These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Framework for preventing accidental falls in hospitals - management plan for ADL, medication and medical conditions.  

PubMed

Prevention and reduction of medical accidents is essential. Among medical accidents, accidental falls remain a serious problem. While "assessment score sheets" have already been used in hospitals to prevent accidental falls, satisfactory results have not actually been achieved. In this study, we aim to establish a methodology for preventing accidental falls. We consider that the 'management plan' for each patient includes three factors. A plan of instructions for patients on actions they can take for safety in their ADL (Activities of Daily Living) is essential as a base. Second, a plan to keep up with any short term change in a patient's state is needed, because the state of a hospitalized patient will usually be temporarily affected by medication and changing medical conditions. We develop a model for preventing accidental falls, which enable us to design appropriate management plan for each patient. Then, we develop a prototype system based on the designed model. Finally, we address the result of verification of the model, by applying the prototype system into actual cases in hospitals. PMID:19592884

Kato, Shogo; Tsuru, Satoko; Iizuka, Yoshinori

2009-01-01

2

Accidental explosions  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a survey of accidental explosions, their nature and their causes. It covers the physical and chemical conditions governing accidental explosions, whether in the gas phase, or in the liquid or solid state. The theoretical background of the kinetics and thermochemistry of explosions is outlined, followed by a detailed study of the explosion and detonation properties of both gas and condensed explosives. The author surveys a wide variety of substances in daily use in industry which can give rise to accidental explosions. Their properties and hazards are spelt out in detail, the discussion drawing on a long history of sometimes catastrophic accidents. Includes case studies, tables of physical and chemical data.

Medard, L.A.

1989-01-01

3

Poor owner knowledge of feline reproduction contributes to the high proportion of accidental litters born to UK pet cats.  

PubMed

'Accidental' litters contribute to population growth and the number of unwanted animals entering animal welfare organisations. Assessing the problem's extent and determining risk factors enables identification of education targets. Data were obtained from 715 cat-owning households in a cross-sectional telephone survey. Demographic and lifestyle factors were assessed for their association with accidental litters and with owner knowledge of cat reproduction. A total of 128 litters were reported from 552 female cats, and the proportion of accidental litters reported by owners was 80 per cent. Multivariable analysis identified that respondents were more likely to report an accidental litter of kittens if they believed a female cat should have a litter prior to being neutered, if they had more than one cat and if they rented rather than owned their home. Misconceptions relating to cat reproduction were common. The opinion that the youngest age a cat could get pregnant was five months of age (or older) was held by 83.5 per cent of cat-owning respondents, with over a quarter (26.4 per cent; 174/659) believing a queen is unable to conceive until at least a year of age. Almost half the respondents (49.0 per cent; 334/682) believed a female cat should have a litter before being neutered or were not sure; 38.8 per cent (264/681) thought that un-neutered, related cats would not mate or were not sure. This study suggests that improving cat-owner knowledge of the reproductive capacity of cats is likely to have a significant impact on the numbers of accidental litters born. PMID:24343905

Welsh, C P; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Roberts, M A; Murray, J K

2014-02-01

4

Effects of meteorological conditions on the concentration and dispersion of an accidental release of H2S in Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to determine the effects of the land's meteorological conditions on the dispersion of an accidental release of H2S using the CALPro software. The three Canadian cities or towns of Edmonton, Yarmouth and Whitehorse, which are all of different meteorological conditions, were chosen as the domains of study. Hourly geophysical, surface and upper air meteorological data were used with CALMET to model the wind field of the three domains for the modeling period of March 11, 2012 from 00h00 to 23h00 LST. Individual 5-h modeling periods where the wind field showed the most significant variations were chosen for each region of study. CALPUFF was used to model the dispersion effects of an accidental release of H2S from a single point source due to an accidental vessel puncture using time-varying emission data modified to suit each region's modeling period. Despite the wind reversal encountered in Edmonton, its relatively flat terrain allowed H2S to disperse outwards, causing concentrations to accumulate lower than the other two regions but still to sever levels and a much greater population. Differences between the effect of land and sea breeze on H2S dispersion in Yarmouth's coastal region caused concentrations to accumulate higher than the other two regions and to life threatening levels around the source. The mountainous terrain of Whitehorse shaped the plume trajectory, causing H2S concentrations to accumulate to levels that can cause irreversible health effects at various times and locations. Results show that each area's meteorological conditions will have different impacts on dispersion.

Abdul-Wahab, Sabah A.; Chan, Keziah; Elkamel, Ali; Ahmadi, Lena

2014-01-01

5

Pre-design studies of SCWR in fast neutron spectrum: evaluation of operating conditions and analysis of the behaviour in accidental situations  

SciTech Connect

SCWR (both thermal and fast neutron spectrum) are among the 6 reactor concepts selected in the frame of Generation IV. Significant work has been performed on the analysis of thermal spectrum concepts in FP5 HPLWR project. The present study is a preliminary analysis of the feasibility and performance of fast spectrum SCWR. The problem addressed is the following: can one design a fast neutron spectrum reactor with homogeneous core (without fertile blankets), having a breeding gain close to zero and a safe behaviour in transient conditions? It can be expected that the limited water inventory in the core leads to a small value of the moderation ratio (H/HM < 0.5) making possible a core design in fast spectrum. However, a sudden draining in accidental conditions would involve a fast reactivity increase. The constraints set for the design are: nominal power of 2500 MWth, operation at 25 MPa and 500 deg. C core outlet temperature, high burn-up of 60 GWd/t. Global core pre-dimensioning carried out with the COPERNIC code made it possible to propose a compact core geometry, satisfying thermal constraints and limitations for maximum fuel and cladding temperatures, namely 1800 deg. C and 620 deg. C respectively. For this core, the calculations carried out with the CATHARE code show that adapted parades could be found to avoid reaching safety limits during the transients studied (cold leg and hot leg LOCA). The ERANOS code determines a breeding gain of -0.05 without using fertile blankets. The neutronic analysis confirms that it is not possible to obtain an acceptable draining effect in the homogeneous core configuration. Complementary studies show that positive draining effect can be overcome by introducing heterogeneities within the core: insertion of solid moderator, fixed absorbents or fertile layers. (authors)

Marsault, Ph.; Renault, C. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, DER/SESI, CEA Cadarache, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Rimpault, G. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, DER/SPRC, CEA Cadarache, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Dumaz, P.; Antoni, O. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, DER/SSTH, CEA Cadarache, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France)

2004-07-01

6

The contribution of medial prefrontal cortical regions to conditioned inhibition.  

PubMed

Few studies have considered the process by which individuals learn to omit a response, which is an essential aspect of adaptive behavior. Several lines of evidence indicate that two regions of the medial prefrontal cortex have disparate roles in behavioral flexibility. In particular, the prelimbic cortex (PL) is thought to facilitate the generation of a strategy to inhibit a prepotent response, whereas the infralimbic cortex (IL) appears to be more important for maintaining extensively trained inhibitory behaviors. The present experiments were designed to elucidate the contributions of PL and IL to the acquisition and maintenance of Pavlovian conditioned inhibition. In Experiment 1, damage to PL before training in a compound feature negative discrimination task impaired inhibitory learning. By comparison, lesions of IL had little effect. In Experiment 2, lesions of PL or IL occurred after overtraining, and damage to IL significantly impaired subsequent performance in the task, suggesting that this region is involved in the continued expression of Pavlovian conditioned inhibition after thorough training. PL may also be involved in maintaining inhibition, as evidenced by a marginally significant lesion-induced performance deficit. These data support the notion that PL and IL have distinguishable roles in modulating inhibition, while contributing important information about the specific role for PL in acquisition of an inhibitory response and IL in performance. PMID:25285456

Meyer, Heidi C; Bucci, David J

2014-12-01

7

Accidental poisoning with "Chinese chalk".  

PubMed

We present a 1.5-year old, 11 kg, female infant with a history of bronchial hyper-responsiveness who accidentally ingested half of a "Chinese chalk". A day later, the infant showed vomiting, cough, fever, drowsiness, and irritability and her clinical conditions progressively worsened. She was admitted to the emergency department with cough, respiratory distress, and hepatomegaly. It has been reported that the chalk may contain deltamethrin and cypermethrin. The patient was successfully treated with supportive therapy. This report identifies "Chinese chalk" as a potential source of accidental poisoning in children and should be considered as part of the differential diagnoses in the emergency rooms since poisoning with these compounds may be misdiagnosed as organophosphate poisoning due to the presentation of similar symptoms. PMID:18551820

Martínez-Navarrete, Juan; Loria-Castellanos, Jorge; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A

2008-04-01

8

Preventing Accidental Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... six, and close to half of poisonings in children of this age group involve a misuse of medicines. Below are safety tips that every parent, caregiver, and grandparent should use to prevent accidental poisonings: Avoid taking medications in the presence of children, as they often ...

9

Is the tribimaximal mixing accidental?  

SciTech Connect

The tribimaximal (TBM) mixing is not accidental if structures of the corresponding leptonic mass matrices follow immediately from certain (residual or broken) flavor symmetry. We develop a simple formalism which allows one to analyze effects of deviations of the lepton mixing from TBM on the structure of the neutrino mass matrix and on the underlying flavor symmetry. We show that possible deviations from the TBM mixing can lead to strong modifications of the mass matrix and strong violation of the TBM-mass relations. As a result, the mass matrix may have an 'anarchical' structure with random values of elements or it may have some symmetry that differs from the TBM symmetry. Interesting examples include matrices with texture zeros, matrices with certain 'flavor alignment' as well as hierarchical matrices with a two-component structure, where the dominant and subdominant contributions have different symmetries. This opens up new approaches to understanding the lepton mixing.

Abbas, Mohammed [Ain Shams University, Faculty of Sciences, Abbassiyah 11566, Cairo (Egypt); Center for Theoretical Physics (CTP), British University in Egypt, BUE, El-Sherouk City, Cairo (Egypt); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Smirnov, A. Yu. [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-07-01

10

Inflammatory Factors Contribute to Depression and Its Comorbid Conditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New perspectives have emerged regarding the processes associated with depressive disorders and their many comorbid conditions. Particular attention has been paid to the potential role of inflammatory factors in promoting these illnesses. These inflammatory responses include those elicited by pathogenic stimuli, as well as sterile inflammatory processes, such as those related to severe or chronic stress. These diverse challenges may activate common processes in which cytokines, which are inflammatory signaling molecules, provoke the dysregulation of several growth factors, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, fibroblast growth factor–2, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and erythropoietin. The result of such dysregulation favors the development of depressive disorders and their comorbid illnesses, such as heart disease, diabetes, autoimmune conditions, and poststroke depression.

Hymie Anisman (Carleton University; Department of Neuroscience REV)

2012-10-02

11

Accidental inflation in the landscape  

SciTech Connect

We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P{sup 4}{sub [1,1,1,6,9]} by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Metallinos, Konstantinos [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States); Gomez-Reino, Marta, E-mail: jose@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: marta.gomez-reino.perez@cern.ch, E-mail: Konstantinos.Metallinos@tufts.edu [Department of Physics, University of Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain)

2013-02-01

12

Accidental Inflation in the Landscape  

E-print Network

We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P^4_[1,1,1,6,9] by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

Jose J. Blanco-Pillado; Marta Gomez-Reino; Konstantinos Metallinos

2012-09-04

13

The Accidental Scientist: Cooking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Another great Web site from the Exploratorium in San Francisco (last mentioned in the August 16, 2002 NSDL MET Report), The Accidental Scientist: Cooking is the first in a series of "Web-based projects focusing on the science behind everyday life." Offering a mind-boggling array of food-related information and activities, foodies and science-lovers alike should find this Web site extremely engaging. Life science-related material includes an exploration of taste and smell; the biological properties of meat; microbe action in pickling, fermentation, and leavening; and much more. The site's other features not directly related to the life sciences shouldn't be missed. Users can find recipes and cooking tips, fun projects, and live Web casts starting in November 2002 that explore the science and culture of cooking, "just in time for picking up cooking tips for the holiday season."

1969-12-31

14

Accidental Composite Dark Matter  

E-print Network

We build models where Dark Matter candidates arise as composite states of a new confining gauge force, stable thanks to accidental symmetries. Restricting to renormalizable theories compatible with SU(5) unification, we find 13 models based on SU(N) gauge theories and 9 based on SO(N). We also describe other models that require non-renormalizable interactions. The two gauge groups lead to distinctive phenomenologies: SU(N) theories give complex DM, with potentially observable electric and magnetic dipole moments that lead to peculiar spin-independent cross sections; SO(N) theories give real DM, with challenging spin-dependent cross sections or inelastic scatterings. Models with Yukawa couplings also give rise to spin-independent direct detection mediated by the Higgs boson and to electric dipole moments for the electron. In some models DM has higher spin. Each model predicts a specific set of lighter composite scalars, possibly observable at colliders.

Antipin, Oleg; Strumia, Alessandro; Vigiani, Elena

2015-01-01

15

Fatal accidental enflurane intoxication.  

PubMed

Among reported cases of abuse of volatile anesthetics there is only one of enflurane intoxication. We report another fatal enflurane intoxication. A 21-year-old man found dead seemed to have experimented with enflurane. Three and one-half days after death high amounts of enflurane were detected in blood, brain, and subcutaneous fat. Gas chromatographic quantification revealed the following high enflurane concentrations: blood: 130 mg/l-1, brain: 350 mg/l-1, and subcutaneous fat: 100 mg/l-1. Histologic signs of drug-induced damage were lacking. No suicide intentions became known. It was concluded that the young man died of an accidental intoxication while abusing enflurane. PMID:2584946

Jacob, B; Heller, C; Daldrup, T; Bürrig, K F; Barz, J; Bonte, W

1989-11-01

16

Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.  

PubMed Central

Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. PMID:8781398

Cardis, E

1996-01-01

17

Accidental intrathecal mercury application.  

PubMed

The authors present a case of accidental intrathecal mercury application. A 69-year-old white woman was admitted to our department with suspected meningitis following surgery for spinal stenosis at another hospital. Postoperatively, she had developed a cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) fistula with a subcutaneous cavity. Local wound irritation had been suspected and, unfortunately, mercury-containing disinfectant was injected into the cavity. Within 24 h the patient demonstrated acute neurological deterioration due to meningitis and encephalitis and was admitted to our clinic with suspected meningitis due to postoperative CSF fistula. Lumbar puncture revealed desinfectant-stained, non-bloody CSF, while lumbar MRI demonstrated the large lumbar subcutaneous cavity. Additionally, CSF fistula was visualized on MRI. Laboratory examination revealed extremely high mercury levels in CSF, blood and urine. Treatment consisted in insertion of a lumbar drainage to wash out the mercury. The patient underwent medical detoxication using chelating agents (DMPS: RS-2,3-dimercapto-1-propansulfonacid, DMSA: meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinatacid). Surgery was performed in order to close the cavity and the fistula. Postoperatively, the patient was admitted to the intensive care unit and remained intubated for 3 days. Within 4 weeks after surgery, she demonstrated good recovery. Eighteen months after intoxication, polyneuropathy and slight neuropsychological deficiencies were detectable. PMID:14586664

Stark, Andreas M; Barth, Harald; Grabner, Jean-Paul; Mehdorn, H Maximilian

2004-05-01

18

Determinants of Suicide and Accidental or Violent Death in the Australian HIV Observational Database  

PubMed Central

Background Rates of suicide and accidental or violent death remain high in HIV-positive populations despite significantly improved prognosis since the introduction of cART. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study of suicide and accidental or violent death in the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) between January 1999 and March 2012. For each case, 2 controls were matched by clinic, age, sex, mode of exposure and HIV-positive date to adjust for potential confounding by these covariates. Risk of suicide and accidental or violent death was estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results We included 27 cases (17 suicide and 10 violent/accidental death) and 54 controls. All cases were men who have sex with men (MSM) or MSM/ injecting drug use (IDU) mode of exposure. Increased risk was associated with unemployment (Odds Ratio (OR) 5.86, 95% CI: 1.69–20.37), living alone (OR 3.26, 95% CI: 1.06–10.07), suicidal ideation (OR 6.55, 95% CI: 1.70–25.21), and >2 psychiatric/cognitive risk factors (OR 4.99, 95% CI: 1.17–30.65). CD4 cell count of >500 cells/µL (OR 0.25, 95% CI: 0.07–0.87) and HIV-positive date ?1990 (1990–1999 (OR 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11–0.89), post-2000 (OR 0.08, 95% CI: 0.01–0.84)) were associated with decreased risk. CD4 cell count ?500 cells/µL remained a significant predictor of reduced risk (OR 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03–0.70) in a multivariate model adjusted for employment status, accommodation status and HIV-positive date. Conclusions After adjustment for psychosocial factors, the immunological status of HIV-positive patients contributed to the risk of suicide and accidental or violent death. The number of psychiatric/cognitive diagnoses contributed to the level of risk but many psychosocial factors were not individually significant. These findings indicate a complex interplay of factors associated with risk of suicide and accidental or violent death. PMID:24586519

McManus, Hamish; Petoumenos, Kathy; Franic, Teo; Kelly, Mark D.; Watson, Jo; O’Connor, Catherine C.; Jeanes, Mark; Hoy, Jennifer; Cooper, David A.; Law, Matthew G.

2014-01-01

19

Contribution of Motivational Beliefs and Metacognition to Students' Performance under Consequential and Nonconsequential Test Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the contribution of motivational beliefs and metacognition to students' performance under consequential and nonconsequential test conditions was investigated. Fifty-eight college students participated in the study. A modified version of the Approaches to Learning Instrument, the Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Metacognitive Awareness…

Sungur, Semra

2007-01-01

20

Term Contributed Boundary Tagging by Conditional Random Fields for SIGHAN 2010 Chinese Word Segmentation Bakeoff  

E-print Network

for Traditional Chinese. Test corpora of SC and TC are divided into four domains, where suffix A, B, C and DTerm Contributed Boundary Tagging by Conditional Random Fields for SIGHAN 2010 Chinese Word This paper presents a Chinese word segmentation system submitted to the closed training evaluations of CIPS

Hsu, Wen-Lian

21

Alcohol use and misuse: What are the contributions of occupation and work organization conditions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This research examines the specific contribution of occupation and work organization conditions to alcohol use and misuse. It is based on a social-action model that takes into account agent personality, structures of daily life, and macro social structures. METHODS: Data come from a representative sample of 10,155 workers in Quebec, Canada. Multinomial regression models corrected for sample design effect

Alain Marchand

2008-01-01

22

History of accidental hypothermia?  

PubMed Central

Death from exposure to cold has been recognised for thousands of years but hypothermia as a clinical condition was not generally recognised until the mid-20th century and then only in extreme conditions such as immersion in cold water or snow. In the UK, hypothermia in less extreme conditions was not generally recognised until the 1960s. Recognition of hypothermia required the temperature to be measured and this did not become a clinical tool until the late 1800s and it was not used routinely until the early 1900s. Although John Hunter and James Curry did some physiological experiments in the 1700s, detailed physiological experiments were not done until the early 20th century and the use of therapeutic hypothermia for malignancy and in anaesthesia in the 1930s and 1940s provided more impetus for investigating the physiology of hypothermia in humans and familiarising the medical profession with measuring core temperatures. PMID:21036455

Guly, Henry

2011-01-01

23

Urban contribution of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants to streams during differing flow conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 2001, 76 water samples were collected upstream and downstream of select towns and cities in Iowa during high-, normal- and low-flow conditions to determine the contribution of urban centers to concentrations of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) in streams under varying flow conditions. The towns ranged in population from approximately 2000 to 200000. Overall, one or more OWCs were detected in 98.7% of the samples collected, with 62 of the 105 compounds being found. The most frequently detected compounds were metolachlor (pesticide), cholesterol (plant and animal sterol), caffeine (stimulant), ??-sitosterol (plant sterol) and 1,7-dimethylxanthine (caffeine degradate). The number of OWCs detected decreased as streamflow increased from low- (51 compounds detected) to normal- (28) to high-flow (24) conditions. Antibiotics and other prescription drugs were only frequently detected during low-flow conditions. During low-flow conditions, 15 compounds (out of the 23) and ten compound groups (out of 11) detected in more than 10% of the streams sampled had significantly greater concentrations in samples collected downstream than in those collected upstream of the urban centers. Conversely, no significant differences in the concentrations were found during high-flow conditions. Thus, the urban contribution of OWCs to streams became progressively muted as streamflow increased. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kolpin, D.W.; Skopec, M.; Meyer, M.T.; Furlong, E.T.; Zaugg, S.D.

2004-01-01

24

Mistakes in diagnosing non-accidental injury: 10 years' experience  

PubMed Central

Fifty children who were referred to the child abuse team in Leeds over the 10 years 1976-86 with suspected non-accidental injury were found to have conditions which mimicked non-accidental injury. These included impetigo (nine children) and blue spots (five children). Five children who presented with multiple bruising had haemostatic disorders. Eight children had disorders of the bone. Five children had been previously abused physically. Four showed evidence of neglect. One had evidence of non-accidental injury as well as the condition mimicking abuse. It is emphasised that when child abuse is suspected a sensitive and thorough assessment should be carried out by a paediatrician who is experienced in this. ImagesFIG 1 PMID:3133026

Wheeler, David M; Hobbs, Christopher J

1988-01-01

25

Paternal genetic contribution to offspring condition predicted by size of male secondary sexual character  

PubMed Central

Whether females can obtain genetic benefits from mate choice is contentious, and the main problem faced by previous studies of natural populations is that many factors other than paternal genes contribute to offspring fitness. Here, we use comparisons between sets of naturally occurring maternal half-sibling collared flycatchers, Ficedula albicollis, to control for this problem. We show, first, that there are paternal genetic effects on nestling fledging condition, a character related to fitness in this species. Further, the magnitude of the paternal genetic contribution to this character is related to the size of a condition-dependent male secondary sexual character. Our results demonstrate that genetic benefits from mate choice can be predicted by the size of a secondary sexual character, and therefore provide direct support for indicator models of sexual selection.

Sheldon, B. C.; Merila, J.; Qvarnström, A.; Gustafsson, L.; Ellegren, H.

1997-01-01

26

The Contribution of Infant, Maternal, and Family Conditions to Maternal Feeding Competencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Because little is known about the role of family problem-solving processes in the development of mothers' competencies in feeding a very low birth-weight (VLBW) infant, we explored the contribution made by the competence in negotiating displayed by a mother and family member as they jointly problem solve infant-care issues. The infant's neonatal biomedical condition, maternal depressive symptoms, and family

Karen Pridham; Janet N. Melby; Roger Brown; Roseanne Clark

2010-01-01

27

When are burns not accidental?  

PubMed Central

One hundred and ninety five children aged up to 6 years with burns and scalds (30 non-accidental and 165 accidental) were studied retrospectively. The history, presentation, and other typical injuries assisted the diagnosis of abuse. Scalds accounted for 81% of accidents and 25% of the cases of abuse, and burns for 17% and 44%, respectively. Scalds usually followed spillage from kitchen containers in accidents and forced tap water immersion in cases of abuse. Burns in cases of both accidents and abuse resulted from contact with a wide range of household appliances, including room heaters. Attention is drawn to the back of the hand as an important site in cases of abuse, as well as the legs, buttocks, and feet. It is speculated that the low level of reporting of this form of child abuse reflects failure of diagnosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:3707186

Hobbs, C J

1986-01-01

28

Occupational class inequalities in health across employment sectors: the contribution of working conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  While health inequalities among employees are well documented, their variation and determinants among employee subpopulations\\u000a are poorly understood. We examined variations in occupational class inequalities in health within four employment sectors\\u000a and the contribution of working conditions to these inequalities.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Cross-sectional data from the Helsinki Health Study in 2000–2002 were used. Each year, employees of the City of Helsinki,\\u000a aged

Eero Lahelma; Mikko Laaksonen; Akseli Aittomäki

2009-01-01

29

Non-Gaussian Initial Conditions in ?CDM: Newtonian, Relativistic, and Primordial Contributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the present paper is to set initial conditions for structure formation at nonlinear order, consistent with general relativity, while also allowing for primordial non-Gaussianity. We use the nonlinear continuity and Raychaudhuri equations, which together with the nonlinear energy constraint, determine the evolution of the matter density fluctuation in general relativity. We solve this equations at first and second order in a perturbative expansion, recovering and extending previous results derived in the matter-dominated limit and in the Newtonian regime. We present a second-order solution for the comoving density contrast in a ?CDM universe, identifying nonlinear contributions coming from the Newtonian growing mode, primordial non-Gaussianity and intrinsic non-Gaussianity, due to the essential nonlinearity of the relativistic constraint equations. We discuss the application of these results to initial conditions in N-body simulations, showing that relativistic corrections mimic a non-zero nonlinear parameter f NL.

Bruni, Marco; Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Meures, Nikolai; Wands, David

2014-04-01

30

Conditionally Rare Taxa Disproportionately Contribute to Temporal Changes in Microbial Diversity  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Microbial communities typically contain many rare taxa that make up the majority of the observed membership, yet the contribution of this microbial “rare biosphere” to community dynamics is unclear. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of 3,237 samples from 42 time series of microbial communities from nine different ecosystems (air; marine; lake; stream; adult human skin, tongue, and gut; infant gut; and brewery wastewater treatment), we introduce a new method to detect typically rare microbial taxa that occasionally become very abundant (conditionally rare taxa [CRT]) and then quantify their contributions to temporal shifts in community structure. We discovered that CRT made up 1.5 to 28% of the community membership, represented a broad diversity of bacterial and archaeal lineages, and explained large amounts of temporal community dissimilarity (i.e., up to 97% of Bray-Curtis dissimilarity). Most of the CRT were detected at multiple time points, though we also identified “one-hit wonder” CRT that were observed at only one time point. Using a case study from a temperate lake, we gained additional insights into the ecology of CRT by comparing routine community time series to large disturbance events. Our results reveal that many rare taxa contribute a greater amount to microbial community dynamics than is apparent from their low proportional abundances. This observation was true across a wide range of ecosystems, indicating that these rare taxa are essential for understanding community changes over time. PMID:25028427

Shade, Ashley; Jones, Stuart E.; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Handelsman, Jo; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah

2014-01-01

31

Hsc70 Contributes to Cancer Cell Survival by Preventing Rab1A Degradation under Stress Conditions  

PubMed Central

Heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) acts as a molecular chaperone for the maintenance of intracellular proteins, which allows cancer cells to survive under proteotoxic stress. We attempted to use Hsc70 to identify key molecules in cancer cell survival. Here, we performed mass-spectrometry-based proteomics analysis utilizing affinity purification with anti-Hsc70 antibodies; as a result, 83 differentially expressed proteins were identified under stress conditions. This result implies that there was a change in the proteins with which Hsc70 interacted in response to stress. Among the proteins identified under both serum-depleted and 5-fluorouracil-treated conditions, Rab1A was identified as an essential molecule for cancer cell survival. Hsc70 interacted with Rab1A in a chaperone-dependent manner. In addition, Hsc70 knockdown decreased the level of Rab1A and increased the level of its ubiquitination under stress conditions, suggesting that Hsc70 prevented the degradation of Rab1A denatured by stress exposure. We also found that Rab1A knockdown induced cell death by inhibition of autophagosome formation. Rab1A may therefore contribute to overcoming proteotoxic insults, which allows cancer cells to survive under stress conditions. Analysis of Hsc70 interactors provided insight into changes of intracellular status. We expect further study of the Hsc70 interactome to provide a more comprehensive understanding of cancer cell physiology. PMID:24801886

Tanaka, Masako; Mun, Saya; Harada, Akihito; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Inagaki, Azusa; Sano, Soichi; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Izumi, Yasukatsu; Osada-Oka, Mayuko; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Yamagata, Masayo; Yukimura, Tokihito; Miura, Katsuyuki; Shiota, Masayuki; Iwao, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

32

Hsc70 contributes to cancer cell survival by preventing Rab1A degradation under stress conditions.  

PubMed

Heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) acts as a molecular chaperone for the maintenance of intracellular proteins, which allows cancer cells to survive under proteotoxic stress. We attempted to use Hsc70 to identify key molecules in cancer cell survival. Here, we performed mass-spectrometry-based proteomics analysis utilizing affinity purification with anti-Hsc70 antibodies; as a result, 83 differentially expressed proteins were identified under stress conditions. This result implies that there was a change in the proteins with which Hsc70 interacted in response to stress. Among the proteins identified under both serum-depleted and 5-fluorouracil-treated conditions, Rab1A was identified as an essential molecule for cancer cell survival. Hsc70 interacted with Rab1A in a chaperone-dependent manner. In addition, Hsc70 knockdown decreased the level of Rab1A and increased the level of its ubiquitination under stress conditions, suggesting that Hsc70 prevented the degradation of Rab1A denatured by stress exposure. We also found that Rab1A knockdown induced cell death by inhibition of autophagosome formation. Rab1A may therefore contribute to overcoming proteotoxic insults, which allows cancer cells to survive under stress conditions. Analysis of Hsc70 interactors provided insight into changes of intracellular status. We expect further study of the Hsc70 interactome to provide a more comprehensive understanding of cancer cell physiology. PMID:24801886

Tanaka, Masako; Mun, Saya; Harada, Akihito; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Inagaki, Azusa; Sano, Soichi; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Izumi, Yasukatsu; Osada-Oka, Mayuko; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Yamagata, Masayo; Yukimura, Tokihito; Miura, Katsuyuki; Shiota, Masayuki; Iwao, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

33

Accidental Deaths Among British Columbia Indians  

PubMed Central

A statistical and epidemiological review of British Columbia native Indian and non-Indian mortality revealed that accidents were the leading cause of death among Indians but ranked only fourth among non-Indians. Comparison of accidental death rates by age and sex showed that, without exception, the rates among Indians were considerably higher than the corressponding rates for non-Indians. While the Indians represented some 2% of the total population of British Columbia, they accounted for over 10% of the total accident fatalities, 29% of drownings, and 21% of fatal burns. Socioeconomic, environmental and psychosocial factors and excessive drinking are considered the chief causes responsible for this rather unusual epidemiological phenomenon. This study revealed certain hazardous conditions which are specific to the Indian's present way of life. In the authors' opinion the recognition of these specific hazards is imperative for the planning of effective preventive campaigns. PMID:5902238

Schmitt, N.; Hole, L. W.; Barclay, W. S.

1966-01-01

34

Gender inequalities in health: exploring the contribution of living conditions in the intersection of social class  

PubMed Central

Background Women experience poorer health than men despite their longer life expectancy, due to a higher prevalence of non-fatal chronic illnesses. This paper aims to explore whether the unequal gender distribution of roles and resources can account for inequalities in general self-rated health (SRH) by gender, across social classes, in a Southern European population. Methods Cross-sectional study of residents in Catalonia aged 25–64, using data from the 2006 population living conditions survey (n=5,817). Poisson regression models were used to calculate the fair/poor SRH prevalence ratio (PR) by gender and to estimate the contribution of variables assessing several dimensions of living conditions as the reduction in the PR after their inclusion in the model. Analyses were stratified by social class (non-manual and manual). Results SRH was poorer for women among both non-manual (PR 1.39, 95% CI 1.09–1.76) and manual social classes (PR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20–1.56). Adjustment for individual income alone eliminated the association between sex and SRH, especially among manual classes (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.85–1.19; among non-manual 1.19, 0.92–1.54). The association was also reduced when adjusting by employment conditions among manual classes, and household material and economic situation, time in household chores and residential environment among non-manual classes. Discussion Gender inequalities in individual income appear to contribute largely to women's poorer health. Individual income may indicate the availability of economic resources, but also the history of access to the labour market and potentially the degree of independence and power within the household. Policies to facilitate women's labour market participation, to close the gender pay gap, or to raise non-contributory pensions may be helpful to improve women's health. PMID:24560257

Malmusi, Davide; Vives, Alejandra; Benach, Joan; Borrell, Carme

2014-01-01

35

Permanent neurological sequelae following accidental podophyllin ingestion.  

PubMed

Accidental podophyllin poisoning is rare, but it can be associated with high morbidity and mortality. The authors describe severe encephalopathy and cerebral atrophy caused by accidental podophyllin ingestion in a 3-year-old boy. This case illustrates the permanent neurological damage in a developmentally normal child from a preventable cause. PMID:21911415

Kumar, Manish; Shanmugham, Arumugasamy; Prabha, Sivaprakasam; Adhisivam, Bethou; Narayanan, Parameswaran; Biswal, Niranjan

2012-02-01

36

5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870.206 Section 870...Amount of Insurance § 870.206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an...

2012-01-01

37

5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870.206 Section 870...Amount of Insurance § 870.206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an...

2014-01-01

38

21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

2012-04-01

39

21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

2010-04-01

40

21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

2013-04-01

41

21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

2011-04-01

42

21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

2014-04-01

43

Principal aquifers can contribute radium to sources of drinking water under certain geochemical conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

What are the most important factors affecting dissolved radium concentrations in principal aquifers used for drinking water in the United States? Study results reveal where radium was detected and how rock type and chemical processes control radium occurrence. Knowledge of the geochemical conditions may help water-resource managers anticipate where radium may be elevated in groundwater and minimize exposure to radium, which contributes to cancer risk. Summary of Major Findings: * Concentrations of radium in principal aquifers used for drinking water throughout the United States generally were below 5 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) for combined radium - radium-226 (Ra-226) plus radium-228 (Ra-228) - in public water supplies. About 3 percent of sampled wells had combined radium concentrations greater than the MCL. * Elevated concentrations of combined radium were more common in groundwater in the eastern and central United States than in other regions of the Nation. About 98 percent of the wells that contained combined radium at concentrations greater than the MCL were east of the High Plains. * The highest concentrations of combined radium were in the Mid-Continent and Ozark Plateau Cambro-Ordovician aquifer system and the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system. More than 20 percent of sampled wells in these aquifers had combined radium concentrations that were greater than or equal to the MCL. * Concentrations of Ra-226 correlated with those of Ra-228. Radium-226 and Ra-228 occur most frequently together in unconsolidated sand aquifers, and their presence is strongly linked to groundwater chemistry. * Three common geochemical factors are associated with the highest radium concentrations in groundwater: (1) oxygen-poor water, (2) acidic conditions (low pH), and (3) high concentrations of dissolved solids.

Szabo, Zoltan; Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Hancock, Tracy Connell

2012-01-01

44

Conditioned Contribution of Peripheral Cocaine Actions to Cocaine Reward and Cocaine-Seeking  

PubMed Central

Cocaine has actions in the peripheral nervous system that reliably precede—and thus predict—its soon-to-follow central rewarding effects. In cocaine-experienced animals, the peripheral cocaine signal is relayed to the central nervous system, triggering excitatory input to the ventral tegmental origin of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, the system that mediates the rewarding effects of the drug. We used cocaine methiodide, a cocaine analog that does not cross the blood–brain barrier, to isolate the peripheral actions of cocaine and determine their central and behavioral effects in animals first trained to lever-press for cocaine hydrochloride (the centrally acting and abused form of the drug). We first confirmed with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry that cocaine methiodide causes rapid dopamine release from dopamine terminals in cocaine hydrochloride-trained rats. We then compared the ability of cocaine hydrochloride and cocaine methiodide to establish conditioned place preferences in rats with self-administration experience. While cocaine hydrochloride established stronger place preferences, cocaine methiodide was also effective and its effectiveness increased (incubated) over weeks of cocaine abstinence. Cocaine self-administration was extinguished when cocaine methiodide or saline was substituted for cocaine hydrochloride in the intravenous self-administration paradigm, but cocaine hydrochloride and cocaine methiodide each reinstated non-rewarded lever-pressing after extinction. Rats extinguished by cocaine methiodide substitution showed weaker cocaine-induced reinstatement than rats extinguished by saline substitution. These findings suggest that the conditioned peripheral effects of cocaine can contribute significantly to cocaine-induced (but not stress-induced) cocaine craving, and also suggest the cocaine cue as an important target for cue-exposure therapies for cocaine addiction. PMID:23535778

Wang, Bin; You, Zhi-Bing; Oleson, Erik B; Cheer, Joseph F; Myal, Stephanie; Wise, Roy A

2013-01-01

45

The contribution of single and double cones to spectral sensitivity in budgerigars during changing light conditions.  

PubMed

Bird colour vision is mediated by single cones, while double cones and rods mediate luminance vision in bright and dim light, respectively. In daylight conditions, birds use colour vision to discriminate large objects such as fruit and plumage patches, and luminance vision to detect fine spatial detail and motion. However, decreasing light intensity favours achromatic mechanisms and eventually, in dim light, luminance vision outperforms colour vision in all visual tasks. We have used behavioural tests in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) to investigate how single cones, double cones and rods contribute to spectral sensitivity for large (3.4°) static monochromatic stimuli at light intensities ranging from 0.08 to 63.5 cd/m². We found no influences of rods at any intensity level. Single cones dominate the spectral sensitivity function at intensities above 1.1 cd/m², as predicted by a receptor noise-limited colour discrimination model. Below 1.1 cd/m², spectral sensitivity is lower than expected at all wavelengths except 575 nm, which corresponds to double cone function. We suggest that luminance vision mediated by double cones restores visual sensitivity when single cone sensitivity quickly decreases at light intensities close to the absolute threshold of colour vision. PMID:24366429

Lind, Olle; Chavez, Johanna; Kelber, Almut

2014-03-01

46

The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

1975-01-01

47

Water dynamics and groundwater contributions in a young mountain soil under different meteorological conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater contribution to the soil-water content and to the evapotranspiration is a major uncertainty to assess the water balance. Particularly in mountain environments, where the soil and the depth of the water table are shallow, both percolation and water rise from the water table can happen. Aiming at better understanding these processes at the local scale, a micrometeorological station, equipped with both traditional sensors, an eddy covariance (EC) apparatus with a 20Hz sonic anemometer and infrared CO2 and H2O gas analyser, and four multiplexed TDR probes, was installed at Cividate Camuno (Oglio river basin, Central Italian Alps, Italy, 274ma.s.l.), in a mountain environment with complex topography and Alpine sublitoranean climate. The young, anthropised, soil upper layers are about 40cm deep and mainly covered by alfalfa (Medicago sativa), wild carrot (Daucus carota) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium). Field and laboratory tests were performed to characterise the soil hydraulic properties. Particularly the soil-water retention relationships were measured by means of a low- and a high-pressure Richards' apparatus, and the hydraulic conductivity at saturation of each soil layer was estimated by 2-dimensional, axis-symmetrical, inverse modelling of field infiltration tests from single ring infiltrometer. The measurements were performed during Summer 2012 and Summer 2013. The groundwater exchange was numerically estimated both in wet (Summer 2012) and in dry meteorlogical conditions (Summer 2013). Evapotranspiration was assessed by means of Penman-Monteith method, which was found to be in the range between EC-estimated fluxes and an indirect estimate based on the Bowen ratio correction for Summer 2012. The two seasons are meteorologically very different and it results also in the soil-water regime. During Summer 2012, the weather was relatively wet, the soil did not reach very small water contents, so that precipitation was able to percolate towards the groundwater table and the groundwater table to meaningfully contribute to the evapotranspirative fluxes. Summer 2013 was instead much drier, precipitation was not able to meaningfully change the water content of the lowest soil layer and to percolate toward the water table. As a consequence of the very small water contents of the soil, also a very small water rise had place.

Negm, Amro; Falocchi, Marco; Barontini, Stefano; Ranzi, Roberto; Bacchi, Baldassare

2014-05-01

48

Simulations of accidental coal immersion.  

PubMed

Coal is currently becoming an increasingly interesting fossil energy resource and that is the reason why its maritime transport, and hence the risk of collier accidents, increase. In this work, the environmental impact of an accidental coal immersion at sea is studied: the physicochemical effects are estimated using innovative experimental setups--a laboratory seawater canal called "polludrome" is used to evaluate the behaviour of coal particles submitted to a seawater flow, and a specifically designed tub is used to study the physicochemical consequences induced when coal is introduced into continuously renewed seawater. When coal is introduced into seawater, the most easily visible consequences are physical: fine coal particles reduce the daylight penetration up to 100% and move along with the flow, and coal chunks accumulate on the floor. Chemical effects are also measured: humic matters are dissolved from coal into seawater (up to 2 mg L(-1)), but no release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is evidenced. Some inorganic compounds are dissolved, among which manganese, whose concentrations can reach 1 microg L(-1). Fortunately, the results show that the environmental impact of this type of accident would remain limited. PMID:17964611

Jaffrennou, Cathy; Giamarchi, Philippe; Cabon, Jean-Yves; Stephan, Ludovic; Burel-Deschamps, Laure; Bautin, François; Thomas, Annabelle; Dumont, Julien; Le Floch, Stéphane

2007-12-01

49

Accidental death involving professional fireworks.  

PubMed

An interesting case of accidental death involving the explosion of professional fireworks in an apartment is described. The examination of the scene permitted to study several effects of the explosion on walls, ceiling, furniture and especially on a balcony where the victim was found. The external examination of the victim showed extensive thermal injuries, degloving injuries and extensive shrapnel wounds. The autopsy examination showed subarachnoid haemorrhage localized to the cerebellum, haemorrhage in the soft tissues of the neck and chest and fracture of one clavicle. Almost the entire surface of lungs showed blunt injuries and the liver showed tearing of parenchyma and multiple cavities. Histological analysis were carried out showing thickening of alveolar septae, enlargement of alveolar spaces and alveolar ruptures in lung sections while numerous, round, empty spaces were detected in the parenchyma of the liver. The examination of the scene and of the fragments found showed that at least eight pyrotechnical charges exploded on the balcony, in close proximity of the threshold with the living room of the apartment. According to the chemical findings, the charges were typical for professional use and were filled with a mixture of potassium perchlorate and aluminium. A conservative calculation results in more than 1.5 kg total mass of pyrotechnic composition exploding very close to the victim. PMID:24279979

Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Bottoni, Edoardo; Cappelletti, Simone; Fiore, Paola Antonella; Ciallella, Costantino

2014-01-01

50

An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.  

PubMed

An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the ?-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. PMID:25453780

Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

2014-10-24

51

Physical quality of pelleted animal feed. 2. contribution of processes and its conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of changes in process parameters and their effect on pellet quality in terms of hardness and durability are discussed. The pelleting process in this respect is the combination of conditioning, pelleting and cooling. The parameters discussed with respect to the conditioning process are process variables such as steam and water and system parameters such as residence time and

M. Thomas; D. J. van Zuilichem

1997-01-01

52

Computational search for hypotheses concerning the endocannabinoid contribution to the extinction of fear conditioning  

PubMed Central

Fear conditioning, in which a cue is conditioned to elicit a fear response, and extinction, in which a previously conditioned cue no longer elicits a fear response, depend on neural plasticity occurring within the amygdala. Projection neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) learn to respond to the cue during fear conditioning, and they mediate fear responding by transferring cue signals to the output stage of the amygdala. Some BLA projection neurons retain their cue responses after extinction. Recent work shows that activation of the endocannabinoid system is necessary for extinction, and it leads to long-term depression (LTD) of the GABAergic synapses that inhibitory interneurons make onto BLA projection neurons. Such GABAergic LTD would enhance the responses of the BLA projection neurons that mediate fear responding, so it would seem to oppose, rather than promote, extinction. To address this paradox, a computational analysis of two well-known conceptual models of amygdaloid plasticity was undertaken. The analysis employed exhaustive state-space search conducted within a declarative programming environment. The analysis reveals that GABAergic LTD actually increases the number of synaptic strength configurations that achieve extinction while preserving the cue responses of some BLA projection neurons in both models. The results suggest that GABAergic LTD helps the amygdala retain cue memory during extinction even as the amygdala learns to suppress the previously conditioned response. The analysis also reveals which features of both models are essential for their ability to achieve extinction with some cue memory preservation, and suggests experimental tests of those features. PMID:23761759

Anastasio, Thomas J.

2013-01-01

53

Dietary Proteins Contribute Little to Glucose Production, Even Under Optimal Gluconeogenic Conditions in Healthy Humans  

PubMed Central

Dietary proteins are believed to participate significantly in maintaining blood glucose levels, but their contribution to endogenous glucose production (EGP) remains unclear. We investigated this question using multiple stable isotopes. After overnight fasting, eight healthy volunteers received an intravenous infusion of [6,6-2H2]-glucose. Two hours later, they ingested four eggs containing 23 g of intrinsically, uniformly, and doubly [15N]-[13C]–labeled proteins. Gas exchanges, expired CO2, blood, and urine were collected over the 8 h following egg ingestion. The cumulative amount of dietary amino acids (AAs) deaminated over this 8-h period was 18.1 ± 3.5%, 17.5% of them being oxidized. The EGP remained stable for 6 h but fell thereafter, concomitantly with blood glucose levels. During the 8 h after egg ingestion, 50.4 ± 7.7 g of glucose was produced, but only 3.9 ± 0.7 g originated from dietary AA. Our results show that the total postprandial contribution of dietary AA to EGP was small in humans habituated to a diet medium-rich in proteins, even after an overnight fast and in the absence of carbohydrates from the meal. These findings question the respective roles of dietary proteins and endogenous sources in generating significant amounts of glucose in order to maintain blood glucose levels in healthy subjects. PMID:23274906

Fromentin, Claire; Tomé, Daniel; Nau, Françoise; Flet, Laurent; Luengo, Catherine; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Sanders, Pascal; Fromentin, Gilles; Gaudichon, Claire

2013-01-01

54

Accidental and planned weather modification in illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather modification, both planned by humans and accidentally produced by humans, is the focus of an Illinois study. Populations in Illinois and the Midwest are living in a climate that is now modified inadvertently from its natural state. State atmospheric scientists have tackled weather modification through a series of interrelated studies, experimental design studies, experimental field studies to verify changes

1977-01-01

55

Animal memory: The contribution of generalization decrement to delayed conditional discrimination retention functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed conditional discriminations in which a sample indicates which comparison stimulus is correct have typically been used\\u000a in working memory research with animals. Following acquisition with no (0-sec) delay between the offset of the sample and\\u000a the onset of the comparison stimuli, delays of variable duration are introduced. The resulting retention functions are taken\\u000a as a measure of memory. We

Rebecca Rayburn-Reeves; Thomas R. Zentall

2009-01-01

56

Processing of bilateral versus unilateral conditions: Evidence for the functional contribution of the ventral attention network.  

PubMed

Processing of multiple or bilateral conditions presented simultaneously in both hemifields reflects the natural mode of perception in our multi-target environment, but is not yet completely understood. While region-of-interest based studies in healthy subjects reported single cortical areas as the right inferior parietal lobe (IPL) or temporoparietal junction (TPJ) to process bilateral conditions, studies in extinction patients with reduced ability in this regard suggested the right superior temporal cortex to hold a key role. The present fMRI study on healthy subjects aimed at resolving these discrepancies by contrasting bilateral versus unilateral visual conditions in a paradigm similar to the bed-side test for patients with visual extinction on a whole brain level. Additionally, reduced attentional capacity in spatial processing was investigated in normal aging. Processing of bilateral conditions compared to unilateral ones showed to require stronger activation of not one single cortical region but the entire right-lateralized ventral attention network, bilateral parietal and visual association areas. These results might suggest a conceptual difference between unilateral and bilateral spatial processing with the latter depending on additional anatomical and functional brain resources. Reduced attentional capacity in elderly subjects was associated with compensatory recruitment of contralateral functional homologues [left IPL, TPJ, frontal eye field (FEF)]. These data reveal the functional anatomy of our ability to visually process and respond to the entity of the environment and improve our understanding of neglect and extinction. Moreover, the data demonstrate that a restriction of the attentional capacity is based on processing limitations in the network of high-level cortical areas and not due to restriction in the primary sensory ones. PMID:25824980

Beume, Lena-Alexandra; Kaller, Christoph P; Hoeren, Markus; Klöppel, Stefan; Kuemmerer, Dorothee; Glauche, Volkmar; Köstering, Lena; Mader, Irina; Rijntjes, Michel; Weiller, Cornelius; Umarova, Roza

2015-05-01

57

The contribution of woody plant materials on the several conditions in a space environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Woody plant materials have several utilization elements in our habitation environment on earth. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. Woody plants can produce an excess oxygen, woody materials for the living cabin, and provide a biomass by cultivating crops and other species of creatures. Tree material would become to be a tool in closed bio-ecosystems such as an environment in a space. We named the trees used as material for the experiment related to space environments “CosmoBon”, small tree bonsai. Japanese cherry tree, “Sakura”, is famous and lovely tree in Japan. One species of “Sakura”, “Mamezakura, Prunus incisa”, is not only lovely tree species, but also suitable tree for the model tree of our purpose. The species of Prunus incisa is originally grown in volcano environment. That species of Sakura is originally grown on Mt. Fuji aria, oligotrophic place. We will try to build the best utilization usage of woody plant under the space environment by “Mamezakura” as a model tree. Here, we will show the importance of uniformity of materials when we will use the tree materials in a space environment. We will also discuss that tree has a high possibility of utilization under the space environments by using our several results related to this research.

Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Katayama, Takeshi

58

Accidental Outcomes Guide Punishment in a “Trembling Hand” Game  

PubMed Central

How do people respond to others' accidental behaviors? Reward and punishment for an accident might depend on the actor's intentions, or instead on the unintended outcomes she brings about. Yet, existing paradigms in experimental economics do not include the possibility of accidental monetary allocations. We explore the balance of outcomes and intentions in a two-player economic game where monetary allocations are made with a “trembling hand”: that is, intentions and outcomes are sometimes mismatched. Player 1 allocates $10 between herself and Player 2 by rolling one of three dice. One die has a high probability of a selfish outcome, another has a high probability of a fair outcome, and the third has a high probability of a generous outcome. Based on Player 1's choice of die, Player 2 can infer her intentions. However, any of the three die can yield any of the three possible outcomes. Player 2 is given the opportunity to respond to Player 1's allocation by adding to or subtracting from Player 1's payoff. We find that Player 2's responses are influenced substantially by the accidental outcome of Player 1's roll of the die. Comparison to control conditions suggests that in contexts where the allocation is at least partially under the control of Player 1, Player 2 will punish Player 1 accountable for unintentional negative outcomes. In addition, Player 2's responses are influenced by Player 1's intention. However, Player 2 tends to modulate his responses substantially more for selfish intentions than for generous intentions. This novel economic game provides new insight into the psychological mechanisms underlying social preferences for fairness and retribution. PMID:19707578

Cushman, Fiery; Dreber, Anna; Wang, Ying; Costa, Jay

2009-01-01

59

Tourette syndrome, parenting aggravation, and the contribution of co-occurring conditions among a nationally representative sample  

PubMed Central

Background Previous research suggests that parents of a child with Tourette Syndrome (TS) have lower self-concepts, higher caregiver burden, and more difficulties with home activities. However, the contributions of TS and mental, emotional, or behavioral (MEB) conditions to family functioning are difficult to identify from previous research due to relatively small TS sample sizes and high rates of co-occurring conditions within samples of children with TS. Objective The current study hypothesized that families of children with TS would report significantly more family functioning difficulties (more parenting aggravation, more difficulty with coping with the child’s care, less parent–child communication, and less consistent family routines). Specifically, co-occurring conditions would contribute substantially to reported parenting aggravation. Method Parent-reported data from the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health were analyzed, including whether the child had been diagnosed with TS or an MEB. Weighted analyses were restricted to US children 6–17 years of age (n = 64,034) and adjusted for child age, sex, race and ethnicity. Results Parents of children with TS were more likely to fall into the high parenting aggravation index category compared with parents of children without TS (aPR = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.2–6.6). Controlling for the co-occurring MEB conditions attenuated the relations between TS and parenting aggravation; however, a significant effect for TS remained in some cases. Conclusion Parents of children with TS may face significant challenges in raising their children, leading to increased parenting aggravation; these challenges appear to be primarily associated with the presence of co-occurring MEB conditions. PMID:23260608

Robinson, Lara R.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Schieve, Laura A.; Visser, Susanna N.

2015-01-01

60

[Accidental genital myiasis by Eristalis tenax].  

PubMed

Myiasis is a parasitic infestation of human or animal skin, necrotic tissues and natural cavities by fly larvae or pupa. In this paper we will describe the case of a 27 years old woman, asymptomatic, that spontaneously eliminated from her vagina two Eristalis tenax larvae, a worldwide distributed fly specie, classified as an accidental myiasis agent. The patient lived in an urban area, she had low socioeconomic status and she had the antecedent record of use of intravaginal vegetables as sexual stimulator. Analyzing the case and the references, we concluded the patient had an accidental infestation by E. tenax, being the vaginal introduction of vegetables the most probable mechanism of transmission. This kind of infestation has not been communicated in the literature. Also, this is the first documented case of E. tenax myiasis in Chile. PMID:19621163

González M, Mauricio; Comte M, Greissy; Monárdez P, Javiera; Díaz de Valdés L, Marcelo; Matamala C, Iván

2009-06-01

61

Emergency operational meteorological considerations during an accidental release of hazardous chemicals. Technical memo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accidental release of toxic chemicals into the atmosphere has always been of great concern among local emergency response authorities. Evacuation of persons in and around the affected area, the amount of chemical spilled, and atmospheric conditions governing the downwind concentrations are among some of the more pressing issues confronting local hazardous materials (HAZMAT) personnel. Recently, the National Oceanic and

P. Mueller; J. Galt

1991-01-01

62

Myelopathy and amnesia following accidental electrical injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Documentation of MRI and neurophysiological changes following accidental electrical injury.Setting: Tertiary care referral teaching hospital at Lucknow, India.Results: A 30-year-old lady developed amnesia and spastic paraparesis with loss of pin prick sensation below the second thoracic spinal segment following electrocution. Her spinal MRI was normal and cranial MRI revealed T2 hyperintensity in the right putamen. Peroneal, sural and electromyography

J Kalita; M Jose; UK Misra

2002-01-01

63

Accidental exposure to sarin: vision effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two men were accidentally exposed to vapors of sarin, a cholinesterase inhibitor and extremely toxic nerve gas. Diagnosis\\u000a was confirmed by depressed cholinesterase activity, and fixed extremely miotic pupils. No other signs or symptoms developed\\u000a and neither man required treatment. Recovery to normal cholinesterase activity was gradual over a 90-day period. Pupillary\\u000a reflexes were not detectable until 11 days after

Roy H. Rengstorff

1985-01-01

64

Cultural and socio-economic conditions as factors contributing to chronic stress in sub-Saharan African communities.  

PubMed

Stress is known to contribute to overall health status. Many individuals in sub-Saharan Africa are believed to be stressed about their employment, income, and health. This study aimed to investigate hair cortisol as a biomarker of chronic stress in settlement communities in Kenya. Hair samples were collected from 108 volunteers from settlement communities in Kenya. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique was used to measure hair cortisol concentrations. In parallel, a health survey was completed. The mean ± SD for the cortisol concentration in the hair of volunteers from the settlement communities in Naivasha was 639 ± 300 ng/g, which was higher than found for a Caucasian reference group (299 ± 110 ng/g; one-way ANOVA, P = 0.0003). There were no differences in hair cortisol concentrations between members of slum settlements adjacent to large floriculture farms in Naivasha (Karagita, Kamere/Kwa Muhia/DCK, and Kasarani) compared with those well-removed from all floriculture in Mogotio (Mogotio and Westlands/Katorongot). However, hair cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in females, divorced volunteers, those who made below minimum wage, and those who reported feeling unsafe collecting water or using sanitation facilities within these 2 settlement groups. We found no evidence for increased chronic stress (measured by hair cortisol content) between members of slum settlements adjacent to versus distant to large floriculture farms. Cultural and socio-economic conditions that prevail in much of sub-Saharan Africa were found to be factors contributing to chronic stress. PMID:25083791

Henley, Phaedra; Lowthers, Megan; Koren, Gideon; Fedha, Pamela Tsimbiri; Russell, Evan; VanUum, Stan; Arya, Sumedha; Darnell, Regna; Creed, Irena F; Trick, Charles G; Bend, John R

2014-09-01

65

The Relative Contributions of the Homeostatic and Circadian Processes to Sleep Regulation under Conditions of Severe Sleep Restriction  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate the relative contributions of the homeostatic and circadian processes on sleep regulation under conditions of severe sleep restriction. Design: The 13-day laboratory based study consisted of 3 × 24-h baseline days (8 h sleep opportunity, 16 h wake) followed by 7 × 28-h forced desynchrony days (4.7 h sleep opportunity, 23.3 h wake). Setting: The study was conducted in a time isolation unit at the Centre for Sleep Research, University of South Australia. Participants: Fourteen healthy, nonsmoking males, aged 21.8 ± 3.8 (mean ± SD) years participated in the study. Interventions: N/A Measurements: Sleep was measured using standard polysomnography. Core body temperature (CBT) was recorded continuously using a rectal thermistor. Each epoch of sleep was assigned a circadian phase based on the CBT data (6 × 60-degree bins) and an elapsed time into sleep episode (2 × 140-min intervals). Results: The percentage of SWS decreased with elapsed time into the sleep episode. However, no change in the percentage of REM sleep was observed with sleep progression. Whilst there was a circadian modulation of REM sleep, the amplitude of the circadian variation was smaller than expected. Sleep efficiency remained high throughout the sleep episode and across all circadian phases. Conclusions: Previous forced desynchrony studies have demonstrated a strong circadian influence on sleep, in the absence of sleep restriction. The current study suggests that in the presence of high homeostatic pressure, the circadian modulation of sleep, in particular sleep efficiency and to a lesser extent, REM sleep, are reduced. Citation: Paech GM; Ferguson SA; Sargent C; Kennaway DJ; Roach GD. The relative contributions of the homeostatic and circadian processes to sleep regulation under conditions of severe sleep restriction. SLEEP 2012;35(7):941-948. PMID:22754040

Paech, Gemma M.; Ferguson, Sally A.; Sargent, Charli; Kennaway, David J.; Roach, Gregory D.

2012-01-01

66

Accidental supersymmetric dark matter and baryogenesis  

SciTech Connect

We show that ''accidental'' supersymmetry is a beyond-the-Standard Model framework that naturally accommodates a thermal relic dark matter candidate and successful electroweak baryogenesis, including the needed strongly first-order character of the electroweak phase transition. We study the phenomenology of this setup from the standpoint of both dark matter and baryogenesis. For energies around the electroweak phase transition temperature, the low-energy effective theory is similar to the MSSM with light super-partners of the third-generation quarks and of the Higgs and gauge bosons. We calculate the dark matter relic abundance and the baryon asymmetry across the accidental supersymmetry parameter space, including resonant and non-resonant CP-violating sources. We find that there are regions of parameter space producing both the observed value of the baryon asymmetry and a dark matter candidate with the correct relic density and conforming to present-day constraints from dark matter searches. This scenario makes sharp predictions for the particle spectrum, predicting a lightest neutralino mass between 200 and 500 GeV, with all charginos and neutralinos within less than a factor 2 of the lightest neutralino mass and the heavy Higgs sector within 20–25% of that mass, making it an interesting target for collider searches. In addition, we demonstrate that successful accidental supersymmetric dark matter and baryogenesis will be conclusively tested with improvements smaller than one order of magnitude to the current performance of electron electric dipole moment searches and of direct dark matter searches, as well as with IceCube plus Deep Core neutrino telescope data.

Kozaczuk, Jonathan; Profumo, Stefano; Wainwright, Carroll L., E-mail: jkozaczu@ucsc.edu, E-mail: profumo@ucsc.edu, E-mail: cwainwri@ucsc.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2013-01-01

67

[Prevention and therapy of accidental radionuclide uptake].  

PubMed

After accidental incorporation of radionuclides in the organism uptake in the whole-body and in critical organs can be either reduced or blocked (prevention) by appropriate medication and behaviour. Effective half-lives after incorporation in critical organs can be shortened (therapy). For different fallout-radionuclides a variety of preparations exists for such purposes. For large-scale prevention only iodine administration seems appropriate to block the uptake of the generally occurring 131-I in the thyroid. Such an iodine prophylaxis, however, seems only necessary when drinking water concentrations exceed 5000 nCi/l. Excessive amounts of iodine can influence thyroid function significantly. PMID:3577639

Riccabona, G; Zechmann, W

1986-01-01

68

Sudden death following accidental ingestion of chlormequat.  

PubMed

A 59-year-old white male accidentally ingested a mouthful of a plant growth chemical, Cycocel, containing 11.8% of the active ingredient (2-chloroethyl)trimethylammonium chloride (chlormequat). He was seen by a family physician and then transferred to a hospital where he died as a result of ventricular fibrillation, which progressed to asystole. Postingestion symptoms were typical of cholinergic crisis and included salivation, diaphoresis, bradycardia, visual disturbances, and seizure. Autopsy findings showed marked pulmonary edema, coronary atherosclerosis, atheromata of aorta, and localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Toxicological analyses of biological samples showed the presence of chlormequat in the stomach contents and urine. PMID:2395350

Winek, C L; Wahba, W W; Edelstein, J M

1990-01-01

69

Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit.  

PubMed

Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit. PMID:24278073

Gawro?ska-Ukleja, Ewa; Ró?alska, Anna; Ukleja-Soko?owska, Natalia; Zbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

2013-06-01

70

Contributions from geomagnetic inverse theory to the study of hydromagnetic conditions near the core-mantle boundary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Final Report on contributions from geomagnetic inverse theory to the study of hydromagnetic conditions near the core-mantle boundary (CMB) is presented. The original proposal was to study five questions concerning what the surface and satellite magnetic data imply about hydromagnetic and electromagnetic conditions near the CMB. The five questions are: (1) what do the surface and satellite data imply about the geomagnetic field B near the surface of the earth; (2) how does one extrapolate B down through the conducting mantle to the CMB; (3) if B on the CMB is visible, how accurately does it satisfy the frozen-flux approximation; (4) if frozen flux is a good approximation on the CMB, what can be inferred about the fluid velocity v in the upper core; and (5) if v at the CMB is visible, does it suggest any dynamical properties of the core, such as vertical advection, Alfven-inertial waves, link instabilities, or mantle effects. A summary of the research is provided.

Backus, George E.

1991-01-01

71

Spatial variation in water quality within the water bodies of a Peak District catchment and the contribution of moorland condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial variation in water quality within the water bodies of a Peak District catchment and the contribution of moorland condition Tia Crouch and Jonathan Walker (Moors for the Future Partnership) Upland locations are significant water supply sources providing over 70% of fresh water in Great Britain. However, the peatlands of the Peak District, Southern Pennines are highly contaminated with anthropogenically derived, atmospherically deposited pollutants, such as heavy metals. This is due to their location between the cities of Manchester and Sheffield, the centre of the 19th century English Industrial Revolution. These peatlands are also severely eroded; therefore erosion could be releasing these pollutants into the fluvial system, representing a threat to both aquatic ecosystems and drinking water supplies. These threats are regulated under the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Water Supply Regulations respectively. There are two aims of this project. The first aim is to identify spatial and temporal variability of water quality within the Bamford water treatment works (WTW) catchment. This was achieved by fortnightly spot sampling at eight of the tributaries into the reservoir system. The second aim is to assess the contribution of moorland condition to water quality within the Bamford WTW catchment. Similarly, this was achieved by fortnightly spot sampling at eight moorland streams, draining from a variety of peatland conditions (bare peat, restoration, intact and heather burn). Water samples were analysed for carbon (DOC, POC & TOC), pH, hardness and a suite of heavy metals, including copper, iron and zinc. In addition, stream temperature and stage height was recorded. Preliminary results highlight a number of issues within the Bamford WTW catchment: under the WFD streams are not achieving 'good' status for pH, copper and zinc, and under the Drinking Water Standards (DWS) streams are not achieving targets for aluminium, iron and colour. For example, the DWS for colour is 20 hazen units; however, mean values for streams within the Bamford WTW catchment range from 40 to 742 Hazen Units. Further analysis of the results will identify where spatial issues and priorities exist in space and time, as well as in relation to WFD objectives and DWS. The relationships between heavy metals and carbon (DOC, POC & TOC), pH, temperature and stage height will also be investigated, and the impacts of moorland restoration on carbon and heavy metals in water supplies will be discussed. Overall, this project is intended to provide evidence of the links between moorland restoration and management and DWS and WFD objectives; therefore, enabling continued support for moorland restoration work. This project was funded by the Environment Agency and Severn Trent Water Limited.

Crouch, Tia; Walker, Jonathan

2013-04-01

72

Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin  

PubMed Central

May, G. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 276-283. Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin. Following the accidental production of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (dioxin) as the result of an exothermic reaction at a chemical plant in Derbyshire, 79 cases of chloracne were recorded, many of them severe. Contrary to the usual experience they have responded very favourably to treatment and there were no cases of contact chloracne among relatives or domestic animals in the initial outbreak. However, two cases of contact chloracne were recorded three years later. Similar incidents are known to have occured in both Europe and the United States of America, almost invariably accompanied by widespread severe illness and with fatalities. Apart from one death due to an explosion which followed the exothermic reaction the more serious sequelae, which may range from depression and loss of weight to liver, kidney, and cardiac failure as well as malignant disease, have not occurred. A quick and reliable method of biological assay for the presence of dioxin in produced trichlorophenol was developed based on oral dosage to rabbits with assessment of liver function at fixed time intervals thereafter. This test has already been superseded by instantaneous gas-liquid chromatography. An entirely new plant with suitable modifications and multiple safety features has now been in satisfactory operation for three years. Images PMID:4269256

May, George

1973-01-01

73

Accidental death of elderly persons under the influence of chlorpheniramine.  

PubMed

Older individuals are susceptible to accident, such as falls, some of which are fatal. In such cases, autopsies and toxicological analysis may be deemed unnecessary, especially if the critical injuries and manner of death can be determined conclusively based on information at the scene and an external investigation. Here, we report the results of two autopsies performed on elderly individuals who died accidentally under the influence of chlorpheniramine. These autopsies revealed valuable additional information. Case 1: A woman in her 70s, who was living alone, was found dead under the stairs in her house. She had no history of a condition that could have led to sudden death. The autopsy revealed a neck fracture, multiple rib fractures, and a coccyx fracture. The histopathological findings showed fat embolisms in numerous small vessels of the interalveolar septum. Toxicological analysis of blood samples revealed the presence of chlorpheniramine (0.41?g/ml). Case 2: A woman in her 70s, who was living alone, was found dead in the bathtub in her house. There was no past medical history other than diabetes mellitus and vertigo. The autopsy revealed hyper-inflated lungs and brown-red fluids in the trachea, but there was no evidence of a pathology or injury that could have induced a loss of consciousness. Toxicological analysis of the fluids in the right thoracic cavity revealed the presence of chlorpheniramine (0.57?g/ml). In both cases, re-examination of the scene after the autopsy revealed the presence of common cold medicine containing chlorpheniramine. The victim may have accidentally overdosed on common cold medicine. This overdose would have been compounded by anti-histamine-induced drowsiness. The present cases suggest that forensic pathologists should always notify physicians/pharmacists of findings pertaining to unexpected drug side effects. Such intervention would prevent many accidental deaths. In addition, each autopsy must be performed in conjunction with a detailed postmortem investigation. Such efforts would also increase the accuracy of the public health record's mortality statistics. PMID:23747192

Suzuki, Hideto; Shigeta, Akio; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

2013-09-01

74

Arabidopsis TNL-WRKY domain receptor RRS1 contributes to temperature-conditioned RPS4 auto-immunity  

PubMed Central

In plant effector-triggered immunity (ETI), intracellular nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (NLR) receptors are activated by specific pathogen effectors. The Arabidopsis TIR (Toll-Interleukin-1 receptor domain)-NLR (denoted TNL) gene pair, RPS4 and RRS1, confers resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) strain DC3000 expressing the Type III-secreted effector, AvrRps4. Nuclear accumulation of AvrRps4, RPS4, and the TNL resistance regulator EDS1 is necessary for ETI. RRS1 possesses a C-terminal “WRKY” transcription factor DNA binding domain suggesting that important RPS4/RRS1 recognition and/or resistance signaling events occur at the nuclear chromatin. In Arabidopsis accession Ws-0, the RPS4Ws/RRS1Ws allelic pair governs resistance to Pst/AvrRps4 accompanied by host programed cell death (pcd). In accession Col-0, RPS4Col/RRS1Col effectively limits Pst/AvrRps4 growth without pcd. Constitutive expression of HA-StrepII tagged RPS4Col (in a 35S:RPS4-HS line) confers temperature-conditioned EDS1-dependent auto-immunity. Here we show that a high (28°C, non-permissive) to moderate (19°C, permissive) temperature shift of 35S:RPS4-HS plants can be used to follow defense-related transcriptional dynamics without a pathogen effector trigger. By comparing responses of 35S:RPS4-HS with 35S:RPS4-HS rrs1-11 and 35S:RPS4-HS eds1-2 mutants, we establish that RPS4Col auto-immunity depends entirely on EDS1 and partially on RRS1Col. Examination of gene expression microarray data over 24 h after temperature shift reveals a mainly quantitative RRS1Col contribution to up- or down-regulation of a small subset of RPS4Col-reprogramed, EDS1-dependent genes. We find significant over-representation of WRKY transcription factor binding W-box cis-elements within the promoters of these genes. Our data show that RRS1Col contributes to temperature-conditioned RPS4Col auto-immunity and are consistent with activated RPS4Col engaging RRS1Col for resistance signaling. PMID:24146667

Heidrich, Katharina; Tsuda, Kenichi; Blanvillain-Baufumé, Servane; Wirthmueller, Lennart; Bautor, Jaqueline; Parker, Jane E.

2013-01-01

75

Sex differences in the contribution of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in trigeminal ganglia under an acute muscle pain condition  

PubMed Central

In this study, we examined whether functional subunits of the ATP-dependent K+ channel (KATP) are expressed in trigeminal ganglia (TG), which contains sensory neurons that innervate oral and facial structures. We also investigated whether direct activation of the KATP effectively attenuates mechanical hypersensitivity in the context of an acute orofacial muscle pain condition. The KATP expression in TG and behavioral studies were conducted in age matched male and female Sprague Dawley rats. RT-PCR experiments showed that the mRNAs for the inwardly rectifying pore-forming subunits, Kir6.1 and Kir6.2, as well as the regulatory sulphonylurea subunits, SUR1 and SUR2, were reliably detected in TG. Subsequent western blot analysis confirmed that proteins for all 4 subunits are expressed in TG, and showed that Kir6.2 is expressed at a significantly higher level in male TG compared to that of female rats. This observation was confirmed by the immunohistochemical demonstration of higher percentages of Kir6 positive masseter afferents in female rats. Masseteric injection of capsaicin evokes a time dependent increase in masseter sensitivity to noxious mechanical stimulation. A specific KATP agonist, pinacidil, dose-dependently attenuated the capsaicin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity in male rats. The dose of pinacidil (20µg) that completely blocked the capsaicin responses in male rats was ineffective in female rats regardless of their estrus phases. Only at the highest dose (300µg) we used, pinacidil was partially effective in female rats. Similarly, another KATP agonist, diazoxide which targets different KATP subunits also showed sex specific responses in attenuating capsaicin-induced masseter hypersensitivity. These data suggested that sex differences in functional KATP expression in TG may underlie sex specific responses to KATP agonists. The present study provided novel information on sex differences in KATP expression in TG and its contribution under an orofacial muscle pain condition. PMID:21296645

Niu, Katelyn; Saloman, Jami L.; Zhang, Youping; Ro, Jin Y.

2011-01-01

76

Feeding condition and the relative contribution of different dopamine receptor subtypes to the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine in rats  

PubMed Central

Rationale The contribution of dopamine receptor subtypes in mediating the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine is not fully established. Many drug discrimination studies use food to maintain responding, necessitating food restriction, which can alter drug effects. Objective This study established stimulus control with cocaine (10 mg/kg) in free-feeding and food-restricted rats responding under a schedule of stimulus shock termination (SST) and in food-restricted rats responding under a schedule of food presentation to examine whether feeding condition or the reinforcer used to maintain responding impacts the effects of cocaine. Method Dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists were examined for their ability to mimic or attenuate, respectively, the effects of cocaine. Result Apomorphine, quinpirole, and lisuride occasioned >90% responding on the cocaine-associated lever in free-feeding rats responding under a schedule of SST; apomorphine, but not quinpirole or lisuride, occasioned >90% responding on the cocaine lever in food-restricted rats responding under a schedule of SST. In food-restricted rats responding for food these drugs occasioned little cocaine lever responding and were comparatively more potent in decreasing responding. In free-feeding rats, the effects of cocaine were attenuated by the D2/D3 receptor antagonist raclopride and the D3 receptor-selective antagonist PG01037. In food-restricted rats, raclopride and the D2 receptor-selective antagonist L-741,626 attenuated the effects of cocaine. Raclopride antagonized quinpirole in all groups while PG01037 antagonized quinpirole only in free-feeding rats. Conclusion These results demonstrate significant differences in the discriminative stimulus of cocaine that are due to feeding conditions and not to the use of different reinforcers across procedures. PMID:24030470

Baladi, Michelle G; Newman, Amy H; France, Charles P

2013-01-01

77

Conditionals  

E-print Network

This article introduces the classic accounts of the meaning of conditionals (material implication, strict implication, variably strict conditional) and discusses the difference between indicative and subjunctive/counterfactual ...

von Fintel, Kai

2011-01-01

78

Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" is a comprehensive overview of standards, practices and possibilities of course management systems in higher education. "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" focuses on what the current knowledge is (in best practices, research, standards and…

McGee, Patricia; Carmean, Colleen; Jafari, Ali

2005-01-01

79

Experiences of Causing an Accidental Death: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accidentally killing or feeling responsible for another person's death constitutes an event that is different from many typical traumatic stressors in that the responsibility for causing the trauma is located in the person themselves, rather than another person or persons. Research exploring the perspective of those who have accidentally caused a…

Rassool, Sara B.; Nel, Pieter W.

2012-01-01

80

Throat-cutting of accidental origin.  

PubMed

Incised wounds of the neck can be accidental, homicidal, or suicidal. In this paper, a death case has been presented where a spinning circular saw of a cutting machine in a workshop came off its place and cut the throat of a 30-year-old male who was operating the machine. There was an incision (15 cm x 5 cm) that began in the middle of the neck down the thyroid cartilage, extended horizontally to the left of the neck and ended on the outer part of the neck in the outer left side of m. trapezius. Death occurred because of exsanguination caused by the cutting of carotis artery and jugular vein. In the case we presented, although the cut in the neck initially suggested homicide, it was found to have occurred as a result of an accident after the autopsy and death scene investigation. PMID:18489556

Demirci, Serafettin; Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Gunaydin, Gursel

2008-07-01

81

[Accidental myiasis by Ornidia obesa in humans].  

PubMed

Dipterous of the genus Ornidia are pollinator bugs, but immature stages can be found in organic matter in decomposition. This article refers to a found of larvae of Ornidia obesa in humans feces. An eight years old child was treated in a medical clinic due to the presence of two larvae and one pupae in the feces, hyperthermia, intestinal obstruction and strong abdominal pain. Medical therapy consisted of Mebendazol and Ivermectin in the indicated doses. 24 hours after the administration of the drugs, several larvae were expelled with diarrheic feces. The material was taken to the Parasitological Veterinary Lab, and the larvae were classified belonging to the genus Ornidia. According to the literature, this specie of Diptera is not incriminated to cause myiasis in vertebrates. We think that this study reports a case of accidental myiasis in humans, were the patient may have ingested food with immature stages of the fly (eggs or larvae). PMID:20059825

Monteiro, Silvia G; Faccio, Lucian; Otto, Mateus Anderson; Soares, João Fabio; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Mazzanti, Alexandre

2008-09-01

82

Ontogeny of accidental wetlands and hydric soil development in surface mined landscapes  

SciTech Connect

Reducing conditions are periodically present in hydric soils and are essential for chemical processes that support wetland functions and values. Indicators of these conditions, i.e., redoximorphic features, can be useful in determining the presence of a hydric soil. However, young wetlands, i.e., those recently formed, may not possess reducing conditions and/or may not exhibit redoximorphic features. Few studies have addressed the time needed for hydric soil development. In this study, we present data on redoximorphic features, including chroma and oxidized rhizospheres, gathered from two sets of wetlands in southwestern Virginia, including (1) constructed wetlands that are 3 years old and (2) accidental wetlands that are 10 to 30 years old. Under conditions described for these sites, there is strong evidence that discernable redoximorphic features form in accidental wetlands within 10 years, but not within 3 years in constructed wetlands. Since accidental wetlands have been in existence for longer than most man-made wetlands, they provide clues to the development of hydric soils in recently constructed wetland systems.

Atkinson, R.B. [Christopher Newport Univ., Newport News, VA (United States); Daniels, W.L.; Cairns, J. Jr. [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1996-12-31

83

Contributions of vacancies and self-interstitials to self-diffusion in silicon under thermal equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since many years, the contribution of vacancies (V) and self-interstitials (I) to silicon (Si) self-diffusion is a matter of debate. Native defects and their interaction among themselves and with foreign atoms influence the processes taking place during device fabrication, starting with the growth of Si single crystals and ending with doping of nanosized electronic devices. Considering this relevance, it is remarkable that present data about the properties of native point defects in Si are still limited and controversial. This work reports experiments on self-diffusion in Si for temperatures between 650?C and 960?C to verify recent results of Shimizu [Phys. Rev. Lett.10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.095901 98, 095901 (2007)] that give rise to inconsistencies in V-mediated self- and dopant diffusion. Two different structures of isotopically controlled epitaxial layers of Si are used for the diffusion study. One structure consisting of 20 bilayers of 29Si/28Si was grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The other structure with a 28Si layer sandwiched between natural Si was grown by means of chemical vapor deposition. Self-diffusion in (29Si/28Si)20 multilayers (ML) was analyzed by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and neutron reflectometry, whereas self-diffusion in natSi/28Si/natSi sandwich (SW) structures was measured with SIMS only. Analysis of the experimental profiles reveals an enhanced self-diffusion in ML compared to SW structures. The enhanced diffusion is ascribed to the dissolution of V- and I-related defect clusters grown-in during MBE. On the other hand, self-diffusion in the SW structures accurately confirms the data of Shimizu that are considered to represent data for thermal equilibrium conditions. The temperature dependence of self-diffusion is described by V- and I-mediated contributions with temperature-dependent thermodynamic properties of V. This interpretation can solve the inconsistency between self- and dopant diffusion in Si, but further experiments are required to verify this concept.

Kube, R.; Bracht, H.; Hüger, E.; Schmidt, H.; Hansen, J. Lundsgaard; Larsen, A. Nylandsted; Ager, J. W., III; Haller, E. E.; Geue, T.; Stahn, J.

2013-08-01

84

Accidental intoxication with hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid mixture.  

PubMed

The paper describes a fatal case of accidental ingestion of a mixture of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. The man was admitted to hospital, where appropriate treatment, adequate to his condition, was instituted. Numerous ventricular fibrillation episodes, for which the patient was defibrillated repeatedly, were observed during the period of hospitalization. The patient was in a critical condition, with progressive symptoms of hypovolemic shock and multiorgan failure. On the next day after admission, signs of electromechanical dissociation progressing to asystole were noted. The instituted resuscitation procedure proved ineffective and the patient died. Autopsy revealed brownish discoloration of the esophageal, gastric, and small intestinal mucous membranes. Numerous ulcerations without signs of perforation were found both in the esophagus and in the stomach. The mucous membrane of the small intestine demonstrated focal rubefactions, whereas no focal lesions of the large intestinal mucosa were seen. Microscopic investigation of the biopsy specimens collected from the stomach, duodenum and small intestine revealed mucous membrane necrosis foci, reaching the deeper layers of the wall of these organs. The mucous membrane of the large intestine was congested. Bioptates obtained from the lungs indicated the presence of hemorrhagic infarcts and focal extravasations. Poisoning with the aforementioned acids with consequent necrosis of the esophageal, gastric, duodenal and small intestinal walls with hemorrhages to the gastrointestinal tract, as well as extravasations and hemorrhagic infarcts in the lungs was considered to be the cause of death. PMID:25184427

Sm?dra-Ka?mirska, A; K?dzierski, M; Barzdo, M; Jurczyk, Ap; Szram, S; Berent, J

2014-01-01

85

[Accidental ingestion of cigarettes by children].  

PubMed

Accidental ingestion of cigarettes (and butts) is mainly seen in young children. Nicotine in tobacco products is easily absorbed by the oral mucosa and intestines; absorption depends on nicotine content and pH of tobacco. Symptoms are caused by the nicotine component and usually develop rapidly (< 4 hours). The most common symptom is vomiting. Although cigarettes are potentially toxic, their ingestion by children is generally benign. Decontamination of the mouth with water may be useful. Induction of emesis is not advised. Gastric lavage is not needed in asymptomatic patients (with an unreliable history) or after vomiting. Children who ingested cigarettes should receive medical observation for four hours after ingestion. Children with significant symptoms should be admitted and eventually treated by supportive care. In symptomatic children or children with a reliable history of ingestion of large quantities who have not vomited gastric lavage with administration of activated charcoal has to be performed. When after vomiting other symptoms persist activated charcoal can be given via a nasogastric tube. PMID:10028353

Hulzebos, C V; Walhof, C; de Vries, T W

1998-11-21

86

[Psychological aspects of accidental poisoning in children].  

PubMed

The following points stand out from a semi-open questionnaire which was sent to the parents of 28 children hospitalized for accidental intoxication. Intoxications often occur in children who are hyperactive, curious, rebellious and have strong affective needs. Parents find it very difficult to set bans and limitations to their children, whose behaviour seems to be actively calling out for such restrictions. These children frequently put themselves in a situation of self-aggression, which shows the parents' inability to teach them to develop a vital self protective attitude from life's daily experience. Most often, the child is aware of transgressing a ban and in a few cases, intoxication seems to be a deliberate act on his part. It generally occurs when stress has been building up in the family, thus threatening the balance of the family. If it happens in a family where relationships are already deeply disturbed, it must be considered as a signal of alarm. It is then necessary to suggest that the family should undergo a psychotherapeutic course to help them to put an end to the deadly process in which they are involved. PMID:3448592

Trabach-Valadier, C; Floret, D

1987-01-01

87

Accidental Implant Screwdriver Ingestion: A Rare Complication during Implant Placement  

PubMed Central

One of the complications during a routine dental implant placement is accidental ingestion of the implant instruments, which can happen when proper precautions are not taken. Appropriate radiographs should be taken to locate the correct position of foreign body; usually the foreign body passes asymptomatically from gastrointestinal tract but sometimes it may lead to intestinal obstruction, perforations and impactions. The aim of this article is to report accidental ingestion of 19 mm long screw driver by a senile patient. PMID:25628702

Jain, Anshul; Baliga, Shridhar D

2014-01-01

88

Non-Accidental Health Impacts of Wildfire Smoke  

PubMed Central

Wildfires take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of wildfire frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. We conducted a systematic review of non-accidental health impacts of wildfire and incorporated lessons learned from recent experiences. Based on the literature, various studies have established the relationship between one of the major components of wildfire, particulate matter (particles with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) and cardiorespiratory symptoms in terms of Emergency Rooms visits and hospital admissions. Associations between wildfire emissions and various subclinical effects have also been established. However, few relationships between wildfire emissions and mortality have been observed. Certain segments of the population may be particularly vulnerable to smoke-related health risks. Among them, people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions, the elderly, smokers and, for professional reasons, firefighters. Potential action mechanisms have been highlighted. Overall, more research is needed to better understand health impact of wildfire exposure. PMID:25405597

Youssouf, Hassani; Liousse, Catherine; Roblou, Laurent; Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Salonen, Raimo O.; Maesano, Cara; Banerjee, Soutrik; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

2014-01-01

89

Non-accidental health impacts of wildfire smoke.  

PubMed

Wildfires take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of wildfire frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. We conducted a systematic review of non-accidental health impacts of wildfire and incorporated lessons learned from recent experiences. Based on the literature, various studies have established the relationship between one of the major components of wildfire, particulate matter (particles with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) and cardiorespiratory symptoms in terms of Emergency Rooms visits and hospital admissions. Associations between wildfire emissions and various subclinical effects have also been established. However, few relationships between wildfire emissions and mortality have been observed. Certain segments of the population may be particularly vulnerable to smoke-related health risks. Among them, people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions, the elderly, smokers and, for professional reasons, firefighters. Potential action mechanisms have been highlighted. Overall, more research is needed to better understand health impact of wildfire exposure. PMID:25405597

Youssouf, Hassani; Liousse, Catherine; Roblou, Laurent; Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Salonen, Raimo O; Maesano, Cara; Banerjee, Soutrik; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

2014-11-01

90

Probabilistic safety analysis for urgent situations following the accidental release of a pollutant in the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is an original contribution to uncertainty quantification in atmospheric transport & dispersion (AT&D) at the local scale (1-10 km). It is proposed to account for the imprecise knowledge of the meteorological and release conditions in the case of an accidental hazardous atmospheric emission. The aim is to produce probabilistic risk maps instead of a deterministic toxic load map in order to help the stakeholders making their decisions. Due to the urge attached to such situations, the proposed methodology is able to produce such maps in a limited amount of time. It resorts to a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) using wind fields interpolated from a pre-established database that collects the results from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. This enables a decoupling of the CFD simulations from the dispersion analysis, thus a considerable saving of computational time. In order to make the Monte-Carlo-sampling-based estimation of the probability field even faster, it is also proposed to recourse to the use of a vector Gaussian process surrogate model together with high performance computing (HPC) resources. The Gaussian process (GP) surrogate modelling technique is coupled with a probabilistic principal component analysis (PCA) for reducing the number of GP predictors to fit, store and predict. The design of experiments (DOE) from which the surrogate model is built, is run over a cluster of PCs for making the total production time as short as possible. The use of GP predictors is validated by comparing the results produced by this technique with those obtained by crude Monte Carlo sampling.

Armand, P.; Brocheton, F.; Poulet, D.; Vendel, F.; Dubourg, V.; Yalamas, T.

2014-10-01

91

An experimental test of the contributions and condition dependence of microstructure and carotenoids in yellow plumage coloration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of structural and pigmentary components is responsible for many of the colour displays of animals. Despite the ubiquity of this type of coloration, neither the relative contribution of structures and pigments to variation in such colour displays nor the relative effects of extrinsic factors on the structural and pigment-based components of such colour has been determined. Understanding the

Matthew D. Shawkey; Geoffrey E. Hill; Kevin J. McGraw; Wendy R. Hood; Kristal Huggins

2006-01-01

92

An experimental test of the contributions and condition dependence of microstructure and carotenoids in yellow plumage coloration  

PubMed Central

A combination of structural and pigmentary components is responsible for many of the colour displays of animals. Despite the ubiquity of this type of coloration, neither the relative contribution of structures and pigments to variation in such colour displays nor the relative effects of extrinsic factors on the structural and pigment-based components of such colour has been determined. Understanding the sources of colour variation is important because structures and pigments may convey different information to conspecifics. In an experiment on captive American goldfinches Carduelis tristis, we manipulated two parameters, carotenoid availability and food availability, known to affect the expression of carotenoid pigments in a full-factorial design. Yellow feathers from these birds were then analysed in two ways. First, we used full-spectrum spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography to examine the extent to which variation in white structural colour and total carotenoid content was associated with variation in colour properties of feathers. The carotenoid content of yellow feathers predicted two colour parameters (principal component 1—representing high values of ultraviolet and yellow chroma and low values of violet–blue chroma—and hue). Two different colour parameters (violet–blue and yellow chroma) from white de-pigmented feathers, as well as carotenoid content, predicted reflectance measurements from yellow feathers. Second, we determined the relative effects of our experimental manipulations on white structural colour and yellow colour. Carotenoid availability directly affected yellow colour, while food availability affected it only in combination with carotenoid availability. None of our manipulations had significant effects on the expression of white structural colour. Our results suggest that the contribution of microstructures to variation in the expression of yellow coloration is less than the contribution of carotenoid content, and that carotenoid deposition is more dependent on extrinsic variability than is the production of white structural colour. PMID:17015356

Shawkey, Matthew D; Hill, Geoffrey E; McGraw, Kevin J; Hood, Wendy R; Huggins, Kristal

2006-01-01

93

Distinct Contributions of the Basolateral Amygdala and the Medial Prefrontal Cortex to Learning and Relearning Extinction of Context Conditioned Fear  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We studied the roles of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in learning and relearning to inhibit context conditioned fear (freezing) in extinction. In Experiment 1, pre-extinction BLA infusion of the NMDA receptor (NMDAr) antagonist, ifenprodil, impaired the development and retention of inhibition but…

Laurent, Vincent; Westbrook, R. Frederick

2008-01-01

94

Small for gestational age and adulthood risk of disability pension: the contribution of childhood and adulthood conditions.  

PubMed

Early exiting from the labor force and into disability pension (DP) represents a major social problem in Sweden and elsewhere. We examined how being asymmetric (A-SGA) or symmetric (S-SGA) small for gestational age predicts transitioning into DP. We analyzed a longitudinal sample of 8125 men and women from the Stockholm Birth Cohort (SBC), born in 1953 and not on DP in 1990. The SBC consists of data from various sources, including self-reported information and data from administrative registers. The follow-up period was from 1991 to 2009. Yearly information on the receipt of DP benefits from register data was operationalized as a dichotomous variable. 13 percent of the sample moved into DP during follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine whether disadvantageous fetal growth--A-SGA and S-SGA--predicted DP. Men and women born A-SGA had a substantially increased hazard of DP. The full model suggested a hazard ratio of 1.68 (CI: 1.11-2.54), only being affected slightly by adulthood conditions. Several childhood conditions were also associated with DP. Such factors, however, mainly affected DP risk through adulthood conditions. The effect of SGA on DP appeared particularly strong among individuals from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds. The evidence presented suggests that being A-SGA influences the risk of DP, independent of childhood and adulthood conditions, and similarly for men and women. Due to A-SGA being rather infrequent, reducing the occurrence of A-SGA would, however, only have a marginal impact on the stock of DP pensioners. For the individual affected, the elevation in the risk of DP was nevertheless substantial. Other childhood conditions exercised a larger influence on the stock of DP recipients, but they mostly operated through adulthood attainment. The importance of socioeconomic resources in childhood for the long term health consequences of SGA is interesting from a policy perspective and warrants further research. PMID:24423878

Helgertz, Jonas; Vågerö, Denny

2014-10-01

95

Endosomally stored MHC class II does not contribute to antigen presentation by dendritic cells at inflammatory conditions.  

PubMed

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II (MHCII) is constitutively expressed by immature dendritic cells (DC), but has a short half-life as a consequence of its transport to and degradation in lysosomes. For its transfer to lysosomes, MHCII is actively sorted to the intraluminal vesicles (ILV) of multivesicular bodies (MVB), a process driven by its ubiquitination. ILV have, besides their role as an intermediate compartment in lysosomal transfer, also been proposed to function as a site for MHCII antigen loading and temporal storage. In that scenario, DC would recruit antigen-loaded MHCII to the cell surface in response to a maturation stimulus by allowing ILV to fuse back with the MVB delimiting membrane. Other studies, however, explained the increase in cell surface expression during DC maturation by transient upregulation of MHCII synthesis and reduced sorting of newly synthesized MHCII to lysosomes. Here, we have characterized the relative contributions from the biosynthetic and endocytic pathways and found that the vast majority of antigen-loaded MHCII that is stably expressed at the plasma membrane by mature DC is synthesized after exposure to inflammatory stimuli. Pre-existing endosomal MHCII contributed only when it was not yet sorted to ILV at the moment of DC activation. Together with previous records, our current data are consistent with a model in which passage of MHCII through ILV is not required for antigen loading in maturing DC and in which sorting to ILV in immature DC provides a one-way ticket for lysosomal degradation. PMID:21518167

ten Broeke, Toine; van Niel, Guillaume; Wauben, Marca H M; Wubbolts, Richard; Stoorvogel, Willem

2011-08-01

96

Prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic growth in accidentally injured patients.  

PubMed

This study examined prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic growth in 180 accidentally injured patients of mainland China in their convalescence stage, investigating its relationships with demographic and accidental injury variables, personality, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and coping styles. Our results showed that posttraumatic growth (PTG) presented mostly in the domain of Relating to Others and indicated that PTG was significantly related to marital status, educational level, personality, coping styles, and PTSD symptoms. Avoidance of PTSD symptoms, Openness to experience, and positive coping were significant predictors of PTG. The findings emphasize that when promoting PTG of accidentally injured patients, healthcare providers should facilitate patients utilizing personal resources, understand PTG coexists with PTSD symptoms, and adjust interventions based on the coping styles the patients have adopted. PMID:22886703

Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Hongbiao; Wang, Ji; Wu, Jing; Liu, Xiaohong

2013-03-01

97

Scaling and gender behavior of road accidental dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The probability distribution of the time intervals between two consecutive accidents is investigated, based on the road accidental records of the Great Britain. A universal description is obtained for different roads, by rescaling the probability distribution and time intervals. The scaling curve is found to deviate from the Gaussian distribution, but it is well fitted by a stretched exponential function. Long-range time correlation is revealed for the interevent series. Moreover, gender similarity is found for the small accidental intervals, while for the large intervals, the female drivers are observed to present a higher probability than the male drivers.

Qiu, Tian; Zou, Xiang-Xiang; Chen, Guang; Jiang, Xiong-Fei; Zhong, Li-Xin

2014-12-01

98

Conditions in which power stations contribute to high ground level SO 2 concentrations in the U.K.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather and topographical situations where different types of emission sources give their highest ground level concentrations have been tabulated during a CORECH study. To see what daily average concentrations actually occur in an area where there are a large number of power stations, low level and other industrial sources but no topographical complications, occasions when one or more of the 10 SO 2 recorders in the Drax monitoring network exceeded 200 ?m -3 during the 10-year period preceding the termination of sampling were noted. There were 44 such occasions. On 17 of them, the principal contribution to the peak value appeared to come from low level sources associated with smoke emissions and on nine it appeared to come from industrial sources in the Doncaster (including Doncaster and Thorpe Marsh power stations), Scunthorpe (including Keadby power station) or Humberside (no power station) areas. The source areas containing the most modern 2000 MW power stations. South Yorkshire (13 times) and Trent Valley (five times), appeared to pre-dominale on other occasions. In these latter cases, with only one exception, the weather situation was either a persistent slow moving anti-cyclone with the free stream wind speed falling to 2.5 ms -1 or less or a day with a very steady free stream wind direction, associated with a col in the surface pressure distribution. In both of these situations, upward vertical mixing was limited by a subsidence and/or advection temperature inversion aloft.

Moore, D. J.

99

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli CS21 pilus contributes to adhesion to intestinal cells and to pathogenesis under in vivo conditions  

PubMed Central

Colonization surface antigens (CSs) represent key virulence-associated factors of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains. They are required for gut colonization, the first step of the diarrhoeal disease process induced by these bacteria. One of the most prevalent CSs is CS21, or longus, a type IV pili associated with bacterial self-aggregation, protection against environmental stresses, biofilm formation and adherence to epithelial cell lines. The objectives of this study were to assess the role of CS21 in adherence to primary intestinal epithelial cells and to determine if CS21 contributes to the pathogenesis of ETEC infection in vivo. We evaluated adherence of a CS21-expressing wild-type ETEC strain and an isogenic CS21-mutant strain to pig-derived intestinal cell lines. To determine the role of CS21 in pathogenesis we used the above ETEC strains in a neonatal mice challenge infection model to assess mortality. Quantitative adherence assays confirmed that ETEC adheres to primary intestinal epithelial cells lines in a CS21-dependent manner. In addition, the CS21-mediated ETEC adherence to cells was specific as purified LngA protein, the CS21 major subunit, competed for binding with the CS21-expressing ETEC while specific anti-LngA antibodies blocked adhesion to intestinal cells. Neonatal DBA/2 mice died after intra-stomach administration of CS21-expressing strains while lack of CS21 expression drastically reduced the virulence of the wild-type ETEC strain in this animal model. Collectively these results further support the role of CS21 during ETEC infection and add new evidence on its in vivo relevance in pathogenesis. PMID:23760820

Guevara, C. P.; Luiz, W. B.; Sierra, A.; Cruz, C.; Qadri, F.; Kaushik, R. S.; Ferreira, L. C. S.

2013-01-01

100

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli CS21 pilus contributes to adhesion to intestinal cells and to pathogenesis under in vivo conditions.  

PubMed

Colonization surface antigens (CSs) represent key virulence-associated factors of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains. They are required for gut colonization, the first step of the diarrhoeal disease process induced by these bacteria. One of the most prevalent CSs is CS21, or longus, a type IV pili associated with bacterial self-aggregation, protection against environmental stresses, biofilm formation and adherence to epithelial cell lines. The objectives of this study were to assess the role of CS21 in adherence to primary intestinal epithelial cells and to determine if CS21 contributes to the pathogenesis of ETEC infection in vivo. We evaluated adherence of a CS21-expressing wild-type ETEC strain and an isogenic CS21-mutant strain to pig-derived intestinal cell lines. To determine the role of CS21 in pathogenesis we used the above ETEC strains in a neonatal mice challenge infection model to assess mortality. Quantitative adherence assays confirmed that ETEC adheres to primary intestinal epithelial cells lines in a CS21-dependent manner. In addition, the CS21-mediated ETEC adherence to cells was specific as purified LngA protein, the CS21 major subunit, competed for binding with the CS21-expressing ETEC while specific anti-LngA antibodies blocked adhesion to intestinal cells. Neonatal DBA/2 mice died after intra-stomach administration of CS21-expressing strains while lack of CS21 expression drastically reduced the virulence of the wild-type ETEC strain in this animal model. Collectively these results further support the role of CS21 during ETEC infection and add new evidence on its in vivo relevance in pathogenesis. PMID:23760820

Guevara, C P; Luiz, W B; Sierra, A; Cruz, C; Qadri, F; Kaushik, R S; Ferreira, L C S; Gómez-Duarte, O G

2013-08-01

101

GROUP LIFE AND ACCIDENTAL DEATH AND DISMEMBERMENT INSURANCE  

E-print Network

GROUP LIFE AND ACCIDENTAL DEATH AND DISMEMBERMENT INSURANCE PROGRAM University of California Regents #12;#12;GROUP LIFE INSURANCE #12;#12;LRS-6441 Ed. 11/84 CERTIFICATE OF INSURANCE We certify that you (provided you belong to a class described on the Schedule of Benefits) are insured

Mullins, Dyche

102

The Emergence of the “Accidental Citizen”: Implications for Political Marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central argument developed in this paper is premised on the belief that, in the life experiences of individuals, we find a messy interface between politics and consumption, where, often unintentionally, we take on citizenly roles and have civic experiences in market spaces as consumers. Flowing from this is the emergence of what the author calls the “accidental citizen,” where

Richard Scullion

2010-01-01

103

Are diabetic foot lesions precipitated by accidental trauma?  

PubMed

Diabetic foot lesions may arise from frictional trauma due to tight or inappropriate footwear, repetitive stresses on parts of the foot, overlying bony prominence generated by walking and accidental trauma to the neuropathic foot. Many diabetics have been found to be unaware of their foot lesion, or know what the precipitating cause was. Based on the assumption that accidental trauma would affect the foot in a random fashion and result in lesions distributed evenly throughout the foot, a study was performed to determine whether foot lesions were distributed evenly or concentrated to certain areas of predilection. It was found that foot lesions were not evenly distributed but concentrated to certain areas of predilection. Even though relatively high proportion of the study population walked about in open slippers and barefeet, the study showed that accidental trauma was not a predominant precipitant of diabetic foot lesions. Diabetic foot lesions tend to occur as a result of cumulative, repetitive trauma to areas of prediliection rather than accidental trauma. PMID:14569763

Doshi, H K; Moissinac, K; Harwant, S

2001-12-01

104

Control and mitigation systems for accidental releases of toxic chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an evaluation of the current usage in industry of control and mitigation systems for accidental releases of various toxic chemicals. The study goal was accomplished through a review of data obtainable from plant inspections for emergency preparedness conducted in the recent past by EPA, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Institute for Chemical

E. R. Krishnan; P. W. Utrecht; J. C. Bare

1988-01-01

105

The Accidental Transgressor: Morally-Relevant Theory of Mind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test young children's false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N=162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered three tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an "accidental transgressor" task, which measured a…

Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah; Woodward, Amanda

2011-01-01

106

49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...minimize the danger of accidental ignition of gas in any structure or area where the presence of gas constitutes a hazard of fire or explosion...components that contain a combustible mixture of gas and air in the area of work. (c) Post warning...

2010-10-01

107

Relative contribution of shoot and ear photosynthesis to grain filling in wheat under good agronomical conditions assessed by differential organ ?13C  

PubMed Central

During grain filling in C3 cereals, the shoot (particularly the flag leaf) and the ear are believed to play major roles as sources of assimilates. However, both the cost and the intrusive nature of most of the methodologies available to investigate this have prevented conclusive results being obtained. This study compared the carbon isotope composition (?13C) in its natural abundance in mature kernels with the ?13C of the water-soluble fraction of the peduncle, glumes, and awns to assess the relative contribution of the shoot (understood as the whole set of photosynthetic organs below the peduncle) and ear to grain filling in a set of highly productive wheat lines from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Mexico, under good agronomic conditions. In overall terms, the contribution of the ear was greater in comparison with that of the shoot. The specific contribution of the flag leaf blade to grain filling was also assessed by comparing the ?13C of grains with the ?13C of the water-soluble fraction of the flag leaf and the awns. The contribution of the flag leaf was minor, ranging between 3 and 18%. Complementary analyses performed such as gas-exchange rates and the accumulated water-soluble carbohydrates in both organs and light intercepted by the canopy at different strata suggested that the ear has a photosynthetic capacity at least comparable to that of the flag leaf. In this sense, selection for a higher contribution of ear photosynthesis to grain yield in breeding programmes could be addressed with the use of stable isotopes. PMID:25053645

Sanchez-Bragado, Rut; Molero, Gemma; Reynolds, Matthew P.; Araus, Jose Luis

2014-01-01

108

ACCIDENTAL INJURY AND INCLEMENT WEATHER: DEFINING THE RELATIONSHIP AND ANTICIPATING THE EFFECTS OF A CHANGING CLIMATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this activity is to utilize a combination of existing scientific knowledge and professional expertise and experience to develop a research strategy for lessening the incidence and the impact of accidental injuries associated with inclement weather. Accidental inj...

109

Accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad y el riesgo de cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Hoja informativa acerca de los riesgos del cáncer asociados con accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad. Incluye información para pacientes con cáncer que viven en una zona que puede haber sido afectada por un accidente en una planta nuclear.

110

Favorable Alleles for Stem Water-Soluble Carbohydrates Identified by Association Analysis Contribute to Grain Weight under Drought Stress Conditions in Wheat.  

PubMed

Drought is a major environmental constraint to crop distribution and productivity. Stem water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) buffer wheat grain yield against conditions unfavorable for photosynthesis during the grain filling stage. In this study, 262 winter wheat accessions and 209 genome-wide SSR markers were collected and used to undertake association analysis based on a mixed linear model (MLM). The WSC in different internodes at three growth stages and 1000-grain weight (TGW) were investigated under four environmental regimes (well-watered, drought stress during the whole growth period, and two levels of terminal drought stress imposed by chemical desiccation under the well-watered and drought stress during the whole growth period conditions). Under diverse drought stress conditions, WSC in lower internodes showed significant positive correlations with TGW, especially at the flowering stage under well-watered conditions and at grain filling under drought stress. Sixteen novel WSC-favorable alleles were identified, and five of them contributed to significantly higher TGW. In addition, pyramiding WSC favorable alleles was not only effective for obtaining accessions with higher WSC, but also for enhancing TGW under different water regimes. During the past fifty years of wheat breeding, WSC was selected incidentally. The average number of favorable WSC alleles increased from 1.13 in the pre-1960 period to 4.41 in the post-2000 period. The results indicate a high potential for using marker-assisted selection to pyramid WSC favorable alleles in improving WSC and TGW in wheat. PMID:25768726

Li, Weiyu; Zhang, Bin; Li, Runzhi; Chang, Xiaoping; Jing, Ruilian

2015-01-01

111

Favorable Alleles for Stem Water-Soluble Carbohydrates Identified by Association Analysis Contribute to Grain Weight under Drought Stress Conditions in Wheat  

PubMed Central

Drought is a major environmental constraint to crop distribution and productivity. Stem water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) buffer wheat grain yield against conditions unfavorable for photosynthesis during the grain filling stage. In this study, 262 winter wheat accessions and 209 genome-wide SSR markers were collected and used to undertake association analysis based on a mixed linear model (MLM). The WSC in different internodes at three growth stages and 1000-grain weight (TGW) were investigated under four environmental regimes (well-watered, drought stress during the whole growth period, and two levels of terminal drought stress imposed by chemical desiccation under the well-watered and drought stress during the whole growth period conditions). Under diverse drought stress conditions, WSC in lower internodes showed significant positive correlations with TGW, especially at the flowering stage under well-watered conditions and at grain filling under drought stress. Sixteen novel WSC-favorable alleles were identified, and five of them contributed to significantly higher TGW. In addition, pyramiding WSC favorable alleles was not only effective for obtaining accessions with higher WSC, but also for enhancing TGW under different water regimes. During the past fifty years of wheat breeding, WSC was selected incidentally. The average number of favorable WSC alleles increased from 1.13 in the pre-1960 period to 4.41 in the post-2000 period. The results indicate a high potential for using marker-assisted selection to pyramid WSC favorable alleles in improving WSC and TGW in wheat. PMID:25768726

Li, Runzhi; Chang, Xiaoping; Jing, Ruilian

2015-01-01

112

LIFE INSURANCE AND ACCIDENTAL DEATH AND DISMEMBERMENT PLAN 01-01-2012  

E-print Network

1 LIFE INSURANCE AND ACCIDENTAL DEATH AND DISMEMBERMENT PLAN 01-01-2012 The Life Insurance and Accidental Death and Dismemberment Plan (the "Plan") offers Basic and Supplemental Life Insurance coverage or terminate this Life Insurance and Accidental Death and Dismemberment Plan at any time and for any reason

Johnson, Peter D.

113

Accidental Nuclear War: The Growing Peril. Part I [and] Part II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two volumes designed to increase awareness of accidental nuclear war dangers are presented. The first of 5 sections in volume I proposes that although accidental war is preventable, the current arms race and secrecy about accidents and false alarms increase the possibility of an accidental war. Section 2 posits that decreased decision-making time…

Newcombe, Alan, Ed.

1984-01-01

114

Acute effects of nitrogen dioxide after accidental release.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Following an accidental release of nitrogen dioxide from a railroad tank car containing nitrous tetroxide, the authors undertook a study of the health effects of the release, measuring the association between acute low level exposure and pulmonary symptoms. METHODS: The authors reviewed the records of three emergency departments, surveyed 80 emergency department patients, 552 community residents, 21 chemical plant workers, and 29 emergency workers, and conducted a case-control study. Pulmonary case status was defined as having an objective pulmonary finding noted on the emergency department record, reporting that the onset of symptoms was subsequent to the release, and being within the city limits at the time of the release. Self-reported case status was defined as reporting one or more symptoms consistent with exposure to nitrogen dioxide in the week after the release and having been within the city limits at the time of the release. Control subjects were survey respondents who reported no symptoms in the week after the release and had been within the city limits at the time of the release. Chemical exposure was characterized by proximity to, direction from, and being outdoors within one hour after the release. Duration of potential exposure was not measured. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence interval for symptoms by exposure level, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and preexisting pulmonary conditions. RESULTS: Local emergency department visits increased fivefold in the week after the release. The most common complaints recorded in a systematic sample of 528 visits in the first 30 hours after the release were headache (31%), burning eyes (30%), and sore throat (24%). Objective pulmonary findings were recorded for 41 (5%) patients in the week before and 165 (4%) in the week after the release. The odds of being a pulmonary case increased by 40% for each quarter-mile increment in proximity to the release (odds ratio [OR] 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1, 1.7), while the odds of being a self-reported case increased by 20% for each quarter-mile increment in proximity (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1, 1.4). People who met the pulmonary case definition were 2.5 times (CI 1.3, 4.8) more likely than control subjects to have been outdoors and 6.4 times (CI 3.2, 12.6) more likely to report a preexisting pulmonary condition. Self-reported cases were 2.6 times (95% CI 1.8, 3.8) more likely than control subjects to have been outdoors and 1.9 times (95% CI 1.1, 3.1) more likely to report a preexisting pulmonary condition. CONCLUSIONS: Emergency department visits increased five-fold, but serious acute health effects were uncommon. People who met the pulmonary case definition were six times more likely to report pulmonary symptoms than those without preexisting conditions. This study was not designed to determine any potential long-term effects of exposure. PMID:9475936

Bauer, U; Berg, D; Kohn, M A; Meriwether, R A; Nickle, R A

1998-01-01

115

Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal  

PubMed Central

Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect. PMID:24714512

Chen, Ze-Guo; Ni, Xu; Wu, Ying; He, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Zheng, Li-Yang; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

2014-01-01

116

Accidental Electric Shock during Pregnancy: Reflection on a Case  

PubMed Central

Objectives Data on fetal effects following accidental electric shock during pregnancy are scarce. We report on a case of accidental maternal electric shock associated with benign fetal arrhythmia in a woman at 28 weeks' gestation. Study Design Case report. Results Although electrocution involving low-voltage, low-frequency current has been associated with fatal cardiac arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities, two protective parameters in the present case likely reduced the fetal injury: the dry skin at the site of current entry and the hand-to-hand pathway of current flow. Conclusion Because the pathophysiology of electric injury is altered during pregnancy, assessment of fetal well-being should be prompted no matter how trivial an incident may appear. PMID:24147245

Awwad, Johnny; Hannoun, Antoine; Fares, Farah; Ghazeeri, Ghina

2013-01-01

117

Approaches for preventing and mitigating accidental gaseous chemical releases  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a review of approaches to prevent and mitigate accidental releases of toxic and flammable gases. The prevention options are related to: choosing safer processes and materials, preventing initiating events, preventing or minimizing releases, and preventing human exposures. the mitigation options include: secondary confinement, de-inventory, vapor barriers, and water sprays/monitors. Guidelines for the design and operation of effective post-release mitigation systems are also presented.

Fthenakis, V.M.

1996-12-31

118

Accidental Degeneracy and Berry Phase of Resonant States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Resonant States Resonant States in a Slowly Time Evolving Environment A Few Facts About Gamow Functions The Mixing Matrix Geometric Phase of a Resonant State Berry Phase Factors of Resonant States and Holonomy in a Complex - Line Bundle Resonant States as Elements of a Rigged Hilbert Space Adiabatic Evolution and Parallel Translation Accidental Degeneracy of Resonances Degeneracy of Two Resonances Computation of the Geometric Phase Results and Conclusions

Mondragón, A.; Hernández, E.

119

Conservative management of accidental gall bladder puncture during percutaneous nephrolithotomy  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has been an excellent option for the management of kidney stones. There have been many complications in regards to solid organ injury during PCNL. Here we discuss an interesting case of 45-year-old woman, who underwent PCNL for right renal staghorn calculus, and had an accidental puncture of the gall bladder. Post operatively, the patient was conservatively managed and recovered well. A small number of cases has been reported until now in literature. PMID:25140237

Patil, Nikhil A.; Patil, Siddangouda B.; Biradar, Ashok N.; Desai, Anup S.

2014-01-01

120

An alternative approach for computing seismic response with accidental eccentricity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accidental eccentricity is a non-standard assumption for seismic design of tall buildings. Taking it into consideration requires reanalysis of seismic resistance, which requires either time consuming computation of natural vibration of eccentric structures or finding a static displacement solution by applying an approximated equivalent torsional moment for each eccentric case. This study proposes an alternative modal response spectrum analysis (MRSA) approach to calculate seismic responses with accidental eccentricity. The proposed approach, called the Rayleigh Ritz Projection-MRSA (RRP-MRSA), is developed based on MRSA and two strategies: (a) a RRP method to obtain a fast calculation of approximate modes of eccentric structures; and (b) an approach to assemble mass matrices of eccentric structures. The efficiency of RRP-MRSA is tested via engineering examples and compared with the standard MRSA (ST-MRSA) and one approximate method, i.e., the equivalent torsional moment hybrid MRSA (ETM-MRSA). Numerical results show that RRP-MRSA not only achieves almost the same precision as ST-MRSA, and is much better than ETM-MRSA, but is also more economical. Thus, RRP-MRSA can be in place of current accidental eccentricity computations in seismic design.

Fan, Xuanhua; Yin, Jiacong; Sun, Shuli; Chen, Pu

2014-09-01

121

Contribution of the TRPV1 channel to salt taste quality in mice as assessed by conditioned taste aversion generalization and chorda tympani nerve responses  

PubMed Central

In rodents, at least two transduction mechanisms are involved in salt taste: 1) the sodium-selective epithelial sodium channel, blocked by topical amiloride administration, and 2) one or more amiloride-insensitive cation-nonselective pathways. Whereas electrophysiological evidence from the chorda tympani nerve (CT) has implicated the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel as a major component of amiloride-insensitive salt taste transduction, behavioral results have provided only equivocal support. Using a brief-access taste test, we examined generalization profiles of water-deprived C57BL/6J (WT) and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice conditioned (via LiCl injection) to avoid 100 ?M amiloride-prepared 0.25 M NaCl and tested with 0.25 M NaCl, sodium gluconate, KCl, NH4Cl, 6.625 mM citric acid, 0.15 mM quinine, and 0.5 M sucrose. Both LiCl-injected WT and TRPV1 KO groups learned to avoid NaCl+amiloride relative to controls, but their generalization profiles did not differ; LiCl-injected mice avoided the nonsodium salts and quinine suggesting that a TRPV1-independent pathway contributes to the taste quality of the amiloride-insensitive portion of the NaCl signal. Repeating the experiment but doubling all stimulus concentrations revealed a difference in generalization profiles between genotypes. While both LiCl-injected groups avoided the nonsodium salts and quinine, only WT mice avoided the sodium salts and citric acid. CT responses to these stimuli and a concentration series of NaCl and KCl with and without amiloride did not differ between genotypes. Thus, in our study, TRPV1 did not appear to contribute to sodium salt perception based on gustatory signals, at least in the CT, but may have contributed to the oral somatosensory features of sodium. PMID:23054171

Smith, Kimberly R.; Treesukosol, Yada; Paedae, A. Brennan; Contreras, Robert J.

2012-01-01

122

Genetic Susceptibility to Periapical Disease: Conditional Contribution of MMP2 and MMP3 Genes to the Development of Periapical Lesions and Healing Response  

PubMed Central

Introduction It has been proposed that individual genetic predisposition may contribute to a persistent apical periodontitis condition. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are associated with levels of inflammation and are involved in caries, pulpal and periapical tissue destruction. MMPs also play a major role in bone resorption. In this study, we hypothesized that polymorphisms in MMP genes and their regulators may contribute to an individual's increased susceptibility to apical tissue destruction in response to deep carious lesions. Methods Sixteen hundred radiographic records obtained through the University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine Dental Registry and DNA Repository were screened for subjects with deep carious lesions in dentin with or without periapical lesions (?3mm). DNA samples of 268 patients were sorted into two groups: 158 cases with deep carious lesions but no periapical lesions (controls), and 110 cases with periapical lesions and deep carious lesions (cases). Sixteen SNP markers in MMP2, MMP3, MMP9, MMP13, MMP14, and TIMP2, were selected for genotyping. Genotypes were generated by end-point analysis in a Real Time PCR instrument. Analyses were performed comparing cases and controls. Allele and genotypic frequencies and haplotype analysis were calculated using PLINK program. Results Association was found for MMP3 rs639752 (p=0.03) and rs679620 (p=0.004) genotypes in individuals with periapical lesions. We also observed altered transmission of MMP2 marker haplotypes (p=0.000004) in these individuals. Conclusion Variations in MMP2 and MMP3 are associated with periapical lesion formation in individuals with untreated deep carious lesions. Future studies could help predict host susceptibility to developing periapical lesions. PMID:22515887

Menezes-Silva, Renato; Khaliq, Shahryar; Deeley, Kathleen; Letra, Ariadne; Vieira, Alexandre R.

2012-01-01

123

Hybridization between crops and wild relatives: the contribution of cultivated lettuce to the vigour of crop-wild hybrids under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency conditions.  

PubMed

With the development of transgenic crop varieties, crop-wild hybridization has received considerable consideration with regard to the potential of transgenes to be transferred to wild species. Although many studies have shown that crops can hybridize with their wild relatives and that the resulting hybrids may show improved fitness over the wild parents, little is still known on the genetic contribution of the crop parent to the performance of the hybrids. In this study, we investigated the vigour of lettuce hybrids using 98 F(2:3) families from a cross between cultivated lettuce and its wild relative Lactuca serriola under non-stress conditions and under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency. Using single nucleotide polymorphism markers, we mapped quantitative trait loci associated with plant vigour in the F(2:3) families and determined the allelic contribution of the two parents. Seventeen QTLs (quantitative trait loci) associated with vigour and six QTLs associated with the accumulation of ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)) were mapped on the nine linkage groups of lettuce. Seven of the vigour QTLs had a positive effect from the crop allele and six had a positive effect from the wild allele across treatments, and four QTLs had a positive effect from the crop allele in one treatment and from the wild allele in another treatment. Based on the allelic effect of the QTLs and their location on the genetic map, we could suggest genomic locations where transgene integration should be avoided when aiming at the mitigation of its persistence once crop-wild hybridization takes place. PMID:22660630

Uwimana, Brigitte; Smulders, Marinus J M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Hartman, Yorike; van Tienderen, Peter H; Jansen, Johannes; McHale, Leah K; Michelmore, Richard W; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Visser, Richard G F

2012-10-01

124

Conditional Deletion of the Glutamate Transporter GLT-1 Reveals That Astrocytic GLT-1 Protects against Fatal Epilepsy While Neuronal GLT-1 Contributes Significantly to Glutamate Uptake into Synaptosomes.  

PubMed

GLT-1 (EAAT2; slc1a2) is the major glutamate transporter in the brain, and is predominantly expressed in astrocytes, but at lower levels also in excitatory terminals. We generated a conditional GLT-1 knock-out mouse to uncover cell-type-specific functional roles of GLT-1. Inactivation of the GLT-1 gene was achieved in either neurons or astrocytes by expression of synapsin-Cre or inducible human GFAP-CreERT2. Elimination of GLT-1 from astrocytes resulted in loss of ?80% of GLT-1 protein and of glutamate uptake activity that could be solubilized and reconstituted in liposomes. This loss was accompanied by excess mortality, lower body weight, and seizures suggesting that astrocytic GLT-1 is of major importance. However, there was only a small (15%) reduction that did not reach significance of glutamate uptake into crude forebrain synaptosomes. In contrast, when GLT-1 was deleted in neurons, both the GLT-1 protein and glutamate uptake activity that could be solubilized and reconstituted in liposomes were virtually unaffected. These mice showed normal survival, weight gain, and no seizures. However, the synaptosomal glutamate uptake capacity (Vmax) was reduced significantly (40%). In conclusion, astrocytic GLT-1 performs critical functions required for normal weight gain, resistance to epilepsy, and survival. However, the contribution of astrocytic GLT-1 to glutamate uptake into synaptosomes is less than expected, and the contribution of neuronal GLT-1 to synaptosomal glutamate uptake is greater than expected based on their relative protein expression. These results have important implications for the interpretation of the many previous studies assessing glutamate uptake capacity by measuring synaptosomal uptake. PMID:25834045

Petr, Geraldine T; Sun, Yan; Frederick, Natalie M; Zhou, Yun; Dhamne, Sameer C; Hameed, Mustafa Q; Miranda, Clive; Bedoya, Edward A; Fischer, Kathryn D; Armsen, Wencke; Wang, Jianlin; Danbolt, Niels C; Rotenberg, Alexander; Aoki, Chiye J; Rosenberg, Paul A

2015-04-01

125

Numerical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport  

SciTech Connect

Statement of work for contract 006 {open_quotes}Mathematical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport{close_quotes} implies that the final result of the activity within this task will be VNIIEF developed techniques which will provide for the prediction of the post-accidental environment. Report [1] presents the description of physical models and calculation techniques which were chosen by VNIIEF to accomplish this task. These techniques were analysed for their capabilities, the areas of their application were defined, modifications within contract 006 were described, the results of test and methodical calculations were presented. Moreover, the experimental data were analysed over the source parameters and contamination measurements which can be used in the comparison with the calculation results. Based an these data this report compares the calculation results obtained with VNIIEF calculation techniques with the LANL-presented experimental results. The calculations which statements and results are given in section 1, included the following processes: explosion cloud ascent dynamics and jet release origin; aerosols kinetics in the release source including composite particle origin in the explosion cloud caused by radioactive substance sorption an the soil particles; contaminant transport in atmosphere and their in-site fallout due to the accidental explosions and fires; atmospheric flow dynamics and industrial contamination transfer over the complicated terrain. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data. Section 2 presents the parameters for a typical source in the explosion accidents based an the experimental results and calculated data from Section 1, as well as contamination patterns were calculated with basic technique {open_quotes}Prognosis{close_quotes}.

Piskunov, V.N.; Aloyan, A.A.; Gerasimov, V.M.; Pinaev, V.S.; Golubev, A.I.; Yanilkin, Yu.V.; Ivanov, N.V.; Nikonov, S.N.; Kharchenko, A.I. [and others

1995-05-01

126

Hemizygous mutations in SNAP29 unmask autosomal recessive conditions and contribute to atypical findings in patients with 22q11.2DS  

PubMed Central

Background 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion disorder, affecting an estimated 1?:?2000–4000 live births. Patients with 22q11.2DS have a broad spectrum of phenotypic abnormalities which generally includes congenital cardiac abnormalities, palatal anomalies, and immunodeficiency. Additional findings, such as skeletal anomalies and autoimmune disorders, can confer significant morbidity in a subset of patients. 22q11.2DS is a contiguous gene DS and over 40 genes are deleted in patients; thus deletion of several genes within this region contributes to the clinical features. Mutations outside or on the remaining 22q11.2 allele are also known to modify the phenotype. Methods We utilised whole exome, targeted exome and/or Sanger sequencing to examine the genome of 17 patients with 22q11.2 deletions and phenotypic features found in <10% of affected individuals. Results and conclusions In four unrelated patients, we identified three novel mutations in SNAP29, the gene implicated in the autosomal recessive condition cerebral dysgenesis, neuropathy, ichthyosis and keratoderma (CEDNIK). SNAP29 maps to 22q11.2 and encodes a soluble SNARE protein that is predicted to mediate vesicle fusion at the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi membranes. This work confirms that the phenotypic variability observed in a subset of patients with 22q11.2DS is due to mutations on the non-deleted chromosome, which leads to unmasking of autosomal recessive conditions such as CEDNIK, Kousseff, and a potentially autosomal recessive form of Opitz G/BBB syndrome. Furthermore, our work implicates SNAP29 as a major modifier of variable expressivity in 22q11.2 DS patients. PMID:23231787

McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Revil, Timothée; Nowakowska, Beata A; Suhl, Joshua; Bailey, Alice; Mlynarski, Elisabeth; Lynch, David R; Yan, Albert C; Bilaniuk, Larissa T; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Warren, Stephen T; Emanuel, Beverly S; Vermeesch, Joris R; Zackai, Elaine H; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A

2013-01-01

127

Alginate Production by Pseudomonas putida Creates a Hydrated Microenvironment and Contributes to Biofilm Architecture and Stress Tolerance under Water-Limiting Conditions?  

PubMed Central

Biofilms exist in a variety of habitats that are routinely or periodically not saturated with water, and residents must integrate cues on water abundance (matric stress) or osmolarity (solute stress) into lifestyle strategies. Here we examine this hypothesis by assessing the extent to which alginate production by Pseudomonas putida strain mt-2 and by other fluorescent pseudomonads occurs in response to water limitations and how the presence of alginate in turn influences biofilm development and stress tolerance. Total exopolysaccharide (EPS) and alginate production increased with increasing matric, but not solute, stress severity, and alginate was a significant component, but not the major component, of EPS. Alginate influenced biofilm architecture, resulting in biofilms that were taller, covered less surface area, and had a thicker EPS layer at the air interface than those formed by an mt-2 algD mutant under water-limiting conditions, properties that could contribute to less evaporative water loss. We examined this possibility and show that alginate reduces the extent of water loss from biofilm residents by using a biosensor to quantify the water potential of individual cells and by measuring the extent of dehydration-mediated changes in fatty acid composition following a matric or solute stress shock. Alginate deficiency decreased survival of desiccation not only by P. putida but also by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a. Our findings suggest that in response to water-limiting conditions, pseudomonads produce alginate, which influences biofilm development and EPS physiochemical properties. Collectively these responses may facilitate the maintenance of a hydrated microenvironment, protecting residents from desiccation stress and increasing survival. PMID:17601783

Chang, Woo-Suk; van de Mortel, Martijn; Nielsen, Lindsey; Nino de Guzman, Gabriela; Li, Xiaohong; Halverson, Larry J.

2007-01-01

128

Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium  

DOEpatents

An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release.

Galloway, Terry R. [Berkeley, CA

1980-04-01

129

Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium  

DOEpatents

An improvement is described in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release. 1 fig.

Galloway, T.R.

1980-04-01

130

Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death  

PubMed Central

Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema. PMID:25436159

Peterson, Thomas; Rentmeester, Landen; Judge, Bryan S.; Cohle, Stephen D.; Jones, Jeffrey S.

2014-01-01

131

Clinical effects of accidental levothyroxine ingestion in children.  

PubMed

Forty-one children, aged 1 to 5 years, who accidentally ingested levothyroxine sodium were studied. Symptoms possibly associated with the ingestion occurred in 11 patients (27%). These symptoms (tachycardia, hyperactive behavior, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, diaphoresis, and flushing) were categorized as minor and all resolved without treatment. Because observed effects were generally mild and often unrelated to either estimated amounts of hormone consumed or serum thyroxine levels, a conservative approach to patient treatment is recommended in cases of levothyroxine ingestion in children. PMID:2887106

Golightly, L K; Smolinske, S C; Kulig, K W; Wruk, K M; Gelman, C J; Rumack, B H; Linden, C H

1987-09-01

132

Watching the Ps & Qs: editorial treatment of accidentals  

E-print Network

Senator, Bentley (the editor of Temple on Books and Bibliography 1 Bar) punctuated it, adding about 4,500 commas and other marks in proportion.18 Some writers leave the choice of accidentals to their readers. Perhaps no one ever did so... after dim," "dele comma").3" Tennyson was also particular with his proofs, and once wrote to Moxon, his publisher, saying "I think it would be better to send me every proof twice over—I should like the text to be as correct as possible."''1 Mark...

Thorpe, James Ernest

1971-01-01

133

Accidental Degeneracy and Berry Phase of Resonant States  

E-print Network

We study the complex geometric phase acquired by the resonant states of an open quantum system which evolves irreversibly in a slowly time dependent environment. In analogy with the case of bound states, the Berry phase factors of resonant states are holonomy group elements of a complex line bundle with structure group C*. In sharp contrast with bound states, accidental degeneracies of resonances produce a continuous closed line of singularities formally equivalent to a continuous distribution of "magnetic" charge on a "diabolical" circle, in consequence, we find different classes of topologically inequivalent non-trivial closed paths in parameter space.

A. Mondragon; E. Hernandez

1997-10-04

134

Investigation of thermoluminescence properties of mobile phone screen displays as dosimeters for accidental dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid assessment of the radiation dose after unexpected exposure is a task of accidental dosimetry. In case of a radiological accident glasses originating from mobile phone screens, placed usually near the human body, could be used as emergency thermoluminescent (TL) personal dosimeters. The time between irradiation and TL readout is crucial and therefore preparation of the mobile phone screens and their readout conditions should be optimized. The influence of the samples etching, bleaching and selection of the optical filters based on measurement of the emission spectrum of irradiated glass samples during heating for different types of mobile phones were the subjects of our investigation. Obtained results showed that glasses extracted from different brands of mobile phones have different dosimetric properties but all of them give a luminescent signal which can be used to calculate the dose.

Mrozik, Anna; Marczewska, B.; Bilski, P.; K?osowski, M.

2014-11-01

135

Psychosocial aspects of accidental injuries--an overview.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the current "state of the art" with regard to psycho-traumatological issues in accidentally injured patients. A MEDLINE search (1985-1995) yielded a total of 135 references, out of which 60 publications were selected and reviewed. The body of knowledge about the psycho-social effects of serious injuries caused by accidents seems to be still limited. There are indications that accidents leave many patients suffering from not only the physical consequences but also considerable psychological problems. A frequent clinical manifestation of such problems is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but depression, anxiety and the somatoform disorder have also been observed, possibly even more frequently. There have been substantial discrepancies in epidemiological data in the literature, partially because the samples analyzed so far have not been homogeneous enough. It is also obvious that studies have been devoted almost exclusively to disorders and handicaps following (and occasionally prior to) the traumatic event. Seldom has the study focused on patient resources: practically no studies exist on the effects of protective psycho-social factors on the healing process following accidental injuries. More research is needed in order to be able to make predictions on the expected healing of patients during the acute stage of treatment following an accident. These future studies should deliver information on identifying high-risk patients who would require specific psycho-social intervention. PMID:8767371

Schnyder, U; Buddeberg, C

1996-01-01

136

Accidental fatal lung injury by compressed air: a case report.  

PubMed

Compressed air is being used extensively as a source of energy at industries and in daily life. A variety of fatal injuries are caused by improper and ignorant use of compressed air equipments. Many types of injuries due to compressed air are reported in the literature such as colorectal injury, orbital injury, surgical emphysema, and so on. Most of these injuries are accidental in nature. It is documented that 40 pounds per square inch pressure causes fatal injuries to the ear, eyes, lungs, stomach, and intestine. Openings of body are vulnerable to injuries by compressed air. Death due to compressed air injuries is rarely reported. Many cases are treated successfully by conservative or surgical management. Extensive survey of literature revealed no reports of fatal injury to the upper respiratory tract and lungs caused by compressed air. Here, we are reporting a fatal event of accidental death after insertion of compressed air pipe into the mouth. The postmortem findings are corroborated with the history and discussed in detail. PMID:25354226

Rayamane, Anand Parashuram; Pradeepkumar, M V

2015-03-01

137

Accidental Beam Losses and Protection in the LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At top energy (proton momentum 7 TeV/c) with nominal beam parameters, each of the two LHC proton beams has a stored energy of 350 MJ threatening to damage accelerator equipment in case of accidental beam loss. It is essential that the beams are properly extracted onto the dump blocks in case of failure since these are the only elements that can withstand full beam impact. Although the energy stored in the beams at injection (450 GeV/c) is about 15 times smaller compared to top energy, the beams must still be properly extracted in case of large accidental beam losses. Failures must be detected at a sufficiently early stage and initiate a beam dump. Quenches and power converter failures will be detected by monitoring the correct functioning of the hardware systems. In addition, safe operation throughout the cycle requires the use of beam loss monitors, collimators and absorbers. Ideas of detection of fast beam current decay, monitoring of fast beam position changes and monitoring of fast magnet current changes are discussed, to provide the required redundancy for machine protection.

Schmidt, R.; Working Group On Machine Protection

2005-06-01

138

Pediatric case of accidental oral overdose of methotrexate.  

PubMed

Methotrexate is a chemotherapy antimetabolite, folic acid antagonist, that inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase resulting in decreased levels of tetrahydrofolate in the cells. This in turn blocks synthesis of thymidylate, a nucleotide necessary for DNA synthesis. It is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Toxicity from overdose can affect multiple organ systems including bone marrow, liver, intestinal tract, kidneys, lungs, skin, and blood vessels, resulting in death in severe cases. Methotrexate is widely used to treat neoplastic disease, dermatologic disorders (psoriasis), and rheumatologic disorders (severe rheumatoid arthritis). As its indications for use increase, more accidental overdoses can be expected. We present the treatment and clinical course of one such case, that of a 2-year-old who accidentally took her grandmother's arthritis pills. Her initial serum level was 10 times greater than that needed to cause toxicity. She was treated with gastric lavage, activated charcoal, leucovorin rescue, and ICU admission. Her clinical course was unremarkable, and the only evidence of toxicity was a mild elevation in a liver-associated enzyme that resolved without any clinical sequela. Leucovorin at a dose equal to or greater than the possible ingestion should be given as soon as possible in methotrexate overdoses. PMID:10382002

Gibbon, B N; Manthey, D E

1999-07-01

139

Preventing Accidental Ignition of Upper-Stage Rocket Motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report presents a proposal to reduce the risk of accidental ignition of certain upper-stage rocket motors or other high energy hazardous systems. At present, mechanically in-line initiators are used for initiation of many rocket motors and/or other high-energy hazardous systems. Electrical shorts and/or mechanical barriers, which are the basic safety devices in such systems, are typically removed as part of final arming or pad preparations while personnel are present. At this time, static discharge, test equipment malfunction, or incorrect arming techniques can cause premature firing. The proposal calls for a modular out-of-line ignition system incorporating detonating-cord elements, identified as the donor and the acceptor, separated by an air gap. In the safe configuration, the gap would be sealed with two shields, which would prevent an accidental firing of the donor from igniting the system. The shields would be removed to enable normal firing, in which shrapnel generated by the donor would reliably ignite the acceptor to continue the ordnance train. The acceptor would then ignite a through bulkhead initiator (or other similar device), which would ignite the motor or high-energy system. One shield would be remotely operated and would be moved to the armed position when a launch was imminent or conversely returned to the safe position if the launch were postponed. In the event of failure of the remotely operated shield, the other shield could be inserted manually to safe the system.

Hickman, John; Morgan, Herbert; Cooper, Michael; Murbach, Marcus

2005-01-01

140

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. Uncertainties in the meteorological input together with incorrect estimates of the source play a critical role for the model results. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation gives a short introduction to the project and presents the results of task 1 (meteorological input). The results of task 2 are presented by Stenzel and Baumann-Stanzer in this session. For the aim of this project, the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) was used. INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) data were calculated with 1 km horizontal resolution and based on the weather forecast model ALADIN. The meteorological field's analysis with INCA include: Temperature, Humidity, Wind, Precipitation and Cloudiness. In the frame of the project INCA data were compared with measurements conducted at traffic-near sites. INCA analysis and very short term forecast fields (up to 6 hours) are found to be an advanced possibility to provide on-line meteorological input for the model package used by the fire brigade. Nevertheless a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is required - especially in the case of very slow wind speeds, very stable atmospheric condition, and flow deflection by buildings in the urban area or by complex topography.

Baumann-Stanzer, K.; Stenzel, S.

2009-04-01

141

Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and/or bacteria to enhancing plant drought tolerance under natural soil conditions: effectiveness of autochthonous or allochthonous strains.  

PubMed

Autochthonous microorganisms [a consortium of arbuscular-mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)] were assayed and compared to Rhizophagus intraradices (Ri), Bacillus megaterium (Bm) or Pseudomonas putida (Psp) and non-inoculation on Trifolium repens in a natural arid soil under drought conditions. The autochthonous bacteria Bt and the allochthonous bacteria Psp increased nutrients and the relative water content and decreased stomatal conductance, electrolyte leakage, proline and APX activity, indicating their abilities to alleviate the drought stress. Mycorrhizal inoculation significantly enhanced plant growth, nutrient uptake and the relative water content, particularly when associated with specific bacteria minimizing drought stress-imposed effects. Specific combinations of autochthonous or allochthonous inoculants also contributed to plant drought tolerance by changing proline and antioxidative activities. However, non-inoculated plants had low relative water and nutrients contents, shoot proline accumulation and glutathione reductase activity, but the highest superoxide dismutase activity, stomatal conductance and electrolyte leakage. Microbial activities irrespective of the microbial origin seem to be coordinately functioning in the plant as an adaptive response to modulated water stress tolerance and minimizing the stress damage. The autochthonous AM fungi with Bt or Psp and those allochthonous Ri with Bm or Psp inoculants increased water stress alleviation. The autochthonous Bt showed the greatest ability to survive under high osmotic stress compared to the allochthonous strains, but when single inoculated or associated with Ri or AM fungi were similarly efficient in terms of physiological and nutritional status and in increasing plant drought tolerance, attenuating and compensating for the detrimental effect of water limitation. PMID:25462971

Ortiz, N; Armada, E; Duque, E; Roldán, A; Azcón, R

2015-02-01

142

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 12. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the control of accidental releases of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to the atmosphere. SO2 has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 100 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of SO2 ...

143

Two Cases of Accidental Injection of Epinephrine into a Digit Treated with Subcutaneous Phentolamine Injections  

PubMed Central

Accidental injection into the digit from an epinephrine autoinjection device can cause discoloration, pain, and paresthesias. Although loss of digit is rare, treatment in the emergency department is commonly aimed at vasodilation of the affected tissue. We report two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into the digits that were successfully treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injection with no adverse events. PMID:24024046

Bodkin, Ryan P.; Acquisto, Nicole M.; Wiegand, Timothy J.

2013-01-01

144

Management options for accidental injection of epinephrine from an autoinjector: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Epinephrine autoinjector devices are used with increasing frequency to treat severe anaphylactic reactions. Accidental injection, usually involving a finger, is a potential complication. CASE PRESENTATION: A physician in a Family Practice training program accidentally injected epinephrine into his left thumb while reading the operating instructions of an autoinjector (Epipen®). He developed swelling, pallor, and pain in the thumb. Treatment

Christian Mathez; Bernard Favrat; Philippe Staeger

2009-01-01

145

The effects of gun control on the accidental death rate from firearms in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

One factor that has been proposed as affecting accidental death rates is the availability of a lethal agent in the environment. The present study explores this hypothesis for the case of firearm availability and the accidental death rate from firearms. Data from Canada indicated that the passage of Canada's Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1977 (Bill C-51), enforced from 1978

Antoon A. Leenaars; David Lester

1997-01-01

146

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 10. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the control of accidental releases of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to the atmosphere. HCN has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 50 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of HCN...

147

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 2. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AMMONIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the control of accidental releases of ammonia to the atmosphere. Ammonia has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 500 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of ammonia invol...

148

Involving Parents in Indicated Early Intervention for Childhood PTSD Following Accidental Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome…

Cobham, Vanessa E.; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

2012-01-01

149

Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at the IPNS  

SciTech Connect

Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenetic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

Campos Torres, M.M.

1995-02-01

150

Delayed Upper-Airway Injury after Accidental Alkaline Ingestion  

PubMed Central

A 62-year-old man presented to the emergency department one week after accidentally drinking an alkaline cleaning agent stored in unlabeled bottle. The day of the incident the patient presented to an outside hospital where he was admitted for an upper endoscopy of the esophagus which was found to be negative for acute injury. An initial chest X-ray taken the day of the incident was also found to be normal. After discharge the patient continued to have a sore throat and marked dysphagia which caused him to vomit repeatedly. Moreover, the patient began to develop chest pain with associated shortness of breath. We present a case of delayed airway injury and tracheal thickening and associated chest pain after alkaline ingestion and we discuss herein the pathophysiology and management of alkaline ingestions. PMID:25013732

Ryan, Matthew F.

2014-01-01

151

Accidental Intraoral Formalin Injection: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

Formalin is a hazardous chemical that needs cautious handling and special storage. Owing to its disinfectant and fixative (i.e. for preserving pathologic tissue specimens in histopathology) properties, it is widely used in dentistry. Although, the terms formaldehyde and formalin are often confused as being identical, these are different as to the concentrations of the primary component i.e. formaldehyde. In fact, the common fixative available as 10% neutral buffered formalin is actually a 4% solution of formaldehyde (i.e., a 10% solution made from a 37-40% commercially pure formaldehyde solution). This case report describes an unfortunate case of accidental injection instead of local anesthetic, of formalin into the pterygomandibular space in a 35-year old woman during inferior alveolar nerve block for surgical removal of impacted lower right third molar and its successful management by cautious debridement (under both local and general anesthesia) and empirical drug therapy (utilizing analgesics and antibiotics). PMID:25568771

Dandriyal, Ramakant; Giri, Kolly Yada; Alam, Sarwar; Singh, Aishwarya Pratap

2014-01-01

152

Successful outcome of accidental ethylene glycol poisoning despite delayed presentation  

PubMed Central

A 69-year-old man presented to the emergency department after being found unconscious by his son. He had experienced headache the previous day but had been otherwise well. Investigations revealed a severe metabolic acidosis, raised lactate and acute kidney injury. The calculated anion and osmolar gap were both elevated at 37.7 and 39.3, respectively. Due to his reduced Glasgow coma score (GCS) he was intubated and a CT scan performed: only a small, mature pontine infarct was found of uncertain significance. Further questioning of the family revealed accidental ingestion of 150 ml of a ‘blue liquid’ 24 h earlier (later identified as car screenwash). With ethylene glycol (EG) poisoning suspected, he was given intravenous ethanol, fomepizole (a competitive inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase) and haemofiltration. Despite the delayed presentation, prompt recognition and treatment of EG poisoning led to a successful discharge in this case. PMID:22767560

Mangera, Zaheer; Isse, Said; Winnett, Georgia; Lal, Aroon; Cafferkey, Michele

2010-01-01

153

Heat gain in the treatment of accidental hypothermia.  

PubMed

In two cases of accidental hypothermia, heated humidification of the inspired gases and warming of fluids administered intravenously was associated with an increase in the deep body (core) temperatures at rates of 0-5 degrees to 1-0 degrees C per hour. The first case demonstrated that heat was transferred selectively to the body core, as temperatures here rose during the first three hours of treatment, while skin temperatures remained low. The second patient gained less than 0-1 degrees C per hour when treated "passively" by means of surface insulation with unheated blankets. The introduction of "active" measures was followed by a more rapid gain. It is suggested that heat supplied to the body core by these measures provides effective additions to metabolic production, particularly when the deep body and cardiac temperatures are at their lowest. PMID:1186557

Shanks, C A

1975-08-30

154

Siquieros accidental painting technique: a fluid mechanics point of view  

E-print Network

This is an entry for the Gallery of Fluid Motion of the 65th Annual Meeting of the APS-DFD (fluid dynamics video). This video shows an analysis of the 'accidental painting' technique developed by D.A. Siqueiros, a famous Mexican muralist. We reproduced the technique that he used: pouring layers of paint of different colors on top of each other. We found that the layers mix, creating aesthetically pleasing patterns, as a result of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Due to the pigments used to give paints their color, they can have different densities. When poured on top of each other, if the top layer is denser than the lower one, the viscous gravity current undergoes unstable as it spread radially. We photograph the process and produced slowed-down video to visualize the process.

Zetina, Sandra

2012-01-01

155

75 FR 8411 - Office of New Reactors: Interim Staff Guidance on Assessing the Consequences of an Accidental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Consequences of an Accidental Release of Radioactive Materials From Liquid Waste Tanks; Reopening of Comment Period AGENCY...Consequences of an Accidental Release of Radioactive Materials from Liquid Waste Tanks'' (Agencywide Documents...

2010-02-24

156

Contribution of the ear and the flag leaf to grain filling in durum wheat inferred from the carbon isotope signature: genotypic and growing conditions effects.  

PubMed

The ear, together with the flag leaf, is believed to play a major role as a source of assimilates during grain filling in C3 cereals. However, the intrusive nature of most of the available methodologies prevents reaching conclusive results in this regard. This study compares the carbon isotope composition (?(13)C) in its natural abundance in the water-soluble fractions of the flag leaf blade and the ear with the ?(13)C of mature kernels to assess the relative contribution of both organs to grain filling in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum). The relative contribution of the ear was higher in landraces compared to modern cultivars, as well as in response to nitrogen fertilization and water stress. Such genotypic and environmentally driven differences were associated with changes in harvest index (HI), with the relative contribution of the ear being negatively associated with HI. In the case of the genotypic differences, the lower relative contribution of the ear in modern cultivars compared with landraces is probably associated with the appearance in the former of a certain amount of source limitation driven by a higher HI. In fact, the relative contribution of the ear was far more responsive to changes in HI in modern cultivars compared with landraces. PMID:24028829

Sanchez-Bragado, Rut; Elazab, Abdelhalim; Zhou, Bangwei; Serret, Maria Dolors; Bort, Jordi; Nieto-Taladriz, Maria Teresa; Araus, José Luis

2014-05-01

157

In-depth analysis of accidental oil spills from tankers in the context of global spill trends from all sources.  

PubMed

This study gives a global overview of accidental oil spills from all sources (> or =700t) for the period 1970-2004, followed by a detailed examination of trends in accidental tanker spills. The present analysis of the number and volume of tanker spills includes temporal and spatial spill trends, aspects of spill size distribution as well as trends of key factors (i.e., flag state, hull type, tanker age, accident cause and sensitivity of location). Results show that the total number and volume of tanker spills have significantly decreased since the 1970s, which is in contrast to increases in maritime transport of oil and to popular perceptions following recent catastrophic events. However, many spills still occur in ecologically sensitive locations because the major maritime transport routes often cross the boundaries of the Large Marine Ecosystems, but the substantially lower total spill volume is an important contribution to potentially reduce overall ecosystem impacts. In summary, the improvements achieved in the past decades have been the result of a set of initiatives and regulations implemented by governments, international organizations and the shipping industry. PMID:16942835

Burgherr, Peter

2007-02-01

158

Historical Doses To The Public from Routine and Accidental Releases of Tritium - Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1953 - 2005  

SciTech Connect

Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 29,300 TBq of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; about 75% of this was released accidentally as gaseous tritium in 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 3,700 TBq gaseous tritium and about 2,800 TBq tritiated water vapor to the total. Mean annual doses (with 95% confidence intervals) to the most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Because time-dependent tritium models require detailed meteorological data that were unavailable for the large releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from experience with UFOTRI. Even with assumptions to assure that doses would not be underestimated, all doses from routine and accidental releases were below the level (3.6 mSv) at which adverse health effects have been documented, and most were below the current regulatory limit of 100 {micro}Sv per year from releases to the atmosphere.

Peterson, S; Raskob, W

2007-08-15

159

Glutamate Receptor Antagonist Infusions into the Basolateral and Medial Amygdala Reveal Differential Contributions to Olfactory vs. Context Fear Conditioning and Expression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The basolateral amygdala's involvement in fear acquisition and expression to visual and auditory stimuli is well known. The involvement of the basolateral and other amygdala areas in fear acquisition and expression to stimuli of other modalities is less certain. We evaluated the contribution of the basolateral and medial amygdala to olfactory and…

Walker, David L.; Paschall, Gayla Y.; Davis, Michael

2005-01-01

160

Hybridization between crops and wild relatives: the contribution of cultivated lettuce to the vigour of crop-wild hybrids under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of transgenic crop varieties, crop–wild hybridization has received considerable consideration with regard to the potential of transgenes to be transferred to wild species. Although many studies have shown that crops can hybridize with their wild relatives and that the resulting hybrids may show improved fitness over the wild parents, little is still known on the genetic contribution

B. Uwimana; M. J. M. Smulders; D. A. P. Hooftman; Y. Hartman; Tienderen van P. H; J. Jansen; L. K. McHale; R. W. Michelmore; Wiel van de C. C. M; R. G. F. Visser

2012-01-01

161

Assessment of accidental intakes of uranyl acetylacetonate (UAA)  

SciTech Connect

Uranyl acetylacetonate (UAA) is an organic complex of uranium used for military applications as a chemical catalyst in high explosives. It is prepared from depleted uranium metal (in lots of 5 kg to 7 kg) by dissolution in nitric acid, neutralization, and complexation with 2,4-pentanedione; the precipitate is dissolved in benzene and recrystallized, dried, ground, and packaged. About six workers at a small chemical company were exposed over a period of time to UAA powders during routine preparation and packaging of the uranium catalyst. The dissolution characteristics of the inhaled material were unknown and could not be determined from the published scientific literature. A 1.05-g sample of UAA powder was obtained from the responsible regulatory authority for further study to determine its chemical composition, and for dissolution in simulated lung fluid. We found the solubility of UAA to be equivalent to a mixture of 52% ICRP class D and 48% ICRP class W material. The annual limit on intake and the derived air concentration for radiological protection were estimated from this result for airborne exposure to UAA. A recycling biokinetic model was used to estimate both material-specific variations in urinary excretion rates and lung retention with time after accidental intakes. This study provides new information for evaluating future exposures to UAA.

Fisher, D.R.; Briant, J.K.

1993-12-01

162

Postobstructive pulmonary edema following accidental near-hanging  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 14 Final Diagnosis: Postobstructive pulmonary edenma Symptoms: Chest indrawing • bilateral pulmonary crepitations • tachypnea Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Controlled ventilatory support • positive end expiratory pressure Specialty: Intensive care Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Postobstructive pulmonary edema (POPE) is a life-threatening complication that occurs after the relief of an upper airway obstruction. POPE occurs rarely in children, primarily after non-lethal hanging. Case Report: We report the case of a 14-year-old girl who developed POPE after accidental near hanging. She had chest in-drawing, the SpO2 was 81% on room air, and pulmonary auscultation revealed bilateral crepitations. The chest x-ray showed bilateral diffuse infiltrates consistent with pulmonary edema. The intensive care management consisted of controlled ventilatory support with high-level positive end expiratory pressure. On the third day of hospitalization, the patient was weaned from the ventilator and extubated with a full recovery. Conclusions: This case confirms the importance of early recognition of POPE and the value of adapted treatment, which can lead to a favorable outcome and full recovery in cases of near hanging. PMID:24023977

Berdai, Adnane Mohamed; Labib, Smael; Harandou, Mustapha

2013-01-01

163

Accidental radiation exposure leading to non-healing ulcers.  

PubMed

Two patients with accidental radiation injury presented at the Sir Ganga Ram Hospital. The first patient, a 41-year-old male, presented with a large necrotic patch on his right gluteal region, which was debrided. Due to the progressive nature of the injury, he developed further necrosis and a non-healing ulcer over the right gluteal region, which was further debrided and covered with a tensor fascia lata flap. Further necrosis over the ischial region was debrided and covered with a pedicled gracilis muscle flap, following which he again required debridement and flap cover for the residual area, which then finally healed. The second patient had a history of radiation exposure followed by a non-healing ulcer on right arm. He was managed by debridement and flap coverage in a single sitting. These two cases suggest that wide excision, thorough debridement and coverage with vascularised tissue are effective in treating radiation ulcers and emphasise that all radiation sources and their management should be strictly controlled. PMID:23103484

Gambhir, S; Mangal, M; Gupta, A; Shah, A

2012-10-01

164

Inverse Modeling of Accidental Releases of Atmospheric Pollutants: New Developments.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An account is given on new data assimilation techniques that have recently been used to identify the source of an accidental release of pollutant into the atmosphere, and forecast (possibly in real time) the subsequent dispersion plume. It could be a chemical cloud from an industrial site or a release of radionuclides from a nuclear power plant (from minor accident to core meltdown). These methods are not necessarily based on Gaussian hypotheses, for instance the source may be given as positive or bounded. In particular, the usual least squares cost function (4D-Var) is replaced with purposely devised functionals that are not necessarily quadratic. These methods have been applied successfully to the reconstruction of the Chernobyl accident, the Algeciras incident or the ETEX experiment, and outperform previous approaches. As far as state assimilation is concerned, the techniques have been applied a posteriori to the reconstruction of the ETEX plume, after all observations are acquired. The method has also been applied to the reconstruction of the dispersion plume, in the context of an emergency situation: the data have been assimilated sequentially as they arrived and a forecast is performed after each analysis. This provides with a picture of what could be achieved (forecast, risk assessment) in case of a real emergency with a Chemistry Transport Model and advanced data assimilation techniques. A second-order sensitivity study that applies to the possibly non- quadratic cost functions has also been carried out in the context of these reconstructions.

Bocquet, M.

2007-12-01

165

Accidental Intra-Arterial Injection of Diclofenac –Case Report  

PubMed Central

Diclofenac sodium is a very common drug used in medical practice for analgesia and is freely available over the counter without any medical prescription. The drug is also the most commonly used or misused by quacks working all over India. Many case reports have been published on upper limb catastrophe of unintentional intra-arterial injection of barbiturates, thiopental sodium, narcotics, and tranquilizers but only two cases of inadvertent intra-arterial injection of diclofenac have been reported till date. Potential serious complication of inadvertent intra-arterial injection of diclofenac sodium leading to gangrene has been recently reported in medical literature. It is a medical emergency and literature has shown that timely diagnosis with early intervention can salvage the limb. We hereby report a case of accidental intra-arterial injection of diclofenac sodium in the ulnar artery by a quack for pain abdomen leading to gangrene of the distal part of affected little, ring and part of middle finger of right hand. PMID:25738031

Singh, Jasdeep; Sharma, Pratibha; Khera, Aadhar; Singh, Puneet

2015-01-01

166

Accidental intra-arterial injection of diclofenac -case report.  

PubMed

Diclofenac sodium is a very common drug used in medical practice for analgesia and is freely available over the counter without any medical prescription. The drug is also the most commonly used or misused by quacks working all over India. Many case reports have been published on upper limb catastrophe of unintentional intra-arterial injection of barbiturates, thiopental sodium, narcotics, and tranquilizers but only two cases of inadvertent intra-arterial injection of diclofenac have been reported till date. Potential serious complication of inadvertent intra-arterial injection of diclofenac sodium leading to gangrene has been recently reported in medical literature. It is a medical emergency and literature has shown that timely diagnosis with early intervention can salvage the limb. We hereby report a case of accidental intra-arterial injection of diclofenac sodium in the ulnar artery by a quack for pain abdomen leading to gangrene of the distal part of affected little, ring and part of middle finger of right hand. PMID:25738031

Kumar, Mohinder; Singh, Jasdeep; Sharma, Pratibha; Khera, Aadhar; Singh, Puneet

2015-01-01

167

Past or present? Relative contributions of developmental and adult conditions to adult immune function and coloration in mallard ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental conditions affect adult physiological processes and phenotypic traits, including those associated with both\\u000a survival and reproduction. Carotenoids are molecules that generate sexually attractive coloration, and these pigments are\\u000a acquired throughout life and can affect antioxidant capacity and immunocompetence of young and old animals. However, few studies\\u000a have tracked carotenoid status and condition during development and into adulthood to understand

Michael W. ButlerKevin; Kevin J. McGraw

2011-01-01

168

Inhibitory effects do not depend on the subjective experience of pain during heterotopic noxious conditioning stimulation (HNCS): a contribution to the psychophysics of pain inhibition.  

PubMed

Heterotopic noxious conditioning stimulation (HNCS) has been thought to give access to the diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC) in man, which can be activated in wide-dynamic-range neurons by noxious stimulation from remote areas of the body and form the neurophysiological basis of the phenomenon 'pain inhibits pain'. The latter phenomenon suggests that the subjective experience of pain is a prerequisite for an inhibitory action. The necessity of using painful stimuli as conditioning and as test stimuli to produce inhibitory effects was investigated in the present study, using a HNCS paradigm. Twenty young men received conditioning stimuli created by tonic heat at painful and non-painful levels, using either hot water (hand) or thermode (forearm). The test stimuli were phasic heat stimuli (thermode) at painful and non-painful levels applied to the cheek. Only painful but not non-painful heat as conditioning stimulus increased the heat pain threshold and decreased the ability to discriminate between painful heat of different intensities. These two findings are in accord with an inhibitory effect depending on a painful conditioning stimulus. However, the intensity ratings of the test stimuli indicated inhibitory effects of the conditioning stimuli also upon non-painful levels. Furthermore, non-painful heat as conditioning stimulus also appeared to be capable of decreasing the ratings of the test stimuli at painful levels. The latter two findings suggest: (i) that very strong but subjectively still non-painful stimulation can trigger pain inhibitory effects and (ii) that also subjectively non-painful stimuli are affected by inhibitory influences during HNCS. PMID:12160511

Lautenbacher, Stefan; Roscher, Stephan; Strian, Friedrich

2002-01-01

169

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 8. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN FLUORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a chemical specific manual for hydrogen fluoride (HF). It summarizes information to aid regulators and industry personnel in identifying and controlling release hazards associated with HF. Reducing the risk associated with accidental release of HF involves identifyi...

170

10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE...

2014-01-01

171

10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE...

2010-01-01

172

10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE...

2012-01-01

173

10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE...

2011-01-01

174

10 CFR 72.74 - Reports of accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accidental criticality or loss of special nuclear material. 72.74 Section 72.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ...REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE...

2013-01-01

175

Balanced Flow Measurement and Conditioning Technology (Balanced Orifice Plate 7,051,765 B1) for NASA Inventions and Contributions Board Invention of the Year Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph document reviews the Balanced Flow Measurement (BFM) and Conditioning Technology, and makes the case for this as the NASA Invention of the Year. The BFM technology makes use of a thin, multi-hole orifice plate with holes sized and placed per a unique set of equations. It produces mass flow, volumetric flow,kinelic energy,or momentum BALANCE across the face of the plate. The flow is proportional.to the square root of upstream to downstream differential pressure. Multiple holes lead to smoother pressure measurement. Measures and conditions or can limit fluid flow. This innovation has many uses in and out of NASA.

Kelley, Anthony R.

2008-01-01

176

Dose Calculation For Accidental Release Of Radioactive Cloud Passing Over Jeddah  

SciTech Connect

For the evaluation of doses after the reactor accident, in particular for the inhalation dose, a thorough knowledge of the concentration of the various radionuclide in air during the passage of the plume is required. In this paper we present an application of the Gaussian Plume Model (GPM) to calculate the atmospheric dispersion and airborne radionuclide concentration resulting from radioactive cloud over the city of Jeddah (KSA). The radioactive cloud is assumed to be emitted from a reactor of 10 MW power in postulated accidental release. Committed effective doses (CEDs) to the public at different distance from the source to the receptor are calculated. The calculations were based on meteorological condition and data of the Jeddah site. These data are: pasquill atmospheric stability is the class B and the wind speed is 2.4m/s at 10m height in the N direction. The residence time of some radionuclides considered in this study were calculated. The results indicate that, the values of doses first increase with distance, reach a maximum value and then gradually decrease. The total dose received by human is estimated by using the estimated values of residence time of each radioactive pollutant at different distances.

Alharbi, N. D.; Mayhoub, A. B. [Physics Dept., Sciences Faculty for Girls, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

2011-12-26

177

Atmospheric entry of Mars-return nuclear-powered vehicles due to accidental termination of operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The entry of nuclear reactors into Earth's atmosphere resulting from an accidental or inadvertent abort of a space vehicle powered by nuclear-thermal rockets is investigated. The study is made for a typical piloted Mars mission vehicle incapacitated by an accident or malfunction during the Earth-arrival phase of the Mars-return journey due to simultaneous, multiple failures of its component systems. A single accident/abort scenario resulting in three entry possibilities is considered for a nominal hyperbolic in-bound approach velocity of 8 km/sec. The most severe case involving a direct entry is then analyzed over a broad range of approach velocities extending to 12 km/sec to include sprint-type missions. The results indicate that the severe surface heating, stagnation pressures, and g-loads are greater than 150 kW/sq cm, 300 atm, and 800-g, respectively. The wall heat transfer rate exceeds the value that can be accommodated by a carbon heatshield through radiation equilibrium prior to sublimation at 5500 K. These conditions are beyond our previous experience in crew safety, structural design, and thermal protection.

Menees, Gene P.; Park, Chul

1993-01-01

178

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - utility for the fire brigades.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios”), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Viennese fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program of the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. For the purpose of our study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Trace (Safer System), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer). A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed, with the models above, in order to predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. Furthermore, the application of the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in case of toxic release was investigated. INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) data are calculated operationally with 1 km horizontal resolution and based on the weather forecast model ALADIN. The meteorological field's analysis with INCA include: Temperature, Humidity, Wind, Precipitation, Cloudiness and Global Radiation. In the frame of the project INCA data were compared with measurements from the meteorological observational network, conducted at traffic-near sites in Vienna. INCA analysis and very short term forecast fields (up to 6 hours) are found to be an advanced possibility to provide on-line meteorological input for the model package used by the fire brigade. Since the input requirements differ from model to model, and the outputs are based on unequal criteria for toxic area and exposure, a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is required - especially in the case of slow wind speeds, stable atmospheric condition, and flow deflection by buildings in the urban area or by complex topography.

Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

2009-09-01

179

Persistent Seroconversion after Accidental Eye Exposure to Calcifying Nanoparticles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biosafety of nanomaterials has attracted much attention recently. We report here a case where accidental human eye exposure to biogenic nanosized calcium phosphate in the form of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) raised a strong IgG immune response against proteins carried by CNP. The antibody titer has persisted over ten years at the high level. The IgG was detected by ELISA using CNPs propagated in media containing bovine and human serum as antigen. The exposure incident occurred to a woman scientist (WS) at a research laboratory in Finland at 1993. CNP, also termed "nanobacteria", is a unique self-replicating agent that has not been fully characterized and no data on biohazards were available at that time. Before the accident, her serum samples were negative for both CNP antigen and anti-CNP antibody using specific ELISA tests (Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland). The accident occurred while WS was harvesting CNP cultures. Due to a high pressure in pipetting, CNP pellet splashed into her right eye. Both eyes were immediately washed with water and saline. The following days there was irritation and redness in the right eye. These symptoms disappeared within two weeks without any treatment. Three months after the accident, blood and urine samples of WS were tested for CNP cultures (2), CNP-specific ELISA tests, and blood cell counts. Blood cell counts were normal, CNP antigen and culture tests were negative. A high IgG anti-CNP antibody titer was detected (see Figure). The antibodies of this person have been used thereafter as positive control and standard in ELISA manufacturing (Nano-Sero IgG ELISA, Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland).

Ciftcioglu, Neva; Aho, Katja M.; McKay, David S.; Kajander, E. Olavi

2007-01-01

180

Laboratory-Acquired Parasitic Infections from Accidental Exposures  

PubMed Central

Parasitic diseases are receiving increasing attention in developed countries in part because of their importance in travelers, immigrants, and immunocompromised persons. The main purpose of this review is to educate laboratorians, the primary readership, and health care workers, the secondary readership, about the potential hazards of handling specimens that contain viable parasites and about the diseases that can result. This is accomplished partly through discussion of the occupationally acquired cases of parasitic infections that have been reported, focusing for each case on the type of accident that resulted in infection, the length of the incubation period, the clinical manifestations that developed, and the means by which infection was detected. The article focuses on the cases of infection with the protozoa that cause leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis), and African trypanosomiasis. Data about 164 such cases are discussed, as are data about cases caused by intestinal protozoa and by helminths. Of the 105 case-patients infected with blood and tissue protozoa who either recalled an accident or for whom the likely route of transmission could be presumed, 47 (44.8%) had percutaneous exposure via a contaminated needle or other sharp object. Some accidents were directly linked to poor laboratory practices (e.g., recapping a needle or working barehanded). To decrease the likelihood of accidental exposures, persons who could be exposed to pathogenic parasites must be thoroughly instructed in safety precautions before they begin to work and through ongoing training programs. Protocols should be provided for handling specimens that could contain viable organisms, using protective clothing and equipment, dealing with spills of infectious organisms, and responding to accidents. Special care should be exercised when using needles and other sharp objects. PMID:11585780

Herwaldt, Barbara L.

2001-01-01

181

Acute health effects of accidental chlorine gas exposure  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study was conducted to report the course of an accidental release of chlorine gas that occurred in a factory in Gumi-si, South Korea, on March 5, 2013. We describe the analysis results of 2 patients hospitalized because of chlorine-induced acute health problems, as well as the clinical features of 209 non-hospitalized patients. Methods We analyzed the medical records of the 2 hospitalized patients admitted to the hospital, as well as the medical records and self-report questionnaires of 209 non-hospitalized patients completed during outpatient treatment. Results Immediately after the exposure, the 2 hospitalized patients developed acute asthma-like symptoms such as cough and dyspnea, and showed restrictive and combined pattern ventilatory defects on the pulmonary function test. The case 1 showed asthma-like symptoms over six months and diurnal variability in peak expiratory flow rate was 56.7%. In case 2, his FEV1 after treatment (93%) increased by 25% compared to initial FEV1 (68%). Both cases were diagnosed as chlorine-induced reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) on the basis of these clinical features. The most frequent chief complaints of the 209 non-hospitalized patients were headache (22.7%), followed by eye irritation (18.2%), nausea (11.2%), and sore throat (10.8%), with asymptomatic patients accounting for 36.5%. The multiple-response analysis of individual symptom revealed headache (42.4%) to be the most frequent symptom, followed by eye irritation (30.5%), sore throat (30.0%), cough (29.6%), nausea (27.6%), and dizziness (27.3%). Conclusions The 2 patients hospitalized after exposure to chlorine gas at the leakage site showed a clinical course corresponding to RADS. All of the 209 non-hospitalized patients only complained of symptoms of the upper airways and mucous membrane irritation.

2014-01-01

182

Thylakoid FtsH Protease Contributes to Photosystem II and Cytochrome b6f Remodeling in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under Stress Conditions[W  

PubMed Central

FtsH is the major thylakoid membrane protease found in organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis. Here, we show that FtsH from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii forms heterooligomers comprising two subunits, FtsH1 and FtsH2. We characterized this protease using FtsH mutants that we identified through a genetic suppressor approach that restored phototrophic growth of mutants originally defective for cytochrome b6f accumulation. We thus extended the spectrum of FtsH substrates in the thylakoid membranes beyond photosystem II, showing the susceptibility of cytochrome b6f complexes (and proteins involved in the ci heme binding pathway to cytochrome b6) to FtsH. We then show how FtsH is involved in the response of C. reinhardtii to macronutrient stress. Upon phosphorus starvation, photosynthesis inactivation results from an FtsH-sensitive photoinhibition process. In contrast, we identified an FtsH-dependent loss of photosystem II and cytochrome b6f complexes in darkness upon sulfur deprivation. The D1 fragmentation pattern observed in the latter condition was similar to that observed in photoinhibitory conditions, which points to a similar degradation pathway in these two widely different environmental conditions. Our experiments thus provide extensive evidence that FtsH plays a major role in the quality control of thylakoid membrane proteins and in the response of C. reinhardtii to light and macronutrient stress. PMID:24449688

Malnoë, Alizée; Wang, Fei; Girard-Bascou, Jacqueline; Wollman, Francis-André; de Vitry, Catherine

2014-01-01

183

The Contribution of Social Networks to the Health and Self-Management of Patients with Long-Term Conditions: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Evidence for the effectiveness of patient education programmes in changing individual self-management behaviour is equivocal. More distal elements of personal social relationships and the availability of social capital at the community level may be key to the mobilisation of resources needed for long-term condition self-management to be effective. Aim To determine how the social networks of people with long-term conditions (diabetes and heart disease) are associated with health-related outcomes and changes in outcomes over time. Methods Patients with chronic heart disease (CHD) or diabetes (n?=?300) randomly selected from the disease registers of 19 GP practices in the North West of England. Data on personal social networks collected using a postal questionnaire, alongside face-to-face interviewing. Follow-up at 12 months via postal questionnaire using a self-report grid for network members identified at baseline. Analysis Multiple regression analysis of relationships between health status, self-management and health-economics outcomes, and characteristics of patients' social networks. Results Findings indicated that: (1) social involvement with a wider variety of people and groups supports personal self-management and physical and mental well-being; (2) support work undertaken by personal networks expands in accordance with health needs helping people to cope with their condition; (3) network support substitutes for formal care and can produce substantial saving in traditional health service utilisation costs. Health service costs were significantly (p<0.01) reduced for patients receiving greater levels of illness work through their networks. Conclusions Support for self-management which achieves desirable policy outcomes should be construed less as an individualised set of actions and behaviour and more as a social network phenomenon. This study shows the need for a greater focus on harnessing and sustaining the capacity of networks and the importance of social involvement with community groups and resources for producing a more desirable and cost-effective way of supporting long term illness management. PMID:24887107

Reeves, David; Blickem, Christian; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Brooks, Helen; Kennedy, Anne; Richardson, Gerry; Rogers, Anne

2014-01-01

184

Aerosol Direct, Indirect, Semidirect, and Surface Albedo Effects from Sector Contributions Based on the IPCC AR5 Emissions for Preindustrial and Present-day Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anthropogenic increase in aerosol concentrations since preindustrial times and its net cooling effect on the atmosphere is thought to mask some of the greenhouse gas-induced warming. Although the overall effect of aerosols on solar radiation and clouds is most certainly negative, some individual forcing agents and feedbacks have positive forcing effects. Recent studies have tried to identify some of those positive forcing agents and their individual emission sectors, with the hope that mitigation policies could be developed to target those emitters. Understanding the net effect of multisource emitting sectors and the involved cloud feedbacks is very challenging, and this paper will clarify forcing and feedback effects by separating direct, indirect, semidirect and surface albedo effects due to aerosols. To this end, we apply the Goddard Institute for Space Studies climate model including detailed aerosol microphysics to examine aerosol impacts on climate by isolating single emission sector contributions as given by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) emission data sets developed for Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5. For the modeled past 150 years, using the climate model and emissions from preindustrial times to present-day, the total global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing is -0.6 W/m(exp 2), with the largest contribution from the direct effect (-0.5 W/m(exp 2)). Aerosol-induced changes on cloud cover often depends on cloud type and geographical region. The indirect (includes only the cloud albedo effect with -0.17 W/m(exp 2)) and semidirect effects (-0.10 W/m(exp 2)) can be isolated on a regional scale, and they often have opposing forcing effects, leading to overall small forcing effects on a global scale. Although the surface albedo effects from aerosols are small (0.016 W/m(exp 2)), triggered feedbacks on top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing can be 10 times larger. Our results point out that each emission sector has varying impacts by geographical region. For example, the single sector most responsible for a net positive radiative forcing is the transportation sector in the United States, agricultural burning and transportation in Europe, and the domestic emission sector in Asia. These sectors are attractive mitigation targets.

Bauer, Susanne E.; Menon, Surabi

2012-01-01

185

Contribution of voltage-gated sodium channels to b- and d-waves of frog electroretinogram under different conditions of light adaptation.  

PubMed

The effect of blockade of voltage-gated sodium (Na(v)) channels by tetrodotoxin (TTX) on the V-log I function of the ERG b- and d-waves was investigated in light and dark adapted frog eyecups. TTX diminished the b- and d-wave amplitude under both conditions of adaptation at all stimulus intensities except for the middle intensity range in dark adapted eyes, where it had no effect on the b-wave amplitude. TTX delayed the time course of the responses, obtained with low intensity stimuli and widened the dynamic range of the b-wave. The inhibitory effect of TTX on the cone-mediated, but not rod-mediated b- and d-wave amplitude persisted after the blockade of proximal retinal activity by NMDA, indicating that it may be due to a blockade of Na(v) channels on the ON and OFF bipolar cells. PMID:19854212

Popova, E; Kupenova, P

2010-01-01

186

Marginal costing methods highlight the contributing cost of comorbid conditions in Medicare patients: a quasi-experimental case–control study of ischemic stroke costs  

PubMed Central

Background Cost of illness studies are needed to provide estimates for input into cost-effectiveness studies and as information drivers to resource allocation. However, these studies often do not differentiate costs associated with the disease of interest and costs of co-morbidities. The goal of this study was to identify the 1-year cost of ischemic stroke compared to the annual cost of care for a comparable non-stroke group of South Carolina (SC) Medicare beneficiaries resulting in a marginal cost estimate. Methods SC data for 2004 and 2005 were used to estimate the mean 12 month cost of stroke for 2,976 Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for Ischemic Stroke in 2004. Using nearest neighbor propensity score matching, a control group of non-stroke beneficiaries were matched on age, gender, race, risk factors, and Charlson comorbidity index and their costs were calculated. Marginal cost attributable to ischemic stroke was calculated as the difference between these two adjusted cost estimates. Results The total cost estimated for SC stroke patients for 1 year (2004) was $81.3 million. The cost for the matched comparison group without stroke was $54.4 million. Thus, the 2004 marginal costs to Medicare due to Ischemic stroke in SC are estimated to be $26.9 million. Conclusions Accurate estimates of cost of care for conditions, such as stroke, that are common in older patients with a high rate of comorbid conditions require the use of a marginal costing approach. Over estimation of cost of care for stroke may lead to prediction of larger savings than realizable from important stroke treatment and prevention programs, which may damage the credibility of program advocates, and jeopardize long term funding support. Additionally, correct cost estimates are needed as inputs for valid cost-effectiveness studies. Thus, it is important to use marginal costing for stroke, especially with the increasing public focus on evidence-based economic decision making to be expected with healthcare reform. PMID:24238629

2013-01-01

187

Accidental Dark Matter: Case in the Scale Invariant Local $B-L$ Model  

E-print Network

We explore the idea of accidental dark matter (aDM) stability in the scale invariant local $U(1)_{B-L}$ model, which is a theory for neutrino and at the same time radiatively breaks scale invariance via quantum mechanical dynamics in the $U(1)_{B-L}$ sector. A real singlet scalar can be accidental DM with an accidental $Z_2$, by virtue of both extended symmetries. A $U(1)_{B-L}$ charged complex scalar can also be a viable accidental DM due to an accidental (or remanent) $Z_3$. They can reproduce correct relic density via the annihilations through the conventional Higgs portal or dark Higgs portal. The dark Higgs portal scenario is in tension with the LHC bound on $Z_{B-L}$, and only heavy DM of a few TeVs can have correct relic density. In particular, DM may trigger spontaneous breaking of scale Invariance (SISB). The situation is relaxed significantly in the $Z_3$ case due to the effective semi-annihilation mode and then light DM can be accommodated easily. In addition, the $Z_3$ model can accommodate the Ge...

Guo, Jun; Ko, P; Orikasa, Yuta

2015-01-01

188

Analysis of the contribution of wind drift factor to oil slick movement under strong tidal condition: Hebei Spirit oil spill case.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model and Automatic Weather System (AWS) were used to generate tidal and wind fields respectively. Simulation results were then compared with 5 sets of spaceborne optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. From the present study, it was found that highest matching rate between the simulation results and satellite imagery was obtained with different values of the wind drift factor, and to first order, this factor was linearly proportional to the wind speed. Based on the results, a new modified empirical formula was proposed for forecasting the movement of oil slicks on the coastal area. PMID:24498094

Kim, Tae-Ho; Yang, Chan-Su; Oh, Jeong-Hwan; Ouchi, Kazuo

2014-01-01

189

Analysis of the Contribution of Wind Drift Factor to Oil Slick Movement under Strong Tidal Condition: Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Case  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model and Automatic Weather System (AWS) were used to generate tidal and wind fields respectively. Simulation results were then compared with 5 sets of spaceborne optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. From the present study, it was found that highest matching rate between the simulation results and satellite imagery was obtained with different values of the wind drift factor, and to first order, this factor was linearly proportional to the wind speed. Based on the results, a new modified empirical formula was proposed for forecasting the movement of oil slicks on the coastal area. PMID:24498094

Kim, Tae-Ho; Yang, Chan-Su; Oh, Jeong-Hwan; Ouchi, Kazuo

2014-01-01

190

Aspergillus parasiticus SU-1 Genome Sequence, Predicted Chromosome Structure, and Comparative Gene Expression under Aflatoxin-Inducing Conditions: Evidence that Differential Expression Contributes to Species Phenotype  

PubMed Central

The filamentous fungi Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus produce the carcinogenic secondary metabolite aflatoxin on susceptible crops. These species differ in the quantity of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 produced in culture, in the ability to produce the mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid, and in morphology of mycelia and conidiospores. To understand the genetic basis for differences in biochemistry and morphology, we conducted next-generation sequence (NGS) analysis of the A. parasiticus strain SU-1 genome and comparative gene expression (RNA sequence analysis [RNA Seq]) analysis of A. parasiticus SU-1 and A. flavus strain NRRL 3357 (3357) grown under aflatoxin-inducing and -noninducing culture conditions. Although A. parasiticus SU-1 and A. flavus 3357 are highly similar in genome structure and gene organization, we observed differences in the presence of specific mycotoxin gene clusters and differential expression of specific mycotoxin genes and gene clusters that help explain differences in the type and quantity of mycotoxins synthesized. Using computer-aided analysis of secondary metabolite clusters (antiSMASH), we demonstrated that A. parasiticus SU-1 and A. flavus 3357 may carry up to 93 secondary metabolite gene clusters, and surprisingly, up to 10% of the genome appears to be dedicated to secondary metabolite synthesis. The data also suggest that fungus-specific zinc binuclear cluster (C6) transcription factors play an important role in regulation of secondary metabolite cluster expression. Finally, we identified uniquely expressed genes in A. parasiticus SU-1 that encode C6 transcription factors and genes involved in secondary metabolism and stress response/cellular defense. Future work will focus on these differentially expressed A. parasiticus SU-1 loci to reveal their role in determining distinct species characteristics. PMID:24951444

Wee, Josephine; Roze, Ludmila V.

2014-01-01

191

Suicide in Peacekeepers: Risk Factors for Suicide versus Accidental Death  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate risk factors for suicide in veterans of peacekeeping, 43 suicides and 41 fatal accidents in Norwegian peacekeepers (1978 to 1995) were compared in a psychological autopsy study. Mental health problems were the most important risk factor for suicide. Both living alone and the break-up of a love relationship contributed uniquely to…

Thoresen, Siri; Mehlum, Lars

2006-01-01

192

Accidental Coverage of Both Renal Arteries during Infrarenal Aortic Stent-Graft Implantation: Cause and Treatment  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to report a salvage maneuver for accidental coverage of both renal arteries during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). A 72-year-old female with a 6?cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm was treated by endovascular means with a standard bifurcated graft. Upon completing an angiogram, both renal arteries were found to be accidentally occluded. Through a left percutaneous brachial approach, the right renal artery was catheterized and a chimney stent was deployed; however this was not possible for the left renal artery. A retroperitoneal surgical approach was therefore carried out with a retrograde chimney stent implanted to restore blood flow. After three months, both renal arteries were patent and renal function was not different from the baseline. Both endovascular with percutaneous access via the brachial artery and open retroperitoneal approaches with retrograde catheterization are feasible rescue techniques to recanalize the accidentally occluded renal arteries during EVAR. PMID:25544930

Bracale, Umberto Marcello; Giribono, Anna Maria; Vitale, Gaetano; Narese, Donatella; Santini, Gianpaolo; del Guercio, Luca

2014-01-01

193

Reply to "Comment on `Contributions of vacancies and self-interstitials to self-diffusion in silicon under thermal equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions' "  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suezawa et al. [Phys. Rev. B 90, 117201 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.117201] claim in their Comment that the data reported by Shimizu et al. [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 095901 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.095901] and Kube et al. [Phys. Rev. B 88, 085206 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.085206] on silicon self-diffusion for temperatures between 900 and 735 °C are affected by carbon and vacancy clusters and, accordingly, do not reflect self-diffusion under thermal equilibrium conditions. We demonstrate in our Reply that an impact of carbon on self-diffusion can definitely be excluded. In addition it is rather unlikely that the self-diffusion data reported by Shimizu et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 095901 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.095901] and Kube et al. [Phys. Rev. B 88, 085206 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.085206] are affected by the dissolution of vacancy clusters since strong differences exist not only in the preparation of the samples used for the experiments, but also in the time of diffusion. Finally, the vacancy formation enthalpy deduced by Suezawa et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 110, 083531 (2011), 10.1063/1.3653291] from quenching experiments is consistent with the value obtained from the temperature dependence of the vacancy formation enthalpy reported by Kube et al. [Phys. Rev. B 88, 085206 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.085206]. Overall we conclude that the quenching experiments of Suezawa et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 110, 083531 (2011), 10.1063/1.3653291] cannot disprove the interpretation of the low-temperature self-diffusion data reported by Shimizu et al. [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 095901 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.095901] and Kube et al. [Phys. Rev. B 88, 085206 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.085206].

Kube, R.; Bracht, H.; Hüger, E.; Schmidt, H.; Hansen, J. Lundsgaard; Larsen, A. Nylandsted; Ager, J. W.; Haller, E. E.; Geue, T.; Stahn, J.; Uematsu, M.; Itoh, K. M.

2014-09-01

194

1. Preventing Accidental Changes of Pacemaker Controls Do not place the Model 5388 in any area where patients may  

E-print Network

1. Preventing Accidental Changes of Pacemaker Controls Do not place the Model 5388 in any area where patients may interact with it. The temporary pacemaker should be placed in an area that minimizes disposable cover helps prevent accidental changes of temporary pacemaker controls, including the emergency

Kay, Mark A.

195

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 2. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF CHLORINE (SCAQMD) (SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual discusses reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of chlorine. It identifies some of the potential causes of accidental releases that apply to the processes that use chlorine. It also identifies examples of potential causes, as well as measures that may...

196

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 2. POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

197

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOLUME 2: POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

198

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES. VOLUME 1. PREVENTION AND PROTECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

199

Towards the operational estimation of a radiological plume using data assimilation after a radiological accidental atmospheric release  

E-print Network

Towards the operational estimation of a radiological plume using data assimilation after a radiological accidental atmospheric release Victor Winiareka , Julius Virab , Marc Bocqueta,c , Mikhail Sofievb- ological plume using data assimilation after a radiological accidental atmospheric release. Atmos. Env. 45

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

200

Multiple scattering and accidental coincidences in the J-PET detector simulated using GATE package  

E-print Network

Novel Positron Emission Tomography system, based on plastic scintillators, is developed by the J-PET collaboration. In order to optimize geometrical configuration of built device, advanced computer simulations are performed. Detailed study is presented of background given by accidental coincidences and multiple scattering of gamma quanta.

Kowalski, P; Wi?licki, W; Raczy?ski, L; Bednarski, T; Bia?as, P; Bu?ka, J; Czerwi?ski, E; Gajos, A; Gruntowski, A; Kami?ska, D; Kap?on, ?; Kochanowski, A; Korcyl, G; Kowal, J; Kozik, T; Krzemie?, W; Kubicz, E; Nied?wiecki, Sz; Pa?ka, M; Rudy, Z; Salabura, P; Sharma, N G; Silarski, M; S?omski, A; Smyrski, J; Strzelecki, A; Wieczorek, A; Wochlik, I; Zieli?ski, M; Zo?, N

2015-01-01

201

Accidental Discovery of Information on the User-Defined Social Web: A Mixed-Method Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frequently interacting with other people or working in an information-rich environment can foster the "accidental discovery of information" (ADI) (Erdelez, 2000; McCay-Peet & Toms, 2010). With the increasing adoption of social web technologies, online user-participation communities and user-generated content have provided users the…

Lu, Chi-Jung

2012-01-01

202

Coping with Serious Accidental Injury: A One-Year Follow-Up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this study was to analyze changes of coping strategies in severely injured accident victims over time and to compare patients with high and low posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom levels with regard to their coping patterns and accident-related cognitions. Methods: 106 consecutive patients with severe accidental injuries admitted to a trauma surgery intensive care unit (ICU)

Urs Hepp; Hanspeter Moergeli; Stefan Büchi; Lutz Wittmann; Ulrich Schnyder

2005-01-01

203

Confiding in others and illness rate among spouses of suicide and accidental-death victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveyed 19 spouses (mean age 37.5 yrs) of suicide and accidental death victims (representing a 61.3% response rate of all relevant cases that occurred in 1982 in a metropolitan county) concerning their health and coping strategies approximately 1 yr after their spouse's death. Results show that the more Ss discussed their spouse's death with friends and the less that they

James W. Pennebaker; Robin C. OHeeron

1984-01-01

204

Vibration behavior and response to an accidental collision of SFT prototype in Qiandao Lake (China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents free vibration analysis of the submerged floating tunnel (SFT) prototype, which has been designed to be built in Qiandao Lake (China). As an approximation the supporting effect of the tethers is omitted in the calculation of beam-like bending vibrations. As a case study, the response of the SFT prototype to an accidental collision by an object like

Shuangyin Zhang; Lei Wang; Youshi Hong

2010-01-01

205

Accidental contact burns of the upper limb in children with obstetric brachial plexus injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The denervated limb of the child with obstetrical brachial plexus injury is theoretically at risk of contact burns. A prospective study was designed to document the incidence and clinical presentation of these burn injuries in a series of 127 birth palsy cases. The study group included 90 Erb's and 37 total plexus palsy cases. Accidental burns occurred in 11% of

M. M. Al-Qattan

1999-01-01

206

New Tracers Identify Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids and Accidental Releases from Oil and Gas Operations  

E-print Network

New Tracers Identify Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids and Accidental Releases from Oil and Gas fingerprints of fluids that return to the surface after high volume hydraulic fracturing of unconventional oil elemental and isotopic signatures (B/Cl, Li/Cl, 11 B, and 7 Li) useful for characterizing hydraulic

Jackson, Robert B.

207

[Accidental injection of adrenaline in a finger with EpiPen].  

PubMed

We report a case of accidental injection of 0.3 mg epinephrine in the right pollux. The actual case was treated with systemic nitroglyceride and immersion of the finger in hot water. A review of the literature shows that the adequate treatment is local infiltration with Phentholamine Mesylate. There is a need to describe this treatment in conventional literature. PMID:9816965

Kaspersen, J; Vedsted, P

1998-11-01

208

Accidental Epipen injection into a digit - the value of a Google search.  

PubMed

Despite the lack of awareness by the clinicians consulted of the most suitable treatment for accidentally injected epinephrine, this patient was successfully treated due mainly to the ability of clinicians on-site to access the Internet in the A&E department. A broad search engine such as Google can be an invaluable tool in finding important clinical information rapidly. PMID:15140311

Turner, M J A; Purushotham, A D

2004-05-01

209

A Method for Reliability Assessment of Aircraft Structures Subject to Accidental Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been proposed to assess the reliability of aircraft structures subject to accidental damage using in-service damage data. The development of this method is motivated by the increasing use of composite materials in aircraft structures, which are particularly sensitive to impact damage. In addition, damage to composite structures may not be visible or may be difficult to detect.

Cary K. Huang; Kuen Y. Lin

210

Analyzing exposure of school children to accidental releases of hazardous substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns regarding consequences of hazardous chemical accidents and children's environmental health have increased substantially in recent years. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) demonstrate a methodology for identifying areas potentially exposed to accidental releases of hazardous substances in a large metropolitan region (Hillsborough County, Florida); (b) examine the number and type of schools and school children at risk;

JAYAJIT CHAKRABORTY

2001-01-01

211

Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning presenting without a history of exposure: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Carbon monoxide poisoning is easy to diagnose when there is a history of exposure. When the exposure history is absent, or delayed, the diagnosis is more difficult and relies on recognising the importance of multi-system disease. We present a case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. CASE PRESENTATION: A middle-aged man, who lived alone in his mobile home was found

Luke Bennetto; Louise Powter; Neil J Scolding

2008-01-01

212

Accidental Entry of Fish into Throat While Bathing in a Pond  

PubMed Central

While fish bones are common foreign bodies in the throat, a whole live fish in the pharynx is very rare. We report a case where a whole fish accidentally entered the throat of a 52-year-old male, where it became lodged causing throat pain and dysphagia. The fish was removed as an emergency procedure. PMID:24371443

Parida, Pradipta Kumar; Surianarayanan, Gopalakrishnan

2013-01-01

213

SUMMARY OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF RADIOACTIVITY DETECTED OFF THE NEVADA TEST SITE, 1963-1986  

EPA Science Inventory

Of the more than 450 underground nuclear explosives tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site from August 1963 (signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty) through the end of 1986, only 23 accidentally released radioactivity that was detectable beyond the boundary of the NTS. Of these ...

214

Limiting the Accidental Pressure Drop in NIF Beam Tubes  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the use of a one-dimensional model of a time-dependent compressible flow condition to validate the results from a more sophisticated three-dimensional model. The flow conditions consist of the sudden decompression of a pressurized tube joined to an evacuated sphere, where the tube also has a leak to external atmosphere that is triggered open at a given pressure difference below sea-level pressure. This flow model is used to calculate conditions in a NIF beam tube if an internal vacuum barrier fails, and to calculate how the size and timing of an opening to external atmosphere changes tube pressure. Decompression of a NIF beam tube is a potential safety hazard since the tube could collapse if the tube pressure is reduced below the buckling limit. To prevent this from occurring, each pressurized section includes a rupture panel which is designed to open to external atmosphere at a given pressure difference. The inrush of external atmosphere through the rupture panel fills both the tube and the vacuum drawing on it, and in this way the pressure drop in the tube is quickly limited and reversed. In summary, the results from the 1D model indicate that the 3-D calculations are accurate and reasonable.

Garcia, M

2000-11-06

215

Modelling of accidental released toxic gases for emergency responders in Austria, Kosovo and Bulgaria.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. A number of models for the prediction and simulation of hazard areas affected by accidental releases of toxic gases are available worldwide. Modelling accidental releases may be required for a variety of reasons: for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), for preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management (e.g. in the frame of the SEVESO directive). Depending on the demand and the particular purposes, the choice of the appropriate model is up to the authorities. The one year project was funded by the Austrian Science and research liaison Office (ASO, www.aso.zsi.at) as a part of the program: Research Cooperation and Networking between Austria, the public higher education institutions in Kosovo and South Eastern Europe. The project was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG, http://www.zamg.ac.at) in cooperation with the University of Prishtina (Kosovo, www.uni-pr.edu and the National Institute of meteorology and Hydrology (NIHM Bulgaria, www.meteo.bg). One of the main purposes of the project was to provide the both partners with basic knowledge in modelling with accidental release of toxic gases, based on the practical experience of the meteorologists from the ZAMG in the area. This knowledge can be used as scientific response to society driven current or upcoming problems especially in Kosovo. The activities involved know-how transfer on European standards and practice among the project partners, as well as joint efforts to adapt and disseminate the scientific methods and results in Kosovo. Within the project, the partners from Kosovo and Bulgaria were introduced to the atmospheric dispersion model (ALOHA - Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere) and proceeded several model runs based on reference scenarios for chemicals of concern. ALOHA is one of the tools developed by EPA's Office of Emergency Management (OEM) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office of Response and Restoration (NOAA), to assist front-line chemical emergency planners and responders. In the frame of the project the partners in Kosovo and Bulgaria also undertook first steps in establishing cooperation connections with decision makers for emergency response planning, fire brigades and chemical plants. This presentation focuses on basic issues and problems in handling with accidental release of toxic gases, as well as on communication difficulties among the emergency responders, modellers and authorities in the three countries.

Stenzel, Sirma; Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Gashi, Salih; Thaci, Bashkim; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Spassova, Tatiana

2010-05-01

216

Photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers enabled by an accidental Dirac point  

SciTech Connect

A photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser (PCSEL) includes a gain medium electromagnetically coupled to a photonic crystal whose energy band structure exhibits a Dirac cone of linear dispersion at the center of the photonic crystal's Brillouin zone. This Dirac cone's vertex is called a Dirac point; because it is at the Brillouin zone center, it is called an accidental Dirac point. Tuning the photonic crystal's band structure (e.g., by changing the photonic crystal's dimensions or refractive index) to exhibit an accidental Dirac point increases the photonic crystal's mode spacing by orders of magnitudes and reduces or eliminates the photonic crystal's distributed in-plane feedback. Thus, the photonic crystal can act as a resonator that supports single-mode output from the PCSEL over a larger area than is possible with conventional PCSELs, which have quadratic band edge dispersion. Because output power generally scales with output area, this increase in output area results in higher possible output powers.

Chua, Song Liang; Lu, Ling; Soljacic, Marin

2014-12-02

217

Accidental Displacement of Third Molar into the Sublingual Space: a Case Report  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background Successful extraction of third molars depends on preoperative diagnosis and planning. Gold standard preoperative examinations are performed through computed tomography, decreasing risks and avoiding potential accidents. The present report highlights the value of preoperative examinations in face of accidentally displaced third molars. Methods An 18-years-old female patient underwent a third mandibular molar extraction with a general dentist. Accidentally, the mandibular left third molar was displaced into the sublingual space, making necessary a second surgical step. The surgery was interrupted and the patient was referred to an expert in maxillofacial surgery. Results After 21 days awaiting an asymptomatic health status, the second surgical step was successfully performed using multislice computed tomography as preoperative imaging guide. Conclusions The present case report highlights the clinical usefulness of imaging planning and informed consents in face of legal and ethic potential complaints. PMID:25386232

Garcia, Robson Rodrigues; Botelho, Tessa Lucena; Franco, Ademir; Silva, Rhonan Ferreira

2014-01-01

218

Pre-hospital core temperature measurement in accidental and therapeutic hypothermia.  

PubMed

Core temperature (T core) measurement is the only diagnostic tool to accurately assess the severity of hypothermia. International recommendations for management of accidental hypothermia encourage T core measurement for triage, treatment, and transport decisions, but they also recognize that lack of equipment may be a limiting factor, particularly in the field. The aim of this nonsystematic review is to highlight the importance of field measurement of T core and to provide practical guidance for clinicians on pre-hospital temperature measurement in accidental and therapeutic hypothermia. Clinicians should recognize the difference between alternative measurement locations and available thermometers, tailoring their decision to the purpose of the measurement (i.e., intermittent vs. continual measurement), and the impact on management decisions. The importance of T core measurement in therapeutic hypothermia protocols during early cooling and monitoring of target temperature is discussed. PMID:24950388

Strapazzon, Giacomo; Procter, Emily; Paal, Peter; Brugger, Hermann

2014-06-01

219

Accidental PUVA burns, vitiligo and atopic diathesis resulting in prurigo nodularis: a logical but undocumented rarity.  

PubMed

Vitiligo is a dreaded disease in India due to its social and cultural consequences. PUVA and PUVAsol are the main treatment modalities for vitiligo vulgaris. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of accidental PUVA burns eventuating in prurigo nodularis lesions to be reported in a female patient who was undergoing home PUVA therapy. The itch is so prominent and disabling that the focus of the patient has shifted from treating her vitiligo to ameliorating the pruritus. PMID:23197209

Verma, Shyam Bhanushankar; Wollina, Uwe

2012-01-01

220

Accidental PUVA burns, vitiligo and atopic diathesis resulting in prurigo nodularis: a logical but undocumented rarity*  

PubMed Central

Vitiligo is a dreaded disease in India due to its social and cultural consequences. PUVA and PUVAsol are the main treatment modalities for vitiligo vulgaris. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of accidental PUVA burns eventuating in prurigo nodularis lesions to be reported in a female patient who was undergoing home PUVA therapy. The itch is so prominent and disabling that the focus of the patient has shifted from treating her vitiligo to ameliorating the pruritus. PMID:23197209

Verma, Shyam Bhanushankar; Wollina, Uwe

2012-01-01

221

[Cardiac arrest and secondary pulmonary oedema following accidental intramucosal injection of naphazoline in an adult].  

PubMed

During neurosurgery for hypophysary adenoma under general anaesthesia in a prone position, a 34 year-old-women received accidental 6 ml intramucosal injection of lidocaine with naphazoline. The patient presented a severe bradycardia associated with a major increase in arterial blood pression followed by a brief cardiac arrest. She also presented a prolonged awakening and a pulmonary oedema, which lead to mechanical ventilation. The patient rapidly recovered a normal clinical state. PMID:12831977

Villeret, I; Tellier, A C; Erhmann, S; Réa, D; Delalande, J P

2003-05-01

222

Sex ratio of accidentally killed Long?eared Owls Asio otus in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an autumn investigation of 52 migrating Long?eared Owls Asio otus on the northern coast of the British Isles where females predominated. In contrast, a sample of 36 accidentally killed Long?eared Owls collected in Norway (36 in winter), indicate a predominance of males during late autumn and winter. This may support an assumption that migrating Long?eared Owls in

K. Overskaug; E. Kristiansen

1994-01-01

223

Predicting accidental falls in people with multiple sclerosis — a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate accidental falls and near fall incidents in people with multiple sclerosis with respect to clinical variables and the predictive values of four tests.Design: A longitudinal, multi-centred cohort study with prospectively collected falls.Procedures: Self-reported incidents during the three months following a standardized test procedure.Subjects: Seventy-six people with multiple sclerosis and an Expanded Disability Status Scale score between 3.5

Y. Nilsagård; Cecilia Lundholm; E. Denison; L. G. Gunnarsson

2009-01-01

224

Serologic markers for hepatitis B among Marshallese accidentally exposed to fallout radiation in 1954  

SciTech Connect

At least one serologic marker of prior hepatitis B infection (hepatitis B surface antigen, antibody to surface antigen, or antibody to core antigen) was found in 91.7% of 314 Marshallese tested. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenemia (3.3%) in a subpopulation that had resided on Rongelap Atoll at the time of accidental exposure to radioactive fallout from a thermonuclear test in 1954 did not differ significantly from the prevalence in a selected unexposed population (10.5%).

Adams, W.H.; Fields, H.A.; Engle, J.R.; Hadler, S.C.

1986-10-01

225

Positive income shocks and accidental deaths among Cherokee Indians: a natural experiment  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies in low-income populations report the somewhat counterintuitive finding that positive income gains adversely affect adult health. The literature posits that receipt of a large portion of annual income increases, in the short term, risk-taking behaviour and/or the consumption of health-damaging goods. This work implies the hypothesis that persons with an unexpected gain in income will exhibit an elevated risk of accidental death—the fifth leading cause of death in the USA. We test this hypothesis directly by capitalizing on a natural experiment in which Cherokee Indians in rural North Carolina received discrete lump sum payments from a new casino. Methods We applied Poisson regression to the monthly count of accidental deaths among Cherokee Indians over 204 months spanning 1990–2006. We controlled for temporal patterns in accidental deaths (e.g. seasonality and trend) as well as changes in population size. Results As hypothesized, the risk of accidental death rises above expected levels during months of the large casino payments (relative risk?=?2.62; 95% confidence interval?=?1.54–4.47). Exploratory analyses of ethnographic interviews and behavioural surveys support that increased vehicular travel and consumption of health-damaging goods may account for the rise in accident proneness. Conclusions Although long-term income gains may improve health in this population, our findings indicate that acute responses to large income gains, in the short term, increase risk-taking and accident proneness. We encourage further investigation of natural experiments to identify causal economic antecedents of population health. PMID:21527447

Bruckner, Tim A; Brown, Ryan A; Margerison-Zilko, Claire

2011-01-01

226

Accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite instead of local anesthetic in a patient scheduled for endodontic procedure  

PubMed Central

We present here a case of tissue destruction and paresthesia following the accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite instead of local anesthetic in a patient scheduled for endodontic procedure. The accident was managed by the local injection of steroid, debridement of necrotic tissue, daily dressings and medications. Wound healing was satisfactory at the end of 1 month. An extra-oral scar and a small area of paresthesia persisted even after 5 years.

Waknis, Pushkar Prakash; Deshpande, Aditya Sunil; Sabhlok, Samrat

2012-01-01

227

Bitter pill to swallow: a case of accidental poisoning with digitalis purpurea  

PubMed Central

While digitoxicity secondary to therapeutic use is frequent, due to its distinctive appearance and unpleasant taste accidental ingestion of digitalis purpurea (foxglove) is uncommon. This report relates the case of two previously healthy individuals who inadvertently consumed significant quantities of digitalis in its plant form. Both men presented in first-degree atrioventricular block and had digoxin levels of 4.9 ?g/litre, but were otherwise stable and made unremarkable recoveries with repeated dose activated charcoal. PMID:22791473

Mitchell, Andrew

2010-01-01

228

Bitter pill to swallow: a case of accidental poisoning with digitalis purpurea.  

PubMed

While digitoxicity secondary to therapeutic use is frequent, due to its distinctive appearance and unpleasant taste accidental ingestion of digitalis purpurea (foxglove) is uncommon. This report relates the case of two previously healthy individuals who inadvertently consumed significant quantities of digitalis in its plant form. Both men presented in first-degree atrioventricular block and had digoxin levels of 4.9 ?g/litre, but were otherwise stable and made unremarkable recoveries with repeated dose activated charcoal. PMID:22791473

Mitchell, Andrew

2010-01-01

229

Larger-area single-mode photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers enabled by an accidental Dirac point  

E-print Network

By altering the lattice geometry of the photonic crystal (PhC) surface-emitting lasers (PCSELs), we tune the regular lasing band edges of quadratic dispersions to form a single accidental Dirac point of linear dispersion ...

Chua, Song-Liang

230

A salvage procedure for an accidentally twisted small bowel in orthotopic duodenal reconstruction after pylorus-preserving partial pancreatoduodenectomy.  

PubMed

A case of pylorus-preserving Whipple procedure with an accidentally clockwise 360° rotated small bowel limb in orthotopic duodenal reconstruction is presented. A simple salvage procedure is proposed. PMID:21544872

Käser, S A; Glauser, P M; Dätwiler, S; Maurer, C A

2011-10-01

231

Skeletal survey normal variants, artefacts and commonly misinterpreted findings not to be confused with non-accidental injury.  

PubMed

Radiology plays a key part in the investigation of non-accidental injury. Many normal variants and artefacts can simulate an abnormality associated with non-accidental injury. It is essential that radiologists reporting skeletal surveys in cases of suspected child abuse are aware of these. We present a pictorial essay to aid the reporting radiologist in the differentiation between normal variants or artefacts and true traumatic injury. We show plain film examples of potential pitfalls throughout the body. PMID:24395377

Quigley, Alan J; Stafrace, Samuel

2014-01-01

232

Youth Versus Adult “Weightlifting” Injuries Presenting to United States Emergency Rooms: Accidental Versus Nonaccidental Injury Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Myer, GD, Quatman, CE, Khoury, J, Wall, EJ, and Hewett, TE. Youth versus adult “weightlifting” injuries presenting to united states emergency rooms: accidental versus nonaccidental injury mechanisms. J Strength Cond Res 23(7): 2054–2060, 2009—Resistance training has previously been purported to be unsafe and ineffective in children. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate resistance training-related injuries presenting to U.S. emergency rooms by age, type, and mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that older athletes would sustain greater percentages of joint sprains and muscle strains, whereas younger athletes would sustain a greater percentage of accidental injuries that would result in an increased percentage of fractures in youths. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried from 2002 to 2005 using the CPSC code for “Weightlifting.” Subjects between the ages of 8 and 30 were grouped by age categories 8 to 13 (elementary/middle school age), 14 to 18 (high school), 19 to 22 (college), and 23 to 30 (adult). Injuries were classified as “accidental” if caused by dropped weight or improper equipment use. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare accidental injuries between age groups. The sample consisted of 4, 111 patients. Accidental injuries decreased (p < 0.05) with age: 8 to 13 > 14 to 18 > 19 to 22 years = 23 to 30 years. Conversely, sprain/strain injuries increased in each successive age group (p < 0.05). Evaluation of only the nonaccidental injuries (n = 2, 565) showed that the oldest categories (19–22 and 23–30 yr) demonstrated a greater percentage of sprains and strains relative to younger age categories (p < 0.001). Two thirds of the injuries sustained in the 8 to 13 group were to the hand and foot and were most often related to “dropping” and “pinching” in the injury descriptions, and there was an increased percentage of fractures in the 8 to 13 group relative to all other groups (p < 0.001). The study findings indicate that children have lower risk of resistance training-related joint sprains and muscle strains than adults. The majority of youth resistance training injuries are the result of accidents that are potentially preventable with increased supervision and stricter safety guidelines. PMID:19855330

Myer, Gregory D.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J.; Hewett, Timothy E.

2014-01-01

233

Pathogen and nutrient pulsing and attenuation in "accidental" urban wetland networks along the Salt River in Phoenix, AZ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increases in available nutrients and bacteria in urban streams are at the forefront of research concerns within the ecological and medical communities, and both pollutants are expected to become more problematic under projected changes in climate. Season, discharge, instream conditions (oxygen, water velocity), and weather conditions (antecedent moisture) all may influence loading rates to and the retention capabilities of wetlands fed by urban runoff and storm flow. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of these variables on nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) loading and attenuation along flow paths in urban wetland networks along the Salt River in Phoenix, AZ. Samples were collected for one year along flowpaths through wetlands that formed below six perennially flowing outfalls. Collection took place monthly during baseflow (dry season) conditions, and before and immediately following storm events, in the summer monsoon and winter rainy seasons. Water quality was assessed at the following points: immediately downstream of the outfall, mid-wetland, and downstream of the wetland. For determination of E. coli counts, samples were plated on coliform-selective media (Chromocult) and incubated for 24 hours. Plates were then used to enumerate E. coli. For determination of nutrient concentrations, samples were filtered and frozen until they could be analyzed by ion chromatography and automated wet chemistry. During both summer and winter, total discharge into the wetlands increased during storm events. Concentrations of PO43+, NH4+, and E. coli were significantly higher following storm events than during baseflow conditions, and post-storm peaks in concentration ('pulses') were higher during the summer monsoon than in winter storms. Pulses of pollutants during storms were highest when preceded by hot, dry conditions. NO3- was high in both base and stormflow. E. coli counts and nutrient concentrations dropped along flowpaths through the wetlands, indicating high attenuation capability even during storms. Attenuation of nutrients during baseflow appeared to be a function of microbial processing, while during stormflow, when water retention time in the wetlands was reduced, attenuation was likely explained by other factors, such as sediment adsorption. Potential tradeoffs emerged between removal of NO3- (highest under low dissolved oxygen) and E. coli (highest under high dissolved oxygen) during baseflow. Climate change models project increases in severe droughts and extreme precipitation events for the southwestern United States, which can lead to more sewage leakages and increases in contaminated runoff from impervious surfaces in urban areas. Wetlands are constructed or restored to mitigate microbial contamination of wastewater. Our research indicates that even "accidental" urban wetlands can serve to reduce downstream transport of nutrients and pathogens in storm and wastewater. However, wetland restoration or design targeting increased water retention time may increase the capability of accidental wetlands in this urban desert river channel to remove nutrients and pathogens from stormwater.

Palta, M. M.; Grimm, N. B.

2013-12-01

234

5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: summary of main findings and risk factors.  

PubMed

We present the main findings of the 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA). Incidences were estimated using reports of accidental awareness as the numerator, and a parallel national anaesthetic activity survey to provide denominator data. The incidence of certain/probable and possible accidental awareness cases was ~1:19,600 anaesthetics (95% confidence interval 1:16,700-23,450). However, there was considerable variation across subtypes of techniques or subspecialities. The incidence with neuromuscular block (NMB) was ~1:8200 (1:7030-9700), and without, it was ~1:135,900 (1:78,600-299,000). The cases of AAGA reported to NAP5 were overwhelmingly cases of unintended awareness during NMB. The incidence of accidental awareness during Caesarean section was ~1:670 (1:380-1300). Two-thirds (82, 66%) of cases of accidental awareness experiences arose in the dynamic phases of anaesthesia, namely induction of and emergence from anaesthesia. During induction of anaesthesia, contributory factors included: use of thiopental, rapid sequence induction, obesity, difficult airway management, NMB, and interruptions of anaesthetic delivery during movement from anaesthetic room to theatre. During emergence from anaesthesia, residual paralysis was perceived by patients as accidental awareness, and commonly related to a failure to ensure full return of motor capacity. One-third (43, 33%) of accidental awareness events arose during the maintenance phase of anaesthesia, mostly due to problems at induction or towards the end of anaesthesia. Factors increasing the risk of accidental awareness included: female sex, age (younger adults, but not children), obesity, anaesthetist seniority (junior trainees), previous awareness, out-of-hours operating, emergencies, type of surgery (obstetric, cardiac, thoracic), and use of NMB. The following factors were not risk factors for accidental awareness: ASA physical status, race, and use or omission of nitrous oxide. We recommend that an anaesthetic checklist, to be an integral part of the World Health Organization Safer Surgery checklist, is introduced as an aid to preventing accidental awareness. This paper is a shortened version describing the main findings from NAP5--the full report can be found at http://www.nationalauditprojects.org.uk/NAP5_home. PMID:25204697

Pandit, J J; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H M G; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Cook, T M

2014-10-01

235

Streamflow Conditions in the Guadalupe River Basin, South-Central Texas, Water Years 1987-2006 - An Assessment of Streamflow Gains and Losses and Relative Contribution of Major Springs to Streamflow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Edwards Aquifer Authority, assessed available streamflow data in the Guadalupe River Basin to determine streamflow gains and losses and the relative contribution of flow from major springs - Comal Springs, San Marcos Springs, and Hueco Springs - to streamflow in reaches of the Guadalupe River and its tributaries. The assessment is based primarily on long-term (1987-2006) and short-term (January 1999, August 1999, August 2000, and August 2006) streamflow conditions. For each analysis period, the ratio of flow from the major springs (measured at the spring source) to the sum of inflows (measured at the source of inflow to the river system) is computed for reaches of the Comal River and San Marcos River that include springflows from major springs, and for Guadalupe River reaches downstream from Canyon Dam. The ratio of springflow to the sum of inflows to the reach is an estimate of the contribution of flows from major springs to streamflow. For 1987-2006, the ratio of springflow from the major springs to the sum of inflows for the most upstream reach that includes inflow from all three major springs, Guadalupe River - above Comal River to Gonzales, is 27 percent. At the lowermost downstream reach, Guadalupe River - Bloomington to the San Antonio River, the percentage of the sum of inflows attributed to springflow is 18 percent. At that lowermost reach, the ratio of Canyon Lake releases to the sum of inflows was 20 percent. For the short-term periods August 2000 and August 2006 (periods of relatively low flow), springflow in the reach Guadalupe River - above Comal River to Gonzales accounted for 77 and 78 percent, respectively, of the sum of inflows in that reach. At the lowermost reach Guadalupe River - Bloomington to San Antonio River, springflow was 52 and 53 percent of the sum of inflows, respectively, during August 2000 and August 2006 (compared with 18 percent during 1987-2006); and during August 2000 and August 2006, the ratios of Canyon Lake releases to the sum of inflows were less than 10 percent (compared with 20 percent during 1987-2006)

Ockerman, Darwin J.; Slattery, Richard N.

2008-01-01

236

Accidental Discoveries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The students will understand that science theories change in the face of new evidence, but those changes can be slow in coming. To download the lesson plan as a pdf, see the document below. Students willResearch scientific discoveries that happened by accident in the past and learn how gamma-rays were discovered by 20th century scientists

2010-01-01

237

Apoptosis and accidental cell death in cultured human keratinocytes after thermal injury.  

PubMed

The respective roles of apoptosis and accidental cell death after thermal injury were evaluated in normal human epidermal keratinocytes. By coupling the LIVE/DEAD fluorescence viability assay with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method and ultrastructural morphology, these two processes could be distinguished. Cells were grown on glass coverslips with a microgrid pattern so that the results of several staining procedures performed sequentially could be visualized in the same cells after heating at temperatures of up to 72 degrees C for 1 second. After exposure to temperatures of 58 to 59 degrees C, cells died predominantly by apoptosis; viable cells became TUNEL positive, indicating degradation of DNA. After exposure to temperatures of 60 to 66 degrees C, both TUNEL-positive viable cells and TUNEL-positive nonviable cells were observed, indicating that apoptosis and accidental cell death were occurring simultaneously. Cells died almost immediately after exposure to temperatures above 72 degrees C, presumably from heat fixation. The fluorescent mitochondrial probe MitoTracker Orange indicated that cells undergoing apoptosis became TUNEL positive before loss of mitochondrial function. Nucleosomal fragmentation of DNA analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gel electrophoresis occurred after exposure to temperatures of 58 to 59 degrees C. The characteristic morphological findings of cells undergoing apoptosis, by transmission electron microscopy, included cellular shrinkage, cytoplasmic budding, and relatively intact mitochondria. Depending on temperature and time of exposure, normal human epidermal keratinocytes may die by apoptosis, accidental cell death, or heat fixation. PMID:9708816

Matylevitch, N P; Schuschereba, S T; Mata, J R; Gilligan, G R; Lawlor, D F; Goodwin, C W; Bowman, P D

1998-08-01

238

An accidental case of aconite poisoning due to Kampo herbal medicine ingestion.  

PubMed

An accidental case of aconite intoxication occurred after a patient took a therapeutic dose of Kampo herbal medicine containing Aconiti tuber, Uzu but had used the wrong decoction procedure. The poisoning was likely caused by an increased level of Aconitum alkaloids in the decoction; the patient developed aconite intoxication due to incomplete decoction. Aconitum alkaloid levels in the leftover solution which the patient had drunk and in the decoction extracted from 3g Uzu were determined. It was found that decoction makes the medicine safer to drink. Older individuals, especially those with dementia, have a higher risk of aconite poisoning because they sometimes do not boil the medicine appropriately. PMID:19121599

Ono, Takiyoshi; Hayashida, Makiko; Uekusa, Kyoko; Lai, Cui Fan; Hayakawa, Hideyuki; Nihira, Makoto; Ohno, Youkichi

2009-05-01

239

Youth versus adult "weightlifting" injuries presenting to United States emergency rooms: accidental versus nonaccidental injury mechanisms.  

PubMed

Resistance training has previously been purported to be unsafe and ineffective in children. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate resistance training-related injuries presenting to U.S. emergency rooms by age, type, and mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that older athletes would sustain greater percentages of joint sprains and muscle strains, whereas younger athletes would sustain a greater percentage of accidental injuries that would result in an increased percentage of fractures in youths. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried from 2002 to 2005 using the CPSC code for "Weightlifting." Subjects between the ages of 8 and 30 were grouped by age categories 8 to 13 (elementary/middle school age), 14 to 18 (high school), 19 to 22 (college), and 23 to 30 (adult). Injuries were classified as "accidental" if caused by dropped weight or improper equipment use. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare accidental injuries between age groups. The sample consisted of 4,111 patients. Accidental injuries decreased (p < 0.05) with age: 8 to 13 > 14 to 18 > 19 to 22 years = 23 to 30 years. Conversely, sprain/strain injuries increased in each successive age group (p < 0.05). Evaluation of only the nonaccidental injuries (n = 2,565) showed that the oldest categories (19-22 and 23-30 yr) demonstrated a greater percentage of sprains and strains relative to younger age categories (p < 0.001). Two thirds of the injuries sustained in the 8 to 13 group were to the hand and foot and were most often related to "dropping" and "pinching" in the injury descriptions, and there was an increased percentage of fractures in the 8 to 13 group relative to all other groups (p < 0.001). The study findings indicate that children have lower risk of resistance training-related joint sprains and muscle strains than adults. The majority of youth resistance training injuries are the result of accidents that are potentially preventable with increased supervision and stricter safety guidelines. PMID:19855330

Myer, Gregory D; Quatman, Carmen E; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J; Hewett, Timothy E

2009-10-01

240

A Precise Calculation of Delayed Coincidence Selection Efficiency and Accidental Coincidence Rate  

E-print Network

A model is proposed to address issues on the precise background evaluation due to the complex data structure defined by the delayed coincidence method, which is widely used in reactor electron-antineutrino oscillation experiments. In this model, the effects from the muon veto, uncorrelated random background, coincident signal and background are all studied with the analytical solutions, simplifying the estimation of the systematic uncertainties of signal efficiency and accidental background rate determined by the unstable single rate. The result of calculation is validated numerically with a number of simulation studies and is also applied and validated in the recent Daya Bay hydrogen-capture based oscillation measurement.

Jingyi Yu; Zhe Wang; Shaomin Chen

2014-11-27

241

Endoscopic removal of an endodontic file accidentally swallowed: clinical and legal approaches.  

PubMed

The use of a rubber dam is an essential procedure when treating root canals, and not using it may compromise the success of the treatment, as well as the patient's health. This report presents a case in which a K-file was accidentally swallowed during an endodontic procedure, performed without the use of a rubber dam. Given the absence of immediate clinical complications, the subject underwent a chest radiograph. The file was located at the oesophagogastric junction and was later removed by endoscopy. In addition to the clinical repercussions, this example also illustrates the ethical-legal aspects of this type of accident. PMID:21771188

Silva, Rhonan F; Martins, Emerson C; Prado, Felippe B; Júnior, Jacy R C; Júnior, Eduardo D

2011-08-01

242

Herniation of uncus and parahippocampal gyrus: an accidental finding on magnetic resonance imaging of cerebrum  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic herniation of uncus and parahippocampal gyrus into the ambient cistern is a very rare entity, which could be mistaken for other pathology such as tumor. To the best of our knowledge, two prior cases of this kind of herniation have been described. One of these cases was with associated symptomatology and other abnormalities, and the other was characterized as idiopathic. In this case report, we report a case of accidental finding of a herniation of uncus and parahippocampal gyrus into the ambient cistern, without any other accompanying abnormalities, well depicted by magnetic resonance imaging without further necessity for surgical brain intervention. PMID:25610616

Bayat, Michael; Brøndum Frøkjær, Jens

2015-01-01

243

Mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical model was constructed for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included. 25 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Stevens, D.L.

1980-05-01

244

A prospective survey of patients with presumed accidental ear injury presenting to a paediatric accident and emergency department  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To assess the characteristics of assumed accidental ear injury in children. Methods: A prospective survey of 111 children presenting with accidental external or internal ear injuries to a paediatric accident and emergency department. Results: The majority of patients were male (73%). Right and left sided injuries were equally common (51% right, non-bilateral). Presentation with accidental ear injury was very rare in children under the age of 1 year (n=1). Most patients were self referred (98%), and presented within six hours of injury (84%). The mechanism of injury was variable, but cotton bud induced injury was common (7%). The most common injuries were lacerations of the pinna, in 63 patients (56%). Fourteen per cent had blood in the external canal. Only three patients required admission. Conclusions: Lacerations are the commonest form of accidental ear injury. Ear injuries that are bilateral and in children less than 1 year of age are rare and may suggest non-accidental injury. Cotton bud induced injury is common and preventable. PMID:11971833

Steele, B; Brennan, P

2002-01-01

245

Triage and Management of Accidental Laboratory Exposures to Biosafety Level-3 and -4 Agents  

PubMed Central

The recent expansion of biocontainment laboratory capacity in the United States has drawn attention to the possibility of occupational exposures to BSL-3 and -4 agents and has prompted a reassessment of medical management procedures and facilities to deal with these contingencies. A workshop hosted by the National Interagency Biodefense Campus was held in October 2007 and was attended by representatives of all existing and planned BSL-4 research facilities in the U.S. and Canada. This report summarizes important points of discussion and recommendations for future coordinated action, including guidelines for the engineering and operational controls appropriate for a hospital care and isolation unit. Recommendations pertained to initial management of exposures (ie, immediate treatment of penetrating injuries, reporting of exposures, initial evaluation, and triage). Isolation and medical care in a referral hospital (including minimum standards for isolation units), staff recruitment and training, and community outreach also were addressed. Workshop participants agreed that any unit designated for the isolation and treatment of laboratory employees accidentally infected with a BSL-3 or -4 pathogen should be designed to maximize the efficacy of patient care while minimizing the risk of transmission of infection. Further, participants concurred that there is no medically based rationale for building care and isolation units to standards approximating a BSL-4 laboratory. Instead, laboratory workers accidentally exposed to pathogens should be cared for in hospital isolation suites staffed by highly trained professionals following strict infection control procedures. PMID:19634998

Rodak, Colleen; Bray, Mike; Davey, Richard T.

2009-01-01

246

A case of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy induced by accidental hypothermia and diabetic ketoacidosis  

PubMed Central

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is known to be triggered by some stress. We report the first case of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy induced by hypothermia and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). A 59-year-old woman was brought to our emergency department. Upon examination, she was found to be lethargic and disoriented. The body temperature was 30.9°C, blood pressure was 86/68?mm?Hg, blood glucose level was 1018?mg/dl. Urinalysis revealed the presence of ketones and arterial blood gas analysis revealed pH 6.87. She was diagnosed with DKA and accidental hypothermia. An ECG demonstrated a J wave (V4–5) and ST-segment elevation (V3–5), and an ultrasound cardiogram revealed contractile failure of the left ventricular wall at the apex with hypercontraction of the basal segment. Coronary artery disease was ruled out by coronary angiography, and the diagnosis of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy was confirmed. Physicians should keep in mind that Takotsubo cardiomyopathy can be induced by accidental hypothermia and DKA. PMID:23559645

Katayama, Yoichi; Hifumi, Toru; Inoue, Junichi; Koido, Yuichi

2013-01-01

247

Accidental contamination of a German town's drinking water with sodium hydroxide.  

PubMed

Case report of a very serious drinking water incident putting up to 50,000 inhabitants of a town near Bonn in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany at risk. A concentrated solution of highly alkaline water by sodium hydroxide was accidentally washed into the town's drinking water at a pumping station and increased the pH-value of the water to 12. Residents who came into contact with the contaminated water immediately had a toxic reaction. The incident was detected by complaints from customers and after that was stopped within several hours. The pipes were flushed and the customers were warned not to use the water till the all clear. After this immediate management there was an investigation and the cause of the incident was detected as an accidental release of accumulated sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. The lack of a network alarm system and the automatic cut-off mechanisms as deficiencies in the design of the station were rectified by the water company immediately after the incident. PMID:25687345

Lendowski, Luba; Färber, Harald; Holy, Andreas; Darius, Anke; Ehrich, Bernd; Wippermann, Christine; Küfner, Bernd; Exner, Martin

2015-05-01

248

A fatal case of commotio cordis caused by an accidental fall on the beach.  

PubMed

Sudden cardiac death is a major health problem and a recurring issue in forensic medicine. Most cases are attributed to congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, pathology of the coronary arteries, long or short QT interval syndromes, Brugada syndrome or secondary toxic effects of cardioactive drugs. Sudden death caused by Commotio cordis after an accidental fall is very rare in women. Victims are essentially young people who die following a direct blow to the chest sustained during physical activity. In the following, we report a case of an adult with no significant past medical history, walking on the beach with friends, who died from commotio cordis following an accidental fall on the wet sand. This article deals with post-mortem diagnosis, and demonstrates the importance of a detailed understanding of the circumstances surrounding the death, as well as systematic histological examination of the heart, as the heart will generally appear normal under macroscopic examination. It is important to note that commotio cordis can also occur in adults. PMID:24365682

Hiquet, J; Tovagliaro, F; Gromb-Monnoyeur, S

2014-01-01

249

Accidental discharge of a Halon 1301 total flooding fire extinguishing system  

SciTech Connect

An accidental discharge of a total flooding Halon 1301 fire extinguishing system is described. The release of the Halon was accompanied by a sudden very loud noise, considerable air turbulence and a dense fog, resulting in worker anxiety and loss of visibility. The workers in the area at the time of the discharge reported higher frequencies of lightheadedness, headache, nasal complaints and disorientation than those entering the area later. Halon 1301 usually is regarded as having a low toxicity, although at concentrations above those used in occupied spaces, effects on consciousness and cardiac rhythm have been reported. In the present report no significant illness or injury due to the Halon exposure was found. A fine oily deposit found on horizontal surfaces in the area subsequent to the discharge consisted of mineral oil and iron, suggesting that this material was scoured out of the piping as the Halon discharged. The disorientation and anxiety produced by an accidental discharge can be minimized through education programs designed to ensure that personnel know what to expect and how to abort the discharge if it results from a false alarm. Situations leading to triggering of fire detectors by events other than fires should be investigated and reduced.

Sass-Kortsak, A.M.; Holness, D.L.; Stopps, G.J.

1985-11-01

250

Accidental ingestion of BiTine ring and a note on inefficient ring separation forceps  

PubMed Central

Background: Accidental ingestion of medium-to-large instruments is relatively uncommon during dental treatment but can be potentially dangerous. A case of BiTine ring ingestion is presented with a note on inefficient ring separation forceps. Case description: A 28-year-old male patient accidentally ingested the BiTine ring (2 cm diameter, 0.5 cm outward projections) while it was being applied to a distoproximal cavity in tooth # 19. The ring placement forceps were excessively flexible; bending of the beaks towards the ring combined with a poor no-slippage mechanism led to sudden disengagement of the ring and accelerated movement towards the pharynx. We followed the patient with bulk forming agents and radiographs. Fortunately the ring passed out without any complications. Clinical implications: Checking equipment and methods is as important as taking precautions against any preventable medical emergency. It is the responsibility of the clinician to check, verify and then use any instrument/equipment. PMID:21691588

Baghele, Om Nemichand; Baghele, Mangala Om

2011-01-01

251

An accidental discharge of a Halon 1301 total flooding fire extinguishing system.  

PubMed

An accidental discharge of a total flooding Halon 1301 fire extinguishing system is described. The release of the Halon was accompanied by a sudden very loud noise, considerable air turbulence and a dense fog, resulting in worker anxiety and loss of visibility. The workers in the area at the time of the discharge reported higher frequencies of lightheadedness, headache, nasal complaints and disorientation than those entering the area later. Halon 1301 usually is regarded as having a low toxicity, although at concentrations above those used in occupied spaces, effects on consciousness and cardiac rhythm have been reported. In the present report no significant illness or injury due to the Halon exposure was found. A fine oily deposit found on horizontal surfaces in the area subsequent to the discharge consisted of mineral oil and iron, suggesting that this material was scoured out of the piping as the Halon discharged. The disorientation and anxiety produced by an accidental discharge can be minimized through education programs designed to ensure that personnel know what to expect and how to abort the discharge if it results from a false alarm. Situations leading to triggering of fire detectors by events other than fires should be investigated and reduced. PMID:4072911

Sass-Kortsak, A M; Holness, D L; Stopps, G J

1985-11-01

252

C-Safe Image Gallery from the Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions  

DOE Data Explorer

The University of Utah created an alliance with the DOE Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program to form the Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions (C-SAFE). The Center focuses specifically on providing state-of-the-art, science-based tools for the numerical simulation of accidental fires and explosions, especially within the context of handling and storage of highly flammable materials. The objective of C-SAFE is to provide a system comprising a problem-solving environment in which fundamental chemistry and engineering physics are fully coupled with non-linear solvers, optimization, computational steering, visualization and experimental data verification. The availability of simulations using this system will help to better evaluate the risks and safety issues associated with fires and explosions. The scientific images at this website provide technical views of various flame types and configurations (http://www.csafe.utah.edu/Information/summary.html). See also the Container Dynamics presentations at http://www.csafe.utah.edu/Teams/ContainerDynamics/cd_presentations.html.

253

Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia: 2014 update.  

PubMed

To provide guidance to clinicians, the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of victims of accidental hypothermia. The guidelines present the main diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and provide recommendations for the management of hypothermic patients. The panel graded the recommendations based on the quality of supporting evidence and the balance between benefits and risks/burdens according the criteria published by the American College of Chest Physicians. The guidelines also provide suggested general approaches to the evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia that incorporate specific recommendations. This is an updated version of the original Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Out-of-Hospital Evaluation and Treatment of Accidental Hypothermia published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2014;25(4):425-445. PMID:25498264

Zafren, Ken; Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Danzl, Daniel F; Brugger, Hermann; Sagalyn, Emily B; Walpoth, Beat; Weiss, Eric A; Auerbach, Paul S; McIntosh, Scott E; Némethy, Mária; McDevitt, Marion; Dow, Jennifer; Schoene, Robert B; Rodway, George W; Hackett, Peter H; Bennett, Brad L; Grissom, Colin K

2014-12-01

254

An experimental study on the uptake factor of tungsten oxide particles resulting from an accidentally dropped storage container.  

PubMed

A test procedure was developed and verified to measure the airborne concentrations of particles of different sizes (0.5-20 ?m) within the vicinity of a dropped container when a significant portion of the tungsten oxide powder (simulating uranium oxide) is ejected from the container. Tests were carried out in a full-scale stainless steel environmental chamber with an interior volume of 24.1 m(3). Thirty-two drop tests were performed, covering variations in dropping height, room air movement, landing scenario, and lid condition. Assuming a breathing rate of 1.2 m(3)/hr, the uptake factor during the first 10 min was calculated to be between 1.13 × 10(-9) and 1.03 × 10(-7) in reference to the amount loaded; or between 6.44 × 10(-8) and 3.55 × 10(-4) in reference to the amount spilled. Results provide previously unavailable data for estimating the exposure and associated risk to building occupants in the case of an accidental dropping of heavy powder containers. The test data show that for spills larger than 0.004 g, the power-law correlation between the spill uptake factor and the spilled mass (i.e., SUF = 2.5 × 10(-5) × Spill_Mass(-0.667)) established from the test data is smaller and a more accurate estimate than the constant value of 10(-3) assumed in the Department of Energy Nuclear Material Packaging Manual. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplementary resource: an online supplementary table of all cumulative uptake amounts at 10 min for all test data.]. PMID:23679340

Gao, Zhi; Zhang, J S; Byington, Jerry G A

2013-01-01

255

Non-accidental caustic ear injury: two cases of profound cochleo-vestibular loss and facial nerve injury.  

PubMed

Non-accidental caustic injury is a rare form of child abuse usually secondary to forced ingestion. Caustic injury to the ear most commonly arises from battery lodgement in the external canal. This case series represents the first report of non-accidental caustic injury to previously normal ears resulting in profound sensorineural hearing loss, vertigo with horizontal canal hypofunction and in one patient a severe facial nerve paralysis. Both patients required blind-end sac closure of the injured ear and one required sural nerve interposition combined with transfer of the masseteric branch of the trigeminal nerve to the ipsilateral facial nerve. PMID:22018928

Wolter, Nikolaus E; Cushing, Sharon L; Das-Purkayastha, Prodip K; Papsin, Blake C

2012-01-01

256

Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia.  

PubMed

To provide guidance to clinicians, the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of victims of accidental hypothermia. The guidelines present the main diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and provide recommendations for the management of hypothermic patients. The panel graded the recommendations based on the quality of supporting evidence and the balance between benefits and risks/burdens according the criteria published by the American College of Chest Physicians. The guidelines also provide suggested general approaches to the evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia that incorporate specific recommendations. PMID:25443771

Zafren, Ken; Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Danzl, Daniel F; Brugger, Hermann; Sagalyn, Emily B; Walpoth, Beat; Weiss, Eric A; Auerbach, Paul S; McIntosh, Scott E; Némethy, Mária; McDevitt, Marion; Dow, Jennifer; Schoene, Robert B; Rodway, George W; Hackett, Peter H; Bennett, Brad L; Grissom, Colin K

2014-12-01

257

Legal update. Definition of accident--accidental death and dismemberment--alcohol-related automobile collision--foreseeability of death as result of driving while intoxicated.  

PubMed

LaAsmar v. Phelps Dodge Corp. Life, Accidental Death & Dismemberment & Dependent Life Ins. Plan, 605 F3d 789, 2010 WL 1794437(10th Cir. 2010). A death caused by an alcohol-related automobile collision qualifies as an "accident" that would require payment of accidental death and dismemberment plan benefits. PMID:21879612

2011-01-01

258

Environmental Conditions Environmental Conditions  

E-print Network

in habitat conditions. Stream flows, water temperatures, substrate characteristics and other combined watershed processes and human activities that influence flow, water quality, upland and riparian conditions feet in one mile The watershed includes approximately 760 miles of perennial streams and 1,440 miles

259

Survival After Accidental Extrahepatic Distribution of Y90 Microspheres to the Mesentery During a Radioembolization Procedure  

SciTech Connect

We present the acute management and outcome of a patient after an accidental mesenteric distribution of Y90 microspheres during radioembolization (RE). This report describes and highlights: (1) the incidence of a significant reflux during a RE session while injecting into a replaced right hepatic artery from the superior mesenteric artery, (2) the appearance of diffuse mesenteric Y90 distribution in bremsstrahlung-imaging, (3) the management protocol with the radiation protection agent amifostine, (4) the development of typical adverse effects in the expected time window, and (5) survival of the patient without long-term sequelae. This report should sensitize physicians to this particular problem and may help to avoid as well as manage similar radioembolization incidences.

Sabet, Amir; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Schaefer, Nico [University Hospital, Department of Surgery (Germany); Wilhelm, Kai; Schueller, Heinrich [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Radiation Oncology (Germany); Ezziddin, Samer, E-mail: samer.ezziddin@ukb.uni-bonn.de [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Germany)

2012-08-15

260

Accidental symmetries and massless quarks in the economical 3-3-1 model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of a 3-3-1 model with a minimal scalar sector, known as the economical 3-3-1 model, we study its capabilities of generating realistic quark masses. After a detailed study of the symmetries of the model, before and after the spontaneous symmetry breaking, we find a remaining axial symmetry that prevents some quarks from gaining mass at all orders in perturbation theory. Since this accidental symmetry is anomalous, we also consider briefly the possibility of generating their masses for nonperturbative effects. However, we find that nonperturbative effects are not enough to generate the measured masses for the three massless quarks. Hence, these results imply that the economical 3-3-1 model is not a realistic description of the electroweak interaction.

Montero, J. C.; Sánchez-Vega, B. L.

2015-02-01

261

Accidental beam loss in superconducting accelerators: Simulations, consequences of accidents and protective measures  

SciTech Connect

The consequences of an accidental beam loss in superconducting accelerators and colliders of the next generation range from the mundane to rather dramatic, i.e., from superconducting magnet quench, to overheating of critical components, to a total destruction of some units via explosion. Specific measures are required to minimize and eliminate such events as much as practical. In this paper we study such accidents taking the Superconducting Supercollider complex as an example. Particle tracking, beam loss and energy deposition calculations were done using the realistic machine simulation with the Monte-Carlo codes MARS 12 and STRUCT. Protective measures for minimizing the damaging effects of prefire and misfire of injection and extraction kicker magnets are proposed here.

Drozhdin, A.; Mokhov, N.; Parker, B.

1994-02-01

262

Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride  

SciTech Connect

Accidental release of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher.

Not Available

1989-06-01

263

Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride  

SciTech Connect

Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher. 8 refs., 69 figs., 50 tabs.

Not Available

1989-06-01

264

Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride  

SciTech Connect

Accidental release of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous studies experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The large scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher.

Not Available

1989-06-01

265

Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride  

SciTech Connect

Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher.

Not Available

1989-06-01

266

Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride  

SciTech Connect

Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The large scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher.

Neff, D.E. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA). Fluid Mechanics and Wind Engineering Lab.)

1989-06-01

267

Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984  

SciTech Connect

March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Adams, W.H.; Engle, J.R.; Harper, J.A.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

1986-01-01

268

Urban Early Adolescent Narratives on Sexuality: Accidental and Intentional Influences of Family, Peers, and the Media  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we examine the ways that early adolescents talked, interacted, and made references to events in their individual and collective lives during photography-based focus groups about sexuality and relationships. Twenty-three participants (10 boys and 13 girls) were recruited from three urban schools participating in a comprehensive sex education impact evaluation in the Northeast. We analyzed conversational narratives that were elicited in a group process while sharing photos of important people, contexts, and situations, showcasing participants’ exploration of sexuality and relationships. Our analysis revealed four main themes: (a) direct and indirect family communication about sexuality, (b) accidental and intentional Internet usage, (c) shared and contested peer knowledge, and (d) school as a direct and indirect learning context. Implications and future directions for practice, research, and policy are explored. PMID:22983141

McKamey, Corinne

2012-01-01

269

Crossing the Boundaries of Privacy in Accidental Encounters: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Therapists' Experiences.  

PubMed

This qualitative study explores psychodynamic therapists' experiences associated with unexpected encounters with their patients outside the clinical setting. Information was collected using a semi-structured interview protocol from 10 experienced practitioners in Poland and examined according to the interpretative phenomenological analysis principles. Four overarching themes are discussed in the paper. Results show that accidental encounters often challenged practitioners' privacy, led to involuntary self-disclosure (causing discomfort and distress) and required re-negotiating roles and boundaries in the new context. Various coping strategies were also identified and analysed, including withdrawal, anticipation and avoidance, as well as using community support. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for mental health professionals and psychotherapy training. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25355410

Pietkiewicz, Igor J; W?odarczyk, Monika

2014-10-30

270

Successful large-volume cerebrospinal fluid aspiration for an accidental overdose of intrathecal cytarabine.  

PubMed

Intrathecal therapy with cytarabine is widely used in the treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia. We report the first case of accidental intrathecal cytarabine overdose in an adult patient. Overdose of intrathecal chemotherapy has been reported to cause severe neurological damage including seizures, coma and death. Methotrexate levels can help guide intrathecal dosing of methotrexate, but no such test is commercially available for cytarabine. There are no standardized treatment recommendations for the management of this medical emergency. Intrathecal methotrexate overdose has been variously treated with cerebrospinal fluid drainage or exchange. Ventriculo-lumbar perfusion, steroids and leucovorin have also been used. It seems crucial to quickly remove as much drug as possible from the cerebrospinal fluid. Our patient was successfully treated with large-volume cerebrospinal fluid aspiration through an Ommaya reservoir. She did not suffer any significant immediate or late complications at 4 months of follow-up. PMID:23463468

Makar, Gerges; Al-Zubaidi, Muhanad; Amar, Surabhi; Feiz-Erfan, Iman; Mehta, Divyesh

2013-06-01

271

Gastric perforation after accidental esophageal intubation in a patient with deep neck infection.  

PubMed

Deep neck infection with airway obstruction may complicate endotracheal intubation with limited neck motion, pharyngeal swelling, and prominent secretion. Unrecognized esophageal intubation (EI) may unduly overinflate the stomach to inhibit effective ventilation, increase the incidence of hypoxia, and produce a ruptured visceral organ. We report an 81-year-old female patient with deep neck infection and impending respiratory failure who suffered gastric perforation after accidental EI in the intensive care unit. After failed attempts of intubation, EI was recognized rapidly as the culprit, although roughly audible bilateral breathing sounds were present but not gastric bubble sounds. A catastrophic complication of gastric rupture occurred due to ambu-bagging and mechanical ventilation. Surgical intervention was performed immediately. Possible mechanisms are discussed. PMID:25085018

Chen, Po-Nien; Shih, Chih-Kai; Li, Ya-Hui; Cheng, Wei-Ching; Hsu, Hung-Te; Cheng, Kuang-I

2014-09-01

272

The accidental release of exotic species from breeding colonies and zoological collections.  

PubMed

Exotic species have often been introduced into a new country in zoological or botanical gardens or on game and fur farms. When accidentally or deliberately released, these alien species can become invasive and have negative impacts on native plant and animal communities and human activities. This article focuses on a selection of such invasive species: principally the American mink (Neovison vison), but also the coypu (Myocastor coypus), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), raccoon (Procyon lotor) and African sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus). In each of these cases, the authors describe the biological characteristics and life history of the species, in relation to its invasive capacity, the origins and establishment of non-native populations, the environmental consequences and possible control measures. The main negative impacts observed are the destruction of habitat, the introduction and/or spread of pathogens and changes in the composition of native communities with consequent effects on biodiversity. PMID:20617652

Barrat, J; Richomme, C; Moinet, M

2010-04-01

273

Parents Accidentally Substitute Similar Sounding Sibling Names More Often than Dissimilar Names  

PubMed Central

When parents select similar sounding names for their children, do they set themselves up for more speech errors in the future? Questionnaire data from 334 respondents suggest that they do. Respondents whose names shared initial or final sounds with a sibling’s reported that their parents accidentally called them by the sibling’s name more often than those without such name overlap. Having a sibling of the same gender, similar appearance, or similar age was also associated with more frequent name substitutions. Almost all other name substitutions by parents involved other family members and over 5% of respondents reported a parent substituting the name of a pet, which suggests a strong role for social and situational cues in retrieving personal names for direct address. To the extent that retrieval cues are shared with other people or animals, other names become available and may substitute for the intended name, particularly when names sound similar. PMID:24391955

Griffin, Zenzi M.; Wangerman, Thomas

2013-01-01

274

Acute Renal Failure Following Accidental Cutaneous Absorption of Phenol: Application of NMR Urinalysis to Monitor the Disease Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unusual case of acute renal failure is reported following accidental cutaneous absorption of phenol and exposure to dichloromethane. Renal function during the onset of the nephrotoxic episode and the subsequent recovery period was monitored using a combination of standard clinical biochemical techniques and high resolution 1H-NMR urinalysis. The initial urine biochemical patterns (up to 2 weeks following exposure) showed

P. J. D Foxall; M. R. Bending; K. P. R. Gartland; J. K. Nicholson

1989-01-01

275

Accidental Feeding of a Dilute Antiseptic Solution (Chlorhexidine 0.05% with Cetrimide 1%) to Five Babies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five normal newborn breast fed babies were accidentally fed a dilute antiseptic solution (chlorhexidine 0.05% with cetrimide 1%) in place of sterile water, developing caustic burns of the lips, mouth and tongue within minutes; one baby became quite severely ill due to acute pulmonary oedema, but all survived without sequelae.

E. S. Mucklow

1988-01-01

276

Accidental oil spill due to grounding: Summary of model test results. Summary report, Jan-Jun 92  

SciTech Connect

The International Maritime Organization (IMO) sponsored model tests to help in their evaluation of accidental oil spillage from a Mid-Deck Tanker (MDT) and from a Double Hull Tanker (DHT) Design. These tests were conducted at Tsukuba Institute, Japan, and at the Carderock Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center. The test results are explained herein and their significance is summarized.

Karafiath, G.

1992-06-01

277

The GIS-based SafeAirView software for the concentration assessment of radioactive pollutants after an accidental release.  

PubMed

The European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy) has long been running nuclear installations for research purposes. The Nuclear Decommissioning and Facilities Management Unit (NDFM) is responsible for the surveillance of radioactivity levels in nuclear emergency conditions. The NDFM Unit has commissioned the implementation of a specifically developed decision support system, which can be used for quick emergency evaluation in the case of hypothetical accident and for emergency exercises. The requisites were to be a user-friendly software, able to quickly calculate and display values of air and ground radioactive contamination in the complex area around JRC, following an accidental release of radioactive substances from a JRC nuclear research installation. The developed software, named "SafeAirView", is an advanced implementation of GIS technology applied to an existing MS-DOS mode dispersion model, SAFE_AIR (Simulation of Air pollution From Emissions_Above Inhomogeneous Regions). SAFE_AIR is a numerical model which simulates transport, diffusion, and deposition of airborne pollutants emitted in the low atmosphere above complex orography at both local and regional scale, under non-stationary and inhomogeneous emission and meteorological conditions. SafeAirView makes use of user-friendly MS-Windows type interface which drives the dispersion model by a sequential and continuous input-output process, allowing a real time simulation. The GIS environment allows a direct interaction with the territory elements in which the simulation takes place, using data for the JRC Ispra region represented in geo-referenced cartography. Furthermore it offers the possibility to relate concentrations with population distribution and other geo-referenced maps, in a geographic view. Output concentration and deposition patterns can be plotted and/or exported. In spite of the selected specific databases, the SafeAirView software architecture is a general structure, therefore the decision support system could be easily modified to be applied in a region different from the JRC one. Beside the description of SafeAirView, the present paper presents a statistical evaluation of the software, which has considered three well known tracer experiments: Copenhagen, Indianapolis and Kincaid. The data sets related to these experiments are all included in the so called Model Validation Kit. PMID:17169408

Canepa, Elisa; D'Alberti, Francesco; D'Amati, Francesco; Triacchini, Giuseppe

2007-02-01

278

Contributed Paper Assessing Citizen Contributions to Butterfly  

E-print Network

Contributed Paper Assessing Citizen Contributions to Butterfly Monitoring in Two Large Cities K. C, we compared butterfly data collected over 10 years in Chicago, Illinois (U.S.A.), and New York City were associated with the reported proportion of the estimated regional pool of butterfly species. We

Illinois at Chicago, University of

279

Capitalizing on deliberate, accidental, and GM-driven environmental change caused by crop modification.  

PubMed

The transgenic traits associated with the majority of commercial genetically modified crops are focused on improving herbicide and insecticide management practices. The use of the transgenic technology in these crops and the associated chemistry has been the basis of studies that provide evidence for occasional improvement in environmental benefits due to the use of less residual herbicides, more targeted pesticides, and reduced field traffic. This is nicely exemplified through studies using Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) assessments. Whilst EIQ evaluations may sometimes illustrate environmental benefits they have their limitations. EIQ evaluations are not a surrogate for Environmental Risk Assessments and may not reflect real environmental interactions between crops and the environment. Addressing the impact cultivated plants have on the environment generally attracts little public attention and research funding, but the introduction of GM has facilitated an expansion of research to address potential environmental concerns from government, NGOs, industry, consumers, and growers. In this commentary, some evidence from our own research and several key papers that highlight EIQ assessments of the impact crops are having on the environment are presented. This information may be useful as an education tool on the potential benefits of GM and conventional farming. In addition, other deliberate, accidental, and GM-driven benefits derived from the examination of GM cropping systems is briefly discussed. PMID:22090440

Knox, Oliver G G; Walker, Robin L; Booth, Elaine J; Hall, Clare; Crossan, Angus N; Gupta, Vadakattu V S R

2012-01-01

280

Use of taste repellants and emetics to prevent accidental poisoning of dogs.  

PubMed

Twelve taste repellents and 3 oral emetics were tested. The taste repellents were capsaicin, capsicum, oleoresin, sucrose octaacetate, quinine tonic, quassia wood extract, vanillamide, horseradish extract, caffeine, pepperoni enhancer, acorn extract, and commercially available bitter and hot flavors. The emetics tested were: antimony potassium tartrate, apomorphine, and copper sulfate. Intake of a 20% sucrose solution by Beagles was significantly depressed by addition of vanillamide at concentrations greater than 0.001%, by capsicum and capsaicin at concentrations greater than 0.01%, and by horseradish extract, pepperoni enhancer, and a commercially available hot flavor at concentrations greater than 0.1%. Antimony potassium tartrate, when added to the 20% sucrose solution at a concentration of 0.1%, produced emesis as did apomorphine at a concentration of 0.005% and copper sulfate at 1%. When the emetic antimony potassium tartrate was combined with vanillamide in a 20% sucrose solution, intake was reduced to less than 20 ml, and vomiting occurred within 15 minutes. Capsaicin (0.02%) inhibited intake of ethylene glycol to less than the lethal dose in 5 dogs tested. Incorporation of such taste repellents and/or emetics into potentially poisonous substances would reduce accidental poisoning of animals and children. PMID:6476561

Houpt, K; Zgoda, J C; Stahlbaum, C C

1984-08-01

281

Evaluation of health effects in Sequoyah Fuels Corporation workers from accidental exposure to uranium hexafluoride  

SciTech Connect

Urine bioassay measurements for uranium and medical laboratory results were studied to determine whether there were any health effects from uranium intake among a group of 31 workers exposed to uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and hydrolysis products following the accidental rupture of a 14-ton shipping cylinder in early 1986 at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation uranium conversion facility in Gore, Oklahoma. Physiological indicators studied to detect kidney tissue damage included tests for urinary protein, casts and cells, blood, specific gravity, and urine pH, blood urea nitrogen, and blood creatinine. We concluded after reviewing two years of follow-up medical data that none of the 31 workers sustained any observable health effects from exposure to uranium. The early excretion of uranium in urine showed more rapid systemic uptake of uranium from the lung than is assumed using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30 and Publication 54 models. The urinary excretion data from these workers were used to develop an improved systemic recycling model for inhaled soluble uranium. We estimated initial intakes, clearance rates, kidney burdens, and resulting radiation doses to lungs, kidneys, and bone surfaces. 38 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

Fisher, D.R. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Swint, M.J.; Kathren, R.L. (Hanford Environmental Health Foundation, Richland, WA (USA))

1990-05-01

282

Biomechanical studies in an ovine model of non-accidental head injury.  

PubMed

This paper presents the head kinematics of a novel ovine model of non-accidental head injury (NAHI) that consists only of a naturalistic oscillating insult. Nine, 7-to-10-day-old anesthetized and ventilated lambs were subjected to manual shaking. Two six-axis motion sensors tracked the position of the head and torso, and a triaxial accelerometer measured head acceleration. Animals experienced 10 episodes of shaking over 30 min, and then remained under anesthesia for 6h until killed by perfusion fixation of the brain. Each shaking episode lasted for 20s resulting in about 40 cycles per episode. Each cycle typically consisted of three impulsive events that corresponded to specific phases of the head's motion; the most substantial of these were interactions typically with the lamb's own torso, and these generated accelerations of 30-70 g. Impulsive loading was not considered severe. Other kinematic parameters recorded included estimates of head power transfer, head-torso flexion, and rate of flexion. Several styles of shaking were also identified across episodes and subjects. Axonal injury, neuronal reaction and albumin extravasation were widely distributed in the hemispheric white matter, brainstem and at the craniocervical junction and to a much greater magnitude in lower body weight lambs that died. This is the first biomechanical description of a large animal model of NAHI in which repetitive naturalistic insults were applied, and that reproduced a spectrum of injury associated with NAHI. PMID:24974335

Anderson, R W G; Sandoz, B; Dutschke, J K; Finnie, J W; Turner, R J; Blumbergs, P C; Manavis, J; Vink, R

2014-08-22

283

Failure Criteria for Evaluating Accidental Drops of Fuel Containers at INTEC  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a failure criterion that has been developed for use in evaluating fuel containers at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for accidental drop events. The criterion would typically be used in dynamic finite element analyses using the ABA-QUS/Explicit program. The failure criterion used in the past is generally considered to substantially underestimate the strength and ductility of the materials involved. The new criterion is intended to be more realistic, allowing for more accurate impact analyses. The criterion is based on the distortion energy theory, which is considered to be appropriate for the ductile materials typically used in fuel containers. Also addressed in development of the criterion were the effects of strain rate and hydrostatic stress. The importance of these factors, however, is highly dependent on the material used. Three materials specifically addressed in this study were stainless steel, aluminum, and lead. The criterion is presented in the form of guidelines and recommendations that are based on material data obtained from the literature. The most significant difference between these and the previous criterion is that ductile materials are allowed to strain to much higher levels before they are considered to fail.

Miller, G. K.

1998-10-01

284

Pattern of Fractures in Non-Accidental Injuries in the Pediatric Population in Singapore  

PubMed Central

Background Fractures as a result of non-accidental injuries (NAI) are not uncommon among children. The purpose of our study was to describe the incidence, demographic characteristics, and associated risk factors in patients with NAI in a multiethnic Asian cohort. Methods A retrospective record review of patients admitted to our hospital between September 2007 and 2009 with the diagnosis of NAI was conducted. Results A total of 978 children were reported with suspicion of NAI. Among them, 570 patients (58.28%) were diagnosed with NAI. Fractures were observed in 35 children (6.14%). NAI fractures were highest among female infants (73.3%). The biological father was the most common known perpetrator of NAI (n = 155, 29.0%). The most common perpetrator sadly remained unknown (n = 14, 40%). All NAI fractures were closed (n = 35, 6.14%), and the most commonly affected bone was the humeral shaft (n = 10, 28.57%) with an oblique configuration. Age < 1 year and parental divorce were significant risk factors associated with these fractures. Conclusions The skeletal injury pattern and risk factors highlighted in our study will help treating physicians identify patients susceptible to NAI, as many of these patients are young and vulnerable. Protective measures can be initiated early by recognizing these injuries and preventing further physical and psychological harm to the child. PMID:25436068

Raveendran, Rakesh; Mahadev, Arjandas

2014-01-01

285

Thermoluminescence properties of irradiated commercial color pencils for accidental retrospective dosimetry.  

PubMed

Color pencils are widely used mostly in kindergartens, in schools and could be found in all houses with families having young children. Their wide spread use in modern times as well as their chemical composition, consisting mostly of Si and Al, constitute two strong motivations towards exploiting their use as accidental retrospective thermoluminescent dosimeters. The present manuscript reports on the study of colored pencils manufactured by a commercial brand in China which is very common throughout Turkey. The preliminary results discussed in the present work illustrated encouraging characteristics, such as the presence of a trapping level giving rise to natural TL in a temperature range that is sufficiently high. Specific thermoluminescence features of this peak, such as glow peak shape and analysis, anomalous fading, thermal quenching, reproducibility, linearity and recovery ability to low attributed doses were studied. The results suggest that the color pencils could be effectively used in the framework of retrospective thermoluminescent dosimetry with extreme caution, based on multiple aliquot protocols. PMID:25746917

Meriç, Niyazi; ?ahiner, Eren; Bari?, Aytaç; Polymeris, George S

2015-05-01

286

Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride  

SciTech Connect

Accidental release of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid rates of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher. 8 refs., 69 figs., 50 tabs.

Holve, D.J.; Harvill, T.L. (INSITEC, San Ramon, CA (USA))

1989-06-01

287

Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride  

SciTech Connect

Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher. 6 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

Schatz, K.W. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., New York, NY (USA)); Koopman, R.P. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1989-07-01

288

Modeling acute health risks associated with accidental releases of toxic gases  

SciTech Connect

CHEM{_}MACCS has been developed from the radiological accident consequence code, MACCS, to perform probabilistic calculations of potential off-site consequences of the accidental atmospheric release of hazardous chemicals. The principal phenomena considered in CHEM{_}MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways, and early and latent health effects. CHEM{_}MACCS provides the following capabilities: (1) statistical weather sampling data (8,760 hourly data points per year), (2) population dose and health effect risk calculations based on site-specific population data, (3) health effects calculations including the consideration of potential site specific mitigative actions (evacuation and shielding), and (4) modeling of multiple release segments. Three different sample problems are contained in this report to show how to use CHEM{_}MACCS. Three test problems are run to compare CHEM{_}MACCS and D2PC. The doses versus the downwind centerline distances from the source for the given doses are in very close agreement.

Haskin, F.E.; Ding, C.; Summa, K.J. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering] [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Young, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Accident Analysis and Consequence Assessment Dept.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Accident Analysis and Consequence Assessment Dept.

1996-09-01

289

Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1980-December 1982  

SciTech Connect

This report updates, for 1980 through 1982, the results of continuing medical surveillance of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in March 1954. The originally exposed Marshallese population comprised 64 persons on Rongelap Atoll who each received, on the average, an estimated 190 rads of absorbed external gamma radiation, 18 on Ailingnae Atoll who received 110 rads, and 159 on Utirik who received 11 rads. There were, in addition, 3 persons in utero on Rongelap, 1 person in utero on Ailingnae, and 8 persons in utero on Utirik who are considered exposed. The recipients of primary medical care include exposed and comparison populations as well as a rather large number of additional beneficiaries who are seen on a humanitarian basis of practical need and resource availability. In recent years, about 1400 people have been seen annually. This report, however, deals with four clearly defined groups: the remaining individuals who were exposed to radioactive fallout on Rongelap, Ailingnae, and Utirik in 1954 (including those in utero), and a comparison population of individuals from Rongelap who were unexposed. The number of persons now in each exposure category are 51, 12, 116, and 137, respectively. 100 references, 4 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Rittmaster, R.S.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

1984-01-01

290

An accidental death due to Freon 22 (monochlorodifluoromethane) inhalation in a fishing vessel.  

PubMed

A case of accidental Freon 22 (monochlorodifluoromethane) poisoning in a fishing vessel is reported. Forensic autopsy revealed severe pulmonary edema and congestion (left lung; 576 g, right lung; 740 g). GC-MS analysis clearly showed that the deceased inhaled Freon 22 gas prior to his death. Freon 22 concentration was 169+/-7.0 microg/ml in the heart blood. The distribution pattern of Freon 22 in tissue samples was similar to that in previously reported cases. The brain had the highest concentration of Freon 22 followed by the spleen, liver, kidney and lung, respectively. Histopathologically, Oil red O staining of the liver showed many small, positive red areas in the cytosol, which have been reported in other cases of Freon 22 poisoning. However, Schmorl staining revealed that most areas of Oil red O positivity were lipofuscin granules. Lipofuscin in the liver, which closely relates to aging and other cell stresses, could have a relevance to Freon 22 exposure, but further experimental studies are needed to confirm it. PMID:16490332

Koreeda, Ako; Yonemitsu, Kosei; Mimasaka, Sohtarou; Ohtsu, Yuki; Tsunenari, Shigeyuki

2007-05-24

291

New tracers identify hydraulic fracturing fluids and accidental releases from oil and gas operations.  

PubMed

Identifying the geochemical fingerprints of fluids that return to the surface after high volume hydraulic fracturing of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs has important applications for assessing hydrocarbon resource recovery, environmental impacts, and wastewater treatment and disposal. Here, we report for the first time, novel diagnostic elemental and isotopic signatures (B/Cl, Li/Cl, ?11B, and ?7Li) useful for characterizing hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids (HFFF) and distinguishing sources of HFFF in the environment. Data from 39 HFFFs and produced water samples show that B/Cl (>0.001), Li/Cl (>0.002), ?11B (25-31‰) and ?7Li (6-10‰) compositions of HFFF from the Marcellus and Fayetteville black shale formations were distinct in most cases from produced waters sampled from conventional oil and gas wells. We posit that boron isotope geochemistry can be used to quantify small fractions (?0.1%) of HFFF in contaminated fresh water and likely be applied universally to trace HFFF in other basins. The novel environmental application of this diagnostic isotopic tool is validated by examining the composition of effluent discharge from an oil and gas brine treatment facility in Pennsylvania and an accidental spill site in West Virginia. We hypothesize that the boron and lithium are mobilized from exchangeable sites on clay minerals in the shale formations during the hydraulic fracturing process, resulting in the relative enrichment of boron and lithium in HFFF. PMID:25327769

Warner, N R; Darrah, T H; Jackson, R B; Millot, R; Kloppmann, W; Vengosh, A

2014-11-01

292

Response of Microorganisms to an Accidental Gasoline Spillage in an Arctic Freshwater Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

The response of microorganisms to an accidental spillage of 55,000 gallons of leaded gasoline into an Arctic freshwater lake was studied. Shifts in microbial populations were detected after the spillage, reflecting the migration pattern of the gasoline, enrichment for hydrocarbon utilizers, and selection for leaded-gasoline-tolerant microorganisms. Ratios of gasoline-tolerant/utilizing heterotrophs to “total” heterotrophs were found to be a sensitive indicator of the degree of hydrocarbon contamination. Respiration rates were elevated in the highly contaminated area, but did not reflect differences between moderately and lightly contaminated areas. Hydrocarbon biodegradation potential experiments showed that indigenous microorganisms could extensively convert hydrocarbons to CO2. In situ measurement of gasoline degradation showed that, if untreated, sediment samples retained significant amounts of gasoline hydrocarbons including “volatile components” at the time the lake froze for the winter. Nutrient addition and bacterial inoculation resulted in enhanced biodegradative losses, significantly reducing the amount of residual hydrocarbons. Enhanced biodegradation, however, resulted in the appearance of compounds not detected in the gasoline. Since the contaminated lake serves as a drinking water supply, treatment to enhance microbial removal of much of the remaining gasoline still may be advisable. PMID:879781

Horowitz, A.; Atlas, R. M.

1977-01-01

293

Successful Thrombolysis and Spasmolysis of Acute Leg Ischemia after Accidental Intra-arterial Injection of Dissolved Flunitrazepam Tablets  

SciTech Connect

A 37-year-old man with known intravenous drug abuse presented in the surgical ambulatory care unit with acute leg ischemia after accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets into the right femoral artery. A combination of anticoagulation, vasodilatation, and local selective and superselective thrombolysis with urokinase was performed to salvage the leg. As a result of the severe ischemia-induced pain, the patient had to be monitored over the complete therapy period on the intensive care unit with permanent administration of intravenous fluid and analgetics. We describe the presenting symptoms and the interventional technique, and we discuss the recent literature regarding the management of accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets.

Radeleff, B., E-mail: Boris_radeleff@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Stampfl, U.; Sommer, C.-M.; Bellemann, N. [University of Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Hyhlik-Duerr, A. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany); Weber, M.-A. [University of Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Boeckler, D. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany); Kauczor, H.-U. [University of Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

2011-10-15

294

A probabilistic model for accidental cargo oil outflow from product tankers in a ship-ship collision.  

PubMed

In risk assessment of maritime transportation, estimation of accidental oil outflow from tankers is important for assessing environmental impacts. However, there typically is limited data concerning the specific structural design and tank arrangement of ships operating in a given area. Moreover, there is uncertainty about the accident scenarios potentially emerging from ship encounters. This paper proposes a Bayesian network (BN) model for reasoning under uncertainty for the assessment of accidental cargo oil outflow in a ship-ship collision where a product tanker is struck. The BN combines a model linking impact scenarios to damage extent with a model for estimating the tank layouts based on limited information regarding the ship. The methodology for constructing the model is presented and output for two accident scenarios is shown. The discussion elaborates on the issue of model validation, both in terms of the BN and in light of the adopted uncertainty/bias-based risk perspective. PMID:24462237

Goerlandt, Floris; Montewka, Jakub

2014-02-15

295

Reducing the loss of vaccines from accidental freezing in the cold chain: the experience of continuous temperature monitoring in Tunisia.  

PubMed

Accidental freezing of vaccines is a growing threat and a real risk for national immunization programs when the potency of many vaccines can be compromised if these are exposed to sub-zero temperatures in the cold chain. In Tunisia, this issue is compounded by using sub-standard domestic cold chain equipment instead of equipping the program with medical refrigerators designed specifically for storing vaccines and temperature sensitive pharmaceuticals. Against this backdrop, this paper presents the findings of a demonstration project conducted in Tunisia in 2012 that tested the impact of introducing several freeze prevention solutions to mitigate the risk of accidental freezing of vaccines. The main finding is that, despite the continued use of underperforming domestic refrigerators, continuous temperature monitoring using new technologies combined with other technological interventions significantly reduced the prevalence of accidental exposure to freezing temperatures. These improvements were noticed for cold chain storage at regional, district and health center levels, and during the transport legs that were part of the demonstration conducted in the regions of Kasserine in the South-Eastern part of Tunisia. Subsequent to introducing these freeze prevention solutions, the incidence of freeze alarms was reduced and the percent of time the temperatures dropped below the 2 °C recommended threshold. The incidence of freeze alarms at health center level was reduced by 40%. Lastly, the solutions implemented reduced risk of freezing during transport from 13.8% to 1.7%. Although the solution implemented is not optimal in the longer term because domestic refrigerators are used extensively in district stores and health centers, the risk of accidental freezing is significantly reduced by introducing the practice of continuous temperature monitoring as a standard. The management of the cold chain equipment was strengthened as a result which helps protect the potency of vaccines to the areas of most difficult access. PMID:25444810

Lloyd, John; Lydon, Patrick; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Zaffran, Michel

2015-02-11

296

Classical Conditioning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

!!Classical Conditioning!! Classical conditioning is the use of Pavlovian conditioning procedures where a neutral stimulus becomes capable of evoking a response through pairing with an unconditioned stimulus. Click the link below to get an introduction into classical conditioning. Introduction to Classical Conditioning Now that you\\'ve been introduced to classical conditioning, view the clip at the link below, ...

Mrs. Palacios, Miss Miller, Mr. Rowser

2008-04-01

297

Chitin-Prussian blue sponges for Cs(I) recovery: From synthesis to application in the treatment of accidental dumping of metal-bearing solutions.  

PubMed

Prussian blue (i.e., iron[III] hexacyanoferrate[II], PB) has been synthesized by reaction of iron(III) chloride with potassium hexacyanoferrate and further immobilized in chitosan sponge (cellulose fibers were added in some samples to evaluate their impact on mechanical resistance). The composite was finally re-acetylated to produce a chitin-PB sponge. Experimental conditions such as the freezing temperature, the content of PB, the concentration of the biopolymer and the presence of cellulose fibers have been varied in order to evaluate their effect on the porous structure of the sponge, its water absorption properties and finally its use for cesium(I) recovery. The concept developed with this system consists in the absorption of contaminated water by the composite sponge, the in situ binding of target metal on Prussian blue load and the centrifugation of the material to remove treated water from soaked sponge. This material is supposed to be useful for the fast treatment of accidental dumping of Cs-contaminated water. PMID:25646900

Vincent, C; Barré, Y; Vincent, T; Taulemesse, J-M; Robitzer, M; Guibal, E

2015-04-28

298

NAPL migration and ecotoxicity of conventional and renewable fuels in accidental spill scenarios.  

PubMed

Fuels derived from non-petroleum renewable resources have raised interest due to their potential in replacing petroleum-based fuels, but information on their fate and effects in the terrestrial and aquatic environments in accidental spill scenario is limited. In this study, migration of four fuels (conventional diesel, conventional gasoline, renewable diesel NExBTL, and ethanol-blended gasoline RE85 containing maximum 85% ethanol) as non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) in soil was demonstrated in a laboratory-scale experiment. Ecotoxicity data was produced for the same fuels. There was no significant difference in migration of conventional and renewable diesel, but gasoline migrated 1.5 times deeper and 7-9 times faster in sand than diesel. RE85 spread horizontally wider but not as deep (p?

Malk, Vuokko; Barreto Tejera, Eduardo; Simpanen, Suvi; Dahl, Mari; Mäkelä, Riikka; Häkkinen, Jani; Kiiski, Anna; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka

2014-08-01

299

Severe Nuclear Accident Program (SNAP) - a real time model for accidental releases  

SciTech Connect

The model: Several Nuclear Accident Program (SNAP) has been developed at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (DNMI) in Oslo to provide decision makers and Government officials with real-time tool for simulating large accidental releases of radioactivity from nuclear power plants or other sources. SNAP is developed in the Lagrangian framework in which atmospheric transport of radioactive pollutants is simulated by emitting a large number of particles from the source. The main advantage of the Lagrangian approach is a possibility of precise parameterization of advection processes, especially close to the source. SNAP can be used to predict the transport and deposition of a radioactive cloud in e future (up to 48 hours, in the present version) or to analyze the behavior of the cloud in the past. It is also possible to run the model in the mixed mode (partly analysis and partly forecast). In the routine run we assume unit (1 g s{sup -1}) emission in each of three classes. This assumption is very convenient for the main user of the model output in case of emergency: Norwegian Radiation Protection Agency. Due to linearity of the model equations, user can test different emission scenarios as a post processing task by assigning different weights to concentration and deposition fields corresponding to each of three emission classes. SNAP is fully operational and can be run by the meteorologist on duty at any time. The output from SNAP has two forms: First on the maps of Europe, or selected parts of Europe, individual particles are shown during the simulation period. Second, immediately after the simulation, concentration/deposition fields can be shown every three hours of the simulation period as isoline maps for each emission class. In addition, concentration and deposition maps, as well as some meteorological data, are stored on a public accessible disk for further processing by the model users.

Saltbones, J.; Foss, A.; Bartnicki, J. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute (DNMI), Oslo (Norway)

1996-12-31

300

Genotypic and Phenotypic Modifications of Neisseria meningitidis after an Accidental Human Passage  

PubMed Central

A scientist in our laboratory was accidentally infected while working with Z5463, a Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A strain. She developed severe symptoms (fever, meningism, purpuric lesions) that fortunately evolved with antibiotic treatment to complete recovery. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis confirmed that the isolate obtained from the blood culture (Z5463BC) was identical to Z5463, more precisely to a fourth subculture of this strain used the week before the contamination (Z5463PI). In order to get some insights into genomic modifications that can occur in vivo, we sequenced these three isolates. All the strains contained a mutated mutS allele and therefore displayed an hypermutator phenotype, consistent with the high number of mutations (SNP, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) detected in the three strains. By comparing the number of SNP in all three isolates and knowing the number of passages between Z5463 and Z5463PI, we concluded that around 25 bacterial divisions occurred in the human body. As expected, the in vivo passage is responsible for several modifications of phase variable genes. This genomic study has been completed by transcriptomic and phenotypic studies, showing that the blood strain used a different haemoglobin-linked iron receptor (HpuA/B) than the parental strains (HmbR). Different pilin variants were found after the in vivo passage, which expressed different properties of adhesion. Furthermore the deletion of one gene involved in LOS biosynthesis (lgtB) results in Z5463BC expressing a different LOS than the L9 immunotype of Z2491. The in vivo passage, despite the small numbers of divisions, permits the selection of numerous genomic modifications that may account for the high capacity of the strain to disseminate. PMID:21386889

Omer, Hélène; Rose, Graham; Jolley, Keith A.; Frapy, Eric; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Bentley, Stephen D.; Tinsley, Colin R.; Nassif, Xavier; Bille, Emmanuelle

2011-01-01

301

Counteracting the accidental pollutant propagation in a section of the River Some? by automatic control.  

PubMed

Real-time response to accidental pollution in rivers is a challenging mission that requires efficient on-line monitoring and rapid mitigating systems and calls for automatic control for diminishing or eliminating the pollutant effect. Remediation measures are addressed for cases in which the pollutant concentration can be measured and a neutralising agent can be identified and added to react with the pollutant and transform it by a chemical reaction into less harmful or non-harmful products. Pollution in a section of the River Some? is presented as a case study. Based on the advection-dispersion-reaction processes, a 2D dynamic simulator is developed to investigate and provide accurate predictions of the pollutant distribution. The complex river section geometry, the single and multiple points or spatially distributed sources, and a constant or time-varying release of the pollutant may be handled by the simulator. Furthermore, two control systems are designed and tested. One system involves implementing a feedback control approach, while the other involves applying a feedforward-feedback control structure. System identification of the disturbance and the manipulated variable paths is carried out, and a suitable allocation of the measuring points for both the disturbance and the controlled variable is addressed and demonstrated. The control structures prove to help the proposed polluting counteracting measures by bringing the concentration of the pollutant down to the safe setpoint value. The predictive action of the feedforward-feedback control structure reveals complementary benefits, as the pollutant concentration is promptly forced and maintained below the maximum allowed limit all the time and all over the river region of interest. PMID:23867840

Cristea, Vasile-Mircea

2013-10-15

302

Assessment of long-term health risks after accidental exposure using haemoglobin adducts of epichlorohydrin.  

PubMed

On September 9th, 2002, two goods trains collided in Bad Münder, Lower Saxony, causing the release of more than 40 metric tonnes of epichlorohydrin (1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane) into the environment. A human biomonitoring study was performed to evaluate the accidental exposure to epichlorohydrin and to assess the possible long-term, i.e. carcinogenic health effects. This was done on the basis of a biochemical effect monitoring using the N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)valine and the N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)valine haemoglobin adducts of epichlorohydrin in blood to respond to missing ambient monitoring immediately after the crash. N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)valine adduct levels above the LOQ (25 pmol/g globin) ranged from 32.0 to 116.4 pmol/g globin in 6 out of 628 samples. The N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)valine adduct was not detected above the LOD (10 pmol/g globin) in any of the blood samples. Based on the quantified N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)valine adduct values, the body doses after two days of exposure were estimated to be in the range of 1.7-6.2 nmol/kg body weight. The reverse estimation of the external exposure leads to cumulative additional lifetime cancer risks ranging from 2.61×10(-8) to 9.48×10(-8). The estimated excess lifetime cancer risks have to be assessed as extremely low. Our biomonitoring study facilitated the dialogue between individuals and groups concerned and authorities, because suspected or occurred exposures and risks to human health could be quantified and interpreted in a sound manner. PMID:25072144

Wollin, Klaus-Michael; Bader, Michael; Müller, Michael; Lilienblum, Werner; Csicsaky, Michael

2014-12-15

303

Assessment of methodologies for analysis of the dungeness B accidental aircraft crash risk.  

SciTech Connect

The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has requested Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to review the aircraft crash methodology for nuclear facilities that are being used in the United Kingdom (UK). The scope of the work included a review of one method utilized in the UK for assessing the potential for accidental airplane crashes into nuclear facilities (Task 1) and a comparison of the UK methodology against similar International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) methods (Task 2). Based on the conclusions from Tasks 1 and 2, an additional Task 3 would provide an assessment of a site-specific crash frequency for the Dungeness B facility using one of the other methodologies. This report documents the results of Task 2. The comparison of the different methods was performed for the three primary contributors to aircraft crash risk at the Dungeness B site: airfield related crashes, crashes below airways, and background crashes. The methods and data specified in each methodology were compared for each of these risk contributors, differences in the methodologies were identified, and the importance of these differences was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. The bases for each of the methods and the data used were considered in this assessment process. A comparison of the treatment of the consequences of the aircraft crashes was not included in this assessment because the frequency of crashes into critical structures is currently low based on the existing Dungeness B assessment. Although the comparison found substantial differences between the UK and the three alternative methodologies (IAEA, NRC, and DOE) this assessment concludes that use of any of these alternative methodologies would not change the conclusions reached for the Dungeness B site. Performance of Task 3 is thus not recommended.

LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Hansen, Clifford W.

2010-09-01

304

General weather conditions and precipitation contributing to the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River and Red River of the North Basins, December 2010 through July 2011: Chapter B in 2011 floods of the central United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Excessive precipitation produced severe flooding in the Mississippi River and Red River of the North Basins during spring and summer 2011. The 2011 flooding was caused by weather conditions that were affected in part by a La Niña climate pattern. During the 2010–11 climatological winter (December 2010–February 2011), several low pressure troughs from the Rocky Mountains into the Ohio River subbasin produced large amounts of precipitation. Precipitation was above normal to record amounts in parts of the Missouri River, Red River of the North, and upper Mississippi River subbasins, and mostly normal to below normal in the Ohio River and lower Mississippi River subbasins. During the 2011 climatological spring (March–May 2011), a large low pressure trough over the continental States and a high pressure ridge centered in the vicinity of the Gulf of Mexico combined to produce storms with copious precipitation along frontal boundaries across the Central States. Rain totals recorded during the April 18–28, 2011, precipitation event were more than 8 inches at several locations, while an impressive total of 16.15 inches was recorded at Cape Girardeau, Missouri. Several locations in the Missouri River subbasin had rainfall totals that were nearly one-third to one-half of their 1971–2000 normal annual amounts during a May 16–31, 2011, precipitation event. During June and July, thunderstorm development along frontal boundaries resulted in areas of heavy rain across the Missouri River, Red River of the North, and upper Mississippi River subbasins, while rainfall in the lower Mississippi River subbasin was mostly below normal.

Vining, Kevin C.; Chase, Katherine J.; Loss, Gina R.

2013-01-01

305

Chromosomal Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

... 150 babies is born with a chromosomal condition. Down syndrome is an example of a chromosomal condition. Because ... all pregnant women be offered prenatal tests for Down syndrome and other chromosomal conditions. A screening test is ...

306

The quest for an intermediate-scale accidental axion and further ALPs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent detection of the cosmic microwave background polarimeter experiment BICEP2 of tensor fluctuations in the B-mode power spectrum basically excludes all plausible axion models where its decay constant is above 1013 GeV. Moreover, there are strong theoretical, astrophysical, and cosmological motivations for models involving, in addition to the axion, also axion-like particles (ALPs), with decay constants in the intermediate scale range, between 109 GeV and 1013 GeV. Here, we present a general analysis of models with an axion and further ALPs and derive bounds on the relative size of the axion and ALP photon (and electron) coupling. We discuss what we can learn from measurements of the axion and ALP photon couplings about the fundamental parameters of the underlying ultraviolet completion of the theory. For the latter we consider extensions of the Standard Model in which the axion and the ALP(s) appear as pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons from the breaking of global chiral U(1) (Peccei-Quinn (PQ)) symmetries, occurring accidentally as low energy remnants from exact discrete symmetries. In such models, the axion and the further ALP are protected from disastrous explicit symmetry breaking effects due to Planck-scale suppressed operators. The scenarios considered exploit heavy right handed neutrinos getting their mass via PQ symmetry breaking and thus explain the small mass of the active neutrinos via a seesaw relation between the electroweak and an intermediate PQ symmetry breaking scale. For a number of explicit models, we determine the parameters of the low-energy effective field theory describing the axion, the ALPs, and their interactions with photons and electrons, in terms of the input parameters, in particular the PQ symmetry breaking scales. We show that these models can accommodate simultaneously an axion dark matter candidate, an ALP explaining the anomalous transparency of the universe for ?-rays, and an ALP explaining the recently reported 3.55 keV gamma line from galaxies and clusters of galaxies, if the respective decay constants are of intermediate scale. Moreover, they do not suffer severely from the domain wall problem.

Dias, A. G.; Machado, A. C. B.; Nishi, C. C.; Ringwald, A.; Vaudrevange, P.

2014-06-01

307

Improved assessment of population doses and risk factors for a nuclear power plant under accident conditions  

E-print Network

the release point. Similar calculations were performed using ICRP 2 methodologies in order to provide a basis for a comparison of the two ICRP methods. Results indicate that for accidental releases in which radioactive particulates and iodines contribute... contaminated at the concentration levels of the plume calculated for that downwind distance. Although the quantities of radioactive materials inhaled can be reduced signifi- cantly by measures such as using a cloth of some type as a breathing filter...

Meyer, Christopher Martin

1985-01-01

308

A national survey (NAP5-Ireland baseline) to estimate an annual incidence of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia in Ireland.  

PubMed

As part of the 5th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland concerning accidental awareness during general anaesthesia, we issued a questionnaire to every consultant anaesthetist in each of 46 public hospitals in Ireland, represented by 41 local co-ordinators. The survey ascertained the number of new cases of accidental awareness becoming known to them for patients under their care or supervision for a calendar year, as well as their career experience. Consultants from all hospitals responded, with an individual response rate of 87% (299 anaesthetists). There were eight new cases of accidental awareness that became known to consultants in 2011; an estimated incidence of 1:23 366. Two out of the eight cases (25%) occurred at or after induction of anaesthesia, but before surgery; four cases (50%) occurred during surgery; and two cases (25%) occurred after surgery was complete, but before full emergence. Four cases were associated with pain or distress (50%), one after an experience at induction and three after experiences during surgery. There were no formal complaints or legal actions that arose in 2011 related to awareness. Depth of anaesthesia monitoring was reported to be available in 33 (80%) departments, and was used by 184 consultants (62%), 18 (6%) routinely. None of the 46 hospitals had a policy to prevent or manage awareness. Similar to the results of a larger survey in the UK, the disparity between the incidence of awareness as known to anaesthetists and that reported in trials warrants explanation. Compared with UK practice, there appears to be greater use of depth of anaesthesia monitoring in Ireland, although this is still infrequent. PMID:24975139

Jonker, W R; Hanumanthiah, D; O'Sullivan, E P; Cook, T M; Pandit, J J

2014-09-01

309

Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

Conard, R.A.

1991-01-01

310

Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

Conard, R.A.

1991-12-31

311

A screening tool to prioritize public health risk associated with accidental or deliberate release of chemicals into the atmosphere  

PubMed Central

The Chemical Events Working Group of the Global Health Security Initiative has developed a flexible screening tool for chemicals that present a risk when accidentally or deliberately released into the atmosphere. The tool is generic, semi-quantitative, independent of site, situation and scenario, encompasses all chemical hazards (toxicity, flammability and reactivity), and can be easily and quickly implemented by non-subject matter experts using freely available, authoritative information. Public health practitioners and planners can use the screening tool to assist them in directing their activities in each of the five stages of the disaster management cycle. PMID:23517410

2013-01-01

312

[Superior cervical ganglion: an anatomical variant. Are variations of the cranial carotid artery a risk factor for accidental intravascular injection?].  

PubMed

A variation of the cranial carotid artery is demonstrated in an anatomical specimen revealing possible complications of ganglionic local opioid analgesia at the superior cervical ganglion. Located in the area of the puncture site, a loop of the aberrant carotid artery adheres closely to the pharyngeal wall in the medial position, shortening the distance between the arterial lumen and the oral cavity to 5 mm. With an incidence of 25%, an aberrant carotid artery could possibly facilitate an accidental intravascular injection during ganglionic local opioid application at the superior cervical ganglion. PMID:18463832

Wirz, S; Wartenberg, H C; Nadstawek, J; Kinsky, I

2008-07-01

313

The political economy of rationing health care in England and the US: the 'accidental logics' of political settlements.  

PubMed

This article considers how the 'accidental logics' of political settlements for the English National Health Service (NHS) and the Medicare and Medicaid programmes in the United States have resulted in different institutional arrangements and different implicit social contracts for rationing, which we define to be the denial of health care that is beneficial but is deemed to be too costly. This article argues that rationing is designed into the English NHS and designed out of US Medicare; and compares rationing for the elderly in the United States and in England for acute care, care at the end of life, and chronic care. PMID:24759205

Bevan, Gwyn; Brown, Lawrence D

2014-07-01

314

A mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I of the project: early effects of inhaled radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

The report presents a mathematical model for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included.

Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.

1980-06-01

315

5 CFR 831.907 - Withholdings and contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.907 Withholdings and contributions. (a) During the service covered under the conditions...

2010-01-01

316

Impact assessment of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accidental emission on the Barents Sea ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traces of emissions from the Fukushima-1 NPP in atmospheric aerosols of the Kola Peninsula near the Barents Sea coast were detected by radiation monitoring stations of the Murmansk Division of the Hydrometeorological Survey MDHMS in the end of March 2011. From the end of March 2011 until April 20, 131I, 134Cs, 132Te, 137Cs radioisotopes were observed in the atmospheric air. The major role was played by 131I isotope; its peak concentrations were (140-220)×10-6 Bq/m3, and it was recorded for several days (March 30-April 1), then radioactivity decreased. 134Cs, 132Te, and 137Cs isotopes were recorded episodically. The supply of radionuclides from accidental emissions into the atmosphere of the Kola Peninsula did not cause significant changes in gamma-radiation dose rates EDR. This value remained within the limits of the average long-term norm, and continued so during the following months 2011. Possible dry and humid precipitation of radionuclides within the water catchment area and in the marine basin did not influence on radioecological state in both coastal and off-shore parts of the Barents Sea. Short-lived isotopes as 131I, 134Cs, and 132Te, which might confidently indicate a trace from the Fukushima-1 NPP, have not been recorded in the samples. In 2011-1012 volumetric activity of 137Cs and 90Sr in water of the Barents Sea (section VI along the meridian 33° 30' N) varied in the range of 1.3-2.5 and 3.4-6.3 Bq/m3, respectively. Radioactive contamination of bottom sediments in the Barents Sea was very low. The specific activity of 137Cs varied from 1 to 8 Bq/kg, the activity of 90Sr did not exceed 4 Bq/kg. Investigations of macrophyte algae showed extremely low concentrations of artificial radionuclides. The specific activity of 137Cs in most samples was at the level of trace concentrations, from 0.2 to 1.5 Bq/kg of dry mass. The content of 90Sr in algae changed in the range of 0.4-4.1 Bq/kg of dry mass. In soft tissues of bivalves Mytilus edulis collected on littoral of bays, the specific activity of 137Cs did not exceed the trace quantity as well (less than 0.5 Bq/kg of raw mass). The latest radioecological studies of the Barents Sea commercial fish showed that all investigated species (such as Atlantic cod, long rough dab, spotted wolffish) contain less than 0.2 Bq/kg of 137Cs. Thus spectrum of artificial radioisotopes and their radioactivity level in both abiotic and biotic components of the Barents Sea ecosystem have not changed after the Fukushima accident. Compared to the data of recent years, these characteristics are stable; within the background limits owing to the global circulation of radionuclides. This work was supported by the international project CEEPRA (project no. 01/2010/007/KO130) implemented within the frame of Kolarctic program.

Matishov, Gennady; Ilyin, Gennady; Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Usiagina, Irina; Pavelskaya, Elena

2013-04-01

317

Mathematics: Contributions by Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a core course in a women's-studies program at Loyola Marymount University. Provides information, resources, and an annotated bibliography useful for making students more aware of women's contributions to mathematics. Contains 38 references. (ASK)

Dewar, Jacqueline M.

1991-01-01

318

Knowledge Digraph Contribution (KDC)  

E-print Network

1 Knowledge Digraph Contribution (KDC) Analysis Software Tutorial Richard Golden School the sequential order of response data items to identify which sequential regularities (i.e.,"digraphs, estimate digraph parameters for individual participants for the purpose of investigating individual

Golden, Richard M.

319

Condition-based maintenance contribution in machining system  

E-print Network

by [10] for two system components of diesel engines (the intake system and the injection system together-free mode, these two outputs are identical (neglecting the noise and modelling errors). The difference into account noise levels and modelling uncertainties. This principle of fault detection and diagnosis is used

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

320

EFFECTS OF THE GENERIC NATURE OF POLYMERS ON THEIR FIRE BEHAVIOR INERIS, Accidental Risks Division  

E-print Network

) atoms with different types of chemical bonding. Polymers can be predominantly crystalline, amorphous to differences in the ignition temperature. Chemical effects appear to contribute about 25 % towards the ignition), and silicone (Si) atoms bonded alone or in combination with other atoms to the polymer backbone of carbon (C

Boyer, Edmond

321

Pavlovian conditioning and multiple chemical sensitivity.  

PubMed Central

Pavlovian conditioning processes may contribute to some symptoms of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS). This review summarizes the potential relevance of the literature on conditional taste and olfactory aversions, conditional sensitization, and conditional immunomodulation to understanding MCS. A conditioning-based perspective on MCS suggests novel research and treatment strategies. PMID:9167990

Siegel, S; Kreutzer, R

1997-01-01

322

A two-center retrospective review of the hematologic evaluation and laboratory abnormalities in suspected victims of non-accidental injury.  

PubMed

Investigation for bleeding disorders in the context of suspected non-accidental injury (NAI) is inconsistent. We reviewed the hematologic evaluation of children who presented with symptoms of bleeding and/or bruising suspicious for NAI to determine the frequency of hematologic tests, abnormal hematologic laboratory results, and hematologic diagnoses. A retrospective cohort study design was employed at two freestanding academic children's hospitals. ICD-9 codes for NAI were used to identify 427 evaluable patients. Medical records were queried for the details of clinical and laboratory evaluations at the initial presentation concerning for NAI. The median age for the population was 326 days (range 1 day-14 years), 58% were male. Primary bleeding symptoms included intracranial hemorrhage (31.8%) and bruising (68.2%). Hematologic laboratory tests performed included complete blood cell count in 62.3%, prothrombin time (PT) in 55.0%, and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) in 53.6%; fibrinogen in 27.6%; factor activity in 17.1%; von Willebrand disease evaluation in 14.5%; and platelet function analyzer in 11.7%. Prolonged laboratory values were seen in 22.5% of PT and 17.4% of aPTT assays; 66.0% of abnormal PTs and 87.5% of abnormal aPTTs were repeated. In our cohort, 0.7% (3 of 427) of the population was diagnosed with a condition predisposing to bleeding. In children with bleeding symptoms concerning for NAI, hemostatic evaluation is inconsistent. Abnormal tests are not routinely repeated, and investigation for the most common bleeding disorder, von Willebrand disease, is rare. Further research into the extent and appropriate timing of the evaluation is warranted. PMID:24928052

Paroskie, Allison; Carpenter, Shannon L; Lowen, Deborah E; Anderst, James; DeBaun, Michael R; Sidonio, Robert F

2014-11-01

323

Darwin's contributions to genetics.  

PubMed

Darwin's contributions to evolutionary biology are well known, but his contributions to genetics are much less known. His main contribution was the collection of a tremendous amount of genetic data, and an attempt to provide a theoretical framework for its interpretation. Darwin clearly described almost all genetic phenomena of fundamental importance, such as prepotency (Mendelian inheritance), bud variation (mutation), heterosis, reversion (atavism), graft hybridization (Michurinian inheritance), sex-limited inheritance, the direct action of the male element on the female (xenia and telegony), the effect of use and disuse, the inheritance of acquired characters (Lamarckian inheritance), and many other observations pertaining to variation, heredity and development. To explain all these observations, Darwin formulated a developmental theory of heredity - Pangenesis - which not only greatly influenced many subsequent theories, but also is supported by recent evidence. PMID:19638672

Liu, Y-S; Zhou, X-M; Zhi, M-X; Li, X-J; Wang, Q-L

2009-01-01

324

Impact of Model Resolution and Snow Cover Modification on the Performance of Weather Forecasting and Research (WRF) Models of Winter Conditions that Contribute to Ozone Pollution in the Uintah Basin, Eastern Utah, Winter 2013. Trang T. Tran, Marc Mansfield and Seth Lyman Bingham Research Center, Utah State University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Uintah Basin of Eastern Utah, USA, has experienced winter ozone pollution events with ozone concentrations exceeding the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 75 ppb. With a total of four winter seasons of ozone sampling, winter 2013 is the worst on record for ozone pollution in the basin. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from oil and gas industries and other activities provide the precursors for ozone formation. The chemical mechanism of ozone formation is non-linear and complicated depending on the availability of VOCs and NOx. Moreover, meteorological conditions also play an important role in triggering ozone pollution. In the Uintah Basin, high albedo due to snow cover, a 'bowl-shaped' terrain, and strong inversions that trap precursors within the boundary layer are important factors contributing to ozone pollution. However, these local meteorological phenomena have been misrepresented by recent numerical modeling studies, probably due to misrepresenting the snow cover and complex terrain of the basin. In this study, Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations are performed on a model domain covering the entire Uintah Basin for winter 2013 (Dec 2012 - Mar 2013) to test the impacts of several grid resolutions (e.g., 4000, 1300 and 800m) and snow cover modification on performance of models of the local weather conditions of the basin. These sensitivity tests help to determine the best model configurations to produce appropriate meteorological input for air-quality simulations.

Tran, T. T.; Mansfield, M. L.; Lyman, S.

2013-12-01

325

Characterization of gaseous helium jet dispersion to atmosphere. [due to accidental loss of vacuum guard of superinsulated dewar shuttle payload  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major ground-based experiment to be performed for the Superfluid Helium On Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) program is the accidental loss of the vacuum guard of the super-insulated dewar. The design of the dewar vent-path requires adequate mass removal after a preset pressure is reached due to external heat transfer. The existing helium creates a turbulent buoyant jet, expanding in air with entrainment of the jet interface to the surrounding. Transient analysis is performed for axial and radial jet temperature prediction using the self-similarity assumption applied to mass, momentum, and the energy-balance equations of helium. The predicted jet temperature profiles with vertical and radial expansion up to 1.6 and 1.0 m, respectively, demonstrate the low temperature core established by gaseous helium. For all time steps, the axial and radial temperature predictions are observed to be within 8 and 20 percent, respectively.

Khan, H. J.; Figueroa, O.; Rhee, M.

1992-01-01

326

Evidence Theory Based Uncertainty Quantification in Radiological Risk due to Accidental Release of Radioactivity from a Nuclear Power Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consequence of the accidental release of radioactivity from a nuclear power plant is assessed in terms of exposure or dose to the members of the public. Assessment of risk is routed through this dose computation. Dose computation basically depends on the basic dose assessment model and exposure pathways. One of the exposure pathways is the ingestion of contaminated food. The aim of the present paper is to compute the uncertainty associated with the risk to the members of the public due to the ingestion of contaminated food. The governing parameters of the ingestion dose assessment model being imprecise, we have approached evidence theory to compute the bound of the risk. The uncertainty is addressed by the belief and plausibility fuzzy measures.

Ingale, S. V.; Datta, D.

2010-10-01

327

Fatal accidental hanging by a high-chair waist strap in a 2-year-old girl.  

PubMed

High chairs are commonly used to feed children after 6 months. Related injuries are oftentime minor and rarely leading to death. We describe a case of a 2-year-old female child who used to jump alone on her high chair and also had the habit to fasten the straps by herself. Her mother found her hanging by the waist straps. A thorough investigation showed that she climbed her high chair and fastened the waist straps but not the crotch one. The girl slid down into the seat, trapping her neck in the waist straps and thus resulting in hanging. In here, we concluded that the victim's death was caused by asphyxia, itself, caused by accidental hanging. The present case is of a special interest because of the rare similar cases reported. This case suggests that a correct restraint use and a close supervision would have prevented such a fatal issue. PMID:21265834

Souheil, Mlayeh; Audrey, Farrugia; Anny, Geraut; Sebastien, Raul J; Bertrand, Ludes

2011-03-01

328

Evidence Theory Based Uncertainty Quantification in Radiological Risk due to Accidental Release of Radioactivity from a Nuclear Power Plant  

SciTech Connect

Consequence of the accidental release of radioactivity from a nuclear power plant is assessed in terms of exposure or dose to the members of the public. Assessment of risk is routed through this dose computation. Dose computation basically depends on the basic dose assessment model and exposure pathways. One of the exposure pathways is the ingestion of contaminated food. The aim of the present paper is to compute the uncertainty associated with the risk to the members of the public due to the ingestion of contaminated food. The governing parameters of the ingestion dose assessment model being imprecise, we have approached evidence theory to compute the bound of the risk. The uncertainty is addressed by the belief and plausibility fuzzy measures.

Ingale, S. V. [New Arts, Science and Commerce College, Ahmednagar (MS)-414 001 (India); Datta, D. [Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

2010-10-26

329

Accidental releases of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) in the context of major hazards--spill behaviour using REACTPOOL.  

PubMed

Titanium tetrachloride is a highly toxic and corrosive substance that is used widely in the process industries. On accidental release, it creates liquid pools that can either boil or evaporate. The main feature of the liquid pool is the reaction of titanium tetrachloride with water. There are three sources of water available for reaction: free ground water, atmospheric moisture and substrate water. Unfortunately, there is no specific study that examines the liquid phase hydrolysis reaction of titanium tetrachloride. Based on thermodynamic calculations and relevant information found on the topic, it is concluded that liquid titanium tetrachloride reacts exothermically with all three sources of water yielding hydrogen chloride gas and a solid complex of titanium oxychloride. The purpose of this paper is to describe the spill behaviour of titanium tetrachloride reporting a number of results using the REACTPOOL model [T. Kapias, R.F. Griffiths, C. Stefanidis, REACTPOOL: a code implementing a new multi-compound pool model that accounts for chemical reactions and changing composition for spills of water reactive chemicals, J. Hazard. Mater. A81 (2001) 1-18]. It also addresses the dangers involved in cases of accidental release of titanium tetrachloride and reports its properties, referring to toxicity data and other relevant information. The spill behaviour of titanium tetrachloride has been incorporated into REACTPOOL. Model results indicate that the pool behaviour is mainly affected by the amount of free ground water, the wind speed and surface roughness. Although titanium tetrachloride has been involved in a number of major accidents, there are no experimental data relevant to the modelling requirements. PMID:15752847

Kapias, T; Griffiths, R F

2005-03-17

330

Clean Air Act Title III accidental emission release risk management program, and how it applies to landfills  

SciTech Connect

On June 20, 1996, EPA promulgated regulations pursuant to Title III of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 (Section 112(r)(7) of the CAA). The rule, contained in 40 CFR Part 68, is called Accidental Release Prevention Requirements: Risk Management Programs, and is intended to improve accident prevention and emergency response practices at facilities that store and/or use hazardous substances. Methane is a designated highly hazardous chemical (HHC) under the rule. The rule applies to facilities that have 10,000 pounds of methane or more in any process, roughly equivalent to about 244,000 cubic feet of methane. The US EPA has interpreted this threshold quantity as applying to landfill gas within landfills. This paper presents an overview of the Accidental Release Prevention regulations, and how landfills are affected by the requirements. This paper describes methodologies for calculating the threshold quantity of landfill gas in a landfill. Methane is in landfill gas as a mixture. Because landfill gas can burn readily, down to concentrations of about five percent methane, the entire landfill gas mixture must be treated as the regulated substance, and counts toward the 10,000-pound threshold. It is reasonable to assume that the entire landfill gas collection system, active or passive, is filled with landfill gas, and that a calculation of the volume of the system would be a calculation of the landfill gas present in the process on the site. However, the US EPA has indicated that there are some instances in which pore space gas should be included in this calculation. This paper presents methods available to calculate the amount of pore space gas in a landfill, and how to determine how much of that gas might be available for an explosion. The paper goes through how to conduct the release assessment to determine the worst-case hazard zone around the landfill.

Hibbard, C.S.

1999-07-01

331

Accidental cold-related injury leading to hospitalization in northern Sweden: an eight-year retrospective analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Cold injuries are rare but important causes of hospitalization. We aimed to identify the magnitude of cold injury hospitalization, and assess causes, associated factors and treatment routines in a subarctic region. Methods In this retrospective analysis of hospital records from the 4 northernmost counties in Sweden, cases from 2000-2007 were identified from the hospital registry by diagnosis codes for accidental hypothermia, frostbite, and cold-water drowning. Results were analyzed for pre-hospital site events, clinical events in-hospital, and complications observed with mild (temperature 34.9 - 32°C), moderate (31.9 - 28°C) and severe (<28°C), hypothermia as well as for frostbite and cold-water drowning. Results From the 362 cases, average annual incidences for hypothermia, frostbite, and cold-water drowning were estimated to be 3.4/100 000, 1.5/100 000, and 0.8/100 000 inhabitants, respectively. Annual frequencies for hypothermia hospitalizations increased by approximately 3 cases/year during the study period. Twenty percent of the hypothermia cases were mild, 40% moderate, and 24% severe. For 12%, the lowest documented core temperature was 35°C or higher, for 4% there was no temperature documented. Body core temperature was seldom measured in pre-hospital locations. Of 362 cold injury admissions, 17 (5%) died in hospital related to their injuries. Associated co-factors and co-morbidities included ethanol consumption, dementia, and psychiatric diagnosis. Conclusions The incidence of accidental hypothermia seems to be increasing in this studied sub-arctic region. Likely associated factors are recognized (ethanol intake, dementia, and psychiatric diagnosis). PMID:24460844

2014-01-01

332

Evolution of N-species Kimura/voter models towards criticality, a surrogate for general models of accidental pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In models for accidental pathogens, with the paradigmatic epidemiological system of bacterial meningitis, there was evolution towards states exhibiting critical fluctuations with power law behaviour observed [1]. This is a model with many possibly pathogenic strains essentially evolving independently to low pathogenicity. A first and previous study had shown that in the limit of vanishing pathogenicity there are critical fluctuations with power law distributions observed, already when only two strains interact [2]. This earlier version of a two strain model was very recently reinvestigated [3] and named as Stollenwerk-Jansen model (SJ). Muñoz et al. demonstrated that this two-strain model for accidental pathogens is in the universality class of the so-called voter model. Though this model clearly shows criticality, its control parameter, the pathogenicity, is not self-tuning towards criticality. However, the multi-strain version mentioned above [1] is well evolving towards criticality, as well as a spatially explicit version of this, shown in [4] p. 155. These models of multi-strain type including explicitly mutations of the pathogenicity can be called SJ-models of type II [5]. Since the original epidemiological model is of SIRYX-type, the evolution to zero pathogenicity is slow and perturbed by large population noise. In the present article we now show on the basis of the notion of the voter-model universality classes the evolution of n-voter models with mutaion towards criticality, now much less perturbed by population noise, hence demonstrating a clear mechanism of self-organized criticality in the sense of [6, 7]. The present results have wide implications for many diseases in which a large proportion of infections is asymptomatic, meaning that the system has already evolved towards an average low pathogenicity. This holds not only for the original paradigmatic case of bacterial meningitis, but was reecently also suggested for example for dengue fever (DENFREE project).

Ghaffari, Peyman; Stollenwerk, Nico

2012-09-01

333

Accidental shock during epidural anesthesia in a patient with NSAID-induced hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism  

Microsoft Academic Search

An obese man suffered cardiac arrest twenty minutes after receiving epidural anesthesia for incision and debridement of wound over the right leg. The patient's condition stabilized after emergent cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It was found that the patient had been self-administering an herbal drug continuously for a year and a half, and that this drug contained ethoxybenzamide, which is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory

Ping-Heng Tan; An-Kuo Chou; Jyh-Shyan Perng

1997-01-01

334

78 FR 6149 - Final Interim Staff Guidance Assessing the Radiological Consequences of Accidental Releases of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...approach in modeling the movement of radioactivity and in assessing the radiological impacts...tank failure and mechanism for the radioactivity to reach groundwater or surface water...hydro-geologic conditions of the site where radioactivity is assumed to enter groundwater...

2013-01-29

335

Probabilities of Ground Impact Conditions of the New Horizons Spacecraft and RTG for Near Launch Pad Accidents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Pluto New Horizons mission's safety effort, assessment of accidental ground impacts of the spacecraft (SC) and its components, including the radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG), near the launch pad are of particular interest as they determine the severity of the mechanical insult to the hardware. Two configurations are studied: the SC with RTG joined to the third stage STAR™ 48B solid rocket motor [Launch Vehicle (LV) payload], and the RTG joined to the RTG mounting fixture but separated from the SC after an at-altitude destruct action. The objective of the analyses conducted is to determine the probabilities of impact orientation and average impact velocity of these configurations for a near launch pad accident These are of interest because of the possibility that the STAR 48B solid rocket motor could impact on top of the RTG, and because the RTG/RTG mounting fixture impact orientations probabilities and velocities directly affect the mechanical response of the internal GPHS modules. The probabilities of impact orientation and impact velocity of the LV payload as a function of mission elapsed time at thrust termination are determined using a six degree of freedom motion simulation computer program coupled with a Monte Carlo method. The motion simulation accounts for the LV payload aerodynamic properties, mass properties, and the initial flight conditions (?t, ?, V, q and r). Baseline conditions for position, direction, velocity and angular rates, are obtained from the mission timeline information for the Atlas V 551 launch vehicle. The results from this new and unique approach contributed information to safety assessments for the launch approval process. As the environments associated with the RTG/RTG mounting fixture impact orientations probabilities and velocities were less severe than earlier assumptions, this contributed to a reduction in the estimated risk for the Pluto mission.

McGrath, Brian E.; Frostbutter, Dave A.; Chang, Yale

2007-01-01

336

Reporting a Missing Student ID Card If you accidentally lose your NTU student ID card and cannot find it, please follow the instructions to  

E-print Network

Reporting a Missing Student ID Card If you accidentally lose your NTU student ID card and cannot find it, please follow the instructions to report your missing student ID card with applying) and (password) *You can only report missing Student ID Cards by using Chinese interface. Please make sure you

Wu, Yih-Min

337

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 6. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE (SCAQMD) (SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual summarizes information that will aid in identifying and controlling release hazards specific to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) of southern California. The SCAQMD has been considering a strategy for reducing the risk of a major accidental air r...

338

The nature and timing of caldera collapse as indicated by accidental lithic fragments from the AD ?1000 eruption of Volcán Ceboruco, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

One way to determine the mechanics of caldera formation is through quantitative component analysis of accidental lithic fragments in pyroclastic deposits erupted before and during caldera collapse. All previous studies of this sort, however, are based on pyroclastic deposits from large-volume (>10 km3) caldera eruptions. In this study, we use quantitative component analysis of lithic fragments to determine the mechanics

B. L. Browne; J. E. Gardner

2004-01-01

339

Follow-Up Skeletal Surveys for Suspected Non-Accidental Trauma: Can a More Limited Survey Be Performed without Compromising Diagnostic Information?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Follow-up skeletal surveys have been shown to improve the rate of fracture detection in suspected cases of non-accidental trauma (NAT). As these studies are performed in a particularly radiosensitive population, it is important to evaluate if all of the (approximately 20) radiographs obtained at repeat skeletal survey are clinically…

Sonik, Arvind; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Rogers, Kristen K.; Coulter, Kevin P.; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.

2010-01-01

340

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 3. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE (SCAQMD) (SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses a strategy (being considered by the South Coast Air Quality Management District--SCAQMD--of Southern California) for reducing the risk of a major accidental air release of toxic chemicals. The strategy, intended to guide both industry and communities, consist...

341

Accidental nuclear war: Modifications to superpower arsenals and to procedures for handling them could substantially reduce the risk of unintended Armageddon  

Microsoft Academic Search

If nuclear war breaks out in the coming decade or two, it will probably be by accident. The threat of a cold-blooded, calculated first strike is vanishing, but beneath the calm surface of constructive diplomacy among the traditional nuclear rivals lurks the danger of unpremeditated use of nuclear weapons. The accidental, unauthorized or inadvertent use of these weapons has become

B. G. Blair; H. W. Kendall

1990-01-01

342

The 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: patient experiences, human factors, sedation, consent and medicolegal issues.  

PubMed

The 5th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland into accidental awareness during general anaesthesia yielded data related to psychological aspects from the patient, and the anaesthetist, perspectives; patients' experiences ranged from isolated auditory or tactile sensations to complete awareness. A striking finding was that 75% of experiences were for < 5 min, yet 51% of patients (95% CI 43-60%) experienced distress and 41% (95% CI 33-50%) suffered longer-term adverse effect. Distress and longer-term harm occurred across the full range of experiences but were particularly likely when the patient experienced paralysis (with or without pain). The patient's interpretation of what is happening at the time of the awareness seemed central to later impact; explanation and reassurance during suspected accidental awareness during general anaesthesia or at the time of report seemed beneficial. Quality of care before the event was judged good in 26%, poor in 39% and mixed in 31%. Three quarters of cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (75%) were judged preventable. In 12% of cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia, care was judged good and the episode not preventable. The contributory and human factors in the genesis of the majority of cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia included medication, patient and education/training. The findings have implications for national guidance, institutional organisation and individual practice. The incidence of 'accidental awareness' during sedation (~1:15 000) was similar to that during general anaesthesia (~1:19 000). The project raises significant issues about information giving and consent for both sedation and anaesthesia. We propose a novel approach to describing sedation from the patient's perspective which could be used in communication and consent. Eight (6%) of the patients had resorted to legal action (12, 11%, to formal complaint) at the time of reporting. The 5th National Audit Project methodology provides a standardised template that might usefully inform the investigation of claims or serious incidents related to accidental awareness during general anaesthesia. PMID:25204237

Cook, T M; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H MacG; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Pandit, J J

2014-10-01

343

Asteroid impact ejecta units overlain by iron-rich sediments in 3.5 2.4 Ga terrains, Pilbara and Kaapvaal cratons: Accidental or cause effect relationships?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The significance of temporal and spatial associations between asteroid/comet impact ejecta units and overlying iron-rich sediments, including banded iron-formation (BIF), jaspilite and ferruginous shale, observed in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia and the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB), Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa, is considered. Such associations include (1) 3470.1 ± 1.9 Ma impact spherule units and tsunami-type breccia overlain by jaspilite in the Antarctic Chert Member, central Pilbara Craton; (2) 3258 ± 3 Ma impact spherule unit (S2) in the BGB overlain by BIF, jaspilite and ferruginous shale; (3) 3243 ± 4 Ma impact unit (S3) in the BGB overlain by iron-rich sediments (Ulundi Formation); (4) two formations of BIF and ferruginous shale at the base (Nimmingarra Iron Formation) and lower part (Paddy Market Formation) of the Gorge Creek Group, central Pilbara Craton, which overlie 3235 ± 3 Ma felsic volcanics along a boundary correlated with the BGB-S3 unit; (5) 2629 ± 5 Ma impact spherule unit and tsunami-type deposit overlain by BIF and ferruginous shale (Marra Mamba Iron Formation), central Pilbara Craton; (5) 2481 ± 4 Ma spherule unit intercalated at the lower part of the Dales Gorge Iron Member of the Brockman Iron Formation, Hamersley Basin, and possible equivalents in the Kuruman Formation, western Transvaal. No significant thicknesses of iron-rich sediments are known to overlie carbonate-hosted impact ejecta units, including the Bee Gorge Member (BGM) of the Wittenoom Formation (2561 ± 8 Ma), Carawine Dolomite (eastern Hamersley Basin, Pilbara Craton), Monteville Formation and Reivilo Formation (Griqualand West Basin, Transvaal Group), or the Graensco-Vallen spherule occurrence (southwest Greenland). The juxtaposition between impact ejecta units and overlying BIF and jaspilite may be accidental or purely related to preservation of these units in below-wave-base environments. Alternatively, this association may hint at enrichment of seawater in soluble iron under low-oxygen atmosphere/hydrosphere conditions due to enhanced denudation of mafic volcanic terrains uplifted/exposed through impact-induced tectonic movements and/or impact-triggered mafic volcanic and hydrothermal activity. The general absence of iron-rich sediments above carbonate-hosted impact ejecta units may be attributed to lack of Fe enrichment or to pH and Eh conditions unsuitable for the precipitation of iron oxides. The near-absence of BIF in high-energy shallow water environments overlying impact ejecta units may reflect retardation of colloidal/chemical sedimentation in such environments. A systematic association between impact ejecta and iron-rich sediments, if confirmed, may yield useful stratigraphic tracers in the search for impact signatures in early Precambrian terrains.

Glikson, Andrew

2006-06-01

344

Avicenna's contribution to cardiology  

PubMed Central

Ibn Sina, known in the West as Avicenna, was the most famous and influential of all the Islamic philosopher-scientists. His most important medical works are the Canon of Medicine medical encyclopedia and a treatise on cardiac drugs. His Canon of Medicine remained the standard text in both the East and West until the 16th century. Avicenna's description of cardiac diseases was logically presented perhaps for the first time in the history of medicine. Avicenna was the first to describe carotid sinus hypersensitivity, which presents with vasovagal syncope. He was a pioneer in pulsology and the first correct explanation of pulsation was given by Avicenna, after he refined Galen's theory of the pulse. Besides, he discussed the action of available drugs on the heart in details and mentioned their indications and contraindications. In conclusion, Avicenna made important contributions to cardiology. This article describes some of his contributions in this field. PMID:24678465

Chamsi-Pasha, Mohammed A.R.; Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan

2014-01-01

345

Conditional Immunomodulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in central nervous-immune system interactions was inspired largely by the work on conditional immunomodulation (Ader and Cohen, 1975, 1985). Ader and Cohen (1975) reported that rats trained such that a taste cue (saccharine, SAC) predicted an injection of an immunosuppressant (cyclophosphamide, CY) subsequently exhibited a conditional immunosuppression in response to SAC alone.\\u000aExperiments 1-3 were designed to evaluate reports

Glenda Marlene MacQueen

1989-01-01

346

75 FR 43799 - Employee Contribution Elections and Contribution Allocations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...default employee contributions made on his or her behalf. In contrast, section 1600.34...default employee contribution made to his or her account. However, the amount of the refund...employee contributions or change his or her contribution percentage or amount at...

2010-07-27

347

A CASE STUDY OF CHLORINE TRANSPORT AND FATE FOLLOWING A LARGE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE  

SciTech Connect

A train derailment that occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina during the early morning hours of 06 January, 2005 resulted in the prompt release of approximately 60 tons of chlorine to the environment. Comprehensive modeling of the transport and fate of this release was performed including the characterization of the initial three-phased chlorine release, a detailed determination of the local atmospheric conditions acting to generate, disperse, and deplete the chlorine vapor cloud, the establishment of physical exchange mechanisms between the airborne vapor and local surface waters, and local aquatic dilution and mixing.

Buckley, R.; Hunter, C.; Werth, D.; Whiteside, M.; Chen, K.; Mazzola, C.

2012-08-01

348

Accidental shock during epidural anesthesia in a patient with NSAID-induced hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism.  

PubMed

An obese man suffered cardiac arrest twenty minutes after receiving epidural anesthesia for incision and debridement of wound over the right leg. The patient's condition stabilized after emergent cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It was found that the patient had been self-administering an herbal drug continuously for a year and a half, and that this drug contained ethoxybenzamide, which is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Low plasma renin and aldosterone levels were noted from the blood sample taken at the time of the cardiac arrest. The cardiac arrest was believed to be related to NSAID-induced hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism, superimposed with epidural anesthesia-induced sympathectomy. PMID:9257212

Tan, P H; Chou, A K; Perng, J S

1997-08-01

349

Can Accidental Local Application of A Drug Cause Discolouration of Permanent Teeth?  

PubMed Central

Thorough knowledge on the aetiology of tooth staining is of importance to dental surgeons, in order to enable a correct diagnosis to be made when examining a discoloured dentition and it allows the dental practitioner to explain to the patient the exact nature of the condition. Tetracyclines are a group of drugs which can discolour teeth permanently. One such case of discolouration of adult teeth caused by administration of tetracycline(oxytetracycline) has been reported here and it has been discussed in detail. PMID:24551734

Hans, Manoj Kumar; Nagpal, Ajay; Shetty, Shashit; Hans, Rinki

2013-01-01

350

PEAR - public exposure from accidental releases: software package EI-028-S86  

SciTech Connect

PEAR is a digital computer program developed to calculate radiation doses to an individual or population in the path of a plume of airborne radioactive materials released into the atmosphere following an accident at a nuclear facility. The code uses the methodology described in the CSA standard N288.2 Guidelines for calculation of radiation doses to the public from a release of airborne radioactive material under accident conditions in nuclear facilities. The code calculates internal and external dose equivalent (to organs and effective) and factors in the specific meteorological and topographical conditions of the site and the specific characteristics of the releases. It deals with 38 radionuclides and with mixtures of radioisotopes. The code is useful for the evaluation of the effects of postulated accidents (such as in the safety reports) and as a real time analysis tool for emergency planning exercises and actual accidents, should they occur. It is relatively easy to run as it is based on a strong interaction between the computer and the user and has easy access to data files.

Not Available

1988-01-01

351

A Profile of Corporate Contributions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent and distribution of charitable contributions by corporations were studied. In addition to a history of giving from 1936 to 1981, information is presented on corporate contributions in 1977 in terms of the distribution of companies (1) by size of contributions, (2) by contributions as percentage of net income, (3) by industry, and (4) by…

Smith, Hayden W.

352

Accidental potassium dichromate poisoning. Toxicokinetics of chromium by ICP-MS-CRC in biological fluids and in hair.  

PubMed

Intoxications by chromium (Cr) compounds are very life threatening and often lethal. After oral ingestion of 2 or 3g of hexavalent Cr (Cr(VI)), gastrointestinal injury, but also hepatic and renal failure, often occurs which each leads to a fatal outcome in most patients. Cellular toxicity is associated with mitochondrial and lysosomal injury by biologically Cr(VI) reactive intermediates and reactive oxygen species. After Cr(VI) has been absorbed, there is not much that can be done except to control the main complications as the treatment is only symptomatic. The biotransformation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) reduces the toxicity because the trivalent form does not cross cellular membranes as rapidly. In fact, more than 80% of Cr(VI) is cleared in urine as Cr(III). We report the case of a 58-year-old male patient who was admitted to hospital after accidental oral ingestion of a 30 g/L potassium dichromate (the estimated amount of ingested Cr is about 3g). ICP-MS equipped with a collision/reaction cell (CRC) and validated methods were used to monitor plasma (P), red blood cells (RBCs), urine (U) and hair chromium. For urine the results were expressed per gram of creatinine. After 7 days in the intensive care unit, the patient was discharged without renal or liver failure. P, RBC and U were monitored during 49 days. During this period Cr decreased respectively from 2088 ?g/L to 5 ?g/L, 631 ?g/L to 129 ?g/L and 3512 ?g/g to 10 ?g/g. The half-life was much shorter in P than in RBC as the poison was more quickly cleared from the P than from the RBC, suggesting a cellular trapping of the metal. Hair was collected 2 months after the intoxication. We report a very rare case of survival after accidental Cr poisoning which has an extremely poor prognosis and usually leads to rapid death. For the first time, this toxicokinetic study highlights a sequestration of chromium in the RBC and probably in all the cells. PMID:22024652

Goullé, J P; Saussereau, E; Grosjean, J; Doche, C; Mahieu, L; Thouret, J M; Guerbet, M; Lacroix, C

2012-04-10

353

Assessment of retrospective dose estimation, with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), of six victims previously exposed to accidental ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

The present study aims to evaluate the use of the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) translocation assay for retrospective dose estimation of acute accidental exposure to radiation in the past. Reciprocal translocation analysis by FISH with three whole-chromosome probes was performed on normal peripheral blood samples. Samples were irradiated with 0-5Gy (60)Co ?-rays in vitro, and dose-effect curves were established. FISH-based translocation analyses for six accident victims were then performed, and biological doses were estimated retrospectively by comparison with the dose-effect curves. Reconstructed doses by FISH were compared with estimated doses obtained by analysis of di-centrics performed soon after exposure, or with dose estimates from tooth-enamel electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data obtained at the same time as the FISH analysis. Follow-up FISH analyses for an adolescent victim were performed. Results showed that dose-effect curves established in the present study follow a linear-quadratic model, regardless of the background translocation frequency. Estimated doses according to two dose-effect curves for all six victims were similar. FISH dose estimations of three adult victims exposed to accidental radiation less than a decade prior to analysis (3, 6, or 7 years ago) were consistent with those estimated with tooth-enamel EPR measurements or analyses of di-centrics. Estimated doses of two other adult victims exposed to radiation over a decade prior to analysis (16 or 33 years ago) were underestimated and two to three times lower than the values obtained from analysis of di-centrics or tooth-enamel EPR. Follow-up analyses of the adolescent victim showed that doses estimated by FISH analysis decrease rapidly over time. Therefore, the accuracy of dose estimates by FISH is acceptable only when analysis is performed less than 7 years after exposure. Measurements carried out more than a decade after exposure through FISH analysis resulted in underestimation of the biological doses compared with values obtained through analysis of di-centrics and tooth-enamel EPR. PMID:24246721

Liu, Qing-Jie; Lu, Xue; Zhao, Xiao-Tao; Feng, Jiang-Bin; Lü, Yu-Min; Jiang, En-Hai; Zhang, Shu-Lan; Chen, De-Qing; Jia, Ting-Zhen; Liang, Li

2014-01-01

354

Conditional Probability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by the Department of Statistics at Yale University gives an explanation, a definition and an example of conditional probability. Topics include the probabilities of intersections of events and Bayes' formula. Overall, this is a great resource for any mathematics classroom studying statistics.

Lacey, Michelle

355

Incorporation of Therapeutic Interventions in Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Human Clinical Case Reports of Accidental or Intentional Overdosing with Ethylene Glycol  

SciTech Connect

Ethylene glycol is a high production volume chemical used in the manufacture of resins and fibers, antifreeze, deicing fluids, heat transfer and hydraulic fluids. Although occupational uses of ethylene glycol have not been associated with adverse effects, there are case reports where humans have either intentionally or accidentally ingested large quantities of ethylene glycol, primarily from antifreeze. The acute toxicity of ethylene glycol in humans and animals and can proceed through three stages, each associated with a different metabolite: central nervous system depression (ethylene glycol), cardiopulmonary effects associated with metabolic acidosis (glycolic acid) and ultimately renal toxicity (oxalic acid), depending upon the total amounts consumed and effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model developed in a companion paper (Corley et al., 2004) was refined in this study to include clinically relevant treatment regimens for ethylene glycol poisoning such as hemodialysis or metabolic inhibition with either ethanol or fomepizole. Such modifications enabled the model to describe several human case reports which included analysis of ethylene glycol and/or glycolic acid. Such data and model simulations provide important confirmation that the PBPK model developed previously can adequately describe the pharmacokinetics of ethylene glycol in humans following low, occupational or environmentally relevant inhalation exposures, as well as massive oral doses even under conditions where treatments have been employed that markedly affect the disposition of ethylene glycol and glycolic acid. By integrating the case report data sets with controlled studies in this PBPK model, it was demonstrated that fomepizole, if administered early enough in a clinical situation, can be more effective than ethanol or hemodialysis in preventing the metabolism of ethylene glycol to more toxic metabolites. Hemodialysis remains an important option, however, if treatment is instituted after a significant amount of EG is metabolized or if renal toxicity has occurred. The validated PBPK model was also used to compare internal dose surrogates associated with ethylene glycol toxicity in rats and humans. These simulations indicate that following occupational or environmental exposures, humans are unlikely to achieve blood levels of glycolic acid that have been associated with developmental toxicity in rats.

Corley, Rick A.; McMartin, K. E.

2005-05-16

356

Estimating outdoor and indoor dust lead levels from accidental bridge repair containment releases  

SciTech Connect

A 1998 New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) environmental impact statement (EIS) evaluated the proposed removal of deteriorated lead paint from NYCDOT-owned bridges. The EIS health risk assessment quantified the potential impact of particulate releases on blood lead levels among members of the public living and working near affected bridges. The risk assessment consisted of a fate and transport component and an exposure-dose component. The fate and transport component, modeled using the EPA's Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) model, calculated the impact of paint removal activities on ambient air lead concentrations and dust lead deposition rates. The exposure-dose component, modeled using EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model, the Bowers et al. Adult Lead model, and the O'Flaherty lead model, calculated the impact of additional lead in air, street dust, interior house dust, and soil on blood lead levels, a conventional measure of body lead burden. The analysis was complicated because the ISC3 model provides a dust lead deposition rate ({micro}g/m{sup 2}-day), while the IEUBK, Bowers et al., and O'Flaherty models demand as input specification of dust lead concentrations ({micro}g lead per g dust). This paper describes a model developed for the EIS that quantifies long term average dust lead concentrations associated with typical bridge containment releases, and short term dust lead concentration spikes following worst case release events associated with bridge repair containment structure failures. The model reflects the influence of both lead and other debris associated with bridge repair activities, the contribution of background debris to street dust, and the impact of rainfall on removal of both lead and other material from the street dust reservoir.

Cohen, J.T.; Conway, R.F.

1999-07-01

357

Cardiac conditions.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the US. The growth of the older population in coming decades will inevitably increase the incidence of age-related cardiac disease. Increasing evidence has shown the prevalence of co-morbid mental health conditions in CVD patients. Specifically, depression and anxiety have been linked with CVD mortality. Due to the risk of psychosocial conditions with cardiac patients, mental health practitioners in health and gerontology need to be well-informed about CVD-related mental health comorbidity and current research developments. Accordingly, this article provides a systematic review of the clinical evidence about the efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and any potential risk of psychosocial intervention with cardiac patients. PMID:18924386

Peck, Michel D; Ai, Amy L

2008-01-01

358

Simulation de l'ecoulement dans un parc d'eoliennes situees sur un terrain accidente  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'objectif principal de cette these est la modelisation de l'ecoulement de la couche limite atmospherique dans un parc eolien sur un terrain complexe. Pour ce faire, trois domaines distincts ont ete abordes: caracteristiques de la couche limite atmospherique, aerodynamique des eoliennes et modelisation du terrain complexe. Ainsi l'objectif global de la these a ete divise a trois objectifs specifiques. Le premier objectif specifique est de demontrer l'efficacite du modele de turbulence propose base sur le modele de turbulence RNG, combinee avec les equations du tenseur de Reynolds moyennees dans le temps (RANS) pour simuler l'ecoulement turbulent moyen sur les collines et les vallees bidimensionnelles de formes analytiques et de pentes variables, et aussi, sur le terrain complexe tridimensionnel Blashaval. Le deuxieme objectif specifique de la these est de proposer un nouveau modele de turbulence pour simuler l'ecoulement axisymetrique a travers une eolienne a axe horizontal. Pour valider le modele propose, des resultats sont presentes pour les eoliennes experimentales Nibe B, Danwin 180/23, et MOD-0A. Le dernier objectif specifique est d'appliquer le modele de turbulence propose pour la simulation de l'ecoulement tridimensionnel a travers une eolienne immergee dans une couche limite atmospherique sous diverses conditions de stabilite thermique.

El Kasmi, Amina

359

The pathogenesis of retinal and subdural haemorrhage in non-accidental head injury in infancy: assessment using Bradford Hill criteria.  

PubMed

Fatal non-accidental head injury (NAHI) in infancy is characterised by severe bilateral retinal haemorrhage (sbRH), thin film diffuse bilateral subdural haemorrhage (dbSDH) and severe fatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (sfHIE). The Geddes hypothesis is that sfHIE is the direct cause of sbRH and dbSDH. The conventional hypothesis (post-Geddes) is that trauma precipitates hypoxia to cause sfHIE and independently tears veins to cause sbRH and dbSDH. These hypotheses are assessed using Bradford Hill criteria of causation. The triad (sbRH, dbSDH and sfHIE) is a strong, specific and consistent association which suggests a causative link. Furthermore sbRH and dbSDH are positively correlated with severity of HIE but negatively correlated with objective evidence of trauma. The conventional hypothesis (post-Geddes) fails the test of biological plausibility because trauma causes asymmetrical and focal bleeding not diffuse bilateral capillary and venular oozing. The conventional hypothesis lacks coherence since it was shown that the encephalopathy of the triad is not traumatic. Arguments by analogy also support the Geddes hypothesis. There is a paucity of experimental evidence for either hypothesis but this is likely to be rectified as molecular methods (genomics and proteomics) are used in the infant autopsy. PMID:24139052

Acres, Meghan J; Morris, James A

2014-01-01

360

Quantifying magnetite magnetofossil contributions to sedimentary magnetizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under suitable conditions, magnetofossils (the inorganic remains of magnetotactic bacteria) can contribute to the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) of sediments. In recent years, magnetofossils have been shown to be preserved commonly in marine sediments, which makes it essential to quantify their importance in palaeomagnetic recording. In this study, we examine a deep-sea sediment core from offshore of northwestern Western Australia. The magnetic mineral assemblage is dominated by continental detritus and magnetite magnetofossils. By separating magnetofossil and detrital components based on their different demagnetization characteristics, it is possible to quantify their respective contributions to the sedimentary NRM throughout the Brunhes chron. In the studied core, the contribution of magnetofossils to the NRM is controlled by large-scale climate changes, with their relative importance increasing during glacial periods when detrital inputs were low. Our results demonstrate that magnetite magnetofossils can dominate sedimentary NRMs in settings where they are preserved in significant abundances.

Heslop, David; Roberts, Andrew P.; Chang, Liao; Davies, Maureen; Abrajevitch, Alexandra; De Deckker, Patrick

2013-11-01

361

Chronic health problems and risk of accidental injury in the workplace: A systematic literature review  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate whether common important health conditions and their treatments increase risks of occupational injury. Methods A systematic search was conducted of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO databases from inception to November 2006 employing terms for occupational injury, medications, and a broad range of diseases and impairments. Papers related solely to driving, alcohol, or substance abuse were excluded, as were studies that did not allow analysis of injury risk. For each paper that was retrieved we abstracted standard information on the population, design, exposure(s), outcome(s), response rates, confounders and effect estimates; and rated the quality of information provided. Results We found 38 relevant papers (33 study populations): 16 studies were of cross-sectional design, 13 were case-control and four were prospective. The overall quality was rated as excellent for only two studies. Most commonly investigated were problems of hearing (15 studies), mental health (11 studies) and vision (10 studies). For impaired hearing, neurotic illness, diabetes, epilepsy and use of sedating medication there were moderate positive associations with occupational injury (ORs 1.5–2.0), but there were major gaps in the evidence base. Studies on vision did not present risks by category of eye disease; no evidence was found on psychotic illness; for diabetes, epilepsy and cardiovascular disease there were remarkably few papers; studies seldom distinguished risks by sub-category of external cause or anatomical site and nature of injury; and exposures and outcomes were mostly ascertained by self-report at a single time point, with a lack of clarity about exposure timings. Conclusion Improved research is needed to define the risks of occupational injury arising from common health complaints and treatments. Such research should delineate exposures and outcomes in more detail, and ensure by design that the former precede the latter. PMID:18417559

PALMER, K T; HARRIS, E C; COGGON, D

2013-01-01

362

Accidental Bait: Do Deceased Fish Increase Freshwater Turtle Bycatch in Commercial Fyke Nets?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bycatch of turtles in passive inland fyke net fisheries has been poorly studied, yet bycatch is an important conservation issue given the decline in many freshwater turtle populations. Delayed maturity and low natural adult mortality make turtles particularly susceptible to population declines when faced with additional anthropogenic adult mortality such as bycatch. When turtles are captured in fyke nets, the prolonged submergence can lead to stress and subsequent drowning. Fish die within infrequently checked passive fishing nets and dead fish are a potential food source for many freshwater turtles. Dead fish could thus act as attractants and increase turtle captures in fishing nets. We investigated the attraction of turtles to decomposing fish within fyke nets in eastern Ontario. We set fyke nets with either 1 kg of one-day or five-day decomposed fish, or no decomposed fish in the cod-end of the net. Decomposing fish did not alter the capture rate of turtles or fish, nor did it alter the species composition of the catch. Thus, reducing fish mortality in nets using shorter soak times is unlikely to alter turtle bycatch rates since turtles were not attracted by the dead fish. Interestingly, turtle bycatch rates increased as water temperatures did. Water temperature also influences turtle mortality by affecting the duration turtles can remain submerged. We thus suggest that submerged nets to either not be set or have reduced soak times in warm water conditions (e.g., >20 °C) as turtles tend to be captured more frequently and cannot withstand prolonged submergence.

Larocque, Sarah M.; Watson, Paige; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Cooke, Steven J.

2012-07-01

363

Partitioning of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorohexanesulfonate in the aquatic environment after an accidental release of aqueous film forming foam at Schiphol Amsterdam Airport.  

PubMed

In summer 2008, an accidental release of aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) took place at Schiphol Amsterdam Airport (The Netherlands). After the release, water, fish, and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs). In situ perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) sediment-water distribution factor (KD ) values, bioaccumulation factor (BAF) values, and biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) values showed a remarkable agreement among reference and impacted sites, 10 wk after the incident as well as after 3 yr. PMID:24729487

Kwadijk, Christiaan J A F; Kotterman, Michiel; Koelmans, Albert A

2014-08-01

364

Cotton plants transformed with a bacterial degradation gene are protected from accidental spray drift damage by the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agronomic performance of broad leaved crop plants such as cotton would be greatly improved if genetically-engineered resistance to broadleaf herbicides could both protect the plants from accidental spray drift damage and allow the suppression of problem broadleaf weeds by chemical means. Followingin vitro modification and the addition of plant expression signals, the gene for 2,4-D monooxygenase, a bacterial enzyme

Bruce R. Lyon; Yvonne L. Cousins; Danny J. Llewellyn; Elizabeth S. Dennis

1993-01-01

365

The nature and timing of caldera collapse as indicated by accidental lithic fragments from the AD V1000 eruption of Volcan Ceboruco, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

One way to determine the mechanics of caldera formation is through quantitative component analysis of accidental lithic fragments in pyroclastic deposits erupted before and during caldera collapse.All previous studies of this sort, however, are based on pyroclastic deposits from large-volume (s 10 km3) caldera eruptions.In this study, we use quantitative component analysis of lithic fragments to determine the mechanics of

B. L. Browne; J. E. Gardner

366

Historical contributions of research on reptiles to behavioral neuroendocrinology  

E-print Network

Historical contributions of research on reptiles to behavioral neuroendocrinology David Crews that behavioral neuroendocrinology ``discovered'' reptiles as animal model systems. This historical review; Neuroendocrinology ``Natural experiments permit one to examine conditions that cannot. . .be created experimentally

Crews, David

367

Estimating areas contributing recharge to wells, lessons from previous studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Factors relating to the estimation of areas contributing recharge to wells, such as complexity of the ground-water flow system, effects of changing hydrologic conditions, and effects of well-screen locations and pumping rates, are reviewed. The point of view that simulation is the best means to obtain physically based estimates of contributing areas is emphasized. An extensive list of USGS reports that include estimation of contributing areas is provided.

Franke, O. Lehn; Reilly, T.E.; Pollock, D.W.; LaBaugh, J.W.

1998-01-01

368

Study of the effects of accidentally released carbon/graphite fibers on electric power equipment. Program final report, June 5, 1978-June 5, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The program to study the effect of accidentally released carbon fibers on electrical power equipment consisted of determining the vulnerability of system outage rates to carbon fiber contamination, and performing tests to quantitize the contamination required to cause flashover of external insulation. Part One of this final report describes an assessment of the vulnerability of power systems to accidentally released fibers from a composite burn. The assessment describes the effect of carbon fibers on individual component failure rates and discusses the effect the change in component failure rates has on the power system reliability. Part Two describes in detail testing performed to determine the vulnerability of external insulation to carbon fiber contamination. Testing consisted of airborne contamination tests on distribution insulators, limited tests on suspension insulators which are commonly used for transmission class voltages, and various tests to quantify the influence of fiber length, voltage stress, etc. on flashover characteristics. The data obtained and analysis performed during this project show that the change of system reliability due to an accidental release from burned carbon fiber composite is negligible.

Mauser, S.F.; Bankoske, J.W.; Cooper, J.H.; Davies, D.G.; Eichler, C.H.; Hileman, A.R.; Mousseau, T.E. Jr.; Rackliffe, G.B.

1980-06-05

369

Posttraumatic growth within the first three?months after accidental injury in China: the role of self-disclosure, cognitive processing, and psychosocial resources.  

PubMed

The primary goals of this study, were to identify the posttraumatic growth (PTG) level of accidentally injured Chinese patients shortly after an accident occurred and to determine whether cognitive processing, self-disclosure, and psychosocial resources predicted PTG. A total of 232 patients were recruited from two public hospitals in Shanghai within the first three?months of an accidental injury. Patients completed self-report questionnaires to assess severity of injury, cognitive processing, self-disclosure, psychosocial resources, and PTG. Patients reported a mid-low level of PTG (M?=?50.38, SD?=?18.12) in the short length of time post-injury. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that subjective accident severity, deliberate rumination, perceived social support, and attitude towards disclosure were strong predictors of PTG. A moderating role of self-disclosure between intrusive rumination and PTG was identified. These findings support an interaction effect of rumination and self-disclosure on PTG and have implications for early intervention of accidentally injured patients. PMID:24819014

Dong, Chaoqun; Gong, Shumei; Jiang, Liping; Deng, Guanghui; Liu, Xiaohong

2015-01-01

370

ORIGINAL PAPER Fertilizer vs. organic matter contributions to nitrogen  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Fertilizer vs. organic matter contributions to nitrogen leaching in cropping systems the fate of fertilizer N and (2) evaluated the contribution of fertilizer and soil organic matter (SOM) to N leaching under the typical cropping conditions of the Pampas. Fertilizer N was applied as 15 N

Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

371

EMSL Contribution Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Contribution Plan is EMSL’s template for achieving our vision of simultaneous excellence in all aspects of our mission as a national scientific user facility. It reflects our understanding of the long-term stewardship we must work toward to meet the scientific challenges faced by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the nation. During the next decade, we will implement the strategies contained in this Plan, working closely with the scientific community, our advisory committees, DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research, and other key stakeholders. This Plan is fully aligned with the strategic plans of DOE, its Office of Science, and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). We recognize that shifts in science and technology, national priorities, and resources made available through the Federal budget process create planning uncertainties and, ultimately, a highly dynamic planning environment. Accordingly, this Plan should be viewed as a living document and we continually evaluate the changing needs and opportunities posed by our stakeholders (i.e., DOE, users, staff, advisory committees), work closely with them to understand and respond to those changes, and align our strategy accordingly. This Plan is organized around two sections. Section 1 describes our vision and four strategic outcomes: 1) Scientific Innovation, 2) Capabilities that Transform Science, 3) Outstanding Management and Operations, and Engaged and Proactive Users. These outcomes provide the framework for seven critical actions we must take during the next 3 to 5 years: 1) Establishing leadership in EMSL science themes, 2) building and deploying transformational capabilities, 3) integrating computation with experiment, 4) ensuring EMSL’s workforce meets the scientific challenges of the future, 5) creating partnerships, 6) attracting and engaging users in EMSL’s long-term strategy, and 7) building a research infrastructure that meets emerging scientific needs. Section 2 describes EMSL’s detailed business plan, including an analysis of opportunity, organizational investments, and actionable milestones.

Campbell, Allison A.

2008-12-01

372

Definitive, Intermediate, Paratenic, and Accidental Hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and its Molluscan Intermediate Hosts in Hawa‘i  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic meningitis caused by infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis, a parasitic nematode, is an emerging infectious disease of humans and other animals, known as angiostrongyliasis or rat lungworm disease. Symptoms range from headache and muscle spasms in mild cases to coma and even death. Many human cases have been recorded around the world, with the majority in tropical and subtropical locations. The increase in numbers of human cases and the expansion of the geographic distribution of cases make this parasite and its hosts important research foci. Definitive hosts include various rat species such as Rattus norvegicus, R. rattus, and R. exulans, and a number of land and freshwater snails and slugs have previously been identified as intermediate hosts.1 Both definitive and intermediate hosts are obligate to the life cycle of A. cantonensis. Paratenic hosts span a wide range of fauna and are not needed in the nematode's life cycle, but act as reservoirs in which different larval stages of the parasite can persist but not develop further; they include freshwater shrimp, flatworms, and frogs.2–4 Accidental hosts, including humans and other mammals, as well as birds, permit development from the third larval stage to the subadult (fifth) stage but are then dead ends for the parasite.5,6 These hosts are infected primarily through consumption of raw or undercooked intermediate or paratenic hosts, either intentionally or accidentally via contaminated produce.7 In Hawa‘i, there have been recent outbreaks with cases of infection on four of the main islands. Since there is currently a limited consensus on appropriate therapy, steps to prevent infection should be taken. The first step to facilitate this and to lay the groundwork for future management of the hosts is to identify the intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis and to determine its geographic distribution within the Hawaiian Islands. To do this over 1000 specimens of 37 terrestrial and freshwater snail and slug species (30 introduced, 7 native) from the six largest Hawaiian Islands were screened using a molecular approach.8 Total DNA was extracted from foot tissue of each specimen and was amplified using Angiostrongylus-specific primers.8 Amplicons were visualized on agarose gels to determine if specimens were positive or negative for A. cantonensis. All of the positive specimens and a random sample of all other specimens tested were also reamplified using species-specific primers.9 All positive samples were still positive with the newer primers. The parasite was present in 16 (14 alien, 2 native) of these species, from five of the six largest Hawaiian Islands. These species represent 10 phylogenetically diverse terrestrial pulmonate families and 2 more distantly related caenogastropod families (one terrestrial and one freshwater). This broad phylogenetic representation demonstrates that this parasite is not host specific, to the extent that perhaps even any snail or slug species could act as an intermediate host.

Kim, Jaynee R; Hayes, Kenneth A; Yeung, Norine W

2013-01-01

373

Sea salt CCN contribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatility measurements (Twomey 1971; Hudson and Da 1996) showed that most CCN over the ocean are not NaCl. However, other reports indicate NaCl as a major CCN component. Here we contrast cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectral volatility (thermal fractionation) measurements from three aircraft field projects to provide insight into the relative contribution of sea salt. The most remote location, PASE (mid-Pacific), had the highest average CCN concentrations (NCCN) probably because it was the least cloudy whereas the less remote, but more cloudy,RICO(Caribbean)had the lowest average NCCN (Hudson and Noble 2009). In RICO particle concentrations in all size ranges larger than 0.3 micrometers were well correlated with wind speed (R ~ 0.87) but uncorrelated with NCCN (Fig. 1A). Smaller particles in RICO were correlated with NCCN but uncorrelated with wind speed. In PASE only particles larger than 10 micrometers were correlated with wind speed and concentrations in these size ranges were uncorrelated with NCCN. Particles smaller than 10 micrometers in PASE were uncorrelated with wind speed but well correlated with NCCN. In both projects particle concentrations smaller than these respective sizes were highly correlated with NCCN, at all S in PASE but mainly with NCCN at high S in RICO. CCN volatility measurements showed high correlations between refractory NCCN and wind speed, especially for low supersaturation (S) NCCN, and no correlation of volatile NCCN at all S with wind speed. In PASE there was only a weak positive correlation between refractory NCCN and wind and also no correlation between volatile NCCN and wind. These results indicate that in clean maritime air the wind originated component of NCCN can be substantial (i.e., > 30% for wind > 14 m/s) but that in maritime air with higher NCCN the wind derived CCN component is probably less than 10%. The contrast in cloudiness between the two projects was responsible for many of the differences noted between them. A third project (POST) showed appropriately intermediate results to those of RICO and PASE. The results indicate that the effects of clouds on NCCN play a major role in the relative influence of sea salt on NCCN and ultimately on climate. Hudson, J.G. and S. Noble, 2009: Geophys. Res. Let., 36, L13812, Hudson, J.G. and X. Da, 1996: J. Geophys. Res., 101, 4435-4442. Twomey, S.: 1971: J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 377-381.

Hudson, J. G.; Jha, V.; Noble, S.

2011-12-01

374

Accidental falls, health-related quality of life and life satisfaction: a prospective study of the general elderly population.  

PubMed

As the physical consequences of accidental falls in the elderly are well-researched, the long-term associations between falls and quality of life and related concepts are less known. The aim of this study was to prospectively examine the long-term relations between falls and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and life satisfaction (LS) over six years in the general elderly population. One thousand three hundred and twenty-one subjects (aged 60-93 years), from the general population in the south of Sweden, were included in a baseline assessment and a follow-up after six years. HRQoL was measured with the SF-12 and LS with the life satisfaction index A (LSI-A). The differences in mean scores between fallers at baseline (n=113) and non-fallers were statistical analyzed. Furthermore, the prediction of falls on the outcomes was analyzed using a multivariate linear regression model adjusted for multiple confounding factors. Fallers scored significant lower in HRQoL and LS at baseline and after six years, compared to non-fallers, especially in the SF-12 physical component (p=<0.001). In the linear regression analysis, one or more falls at the baseline predicted a significant reduction in the SF-12 physical component at the follow-up assessment (B-Coefficient -1.8, 95% CI -3.4 to -0.2). In conclusion, falls predict a long-term reduction in the physical component of HRQoL in the general elderly population. Over six years, fallers had a notable chronic lowered score in both HRQoL and LS, compared to non-fallers. This long-term depression of elderly fallers in these aspects may be more extent than previous assumed. PMID:23993268

Stenhagen, Magnus; Ekström, Henrik; Nordell, Eva; Elmståhl, Sölve

2014-01-01

375

Accidental death due to complete autoerotic asphyxia associated with transvestic fetishism and anal self-stimulation - case report.  

PubMed

A case is reported of a 36-year-old male, found dead in his locked room, lying on a bed, dressed in his mother's clothes, with a plastic bag over his head, hands tied and with a barrel wooden cork in his rectum. Two pornographic magazines were found on a chair near the bed, so that the deceased could see them well. Asphyxia was controlled with a complex apparatus which consisted of two elastic luggage rack straps, the first surrounding his waist, perineum, and buttocks, and the second the back of his body, and neck. According to the psychological autopsy based on a structured interview (SCID-I, SCID-II) with his father, the deceased was single, unemployed and with a part college education. He had grown up in a poor family with a reserved father and dominant mother, and was indicative of fulfilling DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence, paraphilia involving hypoxyphilia with transvestic fetishism and anal masturbation and a borderline personality disorder. There was no evidence of previous psychiatric treatment. The Circumstances subscale of Beck's Suicidal Intent Scale (SIS-CS) pointed at the lack of final acts (thoughts or plans) in anticipation of death, and absence of a suicide note or overt communication of suicidal intent before death. Integration of the crime scene data with those of the forensic medicine and psychological autopsy enabled identification of the event as an accidental death, caused by neck strangulation, suffocation by a plastic bag, and vagal stimulation due to a foreign body in the rectum. PMID:19556957

Atanasijevi?, Tatjana; Jovanovi?, Aleksandar A; Nikoli?, Slobodan; Popovi?, Vesna; Jasovi?-Gasi?, Miroslava

2009-06-01

376

Serotonin and conditioning: focus on Pavlovian psychostimulant drug conditioning.  

PubMed

Serotonin containing neurons are located in nuclei deep in the brainstem and send axons throughout the central nervous system from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex. The vast scope of these connections and interactions enable serotonin and serotonin analogs to have profound effects upon sensory/motor processes. In that conditioning represents a neuroplastic process that leads to new sensory/motor connections, it is apparent that the serotonin system has the potential for a critical role in conditioning. In this article we review the basics of conditioning as well as the serotonergic system and point up the number of non-associative ways in which manipulations of serotonin neurotransmission have an impact upon conditioning. We focus upon psychostimulant drug conditioning and review the contribution of drug stimuli in the use of serotonin drugs to investigate drug conditioning and the important impact drug stimuli can have on conditioning by introducing new sensory stimuli that can create or mask a CS. We also review the ways in which experimental manipulations of serotonin can disrupt conditioned behavioral effects but not the associative processes in conditioning. In addition, we propose the use of the recently developed memory re-consolidation model of conditioning as an approach to assess the possible role of serotonin in associative processes without the complexities of performance effects related to serotonin treatment induced alterations in sensory/motor systems. PMID:25446748

Carey, Robert J; Damianopoulos, Ernest N

2015-04-01

377

[Accidental oral mercurochrome poisoning].  

PubMed

Neonatal mercury poisoning, especially that due to merbromin ingestion, is uncommon. We describe the case of a 10 day old newborn infant who was given mercurochrome orally for 7 days due to misunderstanding of medical instructions. Initial symptoms included loss of appetite and low weight increase. Elevated blood mercury concentrations were found. Chelating therapy with dimercaprol was initiated and the patient's evolution was good. We discuss the potential toxicity of mercury and emphasise the importance of the transmission of information by physicians, especially to the immigrant population. PMID:11141371

Ayala Curiel J; Nieto Conde C; Santana Rodríguez C; Urbón Artero A; Gracia Remiro R

2000-11-01

378

Serotonin in fear conditioning processes.  

PubMed

This review describes the latest developments in our understanding of how the serotonergic system modulates Pavlovian fear conditioning, fear expression and fear extinction. These different phases of classical fear conditioning involve coordinated interactions between the extended amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortices. Here, I first define the different stages of learning involved in cued and context fear conditioning and describe the neural circuits underlying these processes. The serotonergic system can be manipulated by administering serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists, as well as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and these can have significant effects on emotional learning and memory. Moreover, variations in serotonergic genes can influence fear conditioning and extinction processes, and can underlie differential responses to pharmacological manipulations. This research has considerable translational significance as imbalances in the serotonergic system have been linked to anxiety and depression, while abnormalities in the mechanisms of conditioned fear contribute to anxiety disorders. PMID:25078294

Bauer, Elizabeth P

2015-01-15

379

Accidental deaths by hanging among children in Istanbul, Turkey: retrospective analysis of medicolegal autopsies in 33 years.  

PubMed

Hanging is a type of strangulation by means of rope or any other similar material. This kind of ligature strangulation occurs by weight of the body dragging due to gravity and applying force to the neck. Hanging almost never occurs by accident, but occurs mostly as a way to commit suicide.A total number of 82,871 autopsies were performed in the Council of Forensic Medicine of the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Justice (Istanbul) between 1979 and 2012, and 4500 (5.43%) of these deaths occurred as a result of hanging. Thirteen of these reported cases have been observed and resulted in death occurring by accident. Seven of these victims were males, and 6 of them were females. Examination of their ages revealed that 3 of these victims were aged 1 year, and 3 victims were aged 6 years. The oldest victim was aged 13 years, and the youngest one was aged 1 year. It has been recorded that 8 of the deaths occurred with rope, 2 with sweater, 2 with scarf, 1 with belt, and 1 with tights. Investigation of the incidents revealed that 3 of the cases occurred by tangling in a rope swing and 2 with a head scarf. Ligature marks on the neck from aforementioned materials and ecchymosis on soft tissue were observed on all of the victims, and the thyroid cartilages and cervical vertebrae were intact. No substance was found in the toxicological analysis performed on all victims.In conclusion, our study showed that although accidental death by hanging took place rarely in these ages, all of the victims were between the ages of 1 and 13 years who recently started walking and entering their teenage years. It is important not to leave the children at home or in the playgrounds alone for a long time (unsupervised at home or in the playgrounds). Precautionary measures must be taken against danger, and the design of materials manufactured for this age group must be reconsidered. PMID:25310372

Kumral, Bahadir; Ozdes, Taskin; Avsar, Abdullah; Buyuk, Yalcin

2014-12-01

380

Report Ocean WG Contributions from  

E-print Network

Report Ocean WG Contributions from SMHI, MISU, KNMI Andreas Sterl #12;Contributions SMHI: Heat budget of Arctic Ocean Tuning MISU: Overturning and water masses KNMI: warm SST bias in Southern Ocean #12;SMHI #12;Ocean heat transport into the Arctic in CMIP5-simulations with EC-Earth solid: RCP4

Stoffelen, Ad

381

The accidental risk assessment methodology for industries (ARAMIS)/layer of protection analysis (LOPA) methodology: a step forward towards convergent practices in risk assessment?  

PubMed

In the last ten years, layer of protection analysis (LOPA) emerged as a simplified form of quantitative risk assessment (QRA). The European Commission funded project Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries in the context of the Seveso 2 Directive (ARAMIS) has recently been completed. ARAMIS has several modules which give a consistent simplified approach to risk assessment which does not approach the complexity or expense of full QRA. LOPA is potentially a means of carrying out the assessment of barriers required in ARAMIS. This paper attempts to explain the principles of LOPA and the means by which it can be used within ARAMIS. PMID:16139426

Gowland, Richard

2006-03-31

382

Successful recovery from iatrogenic severe hypernatremia and severe metabolic acidosis resulting from accidental use of inappropriate bicarbonate concentrate for hemodialysis treatment.  

PubMed

Bicarbonate dialysis is the treatment modality of choice for correction of metabolic acidosis in chronic renal failure. However, improper selection of dialysate concentrate can result in life-threatening human errors. We report a case of iatrogenic severe hypernatremia (sodium 207 mEq/L) and severe metabolic acidosis (pH 6.65) that resulted due to accidental use of inappropriate bicarbonate concentrate for hemodialysis treatment. There was successful recovery in this patient with no neurological sequelae. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report in adults of severe hypernatremia along with severe metabolic acidosis due to error in the preparation of dialysis fluid. PMID:25579726

Bhosale, Guruprasad P; Shah, Veena R

2015-01-01

383

The Condition-Dependent Transcriptional Landscape of Burkholderia pseudomallei  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp), the causative agent of the often-deadly infectious disease melioidosis, contains one of the largest prokaryotic genomes sequenced to date, at 7.2 Mb with two large circular chromosomes (1 and 2). To comprehensively delineate the Bp transcriptome, we integrated whole-genome tiling array expression data of Bp exposed to >80 diverse physical, chemical, and biological conditions. Our results provide direct experimental support for the strand-specific expression of 5,467 Sanger protein-coding genes, 1,041 operons, and 766 non-coding RNAs. A large proportion of these transcripts displayed condition-dependent expression, consistent with them playing functional roles. The two Bp chromosomes exhibited dramatically different transcriptional landscapes — Chr 1 genes were highly and constitutively expressed, while Chr 2 genes exhibited mosaic expression where distinct subsets were expressed in a strongly condition-dependent manner. We identified dozens of cis-regulatory motifs associated with specific condition-dependent expression programs, and used the condition compendium to elucidate key biological processes associated with two complex pathogen phenotypes — quorum sensing and in vivo infection. Our results demonstrate the utility of a Bp condition-compendium as a community resource for biological discovery. Moreover, the observation that significant portions of the Bp virulence machinery can be activated by specific in vitro cues provides insights into Bp's capacity as an “accidental pathogen”, where genetic pathways used by the bacterium to survive in environmental niches may have also facilitated its ability to colonize human hosts. PMID:24068961

Nandi, Tannistha; Kreisberg, Jason F.; Chua, Hui Hoon; Sun, Guangwen; Chen, Yahua; Mueller, Claudia; Conejero, Laura; Eshaghi, Majid; Ang, Roy Moh Lik; Liu, Jianhua; Sobral, Bruno W.; Korbsrisate, Sunee; Gan, Yunn Hwen; Titball, Richard W.; Bancroft, Gregory J.; Valade, Eric; Tan, Patrick

2013-01-01

384

Tesla's contribution to radiowave propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review Nikola Tesla's contribution to radiowave propagation and wireless power transmission. Tesla's patents, published and unpublished notes about radiowave propagation and wireless power transmission are less known, and if known to some extent, they are usually wrongly interpreted

Aleksandar Marincic; Djuradj Budimir

2001-01-01

385

Dynamical interpretation of conditional patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While great progress is being made in characterizing the 3-D structure of organized turbulent motions using conditional averaging analysis, there is a lack of theoretical guidance regarding the interpretation and utilization of such information. Questions concerning the significance of the structures, their contributions to various transport properties, and their dynamics cannot be answered without recourse to appropriate dynamical governing equations. One approach which addresses some of these questions uses the conditional fields as initial conditions and calculates their evolution from the Navier-Stokes equations, yielding valuable information about stability, growth, and longevity of the mean structure. To interpret statistical aspects of the structures, a different type of theory which deals with the structures in the context of their contributions to the statistics of the flow is needed. As a first step toward this end, an effort was made to integrate the structural information from the study of organized structures with a suitable statistical theory. This is done by stochastically estimating the two-point conditional averages that appear in the equation for the one-point probability density function, and relating the structures to the conditional stresses. Salient features of the estimates are identified, and the structure of the one-point estimates in channel flow is defined.

Adrian, R. J.; Moser, R. D.; Moin, P.

1988-01-01

386

Multivariable conditional analysis for complex trait and its components.  

PubMed

Methods of multivariable conditional analysis were proposed for analyzing contribution of component traits to complex target trait based on mixed linear model approaches. The contribution ratio and the contributed genetic effect were defined. The contribution ratio could measure the proportion of genetic variation of the given component trait on the target trait. The contributed genetic effect could quantify genetic effect of the given component traits contributed to the target trait. A worked example from the cotton data is given to illustrate the application of the new methods for analyzing the contribution of three yield components to lint yield. PMID:15931790

Wen, Yong-Xian; Zhu, Jun

2005-03-01

387

Robert William Smith: His Life and His Contributions to Medicine  

PubMed Central

Robert William Smith is best known for his contribution to Smith’s fracture. He also made other significant contributions to medicine and medical education, publishing on topics ranging from arthritis to neuroma. He had a great interest in pathology and helped found the Pathological Society of Dublin. At the time of his death, he was the Vice President of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. His contributions to the understanding of various pathological conditions make him an important figure in medicine and in hand surgery. PMID:18656770

Shah, Hriday M.; Chung, Kevin C.

2015-01-01

388

Atmospheric Methane Contributions From Fractured Bedrock Aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is not normally considered as an important contributor of atmospheric methane because the organic carbon content of aquifers is too low to sustain significant methanogenesis. Also, groundwater-generated methane partitions into the gas phase of the overlying soil, where it either dissolves in the pore water or is oxidized to carbon dioxide by methanotrophs. There are, however, localized conditions (related to human activities and hydrogeologic conditions) under which atmospheric contributions of groundwater-generated methane occur at the ground surface. Storing and transporting liquid petroleum products in the subsurface has resulted in the local introduction of high concentrations of degradable organic carbon and the creation of redox conditions that favor methanogenesis over more oxidative biodegradation pathways. Groundwater overlain by fractured bedrock, rather than by unconsolidated porous media, creates a situation where CH4 migrates through discrete fractures, thus limiting the soil volume and the surface area available for methanotrophic activity. The spatial distribution of methane in thin surface soils overlying bedrock suggests that CH4 migrates via fracture networks and that CH4 oxidation is a factor of about 50 less than that measured in typical unconsolidated soils. Atmospheric flux rates associated with contaminated bedrock aquifers were on the order of several grams of carbon (as CH4) per square meter, which is less than that reported for well documented sources (e.g., rice paddies) and probably represents a minor worldwide contribution. Nonetheless, these aquifers can represent an important localized source, can shift soils from a sink to a source of methane, and can permit petroleum products to load carbon (as biogenic CH4 and CO2) to the atmosphere without ever being combusted.

Marrin, D. L.

2013-05-01

389

Charm contribution to bulk viscosity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the range of temperatures reached in future heavy ion collision experiments, hadronic pair annihilations and creations of charm quarks may take place within the lifetime of the plasma. As a result, charm quarks may increase the bulk viscosity affecting the early stages of hydrodynamic expansion. Assuming thermalisation, we estimate the charm contribution to bulk viscosity within the same effective kinetic theory framework in which the light parton contribution has been computed previously. The time scale at which this physics becomes relevant is related to the width of the transport peak associated with the trace anomaly correlator and is found to be fm/c for MeV.

Laine, M.; Sohrabi, Kiyoumars A.

2015-02-01

390

Recent Langley helicopter acoustics contributions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The helicopter acoustics program at NASA Langley has included technology for elements of noise control ranging from sources of noise to receivers of noise. The scope of Langley contributions for about the last decade is discussed. Specifically, the resolution of two certification noise quantification issues by subjective acoustics research, the development status of the helicopter system noise prediction program ROTONET are reviewed and the highlights from research on blade rotational, broadband, and blade vortex interaction noise sources are presented. Finally, research contributions on helicopter cabin (or interior) noise control are presented. A bibliography of publications from the Langley helicopter acoustics program for the past 10 years is included.

Morgan, Homer G.; Pao, S. P.; Powell, C. A.

1988-01-01

391

Charm contribution to bulk viscosity  

E-print Network

In the range of temperatures reached in future heavy ion collision experiments, hadronic pair annihilations and creations of charm quarks may take place within the lifetime of the plasma. As a result, charm quarks may increase the bulk viscosity affecting the early stages of hydrodynamic expansion. Assuming thermalization, we estimate the charm contribution to bulk viscosity within the same effective kinetic theory framework in which the light parton contribution has been computed previously. The time scale at which this physics becomes relevant is related to the width of the transport peak associated with the trace anomaly correlator, and is found to be 600 MeV.

M. Laine; Kiyoumars A. Sohrabi

2015-02-24

392

B. F. Skinner's contributions to applied behavior analysis  

E-print Network

from a number of sources: the empiricist philosopher Francis Ba con (1620/1960; Smith, 1996); Claude Bernard, the father of experimental medicine (1865/1949; see Thompson, 1984); the Nobel laureate physiologist Ivan P. Pavlov (1927; see Catania... of psychoanalysis based on Pavlov's (1927) research on conditioned reflexes and Hull's (1943) drive-reduction the ory of instrumental conditioning (see Dollard & Miller, 1950; Miller & Dol lard, 1943). These theories and this re search contributed in important...

Morris, Edward K.; Smith, Nathaniel G.; Altus, Deborah E.

2005-01-01

393

IDS contribution to ITRF2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time, the International DORIS Service (IDS) has produced a technique level combination based on the contributions of seven analysis centers (ACs), including the European Space Operations Center (ESOC), Geodetic Observatory Pecny (GOP), Geoscience Australia (GAU), the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the Institut Géographique National (IGN), the Institute of Astronomy, Russian Academy of Sciences (INASAN, named

Jean-Jacques Valette; Frank G. Lemoine; Pascale Ferrage; Philippe Yaya; Zuheir Altamimi; Pascal Willis; Laurent Soudarin

2010-01-01

394

Original Contribution Involvement of Na+  

E-print Network

Original Contribution Involvement of Na+ /K+ -ATPase in hydrogen peroxide-induced hypertrophy production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was required for ouabain-induced hypertrophy in cultured cardiac alone is sufficient to induce hypertrophy. A moderate amount of H2O2 was continuously generated

Brand, Paul H.

395

Contributions to environmental mechanics: Introduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the second half of the 20th century, environmental mechanics developed from a collection of loosely connected principles and techniques t o a coherent quantitative treatment of flow and transport in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. John Philip was in many respects the life and soul of this adventure . He contributed foremost to the physics of water in unsaturated soils, but also to micrometeorology and physical ecology. In this introductory chapter we briefly review how his contributions influenced and are related to the activities of his colleagues and provide an overview of the present status of theory of soil water movement. We also indicate how the various contributions to this volume fit in this context. We start with a discussion of the nature, foundation, and application of the Richards equation, with emphasis on the dominant role of John Philip in finding analytical solutions of this equation. This is followed by a discussion of various developments beyond the Richards equation: multiphase flow, simultaneous transport of water and heat, flow of water in soils subject to swelling-shrinkage, transport of solutes in unsaturated soils, and flow and transport processes at various scales in space and time. The varied contributions of John Philip to micrometeorology and physical ecology are also reviewed briefly. In the concluding section, some challenges for environmental mechanics are indicated.

Raats, Peter A. C.; Smiles, David E.; Warrick, Arthur W.

396

Environmental Contributions to Allergic Disease  

E-print Network

disease is more complex than increased exposure to pollution and allergens and that early childhood factors on the manifesta- tion of allergic disease. Exposure to indoor allergens and contaminants has been, we feel that the emphasis on indoor allergens has overshadowed the contribution of outdoor exposure

Levetin, Estelle

397

Caroline Herschel's contributions to astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the contributions to astronomy of Caroline Lucretia Herschel (1750–1848) are explored in this article. Her accomplishments included new observational discoveries and the skilled and accurate transcription and reduction of astronomical data. Although she made important additions to the sum total of astronomical facts available to the scientist, she herself showed little interest or ability in applying these

Marilyn Bailey Ogilvie

1975-01-01

398

SAN FRANCISCO ESTUARY INSTITUTE CONTRIBUTION  

E-print Network

on the Margins of San Francisco Bay Final Report An RMP Technical Report by Craig Jones Sea Engineering, Inc Estuary Institute #12;This report should be cited as: Jones, C., Yee, D., Davis J. A., McKee, L. J on the Margins of San Francisco Bay. Draft Report. An RMP Technical Report. Contribution No. 663. San Francisco

399

SEQUENCE ANALYSIS Contributions by Ulam  

E-print Network

SEQUENCE ANALYSIS Contributions by Ulam to Molecular Genetics by Walter B. Goad L ord Rayleigh once as an avalanche of detail, still growing, gathered about the way sequences of nu- cleotide bases in DNA encode of thinking precisely about relationships among sequences, in par- ticular, how to devise quantitative mea

400

Supporting Enterprise. A College Contribution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the experience of one college--Percival Whitley College in Calderdale, England--in contributing to the strategy for economic regeneration of the surrounding metropolitan district. It charts the success of the borough and the college working together to attract national and European funding. A checklist for implementing…

Bolton, John F.; Cook, David

401

Processed foods: contributions to nutrition.  

PubMed

Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers. PMID:24760975

Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David

2014-06-01

402

Intrauterine fetal bradycardia after accidental administration of the anesthetic agent in the subdural space during epidural labor analgesia -A case report-  

PubMed Central

Subdural injection of epidural anesthesia is rare and is usually undiagnosed during epidural anesthesia causing severely delayed maternal hypotension, hypoxia, and fetal distress. A 38-year-old primiparous woman was administered epidural labor analgesia at 40+6 weeks' gestation, and developed progressive maternal respiratory depression, bradycardia, and hypotension after accidental subdural administration of the anesthetic agent. Furthermore, fetal distress occurred soon after administration. The patient was managed with oxygen, position changes, fluid resuscitation, and ephedrine. Intrauterine fetal resuscitation was successfully performed with atropine before cesarean section, and a healthy baby was delivered. Although subdural injection is uncommon, this case emphasizes the importance of anesthesiologists monitoring patients for a sufficient period after epidural labor analgesia, and being prepared to perform maternal or fetal resuscitation. PMID:23814654

Moon, Ho Sik; Chon, Jin Young; Yang, Weon Joon

2013-01-01

403

Parasupersymmetric formulation of a three-level atom coupled to a f-deformed two-dimensional potential system: eigenstates, spectrum and accidental degeneracies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, within a parasupersymmetric and quantum deformed formalism, we continue studying a class of bound-state problems which represents the coupling of a three-level atom with a two-dimensional potential system, first introduced in Aleixo and Balantekin (2013 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46 055302). We obtain the solutions of the eigenvalue equation of the coupled system, determine its energy eigenvalues and their corresponding eigenstates. An illustrative application is worked out for a couple of shape-invariant potentials widely used to model quantum confined systems in several fields of physics assuming a simple form of the Tamm-Dancoff potential cutoff deformed formalism. We study the deformation effects on the splitting of the energy level produced by the coupling of the atomic system with the shape-invariant potential systems, considering the occurrence of degeneracy and accidental pairwise degeneracy in the energy levels of the coupled system.

Aleixo, A. N. F.; Balantekin, A. B.

2014-06-01

404

5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: patient experiences, human factors, sedation, consent, and medicolegal issues.  

PubMed

The 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland into accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA) yielded data related to psychological aspects from the patient, and the anaesthetist, perspectives; patients' experiences ranged from isolated auditory or tactile sensations to complete awareness. A striking finding was that 75% of experiences were for <5 min, yet 51% of patients [95% confidence interval (CI) 43-60%] experienced distress and 41% (95% CI 33-50%) suffered longer term adverse effect. Distress and longer term harm occurred across the full range of experiences but were particularly likely when the patient experienced paralysis (with or without pain). The patient's interpretation of what is happening at the time of the awareness seemed central to later impact; explanation and reassurance during suspected AAGA or at the time of report seemed beneficial. Quality of care before the event was judged good in 26%, poor in 39%, and mixed in 31%. Three-quarters of cases of AAGA (75%) were judged preventable. In 12%, AAGA care was judged good and the episode not preventable. The contributory and human factors in the genesis of the majority of cases of AAGA included medication, patient, and education/training. The findings have implications for national guidance, institutional organization, and individual practice. The incidence of 'accidental awareness' during sedation (~1:15,000) was similar to that during general anaesthesia (~1:19,000). The project raises significant issues about information giving and consent for both sedation and anaesthesia. We propose a novel approach to describing sedation from the patient's perspective which could be used in communication and consent. Eight (6%) of the patients had resorted to legal action (12, 11%, to formal complaint) at the time of reporting. NAP5 methodology provides a standardized template that might usefully inform the investigation of claims or serious incidents related to AAGA. PMID:25204696

Cook, T M; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H M G; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Pandit, J J

2014-10-01

405

Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases  

SciTech Connect

Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

Peterson, S

2007-08-15

406

Contributed Paper Climate Change, Multiple Stressors, and the Decline  

E-print Network

Contributed Paper Climate Change, Multiple Stressors, and the Decline of Ectotherms JASON R. ROHR to be causing declines of ectothermic vertebrates, but there is little evidence that climatic conditions of amphibians and perhaps other ectothermic vertebrates. Keywords: amphibian decline, atrazine, climate change

Rohr, Jason

407

Contribution of galactose and fructose to glucose homeostasis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To determine the contributions of galactose and fructose to glucose formation, 6 subjects (26 +/- 2 years old; body mass index, 22.4 +/-0.2 kg/m2) (mean +/- SE) were studied during fasting conditions. Three subjects received a primed constant intravenous infusion of[6,6-2H2] glucose for 3 hours foll...

408

Three Existentlal Contributions to a Theory of Lifestyles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores three potential existential contributions to an evolving theory of human lifestyles. Following a brief review of the impact existential psychology has had on current thinking in the behavioral sciences, the three Cs of lifestyle theory-conditions, choice, and cognition-are discussed with respect to several key existential concepts, most notably, existential fear, intentionality, and the power of nonempirical thought.

Glenn D. Walters

1998-01-01

409

Fault Contribution Trees for Product Families Dingding Lu *  

E-print Network

fault tree (SFT) the use of Boolean logic to describe the combinations of nodes that may contribute to a particular root hazard or failure. The FCT is different from a SFT in that: · The nodes of the FCT are features (commonalities or variabilities) rather than events or conditions as in the SFT. · Lower nodes

Lutz, Robyn R.

410

Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of risk screening and early intervention comparing child- and family-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy for PTSD in children following accidental injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Accidental injury represents the most common type of traumatic event to which a child or adolescent may be exposed, with a significant number of these children going on to experience posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, very little research has examined potential interventions for the treatment of PTSD in these children. The present trial aims to evaluate and compare child-

Justin Kenardy; Vanessa Cobham; Reginald DV Nixon; Brett McDermott; Sonja March

2010-01-01

411

5 CFR 1620.13 - Retroactive contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retroactive contributions. 1620.13 Section...Personnel Act Employees § 1620.13 Retroactive contributions. (a) An employing authority can make retroactive employer contributions on...

2010-01-01

412

22 CFR 130.6 - Political contribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Political contribution. 130.6 Section 130...INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.6 Political contribution. Political...

2010-04-01

413

How could haloalkaliphilic microorganisms contribute to biotechnology?  

PubMed

Haloalkaliphiles are microorganisms requiring Na(+) concentrations of at least 0.5 mol·L(-1) and an alkaline pH of 9 for optimal growth. Their unique features enable them to make significant contributions to a wide array of biotechnological applications. Organic compatible solutes produced by haloalkaliphiles, such as ectoine and glycine betaine, are correlated with osmoadaptation and may serve as stabilizers of intracellular proteins, salt antagonists, osmoprotectants, and dermatological moisturizers. Haloalkaliphiles are an important source of secondary metabolites like rhodopsin, polyhydroxyalkanoates, and exopolysaccharides that play essential roles in biogeocycling organic compounds. These microorganisms also can secrete unique exoenzymes, including proteases, amylases, and cellulases, that are highly active and stable in extreme haloalkaline conditions and can be used for the production of laundry detergent. Furthermore, the unique metabolic pathways of haloalkaliphiles can be applied in the biodegradation and (or) biotransformation of a broad range of toxic industrial pollutants and heavy metals, in wastewater treatment, and in the biofuel industry. PMID:25372346

Zhao, Baisuo; Yan, Yanchun; Chen, Shulin

2014-11-01

414

Autophagy contributes to degradation of Hirano bodies  

PubMed Central

Hirano bodies are actin-rich inclusions reported most frequently in the hippocampus in association with a variety of conditions including neurodegenerative diseases and aging. We have developed a model system for formation of Hirano bodies in Dictyostelium and cultured mammalian cells to permit detailed studies of the dynamics of these structures in living cells. Model Hirano bodies are frequently observed in membrane-enclosed vesicles in mammalian cells consistent with a role of autophagy in the degradation of these structures. Clearance of Hirano bodies by an exocytotic process is supported by images from electron microscopy showing extracellular release of Hirano bodies, and observation of Hirano bodies in the culture medium of Dictyostelium and mammalian cells. An autophagosome marker protein Atg8-GFP was colocalized with model Hirano bodies in wild-type Dictyostelium cells, but not in atg5- or atg1-1 autophagy mutant strains. Induction of model Hirano bodies in Dictyostelium with a high-level expression of 34 kDa ?EF1 from the inducible discoidin promoter resulted in larger Hirano bodies and a cessation of cell doubling. The degradation of model Hirano bodies still occurred rapidly in autophagy mutant (atg5-) Dictyostelium, suggesting that other mechanisms such as the ubiquitin-mediated proteasome pathway could contribute to the degradation of Hirano bodies. Chemical inhibition of the proteasome pathway with lactacystin significantly decreased the turnover of Hirano bodies in Dictyostelium, providing direct evidence that autophagy and the proteasome can both contribute to degradation of Hirano bodies. Short-term treatment of mammalian cells with either lactacystin or 3-methyl adenine results in higher levels of Hirano bodies and a lower level of viable cells in the cultures, supporting the conclusion that both autophagy and the proteasome contribute to degradation of Hirano bodies. PMID:18989098

Kim, Dong-Hwan; Davis, Richard C.; Furukawa, Ruth; Fechheimer, Marcus

2009-01-01

415

Autophagy contributes to degradation of Hirano bodies.  

PubMed

Hirano bodies are actin-rich inclusions reported most frequently in the hippocampus in association with a variety of conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, and aging. We have developed a model system for formation of Hirano bodies in Dictyostelium and cultured mammalian cells to permit detailed studies of the dynamics of these structures in living cells. Model Hirano bodies are frequently observed in membrane-enclosed vesicles in mammalian cells consistent with a role of autophagy in the degradation of these structures. Clearance of Hirano bodies by an exocytotic process is supported by images from electron microscopy showing extracellular release of Hirano bodies, and observation of Hirano bodies in the culture medium of Dictyostelium and mammalian cells. An autophagosome marker protein Atg8-GFP, was co-localized with model Hirano bodies in wild type Dictyostelium cells, but not in atg5(-) or atg1-1 autophagy mutant strains. Induction of model Hirano bodies in Dictyostelium with a high level expression of 34 kDa DeltaEF1 from the inducible discoidin promoter resulted in larger Hirano bodies and a cessation of cell doubling. The degradation of model Hirano bodies still occurred rapidly in autophagy mutant (atg5(-)) Dictyostelium, suggesting that other mechanisms such as the ubiquitin-mediated proteasome pathway could contribute to the degradation of Hirano bodies. Chemical inhibition of the proteasome pathway with lactacystin, significantly decreased the turnover of Hirano bodies in Dictyostelium providing direct evidence that autophagy and the proteasome can both contribute to degradation of Hirano bodies. Short term treatment of mammalian cells with either lactacystin or 3-methyl adenine results in higher levels of Hirano bodies and a lower level of viable cells in the cultures, supporting the conclusion that both autophagy and the proteasome contribute to degradation of Hirano bodies. PMID:18989098

Kim, Dong-Hwan; Davis, Richard C; Furukawa, Ruth; Fechheimer, Marcus

2009-01-01

416

Genetic contributions and their optimization.  

PubMed

Genetic contributions were first formalized in 1958 by James and McBride (Journal of Genetics, 56, 55-62) and have since been shown to provide a unifying framework for theories of gain and inbreeding. As such they have underpinned the development of methods that provide the most effective combination of maximizing gain whilst managing inbreeding and loss of genetic variation. It is shown how this optimum contribution technology can be developed from theory and adapted to provide practical selection protocols for a wide variety of situations including overlapping generations and multistage selection. The natural development of the theory to incorporate genomic selection and genomic control of inbreeding is also shown. PMID:25823835

Woolliams, J A; Berg, P; Dagnachew, B S; Meuwissen, T H E

2015-04-01

417

Townes' contribution to nonlinear optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In honour of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Nobel Prize in Physics, this talk introduced the contributions of Nicholas Basov and Alexei Prokhorov, who shared the prize with Charles Townes. The talk then detailed the quantum electronics research of Townes, particularly at MIT, which was related to nonlinear optics. The years from 1961 to 1968 were particularly exciting, as the ruby laser enabled a wide variety of new physics to be discovered and explored.

Garmire, Elsa

2015-03-01

418

Oil-spill risk analysis: Cook inlet outer continental shelf lease sale 149. Volume 2: Conditional risk contour maps of seasonal conditional probabilities. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Government has proposed to offer Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lands in Cook Inlet for oil and gas leasing. Because oil spills may occur from activities associated with offshore oil production, the Minerals Management Service conducts a formal risk assessment. In evaluating the significance of accidental oil spills, it is important to remember that the occurrence of such spills is fundamentally probabilistic. The effects of oil spills that could occur during oil and gas production must be considered. This report summarizes results of an oil-spill risk analysis conducted for the proposed Cook Inlet OCS Lease Sale 149. The objective of this analysis was to estimate relative risks associated with oil and gas production for the proposed lease sale. To aid the analysis, conditional risk contour maps of seasonal conditional probabilities of spill contact were generated for each environmental resource or land segment in the study area. This aspect is discussed in this volume of the two volume report.

Johnson, W.R.; Marshall, C.F.; Anderson, C.M.; Lear, E.M.

1994-08-01

419

Corporate PAC Campaign Contributions in Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a vast empirical literature on the allocation of corporate PAC contributions in Congressional elections and the influence that these contributions have on the policy-making process. The attention given to PAC contributions is far in excess of their actual importance. Corporate PAC contributions account for about 10% of Congressional campaign spending and major corporations allocate far more money to

Jeffrey Milyo; David Primo; Timothy Groseclose

2000-01-01

420

Pursuing the Pavlovian Contributions to Induction in Rats Responding for 1% Sucrose Reinforcement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated whether Pavlovian conditioning contributes, in the form of the response operandum serving as a conditioned stimulus, to the increase in the rate of response for 1% liquid-sucrose reinforcement when food-pellet reinforcement is upcoming. Rats were exposed to conditions in which sign tracking for 1% sucrose was…

Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Huls, Amber; Kulland, Ashley

2007-01-01

421

Chinese Conditionals and the Theory of Conditionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the main features of discourse representation theory, situation-based approaches, and dynamic semantics, and discusses the role the novelty condition plays in each of them, providing the main theoretical coordinates against which to try an assessment of the role of the Chinese conditional and a proposal put forth by Chang and Huang…

Chierchia, Gennaro

2000-01-01

422

General Banking Conditions 2009 General Banking Conditions  

E-print Network

or to the integrity of the financial system. 3 Activities and objectives The Customer provides information to the Bank activities. The Bank may give goods, docu- ments of title, securities or financial instruments that belongGeneral Banking Conditions 2009 r #12;#12;1 General Banking Conditions (Version 2009

Franssen, Michael

423

Redundancy of moment conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that adding moment conditions cannot decrease asymptotic efficiency. However, sometimes additional moment conditions are redundant, in the sense that they do not increase the asymptotic efficiency of estimation for some or all of the parameters of interest. This paper gives a general treatment of redundancy of moment conditions. It provides necessary and sufficient conditions for redundancy,

Trevor Breusch; Hailong Qian; Peter Schmidt; Donald Wyhowski

1999-01-01

424

GENERALIZED AUTOREGRESSIVE CONDITIONAL HETEROSKEDASTICITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A natural generalization of the ARCH (Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedastic) process introduced in Engle (1982) to allow for past conditional variances in the current conditional variance equation is proposed. Stationarity conditions and autocorrelation structure for this new class of parametric models are derived. Maximum likelihood estimation and testing are also considered. Finally an empirical example relating to the uncertainty of the

Tim Bollerslev

1986-01-01

425

REACH. Air Conditioning Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

Garrison, Joe; And Others

426

IDS contribution to ITRF2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International DORIS Service (IDS), in operation since 2003, submitted three sets of solutions to ITRF2005 from the IGN/JPL, LEGOS/CLS, and INASAN analysis centers, but no DORIS technique combination. Since that time new analysis centers have become operational including the Geodetic Observatory Pecny (GOP), the European Space Operations Center (ESOC), Geoscience Australia (GAU), the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSC), and the University of Newcastle (NCL). These analysis centers run different software, including Gypsy (IGN & INASAN), GINS (LCA), Bernese (GOP), NAPEOS (ESOC), GEODYN (Geoscience Australia and NASA GSFC) and FAUST (NCL). In order to contribute to ITRF2008, seven analysis centers processed DORIS data from TOPEX/Poseidon, SPOT2, SPOT3, SPOT4, SPOT5, and ENVISAT from 1992 to 2008, producing weekly SINEX solutions or normal equations. The weekly SINEX files from seven AC’s were processed with the CATREF software. Three iterations of an IDS weekly combined time series were completed. The IDS-1, and IDS-2 combinations were preliminary station-only solutions. In the final combination, IDS-3, both stations and the Earth Orientation Paramters (EOP’s) were adjusted. Between each of the IDS combinations, the combination strategy (station filtering, outliers, weighting, scale or geocenter contributions) was improved and the AC’s SINEX series were refined. Some series were extended in data span while others were recomputed to correct anomalies or to improve the quality of the submissions, based on feedback from the combination analyses and intercenter comparisons. For example in IDS-1, both the GAU and GSC solutions were affected by a 20 mm scale offset that was removed in IDS-2 and IDS-3 after the application of improved troposphere modelling in the GEODYN software. The analysis for IDS-1 showed a higher station position WRMS in the vicinity of the high solar flux periods (late 2001-2002). Consequently for IDS-2, several AC’s (LCA, GAU, GSC) recomputed their orbits to estimate drag coefficients more frequently to mitigate this effect. The analysis of the frequency and amplitude of geocenter and scale signals was used to define the AC contributions to geocenter and scale in the final combination IDS-3. The comparisons of IDS-3 w.r.t. ITRF2008 are presented. Future prospects and plans for the IDS DORIS analyses are discussed.

Valette, J.; Lemoine, F.; Ferrage, P.; Altamimi, Z.; Willis, P.; Stepanek, P.; Otten, M.; Govind, R.; Kuzin, S.; Le Bail, K.; Moore, P.; Yaya, P.; Soudarin, L.

2009-12-01

427

Optimum contribution selection for conserved populations with historic migration  

PubMed Central

Background In recent decades, local varieties of domesticated animal species have been frequently crossed with economically superior breeds which has resulted in considerable genetic contributions from migrants. Optimum contribution selection by maximizing gene diversity while constraining breeding values of the offspring or vice versa could eventually lead to the extinction of local breeds with historic migration because maximization of gene diversity or breeding values would be achieved by maximization of migrant contributions. Therefore, other objective functions are needed for these breeds. Results Different objective functions and side constraints were compared with respect to their ability to reduce migrant contributions, to increase the genome equivalents originating from native founders, and to conserve gene diversity. Additionally, a new method for monitoring the development of effective size for breeds with incomplete pedigree records was applied. Approaches were compared for Vorderwald cattle, Hinterwald cattle, and Limpurg cattle. Migrant contributions could be substantially decreased for these three breeds, but the potential to increase the native genome equivalents is limited. Conclusions The most promising approach was constraining migrant contributions while maximizing the conditional probability that two alleles randomly chosen from the offspring population are not identical by descent, given that both descend from native founders. PMID:23153196

2012-01-01

428

Carl Neumann's Contributions to Electrodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I examine the publications of Carl Neumann (1832 1925) on electrodynamics, which constitute a major part of his work and which illuminate his approach to mathematical physics. I show how Neumann contributed to physics at an important stage in its development and how his work led to a polemic with Hermann Helmholtz (1821 1894). Neumann advanced and extended the ideas of the Königsberg school of mathematical physics. His investigations were aimed at founding a mathematically exact physical theory of electrodynamics, following the approach of Carl G.J. Jacobi (1804 1851) on the foundation of a physical theory as outlined in Jacobi’s lectures on analytical mechanics. Neumann’s work also shows how he clung to principles that impeded him in appreciating and developing new ideas such as those on field theory that were proposed by Michael Faraday (1791 1867) and James Clerk Maxwell (1831 1879).

Schlote, Karl-Heinz

2004-09-01

429

Cerebellar contributions to spatial memory.  

PubMed

There is mounting evidence for a role for the cerebellum in working memory (WM). The majority of relevant studies has examined verbal WM and has suggested specialisation of the right cerebellar hemisphere for language processing. Our study used theta burst stimulation (TBS) to examine whether there is a converse cerebellar hemispheric specialisation for spatial WM. We conducted two experiments to examine spatial WM performance before and after TBS to mid-hemispheric and lateral locations in the posterior cerebellum. Participants were required to recall the order of presentation of targets on a screen or the targets' order of presentation and their locations. We observed impaired recollection of target order after TBS to the mid left cerebellar hemisphere and reduced response speed after TBS to the left lateral cerebellum. We suggest that these results give evidence of the contributions of the left cerebellar cortex to the encoding and retrieval of spatial information. PMID:25004407

Tomlinson, Simon P; Davis, Nick J; Morgan, Helen M; Bracewell, R Martyn

2014-08-22

430

Possible NASA Contributions to HEAT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A four-year experiment (HEAT) has been proposed (one summer in the field, 2005) to determine the sources and causes for the enhanced cloud-to-ground lightning over Houston, Texas, in association with simultaneous experiments by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC). Houston is the third most populous city in the United States and the region contains 50% of the petroleum refining capacity of the United States. Recent studies covering the period 1989-2000 document a 50% increase of cloud-to-ground lightning in the Houston area as compared to background values, which is second in flash density only to the Tampa Bay, Florida area. It is suggested that the elevated flash densities could result from several factors, including, 1) the convergence due to the urban heat island effect and complex sea breeze, and 2) the increasing levels of air pollution from anthropogenic sources producing numerous small droplets and thereby suppressing mean droplet size. The latter effect would enable more cloud water to reach the mixed phase region where it is involved in the formation of precipitation and the separation of electric charge, leading to an enhancement of lightning. The primary goals of HEAT are to examine the effects of (1) pollution, (2) the urban heat island, and (3) the complex coastline, on storms and lightning characteristics in the Houston area. The project is a multi- agency effort and will employ numerous observing capabilities and expertise. Dr. Shepherd has been asked to serve as a possible co- investigator to contribute expertise in areas related to urban impacts on precipitation variability. Dr. Shepherd is also a key NASA representative in the interagency effort. This presentation will provide an overview of recent NASA research focused on urban rainfall in Houston and offer potential NASA capabilities that could contribute to HEAT.

Shepherd, J. M.

2004-01-01

431

Does predation contribute to tree diversity?  

PubMed

Seed and seedling predation may differentially affect competitively superior tree species to increase the relative recruitment success of poor competitors and contribute to the coexistence of tree species. We examined the effect of seed and seedling predation on the seedling recruitment of three tree species, Acer rubrum (red maple), Liriodendron tulipifera (yellow poplar), and Quercus rubra (northern red oak), over three years by manipulating seed and seedling exposure to predators under contrasting microsite conditions of shrub cover, leaf litter, and overstory canopy. Species rankings of seedling emergence were constant across microsites, regardless of exposure to seed predators, but varied across years. A. rubrum had the highest emergence probabilities across microsites in 1997, but Q. rubra had the highest emergence probabilities in 1999. Predators decreased seedling survival uniformly across species, but did not affect relative growth rates (RGRs). Q. rubra had the highest seedling survivorship across microsites, while L. tulipifera had the highest RGRs. Our results suggest that annual variability in recruitment success contributes more to seedling diversity than differential predation across microsites. We synthesized our results from separate seedling emergence and survival experiments to project seedling bank composition. With equal fecundity assumed across species, Q. rubra dominated the seedling bank, capturing 90% of the regeneration sites on average, followed by A. rubrum (8% of sites) and L. tulipifera (2% of sites). When seed abundance was weighted by species-specific fecundity, seedling bank composition was more diverse; L. tulipifera captured 62% of the regeneration sites, followed by A. rubrum (21% of sites) and Q. rubra (17% of sites). Tradeoffs between seedling performance and fecundity may promote the diversity of seedling regeneration by increasing the probability of inferior competitors capturing regeneration sites. PMID:15719246

Beckage, Brian; Clark, James S

2005-04-01

432

Methane emissions and contaminant degradation rates at sites affected by accidental releases of denatured fuel-grade ethanol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent increase in the use of denatured fuel-grade ethanol (DFE) has enhanced the probability of its environmental release. Due to the highly labile nature of ethanol (EtOH), it is expected to rapidly biodegrade, increasing the potential for inducing methanogenic conditions in the subsurface. As environmental releases of DFE can be expected to occur at the ground surface or in the vadose zone (e.g., due to surficial spills from rail lines or tanker trucks and leaking underground storage tanks), the potential for methane (CH4) generation at DFE spill sites requires evaluation. An assessment is needed because high CH4 generation rates may lead to CH4 fluxes towards the ground surface, which is of particular concern if spills are located close to human habitation—related to concerns of soil vapor intrusion (SVI). This work demonstrates, for the first time, the measurement of surficial gas release rates at large volume DFE spill sites. Two study sites, near Cambria and Balaton, in MN are investigated. Total carbon emissions at the ground surface (summing carbon dioxide (CO2) and CH4 emissions) are used to quantify depth-integrated DFE degradation rates. Results from both sites demonstrate that substantial CO2 and CH4 emissions do occur—even years after a spill. However, large total carbon fluxes, and CH4 emissions in particular, were restricted to a localized area within the DFE source zone. At the Balaton site, estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 5 and 174 ?mol m- 2 s- 1, and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 9 ?mol m- 2 s- 1. At the Cambria site estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 8 and 500 ?mol m- 2 s- 1, and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 393 ?mol m- 2 s- 1. Substantial CH4 accumulation, coupled with oxygen (O2) depletion, measured in samples collected from custom-designed gas collection chambers at the Cambria site suggests that the development of explosion or asphyxiation hazards is possible in confined spaces above a rapidly degrading DFE release. However, the results also indicate that the development of such hazards is locally constrained, will require a high degree of soil moisture, close proximity to the source zone, a good connection between the soil and the confined space, and poorly aerated conditions.

Sihota, Natasha J.; Mayer, K. Ulrich; Toso, Mark A.; Atwater, Joel F.

2013-08-01

433

Spill behaviour using REACTPOOL. Part III. Results for accidental releases of phosphorus trichloride (PCl(3)) and oxychloride (POCl(3)) and general discussion.  

PubMed

Phosphorus trichloride and oxychloride are aggressive materials, widely used in the process industries. On escape to the atmosphere they create toxic clouds that may cause serious damage to people and to the environment. When spilled onto the ground they create liquid pools that can boil, evaporate or even solidify. The main feature of the pool behaviour is the exothermic reaction of these chemicals with water, which is complicated and depends heavily on the amount of water available for reaction, and as result of which the pool has changing composition and properties. The purpose of this paper is to describe the dangers involved in cases of accidental releases of phosphorus trichloride and oxychloride, to report their properties, referring to toxicity data and major accidents. The spill behaviour of phosphorus trichloride and oxychloride has been incorporated into REACTPOOL [R.F. Kapias, C. Griffiths, J. Haz. Mater.]. Model results indicate that the pool behaviour is strongly affected by the amount of water available for reaction. Surface roughness and wind speed, also have a strong effect on the results. Although there are no experimental data for model validation, it is shown that REACTPOOL gives useful insights into the behaviour of such spills. The paper concludes with a discussion comparing the behaviour for several water reactive chemicals to which REACTPOOL has been applied. PMID:11163689

Kapias, T; Griffiths, R F

2001-02-16

434

Tattoo types and frequencies in New Mexican white hispanics and white non-hispanics: autopsy data from homicidal and accidental deaths, 2002-2005.  

PubMed

Tattoos serve as a form of forensic personal identification and providing evidence of possible gang affiliation, incarceration history, and high-risk lifestyle factors such as drug use. Despite their forensic applications, tattoo typology and frequencies in specific ethnic and racial groups are underreported and poorly understood. This study examined autopsy records from the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator from 2002 to 2005. A total of 3430 individuals (1666 white Hispanics; 1764 white non-Hispanics), aged 18 to 100 years, with homicidal or accidental manners of death were included in the study. In addition to demographic information, data were recorded on the presence/absence of tattoos, singular or multiple tattoos, and the language of text tattoos. Tattoos depicting gang or religious symbolism were also recorded. Results indicate statistically significant differences in tattoo frequencies by ethnicity (52% Hispanic vs. 29.5% non-Hispanic), sex (46.8% men vs. 25.9% women) and age cohort. Hispanics were more likely to have multiple tattoos than non-Hispanics (41% and 19%, respectively), and were 4.67 times more likely to have a religious tattoo and 7.13 times more likely to have a gang tattoo than non-Hispanics. Significant patterns in language of text tattoos and correlations with manner of death were also noted. PMID:19259010

Komar, Debra; Lathrop, Sarah

2008-12-01

435

A case study of pollutants transported from HPCL (vishakhapatnam) accidental fire through synergy of flexpart model and ground-based instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tushar Wankhede*, Harish Gadhavi, Amit K. Pandit National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), Gadanki-517112, Chittoor, A.P. *tushar1771@gmail.com, Mobile: +91-8297152481 A fire at Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL) in Vishakhapatnam (17.70 ?N, 83.24?E) resulted from a gas leak in the salt water cooling tower system. This led to the release of various pollutants like hydrocarbons, black carbon, carbon mono-oxide and carbon dioxide etc(other gases) in just 44 min of fire in system a very huge amount of particles were emitted. The transport of these pollutants has been studied through FLEXPART which is a Lagrangian particle dispersion model having wide range of applications in atmospheric transport modeling. FLEXPART simulation of this accidental fire shows the direction and sensitivity of dispersed pollutants from its source. It was observed that the pollutants reached Gadanki, a rural site located at 13.45 ?N, 79.18 ?E in Southern-India. The concentration of pollutant obtained from FLEXPART output we are comparing with ground based instruments data collected at the observation site (Indian Climate Observatory Network-ICON, NARL Gadanki). This case-study provides significant information about the life-time of dispersed pollutants and their long-range transport pattern under the influence of small weather variability en-route from source to receptor. The detailed work of FLEXPART for the Long range transport of the particles will be presented later on in conference.

Wankhede, Tushar

436

Trends of Non-Accidental, Cardiovascular, Stroke and Lung Cancer Mortality in Arkansas Are Associated with Ambient PM2.5 Reductions  

PubMed Central

The cardiovascular and stroke mortality rates in Arkansas are among the highest in the USA. The annual trends of stroke and cardiovascular mortality are barely correlated to smoking cessation; while the prevalence of risk factors such as obesity; cholesterol and hypertension increased over the 1979–2007 period. The study determined the effect of chronic exposure to PM2.5 on non-accidental; cardiovascular; stroke and lung cancer mortality in Arkansas over the 2000–2010 period using the World Health Organization’s log-linear health impact model. County chronic exposures to PM2.5 were computed by averaging spatially-resolved gridded concentrations using PM2.5 observations. A spatial uniformity was observed for PM2.5 mass levels indicating that chronic exposures were comparable throughout the state. The reduction of PM2.5 mass levels by 3.0 ?g/m3 between 2000 and 2010 explained a significant fraction of the declining mortality. The effect was more pronounced in southern and eastern rural Arkansas as compared to the rest of the state. This study provides evidence that the implementation of air pollution regulations has measurable effects on mortality even in regions with high prevalence of major risk factors such as obesity and smoking. These outcomes are noteworthy as efforts to modify the major risk factors require longer realization times. PMID:25050652

Chalbot, Marie-Cecile G.; Jones, Tamara A.; Kavouras, Ilias G.

2014-01-01

437

Pterygodermatites nycticebi (Nematoda: Rictulariidae): accidental detection of encapsulated third-stage larvae in the tissue of a white-fronted marmoset.  

PubMed

Twin, white-fronted marmosets (Callithrix geoffroyi) born and raised in a zoo in Japan died at 7 mo of age. Several encapsulated nematode larvae were detected in the intestinal wall, as well as a few in the mesenteric lymph nodes of 1 of the twins. In the other marmoset, no encapsulated nematode larva was detected in the organs, but many adult Pterygodermatites nycticebi were found in the intestinal lumen. In the past 5 yr, 5 primates kept in the same zoo, i.e., 1 squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus), 2 Pygmy marmosets (Cebuella pygmaea), 1 Senegal galago (Galago senegalensis), and 1 cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus), died from heavy infestation with the same nematode. A few migrating larvae of the rictulariid were also identified histologically in the intestinal wall and liver of the cotton-top tamarin. Although no other primate currently held in the same zoo was infected with the rictulariid, German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) collected with traps near marmoset cages had encapsulated P. nycticebi larvae, indicating latent perpetuation of the life cycle of this rictulariid species in the zoo premises. Our results indicated that encapsulation or migration of third-stage larvae of P. nycticebi might occur accidentally in the organs of callithrichid primates. PMID:14740905

Sato, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Kayoko; Kamiya, Haruo; Ishikawa, Tomoko; Okabayashi, Sachi; Kishi, Natsuki; Une, Yumi

2003-12-01

438

The right hemisphere contribution to semantic categorization: A TMS study.  

PubMed

A large amount of evidence suggests an involvement of the right hemisphere in lexical-semantic processing, but its specific contribution compared to the left hemisphere is not entirely clear. The present study investigated the contribution of both hemispheres to the semantic categorization process of words referring to typical and atypical exemplars. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was used to interfere with the online activity of Wernicke's area and its right homologue during a verbal category membership task. The TMS delayed the responses to typical member nouns compared to the control condition, over both areas of interest. On the contrary, a delay in the responses to atypical member nouns was observed only when the right Wernicke's area was stimulated. Overall, these results indicate that while both hemispheres are involved in the categorization of typical exemplars, the right hemisphere specifically contributes to semantic categorization of atypical ones. PMID:25584788

Passeri, Alessandra; Capotosto, Paolo; Di Matteo, Rosalia

2015-03-01

439

Original Contribution Effect Modification by Community Characteristics on the Short-term Effects of  

E-print Network

Original Contribution Effect Modification by Community Characteristics on the Short-term Effects, number of ozone monitors, weather, and use of air conditioning. Their study included data on 98 US urban

Dominici, Francesca

440

Factors contributing to the public health and economic importance of waterborne zoonotic parasites.  

PubMed

This is the first of a series of review articles in a Special Issue publication on waterborne zoonotic parasites. A brief historical overview of the occurrence and importance of waterborne parasites, dating from early civilization is presented. The article considers the diversity of parasites including protozoa, nematodes, cestodes and trematodes and the related zoonotic organism microsporidia. Many of