidic solution draining from the tailing. The composition of the acidic solution, the mineralogy, and the total and soluble content of the major elements were analysed at varying depths. The results show a weathering process of carbonates and of primary silicates. Calcium released is leached or reacts with the sulphate ions to form gypsum. Magnesium, aluminium and potassium tend to leach from the uppermost millimetres of the soil, accumulating where the pH>/=5.0; also the iron, probably forming more or less complex hydroxysulphates, precipitate in the upper 5 cm. The strong releasing of soluble salts increases the electrical conductivity, while the soluble potassium tends to decrease in the uppermost part of the soil due to the neoformation of jarosite. Iron is soluble only where the pH

Martín, Francisco; Diez, María; García, Inés; Simón, Mariano; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Iriarte, Angel; Aguilar, José

2007-02-20

377

A case study of chlorine transport and fate following a large accidental release  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A train derailment that occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina during the early morning hours of 06 January, 2005 resulted in the prompt release of approximately 60 tons of chlorine to the environment. Comprehensive modeling of the transport and fate of this release was performed including the characterization of the initial three-phased chlorine release, a detailed determination of the local atmospheric conditions acting to generate, disperse, and deplete the chlorine vapor cloud, the establishment of physical exchange mechanisms between the airborne vapor and local surface waters, and local aquatic dilution and mixing.Previous studies of large chlorine releases have concluded that depletion of the resulting vapor cloud through physical and chemical reactions with sunlight, atmospheric constituents, and local surfaces can significantly reduce the areal extent over which the vapor poses a toxicological hazard. For Graniteville, modeling results were the most consistent with available data on human health effects, animal and fish mortality, and vegetation damage when an effective deposition velocity in the lower end of a range of values commonly cited in other studies (1 cm s-1) was applied. This relatively small deposition is attributed to a lack of sunlight, a limited uptake in vegetation due to rapid stomatal damage, and the limited presence of nearby man-made structures. Explicit simulations of chlorine deposition into adjacent surface waters were based on a modified Henry's Law approach and resulted in the transfer of an estimated 21 kg of chlorine into these waters.

Buckley, Robert L.; Hunter, Charles H.; Werth, David W.; Whiteside, Morgana T.; Chen, Kuo-Fu; Mazzola, Carl A.

2012-12-01

378

Operant conditioning.  

PubMed

Operant behavior is behavior "controlled" by its consequences. In practice, operant conditioning is the study of reversible behavior maintained by reinforcement schedules. We review empirical studies and theoretical approaches to two large classes of operant behavior: interval timing and choice. We discuss cognitive versus behavioral approaches to timing, the "gap" experiment and its implications, proportional timing and Weber's law, temporal dynamics and linear waiting, and the problem of simple chain-interval schedules. We review the long history of research on operant choice: the matching law, its extensions and problems, concurrent chain schedules, and self-control. We point out how linear waiting may be involved in timing, choice, and reinforcement schedules generally. There are prospects for a unified approach to all these areas. PMID:12415075

Staddon, J E R; Cerutti, D T

2002-06-10

379

Chronic health problems and risk of accidental injury in the workplace: A systematic literature review  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate whether common important health conditions and their treatments increase risks of occupational injury. Methods A systematic search was conducted of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO databases from inception to November 2006 employing terms for occupational injury, medications, and a broad range of diseases and impairments. Papers related solely to driving, alcohol, or substance abuse were excluded, as were studies that did not allow analysis of injury risk. For each paper that was retrieved we abstracted standard information on the population, design, exposure(s), outcome(s), response rates, confounders and effect estimates; and rated the quality of information provided. Results We found 38 relevant papers (33 study populations): 16 studies were of cross-sectional design, 13 were case-control and four were prospective. The overall quality was rated as excellent for only two studies. Most commonly investigated were problems of hearing (15 studies), mental health (11 studies) and vision (10 studies). For impaired hearing, neurotic illness, diabetes, epilepsy and use of sedating medication there were moderate positive associations with occupational injury (ORs 1.5–2.0), but there were major gaps in the evidence base. Studies on vision did not present risks by category of eye disease; no evidence was found on psychotic illness; for diabetes, epilepsy and cardiovascular disease there were remarkably few papers; studies seldom distinguished risks by sub-category of external cause or anatomical site and nature of injury; and exposures and outcomes were mostly ascertained by self-report at a single time point, with a lack of clarity about exposure timings. Conclusion Improved research is needed to define the risks of occupational injury arising from common health complaints and treatments. Such research should delineate exposures and outcomes in more detail, and ensure by design that the former precede the latter.

PALMER, K T; HARRIS, E C; COGGON, D

2013-01-01

380

Cotton plants transformed with a bacterial degradation gene are protected from accidental spray drift damage by the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agronomic performance of broad leaved crop plants such as cotton would be greatly improved if genetically-engineered resistance to broadleaf herbicides could both protect the plants from accidental spray drift damage and allow the suppression of problem broadleaf weeds by chemical means. Followingin vitro modification and the addition of plant expression signals, the gene for 2,4-D monooxygenase, a bacterial enzyme

Bruce R. Lyon; Yvonne L. Cousins; Danny J. Llewellyn; Elizabeth S. Dennis

1993-01-01

381

Study of the effects of accidentally released carbon/graphite fibers on electric power equipment. Program final report, June 5, 1978-June 5, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The program to study the effect of accidentally released carbon fibers on electrical power equipment consisted of determining the vulnerability of system outage rates to carbon fiber contamination, and performing tests to quantitize the contamination required to cause flashover of external insulation. Part One of this final report describes an assessment of the vulnerability of power systems to accidentally released fibers from a composite burn. The assessment describes the effect of carbon fibers on individual component failure rates and discusses the effect the change in component failure rates has on the power system reliability. Part Two describes in detail testing performed to determine the vulnerability of external insulation to carbon fiber contamination. Testing consisted of airborne contamination tests on distribution insulators, limited tests on suspension insulators which are commonly used for transmission class voltages, and various tests to quantify the influence of fiber length, voltage stress, etc. on flashover characteristics. The data obtained and analysis performed during this project show that the change of system reliability due to an accidental release from burned carbon fiber composite is negligible.

Mauser, S.F.; Bankoske, J.W.; Cooper, J.H.; Davies, D.G.; Eichler, C.H.; Hileman, A.R.; Mousseau, T.E. Jr.; Rackliffe, G.B.

1980-06-05

382

[The role, objectives and usefulness of medico-legal determinations in post-accidental procedures in traumatic deaths in hard coal-mining industry].  

PubMed

The underground hard coal-mining sector demonstrates one of the highest rates of fatal accidents, in spite of a decline in coal-mining over the last few years. Post-accidental investigations, including forensic medical expertise, continue to present a significant problem. The objective of the research was to evaluate the role, tasks and usefulness of medico-legal determinations in post-accidental procedures in traumatic deaths in hard coal-mining industry. The study was carried out retrospectively by investigating files and autopsy reports, with attention focusing on the scope of necessary activities and medico-legal examinations in order to determine the cause and manner of death, and on identification of fatalities, especially in the cases of collective occupational accidents. Complex medico-legal determinations (identification, autopsy), supplemented by additional investigations (toxicology, histopathology and hemogenetics) provide a valuable source of evidence for legal authorities and post-accidental commissions. Mutual cooperation of the experts representing various branches of science is the basis of executing appropriate procedures after a traumatic death in the coal mine. PMID:20073259

Skowronek, Rafa?; Chowaniec, Czes?aw

383

Definitive, intermediate, paratenic, and accidental hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and its molluscan intermediate hosts in Hawa'i.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic meningitis caused by infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis, a parasitic nematode, is an emerging infectious disease of humans and other animals, known as angiostrongyliasis or rat lungworm disease. Symptoms range from headache and muscle spasms in mild cases to coma and even death. Many human cases have been recorded around the world, with the majority in tropical and subtropical locations. The increase in numbers of human cases and the expansion of the geographic distribution of cases make this parasite and its hosts important research foci. Definitive hosts include various rat species such as Rattus norvegicus, R. rattus, and R. exulans, and a number of land and freshwater snails and slugs have previously been identified as intermediate hosts. Both definitive and intermediate hosts are obligate to the life cycle of A. cantonensis. Paratenic hosts span a wide range of fauna and are not needed in the nematode's life cycle, but act as reservoirs in which different larval stages of the parasite can persist but not develop further; they include freshwater shrimp, flatworms, and frogs. Accidental hosts, including humans and other mammals, as well as birds, permit development from the third larval stage to the subadult (fifth) stage but are then dead ends for the parasite. These hosts are infected primarily through consumption of raw or undercooked intermediate or paratenic hosts, either intentionally or accidentally via contaminated produce. In Hawa'i, there have been recent outbreaks with cases of infection on four of the main islands. Since there is currently a limited consensus on appropriate therapy, steps to prevent infection should be taken. The first step to facilitate this and to lay the groundwork for future management of the hosts is to identify the intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis and to determine its geographic distribution within the Hawaiian Islands. To do this over 1000 specimens of 37 terrestrial and freshwater snail and slug species (30 introduced, 7 native) from the six largest Hawaiian Islands were screened using a molecular approach. Total DNA was extracted from foot tissue of each specimen and was amplified using Angiostrongylus-specific primers.8 Amplicons were visualized on agarose gels to determine if specimens were positive or negative for A. cantonensis. All of the positive specimens and a random sample of all other specimens tested were also reamplified using species-specific primers. All positive samples were still positive with the newer primers. The parasite was present in 16 (14 alien, 2 native) of these species, from five of the six largest Hawaiian Islands. These species represent 10 phylogenetically diverse terrestrial pulmonate families and 2 more distantly related caenogastropod families (one terrestrial and one freshwater). This broad phylogenetic representation demonstrates that this parasite is not host specific, to the extent that perhaps even any snail or slug species could act as an intermediate host. PMID:23901373

Kim, Jaynee R; Hayes, Kenneth A; Yeung, Norine W; Cowie, Robert H

2013-06-01

384

Accidental death due to complete autoerotic asphyxia associated with transvestic fetishism and anal self-stimulation - case report.  

PubMed

A case is reported of a 36-year-old male, found dead in his locked room, lying on a bed, dressed in his mother's clothes, with a plastic bag over his head, hands tied and with a barrel wooden cork in his rectum. Two pornographic magazines were found on a chair near the bed, so that the deceased could see them well. Asphyxia was controlled with a complex apparatus which consisted of two elastic luggage rack straps, the first surrounding his waist, perineum, and buttocks, and the second the back of his body, and neck. According to the psychological autopsy based on a structured interview (SCID-I, SCID-II) with his father, the deceased was single, unemployed and with a part college education. He had grown up in a poor family with a reserved father and dominant mother, and was indicative of fulfilling DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence, paraphilia involving hypoxyphilia with transvestic fetishism and anal masturbation and a borderline personality disorder. There was no evidence of previous psychiatric treatment. The Circumstances subscale of Beck's Suicidal Intent Scale (SIS-CS) pointed at the lack of final acts (thoughts or plans) in anticipation of death, and absence of a suicide note or overt communication of suicidal intent before death. Integration of the crime scene data with those of the forensic medicine and psychological autopsy enabled identification of the event as an accidental death, caused by neck strangulation, suffocation by a plastic bag, and vagal stimulation due to a foreign body in the rectum. PMID:19556957

Atanasijevi?, Tatjana; Jovanovi?, Aleksandar A; Nikoli?, Slobodan; Popovi?, Vesna; Jasovi?-Gasi?, Miroslava

2009-06-01

385

Prescription and over-the-counter medication in deliberate self-poisoning and accidental overdosing--preliminary study.  

PubMed

186 case records of patients who overdosed pharmaceuticals (confirmed by toxicological lab analysis) hospitalized at the Department of Clinical Toxicology during three months of 2000 were analyzed for age, sex, type of medication, reason for poisoning (intentional or accidental overdosing). Patients poisoned with prescription medication (Rx group) were compared with those who overdosed nonprescription (OTC-group) medications (alone or combined with Rx). Relative frequency of medication drug poisoning was highest in the 40-49 age group (28.5%) and was followed by the group of young adults (20-29 years; 24.2%). The lowest frequency (2.2%) was noted in the 60-69 age group. Of 186 cases analyzed, in 163 (87.6%) prescription medication (Rx) and in 23 (12.4%) OTC alone or co-ingested with Rx were involved (chi2 = 63.9; p < 0.001). The Rx and OTC groups were not significantly different as to reason for poisoning (chi2 = 0.7; p = 0.792) with significant overrepresentation of deliberate ingestion in both the group analysed (chi2 = 114.39; p < 0.001 for Rx, and chi2 = 13.49; p = 0.002 for OTC). Most adults attempting suicide used Rx with the highest incidence in the 40-49 age group (31.1%). Adolescents (14-19 years) with female over-representation ingested rather OTC pharmaceuticals (40.9%). Acetaminophen (alone or combined with benzodiazepines or/and ethanol) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were the most common OTC medications used for deliberate self-poisoning. PMID:16225126

Szkolnicka, Beata

2005-01-01

386

Accidental falls, health-related quality of life and life satisfaction: A prospective study of the general elderly population.  

PubMed

As the physical consequences of accidental falls in the elderly are well-researched, the long-term associations between falls and quality of life and related concepts are less known. The aim of this study was to prospectively examine the long-term relations between falls and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and life satisfaction (LS) over six years in the general elderly population. One thousand three hundred and twenty-one subjects (aged 60-93 years), from the general population in the south of Sweden, were included in a baseline assessment and a follow-up after six years. HRQoL was measured with the SF-12 and LS with the life satisfaction index A (LSI-A). The differences in mean scores between fallers at baseline (n=113) and non-fallers were statistical analyzed. Furthermore, the prediction of falls on the outcomes was analyzed using a multivariate linear regression model adjusted for multiple confounding factors. Fallers scored significant lower in HRQoL and LS at baseline and after six years, compared to non-fallers, especially in the SF-12 physical component (p=<0.001). In the linear regression analysis, one or more falls at the baseline predicted a significant reduction in the SF-12 physical component at the follow-up assessment (B-Coefficient -1.8, 95% CI -3.4 to -0.2). In conclusion, falls predict a long-term reduction in the physical component of HRQoL in the general elderly population. Over six years, fallers had a notable chronic lowered score in both HRQoL and LS, compared to non-fallers. This long-term depression of elderly fallers in these aspects may be more extent than previous assumed. PMID:23993268

Stenhagen, Magnus; Ekström, Henrik; Nordell, Eva; Elmståhl, Sölve

2013-08-08

387

Cellular automata-based forecasting of the impact of accidental fire and toxic dispersion in process industries.  

PubMed

The strategies to prevent accidents from occurring in a process industry, or to minimize the harm if an accident does take place, always revolve around forecasting the likely accidents and their impacts. Based on the likely frequency and severity of the accidents, resources are committed towards preventing the accidents. Nearly all techniques of ranking hazardous units, be it the hazard and operability studies, fault tree analysis, hazard indice, etc.--qualitative as well as quantitative--depend essentially on the assessment of the likely frequency and the likely harm accidents in different units may cause. This fact makes it exceedingly important that the forecasting the accidents and their likely impact is done as accurately as possible. In the present study we introduce a new approach to accident forecasting based on the discrete modeling paradigm of cellular automata. In this treatment an accident is modeled as a self-evolving phenomena, the impact of which is strongly influenced by the size, nature, and position of the environmental components which lie in the vicinity of the accident site. The outward propagation of the mass, energy and momentum from the accident epicenter is modeled as a fast diffusion process occurring in discrete space-time coordinates. The quantum of energy and material that would flow into each discrete space element (cell) due to the accidental release is evaluated and the degree of vulnerability posed to the receptors if present in the cell is measured at the end of each time element. This approach is able to effectively take into account the modifications in the flux of energy and material which occur as a result of the heterogeneous environment prevailing between the accident epicenter and the receptor. Consequently, more realistic accident scenarios are generated than possible with the prevailing techniques. The efficacy of the approach has been illustrated with case studies. PMID:16713088

Sarkar, Chinmoy; Abbasi, S A

2006-04-19

388

Follow-up study of abnormal biological indicators and gene expression in the peripheral blood of three accidentally exposed persons  

PubMed Central

In order to identify biomarkers for early diagnosis and/or for therapeutic targets in the delayed health effects of ionizing radiation, we analyzed the subgroups of lymphocytes, serum protein levels and gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood of three 60Co ?-ray accidentally exposed persons during the three years after irradiation. Flow cytometry analyses and agarose gel electrophoresis were applied to investigate the subgroups of lymphocytes and the composition of serum proteins, respectively. Gene expression profiling was obtained using a whole genome gene expression chip assay. Both the percentage of CD4+ T lymphocytes and the ratio of Th to Ts were reduced compared with the normal control values. The percentage of albumin decreased whereas beta globulin increased. There were 285 up-regulated and 446 down-regulated genes in irradiated samples relative to the control samples. The expression of KDR, CEACAM8 and OSM was validated by RT-PCR. The majority of the differentially expressed genes encode proteins associated with the immune response, inflammation, oncogenesis, cell structure, oxidative stress, neuro-hormone regulation, reproduction, susceptibility to psychiatric disorders, or transcriptional regulation. We have identified a number of promising novel candidates that have potential for serving as biomarkers for delayed damage. Furthermore, the changes in the immunological indicator CD4+ T cells, and the ratio of CD4+ T to CD8+ T cells may be biomarkers for the prediction of delayed damage by ionizing radiation. The findings of our study are useful for forming a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying the delayed effects of ionizing radiation.

Chi, Cuiping; Tian, Rong; Liu, Huifang; Wang, Haiyan; Wei, Jinping; Guo, Jianping; Guo, Fengling; Li, Shufang

2013-01-01

389

Collaborating on contributions to conversations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contributing to conversation, it is proposed, is accomplished in two phases. In the presentation phase, one participant ordinarily presents a stretch of speech intended to specify the content of his or her contribution. In the acceptance phase, all the participants work together to establish the mutual belief that everyone else has understood that content well enough for current purposes. The

Herbert H. Clark; Edward F. Schaefer

1987-01-01

390

Variation in contributions to teaching by meerkats  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence from cooperative insect, bird and mammal societies has challenged the assumption that teaching is restricted to humans. However, little is known about the factors affecting the degree to which individuals in such societies contribute to teaching. Here, I examine variation in contributions to teaching in meerkats, where older group members teach pups to handle difficult prey. I show that investment in teaching varies with characteristics of pups, helpers, groups and ecological conditions. Although prior experience in caring for pups did not significantly influence teaching behaviour, younger helpers, which were still investing in growth, contributed less to teaching than older individuals. This suggests that, in common with other cooperative activities, contributions to teaching vary with the costs experienced by individual group members. However, in contrast to other forms of helping in meerkats, I detected no effects of nutritional state on teaching, suggesting that it carries relatively low costs. In species where individuals can potentially gain direct or indirect fitness benefits from facilitating learning in others, low costs divided among multiple group members may help tip the balance towards selection for teaching.

Thornton, Alex

2008-01-01

391

AS HIGHER EDUCATION EXPANDS, IS IT CONTRIBUTING TO GREATER INEQUALITY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the various elements that enter into the relation between higher education expansion and income distribution. Contrary to the prevailing ideology, the paper suggests that under certain conditions the mass expansion of higher education can contribute to greater income inequality. These conditions are related to three important variables not usually considered in the education-income distribution model: rising returns

Martin Carnoy

2011-01-01

392

Tear Strength of Elastomers under Threshold Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements have been made of the tear strength of several elastomeric materials under threshold conditions, i.e., in the swollen state and at high temperatures when dissipative contributions to the work of fracture are minimized. The materials studied w...

A. K. Bhowmick A. N. Gent C. T. R. Pulford

1983-01-01

393

Initial Conditions for Turbulent Mixing Simulations  

SciTech Connect

In the context of the classical Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamical instability, we examine the much debated question of models for initial conditions and the possible influence of unrecorded long wave length contributions to the instability growth rate {alpha}.

Kaman, T.; Glimm, J.; Sharp, D.H.

2010-12-01

394

The Accidental Systems Librarian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers advice and information to help librarians manage and interact with computer technology in their institutions. Chapters 1 and 2 provide a background in systems librarianship, outlining the skills that may be needed and defining the specialty. Chapters 3 and 4 show how traditional library skills such as the organization of knowledge…

Gordon, Rachel Singer

395

Mexico: The Accidental Narco.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the escalation of drug cartel and gang violence in Mexico directly and indirectly affecting U.S. interests, the U.S. government's response has been to bolster border security and support Mexican president Felipe Calderon administration's efforts to b...

P. R. Kan

2011-01-01

396

Accidental Cs-137 contamination  

SciTech Connect

Widespread use of radionuclides in medicine and industry poses the possibility of radiation accidents. The authors describe such an occurrence involving three industrial workers. The accident resulted from careless handling of a Cs-137 source. Evaluation of the Cs-137 whole body burden was carried out using stationary and scanning whole body counters. In addition, regional and whole body activity from contamination was assessed using an uncollimated gamma camera. This report emphasizes the value of the gamma camera for detection of radionuclide contamination in radiation accidents.

Nishiyama, H.; Saenger, E.L.; Grossman, L.W.; Lukes, S.J.

1985-02-01

397

Preventing Accidental Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... who are trained and highly educated on the complexities of today's medications. Children The Centers for Disease ... who are trained and highly educated on the complexities of today's medications.

398

Accurate and Accidental Empathy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author offers two controversial criticisms of what are rapidly becoming standard assessment procedures for the measurement of empathic skill. First, he asserts that assessment procedures which attend exclusively to the accuracy with which subjects are able to characterize other people's feelings provide little or no useful information about…

Chandler, Michael

399

The Accidental Artist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adapted from the 1998 Anne Carroll Moore Lecture, relates the background of Newbery Medal winner, Paul Fleischman, and his travel adventures, mostly by bicycle, that lead to him becoming a writer and influenced the content of his work. (LRW)|

Fleischman, Paul

1999-01-01

400

Accidental Exposure to Americium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report desribes an accident in which a 64-year old Hanford nuclear worker was exposed to high levels of americium while working in an americium recovery facility in 1976. As a result of the accident, he was heavily externally contaminated with americ...

K. R. Heid

1985-01-01

401

Accidental exposure to americium  

SciTech Connect

This report desribes an accident in which a 64-year old Hanford nuclear worker was exposed to high levels of americium while working in an americium recovery facility in 1976. As a result of the accident, he was heavily externally contaminated with americium, sustained with a substantial internal deposition of this isotope, and was burned with concentrated nitric acid and injured by flying debris about the face and neck. The immediate and longer-term treatment given the patient, including the decontamination efforts and clinical laboratory studies, are discussed. Special in-vivo equipment and techniques were used to measure the americium deposited in the patient. These and subsequent in-vivo measurements were used to estimate the dose rates and the accumulated doses to body organs. Urinary and fecal excreta were collected and analyzed for americium content. The interpretation of these data was complicated by the fact that the intake resulted both from inhalation and from solubilization of the americium embedded in facial tissues as a result of the accident. A total of 1100 ..mu..Ci was excreted in urine and feces during the first 2 years following the accident. The long-term use of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), used principally as the zinc salt, is discussed including the method, route of administration, and effectiveness. To date, the patient has apparently experienced no complications attributable to this extensive course of therapy, even though he was given approximately 560 g of DTPA. 6 refs.

Heid, K.R.

1985-04-01

402

A national survey of anaesthetists (NAP5 Baseline) to estimate an annual incidence of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia in the UK.  

PubMed

As part of the 5th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland concerning accidental awareness during general anaesthesia, we issued a questionnaire to every consultant and staff and associate specialist anaesthetist in the UK. The survey was designed to ascertain the number of new cases of accidental awareness that became known to them, for patients under their direct or supervised care, for a calendar year, and also to estimate how many cases they had experienced during their careers. The survey also asked about use of monitoring designed to measure the depth of anaesthesia. All local co-ordinators responsible for each of 329 hospitals (organised into 265 'centres') in the UK responded, as did 7125 anaesthetists (82%). There were 153 new cases of accidental awareness notified to respondents in 2011, an estimated incidence of 1:15 414, lower than the 1-2:1000 previously reported in prospective clinical trials. Almost half the cases (72, 47%) occurred at or after induction of anaesthesia but before surgery, with 46 (30%) occurring during surgery and 35 (23%) after surgery before full recovery. Awareness during surgery appeared to lead more frequently to pain or distress than at induction and emergence (62% vs 28% and 23%, respectively). Depth of anaesthesia monitors were available in 164 centres (62%), but routinely used by only 132 (1.8%) of anaesthetists. The disparity between the incidence of awareness as notified to anaesthetists and that reported in trials warrants further examination and explanation. PMID:23488832

Pandit, J J; Cook, T M; Jonker, W R; O'Sullivan, E

2013-04-01

403

The Condition-Dependent Transcriptional Landscape of Burkholderia pseudomallei  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp), the causative agent of the often-deadly infectious disease melioidosis, contains one of the largest prokaryotic genomes sequenced to date, at 7.2 Mb with two large circular chromosomes (1 and 2). To comprehensively delineate the Bp transcriptome, we integrated whole-genome tiling array expression data of Bp exposed to >80 diverse physical, chemical, and biological conditions. Our results provide direct experimental support for the strand-specific expression of 5,467 Sanger protein-coding genes, 1,041 operons, and 766 non-coding RNAs. A large proportion of these transcripts displayed condition-dependent expression, consistent with them playing functional roles. The two Bp chromosomes exhibited dramatically different transcriptional landscapes — Chr 1 genes were highly and constitutively expressed, while Chr 2 genes exhibited mosaic expression where distinct subsets were expressed in a strongly condition-dependent manner. We identified dozens of cis-regulatory motifs associated with specific condition-dependent expression programs, and used the condition compendium to elucidate key biological processes associated with two complex pathogen phenotypes — quorum sensing and in vivo infection. Our results demonstrate the utility of a Bp condition-compendium as a community resource for biological discovery. Moreover, the observation that significant portions of the Bp virulence machinery can be activated by specific in vitro cues provides insights into Bp's capacity as an “accidental pathogen”, where genetic pathways used by the bacterium to survive in environmental niches may have also facilitated its ability to colonize human hosts.

Nandi, Tannistha; Kreisberg, Jason F.; Chua, Hui Hoon; Sun, Guangwen; Chen, Yahua; Mueller, Claudia; Conejero, Laura; Eshaghi, Majid; Ang, Roy Moh Lik; Liu, Jianhua; Sobral, Bruno W.; Korbsrisate, Sunee; Gan, Yunn Hwen; Titball, Richard W.; Bancroft, Gregory J.; Valade, Eric; Tan, Patrick

2013-01-01

404

The Condition-Dependent Transcriptional Landscape of Burkholderia pseudomallei.  

PubMed

Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp), the causative agent of the often-deadly infectious disease melioidosis, contains one of the largest prokaryotic genomes sequenced to date, at 7.2 Mb with two large circular chromosomes (1 and 2). To comprehensively delineate the Bp transcriptome, we integrated whole-genome tiling array expression data of Bp exposed to >80 diverse physical, chemical, and biological conditions. Our results provide direct experimental support for the strand-specific expression of 5,467 Sanger protein-coding genes, 1,041 operons, and 766 non-coding RNAs. A large proportion of these transcripts displayed condition-dependent expression, consistent with them playing functional roles. The two Bp chromosomes exhibited dramatically different transcriptional landscapes - Chr 1 genes were highly and constitutively expressed, while Chr 2 genes exhibited mosaic expression where distinct subsets were expressed in a strongly condition-dependent manner. We identified dozens of cis-regulatory motifs associated with specific condition-dependent expression programs, and used the condition compendium to elucidate key biological processes associated with two complex pathogen phenotypes - quorum sensing and in vivo infection. Our results demonstrate the utility of a Bp condition-compendium as a community resource for biological discovery. Moreover, the observation that significant portions of the Bp virulence machinery can be activated by specific in vitro cues provides insights into Bp's capacity as an "accidental pathogen", where genetic pathways used by the bacterium to survive in environmental niches may have also facilitated its ability to colonize human hosts. PMID:24068961

Ooi, Wen Fong; Ong, Catherine; Nandi, Tannistha; Kreisberg, Jason F; Chua, Hui Hoon; Sun, Guangwen; Chen, Yahua; Mueller, Claudia; Conejero, Laura; Eshaghi, Majid; Ang, Roy Moh Lik; Liu, Jianhua; Sobral, Bruno W; Korbsrisate, Sunee; Gan, Yunn Hwen; Titball, Richard W; Bancroft, Gregory J; Valade, Eric; Tan, Patrick

2013-09-12

405

Contribution of chlorophyll fluorescence to the reflectance of corn foliage  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the contribution of chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) to apparent reflectance (Ra) in the red\\/far-red, spectra were collected on a C4 agricultural species (corn, Zea mays L.) under conditions ranging from nitrogen deficiency to excess. A significant contribution of ChlF to Ra was observed, with on average 10-25% at 685nm and 2-6% at 740nm of Ra being due to ChlF.

P. K. Entcheva Campbell; E. M. Middleton; L. A. Corp; J. E. McMurtrey; M. S. Kim; E. W. Chappelle; L. M. Butcher

2002-01-01

406

Continuous-Variable Teleportation of Single-Photon States and AN Accidental Cloning of a Photonic Qubit in Two-Channel Teleportation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of continuous-variable teleportation of single-photon states are investigated. The output state is different from the input state due to the non-maximal entanglement in the EPR beams. The photon statistics of the teleportation output are determined and the correlation between the field information ? obtained in the teleportation process and the change in photon number is discussed. The results of the output photon statistics are applied to the transmission of a qubit encoded in the polarization of a single photon. The information encoded in the polarization of a single photon can be transferred to a remote location by two-channel continuous variable quantum teleportation. However, the finite entanglement used in the teleportation causes random changes in photon number. If more than one photon appears in the output, the continuous variable teleportation accidentally produces clones of the original input photon. In this paper, it derives the polarization statistics of the N-photon output components and shows that they can be decomposed into an optimal cloning term and completely unpolarized noise. It is found that the accidental cloning of the input photon is nearly optimal at experimentally feasible squeezing levels, indicating that the loss of polarization information is partially compensated by the availability of clones.

Ide, Toshiki

2009-06-01

407

Radiative heat transfer in a pressurized water reactor fuel bundle under accident conditions  

SciTech Connect

A simple model is applied for the analysis of radiative heat transfer in a pressurized water reactor fuel assembly during steady state and under a loss-of-coolant accident. The method includes a matrix calculation of view factors, performed dividing the bundle into unit cells composed by portions of fuel rods and by a coolant subchannel. The cells are correlated considering imaginary faces among them, and the pertinent equations are simultaneously solved for the whole assembly. Some results are related for various values of the heat flux in different operational and accidental conditions.

Lorenzini, E.; Sola, G.P.; Spiga, M.

1983-10-01

408

Gluonic Spin Contribution to Proton Spin at NLO  

SciTech Connect

In 1988, when the EMC results showed that the quarks had a much smaller contribution to the spin of the proton than previously thought, the 'Proton Spin Crisis' began. Since then, considerable effort has been directed into discovering the main contributors to proton spin and how much each contributes. One such contributor is the gluonic spin component. QCD NLO evolution equations are combined with boundary conditions obtained from heavy quark decoupling expressions to evolve the equations from infinity to the mass of the charm quark in order to determine the gluonic spin contribution.

Casey, Andrew [CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005 (Australia)

2011-05-24

409

Ayuveda'S contribution to sports medicine.  

PubMed

Medical Science plays an important role in the field of Sports. Maintenance of fitness throughout the events, heightened physical and mental stamina are the basic needs of sportsmen. Here, the author attempts to find out the ways and means of utilizing the poten-tial of Ayurveda in the field of sports and its original contribution to sports medicine. PMID:22557655

Satpute, A D

1989-01-01

410

Supporting Enterprise. A College Contribution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report describes the experience of one college--Percival Whitley College in Calderdale, England--in contributing to the strategy for economic regeneration of the surrounding metropolitan district. It charts the success of the borough and the college working together to attract national and European funding. A checklist for implementing…

Bolton, John F.; Cook, David

411

A Treatise of Taxes & Contributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Treatise of Taxes & Contributions, shewing the Nature and Measures of Crown Lands, Assessments, Customs, Poll-Money, Lotteries, Benevolence, Penalties, Monopolies, Offices, Tythes, Raising of Coins, Harth-Money, Excize, etc. With several intersperst Discourses and Digressions concerning Warres, The Church, Universities, Rents & Purchases, Usury & Exchange, Banks & Lombards, Registries for Conveyances, Beggars, Ensurance, Exportation of Money & Wool, Free-ports,

William Petty

412

British contribution to knee arthroplasty.  

PubMed

British surgeons and engineers contributed various types of knee prostheses, including hinged, unconstrained, and semiconstrained prostheses, in the development of total knee arthroplasty. Methods of implant fixation, the place of stems, pegs, the use of special instrumentation, and alignment procedures ensure both intrinsic and extrinsic prosthetic stability. PMID:3530580

Freeman, M A; Levack, B

1986-09-01

413

Knowing your contribution to climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Challenging issues such as greenhouse gas emissions and Climate Change may seem very remote, but there are ways that can help to better perceive our contribution to such problems. And that is where a new mobile application - mobGAS© - comes into play. mobGAS© will be the first mobile application about climate change with wide distribution in Europe and world.

I. Crespo

2009-01-01

414

Recent Langley helicopter acoustics contributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The helicopter acoustics program at NASA Langley has included technology for elements of noise control ranging from sources of noise to receivers of noise. The scope of Langley contributions for about the last decade is discussed. Specifically, the resolution of two certification noise quantification issues by subjective acoustics research, the development status of the helicopter system noise prediction program ROTONET

Homer G. Morgan; S. P. Pao; C. A. Powell

1988-01-01

415

Alumni Willingness to Give and Contribution Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigates the effect of alumni ownership of university insignia goods and related alumni contribution behavior. Two distinct measures of alumni contribution behavior-willingness to give and actual contribution behavior-were used in this study. Willingness to give is a measure of the desire or sentiment to contribute. Contributions are behavioral manifestations of that sentiment. The results of the study indicate the importance

Gail Tom; Laura Elmer

1994-01-01

416

Diseases and Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases & Conditions Health & Wellness Studies & Data Patient Treatment Employee Health About Us Site Search Diseases & Conditions Home ... Diseases & Conditions Health & Wellness Studies & Data Patient Treatment Employee Health About You are here: Home » Diseases & Conditions ...

417

Conditional Length of Stay.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To develop and test a new outcome measure, Conditional Length of Stay (CLOS), to assess hospital performance when deaths are rare and complication data are not available. DATA SOURCES: The 1991 and 1992 MedisGroups National Comparative Data Base. STUDY DESIGN: We use engineering reliability theory traditionally applied to estimate mechanical failure rates to construct a CLOS measure. Specifically, we use the Hollander-Proschan statistic to test if LOS distributions display an "extended" pattern of decreasing hazards after a transition point, suggesting that "the longer a patient has stayed in the hospital, the longer a patient will likely stay in the hospital" versus an alternative possibility that "the longer a patient has stayed in the hospital, the faster a patient will likely be discharged from the hospital." DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Abstracted records from 7,777 pediatric pneumonia cases and 3,413 pediatric appendectomy cases were available for analysis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For both conditions, the Hollander-Proschan statistic strongly displays an "extended" pattern of LOS by day 3 (p<.0001) associated with declining rates of discharge. This extended pattern coincides with increasing patient complication rates. Worse admission severity and chronic disease contribute to lower rates of discharge after day 3. CONCLUSIONS: Patient stays tend to become prolonged after complications. By studying CLOS, one can determine when the rate of hospital discharge begins to diminish--without the need to directly observe complications. Policymakers looking for an objective outcome measure may find that CLOS aids in the analysis of a hospital's management of complicated patients without requiring complication data, thereby facilitating analyses concerning the management of patients whose care has become complicated.

Silber, J H; Rosenbaum, P R; Koziol, L F; Sutaria, N; Marsh, R R; Even-Shoshan, O

1999-01-01

418

John Hunter's Contributions to Neuroscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

John Hunter was a giant in the natural sciences and medicine (Fig. 1). His overall contributions to the basic and clinical\\u000a neurosciences were substantial but are little known. One reason is because as a “naturalist” Hunter’s underlying emphasis\\u000a was upon the greater understanding of life itself, including paleontology and geology. His main interests were in the philosophy\\u000a of life and

James L. Stone; James T. Goodrich; George R. Cybulski

419

LeRoy Meisinger, Part I: Biographical Tribute with an Assessment of His Contributions to Meteorology.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LeRoy Meisinger was a U.S. Weather Bureau meteorologist and aeronaut who worked vigorously to bring meteorology to the aid of aviation in the post-World War 1 period. He was killed at the age of 29 in a scientific ballooning accident that has been detailed in a companion paper by Lewis and Moore. Meisinger's personality and scientific profile are reconstructed by examination of his oeuvre, which contains research contributions augmented by popular articles in the magazines of the period.Meisinger's personal characteristics were those of a quiet, scholarly man with strong interests in science, music, and art. His experiences as a Signal Corps weather officer during World War 1 inclined him toward a career in meteorology. While stationed at the Fort Omaha Balloon School, he became intrigued with the possibilities of using the tree balloon as a platform for tracking air currents.As a research meteorologist with the U.S. Weather Bureau after the war, Meisinger melded adventurous scientific ballooning with the more painstaking and arduous task of scrutinizing data from the limited upper-air network of kite stations. His principal research contribution was a form of differential analysis that extrapolated surface data to the 1- and 2-km levels by using climatological statistics from the upper-air network. The impressive line of research he pioneered at the bureau came to an immediate and abrupt end with his accidental death in 1924.

Lewis, John M.

1995-01-01

420

Here it comes: defined contribution health care.  

PubMed

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act includes provisions to make the individual health insurance marketplace one where all Americans, including those with preexisting health conditions, can obtain affordable coverage. At the same time, the act has failed to address, in any significant way, many of the underlying flaws in the current U.S. health care system that have caused costs to spiral out of control. The combination of persistent U.S. health care cost increases and a viable individual health insurance marketplace will cause a sea change in employer-sponsored health care offerings that is similar to that seen among employer-sponsored retirement benefit plans: movement away from defined benefit approaches and toward defined contribution designs. Although the authors show parallels between the evolution of employers' health care and retirement offerings, they explain why certain key developments will need to occur before defined contribution approaches become as prevalent in employer-sponsored health care plans as they are in today's employer-sponsored retirement plans. PMID:21341643

Sperling, Kenneth L; Shapira, Oren M

2011-01-01

421

Astroglial networking contributes to neurometabolic coupling  

PubMed Central

The strategic position of astrocytic processes between blood capillaries and neurons, provided the early insight that astrocytes play a key role in supplying energy substrates to neurons in an activity-dependent manner. The central role of astrocytes in neurometabolic coupling has been first established at the level of single cell. Since then, exciting recent work based on cellular imaging and electrophysiological recordings has provided new mechanistic insights into this phenomenon, revealing the crucial role of gap junction (GJ)-mediated networks of astrocytes. Indeed, astrocytes define the local availability of energy substrates by regulating blood flow. Subsequently, in order to efficiently reach distal neurons, these substrates can be taken up, and distributed through networks of astrocytes connected by GJs, a process modulated by neuronal activity. Astrocytic networks can be morphologically and/or functionally altered in the course of various pathological conditions, raising the intriguing possibility of a direct contribution from these networks to neuronal dysfunction. The present review upgrades the current view of neuroglial metabolic coupling, by including the recently unravelled properties of astroglial metabolic networks and their potential contribution to normal and pathological neuronal activity.

Escartin, Carole; Rouach, Nathalie

2013-01-01

422

Accidental finding of an anomalous spinal nerve root during lumbar-disc surgery: a case report and a review of literature.  

PubMed

Anomalies of lumbosacral nerve roots, even though are rare, have been well documented so far in the medical literature. The early diagnosis of these anomalies may be difficult and it is crucial to develop specific methods for depicting them. Preoperative diagnosis of anomalous lumbosacral spinal nerve roots using the magnetic resonance imaging is essential to facilitate thorough surgical planning in order to avoid unnecessary complications for the patient during surgery. The operative management of these anomalies depends on the patient's neurological problems and while asymptomatic and accidentally diagnosed cases do not require treatment, patients who suffer low back or sciatic pain need surgical intervention in order to decompress nerve roots. We report a 45-years old woman presented with severe low back pain associated with left lumboischialgia. Intraoperative finding of an aberrant L5/S1 nerve root, optimal surgical therapy and different classifications are discussed together with a review of literature. PMID:20977111

Houra, Karlo; Beros, Vili; Kovac, Damir; Sajko, Tomislav; Gnjidi?, Zivko; Rotim, Krehimir

2010-09-01

423

Intrauterine fetal bradycardia after accidental administration of the anesthetic agent in the subdural space during epidural labor analgesia -A case report-  

PubMed Central

Subdural injection of epidural anesthesia is rare and is usually undiagnosed during epidural anesthesia causing severely delayed maternal hypotension, hypoxia, and fetal distress. A 38-year-old primiparous woman was administered epidural labor analgesia at 40+6 weeks' gestation, and developed progressive maternal respiratory depression, bradycardia, and hypotension after accidental subdural administration of the anesthetic agent. Furthermore, fetal distress occurred soon after administration. The patient was managed with oxygen, position changes, fluid resuscitation, and ephedrine. Intrauterine fetal resuscitation was successfully performed with atropine before cesarean section, and a healthy baby was delivered. Although subdural injection is uncommon, this case emphasizes the importance of anesthesiologists monitoring patients for a sufficient period after epidural labor analgesia, and being prepared to perform maternal or fetal resuscitation.

Moon, Ho Sik; Chon, Jin Young; Yang, Weon Joon

2013-01-01

424

Intrauterine fetal bradycardia after accidental administration of the anesthetic agent in the subdural space during epidural labor analgesia -A case report-.  

PubMed

Subdural injection of epidural anesthesia is rare and is usually undiagnosed during epidural anesthesia causing severely delayed maternal hypotension, hypoxia, and fetal distress. A 38-year-old primiparous woman was administered epidural labor analgesia at 40(+6) weeks' gestation, and developed progressive maternal respiratory depression, bradycardia, and hypotension after accidental subdural administration of the anesthetic agent. Furthermore, fetal distress occurred soon after administration. The patient was managed with oxygen, position changes, fluid resuscitation, and ephedrine. Intrauterine fetal resuscitation was successfully performed with atropine before cesarean section, and a healthy baby was delivered. Although subdural injection is uncommon, this case emphasizes the importance of anesthesiologists monitoring patients for a sufficient period after epidural labor analgesia, and being prepared to perform maternal or fetal resuscitation. PMID:23814654

Moon, Ho Sik; Chon, Jin Young; Yang, Weon Joon; Lee, Hae Jin

2013-06-24

425

The contribution of bibliotherapy to the counseling of aggressive boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the contribution of bibliotherapy to the counseling of aggressive boys by novice counselors in Israel. Counseling for all children was provided within an integrative model (Hill, 2005); bibliotherapy was added as adjunct to the counseling process only in 1 group. Boys from 24 classrooms (3 per class) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: integrative counseling

Zipora Shechtman

2006-01-01

426

Rapid Economic Growth: Contributing Factors and Challenges Ahead  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustained improvement in the underlying conditions for growth for more than two decades has resulted in lifting the Indian economy from the bottom of the growth heap to one of the fastest growing economies in the world. This paper presents the factors that have contributed to the growth acceleration in India over the past 25 years and the challenges

Isher Judge AHLUWALIA

2008-01-01

427

Endothelin1 contributes to normocapnic hyperoxic pial artery vasoconstriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to determine if hyperoxia elicits pial artery vasoconstriction and to characterize the contribution of endothelin-1 (ET-1) to that vascular response in newborn pigs equipped with a closed cranial window. Hyperoxic conditions were established by ventilating the piglets with 100% O2 during normocapnia and concomitantly topically applying artificial CSF that had been bubbled with 100% O2.

William M Armstead

1999-01-01

428

Capabilities, Contributive Injustice and Unequal Divisions of Labour  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that the radical implications of the capabilities approach have been widely overlooked, primarily because of a tendency for the approach to be combined with inadequate theories of society, particularly regarding the external conditions enabling or limiting capabilities. While the approach is accepted in principle, by turning to the theory of contributive justice, which focuses on what people

Andrew Sayer

2012-01-01

429

Effects of diurnal variations in temperature on non-accidental mortality among the elderly population of Montreal, Québec, 1984-2007.  

PubMed

The association between ambient temperature and mortality has been studied extensively. Recent data suggest an independent role of diurnal temperature variations in increasing daily mortality. Elderly adults-a growing subgroup of the population in developed countries-may be more susceptible to the effects of temperature variations. The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in diurnal temperature were associated with daily non-accidental mortality among residents of Montreal, Québec, who were 65 years of age and over during the period between 1984 and 2007. We used distributed lag non-linear Poisson models constrained over a 30-day lag period, adjusted for temporal trends, mean daily temperature, and mean daily concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and ozone to estimate changes in daily mortality with diurnal temperature. We found, over the 30 day lag period, a cumulative increase in daily mortality of 5.12 % [95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.02-10.49 %] for a change from 5.9 °C to 11.1 °C (25th to 75th percentiles) in diurnal temperature, and a 11.27 % (95%CI: 2.08-21.29 %) increase in mortality associated with an increase of diurnal temperature from 11.1 to 17.5 °C (75th to 99th percentiles). The results were relatively robust to adjustment for daily mean temperature. We found that, in Montreal, diurnal variations in temperature are associated with a small increase in non-accidental mortality among the elderly population. More studies are needed in different geographical locations to confirm this effect. PMID:23609901

Vutcovici, Maria; Goldberg, Mark S; Valois, Marie-France

2013-04-24

430

Accidental nuclear war: Modifications to superpower arsenals and to procedures for handling them could substantially reduce the risk of unintended Armageddon  

SciTech Connect

If nuclear war breaks out in the coming decade or two, it will probably be by accident. The threat of a cold-blooded, calculated first strike is vanishing, but beneath the calm surface of constructive diplomacy among the traditional nuclear rivals lurks the danger of unpremeditated use of nuclear weapons. The accidental, unauthorized or inadvertent use of these weapons has become the most plausible path to nuclear war. Both superpowers, as well as France, Great Britain and China - long-standing members of the nuclear club - are potential sources of accidental missile launch. The emergence of fledgling nuclear powers such as India, Pakistan and Israel - some armed with ballistic missiles - pushes nuclear safeguards even closer to the top of the international security agenda. The chances of unwanted nuclear war would be reduced significantly if tamper proof, coded locks were installed on all nuclear weapons and if methods were put in place to disarm nuclear forces even after launch. In addition, the US and the Soviet Union should reduce their reliance on the dangerous policy of launch on warning and reduce the launch readiness of their nuclear forces. The social and political upheavals in the Soviet Union underscore fears of unintended nuclear war. Civil turmoil raises the possibility that rebellious ethnic groups or splinter organizations could capture nuclear weapons. Other, deeper fault lines run through the whole of Soviet society and may be capable of cracking the foundations of its nuclear command system. Although the US faces no such civil unrest, the country's system of nuclear command carries some risk that nuclear weapons might be used contrary to the intentions of legitimate authorities.

Blair, B.G.; Kendall, H.W.

1990-12-01

431

Effects of diurnal variations in temperature on non-accidental mortality among the elderly population of Montreal, Québec, 1984-2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The association between ambient temperature and mortality has been studied extensively. Recent data suggest an independent role of diurnal temperature variations in increasing daily mortality. Elderly adults—a growing subgroup of the population in developed countries—may be more susceptible to the effects of temperature variations. The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in diurnal temperature were associated with daily non-accidental mortality among residents of Montreal, Québec, who were 65 years of age and over during the period between 1984 and 2007. We used distributed lag non-linear Poisson models constrained over a 30-day lag period, adjusted for temporal trends, mean daily temperature, and mean daily concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and ozone to estimate changes in daily mortality with diurnal temperature. We found, over the 30 day lag period, a cumulative increase in daily mortality of 5.12 % [95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.02-10.49 %] for a change from 5.9 °C to 11.1 °C (25th to 75th percentiles) in diurnal temperature, and a 11.27 % (95%CI: 2.08-21.29 %) increase in mortality associated with an increase of diurnal temperature from 11.1 to 17.5 °C (75th to 99th percentiles). The results were relatively robust to adjustment for daily mean temperature. We found that, in Montreal, diurnal variations in temperature are associated with a small increase in non-accidental mortality among the elderly population. More studies are needed in different geographical locations to confirm this effect.

Vutcovici, Maria; Goldberg, Mark S.; Valois, Marie-France

2013-04-01

432

Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases  

SciTech Connect

Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

Peterson, S

2007-08-15

433

Genetic contributions to pain: a review of findings in humans  

PubMed Central

Pain represents the major motivating factor for which individuals seek healthcare, and pain responses are characterized by substantial inter-individual differences. Increasing evidence suggests that genetic factors contribute significantly to individual differences in responses to both clinical and experimental pain. The purpose of this review article was to summarize the current literature regarding genetic contributions to pain, highlighting findings relevant to oral pain where available. A brief discussion of methodologic considerations is followed by a review of findings regarding genetic influences on clinical pain. Next, the literature examining genetic contributions to experimental pain responses is presented, emphasizing genetic associations that have been replicated in multiple cohorts. It is hoped that an enhanced understanding of genetic contributions to pain responses will ultimately improve diagnosis and treatment of clinical pain conditions.

Fillingim, RB; Wallace, MR; Herbstman, DM; Ribeiro-Dasilva, M; Staud, R

2009-01-01

434

Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of risk screening and early intervention comparing child- and family-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy for PTSD in children following accidental injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Accidental injury represents the most common type of traumatic event to which a child or adolescent may be exposed, with a significant number of these children going on to experience posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, very little research has examined potential interventions for the treatment of PTSD in these children. The present trial aims to evaluate and compare child-

Justin Kenardy; Vanessa Cobham; Reginald DV Nixon; Brett McDermott; Sonja March

2010-01-01

435

Conditional Deduction Under Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditional deduction in binary logic basically consists of deriving new statements from an existing set of statements and conditional rules. Modus Ponens, which is the classical example of a conditional deduction rule, expresses a conditional relationship between an antecedent and a consequent. A generali- sation of Modus Ponens to probabilities in the form of probabilistic conditional inference is also well

Audun Jøsang; Simon Pope; Milan Daniel

2005-01-01

436

Vestibular contributions to bodily awareness.  

PubMed

The vestibular system has widespread interactions with multisensory cortical networks, including the somatosensory areas. Several clinical observations suggested that vestibular signals are essential to compute more abstract cognitive representations of the body. However, the existing literature is generally based on isolated reports. We aimed to provide both a theoretical framework, and an experimental method to investigate potential vestibular contributions to somatic cognition. Accordingly, we have investigated effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on the localisation of a stimulus on the skin of the hand (a process that we define as somatoperception) and on the implicit representation of the hand size and shape (involving a different process which we define as somatorepresentation). Vestibular input influenced the localisation of tactile stimuli on the hand: touches on the dorsum of the hand were perceived as shifted toward the wrist. The specific polarity of vestibular stimulation influences the localisation errors. Right anodal and left cathodal, which influences both cerebral hemispheres, induced a stronger localisation bias compared to left anodal and right cathodal GVS, which influences primarily the right hemisphere. Although our data confirmed previous findings that the body model of the shape of the hand is massively distorted, vestibular inputs do not contribute to these distortions. Our results suggest that vestibular input influences the registration of somatosensory input onto a map of the body (somatoperception), but does not influence stored knowledge about the spatial organisation of the body as a physical object (somatorepresentation). PMID:23624312

Ferrè, Elisa Raffaella; Vagnoni, Eleonora; Haggard, Patrick

2013-04-25

437

[Acupuncture in rheumatology. Case contribution].  

PubMed

Results obtained by acupuncture treatment of patients with rheumatic diseases were analysed. Clinical, serological and psychological parameters were evaluated at the beginning and end of treatment. Results showed variations in pain intensity, articular function, inflammation, anxiety and bodily condition. The results are accompanied by a description of the limits of the research conducted. PMID:6179010

Angelini, M; Carrabba, M; Egitto, A; Rogora, G A; Storer, C

1982-07-31

438

Hand and Arm Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

... Public & Patients > Hand and Arm Conditions Hand and Arm Conditions Page Content If you know the name ... below. Otherwise click on an area of the arm below to learn more about common hand conditions. ...

439

Tetraspanin protein contributions to cancer.  

PubMed

Among the 33 human tetraspanin proteins, CD151, CD9 and Tspan12 play particularly important roles in cancer. Tetraspanin CD151, in partnership with integrins ?6?1 and ?6?4, modulates tumour cell growth, invasion, migration, metastasis, signalling and drug sensitivity. Tetraspanin CD9 has suppressor functions in multiple tumour cell types. Major CD9 partner proteins, such as EWI-2 and EWI-F, may modulate these tumour-suppressor functions. Tetraspanin Tspan12 mutations are linked to a human disease called familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. In addition, as a regulator of the metalloprotease ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10) maturation and function, Tspan12 probably contributes to the pro-tumorigenic functions of ADAM10. PMID:21428937

Wang, Hong-Xing; Li, Qinglin; Sharma, Chandan; Knoblich, Konstantin; Hemler, Martin E

2011-04-01

440

Yale contributions to meteoric astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until 1910 Yale University was more active in research on meteors than any other institution in America. A brief introduction describes the work carried out at other observatories in the United States. Then follow accounts of the Yale activities, starting with speculations on a spectacular fireball of 1742, the Weston fall of meteorites in 1802, and numerous investigations on "shooting stars," especially by D. Olmsted, E. C. Herrick, H. A. Newton, and W. L. Elkin. These astronomers contributed significantly to the evolution of understanding of meteoric phenomena, from early beliefs that meteors originated in the earth's atmosphere, to theories that fireballs were earth circling satellites, to our current conceptions of the relation between comets, asteroids, and meteors. Incidentally it may be noted that four of the investigators also became presidents of Yale College: Clap (1739-1766), Stiles (1778-1795), Day (1817-1847), and Hadley (1899-1921).

Hoffleit, Dorrit

441

GENERALIZED AUTOREGRESSIVE CONDITIONAL HETEROSKEDASTICITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A natural generalization of the ARCH (Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedastic) process introduced in Engle (1982) to allow for past conditional variances in the current conditional variance equation is proposed. Stationarity conditions and autocorrelation structure for this new class of parametric models are derived. Maximum likelihood estimation and testing are also considered. Finally an empirical example relating to the uncertainty of the

Tim Bollerslev

1986-01-01

442

Does predation contribute to tree diversity?  

PubMed

Seed and seedling predation may differentially affect competitively superior tree species to increase the relative recruitment success of poor competitors and contribute to the coexistence of tree species. We examined the effect of seed and seedling predation on the seedling recruitment of three tree species, Acer rubrum (red maple), Liriodendron tulipifera (ye