These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

On the corrosion behavior of zircaloy-4 in spent fuel pools under accidental conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After zircaloy cladding tubes have been subjected to irradiation in the reactor core, they are stored temporarily in spent fuel pools. In case of an accident, the integrity of the pool may be affected and the composition of the coolant may change drastically. This was the case in Fukushima Daiichi in March 2011. Successive incidents have led to an increase in the pH of the coolant and to chloride contamination. Moreover, water radiolysis may occur owing to the remnant radioactivity of the spent fuel. In this study, we propose to evaluate the corrosion behavior of oxidized Zr-4 (in autoclave at 288 °C for 32 days) in function of the pH and the presence of chloride and radical forms. The generation of radicals is achieved by the sonolysis of the solution. It appears that the increase in pH and the presence of radicals lead to an increase in current densities. However, the current densities remain quite low (depending on the conditions, between 1 and 10 ?A cm-2). The critical parameter is the presence of chloride ions. The chloride ions widely decrease the passive range of the oxidized samples (the pitting potential is measured around +0.6 V (vs. SCE)). Moreover, if the oxide layer is scratched or damaged (which is likely under accidental conditions), the pitting potential of the oxidized sample reaches the pitting potential of the non-oxidized sample (around +0.16 V (vs. SCE)), leaving a shorter stable passive range for the Zr-4 cladding tubes.

Lavigne, O.; Shoji, T.; Sakaguchi, K.

2012-07-01

2

Effects of meteorological conditions on the concentration and dispersion of an accidental release of H2S in Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to determine the effects of the land's meteorological conditions on the dispersion of an accidental release of H2S using the CALPro software. The three Canadian cities or towns of Edmonton, Yarmouth and Whitehorse, which are all of different meteorological conditions, were chosen as the domains of study. Hourly geophysical, surface and upper air meteorological data were used with CALMET to model the wind field of the three domains for the modeling period of March 11, 2012 from 00h00 to 23h00 LST. Individual 5-h modeling periods where the wind field showed the most significant variations were chosen for each region of study. CALPUFF was used to model the dispersion effects of an accidental release of H2S from a single point source due to an accidental vessel puncture using time-varying emission data modified to suit each region's modeling period. Despite the wind reversal encountered in Edmonton, its relatively flat terrain allowed H2S to disperse outwards, causing concentrations to accumulate lower than the other two regions but still to sever levels and a much greater population. Differences between the effect of land and sea breeze on H2S dispersion in Yarmouth's coastal region caused concentrations to accumulate higher than the other two regions and to life threatening levels around the source. The mountainous terrain of Whitehorse shaped the plume trajectory, causing H2S concentrations to accumulate to levels that can cause irreversible health effects at various times and locations. Results show that each area's meteorological conditions will have different impacts on dispersion.

Abdul-Wahab, Sabah A.; Chan, Keziah; Elkamel, Ali; Ahmadi, Lena

2014-01-01

3

Interception, retention and translocation under greenhouse conditions of radiocaesium and radiostrontium from a simulated accidental source.  

PubMed

The behaviour of radioactive aerosols released from a severely damaged nuclear reactor and deposited on cereals was simulated under controlled conditions. 137Cs- and 90Sr-labelled aerosols were generated by volatilisation at high temperature of an artificially spiked pellet of depleted UO2. After cooling and maturation the aerosols were allowed to deposit on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. Arbon) cultures grown on lysimeters under greenhouse conditions. At the time of contamination the wheat plants were at different stages of development, from early vegetative growth (two leaves) until nearly mature (end of flowering). The estimated interception coefficient (micro) amounted to 13.1 m2 kg(-1); such a high value may be explained by the experimental conditions that created an over-saturated atmosphere during the contamination process and wet leaf surfaces. The first simulated rain, applied 6 days after the contamination, removed four times more 137Cs (54%+/-12 of the intercepted radionuclides) than 90Sr (15%+/-20) from the aerial parts. At harvest approximately 2% of the Sr and less than 1% of the Cs initially intercepted by the aerial parts is recovered for plants contaminated during the early development stages. A significantly higher proportion of the intercepted activity is still present for plants contaminated in the late development stages. The translocation to grains (TLF) increases when deposit occurs closer to the mature stage of the plant. The initial decrease of TLF values that we observed for strontium contamination in the earliest development stages is most probably due to the contribution of root uptake. Ploughing and re-sowing after the first rain, applied as a countermeasure reduced the 137Cs content in leaves and stems at harvest approximately 3 times but had no effect on the 90Sr content in vegetative organs. It reduced the 137Cs-contamination level in edible parts (grain) by a factor of 2 compared to the unploughed control, but doubled the 90Sr content. PMID:11669268

Vandecasteel, C M; Baker, S; Förstel, H; Muzinsky, M; Millan, R; Madoz-Escande, C; Tormos, J; Sauras, T; Schulte, E; Colle, C

2001-10-20

4

Inhaled Surfactant in the treatment of accidental Talc Powder inhalation: a new case report  

PubMed Central

The use of talcum powder is incorrectly part of the traditional care of infants. Its acute aspiration is a very dangerous condition in childhood. Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported. We report on a patient in which accidental inhalation of baby powder induced severe respiratory difficulties. We also point out the benefits of surfactant administration. Surfactant contributed to the rapid improvement of the medical and radiological condition, preventing severe early and late complications and avoiding invasive approaches. PMID:21951993

2011-01-01

5

Accidental Pinhole and Pinspeck Cameras  

E-print Network

We identify and study two types of “accidental” images that can be formed in scenes. The first is an accidental pinhole camera image. The second class of accidental images are “inverse” pinhole camera images, formed by ...

Torralba, Antonio

6

Acute accidental phosgene poisoning  

PubMed Central

Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:22602834

Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

2012-01-01

7

Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved home insulation and increased use of space heaters have increased the potential for accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings in the home. CO is a major environmental pollutant in today's society and is also contained in cigarette smoke. The toxic effects, metabolic pathways, and treatment of CO poisoning are described.

D. L. Jackson; H. Menges

1980-01-01

8

Region-specific contribution of the ventral tegmental area to heroin-induced conditioned immunomodulation.  

E-print Network

??Dopamine receptor stimulation is critical for heroin-conditioned immunomodulation; however, it is unclear whether the ventral tegmental area (VTA) contributes to this phenomenon. Hence, rats received… (more)

Hutson, Lee.

2013-01-01

9

Accidental inflation in the landscape  

SciTech Connect

We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P{sup 4}{sub [1,1,1,6,9]} by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Metallinos, Konstantinos [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States); Gomez-Reino, Marta, E-mail: jose@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: marta.gomez-reino.perez@cern.ch, E-mail: Konstantinos.Metallinos@tufts.edu [Department of Physics, University of Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain)

2013-02-01

10

Accidental Inflation in the Landscape  

E-print Network

We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P^4_[1,1,1,6,9] by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

Jose J. Blanco-Pillado; Marta Gomez-Reino; Konstantinos Metallinos

2012-09-04

11

The Accidental Scientist: Cooking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Another great Web site from the Exploratorium in San Francisco (last mentioned in the August 16, 2002 NSDL MET Report), The Accidental Scientist: Cooking is the first in a series of "Web-based projects focusing on the science behind everyday life." Offering a mind-boggling array of food-related information and activities, foodies and science-lovers alike should find this Web site extremely engaging. Life science-related material includes an exploration of taste and smell; the biological properties of meat; microbe action in pickling, fermentation, and leavening; and much more. The site's other features not directly related to the life sciences shouldn't be missed. Users can find recipes and cooking tips, fun projects, and live Web casts starting in November 2002 that explore the science and culture of cooking, "just in time for picking up cooking tips for the holiday season."

1969-12-31

12

Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.  

PubMed Central

Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. PMID:8781398

Cardis, E

1996-01-01

13

Urban contribution of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants to streams during differing flow conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 2001, 76 water samples were collected upstream and downstream of select towns and cities in Iowa during high-, normal- and low-flow conditions to determine the contribution of urban centers to concentrations of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) in streams under varying flow conditions. The towns ranged in population from approximately 2000 to 200000. Overall, one or more

Dana W Kolpin; Mary Skopec; Michael T Meyer; Edward T Furlong; Steven D Zaugg

2004-01-01

14

Determinants of Suicide and Accidental or Violent Death in the Australian HIV Observational Database  

PubMed Central

Background Rates of suicide and accidental or violent death remain high in HIV-positive populations despite significantly improved prognosis since the introduction of cART. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study of suicide and accidental or violent death in the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) between January 1999 and March 2012. For each case, 2 controls were matched by clinic, age, sex, mode of exposure and HIV-positive date to adjust for potential confounding by these covariates. Risk of suicide and accidental or violent death was estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results We included 27 cases (17 suicide and 10 violent/accidental death) and 54 controls. All cases were men who have sex with men (MSM) or MSM/ injecting drug use (IDU) mode of exposure. Increased risk was associated with unemployment (Odds Ratio (OR) 5.86, 95% CI: 1.69–20.37), living alone (OR 3.26, 95% CI: 1.06–10.07), suicidal ideation (OR 6.55, 95% CI: 1.70–25.21), and >2 psychiatric/cognitive risk factors (OR 4.99, 95% CI: 1.17–30.65). CD4 cell count of >500 cells/µL (OR 0.25, 95% CI: 0.07–0.87) and HIV-positive date ?1990 (1990–1999 (OR 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11–0.89), post-2000 (OR 0.08, 95% CI: 0.01–0.84)) were associated with decreased risk. CD4 cell count ?500 cells/µL remained a significant predictor of reduced risk (OR 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03–0.70) in a multivariate model adjusted for employment status, accommodation status and HIV-positive date. Conclusions After adjustment for psychosocial factors, the immunological status of HIV-positive patients contributed to the risk of suicide and accidental or violent death. The number of psychiatric/cognitive diagnoses contributed to the level of risk but many psychosocial factors were not individually significant. These findings indicate a complex interplay of factors associated with risk of suicide and accidental or violent death. PMID:24586519

McManus, Hamish; Petoumenos, Kathy; Franic, Teo; Kelly, Mark D.; Watson, Jo; O’Connor, Catherine C.; Jeanes, Mark; Hoy, Jennifer; Cooper, David A.; Law, Matthew G.

2014-01-01

15

Relative Contributions of the Cerebellar Cortex and Cerebellar Nucleus to Eyelid Conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have presented data addressing the relative contributions of the cerebellar cortex and nuclei in the acquisition and expression\\u000a of conditioned eyelid responses. Data from a series of studies support the notion that while plasticity occurs in both the\\u000a cerebellar cortex and nucleus, the cerebellar cortex is essential for acquisition, extinction, and for the proper expression\\u000a of conditioned eyelid responses.

William L. Nores; Javier F. Medina; Philip M. Steele; Michael D. Mauk

16

Alcohol use and misuse: What are the contributions of occupation and work organization conditions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This research examines the specific contribution of occupation and work organization conditions to alcohol use and misuse. It is based on a social-action model that takes into account agent personality, structures of daily life, and macro social structures. METHODS: Data come from a representative sample of 10,155 workers in Quebec, Canada. Multinomial regression models corrected for sample design effect

Alain Marchand

2008-01-01

17

Contribution of surface and subsurface layers of soil on wheat nutrition under fertilized and unfertilized conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment was conducted to study the contribution of surface and subsurface layers of soil on wheat nutrition under fertilized and unfertilized conditions. Artificial columns of soils were used for this purpose. A column consisted of three layers of different soils, varying in their native P, and concomitant chemical and physical properties.A rise in the surface fertility increased the

I. M. Chhibba; G. S. Sekhon

1983-01-01

18

History of accidental hypothermia?  

PubMed Central

Death from exposure to cold has been recognised for thousands of years but hypothermia as a clinical condition was not generally recognised until the mid-20th century and then only in extreme conditions such as immersion in cold water or snow. In the UK, hypothermia in less extreme conditions was not generally recognised until the 1960s. Recognition of hypothermia required the temperature to be measured and this did not become a clinical tool until the late 1800s and it was not used routinely until the early 1900s. Although John Hunter and James Curry did some physiological experiments in the 1700s, detailed physiological experiments were not done until the early 20th century and the use of therapeutic hypothermia for malignancy and in anaesthesia in the 1930s and 1940s provided more impetus for investigating the physiology of hypothermia in humans and familiarising the medical profession with measuring core temperatures. PMID:21036455

Guly, Henry

2011-01-01

19

Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge

Cardis

1996-01-01

20

Accidental intra-arterial injection.  

PubMed

The potential for an accidental intra-arterial injection is present whenever an intravenous route of drug administration is used. Because of the serious nature of the morbidity associated with this iatrogenic injury, and its preventability, this article is presented to update the available information on the etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this problem. PMID:3283309

Lieblich, S E; Topazian, R G

1988-04-01

21

Urban contribution of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants to streams during differing flow conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 2001, 76 water samples were collected upstream and downstream of select towns and cities in Iowa during high-, normal- and low-flow conditions to determine the contribution of urban centers to concentrations of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) in streams under varying flow conditions. The towns ranged in population from approximately 2000 to 200000. Overall, one or more OWCs were detected in 98.7% of the samples collected, with 62 of the 105 compounds being found. The most frequently detected compounds were metolachlor (pesticide), cholesterol (plant and animal sterol), caffeine (stimulant), ??-sitosterol (plant sterol) and 1,7-dimethylxanthine (caffeine degradate). The number of OWCs detected decreased as streamflow increased from low- (51 compounds detected) to normal- (28) to high-flow (24) conditions. Antibiotics and other prescription drugs were only frequently detected during low-flow conditions. During low-flow conditions, 15 compounds (out of the 23) and ten compound groups (out of 11) detected in more than 10% of the streams sampled had significantly greater concentrations in samples collected downstream than in those collected upstream of the urban centers. Conversely, no significant differences in the concentrations were found during high-flow conditions. Thus, the urban contribution of OWCs to streams became progressively muted as streamflow increased. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kolpin, D.W.; Skopec, M.; Meyer, M.T.; Furlong, E.T.; Zaugg, S.D.

2004-01-01

22

Accidental benzalkonium chloride (zephiran) injection.  

PubMed

We report a case of an accidental injection of benzalkonium chloride (zephiran) instead of a local anesthetic agent during a tooth extraction. The sudden development of chin and neck swelling led to dyspnea and the patient lost consciousness. She was sent to an emergency clinic by her dentist immediately. After medical treatment for 20 days, the necrotic tissue was debrided and a gingival sulcoplasty was performed. Healing was uneventful. PMID:22014998

Kilic, Erdem; Er, Nilay; Alkan, Alper; Ferahbas, Ayten

2011-12-01

23

Accidental intra-arterial injection of papaveretum during anaesthesia.  

PubMed

The circulatory depressant action of papaveretum was demonstrated when the drug was injected accidentally into the radial artery during neuroanaesthesia in the upright (sitting) position. The signs of air embolism were mimicked. The condition reponded promptly to a vasopressor given intravenously. There were no harmful sequelae to the patient's hand. PMID:474950

Michel, R; Adams, A P

1979-05-01

24

Accidental intra-arterial injection.  

PubMed

Accidental intra-arterial injection of intramuscular antibiotic preparations is described in 3 cases in infants. In 2 benzathine penicillin was injected, and in 1 rolitetracycline. The clinical features are dominated by arteriolar obstruction which produces gangrene of the most severely affected limb. In addition, neuroloigcal involvement occurs when vessels to nerves or spinal cord are involved. The arteriolateral aspect of the thigh is preferable to the buttock as a site for intramuscular injection, and a short (2.5 cm) needle should be used to minimise the risk of intra-arterial injection. PMID:666353

Wynne, J M; Williams, G L; Ellman, B A

1978-05-01

25

Accidental intra-arterial injection.  

PubMed Central

Accidental intra-arterial injection of intramuscular antibiotic preparations is described in 3 cases in infants. In 2 benzathine penicillin was injected, and in 1 rolitetracycline. The clinical features are dominated by arteriolar obstruction which produces gangrene of the most severely affected limb. In addition, neuroloigcal involvement occurs when vessels to nerves or spinal cord are involved. The arteriolateral aspect of the thigh is preferable to the buttock as a site for intramuscular injection, and a short (2.5 cm) needle should be used to minimise the risk of intra-arterial injection. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 p397-b p397-c Fig. 3 PMID:666353

Wynne, J M; Williams, G L; Ellman, B A

1978-01-01

26

?-Acetolactate synthase of Lactococcus lactis contributes to pH homeostasis in acid stress conditions.  

PubMed

Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are recognized as safe microorganisms with the capacity to improve the quality of dairy products. When the LAB Lactococcus lactis is employed as starter for the production of fermented foods, high quantities of important aroma compounds such as diacetyl are generated by means of the diacetyl/acetoin pathway. Our previous results obtained with L. lactis strains report that this pathway is activated under acidic conditions. In this study, we describe the metabolism of pyruvate, a diacetyl/acetoin precursor, and its contribution to pH homeostasis in this microorganism. L lactis strain IL1403 is able to cometabolize pyruvate and glucose at low pH, producing lactate, acetate as well as diacetyl/acetoin compounds. In contrast, the als defective strain, which is incapable of producing C4 compounds, appeared sensitive to pyruvate under acidic conditions rendering it unable to grow. Accordingly, the als-mutant strain showed a simultaneous inability to alkalinize internal and external media. These results demonstrate that the decarboxylation reactions associated to the diacetyl/acetoin pathway represent a competitive advantage in a condition of intracellular pyruvate accumulation during growth at low pH. Interestingly, a genomic comparative analysis shows that this pathway has been conserved in L. lactis during the domestication of different strains. Also, our analysis shows that the recent acquisition of the cit cluster required for citrate metabolism, which contributes to diacetyl/acetoin production as well, is the specific feature of the biovar. diacetylactis. In this regard, we present for first time genetic evidence supporting the proposal made by Passerini et al. (2013) who postulated that the expression "biovar. citrate" should be more appropriate to define this specific industrial strain. PMID:25100661

Zuljan, Federico A; Repizo, Guillermo D; Alarcon, Sergio H; Magni, Christian

2014-10-01

27

Gender inequalities in health: exploring the contribution of living conditions in the intersection of social class  

PubMed Central

Background Women experience poorer health than men despite their longer life expectancy, due to a higher prevalence of non-fatal chronic illnesses. This paper aims to explore whether the unequal gender distribution of roles and resources can account for inequalities in general self-rated health (SRH) by gender, across social classes, in a Southern European population. Methods Cross-sectional study of residents in Catalonia aged 25–64, using data from the 2006 population living conditions survey (n=5,817). Poisson regression models were used to calculate the fair/poor SRH prevalence ratio (PR) by gender and to estimate the contribution of variables assessing several dimensions of living conditions as the reduction in the PR after their inclusion in the model. Analyses were stratified by social class (non-manual and manual). Results SRH was poorer for women among both non-manual (PR 1.39, 95% CI 1.09–1.76) and manual social classes (PR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20–1.56). Adjustment for individual income alone eliminated the association between sex and SRH, especially among manual classes (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.85–1.19; among non-manual 1.19, 0.92–1.54). The association was also reduced when adjusting by employment conditions among manual classes, and household material and economic situation, time in household chores and residential environment among non-manual classes. Discussion Gender inequalities in individual income appear to contribute largely to women's poorer health. Individual income may indicate the availability of economic resources, but also the history of access to the labour market and potentially the degree of independence and power within the household. Policies to facilitate women's labour market participation, to close the gender pay gap, or to raise non-contributory pensions may be helpful to improve women's health. PMID:24560257

Malmusi, Davide; Vives, Alejandra; Benach, Joan; Borrell, Carme

2014-01-01

28

Accidental release prevention: Recent EPA actions  

SciTech Connect

Industry should expect a resurgence in EPA accidental release prevention mandates. Among recent federal rulemakings, a list of substances and their thresholds for accidental releases were addressed in a final rule March 1994. Risk management of accidental releases was addressed in a related, proposed rule. The rules will affect an estimated 118,000 facilities nationwide. The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 are the driving force. CAAA Title 3 Section 112 (r) requires EPA to formulate and implement requirements for accidental release prevention. Section 112 (r) provisions can be viewed as the culmination of federal legislative efforts to prevent accidental releases and protect the public. Federal interest was fanned by a number of serious accidents in the US and worldwide in the past 20 years.

Mester, Z.C.

1995-05-01

29

5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870.206 Section 870...Amount of Insurance § 870.206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an...

2012-01-01

30

5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870.206 Section 870...Amount of Insurance § 870.206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an...

2014-01-01

31

49 CFR 192.751 - Prevention of accidental ignition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Prevention of accidental ignition. 192.751 Section 192.751...751 Prevention of accidental ignition. Each operator shall take steps to minimize the danger of accidental ignition of gas in any structure or...

2010-10-01

32

Estimation of the Ionosphere and Plasmasphere Contribution to the GPS TEC under Solar Minimum Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plasmaspheric electron content (PEC) was estimated by comparison GPS observations and FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC radio occultation (RO) measurements at the extended solar minimum of cycle 23/24. GPS observations provide information about values of vertical total electron content (TEC) up to the metricconverterProductID20,200 km20,200 km. FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC now provides unprecedented global coverage of GPS RO measurements. Depending on the state of the constellation, COSMIC has been producing 1,500 -- 2,500 good soundings of the ionosphere and atmosphere per day, uniformly distributed around the globe. This number of RO is much higher than even before. In this study, COSMIC RO data for different seasons corresponded to equinoxes and solstices of 2007-2009 (March, June, September and December) were analyzed. All selected COSMIC RO electron density profiles were integrated up to the height of metricconverterProductID700 km700 km (altitude of COSMIC satellites), in that way the estimates of ionospheric electron content (IEC) were retrieved on a global scale. The final IGS combined global ionospheric maps (GIMs) were used to calculate the global maps of monthly medians of TEC values. As a result there were analyzed global distributions of GPS TEC and IEC estimates corresponded to the monthly median values for different seasons of 2007-2009. We consider the quantitative differences PEC = TEC -- IEC as a measure of the contribution of the PEC to GPS TEC. In order to analyze seasonal behaviour of PEC contribution to GPS TEC at the different regions we selected several specific points with coordinates, corresponded to the approximate positions of different, mid-latitude and low-latitude, ionospheric sounding stations. Such points were selected at Northern America, European and Asian regions, Southern America, Southern Africa and country-regionplaceAustralia. For each specific points GPS TEC, COSMIC IEC and PEC estimates were analyzed. Results of our comparative study revealed that for mid-latitude stations PEC estimates varied weakly with the time of a day and reached the value of several TECU (3-5 TECU) for the condition of solar minimum. Percentage contribution of PEC to GPS TEC indicates the clear dependence from the time and varies from a minimum of about 25-30% during day-time to the value of more than 60% at night-time. The presented results are compared with TEC, PEC and IEC estimates retrieved by Standard Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model (SPIM, http://ftp.izmiran.ru/pub/izmiran/SPIM/).

Zakharenkova, Irina; Cherniak, Iurii; Krankowski, Andrzej; Shagimuratov, Irk; Sieradzki, Rafal

2012-07-01

33

Conditioned Contribution of Peripheral Cocaine Actions to Cocaine Reward and Cocaine-Seeking  

PubMed Central

Cocaine has actions in the peripheral nervous system that reliably precede—and thus predict—its soon-to-follow central rewarding effects. In cocaine-experienced animals, the peripheral cocaine signal is relayed to the central nervous system, triggering excitatory input to the ventral tegmental origin of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, the system that mediates the rewarding effects of the drug. We used cocaine methiodide, a cocaine analog that does not cross the blood–brain barrier, to isolate the peripheral actions of cocaine and determine their central and behavioral effects in animals first trained to lever-press for cocaine hydrochloride (the centrally acting and abused form of the drug). We first confirmed with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry that cocaine methiodide causes rapid dopamine release from dopamine terminals in cocaine hydrochloride-trained rats. We then compared the ability of cocaine hydrochloride and cocaine methiodide to establish conditioned place preferences in rats with self-administration experience. While cocaine hydrochloride established stronger place preferences, cocaine methiodide was also effective and its effectiveness increased (incubated) over weeks of cocaine abstinence. Cocaine self-administration was extinguished when cocaine methiodide or saline was substituted for cocaine hydrochloride in the intravenous self-administration paradigm, but cocaine hydrochloride and cocaine methiodide each reinstated non-rewarded lever-pressing after extinction. Rats extinguished by cocaine methiodide substitution showed weaker cocaine-induced reinstatement than rats extinguished by saline substitution. These findings suggest that the conditioned peripheral effects of cocaine can contribute significantly to cocaine-induced (but not stress-induced) cocaine craving, and also suggest the cocaine cue as an important target for cue-exposure therapies for cocaine addiction. PMID:23535778

Wang, Bin; You, Zhi-Bing; Oleson, Erik B; Cheer, Joseph F; Myal, Stephanie; Wise, Roy A

2013-01-01

34

Principal aquifers can contribute radium to sources of drinking water under certain geochemical conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

What are the most important factors affecting dissolved radium concentrations in principal aquifers used for drinking water in the United States? Study results reveal where radium was detected and how rock type and chemical processes control radium occurrence. Knowledge of the geochemical conditions may help water-resource managers anticipate where radium may be elevated in groundwater and minimize exposure to radium, which contributes to cancer risk. Summary of Major Findings: * Concentrations of radium in principal aquifers used for drinking water throughout the United States generally were below 5 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) for combined radium - radium-226 (Ra-226) plus radium-228 (Ra-228) - in public water supplies. About 3 percent of sampled wells had combined radium concentrations greater than the MCL. * Elevated concentrations of combined radium were more common in groundwater in the eastern and central United States than in other regions of the Nation. About 98 percent of the wells that contained combined radium at concentrations greater than the MCL were east of the High Plains. * The highest concentrations of combined radium were in the Mid-Continent and Ozark Plateau Cambro-Ordovician aquifer system and the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system. More than 20 percent of sampled wells in these aquifers had combined radium concentrations that were greater than or equal to the MCL. * Concentrations of Ra-226 correlated with those of Ra-228. Radium-226 and Ra-228 occur most frequently together in unconsolidated sand aquifers, and their presence is strongly linked to groundwater chemistry. * Three common geochemical factors are associated with the highest radium concentrations in groundwater: (1) oxygen-poor water, (2) acidic conditions (low pH), and (3) high concentrations of dissolved solids.

Szabo, Zoltan; Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Hancock, Tracy Connell

2012-01-01

35

The contribution of single and double cones to spectral sensitivity in budgerigars during changing light conditions.  

PubMed

Bird colour vision is mediated by single cones, while double cones and rods mediate luminance vision in bright and dim light, respectively. In daylight conditions, birds use colour vision to discriminate large objects such as fruit and plumage patches, and luminance vision to detect fine spatial detail and motion. However, decreasing light intensity favours achromatic mechanisms and eventually, in dim light, luminance vision outperforms colour vision in all visual tasks. We have used behavioural tests in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) to investigate how single cones, double cones and rods contribute to spectral sensitivity for large (3.4°) static monochromatic stimuli at light intensities ranging from 0.08 to 63.5 cd/m². We found no influences of rods at any intensity level. Single cones dominate the spectral sensitivity function at intensities above 1.1 cd/m², as predicted by a receptor noise-limited colour discrimination model. Below 1.1 cd/m², spectral sensitivity is lower than expected at all wavelengths except 575 nm, which corresponds to double cone function. We suggest that luminance vision mediated by double cones restores visual sensitivity when single cone sensitivity quickly decreases at light intensities close to the absolute threshold of colour vision. PMID:24366429

Lind, Olle; Chavez, Johanna; Kelber, Almut

2014-03-01

36

Expansion of the piriform cortex contributes to corticothalamic pathfinding defects in gli3 conditional mutants.  

PubMed

The corticothalamic and thalamocortical tracts play essential roles in the communication between the cortex and thalamus. During development, axons forming these tracts have to follow a complex path to reach their target areas. While much attention has been paid to the mechanisms regulating their passage through the ventral telencephalon, very little is known about how the developing cortex contributes to corticothalamic/thalamocortical tract formation. Gli3 encodes a zinc finger transcription factor widely expressed in telencephalic progenitors which has important roles in corticothalamic and thalamocortical pathfinding. Here, we conditionally inactivated Gli3 in dorsal telencephalic progenitors to determine its role in corticothalamic tract formation. In Emx1Cre;Gli3(fl/fl) mutants, only a few corticothalamic axons enter the striatum in a restricted dorsal domain. This restricted entry correlates with a medial expansion of the piriform cortex. Transplantation experiments showed that the expanded piriform cortex repels corticofugal axons. Moreover, expression of Sema5B, a chemorepellent for corticofugal axons produced by the piriform cortex, is similarly expanded. Finally, time course analysis revealed an expansion of the ventral pallial progenitor domain which gives rise to the piriform cortex. Hence, control of lateral cortical development by Gli3 at the progenitor level is crucial for corticothalamic pathfinding. PMID:24014668

Amaniti, Eleni-Maria; Fu, Chaoying; Lewis, Sean; Saisana, Marina; Magnani, Dario; Mason, John O; Theil, Thomas

2015-02-01

37

Bad Jobs, Bad Health? How Work and Working Conditions Contribute to Health Disparities  

PubMed Central

In this review, we touch on a broad array of ways that work is linked to health and health disparities for individuals and societies. First focusing on the health of individuals, we discuss the health differences between those who do and do not work for pay, and review key positive and negative exposures that can generate health disparities among the employed. These include both psychosocial factors like the benefits of a high status job or the burden of perceived job insecurity, as well as physical exposures to dangerous working conditions like asbestos or rotating shift work. We also provide a discussion of the ways differential exposure to these aspects of work contributes to social disparities in health within and across generations. Analytic complexities in assessing the link between work and health for individuals, such as health selection, are also discussed. We then touch on several contextual level associations between work and the health of populations, discussing the importance of the occupational structure in a given society, the policy environment that prevails there, and the oscillations of the macroeconomy for generating societal disparities in health. We close with a discussion of four areas and associated recommendations that draw on this corpus of knowledge but would push the research on work, health and inequality toward even greater scholarly and policy relevance. PMID:24187340

Burgard, Sarah A.; Lin, Katherine Y.

2013-01-01

38

The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

1975-01-01

39

[Accidental intra-arterial propofol injection].  

PubMed

We report a case of accidental intra-arterial injection of propofol in a 37-year-old woman admitted for gynaecological surgery. The patient first reported pain and then demonstrated hyperaemia and swelling of the hand lasting for 15 minutes. No specific treatment was required, all symptoms disappeared spontaneously and the patient was discharged without any functional deficit. It is, nevertheless, important to prevent or discover accidental intra-arterial cannulation. When infusion is difficult or when strong pain appears during propofol administration, accidental intra-arterial injection must be excluded. PMID:20444411

Kjaergaard, Maj; Rovsing, Marie Louise

2010-05-01

40

Water dynamics and groundwater contributions in a young mountain soil under different meteorological conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater contribution to the soil-water content and to the evapotranspiration is a major uncertainty to assess the water balance. Particularly in mountain environments, where the soil and the depth of the water table are shallow, both percolation and water rise from the water table can happen. Aiming at better understanding these processes at the local scale, a micrometeorological station, equipped with both traditional sensors, an eddy covariance (EC) apparatus with a 20Hz sonic anemometer and infrared CO2 and H2O gas analyser, and four multiplexed TDR probes, was installed at Cividate Camuno (Oglio river basin, Central Italian Alps, Italy, 274ma.s.l.), in a mountain environment with complex topography and Alpine sublitoranean climate. The young, anthropised, soil upper layers are about 40cm deep and mainly covered by alfalfa (Medicago sativa), wild carrot (Daucus carota) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium). Field and laboratory tests were performed to characterise the soil hydraulic properties. Particularly the soil-water retention relationships were measured by means of a low- and a high-pressure Richards' apparatus, and the hydraulic conductivity at saturation of each soil layer was estimated by 2-dimensional, axis-symmetrical, inverse modelling of field infiltration tests from single ring infiltrometer. The measurements were performed during Summer 2012 and Summer 2013. The groundwater exchange was numerically estimated both in wet (Summer 2012) and in dry meteorlogical conditions (Summer 2013). Evapotranspiration was assessed by means of Penman-Monteith method, which was found to be in the range between EC-estimated fluxes and an indirect estimate based on the Bowen ratio correction for Summer 2012. The two seasons are meteorologically very different and it results also in the soil-water regime. During Summer 2012, the weather was relatively wet, the soil did not reach very small water contents, so that precipitation was able to percolate towards the groundwater table and the groundwater table to meaningfully contribute to the evapotranspirative fluxes. Summer 2013 was instead much drier, precipitation was not able to meaningfully change the water content of the lowest soil layer and to percolate toward the water table. As a consequence of the very small water contents of the soil, also a very small water rise had place.

Negm, Amro; Falocchi, Marco; Barontini, Stefano; Ranzi, Roberto; Bacchi, Baldassare

2014-05-01

41

An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.  

PubMed

An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the ?-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. PMID:25453780

Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

2014-10-24

42

Differential contribution of some cortical sites to the formation of memory traces supporting fear conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work was to assess the role of some cortical sites of the rat (the prefrontal, PFC, frontal, FC, parietal,\\u000a PAC, and perirhinal, PC, cortices) in the acquisition of classical fear conditioning (CS and context conditioned freezing).\\u000a Using the reversible ablation technique the sites were inactivated with lidocaine (LIDO), administered before the one-trial\\u000a training session. The

Benedetto Sacchetti; Elisabetta Baldi; Carlo Ambrogi Lorenzini; Corrado Bucherelli

2002-01-01

43

Factors contributing to the degradation of poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) (PBO) fibers under elevated temperature and humidity conditions  

E-print Network

derivative of TA such as terephthaloyl chloride in a poly-phosphoric acid (PPA) solution [1] as shown in Figure 2. 5 Figure 2. Synthesis of PBO In this synthesis, poly-phosphoric acid serves three different functions, acting as solvent... FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE DEGRADATION OF POLY(P- PHENYLENE BENZOBISOXAZOLE) (PBO) FIBERS UNDER ELEVATED TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY CONDITIONS A Thesis by #0;-#0;2#0;6#0;(#0;3#0;+#0;#3;#0;0#0;#17;#0...

O'Neil, Joseph M

2006-10-30

44

Accidental Head Injury: A Real Life Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The adult victim of accidental head injury as a result of an automobile accident recounts his experiences as a brain injured adult with such problems as poor balance, poor speech, spasticity, and lack of fine motor movement. He emphasizes his determination to get on with his life. (DB)

Blakely, Jim

1988-01-01

45

Reinterpretation of mouse thyroid changes under space conditions: the contribution of confinement to damage.  

PubMed

During space missions, astronauts work in a state of separation from their daily social environment and in physical confinement. It has been shown that confinement influences mood and brain cortical activity, but no data has been obtained with regard to its effect on the thyroid gland, the structure and function of which change during spaceflights. Here, we report the results of a study on the effects of confinement on mouse thyroid, which was implemented with the Mice Drawer System Facility maintained on the ground, a system used for spaceflight experiments. The results show that confinement changes the microscopic structure of the thyroid gland and that it exhibits symptoms similar to those that result from physiological and/or pathological hyperfunction. What is left unchanged, however, is the sphingomyelinase-thyrotropin receptor relationship, which is important for thyrotropin response with a consequential production of hormones that act on the metabolism of almost all tissues and reduces the production of calcitonin, a hormone involved in bone metabolism. During space missions, the overexpression of pleiotrophin, a widespread cytokine up-regulated after tissue injury that acts on bone remodeling, attenuates changes to the thyroid that are spaceflight-dependent; therefore we studied the thyroids of pleiotrophin-transgenic mice in the Mice Drawer System Facility. In confinement, pleiotrophin overexpression does not protect from the loss of calcitonin. The contribution of confinement to thyroid damage during spaceflights is discussed. PMID:24945896

Albi, E; Ambesi-Impiombato, F S; Lazzarini, A; Lazzarini, R; Floridi, A; Cataldi, S; Loreti, E; Ferri, I; Curcio, F

2014-07-01

46

Accidental intra-arterial injection of propofol.  

PubMed

We report a case of accidental intra-arterial injection of propofol in a 30-year-old woman admitted for curettage. The patient reported pain, which was followed by a hyperaemic area of 6 x 7 cm around the injection site. Later a blanching of the distal part of the hand was noticed, lasting for 3 min. When pain appears during propofol administration, an intra-arterial injection must be excluded. PMID:10500949

Ohana, E; Sheiner, E; Gurman, G M

1999-08-01

47

Accidental supersymmetric dark matter and baryogenesis  

SciTech Connect

We show that ''accidental'' supersymmetry is a beyond-the-Standard Model framework that naturally accommodates a thermal relic dark matter candidate and successful electroweak baryogenesis, including the needed strongly first-order character of the electroweak phase transition. We study the phenomenology of this setup from the standpoint of both dark matter and baryogenesis. For energies around the electroweak phase transition temperature, the low-energy effective theory is similar to the MSSM with light super-partners of the third-generation quarks and of the Higgs and gauge bosons. We calculate the dark matter relic abundance and the baryon asymmetry across the accidental supersymmetry parameter space, including resonant and non-resonant CP-violating sources. We find that there are regions of parameter space producing both the observed value of the baryon asymmetry and a dark matter candidate with the correct relic density and conforming to present-day constraints from dark matter searches. This scenario makes sharp predictions for the particle spectrum, predicting a lightest neutralino mass between 200 and 500 GeV, with all charginos and neutralinos within less than a factor 2 of the lightest neutralino mass and the heavy Higgs sector within 20–25% of that mass, making it an interesting target for collider searches. In addition, we demonstrate that successful accidental supersymmetric dark matter and baryogenesis will be conclusively tested with improvements smaller than one order of magnitude to the current performance of electron electric dipole moment searches and of direct dark matter searches, as well as with IceCube plus Deep Core neutrino telescope data.

Kozaczuk, Jonathan; Profumo, Stefano; Wainwright, Carroll L., E-mail: jkozaczu@ucsc.edu, E-mail: profumo@ucsc.edu, E-mail: cwainwri@ucsc.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2013-01-01

48

Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit  

PubMed Central

Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit. PMID:24278073

Ró?alska, Anna; Ukleja-Soko?owska, Natalia; ?bikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

2013-01-01

49

Modeling downwind hazards after an accidental release of chlorine trifluoride  

SciTech Connect

A module simulating ClF{sub 3} chemical reactions with water vapor and thermodynamic processes in the atmosphere after an accidental release has been developed. This module was liked to the HGSYSTEM. Initial model runs simulate the rapid formation of HF and ClO{sub 2} after an atmospheric release of ClF{sub 3}. At distances beyond the first several meters from the release point, HF and ClO{sub 2} concentrations pose a greater threat to human health than do ClF{sub 3} concentrations. For most of the simulations, ClF{sub 3} concentrations rapidly fall below the IDLH. Fro releases occurring in ambient conditions with low relative humidity and/or ambient temperature, ClF{sub 3} concentrations exceed the IDLH up to almost 500 m. The performance of this model needs to be determined for potential release scenarios that will be considered. These release scenarios are currently being developed.

Lombardi, D.A.; Cheng, Meng-Dawn

1996-05-01

50

[Fingers necrosis after an accidental intra-arterial injection of flucloxacilline: case report].  

PubMed

Accidental intra-arterial injection of drugs is rare in pediatric patients. It is a source of considerable morbidity. Vessel proximity, aberrant vasculature, difficult procedures, and clerical errors can contribute to accidental intra-arterial injection. We report a case of a 7-year-old girl who had an accidental intra-arterial injection of 500 mg of floxacillin in her right elbow for open wound of the index. Initial signs and symptoms consisted of intense forearm pain and cyanosis. Two to 3 hours later, discoloration and nail bed pallor became evident, with no radial pulse. Rapid development of signs of acute ischemia prompted urgent brachial artery embolectomy and exploration and forearm fasciotomy. Postoperative heparin was administered. Postoperatively gangrene of the five fingers of the right hand developed. We present a comprehensive review of literature, highlighting available information on symptoms, pathogenesis, sequelae and management strategies for accidental intra-arterial injection. We believe that all physicians and ancillary personnel who administer intravenous therapy should be aware of this serious risk. PMID:21067956

Aghoutane, E M; Fezzazi, R; Elhaouati, R; Boumzebra, D

2011-04-01

51

Safe Storage Gun Laws: Accidental Deaths, Suicides and Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is frequently assumed that safe storage gun laws reduce accidental gun deaths and total suicides, while the possible impact on crime rates are ignored. However, given existing work on the adverse impact of other safety laws, such as safety caps for storing medicine, even the very plausible assumption of reduced accidental gun deaths cannot be taken for granted. Our

John E. Whitley

2001-01-01

52

Safe Storage Gun Laws: Accidental Deaths, Suicides, and Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is frequently assumed that safe storage gun laws reduce accidental gun deaths and total suicides, while the possible impact on crime rates are ignored. However, given existing work on the adverse impact of other safety laws, such as safety caps for storing medicine, even the very plausible assumption of reduced accidental gun deaths cannot be taken for granted. Our

John E. Whitley

2000-01-01

53

Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" is a comprehensive overview of standards, practices and possibilities of course management systems in higher education. "Course Management Systems for Learning: Beyond Accidental Pedagogy" focuses on what the current knowledge is (in best practices, research, standards and…

McGee, Patricia; Carmean, Colleen; Jafari, Ali

2005-01-01

54

Experiences of Causing an Accidental Death: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accidentally killing or feeling responsible for another person's death constitutes an event that is different from many typical traumatic stressors in that the responsibility for causing the trauma is located in the person themselves, rather than another person or persons. Research exploring the perspective of those who have accidentally caused a…

Rassool, Sara B.; Nel, Pieter W.

2012-01-01

55

Rickettsial infection caused by accidental conjunctival inoculation.  

PubMed

The most common transmission route of tick-borne Rickettsia is through tick bite; nevertheless, other transmission routes should also be considered. We report a case of rickettsial infection in a 15-year-old boy caused by accidental contamination of the conjunctiva through the infected fluid of a crushed engorged tick removed from a dog. Right eye pain, conjunctival hyperaemia with mucopurulent exudate, chemosis and eyelid oedema were the first signs and symptoms. Two days later, the boy developed fever, myalgia, headache, abdominal pain and was vomiting; physical examination showed multiple cervical adenopathies but no rash. He was treated with doxycycline (200?mg/day) for 7?days with progressive resolution of clinical signs. Rickettsial infection was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay with serological seroconversion in two consecutive samples. Rickettsia conorii or Rickettsia massiliae were the possible causal agents since they are the Rickettsia spp found in the Rhipicephalus sanguineus dog tick in Portugal. PMID:25568272

Brissos, Joao; de Sousa, Rita; Santos, Ana Sofia; Gouveia, Catarina

2015-01-01

56

Ontogeny of accidental wetlands and hydric soil development in surface mined landscapes  

SciTech Connect

Reducing conditions are periodically present in hydric soils and are essential for chemical processes that support wetland functions and values. Indicators of these conditions, i.e., redoximorphic features, can be useful in determining the presence of a hydric soil. However, young wetlands, i.e., those recently formed, may not possess reducing conditions and/or may not exhibit redoximorphic features. Few studies have addressed the time needed for hydric soil development. In this study, we present data on redoximorphic features, including chroma and oxidized rhizospheres, gathered from two sets of wetlands in southwestern Virginia, including (1) constructed wetlands that are 3 years old and (2) accidental wetlands that are 10 to 30 years old. Under conditions described for these sites, there is strong evidence that discernable redoximorphic features form in accidental wetlands within 10 years, but not within 3 years in constructed wetlands. Since accidental wetlands have been in existence for longer than most man-made wetlands, they provide clues to the development of hydric soils in recently constructed wetland systems.

Atkinson, R.B. [Christopher Newport Univ., Newport News, VA (United States); Daniels, W.L.; Cairns, J. Jr. [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1996-12-31

57

78 FR 6149 - Final Interim Staff Guidance Assessing the Radiological Consequences of Accidental Releases of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Accidental Releases of Radioactive Materials From Liquid Waste Tanks for Combined...Accidental Releases of Radioactive Materials From Liquid Waste Tanks in Ground and...Accidental Releases of Radioactive Materials from Liquid Waste Tanks for...

2013-01-29

58

The cytogenetic dosimetry of recent accidental overexposure.  

PubMed

When accidental exposure to ionizing radiations is suspected, optimal choice of a treatment strategy requires, in addition to information about the clinical signs and physical dosimetry, a determination by biological parameters of the dose received. The scoring of unstable chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes is the current reference method. Preparation of these samples depends on the goal sought--an exact assessment of several irradiations or rapid triage in the case of a large-scale accident. Moreover, some adaptation may be necessary if the irradiation is either heterogenous or not recent. Despite the robustness and adaptability of this procedure, conventional cytogenetics remains a tedious and time-consuming technique, and it requires specialized staff. Scoring micronuclei in binucleated lymphocytes may be an easier, simpler altemative to a dicentric assay. This paper, which is based on the experience acquired by the IPSN in recent years in expert assessment of suspected radiations, has as its goal to provide a succinct technical guideline of these different approaches, as they are adapted to suspected recent irradiation and triage. PMID:11441964

Voisin, P; Benderitter, M; Claraz, M; Chambrette, V; Sorokine-Durm, I; Delbos, M; Durand, V; Leroy, A; Paillole, N

2001-05-01

59

Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.  

PubMed

Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ?100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies. PMID:22349318

Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

2012-07-01

60

Accidental Implant Screwdriver Ingestion: A Rare Complication during Implant Placement  

PubMed Central

One of the complications during a routine dental implant placement is accidental ingestion of the implant instruments, which can happen when proper precautions are not taken. Appropriate radiographs should be taken to locate the correct position of foreign body; usually the foreign body passes asymptomatically from gastrointestinal tract but sometimes it may lead to intestinal obstruction, perforations and impactions. The aim of this article is to report accidental ingestion of 19 mm long screw driver by a senile patient.

Jain, Anshul; Baliga, Shridhar D

2014-01-01

61

Infrasonic signals from an accidental chemical explosion  

SciTech Connect

A series of large accidental explosions occurred at a chemical plant in Henderson, Nevada on May 4, 1988. The explosions were produced by the ignition of stores of ammonium perchlorate produced for solid rocket fuel at the Pacific Engineering and Production Co. This material, prior to the incident, had been believed to be non- explosive. The blasts destroyed the plant and caused one death. There was a series of explosions over a period of time with two major explosions which we will identify as A at 18:53:34 (all times herein will be given in C.U.T.) and B at 18:57:35. Signals from events A and B as well as smaller events were detected by the infrasound arrays operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at St. George, Utah (distance 159 km) and at Los Alamos, N.M. (distance 774 km). The Henderson explosions present an interesting and challenging set of infrasound observations. The case may be unique in providing two very large sources separated in time by only four minutes. To fully understand the propagation details will require further analysis and probably a modeling effort. The understanding of the St. George signals in the context of Lamb waves would be valuable for a better understanding of this mode of propagation. The improved understanding of long range infrasonic propagation is now especially important in the context of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). A portion of the plan for CTBT monitoring includes a global distribution of sixty infrasound arrays to provide for the monitoring of signals in as uniform a way as possible. It is expected that under this global network many signals and interpretation questions of the type described here will be encountered. Investigations of propagation over the ranges of hundreds to thousands of kilometers will be highly desired.

Mutschlecner, J.P.; Whitaker, R.W.

1996-12-31

62

Non-accidental health impacts of wildfire smoke.  

PubMed

Wildfires take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of wildfire frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. We conducted a systematic review of non-accidental health impacts of wildfire and incorporated lessons learned from recent experiences. Based on the literature, various studies have established the relationship between one of the major components of wildfire, particulate matter (particles with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) and cardiorespiratory symptoms in terms of Emergency Rooms visits and hospital admissions. Associations between wildfire emissions and various subclinical effects have also been established. However, few relationships between wildfire emissions and mortality have been observed. Certain segments of the population may be particularly vulnerable to smoke-related health risks. Among them, people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions, the elderly, smokers and, for professional reasons, firefighters. Potential action mechanisms have been highlighted. Overall, more research is needed to better understand health impact of wildfire exposure. PMID:25405597

Youssouf, Hassani; Liousse, Catherine; Roblou, Laurent; Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Salonen, Raimo O; Maesano, Cara; Banerjee, Soutrik; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

2014-11-01

63

Non-Accidental Health Impacts of Wildfire Smoke  

PubMed Central

Wildfires take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of wildfire frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. We conducted a systematic review of non-accidental health impacts of wildfire and incorporated lessons learned from recent experiences. Based on the literature, various studies have established the relationship between one of the major components of wildfire, particulate matter (particles with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) and cardiorespiratory symptoms in terms of Emergency Rooms visits and hospital admissions. Associations between wildfire emissions and various subclinical effects have also been established. However, few relationships between wildfire emissions and mortality have been observed. Certain segments of the population may be particularly vulnerable to smoke-related health risks. Among them, people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions, the elderly, smokers and, for professional reasons, firefighters. Potential action mechanisms have been highlighted. Overall, more research is needed to better understand health impact of wildfire exposure. PMID:25405597

Youssouf, Hassani; Liousse, Catherine; Roblou, Laurent; Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Salonen, Raimo O.; Maesano, Cara; Banerjee, Soutrik; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

2014-01-01

64

Conditions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research interests in feral hogs typically involve their negative impacts on ecosystems or their potential as a disease reservoir, especially with disease transmission to domestic swine. Authors within scientific literature state that feral hogs were captured as part of their research, but usually fail to mention specific conditions in which hogs were captured. Novice researchers of feral hogs must rely

A. Christy Wyckoff; Scott E. Henke; Kurt C. VerCauteren

65

Beta-Adrenergic Receptors in the Lateral Nucleus of the Amygdala Contribute to the Acquisition but Not the Consolidation of Auditory Fear Conditioning  

PubMed Central

Beta-adrenergic receptors (?ARs) have long been associated with fear disorders and with learning and memory. However, the contribution of these receptors to Pavlovian fear conditioning, a leading behavioral model for studying fear learning and memory, is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of ?AR activation in the acquisition, consolidation and expression of fear conditioning. We focused on manipulations of ?ARs in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) because of the well-established contribution of this area to fear conditioning. Specifically, we tested the effects of intra-LA microinfusions of the ?AR antagonist, propranolol, on learning and memory for auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats. Pre-training propranolol infusions disrupted the initial acquisition, short-term memory (STM), and long-term memory (LTM) for fear conditioning, but infusions immediately after training had no effect. Further, infusion of propranolol prior to testing fear responses did not affect fear memory expression. These findings indicate that amygdala ?ARs are important for the acquisition but not the consolidation of fear conditioning. PMID:21152344

Bush, David E. A.; Caparosa, Ellen M.; Gekker, Anna; LeDoux, Joseph

2010-01-01

66

34 CFR 365.14 - What conditions relating to cash or in-kind contributions apply to awards to grantees...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...awards to grantees, subgrantees, or contractors? 365.14 Section 365.14 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... How Does the Secretary Make a Grant to a State? § 365.14 What conditions relating to cash or...

2012-07-01

67

34 CFR 365.14 - What conditions relating to cash or in-kind contributions apply to awards to grantees...  

...awards to grantees, subgrantees, or contractors? 365.14 Section 365.14 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... How Does the Secretary Make a Grant to a State? § 365.14 What conditions relating to cash or...

2014-07-01

68

Fimbria-fornix and entorhinal cortex differential contribution to contextual and cued fear conditioning consolidation in rats.  

PubMed

The Fimbria-Fornix (FF) and Entorhinal Cortex (EC) are the primary interfaces between the hippocampus and, respectively, subcortical structures and cortical areas. Their mnemonic role has been repeatedly proposed. In order to investigate their role in fear conditioning, FF and EC were subjected to bilateral fully reversible tetrodotoxin (TTX) inactivation during consolidation in adult male Wistar rats that had undergone training for fear conditioning to an acoustic stimulus (CS) and context. TTX was stereotaxically injected into animals of different groups at increasing post-acquisition delays. Memory was assessed as conditioned freezing duration measured during retention testing, performed 72 and 96 h after TTX administration in a counterbalanced manner. The results showed that FF inactivation, performed immediately after conditioning, did not disrupt consolidation of either contextual or auditory fear memory. On the contrary, EC inactivation performed at the same time was followed by both contextual and CS fear response retention impairment. EC inactivation performed 1.5h post-acquisition impaired only contextual fear response retention. EC inactivation performed 24h after acquisition training had no effect on the consolidation process. The present findings show a clearly different role of FF and EC in fear conditioning consolidation in the rat. The results are discussed in relation to their known connections with the hippocampus. PMID:23531474

Baldi, Elisabetta; Liuzzo, Antonino; Bucherelli, Corrado

2013-04-10

69

Distinct Contributions of the Basolateral Amygdala and the Medial Prefrontal Cortex to Learning and Relearning Extinction of Context Conditioned Fear  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We studied the roles of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in learning and relearning to inhibit context conditioned fear (freezing) in extinction. In Experiment 1, pre-extinction BLA infusion of the NMDA receptor (NMDAr) antagonist, ifenprodil, impaired the development and retention of inhibition but…

Laurent, Vincent; Westbrook, R. Frederick

2008-01-01

70

Effects of training condition on the contribution of specific items to relational processing in baboons (Papio papio).  

PubMed

Relational processing involves learning about the relationship between or among stimuli, transcending the individual stimuli, so that abstract knowledge generalizable to novel situations is acquired. Relational processing has been studied in animals as well as in humans, but little attention has been paid to the contribution of specific items to relational thinking or to the factors that may affect that contribution. This study assessed the intertwined effects of item and relational processing in nonhuman primates. Using a procedure that entailed both expanding and contracting sets of pictorial items, we trained 13 baboons on a two-alternative forced-choice task, in which they had to distinguish horizontal from vertical relational patterns. In Experiment 1, monkeys engaged in item-based processing with a small training set size, and they progressively engaged in relation-based processing as training set size was increased. However, in Experiment 2, overtraining with a small stimulus set promoted the processing of item-based information. These findings underscore similarities in how humans and nonhuman primates process higher-order stimulus relations. PMID:24352791

Maugard, Anaïs; Wasserman, Edward A; Castro, Leyre; Fagot, Joël

2014-07-01

71

Small for gestational age and adulthood risk of disability pension: The contribution of childhood and adulthood conditions.  

PubMed

Early exiting from the labor force and into disability pension (DP) represents a major social problem in Sweden and elsewhere. We examined how being asymmetric (A-SGA) or symmetric (S-SGA) small for gestational age predicts transitioning into DP. We analyzed a longitudinal sample of 8125 men and women from the Stockholm Birth Cohort (SBC), born in 1953 and not on DP in 1990. The SBC consists of data from various sources, including self-reported information and data from administrative registers. The follow-up period was from 1991 to 2009. Yearly information on the receipt of DP benefits from register data was operationalized as a dichotomous variable. 13 percent of the sample moved into DP during follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine whether disadvantageous fetal growth - A-SGA and S-SGA - predicted DP. Men and women born A-SGA had a substantially increased hazard of DP. The full model suggested a hazard ratio of 1.68 (CI: 1.11-2.54), only being affected slightly by adulthood conditions. Several childhood conditions were also associated with DP. Such factors, however, mainly affected DP risk through adulthood conditions. The effect of SGA on DP appeared particularly strong among individuals from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds. The evidence presented suggests that being A-SGA influences the risk of DP, independent of childhood and adulthood conditions, and similarly for men and women. Due to A-SGA being rather infrequent, reducing the occurrence of A-SGA would, however, only have a marginal impact on the stock of DP pensioners. For the individual affected, the elevation in the risk of DP was nevertheless substantial. Other childhood conditions exercised a larger influence on the stock of DP recipients, but they mostly operated through adulthood attainment. The importance of socioeconomic resources in childhood for the long term health consequences of SGA is interesting from a policy perspective and warrants further research. PMID:24423878

Helgertz, Jonas; Vågerö, Denny

2014-10-01

72

Scaling and gender behavior of road accidental dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The probability distribution of the time intervals between two consecutive accidents is investigated, based on the road accidental records of the Great Britain. A universal description is obtained for different roads, by rescaling the probability distribution and time intervals. The scaling curve is found to deviate from the Gaussian distribution, but it is well fitted by a stretched exponential function. Long-range time correlation is revealed for the interevent series. Moreover, gender similarity is found for the small accidental intervals, while for the large intervals, the female drivers are observed to present a higher probability than the male drivers.

Qiu, Tian; Zou, Xiang-Xiang; Chen, Guang; Jiang, Xiong-Fei; Zhong, Li-Xin

2014-12-01

73

Relative contributions of archaea and bacteria to microbial ammonia oxidation differ under different conditions during agricultural waste composting.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the relative contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) to nitrification during agricultural waste composting. The AOA and AOB amoA gene abundance and composition were determined by quantitative PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), respectively. The results showed that the archaeal amoA gene was abundant throughout the composting process, while the bacterial amoA gene abundance decreased to undetectable level during the thermophilic and cooling stages. DGGE showed more diverse archaeal amoA gene composition when the potential ammonia oxidation (PAO) rate reached peak values. A significant positive relationship was observed between the PAO rate and the archaeal amoA gene abundance (R²=0.554; P<0.001), indicating that archaea dominated ammonia oxidation during the thermophilic and cooling stages. Bacteria were also related to ammonia oxidation activity (R²=0.503; P=0.03) especially during the mesophilic and maturation stages. PMID:21843932

Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Jiachao; Chen, Yaoning; Yu, Zhen; Yu, Man; Li, Hui; Liu, Zhifeng; Chen, Ming; Lu, Lunhui; Hu, Chunxiao

2011-10-01

74

Glutamate Decarboxylase-Dependent Acid Resistance in Brucella spp.: Distribution and Contribution to Fitness under Extremely Acidic Conditions.  

PubMed

Brucella is an expanding genus of major zoonotic pathogens, including at least 10 genetically very close species occupying a wide range of niches from soil to wildlife, livestock, and humans. Recently, we have shown that in the new species Brucella microti, the glutamate decarboxylase (Gad)-dependent system (GAD system) contributes to survival at a pH of 2.5 and also to infection in mice by the oral route. In order to study the functionality of the GAD system in the genus Brucella, 47 isolates, representative of all known species and strains of this genus, and 16 strains of the closest neighbor genus, Ochrobactrum, were studied using microbiological, biochemical, and genetic approaches. In agreement with the genome sequences, the GAD system of classical species was not functional, unlike that of most strains of Brucella ceti, Brucella pinnipedialis, and newly described species (B. microti, Brucella inopinata BO1, B. inopinata-like BO2, and Brucella sp. isolated from bullfrogs). In the presence of glutamate, these species were more acid resistant in vitro than classical terrestrial brucellae. Expression in trans of the gad locus from representative Brucella species in the Escherichia coli MG1655 mutant strain lacking the GAD system restored the acid-resistant phenotype. The highly conserved GAD system of the newly described or atypical Brucella species may play an important role in their adaptation to acidic external and host environments. Furthermore, the GAD phenotype was shown to be a useful diagnostic tool to distinguish these latter Brucella strains from Ochrobactrum and from classical terrestrial pathogenic Brucella species, which are GAD negative. PMID:25381237

Damiano, Maria Alessandra; Bastianelli, Daniela; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Köhler, Stephan; Cloeckaert, Axel; De Biase, Daniela; Occhialini, Alessandra

2015-01-15

75

Ex situ testing method to characterize cathode catalysts degradation under simulated start-up/shut-down conditions - A contribution to polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell benchmarking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper introduces a novel ex situ test procedure that was developed to quantify the ageing of catalyst layers under critical automotive fuel cell conditions during start-up/shut-down phases. It is based on liquid electrolyte measurements, using a thin film catalyst electrode. The overall degradation under start-up/shut-down conditions is assessed by the decay in electrochemically active surface area. Furthermore, contributions from different processes leading to catalyst degradation such as Pt dissolution and Pt particle growth/agglomeration can be separated. Finally, using a differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) set-up, also the extent and role of carbon corrosion under these conditions is accessible. The potential of this, compared to in situ fuel cell stack tests, rather fast and less costly ex situ test procedure is demonstrated in measurements using a commercial, graphitized carbon-supported Pt catalyst. The results of the degradation test and in particular the contributions from different degradation processes such as Pt dissolution, Pt particle growth/agglomeration and carbon corrosion during different stages of catalyst ageing are discussed.

Marcu, A.; Toth, G.; Kundu, S.; Colmenares, L. C.; Behm, R. J.

2012-10-01

76

Distribution and contribution of major phytoplankton groups to carbon cycling across contrasting conditions of the subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relation between trophic regime and phytoplankton composition and function in oceanic systems is well accepted in oceanography. However, the relative dynamics and carbon cycling contributions of different phytoplankton groups across gradients of ocean richness are not fully understood. In this work we investigated phytoplankton dynamics along two transects from the NW African coastal upwelling to open-ocean waters of the north Atlantic subtropical gyre. We adopted a pigment-based approach to characterize community structure and to quantify group-specific growth and grazing rates and associated carbon fluxes. Changes in pigment cell concentration during the incubation experiments due to photoadaptation were corrected to obtain reliable rates. The oceanic region was dominated by Prochlorococcus (PRO) (45±7% of total chlorophyll a) while diatoms dominated in upwelling waters (40±37%). Phytoplankton grew faster ( ?=0.78±0.26 d -1) and free of nutrient limitation ( ?/ ?n=0.98±0.42) in the coastal upwelling region, with all groups growing at similar rates. In oceanic waters, the growth rate of bulk phytoplankton was lower ( ?=0.52±0.16 d -1) and nutrient limited ( ?/ ?n=0.68±0.19 d -1). Diatoms (0.80±0.39 d -1) and Synechococcus (SYN) (0.72±0.25 d -1) grew faster than Prymnesiophyceae (PRYMN) (0.62±0.26 d -1) and PRO (0.46±0.18 d -1). The growth rates of PRO and SYN were moderately nutrient limited ( ?/ ?n=0.81 and 0.91, respectively), while the limitation for diatoms ( ?/ ?n=0.71) and PRYMN ( ?/ ?n=0.37) was more severe. Microzooplankton grazing rate was higher in upwelling (0.68±0.32 d -1) than in oceanic waters (0.37±0.19 d -1), but represented the main loss pathway for phytoplankton in both systems ( m/ ?=0.90±0.32 and 0.69±0.24, respectively). Carbon flux through phytoplankton, produced and grazed, increased from offshore to coastal (˜2 to ˜200 ?g C L -1 d -1), with diatoms dominating the flux in the upwelling region (52%) while PRYMN (40%) and PRO (30%) dominated in the open ocean.

Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Andrés; Latasa, Mikel; Agustí, Susana; Duarte, Carlos M.

2011-11-01

77

Enthalpy contributions to adsorption of highly charged lysozyme onto a cation-exchanger under linear and overloaded conditions.  

PubMed

An investigation of the adsorption mechanism of lysozyme onto carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was conducted using flow calorimetry and adsorption isotherm measurements. This study was undertaken to provide additional insight into the underlying mechanisms involved in protein adsorption that traditional approaches such isotherm measurements or van't Hoff analysis can't always provide, particularly when protein adsorption occurs under overloaded conditions. Lysozyme and CMC were selected for this study because the characteristics of the protein and the adsorbent are well known, hence, allowing the focus of this work to be on the driving forces influencing adsorption. Calorimetry results have showed that lysozyme adsorption onto CMC produced both exothermic and endothermic heats of adsorption. More specifically flow calorimetry data coupled with peak deconvolution methods illustrated a series of chronological events that included dilution, primary protein adsorption, rearrangement of surface proteins and a secondary adsorption of lysozyme molecules. The observations and conclusions derived from the experimental work presented in our figures and tables were developed within the mechanistic framework proposed by Lin et al., J. Chromatogr. A. 912 (2001) 281. PMID:24925448

Silva, G L; Marques, F S; Thrash, M E; Dias-Cabral, A C

2014-07-25

78

Relative contribution of shoot and ear photosynthesis to grain filling in wheat under good agronomical conditions assessed by differential organ ?13C  

PubMed Central

During grain filling in C3 cereals, the shoot (particularly the flag leaf) and the ear are believed to play major roles as sources of assimilates. However, both the cost and the intrusive nature of most of the methodologies available to investigate this have prevented conclusive results being obtained. This study compared the carbon isotope composition (?13C) in its natural abundance in mature kernels with the ?13C of the water-soluble fraction of the peduncle, glumes, and awns to assess the relative contribution of the shoot (understood as the whole set of photosynthetic organs below the peduncle) and ear to grain filling in a set of highly productive wheat lines from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Mexico, under good agronomic conditions. In overall terms, the contribution of the ear was greater in comparison with that of the shoot. The specific contribution of the flag leaf blade to grain filling was also assessed by comparing the ?13C of grains with the ?13C of the water-soluble fraction of the flag leaf and the awns. The contribution of the flag leaf was minor, ranging between 3 and 18%. Complementary analyses performed such as gas-exchange rates and the accumulated water-soluble carbohydrates in both organs and light intercepted by the canopy at different strata suggested that the ear has a photosynthetic capacity at least comparable to that of the flag leaf. In this sense, selection for a higher contribution of ear photosynthesis to grain yield in breeding programmes could be addressed with the use of stable isotopes. PMID:25053645

Sanchez-Bragado, Rut; Molero, Gemma; Reynolds, Matthew P.; Araus, Jose Luis

2014-01-01

79

Relative contribution of shoot and ear photosynthesis to grain filling in wheat under good agronomical conditions assessed by differential organ ?13C.  

PubMed

During grain filling in C3 cereals, the shoot (particularly the flag leaf) and the ear are believed to play major roles as sources of assimilates. However, both the cost and the intrusive nature of most of the methodologies available to investigate this have prevented conclusive results being obtained. This study compared the carbon isotope composition (?(13)C) in its natural abundance in mature kernels with the ?(13)C of the water-soluble fraction of the peduncle, glumes, and awns to assess the relative contribution of the shoot (understood as the whole set of photosynthetic organs below the peduncle) and ear to grain filling in a set of highly productive wheat lines from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Mexico, under good agronomic conditions. In overall terms, the contribution of the ear was greater in comparison with that of the shoot. The specific contribution of the flag leaf blade to grain filling was also assessed by comparing the ?(13)C of grains with the ?(13)C of the water-soluble fraction of the flag leaf and the awns. The contribution of the flag leaf was minor, ranging between 3 and 18%. Complementary analyses performed such as gas-exchange rates and the accumulated water-soluble carbohydrates in both organs and light intercepted by the canopy at different strata suggested that the ear has a photosynthetic capacity at least comparable to that of the flag leaf. In this sense, selection for a higher contribution of ear photosynthesis to grain yield in breeding programmes could be addressed with the use of stable isotopes. PMID:25053645

Sanchez-Bragado, Rut; Molero, Gemma; Reynolds, Matthew P; Araus, Jose Luis

2014-10-01

80

ARAMIS PROJECT Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries  

E-print Network

ARAMIS PROJECT Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries in the Framework of SEVESOII, which started on January 2002. The ARAMIS project aims at developing a new risk assessment methodology measures against major accidents and the vulnerability of its environment. The methodology will support

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

81

ARAMIS PROJECT Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries  

E-print Network

ARAMIS PROJECT Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries in the framework of SEVESO II on January 2002. The ARAMIS project aims at developing a new risk assessment methodology which allows accidents and the vulnerability of its environment. The methodology will support the harmonised

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

82

GROUP LIFE AND ACCIDENTAL DEATH AND DISMEMBERMENT INSURANCE  

E-print Network

GROUP LIFE AND ACCIDENTAL DEATH AND DISMEMBERMENT INSURANCE PROGRAM University of California Regents #12;#12;GROUP LIFE INSURANCE #12;#12;LRS-6441 Ed. 11/84 CERTIFICATE OF INSURANCE We certify that you (provided you belong to a class described on the Schedule of Benefits) are insured

Mullins, Dyche

83

Pneumonitis and pneumatoceles following accidental hydrocarbon aspiration in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidental ingestion and aspiration of hydrocarbons in children are common. Among the various clinical and pathological manifestations of hydrocarbon (HC) poisoning, pneumonitis is the most significant and occurs in up to 40% of children, whereas formation of pneumatoceles is believed to be a rare event. We report two children with HC pneumonitis and pneumatoceles as a reversible complication after ingestion

Gabriela H. Thalhammer; Ernst Eber; Maximilian S. Zach

2005-01-01

84

Survival following accidental ligature strangulation: a case report.  

PubMed

Survival following accidental ligature strangulation is quite rare. The present case involves an adult male strangulated by a soft cotton cloth entangled in the rotor of a machine. Unilateral neck compression allowed survival of the victim. The victim escaped with minimal injuries which were limited to contusion of the neck and edema of the vocal cords and inter arytenoid region. PMID:17112764

Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Pal, Indranil

2008-01-01

85

Key-locked guard prevents accidental switch actuation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Switch guard, which locks in place on a panel, protects individual switches from accidental activation. The guard consists of a cup to cover the switch lever, a standard screw lock tumbler, and a stud that mates with a threaded adapter in the panel.

Hawthorne, K. C.

1966-01-01

86

ABA biosynthesis and degradation contributing to ABA homeostasis during barley seed development under control and terminal drought-stress conditions.  

PubMed

Drought is one of the most severe environmental stress factors limiting crop yield especially when occurring during anthesis and seed filling. This terminal drought is characterized by an excess production of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) which plays an important role during seed development and dormancy. All the genes putatively involved in ABA biosynthesis and inactivation in barley were identified and their expression studied during plant ontogeny under standard and drought-stress conditions to learn more about ABA homeostasis and the possible mode of cross-talk between source and sink tissues. Out of 41 genes related to ABA biosynthesis and inactivation 19 were found to be differentially regulated under drought stress in both flag leaves and developing seed during seed filling. Transcripts of plastid-located enzymes are regulated similarly in flag leaf and seed under terminal drought whereas transcripts of cytosolic enzymes are differentially regulated in the two tissues. Detailed information on the expression of defined gene family members is supplemented by measurements of ABA and its degradation and conjugation products, respectively. Under drought stress, flag leaves in particular contain high concentrations of both ABA and the ABA degradation products phaseic acid (PA) and diphaseic acid (DPA); whereas, in seeds, besides ABA, DPA was mainly found. The measurements also revealed a positive correlation between ABA level and starch content in developing seeds for the following reasons: (i) genes of the ABA controlled SnRK2.6 and RCAR/PP2C-mediated signal transduction pathway to the ABF transcription factor HvABI5 are activated in the developing grain under drought, (ii) novel ABA- and dehydration-responsive cis-elements have been found in the promoters of key genes of starch biosynthesis (HvSUS1, HvAGP-L1) and degradation (HvBAM1) and these transcripts/activity are prominently induced in developing seeds during 12 and 16 DAF, (iii) spraying of fluridone (an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor) to drought-stressed plants results in severely impaired starch content and thousand grain weight of mature seeds. PMID:21289079

Seiler, Christiane; Harshavardhan, Vokkaliga Thammegowda; Rajesh, Kalladan; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Strickert, Marc; Rolletschek, Hardy; Scholz, Uwe; Wobus, Ulrich; Sreenivasulu, Nese

2011-05-01

87

Accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad y el riesgo de cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Hoja informativa acerca de los riesgos del cáncer asociados con accidentes en plantas nucleares de electricidad. Incluye información para pacientes con cáncer que viven en una zona que puede haber sido afectada por un accidente en una planta nuclear.

88

ACCIDENTAL INJURY AND INCLEMENT WEATHER: DEFINING THE RELATIONSHIP AND ANTICIPATING THE EFFECTS OF A CHANGING CLIMATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this activity is to utilize a combination of existing scientific knowledge and professional expertise and experience to develop a research strategy for lessening the incidence and the impact of accidental injuries associated with inclement weather. Accidental inj...

89

LIFE INSURANCE AND ACCIDENTAL DEATH AND DISMEMBERMENT PLAN 01-01-2012  

E-print Network

1 LIFE INSURANCE AND ACCIDENTAL DEATH AND DISMEMBERMENT PLAN 01-01-2012 The Life Insurance and Accidental Death and Dismemberment Plan (the "Plan") offers Basic and Supplemental Life Insurance coverage or terminate this Life Insurance and Accidental Death and Dismemberment Plan at any time and for any reason

Johnson, Peter D.

90

Numerical prediction of rock mass damage due to accidental explosions in an underground ammunition storage chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accidental detonations in an underground ammunition storage chamber inside a rock mass may cause severe damage to the rock mass around the chamber, adjacent tunnels and chambers, ground surface, and in the worst case cause sympathetic detonation of explosives in adjacent storage chambers. To prevent such damage, underground ammunition storage chambers are often situated at minimum depth below the ground surface, and spaced at minimum distance from each other, so that damage, should it occur, is limited to the accidental chamber. Different codes and regulations for ammunition storage chambers specify minimum embedment depth and separation distance for underground ammunition storage chambers. They are usually given in terms of the rock mass properties and the weight of explosive stored in chambers. Some empirical formulae, usually based on the peak particle velocity of the stress wave or the maximum strain of the rock mass, are also available to estimate the damage zones in the rock mass from an explosion. All these empirical methods do not include the effects of explosion details, such as the loading density, chamber geometry and explosive distribution. In this paper, a previously calibrated numerical model is used to estimate the damage zones in a granite mass resulting from an accidental explosion in an underground ammunition storage chamber. Effects of various explosion conditions on rock mass damage are investigated. On the basis of the numerical results, some empirical formulae are derived to predict damage zones around the explosion chamber, as well as safe embedment depth of the storage chamber and safe separation distance between adjacent chambers. The numerical results are also compared with available empirical formulae and code specifications. It should be noted that the characteristics of stress wave propagation around an ammunition storage chamber has been published in a preceding paper (Int. J. Blast. Fragm. 5:57 90, 2001.

Wu, Chengqing; Hao, Hong

2006-03-01

91

Acute effects of nitrogen dioxide after accidental release.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Following an accidental release of nitrogen dioxide from a railroad tank car containing nitrous tetroxide, the authors undertook a study of the health effects of the release, measuring the association between acute low level exposure and pulmonary symptoms. METHODS: The authors reviewed the records of three emergency departments, surveyed 80 emergency department patients, 552 community residents, 21 chemical plant workers, and 29 emergency workers, and conducted a case-control study. Pulmonary case status was defined as having an objective pulmonary finding noted on the emergency department record, reporting that the onset of symptoms was subsequent to the release, and being within the city limits at the time of the release. Self-reported case status was defined as reporting one or more symptoms consistent with exposure to nitrogen dioxide in the week after the release and having been within the city limits at the time of the release. Control subjects were survey respondents who reported no symptoms in the week after the release and had been within the city limits at the time of the release. Chemical exposure was characterized by proximity to, direction from, and being outdoors within one hour after the release. Duration of potential exposure was not measured. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence interval for symptoms by exposure level, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and preexisting pulmonary conditions. RESULTS: Local emergency department visits increased fivefold in the week after the release. The most common complaints recorded in a systematic sample of 528 visits in the first 30 hours after the release were headache (31%), burning eyes (30%), and sore throat (24%). Objective pulmonary findings were recorded for 41 (5%) patients in the week before and 165 (4%) in the week after the release. The odds of being a pulmonary case increased by 40% for each quarter-mile increment in proximity to the release (odds ratio [OR] 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1, 1.7), while the odds of being a self-reported case increased by 20% for each quarter-mile increment in proximity (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1, 1.4). People who met the pulmonary case definition were 2.5 times (CI 1.3, 4.8) more likely than control subjects to have been outdoors and 6.4 times (CI 3.2, 12.6) more likely to report a preexisting pulmonary condition. Self-reported cases were 2.6 times (95% CI 1.8, 3.8) more likely than control subjects to have been outdoors and 1.9 times (95% CI 1.1, 3.1) more likely to report a preexisting pulmonary condition. CONCLUSIONS: Emergency department visits increased five-fold, but serious acute health effects were uncommon. People who met the pulmonary case definition were six times more likely to report pulmonary symptoms than those without preexisting conditions. This study was not designed to determine any potential long-term effects of exposure. PMID:9475936

Bauer, U; Berg, D; Kohn, M A; Meriwether, R A; Nickle, R A

1998-01-01

92

Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal.  

PubMed

Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using k·p method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect. PMID:24714512

Chen, Ze-Guo; Ni, Xu; Wu, Ying; He, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Zheng, Li-Yang; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

2014-01-01

93

Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal  

PubMed Central

Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect. PMID:24714512

Chen, Ze-Guo; Ni, Xu; Wu, Ying; He, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Zheng, Li-Yang; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

2014-01-01

94

Parental substance abuse and accidental death in children.  

PubMed

In this report, the authors present two cases of accidental death in children of addicted parents. In the first case, the child was left unattended at home while the mother went out to buy cocaine. She was arrested and detained with no mention of the unsupervised child. The cause of death in this case was determined to be starvation and dehydration. In the second case, a child mistakenly received a methadone suppository by her father instead of an antipyretic suppository. Toxicological analysis of the femoral blood revealed methadone at a concentration of 1.2 mg/L. The cause of death was determined to be methadone intoxication. The literature is reviewed and discussed. We report these cases to illustrate the risk of harm to children from illicit drugs and prescription medications at home and because there is no mention of accidental death in children following a methadone suppository administration in the current literature. PMID:20345788

Palmiere, Cristian; Staub, Christian; La Harpe, Romano; Mangin, Patrice

2010-05-01

95

Treatment of accidental hypothermia: a prospective clinical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 15-year prospective study was carried out of 44 patients with accidental hypothermia (mean age 60 years) admitted to an intensive therapy unit. The lowest core temperature recorded in each patient ranged from 20.0 to 34.3 degrees C. The precipitating factors were poisoning (by drugs, alcohol, or coal gas) in 25 cases and various illnesses in 19. Rewarming was achieved

I M Ledingham; J G Mone

1980-01-01

96

Rhabdomyolysis following accidental intra-arterial injection of local anesthetic.  

PubMed

Drug-induced myopathy, also named Nicolau syndrome, is a well-known phenomenon following intramuscular injection of certain agents, most commonly reported with penicillin or diclofenac. The mechanism responsible for the pathology is proposed to be incidental administration of the drug into the small arterioles. In this report, we present a Nicolau syndrome-like case that developed following accidental injection of a local anesthetic agent into the femoral artery during coronary angiography. PMID:18388104

Selimoglu, Ozer; Basaran, Murat; Ugurlucan, Murat; Ogus, Temucin Noyan

2009-01-01

97

Contribution of the TRPV1 channel to salt taste quality in mice as assessed by conditioned taste aversion generalization and chorda tympani nerve responses  

PubMed Central

In rodents, at least two transduction mechanisms are involved in salt taste: 1) the sodium-selective epithelial sodium channel, blocked by topical amiloride administration, and 2) one or more amiloride-insensitive cation-nonselective pathways. Whereas electrophysiological evidence from the chorda tympani nerve (CT) has implicated the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel as a major component of amiloride-insensitive salt taste transduction, behavioral results have provided only equivocal support. Using a brief-access taste test, we examined generalization profiles of water-deprived C57BL/6J (WT) and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice conditioned (via LiCl injection) to avoid 100 ?M amiloride-prepared 0.25 M NaCl and tested with 0.25 M NaCl, sodium gluconate, KCl, NH4Cl, 6.625 mM citric acid, 0.15 mM quinine, and 0.5 M sucrose. Both LiCl-injected WT and TRPV1 KO groups learned to avoid NaCl+amiloride relative to controls, but their generalization profiles did not differ; LiCl-injected mice avoided the nonsodium salts and quinine suggesting that a TRPV1-independent pathway contributes to the taste quality of the amiloride-insensitive portion of the NaCl signal. Repeating the experiment but doubling all stimulus concentrations revealed a difference in generalization profiles between genotypes. While both LiCl-injected groups avoided the nonsodium salts and quinine, only WT mice avoided the sodium salts and citric acid. CT responses to these stimuli and a concentration series of NaCl and KCl with and without amiloride did not differ between genotypes. Thus, in our study, TRPV1 did not appear to contribute to sodium salt perception based on gustatory signals, at least in the CT, but may have contributed to the oral somatosensory features of sodium. PMID:23054171

Smith, Kimberly R.; Treesukosol, Yada; Paedae, A. Brennan; Contreras, Robert J.

2012-01-01

98

Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia caused by accidental kerosene ingestion in an elderly patient with dementia: a case report.  

PubMed

Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia is an uncommon condition caused by aspiration of oil-based substances, occurring mainly in children. Here, we report the case of an 83-year-old patient with Alzheimer's disease who presented with coughing and hypoxia. The diagnosis of acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia caused by accidental kerosene ingestion was made on the basis of the patient's clinical history, and typical radiological and cytological findings. The patient's cognitive impairment and an unsafe environment, in which the patient's 91-year-old husband stored kerosene in an old shochu bottle, were responsible for the accidental ingestion. Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia should be considered in the differential diagnosis for acute respiratory disorders in the rapidly aging population. PMID:23286561

Gotanda, Hiroshi; Kameyama, Yumi; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Ishii, Masaki; Hanaoka, Yoko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Sumito; Iijima, Katsuya; Akishita, Masahiro; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi

2013-01-01

99

An alternative approach for computing seismic response with accidental eccentricity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accidental eccentricity is a non-standard assumption for seismic design of tall buildings. Taking it into consideration requires reanalysis of seismic resistance, which requires either time consuming computation of natural vibration of eccentric structures or finding a static displacement solution by applying an approximated equivalent torsional moment for each eccentric case. This study proposes an alternative modal response spectrum analysis (MRSA) approach to calculate seismic responses with accidental eccentricity. The proposed approach, called the Rayleigh Ritz Projection-MRSA (RRP-MRSA), is developed based on MRSA and two strategies: (a) a RRP method to obtain a fast calculation of approximate modes of eccentric structures; and (b) an approach to assemble mass matrices of eccentric structures. The efficiency of RRP-MRSA is tested via engineering examples and compared with the standard MRSA (ST-MRSA) and one approximate method, i.e., the equivalent torsional moment hybrid MRSA (ETM-MRSA). Numerical results show that RRP-MRSA not only achieves almost the same precision as ST-MRSA, and is much better than ETM-MRSA, but is also more economical. Thus, RRP-MRSA can be in place of current accidental eccentricity computations in seismic design.

Fan, Xuanhua; Yin, Jiacong; Sun, Shuli; Chen, Pu

2014-09-01

100

Does Gender Contribute to Heterogeneity in Criteria for Cannabis Abuse and Dependence? Results from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions  

PubMed Central

Previous research has noted that a unidimensional latent construct underlies criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence. However, no study to date has explored whether gender contributes to heterogeneity in the latent abuse and dependence construct and furthermore, whether after accounting for differences in the mean scores of abuse and dependence across genders, there is any evidence for heterogeneity in the individual abuse and dependence criteria. The present study utilizes data on criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence from a large, nationally representative sample (National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions) of 8,172 lifetime cannabis users to investigate whether gender contributes to heterogeneity in the underlying construct of cannabis abuse and dependence, and in each individual criterion as well. Analyses, all of which were conducted in MPlus, included factor analysis, as well as MIMIC and multiple-group models for an examination of dimensionality and gender heterogeneity, respectively. Results favor a uni-dimensional construct for cannabis abuse/dependence, as seen in prior research. We also identify 2 abuse (Legal and Hazard) and 2 dependence (Quit and Problems) criteria, which show significant gender heterogeneity with the abuse criteria exhibiting higher thresholds in women and the dependence criteria in men. We conclude that the criteria that serve as indicators of DSM-IV cannabis abuse and dependence do not function identically in men and women and that certain criteria (e.g. hazardous use) require further refinement. PMID:17084563

Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Michael T.

2007-01-01

101

Potential contribution of planktonic components to ammonium cycling in the coastal area off central-southern Chile during non-upwelling conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential contributions of different microbial components (<20 ?m) and metabolisms to ammonium cycling were assessed during non-upwelling conditions in a coastal area off Concepción (?36.5°S). Assays with specific inhibitors to estimate rates of ammonium consumption and production, and carbon assimilation associated with photolithotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic (nitrification) metabolisms in the water column were performed. Despite low water column concentrations of ammonium in wintertime, intense ammonium transformations were registered. Prokaryotes (or bacterioplankton) contributed most to ammonium generation rates over the entire water column; these rates increased with depth (0.4-3.1 ?M d -1). In surface waters (10 m depth), aerobic ammonium oxidation (potentially by Bacteria and Archaea) was the dominant consumption process (average 0.7 ?M d -1) whereas in the subsurface layer (20 and 50 m depth), unexpectedly, eukaryotes accounted for most of its consumption (average 2.1 ?M d -1). Nitrification oxidized an important proportion of the ammonium in both layers (from 25% to 100%) and provided regenerated nitrate. The integrated water column rates of chemosynthesis (0.005 g C m -2 d -1) represented a large proportion (51%) of the total dark carbon fixation during the non-upwelling season when integrated rates of photosynthesis are relatively low (0.42 g C m -2 d -1) and microbial food webs dominate the transfer of carbon within this coastal system.

Molina, Veronica; Morales, Carmen E.; Farías, Laura; Cornejo, Marcela; Graco, Michelle; Eissler, Yoanna; Cuevas, Luis A.

2012-01-01

102

Hybrid parallel strategy for the simulation of fast transient accidental situations at reactor scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution is dedicated to the latest methodological developments implemented in the fast transient dynamics software EUROPLEXUS (EPX) to simulate the mechanical response of fully coupled fluid-structure systems to accidental situations to be considered at reactor scale, among which the Loss of Coolant Accident, the Core Disruptive Accident and the Hydrogen Explosion. Time integration is explicit and the search for reference solutions within the safety framework prevents any simplification and approximations in the coupled algorithm: for instance, all kinematic constraints are dealt with using Lagrange Multipliers, yielding a complex flow chart when non-permanent constraints such as unilateral contact or immersed fluid-structure boundaries are considered. The parallel acceleration of the solution process is then achieved through a hybrid approach, based on a weighted domain decomposition for distributed memory computing and the use of the KAAPI library for self-balanced shared memory processing inside subdomains.

Faucher, V.; Galon, P.; Beccantini, A.; Crouzet, F.; Debaud, F.; Gautier, T.

2014-06-01

103

The use of conditional probability functions and potential source contribution functions to identify source regions and advection pathways of hydrocarbon emissions in Houston, Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we demonstrate the utility of conditional probability functions (CPFs), potential source contribution functions (PSCFs), and hierarchical clustering analysis (HAC) to identify the source region and transport pathways of hydrocarbons measured at five photochemical assessment monitoring stations (PAMS) near the Houston Ship Channel from June to October 2003. In contrast to scatter plots, which only show the pair-wise correlation of species, commonality in CPF figures shows both correlation and information on the source region of the species in question. In this study, we use over 50 hourly volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations and surface wind observations to show that VOCs with similar CPF patterns likely have common transport pathways. This was established with the multivariate technique, which uses the hierarchical clustering analysis to define clusters of VOCs having similar CPF patterns. This method revealed that alkenes, and in particular those with geometric isomers such as cis-/ trans-2-butene and cis-/ trans-2-pentene, have similar CPF patterns and hence, a common area of origin. The alkane isomers often show CPF patterns among themselves, and similarly, aromatic compounds often show similar patterns. We also show how calculated trajectory information can be used in the PSCF analysis to produce a graphic picture that identifies specific geographic areas associated with a given VOC (or other pollutant). The use of these techniques in the chemically and meteorologically complex environment of Houston, Texas, suggests its further utility in other areas with relatively simpler conditions.

Xie, Yulong; Berkowitz, Carl M.

104

The Use of Conditional Probability Functions and Potential Source Contribution Functions to Identify Source Regions and Advection Pathways of Hydrocarbon Emissions in Houston, Texas  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we demonstrate the utility of conditional probability functions (CPFs), potential source contribution functions (PSCFs), and hierarchical clustering analysis to identify the source region and transport pathways of hydrocarbons measured at five photochemical assessment monitoring stations (PAMS) near the Houston ship channel from June to October 2003. Over 50 volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations were measured on the hourly collected samples. Routine surface observations of wind directions measured at each of the receptor sites were used extensively. We show that VOCs with similar CPF patterns likely have common transport pathways. This was established with the multivariate technique, which uses the hierarchical clustering analysis to allow clusters of groups of VOCs to form with similar CPF patterns. This method revealed that alkenes, and in particular those with geometric isomers such as cis-/trans-2-butene and cis-/trans-2-pentene, have similar CPF patterns. The alkane isomers often show CPF patterns among themselves, and similarly, aromatic compounds often show similar patterns among themselves too. We also show how trajectory information can be used in conjunction with the PSCF analysis to produce a graphic analysis suggesting specific source areas for a given VOC. The use of these techniques in the chemically and meteorologically complex environment of Houston, Texas, suggests its further utility in other areas with relatively simpler conditions.

Xie, YuLong; Berkowitz, Carl M.

2007-09-01

105

Hybridization between crops and wild relatives: the contribution of cultivated lettuce to the vigour of crop-wild hybrids under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency conditions.  

PubMed

With the development of transgenic crop varieties, crop-wild hybridization has received considerable consideration with regard to the potential of transgenes to be transferred to wild species. Although many studies have shown that crops can hybridize with their wild relatives and that the resulting hybrids may show improved fitness over the wild parents, little is still known on the genetic contribution of the crop parent to the performance of the hybrids. In this study, we investigated the vigour of lettuce hybrids using 98 F(2:3) families from a cross between cultivated lettuce and its wild relative Lactuca serriola under non-stress conditions and under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency. Using single nucleotide polymorphism markers, we mapped quantitative trait loci associated with plant vigour in the F(2:3) families and determined the allelic contribution of the two parents. Seventeen QTLs (quantitative trait loci) associated with vigour and six QTLs associated with the accumulation of ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)) were mapped on the nine linkage groups of lettuce. Seven of the vigour QTLs had a positive effect from the crop allele and six had a positive effect from the wild allele across treatments, and four QTLs had a positive effect from the crop allele in one treatment and from the wild allele in another treatment. Based on the allelic effect of the QTLs and their location on the genetic map, we could suggest genomic locations where transgene integration should be avoided when aiming at the mitigation of its persistence once crop-wild hybridization takes place. PMID:22660630

Uwimana, Brigitte; Smulders, Marinus J M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Hartman, Yorike; van Tienderen, Peter H; Jansen, Johannes; McHale, Leah K; Michelmore, Richard W; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Visser, Richard G F

2012-10-01

106

Accidental Chlorine Gas Intoxication: Evaluation of 39 Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Chlorine is a known pulmonary irritant gas that may cause acute damage in the respiratory system. In this paper, the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of 39 accidentally exposed patients to chlorine gas are reported and different emergency treatment modalities are also discussed. Methods Two emergency departments applications were retrospectively analyzed for evaluation of accidental chlorine gas exposure for year 2007. Patients were classified into 3 groups according to severity of clinical and laboratory findings based on the literature and duration of land of stay in the emergency department. The first group was slightly exposed (discharged within 6 hours), second group moderately exposed (treated and observed for 24 hours), and third group was severely exposed (hospitalized). Most of the patients were initially treated with a combination of humidified oxygen, corticosteroids, and bronchodilators. Results The average age was 17.03 ± 16.01 years (95% CI). Seven (17.9%) of them were female and 29 (74.4%) were children. Twenty-four patients (61.5%) were included in the first, nine (23.1%) were in second and six (15.4%) were in the third group. The presenting symptoms were cough, nausea, and vomiting and conjunctiva hyperemia for the first group, first groups symptoms plus dyspnea for the second group. Second groups symptoms plus palpitation, weakness and chest tightness were for the third group. Cough and dyspnea were seen in 64.1% and 30.8% of the patients respectively. No patients died. Conclusions The authors recommend that non symptomatic or slightly exposed patients do not need any specific treatment or symptomatic treatment is sufficient. Keywords Accidental; Chlorine exposure; Chlorine gas; Chlorine intoxication; Emergency department PMID:22481989

Sever, Mustafa; Mordeniz, Cengiz; Sever, Fidan; Dokur, Mehmet

2009-01-01

107

Hemizygous mutations in SNAP29 unmask autosomal recessive conditions and contribute to atypical findings in patients with 22q11.2DS  

PubMed Central

Background 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion disorder, affecting an estimated 1?:?2000–4000 live births. Patients with 22q11.2DS have a broad spectrum of phenotypic abnormalities which generally includes congenital cardiac abnormalities, palatal anomalies, and immunodeficiency. Additional findings, such as skeletal anomalies and autoimmune disorders, can confer significant morbidity in a subset of patients. 22q11.2DS is a contiguous gene DS and over 40 genes are deleted in patients; thus deletion of several genes within this region contributes to the clinical features. Mutations outside or on the remaining 22q11.2 allele are also known to modify the phenotype. Methods We utilised whole exome, targeted exome and/or Sanger sequencing to examine the genome of 17 patients with 22q11.2 deletions and phenotypic features found in <10% of affected individuals. Results and conclusions In four unrelated patients, we identified three novel mutations in SNAP29, the gene implicated in the autosomal recessive condition cerebral dysgenesis, neuropathy, ichthyosis and keratoderma (CEDNIK). SNAP29 maps to 22q11.2 and encodes a soluble SNARE protein that is predicted to mediate vesicle fusion at the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi membranes. This work confirms that the phenotypic variability observed in a subset of patients with 22q11.2DS is due to mutations on the non-deleted chromosome, which leads to unmasking of autosomal recessive conditions such as CEDNIK, Kousseff, and a potentially autosomal recessive form of Opitz G/BBB syndrome. Furthermore, our work implicates SNAP29 as a major modifier of variable expressivity in 22q11.2 DS patients. PMID:23231787

McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Revil, Timothée; Nowakowska, Beata A; Suhl, Joshua; Bailey, Alice; Mlynarski, Elisabeth; Lynch, David R; Yan, Albert C; Bilaniuk, Larissa T; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Warren, Stephen T; Emanuel, Beverly S; Vermeesch, Joris R; Zackai, Elaine H; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A

2013-01-01

108

Alginate Production by Pseudomonas putida Creates a Hydrated Microenvironment and Contributes to Biofilm Architecture and Stress Tolerance under Water-Limiting Conditions?  

PubMed Central

Biofilms exist in a variety of habitats that are routinely or periodically not saturated with water, and residents must integrate cues on water abundance (matric stress) or osmolarity (solute stress) into lifestyle strategies. Here we examine this hypothesis by assessing the extent to which alginate production by Pseudomonas putida strain mt-2 and by other fluorescent pseudomonads occurs in response to water limitations and how the presence of alginate in turn influences biofilm development and stress tolerance. Total exopolysaccharide (EPS) and alginate production increased with increasing matric, but not solute, stress severity, and alginate was a significant component, but not the major component, of EPS. Alginate influenced biofilm architecture, resulting in biofilms that were taller, covered less surface area, and had a thicker EPS layer at the air interface than those formed by an mt-2 algD mutant under water-limiting conditions, properties that could contribute to less evaporative water loss. We examined this possibility and show that alginate reduces the extent of water loss from biofilm residents by using a biosensor to quantify the water potential of individual cells and by measuring the extent of dehydration-mediated changes in fatty acid composition following a matric or solute stress shock. Alginate deficiency decreased survival of desiccation not only by P. putida but also by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a. Our findings suggest that in response to water-limiting conditions, pseudomonads produce alginate, which influences biofilm development and EPS physiochemical properties. Collectively these responses may facilitate the maintenance of a hydrated microenvironment, protecting residents from desiccation stress and increasing survival. PMID:17601783

Chang, Woo-Suk; van de Mortel, Martijn; Nielsen, Lindsey; Nino de Guzman, Gabriela; Li, Xiaohong; Halverson, Larry J.

2007-01-01

109

Accidental dextromethorphan ingestions in children less than 5 years old  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical presentation of accidental dextromethorphan (DXM) ingestions in children\\u000a <5 years old. Two consecutive years of poison center patient encounters were reviewed. Data including age, outcomes, amount\\u000a of DXM ingested, co-ingestions, vital signs, clinical manifestations, hospital admissions, and mortality were abstracted.\\u000a Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discussion  A total of 304

Frank LoVecchio; Anthony Pizon; Bradley Riley; Leslie Matesick; Sean O’Patry

2008-01-01

110

Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death  

PubMed Central

Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema. PMID:25436159

Peterson, Thomas; Rentmeester, Landen; Judge, Bryan S.; Cohle, Stephen D.; Jones, Jeffrey S.

2014-01-01

111

[Intoxication from accidental ingestion of hashish: Analysis of eight cases].  

PubMed

Consultations at pediatric emergency units for acute consciousness alterations is frequent. Miscellaneous causes include cranial trauma, meningoencephalitis, metabolic disorders, drugs, or other intoxications. We report here eight cases of infants who were brought to the emergency division due to acute consciousness failure after accidental ingestion of hashish, confirmed by urinary dosage of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol. This series of under 24-month-old infants only emphasizes the value of screening for cannabis in urine in cases of abnormal consciousness and/or abnormal behavior in an infant. PMID:25466782

Patissier, C; Akdhar, M; Manin, C; Rosellini, D; Tambat, A; Tiprez, C; Wendremaire, P; Renoux, M-C

2015-01-01

112

Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium  

DOEpatents

An improvement is described in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release. 1 fig.

Galloway, T.R.

1980-04-01

113

Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium  

DOEpatents

An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release.

Galloway, Terry R. [Berkeley, CA

1980-04-01

114

Doses from accidental releases of tritium and activation products into the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of public acceptance and the licensing procedure of projected fusion reactors, the release of tritium and activation products during normal operation as well as after accidents is a significant safety aspect. Calculations have been performed under accidental conditions for unit releases of corrosion products from water coolant loops, of first wall erosion products including different coating materials, and of tritium in its chemical form of tritiated water (HTO). Dose assessments during normal operation have been performed for corrosion products from first wall primary coolant loop and for tritium in both chemical forms (HT/HTO). The two accident consequence assessment (ACA) codes UFOTRI and COSYMA have been applied for the deterministic dose calculations with nearly the same input variables and for several radiological source terms. Furthermore, COSYMA and NORMTRI have been applied for routine release scenarios. The paper analyzes the radioation doses to individuals and the population resulting from the different materials assumed to be released in the environment.

Raskob, W.

1993-06-01

115

Investigation of thermoluminescence properties of mobile phone screen displays as dosimeters for accidental dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid assessment of the radiation dose after unexpected exposure is a task of accidental dosimetry. In case of a radiological accident glasses originating from mobile phone screens, placed usually near the human body, could be used as emergency thermoluminescent (TL) personal dosimeters. The time between irradiation and TL readout is crucial and therefore preparation of the mobile phone screens and their readout conditions should be optimized. The influence of the samples etching, bleaching and selection of the optical filters based on measurement of the emission spectrum of irradiated glass samples during heating for different types of mobile phones were the subjects of our investigation. Obtained results showed that glasses extracted from different brands of mobile phones have different dosimetric properties but all of them give a luminescent signal which can be used to calculate the dose.

Mrozik, Anna; Marczewska, B.; Bilski, P.; K?osowski, M.

2014-11-01

116

Local injuries by accidental ingestion of corrosive substances by children.  

PubMed

Own data and analysis of previous publications show that situations where accidental ingestion of corrosive substances by children may have happened are frequent, but severe corrosive esophagitis leading to perforation or stricture formation is very rare. In case of suspected esophageal injury, esophagoscopy and glucocorticoid treatment become necessary. The evaluation of the initial symptoms in patients from our own material and from the literature indicates that all children with serious esophageal burns had one or more of the following symptoms: visible burns in the oral cavity, hypersalivation, retching, vomiting, retrosternal or epigastric pain, cardiovascular collaps, airway stenosis. Hence, children with an uncertain history of ingestion and without any of these symptoms need not be treated. After ingestion of liquid substances, but never of dry or granular products, lesions in the esophagus without accompanying burns in the oral cavity were observed. The evaluation of 1158 cases of accidental ingestions of several types of household products and a collection of data from the literature on the causticity of these substances shows that cleaners containing mainly detergents and phosphates (with pH values generally between 9 and 11), and household bleaches on sodium hypochlorite basis, are relatively harmless. Drain cleaners (NaOH), decalcifiers (formic acid) and detergents for automatic dish washing machines (metasilicates) are very caustic and are responsible for the majority of serious accidents in children. PMID:25063

Mühlendahl, K E; Oberdisse, U; Krienke, E G

1978-02-14

117

An unusual case of accidental poisoning: fatal methadone inhalation.  

PubMed

In this report, the authors present a case of unusual, accidental methadone intoxication in a 40-year-old man, who had inhaled methadone powder. The drug dealer was a pharmacy technician; methadone had been stolen from a pharmacy and sold as cocaine. After having inhaled methadone powder, he suffered cardiopulmonary arrest. He was admitted to hospital where he died after 24 h of intensive care. The autopsy revealed congestion of internal organs and cerebral and pulmonary edema. Microscopically, the heart showed no changes. The toxicological analyses performed on blood and urine taken at the hospital revealed methadone, cannabinoids, and ethanol. The blood methadone concentration was 290 ?g/L. The urine methadone concentration was 160 ?g/L. Midazolam and lidocaine, which were administered to the patient at the hospital, were also detected in the blood. The cause of death was determined to be methadone intoxication. The literature has been reviewed and discussed. To date, and to our knowledge, only very few cases of accidental death resulting from methadone inhalation have been described up to the case presented herein. PMID:21361950

Palmiere, Cristian; Brunel, Christophe; Sporkert, Frank; Augsburger, Marc

2011-07-01

118

Preventing Accidental Ignition of Upper-Stage Rocket Motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A report presents a proposal to reduce the risk of accidental ignition of certain upper-stage rocket motors or other high energy hazardous systems. At present, mechanically in-line initiators are used for initiation of many rocket motors and/or other high-energy hazardous systems. Electrical shorts and/or mechanical barriers, which are the basic safety devices in such systems, are typically removed as part of final arming or pad preparations while personnel are present. At this time, static discharge, test equipment malfunction, or incorrect arming techniques can cause premature firing. The proposal calls for a modular out-of-line ignition system incorporating detonating-cord elements, identified as the donor and the acceptor, separated by an air gap. In the safe configuration, the gap would be sealed with two shields, which would prevent an accidental firing of the donor from igniting the system. The shields would be removed to enable normal firing, in which shrapnel generated by the donor would reliably ignite the acceptor to continue the ordnance train. The acceptor would then ignite a through bulkhead initiator (or other similar device), which would ignite the motor or high-energy system. One shield would be remotely operated and would be moved to the armed position when a launch was imminent or conversely returned to the safe position if the launch were postponed. In the event of failure of the remotely operated shield, the other shield could be inserted manually to safe the system.

Hickman, John; Morgan, Herbert; Cooper, Michael; Murbach, Marcus

2005-01-01

119

Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and/or bacteria to enhancing plant drought tolerance under natural soil conditions: Effectiveness of autochthonous or allochthonous strains.  

PubMed

Autochthonous microorganisms [a consortium of arbuscular-mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)] were assayed and compared to Rhizophagus intraradices (Ri), Bacillus megaterium (Bm) or Pseudomonas putida (Psp) and non-inoculation on Trifolium repens in a natural arid soil under drought conditions. The autochthonous bacteria Bt and the allochthonous bacteria Psp increased nutrients and the relative water content and decreased stomatal conductance, electrolyte leakage, proline and APX activity, indicating their abilities to alleviate the drought stress. Mycorrhizal inoculation significantly enhanced plant growth, nutrient uptake and the relative water content, particularly when associated with specific bacteria minimizing drought stress-imposed effects. Specific combinations of autochthonous or allochthonous inoculants also contributed to plant drought tolerance by changing proline and antioxidative activities. However, non-inoculated plants had low relative water and nutrients contents, shoot proline accumulation and glutathione reductase activity, but the highest superoxide dismutase activity, stomatal conductance and electrolyte leakage. Microbial activities irrespective of the microbial origin seem to be coordinately functioning in the plant as an adaptive response to modulated water stress tolerance and minimizing the stress damage. The autochthonous AM fungi with Bt or Psp and those allochthonous Ri with Bm or Psp inoculants increased water stress alleviation. The autochthonous Bt showed the greatest ability to survive under high osmotic stress compared to the allochthonous strains, but when single inoculated or associated with Ri or AM fungi were similarly efficient in terms of physiological and nutritional status and in increasing plant drought tolerance, attenuating and compensating for the detrimental effect of water limitation. PMID:25462971

Ortiz, N; Armada, E; Duque, E; Roldán, A; Azcón, R

2015-02-01

120

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 2. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AMMONIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the control of accidental releases of ammonia to the atmosphere. Ammonia has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 500 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of ammonia invol...

121

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 10. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the control of accidental releases of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to the atmosphere. HCN has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 50 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of HCN...

122

Involving Parents in Indicated Early Intervention for Childhood PTSD Following Accidental Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome…

Cobham, Vanessa E.; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

2012-01-01

123

Accidental Intraoral Formalin Injection: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

Formalin is a hazardous chemical that needs cautious handling and special storage. Owing to its disinfectant and fixative (i.e. for preserving pathologic tissue specimens in histopathology) properties, it is widely used in dentistry. Although, the terms formaldehyde and formalin are often confused as being identical, these are different as to the concentrations of the primary component i.e. formaldehyde. In fact, the common fixative available as 10% neutral buffered formalin is actually a 4% solution of formaldehyde (i.e., a 10% solution made from a 37-40% commercially pure formaldehyde solution). This case report describes an unfortunate case of accidental injection instead of local anesthetic, of formalin into the pterygomandibular space in a 35-year old woman during inferior alveolar nerve block for surgical removal of impacted lower right third molar and its successful management by cautious debridement (under both local and general anesthesia) and empirical drug therapy (utilizing analgesics and antibiotics). PMID:25568771

Dandriyal, Ramakant; Giri, Kolly Yada; Alam, Sarwar; Singh, Aishwarya Pratap

2014-01-01

124

Accidental poisoning deaths in British children 1958-77.  

PubMed Central

In the 20 years 1958-77 598 deaths were registered as due to accidental poisoning in British children under the age of 10-343 boys and 255 girls. Drugs caused 484 deaths, non-medicinal products 111, and plants three. The annual number of deaths reached a peak in 1964 but fell steadily thereafter; 16 deaths occurred in 1977. After 1970 tricyclic antidepressants replaced salicylates as the most commonly fatal poison. The next ten drugs most often recorded in 1970-7 were, in order, opiates (including diphenoxylate/atropine (Lomotil)), barbiturates, digoxin, orphenadrine (Disipal), quinine, potassium, iron, fenfluramine (Ponderax), antihistamines, and phenothiazines. In 20 years paracetamol caused one death, and before 1976 deaths caused by aspirin had fallen to fewer than two a year. Thus the introduction in 1976 and 1977 of safety packaging of these drugs can be expected to have little impact on the mortality from them in childhood. PMID:7427181

Fraser, N C

1980-01-01

125

Accidental intrathecal injection of magnesium sulfate for cesarean section.  

PubMed

Magnesium sulfate is used frequently in the operation room and risks of wrong injection should be considered. A woman with history of pseudocholinesterase enzyme deficiency in the previous surgery was referred for cesarean operation. Magnesium sulfate of 700 mg (3.5 ml of 20% solution) was accidentally administered in the subarachnoid space. First, the patient had warm sensation and cutaneous anesthesia, but due to deep tissue pain, general anesthesia was induced by thiopental and atracurium. After the surgery, muscle relaxation and lethargy remained. At 8-10 h later, muscle strength improved and train of four (TOF) reached over 0.85, and then the endotracheal tube was removed. The patient was evaluated during the hospital stay and on the anesthesia clinic. No neurological symptoms, headache or backache were reported. Due to availability of magnesium sulfate, we should be careful for inadvertent intravenous, spinal and epidural injection; therefore before injection must be double checked. PMID:25422620

Gilani, Mehryar Taghavi; Zirak, Nahid; Razavi, Majid

2014-10-01

126

Containing the accidental laboratory escape of potential pandemic influenza viruses  

PubMed Central

Background The recent work on the modified H5N1 has stirred an intense debate on the risk associated with the accidental release from biosafety laboratory of potential pandemic pathogens. Here, we assess the risk that the accidental escape of a novel transmissible influenza strain would not be contained in the local community. Methods We develop here a detailed agent-based model that specifically considers laboratory workers and their contacts in microsimulations of the epidemic onset. We consider the following non-pharmaceutical interventions: isolation of the laboratory, laboratory workers’ household quarantine, contact tracing of cases and subsequent household quarantine of identified secondary cases, and school and workplace closure both preventive and reactive. Results Model simulations suggest that there is a non-negligible probability (5% to 15%), strongly dependent on reproduction number and probability of developing clinical symptoms, that the escape event is not detected at all. We find that the containment depends on the timely implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions and contact tracing and it may be effective (>90% probability per event) only for pathogens with moderate transmissibility (reproductive number no larger than R0?=?1.5). Containment depends on population density and structure as well, with a probability of giving rise to a global event that is three to five times lower in rural areas. Conclusions Results suggest that controllability of escape events is not guaranteed and, given the rapid increase of biosafety laboratories worldwide, this poses a serious threat to human health. Our findings may be relevant to policy makers when designing adequate preparedness plans and may have important implications for determining the location of new biosafety laboratories worldwide. PMID:24283203

2013-01-01

127

Assessment of hazard of chemical accidental releases triggered by floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the number of accidents happened, when floods trigger the releases of hazardous materials and following environment contamination. Baia Mare (Romania), Spolana Neratovice (Czech Republic) and hurricane Katrina (USA) are well known examples. The importance of this kind of phenomenon as a type of so called NATECH events is expressed among others in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which reorganises water conservation in Europe. It requires programmes of protection measures to be drawn up not later than 2009, and in sub-article 11 (3) l b) to prevent and/or reduce the impact of accidental pollution incidents, for example as a result of floods. Effective measures demand the assessment of hazard and risk of accidental release triggered by floods and there is a need for the method which can be used for these purposes. Such a method is still missing and this is why the basic method for hazard assessment has been developed. Simple indexes-based method is composed of three segments (natural risks, technological risks and combined risk) and it has flexible, modular structure. First segment estimates the probability of flooding of installation, the second, based on the reference scenarios estimates the possibility of release of chemicals and the third classify consequences. The work on refining of parameters and method continues. Method can be used in prevention of major accidents in the framework of the Council Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances (Seveso II directive) and can help to complete the safety studies in classified establishments.

Simonova, M.; Danihelka, P.

2009-04-01

128

Contribution of the ear and the flag leaf to grain filling in durum wheat inferred from the carbon isotope signature: genotypic and growing conditions effects.  

PubMed

The ear, together with the flag leaf, is believed to play a major role as a source of assimilates during grain filling in C3 cereals. However, the intrusive nature of most of the available methodologies prevents reaching conclusive results in this regard. This study compares the carbon isotope composition (?(13)C) in its natural abundance in the water-soluble fractions of the flag leaf blade and the ear with the ?(13)C of mature kernels to assess the relative contribution of both organs to grain filling in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum). The relative contribution of the ear was higher in landraces compared to modern cultivars, as well as in response to nitrogen fertilization and water stress. Such genotypic and environmentally driven differences were associated with changes in harvest index (HI), with the relative contribution of the ear being negatively associated with HI. In the case of the genotypic differences, the lower relative contribution of the ear in modern cultivars compared with landraces is probably associated with the appearance in the former of a certain amount of source limitation driven by a higher HI. In fact, the relative contribution of the ear was far more responsive to changes in HI in modern cultivars compared with landraces. PMID:24028829

Sanchez-Bragado, Rut; Elazab, Abdelhalim; Zhou, Bangwei; Serret, Maria Dolors; Bort, Jordi; Nieto-Taladriz, Maria Teresa; Araus, José Luis

2014-05-01

129

Historical Doses To The Public from Routine and Accidental Releases of Tritium - Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1953 - 2005  

SciTech Connect

Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 29,300 TBq of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; about 75% of this was released accidentally as gaseous tritium in 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 3,700 TBq gaseous tritium and about 2,800 TBq tritiated water vapor to the total. Mean annual doses (with 95% confidence intervals) to the most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Because time-dependent tritium models require detailed meteorological data that were unavailable for the large releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from experience with UFOTRI. Even with assumptions to assure that doses would not be underestimated, all doses from routine and accidental releases were below the level (3.6 mSv) at which adverse health effects have been documented, and most were below the current regulatory limit of 100 {micro}Sv per year from releases to the atmosphere.

Peterson, S; Raskob, W

2007-08-15

130

Sheltering--a protective measure following an accidental atmospheric release from a nuclear power plant  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of sheltering the population for reducing radiological effects following an accidental release of radioactivity at a nuclear power plant was investigated. Different levels of respiratory protection and the administration of a thyroid blocking agent were also studied as possible complements to sheltering. Specific conditions were assumed, concerning the high protection factors of regular buildings and the high availability of civil defense shelters. Computations were performed by means of a probabilistic consequence model, which allows a comprehensive description of exposure modes and processes dealing with the implementation of sheltering and which takes into account a broad range of radiological effects. Sheltering, even in regular buildings, was found to be efficient in reducing early fatalities and other non-stochastic effects. However, it was shown that respiratory protection is also needed in order to alleviate stochastic effects and that, for this purpose, expedient individual filtration methods may be satisfactory. Under the conditions studied, sheltering was found to be preferable in most cases over evacuation, as the main immediate protective measure, unless evacuation can be carried out before the radioactive cloud reaches the populated area.

Koch, J.; Tadmor, J.

1988-06-01

131

Rivers and groundwater vulnerability to accidental pollutions: Spatial analysis of vulnerability areas  

SciTech Connect

The determination of the water resource vulnerability is a necessary step for the prevention of accidental pollution. When rivers or aquifers are used for water supply, it is very useful to forecast pollutant flow velocity in order to determine travel time between the potential pollution points and the intake. Usually, water resource vulnerability cartography takes only distance from intakes into account. But other physical factors are involved in pollutant propagation: slope and soil texture. It is necessary to define a method for automatic cartography of vulnerability zones around the intakes. For this aim, the authors map spatial distribution of the travel time on the resource catchment (river, lake, or well). This typical problem of propagation requires a specific spatial analysis: start from the river or the well and extend the zone upstream according to the velocity values. It is an iterative process: for each selected cell, the neighboring cells which contribute to the inflow are first determined. Then, for these cells, the flow velocity values are used to determine a cumulate travel time to the river or to the well. Eventually, a travel time map is obtained which controls a good deal of the vulnerability. With the aim of decision support for designing protective zones around the rivers and the wells, this method is integrated in a GIS. The method is tested on two areas in the Massif Central (France).

Laurent, F.; Graillot, D.; Dechomets, R. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, Sainte-Etienne (France)

1995-12-31

132

Glutamate Receptor Antagonist Infusions into the Basolateral and Medial Amygdala Reveal Differential Contributions to Olfactory vs. Context Fear Conditioning and Expression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The basolateral amygdala's involvement in fear acquisition and expression to visual and auditory stimuli is well known. The involvement of the basolateral and other amygdala areas in fear acquisition and expression to stimuli of other modalities is less certain. We evaluated the contribution of the basolateral and medial amygdala to olfactory and…

Walker, David L.; Paschall, Gayla Y.; Davis, Michael

2005-01-01

133

Hybridization between crops and wild relatives: the contribution of cultivated lettuce to the vigour of crop-wild hybrids under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of transgenic crop varieties, crop–wild hybridization has received considerable consideration with regard to the potential of transgenes to be transferred to wild species. Although many studies have shown that crops can hybridize with their wild relatives and that the resulting hybrids may show improved fitness over the wild parents, little is still known on the genetic contribution

B. Uwimana; M. J. M. Smulders; D. A. P. Hooftman; Y. Hartman; Tienderen van P. H; J. Jansen; L. K. McHale; R. W. Michelmore; Wiel van de C. C. M; R. G. F. Visser

2012-01-01

134

A fatality caused by accidental production of hydrogen sulfide.  

PubMed

A 55-year-old male Caucasian truck driver was dead at the scene after breathing hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) produced by an accidental transfer of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) from a tanker truck to a tank containing 4% sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) and iron(II) sulfate (FeSO(4)). Autopsy of the decedent's body revealed pulmonary edema and passive congestion in lungs, spleen, kidneys, and adrenal glands. Postmortem biological samples were analyzed for carbon monoxide, cyanide, ethanol, and drugs. Since a potential exposure to H(2)S was involved, blood was also analyzed for sulfide (S(2-)). The analysis entailed isolating S(2-) from blood as H(2)S using 0.5M H(3)PO(4), trapping the gas in 0.1M NaOH, and determining the electromotive force using a sulfide ion specific electrode. Acetaminophen at a concentration of 14.3 microg/ml was found in blood, and metoprolol was detected in the blood, liver, and kidney samples. The blood S(2-) level was determined to be 1.68 microg/ml. It is concluded that the cause of death was H(2)S poisoning associated with a hazardous material accident in an industrial situation. PMID:11728749

Chaturvedi, A K; Smith, D R; Canfield, D V

2001-12-01

135

Mitigation of Lung Injury after Accidental Exposure to Radiation  

PubMed Central

There is a serious need to develop effective mitigators against accidental radiation exposures. In radiation accidents, many people may receive nonuniform whole-body or partial-body irradiation. The lung is one of the more radiosensitive organs, demonstrating pneumonitis and fibrosis that are believed to develop at least partially because of radiation-induced chronic inflammation. Here we addressed the crucial questions of how damage to the lung can be mitigated and whether the response is affected by irradiation to the rest of the body. We examined the widely used dietary supplement genistein given at two dietary levels (750 or 3750 mg/kg) to Fischer rats irradiated with 12 Gy to the lung or 8 Gy to the lung + 4 Gy to the whole body excluding the head and tail (whole torso). We found that genistein had promising mitigating effects on oxidative damage, pneumonitis and fibrosis even at late times (36 weeks) when drug treatment was initiated 1 week after irradiation and stopped at 28 weeks postirradiation. The higher dose of genistein showed no greater beneficial effect. Combined lung and whole-torso irradiation caused more lung-related severe morbidity resulting in euthanasia of the animals than lung irradiation alone. PMID:22013884

Mahmood, J.; Jelveh, S.; Calveley, V.; Zaidi, A.; Doctrow, S. R.; Hill, R. P.

2011-01-01

136

[Gonococcal vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls: sexual abuse or accidental transmission?].  

PubMed

Vulvovaginitis is the most frequent gynecologic pathology among prepubertal females. An infectious cause is found in 30% of cases and is highly associated with the presence of vaginal discharge upon examination. Neisseria gonorrhoeae may be one of the causative agents. Since N. gonorrhoeae is a common sexually transmitted disease, sexual abuse should be considered in the pediatric setting. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl with N. gonorrhoeae vulvovaginitis. Her previous history, multiple interviews with the patient and her parents, and clinical examination showed no evidence or signs of sexual abuse. Both parents presented gonorrhea, urethritis for the father and vaginitis for the mother. The discrepancy between pediatric evaluation and the presence of a bacterium associated with sexually transmitted disease led us to consider other means of contamination. Previous studies have shown that other routes of transmission are possible but are often neglected. Hence, contamination can be transmitted by the hands or mostly through passive means (towels, rectal thermometer, etc.). Many epidemics have been noted in group settings with young girls with no evidence of sexual transmission. Therefore, we concluded that this patient's infection was likely an accidental transmission within her family. The acknowledgement of these transmission routes is very important in order to avoid misguided suspicion of sexual abuse and the possible traumatic family and psychosocial consequences. PMID:23219271

Daval-Cote, M; Liberas, S; Tristan, A; Vandenesch, F; Gillet, Y

2013-01-01

137

Accidental release of chlorine and its impact on urban areas  

SciTech Connect

Among the possible scenarios of accidental releases of chlorine from high pressure cylinders, this paper considers a typical one for the analysis. The calculated transient mass flow rate of chlorine released from a one-tonne cylinder showed that such an accident takes about 10 minutes to evacuate the cylinder. However, the toxic effect in the surrounding atmosphere continues for a longer period (about 20 minutes). The size and location of the toxic cloud at ground level were predicted as functions of time using an EPA-based dispersion model. The results showed a growth of the toxic cloud for some time beyond which it started to decay. For the typical scenario considered in this study, the most dangerous situation generated a toxic cloud with dimensions of 4000 m and 600 m in the downwind and crosswind directions, respectively. A study of the effects of some meteorological parameters on the size and location of the toxic cloud at ground level was also conducted. In general, it was observed that enhancing atmospheric mixing produced larger toxic zones during the early stages of the release and caused an opposite effect during the later ones. This dynamic data was linked to a GIS environment and the time variant was represented using an animation technique for Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates. Data base information related to physical urban characteristics and population was immediately obtained for the affected areas.

El-Sheikh, H.A.; Badr, O.A.; El Kadi, H.M.; Hamoda, M.F. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates). Faculty of Engineering

1995-12-31

138

Orthopaedic aspects of paediatric non-accidental injury.  

PubMed

Non-accidental injury (NAI) in children includes orthopaedic trauma throughout the skeleton. Fractures with soft-tissue injuries constitute the majority of manifestations of physical abuse in children. Fracture and injury patterns vary with age and development, and NAI is intrinsically related to the mobility of the child. No fracture in isolation is pathognomonic of NAI, but specific abuse-related injuries include multiple fractures, particularly at various stages of healing, metaphyseal corner and bucket-handle fractures and fractures of ribs. Isolated or multiple rib fractures, irrespective of location, have the highest specificity for NAI. Other fractures with a high specificity for abuse include those of the scapula, lateral end of the clavicle, vertebrae and complex skull fractures. Injuries caused by NAI constitute a relatively small proportion of childhood fractures. They may be associated with significant physical and psychological morbidity, with wide- ranging effects from deviations in normal developmental progression to death. Orthopaedic surgeons must systematically assess, recognise and act on the indicators for NAI in conjunction with the paediatric multidisciplinary team. PMID:20130307

Jayakumar, P; Barry, M; Ramachandran, M

2010-02-01

139

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 8. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN FLUORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a chemical specific manual for hydrogen fluoride (HF). It summarizes information to aid regulators and industry personnel in identifying and controlling release hazards associated with HF. Reducing the risk associated with accidental release of HF involves identifyi...

140

A new therapeutic approach to accidental intra-arterial injection of thiopentone.  

PubMed

After an accidental intra-arterial injection of thiopentone, good therapeutic results were obtained with a selective intra-arterial injection of urokinase during digital subtraction angiography. PMID:2644965

Vangerven, M; Delrue, G; Brugman, E; Cosaert, P

1989-01-01

141

A case of accidental intrathecal injection of a large dose of ropivacaine during cesarean section  

PubMed Central

Continuous spinal anesthesia may provide excellent labor analgesia. The incidence of accidental intrathecal injection of megadose of ropivacaine, as one of the possible complications during cesarean section, is very rare. Present case report provides reference to clinical practice. PMID:25232443

Yuan, Yan P; Chen, Hong F; Yang, Chen; Tian, Fu B; Huang, Shao Q

2014-01-01

142

21 CFR 369.9 - General warnings re accidental ingestion by children.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...re accidental ingestion by children. Section 369.20 includes...this and all medicines out of children's reach. In case of overdose...contact a Poison Control Center right away,” or “Keep out of reach of children.” However, in...

2010-04-01

143

Balanced Flow Measurement and Conditioning Technology (Balanced Orifice Plate 7,051,765 B1) for NASA Inventions and Contributions Board Invention of the Year Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph document reviews the Balanced Flow Measurement (BFM) and Conditioning Technology, and makes the case for this as the NASA Invention of the Year. The BFM technology makes use of a thin, multi-hole orifice plate with holes sized and placed per a unique set of equations. It produces mass flow, volumetric flow,kinelic energy,or momentum BALANCE across the face of the plate. The flow is proportional.to the square root of upstream to downstream differential pressure. Multiple holes lead to smoother pressure measurement. Measures and conditions or can limit fluid flow. This innovation has many uses in and out of NASA.

Kelley, Anthony R.

2008-01-01

144

Targeting of observations for accidental atmospheric release monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the event of an accidental atmospheric release of radionuclides from a nuclear power plant, accurate real-time forecasting of the activity concentrations of radionuclides is acutely required by the decision makers for the preparation of adequate countermeasures. Yet, the accuracy of the forecasted plume is highly dependent on the source term estimation. Inverse modelling and data assimilation techniques should help in that respect. However the plume can locally be thin and could avoid a significant part of the radiological monitoring network surrounding the plant. Deploying mobile measuring stations following the accident could help to improve the source term estimation. In this paper, a method is proposed for the sequential reconstruction of the plume, by coupling a sequential data assimilation algorithm based on inverse modelling with an observation targeting strategy. The targeting design strategy consists in seeking the optimal locations of the mobile monitors at time t + 1 based on all available observations up to time t. The performance of the sequential assimilation with and without targeting of observations has been assessed in a realistic framework. It focuses on the Bugey nuclear power plant (France) and its surroundings within 50 km from the plant. The existing surveillance network is used and realistic observational errors are assumed. The targeting scheme leads to a better estimation of the source term as well as the activity concentrations in the domain. The mobile stations tend to be deployed along plume contours, where activity concentration gradients are important. It is shown that the information carried by the targeted observations is very significant, as compared to the information content of fixed observations. A simple test on the impact of model error from meteorology shows that the targeting strategy is still very useful in a more uncertain context.

Abida, Rachid; Bocquet, Marc

2009-12-01

145

Persistent Seroconversion after Accidental Eye Exposure to Calcifying Nanoparticles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biosafety of nanomaterials has attracted much attention recently. We report here a case where accidental human eye exposure to biogenic nanosized calcium phosphate in the form of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) raised a strong IgG immune response against proteins carried by CNP. The antibody titer has persisted over ten years at the high level. The IgG was detected by ELISA using CNPs propagated in media containing bovine and human serum as antigen. The exposure incident occurred to a woman scientist (WS) at a research laboratory in Finland at 1993. CNP, also termed "nanobacteria", is a unique self-replicating agent that has not been fully characterized and no data on biohazards were available at that time. Before the accident, her serum samples were negative for both CNP antigen and anti-CNP antibody using specific ELISA tests (Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland). The accident occurred while WS was harvesting CNP cultures. Due to a high pressure in pipetting, CNP pellet splashed into her right eye. Both eyes were immediately washed with water and saline. The following days there was irritation and redness in the right eye. These symptoms disappeared within two weeks without any treatment. Three months after the accident, blood and urine samples of WS were tested for CNP cultures (2), CNP-specific ELISA tests, and blood cell counts. Blood cell counts were normal, CNP antigen and culture tests were negative. A high IgG anti-CNP antibody titer was detected (see Figure). The antibodies of this person have been used thereafter as positive control and standard in ELISA manufacturing (Nano-Sero IgG ELISA, Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland).

Ciftcioglu, Neva; Aho, Katja M.; McKay, David S.; Kajander, E. Olavi

2007-01-01

146

Fatal colchicine poisoning by accidental ingestion of Colchicum persicum: a case report.  

PubMed

Colchicine poisoning can occur not only by taking dosage form but also by ingesting a plant containing colchicine. A 39-year-old man presented to the emergency room with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea 9 hours after ingestion of wild garlic. Symptoms attributed to food poisoning, and he received supportive cares and discharged. However, he was admitted to the hospital because of severe gastrointestinal presentations 4 hours later. He received treatments based on the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis. The patient was in a fair condition during 30 hours of hospitalization until he suddenly developed respiratory distress and unfortunately died with cardiopulmonary arrest. The deceased body referred to our legal medicine center for determining cause of death and investigating possible medical staff malpractices. Postmortem examination, autopsy, macropathology and micropathology study, and postmortem toxicological analysis were performed. All results were submitted to the medical committee office for decision. The unknown cause of death was disclosed after determination of colchicine in the plant and botanical identification as Colchicum persicum. The committee determined the most probable cause of death as acute cardiopulmonary complications induced by colchicine poisoning and the manner of death as accidental. The medical staff was acquitted of the malpractice. PMID:24196723

Amrollahi-Sharifabadi, Mohammad; Seghatoleslami, Ahmad; Amrollahi-Sharifabadi, Maryam; Bayani, Farajali; Mirjalili, Mahdi

2013-12-01

147

Atmospheric entry of Mars-return nuclear-powered vehicles due to accidental termination of operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The entry of nuclear reactors into Earth's atmosphere resulting from an accidental or inadvertent abort of a space vehicle powered by nuclear-thermal rockets is investigated. The study is made for a typical piloted Mars mission vehicle incapacitated by an accident or malfunction during the Earth-arrival phase of the Mars-return journey due to simultaneous, multiple failures of its component systems. A single accident/abort scenario resulting in three entry possibilities is considered for a nominal hyperbolic in-bound approach velocity of 8 km/sec. The most severe case involving a direct entry is then analyzed over a broad range of approach velocities extending to 12 km/sec to include sprint-type missions. The results indicate that the severe surface heating, stagnation pressures, and g-loads are greater than 150 kW/sq cm, 300 atm, and 800-g, respectively. The wall heat transfer rate exceeds the value that can be accommodated by a carbon heatshield through radiation equilibrium prior to sublimation at 5500 K. These conditions are beyond our previous experience in crew safety, structural design, and thermal protection.

Menees, Gene P.; Park, Chul

1993-01-01

148

Dose Calculation For Accidental Release Of Radioactive Cloud Passing Over Jeddah  

SciTech Connect

For the evaluation of doses after the reactor accident, in particular for the inhalation dose, a thorough knowledge of the concentration of the various radionuclide in air during the passage of the plume is required. In this paper we present an application of the Gaussian Plume Model (GPM) to calculate the atmospheric dispersion and airborne radionuclide concentration resulting from radioactive cloud over the city of Jeddah (KSA). The radioactive cloud is assumed to be emitted from a reactor of 10 MW power in postulated accidental release. Committed effective doses (CEDs) to the public at different distance from the source to the receptor are calculated. The calculations were based on meteorological condition and data of the Jeddah site. These data are: pasquill atmospheric stability is the class B and the wind speed is 2.4m/s at 10m height in the N direction. The residence time of some radionuclides considered in this study were calculated. The results indicate that, the values of doses first increase with distance, reach a maximum value and then gradually decrease. The total dose received by human is estimated by using the estimated values of residence time of each radioactive pollutant at different distances.

Alharbi, N. D.; Mayhoub, A. B. [Physics Dept., Sciences Faculty for Girls, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

2011-12-26

149

Macular hole surgery following accidental laser injury with a military rangefinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An active duty marine corps service member had bilateral full thickness macular holes induced following accidental Q-switched laser exposure from a hand held Neodymium range finder (ANGVS-5). The right eye had a large hole nasal to the fovea, while the left eye had a much smaller hole closer to the fovea centralis. Over the 18 months following the injury, the left eye demonstrated mild progressive degradation in visual function, but retained 20/20 final visual acuity. In contrast, the hole in the right eye increased in size, developed a localized retinal detachment with cystic changes in the fovea, and had atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium. Within 6 months after injury, acuity declined to 20/100. Macular hole surgery was performed with a goal of sealing the edges of the hole in order to allow resolution of the localized detachment and cystic changes in the fovea. In spite of surgical techniques that are generally successful in the treatment of macular holes associated with other etiologies, the fundus findings remained unchanged and visual acuity declined to 20/400. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of macular hole surgery for this condition.

Custis, Peter H.; Gagliano, Donald A.; Zwick, Harry; Schuschereba, Steven T.; Regillo, Carl D.

1996-04-01

150

The Contribution of Social Networks to the Health and Self-Management of Patients with Long-Term Conditions: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Evidence for the effectiveness of patient education programmes in changing individual self-management behaviour is equivocal. More distal elements of personal social relationships and the availability of social capital at the community level may be key to the mobilisation of resources needed for long-term condition self-management to be effective. Aim To determine how the social networks of people with long-term conditions (diabetes and heart disease) are associated with health-related outcomes and changes in outcomes over time. Methods Patients with chronic heart disease (CHD) or diabetes (n?=?300) randomly selected from the disease registers of 19 GP practices in the North West of England. Data on personal social networks collected using a postal questionnaire, alongside face-to-face interviewing. Follow-up at 12 months via postal questionnaire using a self-report grid for network members identified at baseline. Analysis Multiple regression analysis of relationships between health status, self-management and health-economics outcomes, and characteristics of patients' social networks. Results Findings indicated that: (1) social involvement with a wider variety of people and groups supports personal self-management and physical and mental well-being; (2) support work undertaken by personal networks expands in accordance with health needs helping people to cope with their condition; (3) network support substitutes for formal care and can produce substantial saving in traditional health service utilisation costs. Health service costs were significantly (p<0.01) reduced for patients receiving greater levels of illness work through their networks. Conclusions Support for self-management which achieves desirable policy outcomes should be construed less as an individualised set of actions and behaviour and more as a social network phenomenon. This study shows the need for a greater focus on harnessing and sustaining the capacity of networks and the importance of social involvement with community groups and resources for producing a more desirable and cost-effective way of supporting long term illness management. PMID:24887107

Reeves, David; Blickem, Christian; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Brooks, Helen; Kennedy, Anne; Richardson, Gerry; Rogers, Anne

2014-01-01

151

Aerosol direct, indirect, semidirect, and surface albedo effects from sector contributions based on the IPCC AR5 emissions for preindustrial and present-day conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anthropogenic increase in aerosol concentrations since preindustrial times and its net cooling effect on the atmosphere is thought to mask some of the greenhouse gas-induced warming. Although the overall effect of aerosols on solar radiation and clouds is most certainly negative, some individual forcing agents and feedbacks have positive forcing effects. Recent studies have tried to identify some of those positive forcing agents and their individual emission sectors, with the hope that mitigation policies could be developed to target those emitters. Understanding the net effect of multisource emitting sectors and the involved cloud feedbacks is very challenging, and this paper will clarify forcing and feedback effects by separating direct, indirect, semidirect and surface albedo effects due to aerosols. To this end, we apply the Goddard Institute for Space Studies climate model including detailed aerosol microphysics to examine aerosol impacts on climate by isolating single emission sector contributions as given by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) emission data sets developed for Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5. For the modeled past 150 years, using the climate model and emissions from preindustrial times to present-day, the total global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing is -0.6 W/m2, with the largest contribution from the direct effect (-0.5 W/m2). Aerosol-induced changes on cloud cover often depends on cloud type and geographical region. The indirect (includes only the cloud albedo effect with -0.17 W/m2) and semidirect effects (-0.10 W/m2) can be isolated on a regional scale, and they often have opposing forcing effects, leading to overall small forcing effects on a global scale. Although the surface albedo effects from aerosols are small (0.016 W/m2), triggered feedbacks on top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing can be 10 times larger. Our results point out that each emission sector has varying impacts by geographical region. For example, the single sector most responsible for a net positive radiative forcing is the transportation sector in the United States, agricultural burning and transportation in Europe, and the domestic emission sector in Asia. These sectors are attractive mitigation targets.

Bauer, Susanne E.; Menon, Surabi

2012-01-01

152

Aerosol Direct, Indirect, Semidirect, and Surface Albedo Effects from Sector Contributions Based on the IPCC AR5 Emissions for Preindustrial and Present-day Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anthropogenic increase in aerosol concentrations since preindustrial times and its net cooling effect on the atmosphere is thought to mask some of the greenhouse gas-induced warming. Although the overall effect of aerosols on solar radiation and clouds is most certainly negative, some individual forcing agents and feedbacks have positive forcing effects. Recent studies have tried to identify some of those positive forcing agents and their individual emission sectors, with the hope that mitigation policies could be developed to target those emitters. Understanding the net effect of multisource emitting sectors and the involved cloud feedbacks is very challenging, and this paper will clarify forcing and feedback effects by separating direct, indirect, semidirect and surface albedo effects due to aerosols. To this end, we apply the Goddard Institute for Space Studies climate model including detailed aerosol microphysics to examine aerosol impacts on climate by isolating single emission sector contributions as given by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) emission data sets developed for Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5. For the modeled past 150 years, using the climate model and emissions from preindustrial times to present-day, the total global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing is -0.6 W/m(exp 2), with the largest contribution from the direct effect (-0.5 W/m(exp 2)). Aerosol-induced changes on cloud cover often depends on cloud type and geographical region. The indirect (includes only the cloud albedo effect with -0.17 W/m(exp 2)) and semidirect effects (-0.10 W/m(exp 2)) can be isolated on a regional scale, and they often have opposing forcing effects, leading to overall small forcing effects on a global scale. Although the surface albedo effects from aerosols are small (0.016 W/m(exp 2)), triggered feedbacks on top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing can be 10 times larger. Our results point out that each emission sector has varying impacts by geographical region. For example, the single sector most responsible for a net positive radiative forcing is the transportation sector in the United States, agricultural burning and transportation in Europe, and the domestic emission sector in Asia. These sectors are attractive mitigation targets.

Bauer, Susanne E.; Menon, Surabi

2012-01-01

153

Mu Opioid Receptors on Primary Afferent Nav1.8 Neurons Contribute to Opiate-Induced Analgesia: Insight from Conditional Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

Opiates are powerful drugs to treat severe pain, and act via mu opioid receptors distributed throughout the nervous system. Their clinical use is hampered by centrally-mediated adverse effects, including nausea or respiratory depression. Here we used a genetic approach to investigate the potential of peripheral mu opioid receptors as targets for pain treatment. We generated conditional knockout (cKO) mice in which mu opioid receptors are deleted specifically in primary afferent Nav1.8-positive neurons. Mutant animals were compared to controls for acute nociception, inflammatory pain, opiate-induced analgesia and constipation. There was a 76% decrease of mu receptor-positive neurons and a 60% reduction of mu-receptor mRNA in dorsal root ganglia of cKO mice. Mutant mice showed normal responses to heat, mechanical, visceral and chemical stimuli, as well as unchanged morphine antinociception and tolerance to antinociception in models of acute pain. Inflammatory pain developed similarly in cKO and controls mice after Complete Freund’s Adjuvant. In the inflammation model, however, opiate-induced (morphine, fentanyl and loperamide) analgesia was reduced in mutant mice as compared to controls, and abolished at low doses. Morphine-induced constipation remained intact in cKO mice. We therefore genetically demonstrate for the first time that mu opioid receptors partly mediate opiate analgesia at the level of Nav1.8-positive sensory neurons. In our study, this mechanism operates under conditions of inflammatory pain, but not nociception. Previous pharmacology suggests that peripheral opiates may be clinically useful, and our data further demonstrate that Nav1.8 neuron-associated mu opioid receptors are feasible targets to alleviate some forms of persistent pain. PMID:24069332

Karchewski, Laurie; Gardon, Olivier; Matifas, Audrey; Filliol, Dominique; Becker, Jérôme A. J.; Wood, John N.; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Gaveriaux-Ruff, Claire

2013-01-01

154

Accidental Dark Matter: Case in the Scale Invariant Local $B-L$ Model  

E-print Network

We explore the idea of accidental dark matter (aDM) stability in the scale invariant local $U(1)_{B-L}$ model, which is a theory for neutrino and at the same time radiatively breaks scale invariance via quantum mechanical dynamics in the $U(1)_{B-L}$ sector. A real singlet scalar can be accidental DM with an accidental $Z_2$, by virtue of both extended symmetries. A $U(1)_{B-L}$ charged complex scalar can also be a viable accidental DM due to an accidental (or remanent) $Z_3$. They can reproduce correct relic density via the annihilations through the conventional Higgs portal or dark Higgs portal. The dark Higgs portal scenario is in tension with the LHC bound on $Z_{B-L}$, and only heavy DM of a few TeVs can have correct relic density. In particular, DM may trigger spontaneous breaking of scale Invariance (SISB). The situation is relaxed significantly in the $Z_3$ case due to the effective semi-annihilation mode and then light DM can be accommodated easily. In addition, the $Z_3$ model can accommodate the Ge...

Guo, Jun; Ko, P; Orikasa, Yuta

2015-01-01

155

Temporal and regional variations in accidental deaths of elderly people in Japan.  

PubMed

To ascertain the characteristics of accidental deaths of elderly people in urban and rural areas, we analyzed the deaths of elderly people over the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, in three geographic areas: nationwide, in the 23 wards of the metropolis of Tokyo, and in Saga prefecture. In addition, to assess the regional variation in accidental deaths of the elderly, we aggregated the numbers of accidental deaths of elderly people for each of Japan's prefectures in the year 2009 and categorized the deaths by accident type. The results showed that nationwide, deaths due to threats to breathing, falls, and drowning and submersion are increasing, while deaths due to transport accidents are decreasing, indicating a need for measures to prevent deaths from accidents other than transport accidents. In the urban areas of Tokyo's 23 wards, there is an increasing incidence of deaths due to falls, which is likely due to the high number of structures such as buildings and railway stations that elderly people need to negotiate. In urban areas, measures to reduce the incidence of accidental deaths need to focus on improving the physical environment to help prevent falls. In the rural locality of Saga prefecture, increasing numbers of elderly people are dying by drowning and submersion. The results of analysis of accidents in all prefectures of Japan by accident type show that the causes of accidental deaths of elderly people vary regionally, suggesting that accident prevention measures for elderly people need to consider the characteristics of the locality. PMID:23812406

Kibayashi, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Ryo; Nakao, Ken-Ichiro

2013-07-01

156

36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT UNLAWFUL OR ACCIDENTAL REMOVAL, DEFACING, ALTERATION, OR DESTRUCTION OF RECORDS § 1230.10 Who is responsible for...

2010-07-01

157

36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...  

...and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT UNLAWFUL OR ACCIDENTAL REMOVAL, DEFACING, ALTERATION, OR DESTRUCTION OF RECORDS § 1230.10 Who is responsible for...

2014-07-01

158

36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT UNLAWFUL OR ACCIDENTAL REMOVAL, DEFACING, ALTERATION, OR DESTRUCTION OF RECORDS § 1230.10 Who is responsible for...

2012-07-01

159

36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT UNLAWFUL OR ACCIDENTAL REMOVAL, DEFACING, ALTERATION, OR DESTRUCTION OF RECORDS § 1230.10 Who is responsible for...

2013-07-01

160

36 CFR 1230.10 - Who is responsible for preventing the unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT UNLAWFUL OR ACCIDENTAL REMOVAL, DEFACING, ALTERATION, OR DESTRUCTION OF RECORDS § 1230.10 Who is responsible for...

2011-07-01

161

Landslide susceptibility assessment in the Upper Orcia Valley (Southern Tuscany, Italy) through conditional analysis: a contribution to the unbiased selection of causal factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work the conditional multivariate analysis was applied to evaluate landslide susceptibility in the Upper Orcia River Basin (Tuscany, Italy), where widespread denudation processes and agricultural practices have a mutual impact. We introduced an unbiased procedure for causal factor selection based on some intuitive statistical indices. This procedure is aimed at detecting among different potential factors the most discriminant ones in a given study area. Moreover, this step avoids generating too small and statistically insignificant spatial units by intersecting the factor maps. Finally, a validation procedure was applied based on the partition of the landslide inventory from multi-temporal aerial photo interpretation. Although encompassing some sources of uncertainties, the applied susceptibility assessment method provided a satisfactory and unbiased prediction for the Upper Orcia Valley. The results confirmed the efficiency of the selection procedure, as an unbiased step of the landslide susceptibility evaluation. Furthermore, we achieved the purpose of presenting a conceptually simple but, at the same time, effective statistical procedure for susceptibility analysis to be used as well by decision makers in land management.

Vergari, F.; Della Seta, M.; Del Monte, M.; Fredi, P.; Lupia Palmieri, E.

2011-05-01

162

Analysis of the Contribution of Wind Drift Factor to Oil Slick Movement under Strong Tidal Condition: Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Case  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model and Automatic Weather System (AWS) were used to generate tidal and wind fields respectively. Simulation results were then compared with 5 sets of spaceborne optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. From the present study, it was found that highest matching rate between the simulation results and satellite imagery was obtained with different values of the wind drift factor, and to first order, this factor was linearly proportional to the wind speed. Based on the results, a new modified empirical formula was proposed for forecasting the movement of oil slicks on the coastal area. PMID:24498094

Kim, Tae-Ho; Yang, Chan-Su; Oh, Jeong-Hwan; Ouchi, Kazuo

2014-01-01

163

Analysis of the contribution of wind drift factor to oil slick movement under strong tidal condition: Hebei Spirit oil spill case.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model and Automatic Weather System (AWS) were used to generate tidal and wind fields respectively. Simulation results were then compared with 5 sets of spaceborne optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. From the present study, it was found that highest matching rate between the simulation results and satellite imagery was obtained with different values of the wind drift factor, and to first order, this factor was linearly proportional to the wind speed. Based on the results, a new modified empirical formula was proposed for forecasting the movement of oil slicks on the coastal area. PMID:24498094

Kim, Tae-Ho; Yang, Chan-Su; Oh, Jeong-Hwan; Ouchi, Kazuo

2014-01-01

164

Suicide in Peacekeepers: Risk Factors for Suicide versus Accidental Death  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate risk factors for suicide in veterans of peacekeeping, 43 suicides and 41 fatal accidents in Norwegian peacekeepers (1978 to 1995) were compared in a psychological autopsy study. Mental health problems were the most important risk factor for suicide. Both living alone and the break-up of a love relationship contributed uniquely to…

Thoresen, Siri; Mehlum, Lars

2006-01-01

165

Accidental Coverage of Both Renal Arteries during Infrarenal Aortic Stent-Graft Implantation: Cause and Treatment  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to report a salvage maneuver for accidental coverage of both renal arteries during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). A 72-year-old female with a 6?cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm was treated by endovascular means with a standard bifurcated graft. Upon completing an angiogram, both renal arteries were found to be accidentally occluded. Through a left percutaneous brachial approach, the right renal artery was catheterized and a chimney stent was deployed; however this was not possible for the left renal artery. A retroperitoneal surgical approach was therefore carried out with a retrograde chimney stent implanted to restore blood flow. After three months, both renal arteries were patent and renal function was not different from the baseline. Both endovascular with percutaneous access via the brachial artery and open retroperitoneal approaches with retrograde catheterization are feasible rescue techniques to recanalize the accidentally occluded renal arteries during EVAR.

Bracale, Umberto Marcello; Giribono, Anna Maria; Vitale, Gaetano; Narese, Donatella; Santini, Gianpaolo; del Guercio, Luca

2014-01-01

166

Reply to "Comment on `Contributions of vacancies and self-interstitials to self-diffusion in silicon under thermal equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions' "  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suezawa et al. [Phys. Rev. B 90, 117201 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.117201] claim in their Comment that the data reported by Shimizu et al. [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 095901 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.095901] and Kube et al. [Phys. Rev. B 88, 085206 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.085206] on silicon self-diffusion for temperatures between 900 and 735 °C are affected by carbon and vacancy clusters and, accordingly, do not reflect self-diffusion under thermal equilibrium conditions. We demonstrate in our Reply that an impact of carbon on self-diffusion can definitely be excluded. In addition it is rather unlikely that the self-diffusion data reported by Shimizu et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 095901 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.095901] and Kube et al. [Phys. Rev. B 88, 085206 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.085206] are affected by the dissolution of vacancy clusters since strong differences exist not only in the preparation of the samples used for the experiments, but also in the time of diffusion. Finally, the vacancy formation enthalpy deduced by Suezawa et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 110, 083531 (2011), 10.1063/1.3653291] from quenching experiments is consistent with the value obtained from the temperature dependence of the vacancy formation enthalpy reported by Kube et al. [Phys. Rev. B 88, 085206 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.085206]. Overall we conclude that the quenching experiments of Suezawa et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 110, 083531 (2011), 10.1063/1.3653291] cannot disprove the interpretation of the low-temperature self-diffusion data reported by Shimizu et al. [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 095901 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.095901] and Kube et al. [Phys. Rev. B 88, 085206 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.085206].

Kube, R.; Bracht, H.; Hüger, E.; Schmidt, H.; Hansen, J. Lundsgaard; Larsen, A. Nylandsted; Ager, J. W.; Haller, E. E.; Geue, T.; Stahn, J.; Uematsu, M.; Itoh, K. M.

2014-09-01

167

Conditioned media obtained from human outer root sheath follicular keratinocyte culture activates signalling pathways that contribute to maintenance of hair-inducing capacity and increases trichogenicity of cultured dermal cells.  

PubMed

Findings from recent studies have demonstrated that hair-inducing capacity (trichogenicity) of cultured dermal cells can be maintained by addition of conditioned media obtained from culture of epidermal keratinocytes. In this study, we investigated the question of whether treatment with human follicular keratinocyte-conditioned media (FKCM) can result in activation of signalling pathways that contribute to trichogenicity and increase the trichogenicity of cultured dermal cells. Through conduct of hair reconstitution assays, we observed that treatment of cells with FKCM resulted in induction of a greater number of hair follicles, compared with control cells. Treatment of dermal cells with FKCM resulted in the activation of BMP and ?-catenin signalling pathways. In addition, higher levels of IGFBP-7, IL-8, OPG and uPA were observed in FKCM. Altogether, our data suggest that a patient's own FKCM would be ideal for expansion of the patient's own follicular dermal cells for cell therapy for treatment of hair loss. PMID:22882516

Lee, Mi Hye; Im, Sanguk; Shin, Seung Hyun; Kwack, Mi Hee; Jun, Sang-Eun; Kim, Moon Kyu; Kim, Jung Chul; Sung, Young Kwan

2012-10-01

168

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 2. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF CHLORINE (SCAQMD) (SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual discusses reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of chlorine. It identifies some of the potential causes of accidental releases that apply to the processes that use chlorine. It also identifies examples of potential causes, as well as measures that may...

169

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES. VOLUME 1. PREVENTION AND PROTECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

170

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOLUME 2: POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

171

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 2. POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

172

Intravenous injection of diazepam to cubital vein can be complicated by accidental intra-arterial penetration and gangrene.  

PubMed

We present an elbow disarticulation due to accidental intra-arterial injection of diazepam. Considering the risk of inadvertent and accidental intra-arterial injection of diazepam and its subsequent severe sequelae that are reported in the literature, we emphasize that intravenous diazepam should be administered with more hesitancy and care. PMID:18588384

Mirzatolooei, Fardin; Afshar, Ahmadreza

2008-07-01

173

Confiding in others and illness rate among spouses of suicide and accidental-death victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveyed 19 spouses (mean age 37.5 yrs) of suicide and accidental death victims (representing a 61.3% response rate of all relevant cases that occurred in 1982 in a metropolitan county) concerning their health and coping strategies approximately 1 yr after their spouse's death. Results show that the more Ss discussed their spouse's death with friends and the less that they

James W. Pennebaker; Robin C. OHeeron

1984-01-01

174

Vibration behavior and response to an accidental collision of SFT prototype in Qiandao Lake (China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents free vibration analysis of the submerged floating tunnel (SFT) prototype, which has been designed to be built in Qiandao Lake (China). As an approximation the supporting effect of the tethers is omitted in the calculation of beam-like bending vibrations. As a case study, the response of the SFT prototype to an accidental collision by an object like

Shuangyin Zhang; Lei Wang; Youshi Hong

2010-01-01

175

Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries in the framework of SEVESO II directive  

E-print Network

ARAMIS Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries in the framework of SEVESO II risk assessment methodology which allows to evaluate the risk level of an industrial plant by taking into account prevention measures against major accidents. The methodology will support the harmonised

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

176

Thermal Conductivity of the Accidental Degeneracy and Enlarged Symmetry Group Models for Superconducting UPt 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present theoretical calculations of the thermal conductivity for the “accidental degeneracy” and “enlarged symmetry group” models that have been proposed to explain the phase diagram of UPt3. The order parameters for these models possess point nodes or cross nodes, reflecting the broken symmetries of the ground state. These broken symmetries lead to robust predictions for the ratio of the

M. J. Graf; S.-K. Yip; J. A. Sauls

1999-01-01

177

Potentially dangerous sleeping environments and accidental asphyxia in infancy and early childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants and young children may be exposed to a variety of dangerous situations when left sleeping in cots, chairs, or beds. A review of 30 cases of accidental asphyxia occurring in infants and young children who had been left to sleep unattended was undertaken from the necropsy and consultation files of the Adelaide Children's Hospital. Causes of death included hanging

R W Byard; S Beal; A J Bourne

1994-01-01

178

Geographical patterns of incendiary and accidental fires in Springfield, Massachusetts, 1980–1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arson is a serious crime occurring with increasing frequency in urban America today. To date, this crime remains poorly documented and seldom discussed in the literature, particularly from a geographical viewpoint. This study examined the spatial distribution and underlying factors associated with 440 arson and 732 accidental fires recorded in Springfield, Massachusetts, between 1980 and 1984. Based upon a series

William D. Bennett; Alida V. Merlo; Karl K. Leiker

1987-01-01

179

Colchicine poisoning by accidental ingestion of meadow saffron ( Colchicum autumnale): pathological and medicolegal aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although intoxications with colchicine, the alkaloid of Colchicum autumnale (meadow saffron), are well known, in most cases the intoxications are evoked by oral or parenteral preparations traditionally used as medication against gout. The accidental ingestion of Colchicum autumnale, on the other hand, is a rare event and has to our knowledge only twice been described in detail. We report a

Michael Klintschar; Christine Beham-Schmidt; Herbert Radner; Gerald Henning; Peter Roll

1999-01-01

180

Accidental Discovery of Information on the User-Defined Social Web: A Mixed-Method Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frequently interacting with other people or working in an information-rich environment can foster the "accidental discovery of information" (ADI) (Erdelez, 2000; McCay-Peet & Toms, 2010). With the increasing adoption of social web technologies, online user-participation communities and user-generated content have provided users the…

Lu, Chi-Jung

2012-01-01

181

New Tracers Identify Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids and Accidental Releases from Oil and Gas Operations  

E-print Network

New Tracers Identify Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids and Accidental Releases from Oil and Gas fingerprints of fluids that return to the surface after high volume hydraulic fracturing of unconventional oil the hydraulic fracturing process, resulting in the relative enrichment of boron and lithium in HFFF

Jackson, Robert B.

182

A Method for Reliability Assessment of Aircraft Structures Subject to Accidental Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been proposed to assess the reliability of aircraft structures subject to accidental damage using in-service damage data. The development of this method is motivated by the increasing use of composite materials in aircraft structures, which are particularly sensitive to impact damage. In addition, damage to composite structures may not be visible or may be difficult to detect.

Cary K. Huang; Kuen Y. Lin

183

Coping with Serious Accidental Injury: A One-Year Follow-Up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this study was to analyze changes of coping strategies in severely injured accident victims over time and to compare patients with high and low posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom levels with regard to their coping patterns and accident-related cognitions. Methods: 106 consecutive patients with severe accidental injuries admitted to a trauma surgery intensive care unit (ICU)

Urs Hepp; Hanspeter Moergeli; Stefan Büchi; Lutz Wittmann; Ulrich Schnyder

2005-01-01

184

SUMMARY OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF RADIOACTIVITY DETECTED OFF THE NEVADA TEST SITE, 1963-1986  

EPA Science Inventory

Of the more than 450 underground nuclear explosives tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site from August 1963 (signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty) through the end of 1986, only 23 accidentally released radioactivity that was detectable beyond the boundary of the NTS. Of these ...

185

Accidental Entry of Fish into Throat While Bathing in a Pond  

PubMed Central

While fish bones are common foreign bodies in the throat, a whole live fish in the pharynx is very rare. We report a case where a whole fish accidentally entered the throat of a 52-year-old male, where it became lodged causing throat pain and dysphagia. The fish was removed as an emergency procedure. PMID:24371443

Parida, Pradipta Kumar; Surianarayanan, Gopalakrishnan

2013-01-01

186

Treatment of accidental digital injection of adrenaline from an auto-injector device.  

PubMed Central

Following an increase in the number of patients attending the accident and emergency department because of accidental injection of adrenaline from autoinjector devices prescribed for patients with severe allergic reactions, a review of published reports was undertaken to identify the best form of treatment. Local injection of phentolamine is effective for up to 13 hours after the inadvertent digital instillation of adrenaline. PMID:9413778

McGovern, S J

1997-01-01

187

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder following Accidental Injury: Rule or Exception in Switzerland?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is still marked variability in the findings concerning psychiatric disorders associated with traumatic injury. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following accidental injuries, and to predict the PTSD symptom level at 6 months, taking into particular consideration the role of pre-existing psychiatric morbidity and

Ulrich Schnyder; Lutz Wittmann; Josefina Friedrich-Perez; Urs Hepp; Hanspeter Moergeli

2008-01-01

188

Probabilistic margin evaluation on accidental transients for the ASTRID reactor project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ASTRID is a technological demonstrator of Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) under development. The conceptual design studies are being conducted in accordance with the Generation IV reactor objectives, particularly in terms of improving safety. For the hypothetical events, belonging to the accidental category "severe accident prevention situations" having a very low frequency of occurrence, the safety demonstration is no more based on a deterministic demonstration with conservative assumptions on models and parameters but on a "Best-Estimate Plus Uncertainty" (BEPU) approach. This BEPU approach ispresented in this paper for an Unprotected Loss-of-Flow (ULOF) event. The Best-Estimate (BE) analysis of this ULOFt ransient is performed with the CATHARE2 code, which is the French reference system code for SFR applications. The objective of the BEPU analysis is twofold: first evaluate the safety margin to sodium boiling in taking into account the uncertainties on the input parameters of the CATHARE2 code (twenty-two uncertain input parameters have been identified, which can be classified into five groups: reactor power, accident management, pumps characteristics, reactivity coefficients, thermal parameters and head losses); secondly quantify the contribution of each input uncertainty to the overall uncertainty of the safety margins, in order to refocusing R&D efforts on the most influential factors. This paper focuses on the methodological aspects of the evaluation of the safety margin. At least for the preliminary phase of the project (conceptual design), a probabilistic criterion has been fixed in the context of this BEPU analysis; this criterion is the value of the margin to sodium boiling, which has a probability 95% to be exceeded, obtained with a confidence level of 95% (i.e. the M5,95percentile of the margin distribution). This paper presents two methods used to assess this percentile: the Wilks method and the Bootstrap method ; the effectiveness of the two methods is compared on the basis of 500 simulations performed with theCATHARE2 code. We conclude that, with only 100 simulations performed with the CATHARE2 code, which is a number of simulations workable in the conceptual design phase of the ASTRID project where the models and the hypothesis are often modified, it is best in order to evaluate the percentile M5,95 of the margin to sodium boiling to use the bootstrap method, which will provide a slightly conservative result. On the other hand, in order to obtain an accurate estimation of the percentileM5,95, for the safety report for example, it will be necessary to perform at least 300 simulations with the CATHARE2 code. In this case, both methods (Wilks and Bootstrap) would give equivalent results.

Marquès, Michel

2014-06-01

189

A simulation study of dispersion of air borne radionuclides from a nuclear power plant under a hypothetical accidental scenario at a tropical coastal site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorological condition in coastal regions is diurnally variable and spatially heterogeneous due to complex topography, land-sea interface, etc. A wide range of dispersion conditions is possible on a given day in the coastal regions. In case of inadvertent accidental situations, though unlikely, it would be necessary to examine the potentially severe case among different dynamically occurring local atmospheric conditions for dispersion and its range of impact around a nuclear power plant for safety analysis. In this context, dispersion of air borne radioactive effluents during a hypothetical accidental scenario from a proposed prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) at an Indian coastal site, Kalpakkam, is simulated using a 3-D meso-scale atmospheric model MM5 and a random walk particle dispersion model FLEXPART. A simulation carried out for a typical summer day predicted the development of land-sea breeze circulation and thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) formation, which have been confirmed by meteorological observations. Analysis of dose distribution shows that the maximum dose for releases from a 100 m stack occurs at two places within 4 km distance during sea breeze/TIBL fumigation hours. Maximum dose also occurred during nighttime stable conditions. Results indicate that, on the day of present study, the highest concentrations occurred during periods of TIBL fumigation rather than during stable atmospheric conditions. Further, the area of impact (plume width at the surface) spreads up to a down wind distance of 4 km during fumigation condition. Simulation over a range of 25 km has shown turning of plume at the incidence of sea breeze circulation and two different dispersion patterns across the sea breeze front. These results are significant in comparison to the expected pattern shown by Gaussian plume model used for routine analysis.

Srinivas, C. V.; Venkatesan, R.

190

Accidental hypothermia and death from cold in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hypothermia is considered a sericus problem in big cities. In order to clarify factors contributing to urban hypothermia and death from cold which will continue to be an issue in cities in the future, we analyzed autopsy reports recorded in the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office from 1974 to 1983. In a total of 18346 autopsy reports 157 deaths had been diagnosed as due to exposure to cold. Of these cases, the greatest number were males in their forties and fifties, and most of these were inebriated and/or homeless. Eighty-four perent of urban hypothermia cases occurred when the outdoor temperature was below 5°C, and 50% of deaths from cold occurred when the outdoor temperature was between 0° and 5°C. There were no incidences of death from cold when the minimum outdoor temperature had remained above 16°C. Seventy-four percent of deaths from cold occurred during the winter months of December, January and February, and most of the remaining deaths occurred in March and November. There were no deaths from cold from June to August. More than half of all deaths from cold occurred from 3.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m., with the peak occurring at 5.00 a.m. A blood alcohol concentration of over 2.5 mg/ml had often been found in those in their forties and fifties who had died from hypothermia, and autopsy had often revealed disorders of the liver, digestive system, and circulatory system. Chronic lesions of the liver, probably due to alcoholism, were found in many cases; few cases showed no evidence of alcoholism and these were significantly different from the former group.

Tanaka, Masatoshi; Tokudome, Shogo

1991-12-01

191

Accidental release of hydrogen from a cryogenic tank  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid hydrogen at 20 K was harmlessly released at Turin's Porta Susa station over a period of seven hours on 9 July 1991 through the safety valve of a dewar-type tank on a railway wagon following the loss of the vacuum between its two walls. Commercially available programs were unable to model this type of release in the unusual conditions in which this hydrogen had been stored. A model illustrating the course of the accident was therefore worked out. A start was made by examining the changes in the physical and thermodynamic properties of the hydrogen progress in the dewar to find out how long it had taken to build up the pressure needed to open the safety valve. Owing to the complex geometry of the insulating layer in the interspace of the dewar on which the liquefaction of the air took place, the heat exchange coefficient could not be determined a priori. It was therefore assumed and subsequently quantified by means of an iterative process. The thermodynamic data were then used to examine the outflow of the hydrogen from the venting line. Flow dynamic calculations showed that the hydrogen was entirely lost through the safety valve and that pressure losses along the approx. 3-m line were negligible. The model also showed that the speed of the outflow was subsonic. The speed evaluated will enable the dispersion of the hydrogen and hence the areas at risk to be evaluated in the subsequent stages of the study.

Cancelli, C.; Demichela, M.; Piccinini, N.

2005-07-01

192

Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Polyurethane Foam for Use as Cask Impact Limiter in Accidental Drop Scenarios - 12099  

SciTech Connect

Rigid, closed-cell polyurethane foams are frequently used as cask impact limiters in nuclear materials and hazardous waste transport due to their high energy-absorption potential. When assessing the cask integrity in accidental scenarios based on numerical simulations, a description of the foam damping properties is required for different strain rates and for a wide temperature range with respect to waste heat generation in conjunction with critical operating and environmental conditions. Implementation and adaption of a respective finite element material model strongly relies on an appropriate experimental data base. Even though extensive impact experiments were conducted e.g. in Sandia National Laboratories, Savannah River National Laboratory and by Rolls Royce plc, not all relevant factors were taken into account. Hence, BAM who is in charge of the mechanical evaluation of such packages within the approval procedure in Germany, incorporated systematic test series into a comprehensive research project aimed to develop numerical methods for a couple of damping materials. In a first step, displacement driven compression tests have been performed on confined, cubic specimens at five loading rates ranging from 0.02 mm/s to 3 m/s at temperatures between +90 deg. C and -40 deg. C. Materials include two different polyurethane foam types called FR3718 and FR3730 having densities of 280 kg/m{sup 3} and 488 kg/m{sup 3} from the product line-up of General Plastics Manufacturing Company. Their data was used to adapt an advanced plasticity model allowing for reliably simulating cellular materials under multi-axial compression states. Therefore, an automated parameter identification procedure had been established by combining an artificial neural network with local optimization techniques. Currently, the selected numerical material input values are validated and optimized by means of more complex loading configurations with the prospect of establishing methods applicable to impact limiters under severe accidental conditions. The reference data base is provided by experiments, where weights between 212 kg and 1200 kg have been dropped from heights between 1.25 m and 7 m on confined 10 cm cubic foam specimens. By presenting the deviations between experimental values and the corresponding output of finite element simulations, the potentials and restrictions of the resulting models are highlighted. Systematic compression tests on polyurethane foams had been performed at BAM test site within the framework of a research project on impact limiters for handling casks for radioactive waste. The experimental results had been used to adapt numerical models for simulating the behaviour of different foam types at different temperatures. The loading speed, however, turned out to have a major influence on their flow curves that can not be captured by simple strain-rate dependent multipliers. Especially for guided drop tests that come close to real accidental scenarios there is a significant gap between experimental and numerical results even when applying such advanced material models. Hence, the extensive data base is currently deployed for expanding the standard algorithms to include adequate dynamic hardening factors. (authors)

Kasparek, Eva M.; Voelzke, Holger; Scheidemann, Robert; Zencker, Uwe [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, 12200 Berlin (Germany)

2012-07-01

193

Accidental versus operational oil spills from shipping in the Baltic Sea: risk governance and management strategies.  

PubMed

Marine governance of oil transportation is complex. Due to difficulties in effectively monitoring procedures on vessels en voyage, incentives to save costs by not following established regulations on issues such as cleaning of tanks, crew size, and safe navigation may be substantial. The issue of problem structure is placed in focus, that is, to what degree the specific characteristics and complexity of intentional versus accidental oil spill risks affect institutional responses. It is shown that whereas the risk of accidental oil spills primarily has been met by technical requirements on the vessels in combination with Port State control, attempts have been made to curb intentional pollution by for example increased surveillance and smart governance mechanisms such as the No-Special-Fee system. It is suggested that environmental safety could be improved by increased use of smart governance mechanisms tightly adapted to key actors' incentives to alter behavior in preferable directions. PMID:21446395

Hassler, Björn

2011-03-01

194

Photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers enabled by an accidental Dirac point  

DOEpatents

A photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser (PCSEL) includes a gain medium electromagnetically coupled to a photonic crystal whose energy band structure exhibits a Dirac cone of linear dispersion at the center of the photonic crystal's Brillouin zone. This Dirac cone's vertex is called a Dirac point; because it is at the Brillouin zone center, it is called an accidental Dirac point. Tuning the photonic crystal's band structure (e.g., by changing the photonic crystal's dimensions or refractive index) to exhibit an accidental Dirac point increases the photonic crystal's mode spacing by orders of magnitudes and reduces or eliminates the photonic crystal's distributed in-plane feedback. Thus, the photonic crystal can act as a resonator that supports single-mode output from the PCSEL over a larger area than is possible with conventional PCSELs, which have quadratic band edge dispersion. Because output power generally scales with output area, this increase in output area results in higher possible output powers.

Chua, Song Liang; Lu, Ling; Soljacic, Marin

2014-12-02

195

Environmental Conditions Environmental Conditions  

E-print Network

Environmental Conditions Environmental Conditions Appendix II The unique geology, hydrology and instream habitat. This chapter examines how environmental conditions in the Deschutes watershed affect, the discussion characterizes the environmental conditions within three watershed areas: the Lower Deschutes

196

Bitter pill to swallow: a case of accidental poisoning with digitalis purpurea.  

PubMed

While digitoxicity secondary to therapeutic use is frequent, due to its distinctive appearance and unpleasant taste accidental ingestion of digitalis purpurea (foxglove) is uncommon. This report relates the case of two previously healthy individuals who inadvertently consumed significant quantities of digitalis in its plant form. Both men presented in first-degree atrioventricular block and had digoxin levels of 4.9 ?g/litre, but were otherwise stable and made unremarkable recoveries with repeated dose activated charcoal. PMID:22791473

Mitchell, Andrew

2010-01-01

197

Bitter pill to swallow: a case of accidental poisoning with digitalis purpurea  

PubMed Central

While digitoxicity secondary to therapeutic use is frequent, due to its distinctive appearance and unpleasant taste accidental ingestion of digitalis purpurea (foxglove) is uncommon. This report relates the case of two previously healthy individuals who inadvertently consumed significant quantities of digitalis in its plant form. Both men presented in first-degree atrioventricular block and had digoxin levels of 4.9 ?g/litre, but were otherwise stable and made unremarkable recoveries with repeated dose activated charcoal. PMID:22791473

Mitchell, Andrew

2010-01-01

198

Neuroimaging in non-accidental head injury in children: an important element of assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Head injury from physical abuse is unfortunately a common occurrence in our society. It is a major cause of mortality and long-term physical and psychological disability in children. Diagnosis of non-accidental head injury may be difficult, as most infants present with non-specific clinical findings and without external signs of trauma. Neuroimaging plays a fundamental role both for medical management and

S Rajaram; R Batty; C D C Rittey; P D Griffiths; D J A Connolly

2011-01-01

199

Acute ischaemia of the hand following accidental radial artery infusion of Depo-Medrone.  

PubMed

Acute ischaemia of the hand following the accidental intra-arterial injection of steroid has not, to our knowledge, been previously reported. We present such a case of the injection of Depo-Medrone with Lidocaine (Upjohn) into the right radial artery during attempted treatment of stenosing tenosynovitis of the right thumb. The resultant acute ischaemia was successfully managed after 20 hours by a combination of surgical thrombectomy, intra-arterial streptokinase and intravenous heparin and thymoxamine. PMID:2307872

Taweepoke, P; Frame, J D

1990-02-01

200

Rewarming a patient with accidental hypothermia and cardiac arrest using thoracic lavage.  

PubMed

The optimal treatment for severe accidental hypothermia is cardiopulmonary bypass because this offers the most rapid rate of rewarming. However, cardiopulmonary bypass therapy is not available in every hospital. In these circumstances, rewarming has to be achieved with other methods. We present a patient who was successfully rewarmed with thoracic lavage after he had been found with a core temperature of 21°C and asystole. PMID:24882294

Turtiainen, Johanna; Halonen, Jari; Syväoja, Sakari; Hakala, Tapio

2014-06-01

201

Serologic markers for hepatitis B among Marshallese accidentally exposed to fallout radiation in 1954  

SciTech Connect

At least one serologic marker of prior hepatitis B infection (hepatitis B surface antigen, antibody to surface antigen, or antibody to core antigen) was found in 91.7% of 314 Marshallese tested. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenemia (3.3%) in a subpopulation that had resided on Rongelap Atoll at the time of accidental exposure to radioactive fallout from a thermonuclear test in 1954 did not differ significantly from the prevalence in a selected unexposed population (10.5%).

Adams, W.H.; Fields, H.A.; Engle, J.R.; Hadler, S.C.

1986-10-01

202

Involving parents in indicated early intervention for childhood PTSD following accidental injury.  

PubMed

Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome research in this area. This review focuses on two key issues within the child PTSD literature--namely the role of parents in treatment and the timing of intervention. The issue of parental involvement in the treatment of child PTSD is a question that is increasingly being recognized as important. In addition, the need to find a balance between providing early intervention to at risk youth while avoiding providing treatment to those youth who will recover spontaneously has yet to be addressed. This paper outlines the rationale for and the development of a trauma-focused CBT protocol with separate parent and child programs, for use with children and adolescents experiencing PTSD following an accidental injury. The protocol is embedded within an indicated intervention framework, allowing for the early identification of youth at risk within a medical setting. Two case studies are presented in order to illustrate key issues raised in the review, implementation of the interventions, and the challenges involved. PMID:22983482

Cobham, Vanessa E; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

2012-12-01

203

Pathogen and nutrient pulsing and attenuation in "accidental" urban wetland networks along the Salt River in Phoenix, AZ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increases in available nutrients and bacteria in urban streams are at the forefront of research concerns within the ecological and medical communities, and both pollutants are expected to become more problematic under projected changes in climate. Season, discharge, instream conditions (oxygen, water velocity), and weather conditions (antecedent moisture) all may influence loading rates to and the retention capabilities of wetlands fed by urban runoff and storm flow. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of these variables on nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) loading and attenuation along flow paths in urban wetland networks along the Salt River in Phoenix, AZ. Samples were collected for one year along flowpaths through wetlands that formed below six perennially flowing outfalls. Collection took place monthly during baseflow (dry season) conditions, and before and immediately following storm events, in the summer monsoon and winter rainy seasons. Water quality was assessed at the following points: immediately downstream of the outfall, mid-wetland, and downstream of the wetland. For determination of E. coli counts, samples were plated on coliform-selective media (Chromocult) and incubated for 24 hours. Plates were then used to enumerate E. coli. For determination of nutrient concentrations, samples were filtered and frozen until they could be analyzed by ion chromatography and automated wet chemistry. During both summer and winter, total discharge into the wetlands increased during storm events. Concentrations of PO43+, NH4+, and E. coli were significantly higher following storm events than during baseflow conditions, and post-storm peaks in concentration ('pulses') were higher during the summer monsoon than in winter storms. Pulses of pollutants during storms were highest when preceded by hot, dry conditions. NO3- was high in both base and stormflow. E. coli counts and nutrient concentrations dropped along flowpaths through the wetlands, indicating high attenuation capability even during storms. Attenuation of nutrients during baseflow appeared to be a function of microbial processing, while during stormflow, when water retention time in the wetlands was reduced, attenuation was likely explained by other factors, such as sediment adsorption. Potential tradeoffs emerged between removal of NO3- (highest under low dissolved oxygen) and E. coli (highest under high dissolved oxygen) during baseflow. Climate change models project increases in severe droughts and extreme precipitation events for the southwestern United States, which can lead to more sewage leakages and increases in contaminated runoff from impervious surfaces in urban areas. Wetlands are constructed or restored to mitigate microbial contamination of wastewater. Our research indicates that even "accidental" urban wetlands can serve to reduce downstream transport of nutrients and pathogens in storm and wastewater. However, wetland restoration or design targeting increased water retention time may increase the capability of accidental wetlands in this urban desert river channel to remove nutrients and pathogens from stormwater.

Palta, M. M.; Grimm, N. B.

2013-12-01

204

Accidental Discoveries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students research scientific discoveries that happened by accident in the past, and learn how gamma-rays were discovered by 20th century scientists. In the process, students develop an understanding that science theories change in the face of new evidence. This acitivity is part of the "Swift: Eyes Through Time" collection that is available on the Teacher's Domain website.

205

Accidental Tourist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For 10 years, the author taught a high school Fundamentals of English class designed for juniors and seniors who needed special accommodations--individualized instruction, time for reading aloud, a pace that's slower than the norm. About half were learning English as a second language. Some of these students spoke Bosnian, Laotian, Russian, or…

Brown, Donna M.

2003-01-01

206

Accidental Art  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 (Click on image for larger view)

This image, acquired by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's panoramic camera on the 53rd martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission, struck science and engineering teams as not only scientifically interesting but remarkably beautiful. The large, shadowed rock in the foreground is nicknamed 'Sandia' for a mountain range in New Mexico. An imposing rock, 'Sandia' is about 33 centimeters high (1 foot) and about 1.7 meters (5.5 feet) long.

Figure 1 above is a lightened version of the more artistic image above.

The combination of the rover's high-resolution cameras with software tools used by scientists allows the minute details on martian targets to be visualized. When lightened, this image reveals much about the pictured rocks, which the science team believes are ejected material, or ejecta, from the nearby crater called 'Bonneville.' Scientists believe 'Sandia' is a basaltic rock that landed on its side after being ejected from the crater. The vertical lines on the side of the rock facing the camera are known by geologists as 'flow banding' and typically run horizontally, indicating that 'Sandia' is on its side. What look like small holes on the two visible sides of the rock are called vesicles; they were probably once gas bubbles within the lava.

The lighting not only makes for an artistic image, it helps scientists get a virtual three-dimensional feel for target rocks. Observations taken at different times of day, as shadows move and surface texture details on target rocks are revealed, are entered into modeling software that turns a two-dimensional image into a three-dimensional research tool.

Many smaller rocks can be seen in the background of the image. Some rocks are completely exposed, while others are only peeking out of the surface. Scientists believe that two processes might be at work here: accretion, which occurs when winds deposit material that slowly buries many of the rocks; and deflation, which occurs when surface material is removed by wind, exposing more and more of the rocks.

2004-01-01

207

Lung health consequences of reported accidental chlorine gas exposures among pulpmill workers.  

PubMed

The long-term consequences of accidental chlorine gas exposure have been investigated, mainly in the community setting, among persons exposed as a result of a nearby chlorine spill. This circumstance is not analogous to the more frequent chlorine or chlorine dioxide gas overexposures that occur commonly in pulpmills over a background of a low level of gas exposure. To investigate the respiratory health consequences of these accidental exposures ("chlorine gassing") in the industrial setting, we carried out a cross-sectional respiratory health survey among workers at a British Columbia coastal pulpmill and a nearby rail maintenance yard. A greater proportion of pulpmill workers were unavailable for study because of illness (10.5% versus 2.4% in the railyard, p less than 0.01). Procedures involved simple spirometry, respiratory symptom assessment, and measurement of average levels of air contaminants. Average chlorine levels in the pulpmill were below 1 ppm; however, 60% of the pulpmill workers reported one or more accidental "chlorine gassing" incidents. Pulpmill workers who reported being "gassed" were significantly more likely to report wheezing on occasion than were other pulpmill workers and railyard workers (rate for these three groups: nonsmokers: 8, 2, 1%; ex-smokers: 17, 11, 7%; current smokers: 42, 21, 19%; p less than 0.05). No significant lung function differences were found between the overall pulpmill group and the railyard workers; however, nonsmoking and formerly smoking pulpmill workers who reported being "gassed" had significantly lower average midmaximal flow rate and FEV1/FVC ratio than did their counterparts in the remainder of the pulpmill population (p less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1986687

Kennedy, S M; Enarson, D A; Janssen, R G; Chan-Yeung, M

1991-01-01

208

Herniation of uncus and parahippocampal gyrus: an accidental finding on magnetic resonance imaging of cerebrum.  

PubMed

Idiopathic herniation of uncus and parahippocampal gyrus into the ambient cistern is a very rare entity, which could be mistaken for other pathology such as tumor. To the best of our knowledge, two prior cases of this kind of herniation have been described. One of these cases was with associated symptomatology and other abnormalities, and the other was characterized as idiopathic. In this case report, we report a case of accidental finding of a herniation of uncus and parahippocampal gyrus into the ambient cistern, without any other accompanying abnormalities, well depicted by magnetic resonance imaging without further necessity for surgical brain intervention. PMID:25610616

Yavarian, Yousef; Bayat, Michael; Brøndum Frøkjær, Jens

2015-01-01

209

Relationship between plasma concentrations of clonidine and mean arterial pressure during an accidental clonidine overdose.  

PubMed Central

The time course of toxicity in a 28 year old man following a 100 mg accidental overdose of clonidine hydrochloride is compared with the decline of plasma clonidine over 5 days. The concentration data were analyzed by nonlinear least squares regression, and fitted to a model which dissociated the blood pressure effects into pressor and depressor components. According to this analysis, there appeared to be two phases of toxicity over time--a hypertensive, and a hypotensive phase. The hypotensive and the hypertensive phases may result primarily through differential stimulation of central alpha 2-, alpha 1-, and vascular post-synaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors as plasma concentrations fall. PMID:3947506

Domino, L E; Domino, S E; Stockstill, M S

1986-01-01

210

Balantidiosis: a rare accidental finding in the urine of a patient with acute renal failure.  

PubMed

Balantidium coli is the only ciliated protozoan which is known to infect human and nonhuman primates. Route of infection is faecal-oral route. It is actively motile and causes mostly asymptomatic infections, or it may develop dysentery which is similar to that which is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. Here, we are describing a case of an accidental finding of B.coli in the urine of a patient who presented with acute renal failure, based on its characteristic morphology and motility which were seen on light microscopy. This is the third case of Urinary Balantidiosis which has been reported from India. PMID:24995185

Khanduri, Ankit; Chauhan, Sapna; Chandola, Iva; Mahawal, Bs; Kataria, Vk

2014-05-01

211

Accidental hijab pin ingestion in Muslim women: an emerging endoscopic emergency?  

PubMed

Ingested foreign body is an infrequent indication for emergency endoscopy in the adult gastroenterology practice. We describe the clinical features and endoscopic management of the first four cases of accidental ingestion of hijab pins by Muslim women in our unit, all presenting within a 12-month period. The pins were all successfully retrieved without any complications. In this report, we review published guidelines and the current literature, as well as discussing the approach (conservative vs proactive endoscopic retrieval) and timing of endoscopic treatment. The Muslim community may need to be alerted to the potential health hazard of hijab pins. PMID:24390968

Goh, Jason; Patel, Neeral; Boulton, Ralph

2014-01-01

212

Balantidiosis: A Rare Accidental Finding in the Urine of A Patient with Acute Renal Failure  

PubMed Central

Balantidium coli is the only ciliated protozoan which is known to infect human and nonhuman primates. Route of infection is faecal-oral route. It is actively motile and causes mostly asymptomatic infections, or it may develop dysentery which is similar to that which is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. Here, we are describing a case of an accidental finding of B.coli in the urine of a patient who presented with acute renal failure, based on its characteristic morphology and motility which were seen on light microscopy. This is the third case of Urinary Balantidiosis which has been reported from India. PMID:24995185

Chauhan, Sapna; Chandola, IVA; Mahawal, BS; Kataria, VK

2014-01-01

213

Serologic markers for hepatitis B among Marshallese accidentally exposed to fallout radiation in 1954.  

PubMed

At least one serologic marker of prior hepatitis B infection (hepatitis B surface antigen, antibody to surface antigen, or antibody to core antigen) was found in 91.7% of 314 Marshallese tested. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenemia (3.3%) in a subpopulation that had resided on Rongelap Atoll at the time of accidental exposure to radioactive fallout from a thermonuclear test in 1954 did not differ significantly from the prevalence in a selected unexposed population (10.5%). PMID:3774968

Adams, W H; Fields, H A; Engle, J R; Hadler, S C

1986-10-01

214

Study on the Accidental Rupture of Hot Leg or Surge Line in SBO Accident  

SciTech Connect

The postulated total station blackout accident (SBO) of PWR NPP with 600 MWe in China is analyzed as the base case using SCDAP/RELAP5 code. Then the hot leg or surge line are assumed to rupture before the lower head of Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) ruptures, and the progressions are analyzed in detail comparing with the base case. The results show that the accidental rupture of hot leg or surge line will greatly influence the progression of accident. The probability of hot leg or surge line rupture in intentional depressurization is also studied in this paper, which provides a suggestion to the development of Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMG). (authors)

Kun Zhang; Xuewu Cao [Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China)

2006-07-01

215

Acute ischaemia of the leg following accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets.  

PubMed

Accidental intra-arterial injection of drugs is a sporadic complication in i.v. drug addicts. A 22-year-old drug-abuser injected flunitrazepam tablets dissolved in tap water into her left femoral artery and presented with clinical signs of acute ischaemia of the left leg. Severe rhabdomyolysis developed within 5 hours after the injection. Selective arterial catheter angiography showed an acute occlusion of the posterior tibial artery. Combination therapy with i.a. urokinase, i.a. prostaglandines and i.v. anticoagulation resulted in re-opening of the obstructed distal artery and complete cessation of symptoms. PMID:19003750

Leifert, J A; Bossaller, L; Uhl, M

2008-11-01

216

Herniation of uncus and parahippocampal gyrus: an accidental finding on magnetic resonance imaging of cerebrum  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic herniation of uncus and parahippocampal gyrus into the ambient cistern is a very rare entity, which could be mistaken for other pathology such as tumor. To the best of our knowledge, two prior cases of this kind of herniation have been described. One of these cases was with associated symptomatology and other abnormalities, and the other was characterized as idiopathic. In this case report, we report a case of accidental finding of a herniation of uncus and parahippocampal gyrus into the ambient cistern, without any other accompanying abnormalities, well depicted by magnetic resonance imaging without further necessity for surgical brain intervention. PMID:25610616

Bayat, Michael; Brøndum Frøkjær, Jens

2015-01-01

217

Mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical model was constructed for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included. 25 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Stevens, D.L.

1980-05-01

218

Accidental phosgene gas exposure: A review with background study of 10 cases  

PubMed Central

Here, authors present a review on clinical presentation and management of exposure of phosgene gas after reviewing the literature by searching with keywords phosgene exposure on Google, Cochrane, Embase and PubMed with a background of experience gained from 10 patients who were admitted to our institute after an accidental phosgene exposure in February 2011 nearby a city in India. Phosgene is a highly toxic gas, occupational workers may have accidental exposure. The gas can also be generated inadvertently during fire involving plastics and other chemicals and solvents containing chlorine, which is of concern to emergency responders. Phosgene inhalation may cause initially symptoms of respiratory tract irritation, patients feel fine thereafter, and then die of choking a day later because of build up of fluid in the lungs (delayed onset non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema). Phosgene exposure is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with a history of exposure should be admitted to the hospital for a minimum of 24 h for observation because of the potential for delayed onset respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:24339660

Vaish, Arvind Kumar; Consul, Shuchi; Agrawal, Avinash; Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Singh, Mohit Mohan

2013-01-01

219

Accidental discharge of a Halon 1301 total flooding fire extinguishing system  

SciTech Connect

An accidental discharge of a total flooding Halon 1301 fire extinguishing system is described. The release of the Halon was accompanied by a sudden very loud noise, considerable air turbulence and a dense fog, resulting in worker anxiety and loss of visibility. The workers in the area at the time of the discharge reported higher frequencies of lightheadedness, headache, nasal complaints and disorientation than those entering the area later. Halon 1301 usually is regarded as having a low toxicity, although at concentrations above those used in occupied spaces, effects on consciousness and cardiac rhythm have been reported. In the present report no significant illness or injury due to the Halon exposure was found. A fine oily deposit found on horizontal surfaces in the area subsequent to the discharge consisted of mineral oil and iron, suggesting that this material was scoured out of the piping as the Halon discharged. The disorientation and anxiety produced by an accidental discharge can be minimized through education programs designed to ensure that personnel know what to expect and how to abort the discharge if it results from a false alarm. Situations leading to triggering of fire detectors by events other than fires should be investigated and reduced.

Sass-Kortsak, A.M.; Holness, D.L.; Stopps, G.J.

1985-11-01

220

Plutino 15810 (1994 JR1), an accidental quasi-satellite of Pluto  

E-print Network

In the solar system, quasi-satellites move in a 1:1 mean motion resonance going around their host body like a retrograde satellite but their mutual separation is well beyond the Hill radius and the trajectory is not closed as they orbit the Sun not the host body. So far, minor bodies temporarily trapped in the quasi-satellite dynamical state have been identified around Venus, Earth, the dwarf planet (1) Ceres, the large asteroid (4) Vesta, Jupiter, Saturn and Neptune. Using computer simulations, Tiscareno and Malhotra have predicted the existence of a small but significant population of minor bodies moving in a 1:1 mean motion resonance with Pluto. Here we show using N-body calculations that the Plutino 15810 (1994 JR1) is currently an accidental quasi-satellite of Pluto and it will remain as such for nearly 350,000 yr. By accidental we mean that the quasi-satellite phase is triggered (or terminated) not by a direct gravitational influence in the form of a discrete close encounter but as a result of a resonan...

Marcos, C de la Fuente

2012-01-01

221

Triage and Management of Accidental Laboratory Exposures to Biosafety Level-3 and -4 Agents  

PubMed Central

The recent expansion of biocontainment laboratory capacity in the United States has drawn attention to the possibility of occupational exposures to BSL-3 and -4 agents and has prompted a reassessment of medical management procedures and facilities to deal with these contingencies. A workshop hosted by the National Interagency Biodefense Campus was held in October 2007 and was attended by representatives of all existing and planned BSL-4 research facilities in the U.S. and Canada. This report summarizes important points of discussion and recommendations for future coordinated action, including guidelines for the engineering and operational controls appropriate for a hospital care and isolation unit. Recommendations pertained to initial management of exposures (ie, immediate treatment of penetrating injuries, reporting of exposures, initial evaluation, and triage). Isolation and medical care in a referral hospital (including minimum standards for isolation units), staff recruitment and training, and community outreach also were addressed. Workshop participants agreed that any unit designated for the isolation and treatment of laboratory employees accidentally infected with a BSL-3 or -4 pathogen should be designed to maximize the efficacy of patient care while minimizing the risk of transmission of infection. Further, participants concurred that there is no medically based rationale for building care and isolation units to standards approximating a BSL-4 laboratory. Instead, laboratory workers accidentally exposed to pathogens should be cared for in hospital isolation suites staffed by highly trained professionals following strict infection control procedures. PMID:19634998

Rodak, Colleen; Bray, Mike; Davey, Richard T.

2009-01-01

222

Creatin-kinase elevation after accidental ingestion of almotriptan in an 18-month-old girl.  

PubMed

Few studies have been published to demonstrate tolerability and efficacy of almotriptan in adolescents and children with migraine, particularly in the first years of life, though preliminary results are favorable. We report the case of an 18-month-old infant with elevation of serum levels of creatin-kinase after the accidental ingestion of almotriptan. A previously healthy 18-month-old girl (weight: 13 kg) was admitted to our Department four hours after the accidental ingestion of 6.25 mg of almotriptan (0.48 mg/kg), without any specific symptom. The performed investigations showed high serum levels of creatin-kinase (CK) (527 IU/L; normal values: 24-170 IU/L). Transaminase, creatinine, aldolase, myoglobin and troponin T serum levels were normal. The electrocardiogram proved negative. Initial management consisted of parenteral rehydration with saline solution. CK levels lowered significantly at 12 hours (455 IU/L) and at 65 hours (188 IU/L) after the ingestion. No symptoms were observed before discharge and on follow-up. PMID:24608586

Castagno, E; Lupica, M; Viola, S; Savino, F; Miniero, R

2014-02-01

223

An experimental study on the uptake factor of tungsten oxide particles resulting from an accidentally dropped storage container.  

PubMed

A test procedure was developed and verified to measure the airborne concentrations of particles of different sizes (0.5-20 ?m) within the vicinity of a dropped container when a significant portion of the tungsten oxide powder (simulating uranium oxide) is ejected from the container. Tests were carried out in a full-scale stainless steel environmental chamber with an interior volume of 24.1 m(3). Thirty-two drop tests were performed, covering variations in dropping height, room air movement, landing scenario, and lid condition. Assuming a breathing rate of 1.2 m(3)/hr, the uptake factor during the first 10 min was calculated to be between 1.13 × 10(-9) and 1.03 × 10(-7) in reference to the amount loaded; or between 6.44 × 10(-8) and 3.55 × 10(-4) in reference to the amount spilled. Results provide previously unavailable data for estimating the exposure and associated risk to building occupants in the case of an accidental dropping of heavy powder containers. The test data show that for spills larger than 0.004 g, the power-law correlation between the spill uptake factor and the spilled mass (i.e., SUF = 2.5 × 10(-5) × Spill_Mass(-0.667)) established from the test data is smaller and a more accurate estimate than the constant value of 10(-3) assumed in the Department of Energy Nuclear Material Packaging Manual. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplementary resource: an online supplementary table of all cumulative uptake amounts at 10 min for all test data.]. PMID:23679340

Gao, Zhi; Zhang, J S; Byington, Jerry G A

2013-01-01

224

PAVAN: an atmospheric-dispersion program for evaluating design-basis accidental releases of radioactive materials from nuclear power stations  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a user's guide for the NRC computer program, PAVAN, which is a program used by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to estimate downwind ground-level air concentrations for potential accidental releases of radioactive material from nuclear facilities. Such an assessment is required by 10 CFR Part 100 and 10 CFR Part 50. The program implements the guidance provided in Regulatory Guide 1.145, Atmospheric Dispersion Models for Potential Accident Consequence Assessments at Nuclear Power Plants. Using joint frequency distributions of wind direction and wind speed by atmospheric stability, the program provides relative air concentration (X/Q) values as functions of direction for various time periods at the exclusion area boundary (EAB) and the outer boundary of the low population zone (LPZ). Calculations of X/Q values can be made for assumed ground-level releases (e.g., through building penetrations and vents) or elevated releases from free-standing stacks. Various options may be selected by the user. They can account for variation in the location of release points, additional plume dispersion due to building wakes, plume meander under low wind speed conditions, and adjustments to consider non-straight trajectories. It computes an effective plume height using the physical release height which can be reduced by inputted terrain features. It cannot handle multiple emission sources. A description of the main program and all subroutines is provided. Also included as appendices are a complete listing of the program and two test cases with the required data inputs and the resulting program outputs.

Bander, T.J.

1982-11-01

225

Accidental Inclusions Following Blast Injury in Esthetical Zones: Ablation by a Hydrosurgery System  

PubMed Central

In case of blast injuries, traumatic tattoos can result from accidental inclusions of intradermal pigmented particles. To avoid these tattoos, especially in esthetical areas like the head and neck region and the hands, the primary goal in our treatment is to remove all particles and foreign bodies. Superficial foreign bodies can easily be removed by brushes or dermabrasion. Deeper lesions are a challenge for plastic surgeons, because they are not so easily removed. Ablation by a water jet surgical tool, the Versajet-system (Smith & Nephew Inc, Andover, MA), enables the removal of nearly all particles and foreign bodies, which sustained a blast injury of the face or the hands. Aim of this paper is to describe the method of using this hydrosurgery system in blast injuries in esthetical zones and its advantages by presenting cases of two patients of us. PMID:22848777

Siemers, Frank; Mauss, Karl L.; Liodaki, Eirini; Ottomann, Christian; Bergmann, Philipp A.; Mailänder, Peter

2012-01-01

226

The potential for damage from the accidental release of conductive carbon fibers from aircraft composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon and graphite fibers are known to be electrically conductive. The rapidly accelerating use of carbon fibers as the reinforcement in filamentary composite materials brought up the possibility of accidental release of carbon fibers from the burning of crashed commercial airliners with carbon composite parts. Such release could conceivably cause widespread damage to electrical and electronic equipment. The experimental and analytical results of a comprehensive investigation of the various elements necessary to assess the extent of such potential damage in terms of annual expected costs and maximum losses at low probabilities of occurrence are presented. A review of NASA materials research program to provide alternate or modified composite materials to overcome any electrical hazards from the use of carbon composites in aircraft structures is described.

Bell, V. L.

1980-01-01

227

Relative public health effects from accidental release of fusion structural radioactivity  

SciTech Connect

The FUSECRAC code, a modification of the CRAC code, was developed to estimate public health effects from released fusion radioactivity both for safety studies and for comparison of the hazards associated with candidate structural materials. This paper summarizes the key motivations, problems, and results of the FUSECRAC comparison. The evolving CRAC code is a product of the Reactor Safety Study and represents the state-of-the-art in fission accident consequence assessments. It was found that potential public health effects from accidental releases of 316 SS are two orders of magnitude higher than from V-15Cr-5Ti or TZM per unit volume of activated first wall released. The probabilities for releases among these materials were not addressed here.

Piet, S.J.; Kazimi, M.S.; Lidsky, L.M.

1983-01-01

228

Relative public health effects from accidental release of fusion structural radioactivity  

SciTech Connect

The FUSECRAC code, a modification of the CRAC code, was developed to estimate public health effects from released fusion radioactivity both for safety studies and for comparison of the hazards associated with candidate structural materials. This paper summarizes the key motivations, problems, and results of the FUSECRAC comparison. The evolving CRAC code is a product of the Reactor Safety Study and represents the state of the art in fission accident consequence assessments. It was found that potential public health effects from accidental releases of 316 SS are two orders of magnitude higher than from V-15Cr-5Ti or TZM per unit volume of activated first wall released. The probabilities for releases among these materials were not addressed here.

Piet, S.J.; Kazimi, M.S.

1983-09-01

229

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt with accidental diagnosis of persistence of the left superior vena cava.  

PubMed

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPSS) is considered a valid therapeutic option for the treatment of portal hypertension and its complications. The guidelines for this procedure have already been established on the basis of the normal vascular anatomy and of various technical radiological aspects. In some few rare cases, diagnosis of a congenital vascular anomaly can be made accidentally by interventional radiologists, making the procedure of the TIPSS placement extremely difficult or in some cases technically impossible. This report describes a rare vascular malformation characterized by the absence of the right superior vena cava and persistence of the left superior vena cava in a patient with a diagnosis of advanced liver cirrhosis who needed a TIPSS placement in order to control refractory ascites. PMID:20205290

Petridis, Ioannis; Miraglia, Roberto; Marrone, Gianluca; Gruttadauria, Salvatore; Luca, Angelo; Vizzini, Giovanni Battista; Gridelli, Bruno

2010-03-01

230

Urban Early Adolescent Narratives on Sexuality: Accidental and Intentional Influences of Family, Peers, and the Media  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we examine the ways that early adolescents talked, interacted, and made references to events in their individual and collective lives during photography-based focus groups about sexuality and relationships. Twenty-three participants (10 boys and 13 girls) were recruited from three urban schools participating in a comprehensive sex education impact evaluation in the Northeast. We analyzed conversational narratives that were elicited in a group process while sharing photos of important people, contexts, and situations, showcasing participants’ exploration of sexuality and relationships. Our analysis revealed four main themes: (a) direct and indirect family communication about sexuality, (b) accidental and intentional Internet usage, (c) shared and contested peer knowledge, and (d) school as a direct and indirect learning context. Implications and future directions for practice, research, and policy are explored. PMID:22983141

McKamey, Corinne

2012-01-01

231

[Use of the Doppler effect in the prevention of accidental intraarterial injection of a sclerosing agent].  

PubMed

A high degree of safety has been reached in sclerotherapy. The accidental intra-arterial injection of a sclerosant is considered to be a rare but serious complication. After mentioning the importance of clinical examination the author considers the import of the ultra-sound method to diagnostics and the prevention of some complications in sclerotherapy. He recalls the dangerous zones and situations, and clearly demonstrates the precision of the Doppler which indicates arterial vessels. It is important to interpret correctly the language of the ultra-sound investigation, and to evaluate the spontaneous signals from the arteries by exploring the sounds produced by venous circulation with the various available techniques. The discussion involves 76 patients examined by the Doppler before sclerosis. No complications were observed, although in 17 cases there were arterioles close to the varices or microvaries to be injected. This proves the importance of the Doppler in the daily practice of all angiologists. PMID:7291320

Bacci, P A

1981-01-01

232

Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984  

SciTech Connect

March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Adams, W.H.; Engle, J.R.; Harper, J.A.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

1986-01-01

233

Regional scale atmospheric dispersion simulation of accidental releases of radionuclides from Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of regional scale atmospheric dispersion simulation of accidental emission of radionuclides from the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor, Japan following the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event on 11 March 2011. The objective was to study the temporal behaviour of plume trajectory, concentration, deposition and radiation dose pattern over an 80 km range around the reactor. The time-varying meteorological parameters during the release period were simulated with a multi-scale nested atmospheric model WRF ARW and the trajectory, plume dispersion were computed with Lagrangian Particle Dispersion models HYSPLIT, FLEXPART using the available information on accidental source term. The simulations indicated that the wind flow over Japan during the release period was driven by the large scale extra-tropical westerly waves and associated low pressure systems. In the lower levels, the flow was influenced by the local topography/sea breeze causing occasional landward wind shift on the east coast of Japan. Simulated airflow trajectories revealed that the plume stayed over the ocean by westerly winds on most days and the radioactivity dispersed over sea surface. Landward trajectories were found on a few days due to southeasterly, easterly and northeasterly flow (15-17, 19-21 March 2011) during which much of the radionuclides deposited over the land region. The hotspot of depositions occurred over east Pacific Ocean near to Japan. Over the land relatively high depositions were simulated in a narrow zone of 20 km width and 80 km length in the northwest sector in agreement with monitor data. Simulations showed wet depositions over the land to be higher than the dry depositions during 12-30 March due to occurrence of rainfall on some days. Comparison of activity deposition and air dose values with available observations confirmed that the plume pattern in a finer length scale around the site could be simulated realistically and agree with the measurements within the limitations of the uncertainty in source term.

Srinivas, C. V.; Venkatesan, R.; Baskaran, R.; Rajagopal, V.; Venkatraman, B.

2012-12-01

234

Accidental ingestion or aspiration of foreign objects at Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital over last 4 years.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate cases of accidental ingestion or aspiration occurring at Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital over the last 4 years in order to determine how the incidence of such events could be reduced. Forty cases of accidents occurring at our hospital over a 4-year period commencing in 2008 (representing 27% of the total number of accidents) included accidental ingestion in 39 patients and aspiration in one. Most of these accidents occurred during the removal or placement of restorations or prosthetics, and the ingested objects were mostly crowns and inlays. Accidental ingestion or aspiration occurred more frequently in the right molar region and when procedures were conducted by practitioners with less than 1 to 7 years of experience, and especially 1 to 3 years only. A higher rate of such accidents was observed in male patients in their 50s to 70s. The conventional safety procedures developed by the Medical Risk Management Team should be adhered to wherever possible. Furthermore, we propose the following measures based on the present results: accident prevention training for students and clinical trainees; improvement of the in-hospital manual; personal coaching for those breaching the guidelines of the safety manual; and raising awareness of the need for greater care in preventing incidents of accidental ingestion or aspiration at the Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital. PMID:24717931

Hisanaga, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Sato, Toru; Yajima, Yasutomo; Morinaga, Kazuki; Ohata, Hitoshi; Hirata, SoIchiro; Mamiya, Hideki; Kinumatsu, Takashi; Yakushiji, Takashi; Hagita, Keiko

2014-01-01

235

Vertical deceleration injuries: a comparative study of the injury patterns of 101 patients after accidental and intentional high falls  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed the pattern of injury of 101 adult patients who were treated in our Trauma Center after a fall from an average height of 7.2 m between 1987 and 1990. In 62 patients the fall was accidental, and 39 jumped with suicidal intent. The most common injuries were fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine (83.0 per cent) especially

D. Richter; M. P. Hahn; P. A. W. Ostermann; A. Ekkernkamp; G. Muhr

1996-01-01

236

Accidental vibrational degeneracy in vibrational excited states observed with ultrafast two-dimensional IR vibrational echo spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Accidental vibrational degeneracy in vibrational excited states observed with ultrafast two-dimensional IR vibrational echo spectroscopy Junrong Zheng, Kyungwon Kwak, Tobias Steinel, John Asbury, Xin Chen is observed with ultrafast two-dimensional 2D IR vibrational echo spectroscopy. Because of this coupling

Fayer, Michael D.

237

SAN FRANCISCO ESTUARY INSTITUTE CONTRIBUTION  

E-print Network

SAN FRANCISCO ESTUARY INSTITUTE CONTRIBUTION NO. 574 JUNE 2008 7770 Pardee Lane, Second floor in the San Francisco Estuary by Bruce Thompson and Sarah Lowe San Francisco Estuary Institute Bays and Estuaries provide a new framework and methods for assessment of sediment condition in San

238

Contributed Paper Assessing Citizen Contributions to Butterfly  

E-print Network

Contributed Paper Assessing Citizen Contributions to Butterfly Monitoring in Two Large Cities K. C, we compared butterfly data collected over 10 years in Chicago, Illinois (U.S.A.), and New York City were associated with the reported proportion of the estimated regional pool of butterfly species. We

Illinois at Chicago, University of

239

Heat, Mass and Aerosol Transfers in Spray Conditions for Containment Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

TOSQAN is an experimental program undertaken by the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surété Nucleaire (IRSN) in order to perform thermal hydraulic containment studies. The TOSQAN facility is a large enclosure devoted to simulating typical accidental thermal hydraulic flow conditions in nuclear Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) containment. The TOSQAN facility, which is highly instrumented with non-intrusive optical diagnostics, is particularly

Emmanuel Porcheron; Pascal Lemaitre; Amandine Nuboer; Jacques Vendel

2008-01-01

240

Experimental and numerical approaches of aerosol removal in spray conditions for containment application  

Microsoft Academic Search

TOSQAN is an experimental program undertaken by the Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN) in order to perform thermal hydraulic containment studies. The TOSQAN facility is a large enclosure devoted to simulate typical accidental thermal hydraulic flow conditions in nuclear pressurized water reactor (PWR) containment. The TOSQAN facility, which is highly instrumented with non-intrusive optical diagnostics, is particularly

Emmanuel Porcheron; Pascal Lemaitre; Denis Marchand; William Plumecocq; Amandine Nuboer; Jacques Vendel

2010-01-01

241

Evaluation of health effects in Sequoyah Fuels Corporation workers from accidental exposure to uranium hexafluoride  

SciTech Connect

Urine bioassay measurements for uranium and medical laboratory results were studied to determine whether there were any health effects from uranium intake among a group of 31 workers exposed to uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and hydrolysis products following the accidental rupture of a 14-ton shipping cylinder in early 1986 at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation uranium conversion facility in Gore, Oklahoma. Physiological indicators studied to detect kidney tissue damage included tests for urinary protein, casts and cells, blood, specific gravity, and urine pH, blood urea nitrogen, and blood creatinine. We concluded after reviewing two years of follow-up medical data that none of the 31 workers sustained any observable health effects from exposure to uranium. The early excretion of uranium in urine showed more rapid systemic uptake of uranium from the lung than is assumed using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30 and Publication 54 models. The urinary excretion data from these workers were used to develop an improved systemic recycling model for inhaled soluble uranium. We estimated initial intakes, clearance rates, kidney burdens, and resulting radiation doses to lungs, kidneys, and bone surfaces. 38 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

Fisher, D.R. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Swint, M.J.; Kathren, R.L. (Hanford Environmental Health Foundation, Richland, WA (USA))

1990-05-01

242

[Modes of occurrence of accidental scalds and burns in infancy and childhood (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The modes of occurrence of scalds and burns of varying severity in infancy and childhood were statistically compiled from the case notes of 790 patients admitted to the Department of Paediatrics, University of Graz during the years 1968 to 1973. The most frequent mode of injury was pulling down pots containing hot fluids from stoves and other elevated places (37% cases); 26% of the children were scalded by tripping over pots placed on the floor by adults and falling into the spilt liquid, 11% received burns by touching hot objects or by direct contact with fire and 9% were burned accidentally in a "passive" manner by their siblings or parents. In 18% of cases the accidents happened in a variety of more unusual ways. The age of the injured child and the time of day of the event both appear to play an important role in the genesis of the accident, whereas the season of the year and social status seem to be of minor importance in this connexion. The most important preventive measure is the adequate instruction of parents and others in charge of young children in respect to the common domestic hazards in everyday life which may lead to scalds and burns. PMID:1229118

Rosegger, H; Enayat, U

1975-06-27

243

Modeling acute health risks associated with accidental releases of toxic gases  

SciTech Connect

CHEM{_}MACCS has been developed from the radiological accident consequence code, MACCS, to perform probabilistic calculations of potential off-site consequences of the accidental atmospheric release of hazardous chemicals. The principal phenomena considered in CHEM{_}MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways, and early and latent health effects. CHEM{_}MACCS provides the following capabilities: (1) statistical weather sampling data (8,760 hourly data points per year), (2) population dose and health effect risk calculations based on site-specific population data, (3) health effects calculations including the consideration of potential site specific mitigative actions (evacuation and shielding), and (4) modeling of multiple release segments. Three different sample problems are contained in this report to show how to use CHEM{_}MACCS. Three test problems are run to compare CHEM{_}MACCS and D2PC. The doses versus the downwind centerline distances from the source for the given doses are in very close agreement.

Haskin, F.E.; Ding, C.; Summa, K.J. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering] [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Young, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Accident Analysis and Consequence Assessment Dept.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Accident Analysis and Consequence Assessment Dept.

1996-09-01

244

Fatal accidental fall from height in infants and children: a study from South Delhi.  

PubMed

One hundred and seventy-four deaths of infants and children due to accidental fall from height received from South Delhi for autopsy were studied during the 10-year period from January 1998 to December 2007 at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Data were analysed with regard to age, sex, location of fall, height of fall, pattern of injury, cause of death and seasonal variation. These cases represented approximately 22.56% of all deaths due to a fall from height and 1.31% of all medicolegal autopsies conducted during the period. There were 106 male (60.9%) and 68 female (39.1%) victims. Age-specific rate of fall showed that the highest rate was in toddlers (39.65%), followed by 26.43% each in preschool children and school-going children and the least in infants (7.47%). The head and face was the most frequently injured body region (93.67%) and the skull was the commonest bone fractured (59.19%). The most common cause of death was head injury (84.48%). Major fall sites in decreasing order of frequency were rooftop (38.50%), balcony (24.13%), household furniture (21.26%), staircase (6.89%), window (4.59%), wall (1.72%), rickshaw/bicycle (1.15%) and tree (0.57%). Most fatalities due to a fall from height were reported in the rainy season. PMID:20349690

Behera, C; Rautji, Ravi; Dogra, T D

2010-01-01

245

Can we prevent accidental injury to adolescents? A systematic review of the evidence.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: As part of the Department of Health strategy The Health of the Nation, a systematic review of published and unpublished literature relating to the effectiveness of interventions in reducing accidental injury in the population aged 15-24 years was carried out. METHODS: The literature was reviewed under the standard setting headings of road, work, home, and sports and leisure, and graded for quality of evidence and strength of recommendation using a scale published in the UK national epidemiologically based needs assessment programme. RESULTS: The most effective measures appear to be legislative and regulatory controls in road, sport, and workplace settings. Environmental engineering measures on the road and in sports have relatively low implementation costs and result in fewer injuries at all ages. There is little evidence that purely educational measures reduced injuries in the short term. Community based approaches may be effective in all age groups, and incentives to encourage safer behaviour hold promise but require further evaluation. The potential of multifactorial approaches seems greater than narrowly based linear approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Few interventions to reduce injury in adolescents have been rigorously evaluated using good quality randomised controlled trials, and where such evidence is available, fewer have been shown to be definitely worthwhile. Many studies relied on surrogate measures rather than actual injury rates, and substantial issues relating to the efficacy or implementation of preventive measures in adolescent and young adult populations remain unresolved. PMID:9346041

Munro, J.; Coleman, P.; Nicholl, J.; Harper, R.; Kent, G.; Wild, D.

1995-01-01

246

Relaxed selection against accidental binding of transcription factors with conserved chromatin contexts.  

PubMed

The spurious (or nonfunctional) binding of transcription factors (TF) to the wrong locations on DNA presents a formidable challenge to genomes given the relatively low ceiling for sequence complexity within the short lengths of most binding motifs. The high potential for the occurrence of random motifs and subsequent nonfunctional binding of many transcription factors should theoretically lead to natural selection against the occurrence of spurious motif throughout the genome. However, because of the active role that chromatin can influence over eukaryotic gene regulation, it may also be expected that many supposed spurious binding sites could escape purifying selection if (A) they simply occur in regions of high nucleosome occupancy or (B) their surrounding chromatin was dynamically involved in their identity and function. We compared nucleosome occupancy and the presence/absence of functionally conserved chromatin context to the strength of selection against spurious binding of various TF binding motifs in Saccharomyces yeast. While we find no direct relationship with nucleosome occupancy, we find strong evidence that transcription factors spatially associated with evolutionarily conserved chromatin states are under relaxed selection against accidental binding. Transcription factors (with/without) a conserved chromatin context were found to occur on average, (87.7%/49.3%) of their expected frequencies. Functional binding motifs with conserved chromatin contexts were also significantly shorter in length and more often clustered. These results indicate a role of chromatin context dependency in relaxing selection against spurious binding in nearly half of all TF binding motifs throughout the yeast genome. PMID:20637845

Babbitt, G A

2010-10-15

247

Comparison of artificial and accidental laser-induced macular scotomas on human contrast sensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of human laser eye damage may be modeled by stabilizing a small portion of the visual field on the retina. We compared the effects of such artificial scotomas with accidental human laser induced retinal damage on contrast and recognition sensitivity. Horizontal and vertical output voltages from a purkinje eye-tracker controlled video generated scotomas. Contrast sensitivity functions were obtained with focal acuity targets ranging in spatial frequency from 0.5 to 20 cycles/degree. Target vehicular recognition functions were obtained for larger targets and restricted size range. Artificial scotoma effects demonstrated uniform loss in contrast sensitivity in the presence of central scotomas; paracentral scotomas had minimal effects beyond 10 cycles/degree but were effective from 0.5 to 10 cycles/degree. Similar results were obtained for vehicular recognition sensitivity functions. On the other hand, patient macular injuries resulted in greater suppression of the contrast sensitivity function regardless of whether injury was foveal or parafoveal. Secondary laser induced damage such as scar formation, traction or retinal nerve fiber layer injury may mediate high spatial frequency as well as low spatial frequency loss. The uniform suppression of contrast sensitivity may involve selection of a superior retinal site with an ocular motor component to fine tune the search for remaining `islands' of high photoreceptor density. Such high density photoreceptor patches may serve as a pseudo fovea, if laser induced secondary damage effects are minimal.

Zwick, Harry; Ness, James W.; Molchany, Jerome W.; Stuck, Bruce E.

1996-04-01

248

[Accidental decrease in the air flow during air/oxygen sevoflurane anesthesia].  

PubMed

We describe our experience of an accidental decrease in the air flow during air/oxygen sevoflurane anesthesia. According to the malfunction of an air compressor system, dehydration of the compressed air was inadequate, and the wet air was delivered to the anesthesia machine. The moisture was formed at a flow control valve to cause a gradual decrease in the air flow. The low-pressure alarm did not work at that time, because the pressure of the air supply was normal. There are two types of medical air, one is produced from the ambient air by air compressor system and another is the synthetic air which is a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen. Although the synthetic air is always dry and clean, the former contains dust, bacteria, and moisture. There is a possibility that all of these particles cannot be excluded before use. Accordingly, we must check the air compressor system routinely when a source of the compressed air is used. PMID:10885247

Okuyama, M; Nakamura, I; Kemmotsu, O

2000-06-01

249

New tracers identify hydraulic fracturing fluids and accidental releases from oil and gas operations.  

PubMed

Identifying the geochemical fingerprints of fluids that return to the surface after high volume hydraulic fracturing of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs has important applications for assessing hydrocarbon resource recovery, environmental impacts, and wastewater treatment and disposal. Here, we report for the first time, novel diagnostic elemental and isotopic signatures (B/Cl, Li/Cl, ?11B, and ?7Li) useful for characterizing hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids (HFFF) and distinguishing sources of HFFF in the environment. Data from 39 HFFFs and produced water samples show that B/Cl (>0.001), Li/Cl (>0.002), ?11B (25-31‰) and ?7Li (6-10‰) compositions of HFFF from the Marcellus and Fayetteville black shale formations were distinct in most cases from produced waters sampled from conventional oil and gas wells. We posit that boron isotope geochemistry can be used to quantify small fractions (?0.1%) of HFFF in contaminated fresh water and likely be applied universally to trace HFFF in other basins. The novel environmental application of this diagnostic isotopic tool is validated by examining the composition of effluent discharge from an oil and gas brine treatment facility in Pennsylvania and an accidental spill site in West Virginia. We hypothesize that the boron and lithium are mobilized from exchangeable sites on clay minerals in the shale formations during the hydraulic fracturing process, resulting in the relative enrichment of boron and lithium in HFFF. PMID:25327769

Warner, N R; Darrah, T H; Jackson, R B; Millot, R; Kloppmann, W; Vengosh, A

2014-11-01

250

Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A zero-refractive-index metamaterial is one in which waves do not experience any spatial phase change, and such a peculiar material has many interesting wave-manipulating properties. These materials can in principle be realized using man-made composites comprising metallic resonators or chiral inclusions, but metallic components have losses that compromise functionality at high frequencies. It would be highly desirable if we could achieve a zero refractive index using dielectrics alone. Here, we show that by employing accidental degeneracy, dielectric photonic crystals can be designed and fabricated that exhibit Dirac cone dispersion at the centre of the Brillouin zone at a finite frequency. In addition to many interesting properties intrinsic to a Dirac cone dispersion, we can use effective medium theory to relate the photonic crystal to a material with effectively zero permittivity and permeability. We then numerically and experimentally demonstrate in the microwave regime that such dielectric photonic crystals with reasonable dielectric constants manipulate waves as if they had near-zero refractive indices at and near the Dirac point frequency.

Huang, Xueqin; Lai, Yun; Hang, Zhi Hong; Zheng, Huihuo; Chan, C. T.

2011-08-01

251

Accidental cloning of a single-photon qubit in two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation  

SciTech Connect

The information encoded in the polarization of a single photon can be transferred to a remote location by two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation. However, the finite entanglement used in the teleportation causes random changes in photon number. If more than one photon appears in the output, the continuous-variable teleportation accidentally produces clones of the original input photon. In this paper, we derive the polarization statistics of the N-photon output components and show that they can be decomposed into an optimal cloning term and completely unpolarized noise. We find that the accidental cloning of the input photon is nearly optimal at experimentally feasible squeezing levels, indicating that the loss of polarization information is partially compensated by the availability of clones.

Ide, Toshiki; Hofmann, Holger F. [Okayama Institute for Quantum Physics, 1-9-1 Kyoyama, Okayama City, Okayama, 700-0015 (Japan); JST-CREST, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan)

2007-06-15

252

[An accidental intra-arterial injection of midazolam through a 3-way stopcock in an arterial flushing system].  

PubMed

Midazolam 5 mg (1 mg/ml) was accidentally injected intra-arterially into an intubated patient who was being transferred from the intensive care unit (ICU) to an operating room. No adverse effects were observed. To our knowledge, this is the first published case of intra-arterial administration of midazolam; whether this is generally harmless remains, therefore, an open question. Midazolam was injected through a 3-way stopcock in a manometer connecting tube. Three-way stopcocks in arterial lines are dangerous because of the risk of accidental intra-arterial injections. A careful preoperative check including the intravascular catheters is necessary in every patient, especially those being transferred from the ICU to an operating room. PMID:2375491

Marsch, S C; Schäfer, H G

1990-06-01

253

An accidental intra-arterial injection of thiopental on the dorsum of the foot--a case report.  

PubMed

Since its maiden clinical use decades back, innumerable instances of accidental intra-arterial injection of the drug have been reported mostly in the upper extremities. We report an accidental intra-arterial injection of thiopental into one of the tributaries of the arterial arch of the dorsum of the foot, but timely and prompt treatment with lidocaine and heparin together with leg rising prevented a gangrenous episode of the extremity and resulted in an uneventful recovery. This report emphasizes the importance of extreme caution while cannulating the veins on the dorsum of the foot. Attention should be focused on the patient's reactions, the feeling of an intense pain and withdrawal of the leg during injection so that timely therapeutic measures are undertaken and the sad episode is prevented. PMID:15148696

Khan, Zahid Hussain; Noorbaksh, Shahram

2004-03-01

254

Successful thrombolysis and spasmolysis of acute leg ischemia after accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets.  

PubMed

A 37-year-old man with known intravenous drug abuse presented in the surgical ambulatory care unit with acute leg ischemia after accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets into the right femoral artery. A combination of anticoagulation, vasodilatation, and local selective and superselective thrombolysis with urokinase was performed to salvage the leg. As a result of the severe ischemia-induced pain, the patient had to be monitored over the complete therapy period on the intensive care unit with permanent administration of intravenous fluid and analgetics. We describe the presenting symptoms and the interventional technique, and we discuss the recent literature regarding the management of accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets. PMID:21553163

Radeleff, B; Stampfl, U; Sommer, C-M; Bellemann, N; Hyhlik-Duerr, A; Weber, M-A; Boeckler, D; Kauczor, H-U

2011-10-01

255

Successful Thrombolysis and Spasmolysis of Acute Leg Ischemia after Accidental Intra-arterial Injection of Dissolved Flunitrazepam Tablets  

SciTech Connect

A 37-year-old man with known intravenous drug abuse presented in the surgical ambulatory care unit with acute leg ischemia after accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets into the right femoral artery. A combination of anticoagulation, vasodilatation, and local selective and superselective thrombolysis with urokinase was performed to salvage the leg. As a result of the severe ischemia-induced pain, the patient had to be monitored over the complete therapy period on the intensive care unit with permanent administration of intravenous fluid and analgetics. We describe the presenting symptoms and the interventional technique, and we discuss the recent literature regarding the management of accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets.

Radeleff, B., E-mail: Boris_radeleff@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Stampfl, U.; Sommer, C.-M.; Bellemann, N. [University of Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Hyhlik-Duerr, A. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany); Weber, M.-A. [University of Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Boeckler, D. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany); Kauczor, H.-U. [University of Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

2011-10-15

256

People are more likely to be insincere when they are more likely to accidentally tell the truth.  

PubMed

Although people lie often, and mostly for self-serving reasons, they do not lie as much as they could. The "fudge factor" hypothesis suggests that one reason for people not to lie is that they do not wish to self-identify as liars. Accordingly, self-serving lies should be more likely when they are less obvious to the liars themselves. Here we show that the likelihood of self-serving lies increases with the probability of accidentally telling the truth. Players in our game could transmit sincere or insincere recommendations to their competitors. In line with the fudge factor hypothesis, players lied when their beliefs were based on flimsy evidence and did not lie when their beliefs were based on solid evidence. This is the first demonstration of a new moral hypocrisy paradox: People are more likely to be insincere when they are more likely to accidentally tell the truth. PMID:23806005

Leblois, Sylvie; Bonnefon, Jean-François

2013-08-01

257

Reducing the loss of vaccines from accidental freezing in the cold chain: The experience of continuous temperature monitoring in Tunisia.  

PubMed

Accidental freezing of vaccines is a growing threat and a real risk for national immunization programs when the potency of many vaccines can be compromised if these are exposed to sub-zero temperatures in the cold chain. In Tunisia, this issue is compounded by using sub-standard domestic cold chain equipment instead of equipping the program with medical refrigerators designed specifically for storing vaccines and temperature sensitive pharmaceuticals. Against this backdrop, this paper presents the findings of a demonstration project conducted in Tunisia in 2012 that tested the impact of introducing several freeze prevention solutions to mitigate the risk of accidental freezing of vaccines. The main finding is that, despite the continued use of underperforming domestic refrigerators, continuous temperature monitoring using new technologies combined with other technological interventions significantly reduced the prevalence of accidental exposure to freezing temperatures. These improvements were noticed for cold chain storage at regional, district and health center levels, and during the transport legs that were part of the demonstration conducted in the regions of Kasserine in the South-Eastern part of Tunisia. Subsequent to introducing these freeze prevention solutions, the incidence of freeze alarms was reduced and the percent of time the temperatures dropped below the 2°C recommended threshold. The incidence of freeze alarms at health center level was reduced by 40%. Lastly, the solutions implemented reduced risk of freezing during transport from 13.8% to 1.7%. Although the solution implemented is not optimal in the longer term because domestic refrigerators are used extensively in district stores and health centers, the risk of accidental freezing is significantly reduced by introducing the practice of continuous temperature monitoring as a standard. The management of the cold chain equipment was strengthened as a result which helps protect the potency of vaccines to the areas of most difficult access. PMID:25444810

Lloyd, John; Lydon, Patrick; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Zaffran, Michel

2015-02-11

258

Reducing the loss of vaccines from accidental freezing in the cold chain: The experience of continuous temperature monitoring in Tunisia  

PubMed Central

Accidental freezing of vaccines is a growing threat and a real risk for national immunization programs when the potency of many vaccines can be compromised if these are exposed to sub-zero temperatures in the cold chain. In Tunisia, this issue is compounded by using sub-standard domestic cold chain equipment instead of equipping the program with medical refrigerators designed specifically for storing vaccines and temperature sensitive pharmaceuticals. Against this backdrop, this paper presents the findings of a demonstration project conducted in Tunisia in 2012 that tested the impact of introducing several freeze prevention solutions to mitigate the risk of accidental freezing of vaccines. The main finding is that, despite the continued use of underperforming domestic refrigerators, continuous temperature monitoring using new technologies combined with other technological interventions significantly reduced the prevalence of accidental exposure to freezing temperatures. These improvements were noticed for cold chain storage at regional, district and health center levels, and during the transport legs that were part of the demonstration conducted in the regions of Kasserine in the South-Eastern part of Tunisia. Subsequent to introducing these freeze prevention solutions, the incidence of freeze alarms was reduced and the percent of time the temperatures dropped below the 2 °C recommended threshold. The incidence of freeze alarms at health center level was reduced by 40%. Lastly, the solutions implemented reduced risk of freezing during transport from 13.8% to 1.7%. Although the solution implemented is not optimal in the longer term because domestic refrigerators are used extensively in district stores and health centers, the risk of accidental freezing is significantly reduced by introducing the practice of continuous temperature monitoring as a standard. The management of the cold chain equipment was strengthened as a result which helps protect the potency of vaccines to the areas of most difficult access. PMID:25444810

Lloyd, John; Lydon, Patrick; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Zaffran, Michel

2015-01-01

259

Classical Conditioning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

!!Classical Conditioning!! Classical conditioning is the use of Pavlovian conditioning procedures where a neutral stimulus becomes capable of evoking a response through pairing with an unconditioned stimulus. Click the link below to get an introduction into classical conditioning. Introduction to Classical Conditioning Now that you\\'ve been introduced to classical conditioning, view the clip at the link below, ...

Mrs. Palacios, Miss Miller, Mr. Rowser

2008-04-01

260

[Therapeutic regional anesthesia following an accidental intra-arterial injection. A case report on anesthesiologic care following incorrect injection of Reparil (sodium escinate)].  

PubMed

Symptomatology and therapeutic measures after accidental brachial intra-arterial injection of sodium escinate were explained by means of a case report. We obtained long-acting analgesia and sympathicolysis in the upper extremity by an anaesthesia of the ganglion stellatum followed by repeated interscalene plexus brachialis blockade. Even in very severe cases of accidental intra-arterial drug injection surgical procedures should be accompanied with therapeutic regional anaesthesia technics. PMID:6650803

Abel, M; Salm, R; Goth, D

1983-10-01

261

The Quest for an Intermediate-Scale Accidental Axion and Further ALPs  

E-print Network

The recent detection of the cosmic microwave background polarimeter experiment BICEP2 of tensor fluctuations in the B-mode power spectrum basically excludes all plausible axion models where its decay constant is above $10^{13}$ GeV. Moreover, there are strong theoretical, astrophysical, and cosmological motivations for models involving, in addition to the axion, also axion-like particles (ALPs), with decay constants in the intermediate scale range, between $10^9$ GeV and $10^{13}$ GeV. Here, we present a general analysis of models with an axion and further ALPs and derive bounds on the relative size of the axion and ALP photon (and electron) coupling. We discuss what we can learn from measurements of the axion and ALP photon couplings about the fundamental parameters of the underlying ultraviolet completion of the theory. For the latter we consider extensions of the Standard Model in which the axion and the ALP(s) appear as pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons from the breaking of global chiral $U(1)$ (Peccei-Quinn (PQ)) symmetries, occuring accidentally as low energy remnants from exact discrete symmetries. In such models, the axion and the further ALP are protected from disastrous explicit symmetry breaking effects due to Planck-scale suppressed operators. The scenarios considered exploit heavy right handed neutrinos getting their mass via PQ symmetry breaking and thus explain the small mass of the active neutrinos via a seesaw relation between the electroweak and an intermediate PQ symmetry breaking scale. We show some models that can accommodate simultaneously an axion dark matter candidate, an ALP explaining the anomalous transparency of the universe for $\\gamma$-rays, and an ALP explaining the recently reported 3.55 keV gamma line from galaxies and clusters of galaxies, if the respective decay constants are of intermediate scale.

A. G. Dias; A. C. B. Machado; C. C. Nishi; A. Ringwald; P. Vaudrevange

2014-06-09

262

Assessment of long-term health risks after accidental exposure using haemoglobin adducts of epichlorohydrin.  

PubMed

On September 9th, 2002, two goods trains collided in Bad Münder, Lower Saxony, causing the release of more than 40 metric tonnes of epichlorohydrin (1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane) into the environment. A human biomonitoring study was performed to evaluate the accidental exposure to epichlorohydrin and to assess the possible long-term, i.e. carcinogenic health effects. This was done on the basis of a biochemical effect monitoring using the N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)valine and the N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)valine haemoglobin adducts of epichlorohydrin in blood to respond to missing ambient monitoring immediately after the crash. N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)valine adduct levels above the LOQ (25 pmol/g globin) ranged from 32.0 to 116.4 pmol/g globin in 6 out of 628 samples. The N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)valine adduct was not detected above the LOD (10 pmol/g globin) in any of the blood samples. Based on the quantified N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)valine adduct values, the body doses after two days of exposure were estimated to be in the range of 1.7-6.2 nmol/kg body weight. The reverse estimation of the external exposure leads to cumulative additional lifetime cancer risks ranging from 2.61×10(-8) to 9.48×10(-8). The estimated excess lifetime cancer risks have to be assessed as extremely low. Our biomonitoring study facilitated the dialogue between individuals and groups concerned and authorities, because suspected or occurred exposures and risks to human health could be quantified and interpreted in a sound manner. PMID:25072144

Wollin, Klaus-Michael; Bader, Michael; Müller, Michael; Lilienblum, Werner; Csicsaky, Michael

2014-12-15

263

Atmospheric dispersion of ammonia accidentally released from the 242-A Evaporator, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

Two errors have been identified in the authorization basis for the 242-A Evaporator at the Hanford Site. These errors, which appear in the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Final Safety Analysis Report analysis of ammonia gas concentrations accidentally released from the 242-A Evaporator, are: (1) the vessel ventilation system flow rate used in the previous calculations is a factor of ten higher than the actual flow rate, and (2) the previous calculations did not account for the ammonia source term reduction that would occur via condensation of ammonia vapors, which will remove a large fraction of the ammonia from the exhaust gas stream. The purpose of this document is to correct these errors and recalculate the maximum ground-level concentrations of ammonia released to the environment as a result of potential errors in blending Evaporator feed. The errors offset each other somewhat, so it is unlikely that the 242-A Evaporator has operated outside its current authorization basis. However, the errors must be corrected and the results incorporated into a revision of the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Safety Analysis Report, WHC-SD-WM-SAR-023. An EPA-approved atmospheric dispersion model, SCREEN3, was used to recalculate the maximum ground-level concentrations of ammonia that would be released from the 242-A Evaporator as a result of a feed-blending error. The results of the re-analysis of the 242-A Evaporator`s ammonia release scenario are as follows. The onsite receptor 100 m away from the release point (242-A vessel vent stack) is projected to be exposed to a maximum ground-level concentration of ammonia of 8.3 ppm. The maximally-exposed offsite receptor, located at the nearest Hanford Site boundary 16 km away from the 242-A vessel vent stack, will be exposed to a maximum ground-level concentration of 0.11 ppm ammonia.

Daling, P.M.; Lavender, J.C.

1997-11-01

264

Impact of delirium and suture-less securement on accidental vascular catheter removal in the ICU.  

PubMed

The objectives were to describe the incidence of accidental vascular catheter removal (AVCR) in an Australian Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and evaluate whether the fixation method or patient delirium increased the risk of AVCR. This prospective observational study was based in a tertiary level ICU between April 2011 and October 2012. All vascular catheters were secured either by sutures or by a suture-less securement device (STATLOCK(™), Bard Medical, Covington, GA, USA) as per the treating clinician. Data were obtained from bedside nursing staff, with daily screening for delirium completed by the ICU medical team using the Confusion Assessment Method-ICU. 2361 patients were admitted during this period with 1032 patients screened and data available for 322 patients (452 vascular catheters). AVCR occurred in 15 patients (16 vascular catheters) (5.0%) with an incidence of AVCR of 2.77 per 100 catheter-days. Delirious patients were 13-fold more likely to have an AVCR event (odds ratio=13.3; 95% confidence interval 4.36, 40.52; P <0.0001). There was a non-significant trend to an increase in AVCR when using the suture-less securement device (odds ratio=2.6; 95% confidence interval 0.87, 7.8; P=0.09) but delirious patients were no more likely to have an AVCR episode when a suture-less securement device was used (P=0.95). In this study the use of suture-less securement did not seem to increase the risk of AVCR. However, there was a non-significant trend towards increased AVCR when using suture-less securement devices, which may reflect a ß error. PMID:24967762

Sundararajan, K; Wills, S; Chacko, B; Kanabar, G; O'Connor, S; Deane, A M

2014-07-01

265

Assessment of methodologies for analysis of the dungeness B accidental aircraft crash risk.  

SciTech Connect

The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has requested Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to review the aircraft crash methodology for nuclear facilities that are being used in the United Kingdom (UK). The scope of the work included a review of one method utilized in the UK for assessing the potential for accidental airplane crashes into nuclear facilities (Task 1) and a comparison of the UK methodology against similar International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) methods (Task 2). Based on the conclusions from Tasks 1 and 2, an additional Task 3 would provide an assessment of a site-specific crash frequency for the Dungeness B facility using one of the other methodologies. This report documents the results of Task 2. The comparison of the different methods was performed for the three primary contributors to aircraft crash risk at the Dungeness B site: airfield related crashes, crashes below airways, and background crashes. The methods and data specified in each methodology were compared for each of these risk contributors, differences in the methodologies were identified, and the importance of these differences was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. The bases for each of the methods and the data used were considered in this assessment process. A comparison of the treatment of the consequences of the aircraft crashes was not included in this assessment because the frequency of crashes into critical structures is currently low based on the existing Dungeness B assessment. Although the comparison found substantial differences between the UK and the three alternative methodologies (IAEA, NRC, and DOE) this assessment concludes that use of any of these alternative methodologies would not change the conclusions reached for the Dungeness B site. Performance of Task 3 is thus not recommended.

LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Hansen, Clifford W.

2010-09-01

266

NAPL migration and ecotoxicity of conventional and renewable fuels in accidental spill scenarios.  

PubMed

Fuels derived from non-petroleum renewable resources have raised interest due to their potential in replacing petroleum-based fuels, but information on their fate and effects in the terrestrial and aquatic environments in accidental spill scenario is limited. In this study, migration of four fuels (conventional diesel, conventional gasoline, renewable diesel NExBTL, and ethanol-blended gasoline RE85 containing maximum 85% ethanol) as non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) in soil was demonstrated in a laboratory-scale experiment. Ecotoxicity data was produced for the same fuels. There was no significant difference in migration of conventional and renewable diesel, but gasoline migrated 1.5 times deeper and 7-9 times faster in sand than diesel. RE85 spread horizontally wider but not as deep (p?

Malk, Vuokko; Barreto Tejera, Eduardo; Simpanen, Suvi; Dahl, Mari; Mäkelä, Riikka; Häkkinen, Jani; Kiiski, Anna; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka

2014-08-01

267

Appendix: Additional Contributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of contributions to the Symposium was so high that only the review and invited talks have found place, in the form of articles, in this volume. This Appendix lists all these additional contributions (oral and posters) which are not present as articles. The abstracts of all contributions were published in a booklet produced by the Local Organizing Committee and are available at the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS). More information on these contributions (PowerPoint presentations and/or articles) have been made public in the Internet web site of the conference (http://cab.inta-csic.es/molecular_universe/).

2011-12-01

268

Accidental injection of a U.S. Air Force aviator by a pralidoxime chloride auto-injector: a case report.  

PubMed

To counter the threat of organophosphate nerve agents, military personnel may be issued auto-injectors containing pralidoxime chloride. This drug helps to dephosphorylate the nerve agent-acetylcholinesterase complex and, thus, regenerate the enzyme. In non-poisoned persons, pralidoxime chloride is rapidly excreted by the kidneys and is fairly well tolerated. We present the first reported case of an accidental injection of an Air Force aviator by an auto-injector. The patient recovered well with no specific treatment needed. The pharmacology and toxicology of pralidoxime chloride are discussed. PMID:10608609

Yamane, G K

1999-11-01

269

Occupational induction of hypersensitivity after an accidental exposure to chloromethylisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone (CMI/MI) in an industrial worker.  

PubMed

A process worker in a paper chemical plant developed an immediate local dermal irritation and delayed bullous dermatitis due to induction of hypersensitivity following an accidental exposure to chloromethylisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone (CMI/MI) biocide. Contact allergy to the isothiazolinone mixture was confirmed by skin patch testing. The dermatitis healed in four weeks, and the worker was advised to avoid all CMI/MI containing products. In a one-year follow-up he did not present with any further skin symptoms. Preventive measures are important for avoiding induction of hypersensitivity to concentrated CMI/MI solutions in industrial workers. PMID:10451588

Kujala, V; Niinimäki, A

1999-01-01

270

A screening tool to prioritize public health risk associated with accidental or deliberate release of chemicals into the atmosphere.  

PubMed

The Chemical Events Working Group of the Global Health Security Initiative has developed a flexible screening tool for chemicals that present a risk when accidentally or deliberately released into the atmosphere. The tool is generic, semi-quantitative, independent of site, situation and scenario, encompasses all chemical hazards (toxicity, flammability and reactivity), and can be easily and quickly implemented by non-subject matter experts using freely available, authoritative information. Public health practitioners and planners can use the screening tool to assist them in directing their activities in each of the five stages of the disaster management cycle. PMID:23517410

Blakey, David H; Lafontaine, Marc; Lavigne, Jocelyn; Sokolowski, Danny; Philippe, Jean-Marc; Sapori, Jean-Marc; Biederbick, Walter; Horre, Regine; Marzi, Willi B; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Kuroki, Yumiko; Namera, Akira; Okumura, Tetsu; Yamamoto, Miyako; Yashiki, Mikio; Blain, Peter G; Russell, David R; Cibulsky, Susan M; Jett, David A

2013-01-01

271

A mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I of the project: early effects of inhaled radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

The report presents a mathematical model for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included.

Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.

1980-06-01

272

Model-Independent Analysis of Tri-bimaximal Mixing: A Softly-Broken Hidden or an Accidental Symmetry?  

SciTech Connect

To address the issue of whether tri-bimaximal mixing (TBM) is a softly-broken hidden or an accidental symmetry, we adopt a model-independent analysis in which we perturb a neutrino mass matrix leading to TBM in the most general way but leave the three texture zeros of the diagonal charged lepton mass matrix unperturbed. We compare predictions for the perturbed neutrino TBM parameters with those obtained from typical SO(10) grand unified theories with a variety of flavor symmetries. Whereas SO(10) GUTs almost always predict a normal mass hierarchy for the light neutrinos, TBM has a priori no preference for neutrino masses. We find, in particular for the latter, that the value of |U{sub e3}| is very sensitive to the neutrino mass scale and ordering. Observation of |U{sub e3}|{sup 2} > 0.001 to 0.01 within the next few years would be incompatible with softly-broken TBM and a normal mass hierarchy and would suggest that the apparent TBM symmetry is an accidental symmetry instead. No such conclusions can be drawn for the inverted and quasi-degenerate hierarchy spectra.

Albright, Carl H.; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab; Rodejohann, Werner; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst.

2008-04-01

273

Foreign body ingestion in children: case series, review of the literature and guidelines on minimising accidental ingestions.  

PubMed

Foreign body ingestion in young children is one of the commonest presentations in the Accident and Emergency Department. It has been estimated that 40% of such ingestions may go unnoticed and the child may remain asymptomatic. However, complications can arise which may need urgent medical attention. Unwitnessed cases can delay the diagnosis as foreign bodies may remain in the oesophagus or stomach for a significant period of time causing non-specific symptoms. An index of suspicion is needed amongst primary and secondary health care practitioners to manage these cases early. Prevention of ingestion in the first place is the key to avoiding such accidents in children. Health visitors and the primary health team can play a significant role in advising parents or carers on how to make the home a safe environment for their child. Adult supervision is of the utmost importance in preschool children while playing with toys and other household objects. We present four cases of accidental ingestion of a foreign body, two of which were reportedly unwitnessed by the carers. Each case carries a lesson for prevention. We discuss clinical aspects of foreign body ingestion in children and provide some guidelines to minimise the risk of accidental ingestions that primary health care professionals can discuss with parents and carers during home visits. Health educational resources for parents and clinics are suggested. PMID:21319673

Paul, Siba Prosad; Hawes, Dorothy; Taylor, Timothy M

2010-01-01

274

Impact assessment of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accidental emission on the Barents Sea ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traces of emissions from the Fukushima-1 NPP in atmospheric aerosols of the Kola Peninsula near the Barents Sea coast were detected by radiation monitoring stations of the Murmansk Division of the Hydrometeorological Survey MDHMS in the end of March 2011. From the end of March 2011 until April 20, 131I, 134Cs, 132Te, 137Cs radioisotopes were observed in the atmospheric air. The major role was played by 131I isotope; its peak concentrations were (140-220)×10-6 Bq/m3, and it was recorded for several days (March 30-April 1), then radioactivity decreased. 134Cs, 132Te, and 137Cs isotopes were recorded episodically. The supply of radionuclides from accidental emissions into the atmosphere of the Kola Peninsula did not cause significant changes in gamma-radiation dose rates EDR. This value remained within the limits of the average long-term norm, and continued so during the following months 2011. Possible dry and humid precipitation of radionuclides within the water catchment area and in the marine basin did not influence on radioecological state in both coastal and off-shore parts of the Barents Sea. Short-lived isotopes as 131I, 134Cs, and 132Te, which might confidently indicate a trace from the Fukushima-1 NPP, have not been recorded in the samples. In 2011-1012 volumetric activity of 137Cs and 90Sr in water of the Barents Sea (section VI along the meridian 33° 30' N) varied in the range of 1.3-2.5 and 3.4-6.3 Bq/m3, respectively. Radioactive contamination of bottom sediments in the Barents Sea was very low. The specific activity of 137Cs varied from 1 to 8 Bq/kg, the activity of 90Sr did not exceed 4 Bq/kg. Investigations of macrophyte algae showed extremely low concentrations of artificial radionuclides. The specific activity of 137Cs in most samples was at the level of trace concentrations, from 0.2 to 1.5 Bq/kg of dry mass. The content of 90Sr in algae changed in the range of 0.4-4.1 Bq/kg of dry mass. In soft tissues of bivalves Mytilus edulis collected on littoral of bays, the specific activity of 137Cs did not exceed the trace quantity as well (less than 0.5 Bq/kg of raw mass). The latest radioecological studies of the Barents Sea commercial fish showed that all investigated species (such as Atlantic cod, long rough dab, spotted wolffish) contain less than 0.2 Bq/kg of 137Cs. Thus spectrum of artificial radioisotopes and their radioactivity level in both abiotic and biotic components of the Barents Sea ecosystem have not changed after the Fukushima accident. Compared to the data of recent years, these characteristics are stable; within the background limits owing to the global circulation of radionuclides. This work was supported by the international project CEEPRA (project no. 01/2010/007/KO130) implemented within the frame of Kolarctic program.

Matishov, Gennady; Ilyin, Gennady; Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Usiagina, Irina; Pavelskaya, Elena

2013-04-01

275

Contributions of groundwater conditions to soil and water salinization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinization is the process whereby the concentration of dissolved salts in water and soil is increased due to natural or\\u000a human-induced processes. Water is lost through one or any combination of four main mechanisms: evaporation, evapotranspiration,\\u000a hydrolysis, and leakage between aquifers. Salinity increases from catchment divides to the valley floors and in the direction\\u000a of groundwater flow. Salinization is explained

Ramsis B. Salama; Claus J. Otto; Robert W. Fitzpatrick

1999-01-01

276

Contributions of groundwater conditions to soil and water salinization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinization is the process whereby the concentration of dissolved salts in water and soil is increased due to natural or human-induced processes. Water is lost through one or any combination of four main mechanisms: evaporation, evapotranspiration, hydrolysis, and leakage between aquifers. Salinity increases from catchment divides to the valley floors and in the direction of groundwater flow. Salinization is explained

Ramsis B. Salama; Claus J. Otto; Robert W. Fitzpatrick

1999-01-01

277

ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTIONS Genetic architecture of fear conditioning in chromosome  

E-print Network

of freezing behavior in response to the CS (Dexter and Merrill 1969; Fendt and Fanselow 1999; LeDoux 2000 was measured by observing freezing behavior during re-exposure to the context and tone. Freezing to context strains with higher (CSS-6, -10, -11, and -18) and two strains with lower (CSS-7 and -14) freezing

Gilad, Yoav

278

Contributions of groundwater conditions to soil and water salinization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinization is the process whereby the concentration of dissolved salts in water and soil is increased due to natural or human-induced processes. Water is lost through one or any combination of four main mechanisms: evaporation, evapotranspiration, hydrolysis, and leakage between aquifers. Salinity increases from catchment divides to the valley floors and in the direction of groundwater flow. Salinization is explained by two main chemical models developed by the authors: weathering and deposition. These models are in agreement with the weathering and depositional geological processes that have formed soils and overburden in the catchments. Five soil-change processes in arid and semi-arid climates are associated with waterlogging and water. In all represented cases, groundwater is the main geological agent for transmitting, accumulating, and discharging salt. At a small catchment scale in South and Western Australia, water is lost through evapotranspiration and hydrolysis. Saline groundwater flows along the beds of the streams and is accumulated in paleochannels, which act as a salt repository, and finally discharges in lakes, where most of the saline groundwater is concentrated. In the hummocky terrains of the Northern Great Plains Region, Canada and USA, the localized recharge and discharge scenarios cause salinization to occur mainly in depressions, in conjunction with the formation of saline soils and seepages. On a regional scale within closed basins, this process can create playas or saline lakes. In the continental aquifers of the rift basins of Sudan, salinity increases along the groundwater flow path and forms a saline zone at the distal end. The saline zone in each rift forms a closed ridge, which coincides with the closed trough of the groundwater-level map. The saline body or bodies were formed by evaporation coupled with alkaline-earth carbonate precipitation and dissolution of capillary salts. Résumé La salinisation est le processus par lequel la concentration des sels dissous dans l'eau et les sols s'accroît sous l'effet de processus naturels ou anthropiques. L'eau est perdue par l'une ou l'autre combinaison de quatre principaux mécanismes : l'évaporation, l'évapotranspiration, l'hydrolyse et la drainance entre aquifères. La salinité augmente depuis les limites des bassins jusqu'au fond des vallées et le long des axes d'écoulement souterrain. La salinisation est expliquée au moyen de deux principaux modèles chimiques développés par les auteurs : l'altération et le dépôt. Ces modèles sont en accord avec les processus géologiques d'altération et de dépôt qui ont formé les sols et qui recouvrent les bassins versants. Cinq processus d'évolution de sols sous climats aride et semi-aride sont associés à l'eau et à des formations aquifères. Dans tous les cas présentés, l'eau souterraine est le principal agent géologique qui transporte, accumule et dépose les sels. A l'échelle de petits bassins versants dans le sud et dans l'ouest de l'Australie, l'eau est consommée par évapotranspiration et par hydrolyse. L'eau souterraine salée coule le long des berges de rivières et s'accumule dans des paléochenaux, qui fonctionnent comme des zones de stockage de sels, et finalement s'écoule dans des lacs, où la plupart des eaux salées se concentrent. Dans les formations bosselées des grandes plaines du nord du Canada et des États-Unis, des scénarios d'alimentation et de décharge localisées conduisent la salinisation à se produire surtout dans les dépressions, en association avec la formation de sols et d'infiltrations salins. A l'échelle régionale dans les bassins fermés, ce processus peut être à l'origine de playas ou de lacs salés. Dans les aquifères continentaux des bassins de rift du Soudan, la salinité augmente le long des axes d'écoulement souterrain et forme ainsi une zone saline à leur extrémité. La zone saline de chaque rift constitue une crête, qui coïncide avec le creux piézométrique. Le ou les ensembles salins se sont formés par évaporation couplée

Salama, Ramsis B.; Otto, Claus J.; Fitzpatrick, Robert W.

279

Successful resuscitation of an elderly man with deep accidental hypothermia using portable extracorporeal circulation in the emergency department: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Deep accidental hypothermia (body temperature below 28°C) is rare and has a high mortality rate. Successful resuscitation usually occurs in the young, but a prompt intervention using a portable extracorporeal cardiopulmonary circulation device can also provide a good outcome for older persons. Case presentation We report the successful resuscitation of an 82-year-old male from deep accidental hypothermia using portable extracorporeal circulation in the emergency department. Conclusion This successful resuscitation of an 82-year-old patient demonstrates that a prompt intervention by a medical team that trains together, using a mobile cardiopulmonary bypass device via a percutaneous approach, can potentially provide good outcomes for all victims of deep accidental hypothermia, both in the operating suites and the emergency department. PMID:18471286

Cooper, Simone S; Papadimos, Thomas J; Campbell, Jeffery A; Cerilli, Gregory J; Omer, Shuab; Braida, Anthony L; Hassan, Ali M

2008-01-01

280

The effect of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug on two important predictors for accidental falls: postural balance and manual reaction time. A randomized, controlled pilot study.  

PubMed

Accidental falls in older individuals are a major health and research topic. Increased reaction time and impaired postural balance have been determined as reliable predictors for those at risk of falling and are important functions of the central nervous system (CNS). An essential risk factor for falls is medication exposure. Amongst the medications related to accidental falls are the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). About 1-10% of all users experience CNS side effects. These side effects, such as dizziness, headaches, drowsiness, mood alteration, and confusion, seem to be more common during treatment with indomethacin. Hence, it is possible that maintenance of (static) postural balance and swift reactions to stimuli are affected by exposure to NSAIDs, indomethacin in particular, consequently putting older individuals at a greater risk for accidental falls. The present study investigated the effect of a high indomethacin dose in healthy middle-aged individuals on two important predictors of falls: postural balance and reaction time. Twenty-two healthy middle-aged individuals (59.5 ± 4.7 years) participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover trial. Three measurements were conducted with a week interval each. A measurement consisted of postural balance as a single task and while concurrently performing a secondary cognitive task and reaction time tasks. For the first measurement indomethacin 75 mg (slow-release) or a visually identical placebo was randomly assigned. In total, five capsules were taken orally in the 2.5 days preceding assessment. The second measurement was without intervention, for the final one the first placebo group got indomethacin and vice versa. Repeated measures GLM revealed no significant differences between indomethacin, placebo, and baseline in any of the balance tasks. No differences in postural balance were found between the single and dual task conditions, or on the performance of the dual task itself. Similarly, no differences were found on the manual reaction time tasks. The present study showed that a high indomethacin dose does not negatively affect postural balance and manual reaction time in this healthy middle-aged population. Although the relatively small and young sample limits the direct ability to generalize the results to a population at risk of falling, the results indicate that indomethacin alone is not likely to increase fall risk, as far as this risk is related to above mentioned important functions of the CNS, and not affected by comorbidities. PMID:20708287

Hegeman, Judith; Nienhuis, Bart; van den Bemt, Bart; Weerdesteyn, Vivian; van Limbeek, Jacques; Duysens, Jacques

2011-04-01

281

Accidental migration of ASH-split catheter during central venous catheter replacement: retrieval using an interventional radiology approach.  

PubMed

Catheter fracture and embolization of the distal fragment are well-known complications of subclavian central venous long-term cannulation. In hemodialysis it is an exceptional event. We report a case of accidental rupture of a cuffed hemodialysis catheter with distal migration of a fragment during a procedure of catheter exchange via guide-wire. According to most reported cases, intravascular catheter separation usually occurs completely asymptomatically; our report confirms that catheter embolization itself is usually asymptomatic. Less than one third of the literature-reported cases have associated symptoms, such as palpitations or chest discomfort. Once diagnosed, treatment is an interventional radiological approach, which has a very high success rate. The replacement of permanent cuffed hemodialysis catheters via guide-wire is a delicate procedure and if catheter embolization is diagnosed, the patient must be referred to a center with specific experience in the retrieval of intravascular objects. PMID:17638263

Galli, S; Zollo, A; Cavatorta, F; Gazzo, P

2001-01-01

282

Symmetric Tamm-Dancoff q-oscillator: representation, quasi-Fibonacci nature, accidental degeneracy and coherent states  

E-print Network

In this paper we propose a symmetric q-deformed Tamm-Dancoff (S-TD) oscillator algebra and study its representation, coordinate realization, and main properties. In particular, the non-Fibonacci (more exactly, quasi-Fibonacci) nature of S-TD oscillator is established, the possibility of relating it to certain p,q-deformed oscillator family shown, the occurrence of the pairwise accidental degeneracy proven. We also find the coherent state for the S-TD oscillator and show that it satisfies completeness relation. Main advantage of the S-TD model over usual Tamm-Dancoff oscillator is that due to (qq^{-1})- symmetry it admits not only real, but also complex (phase-like) values of the deformation parameter q.

Won Sang Chung; A. M. Gavrilik; I. I. Kachurik; A. P. Rebesh

2014-06-12

283

The symmetric Tamm-Dancoff q-oscillator: the representation, quasi-Fibonacci nature, accidental degeneracy and coherent states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we propose a symmetric q-deformed Tamm-Dancoff (S-TD) oscillator algebra and study its representation, coordinate realization, and main properties. In particular, the non-Fibonacci (more exactly, quasi-Fibonacci) nature of the S-TD oscillator is established, the possibility of relating it to a certain p,q-deformed oscillator family is shown, and the occurrence of pairwise accidental degeneracy is proven. We also find the coherent state for the S-TD oscillator and show that it satisfies a completeness relation. The main advantage of the S-TD model over the usual Tamm-Dancoff oscillator is that due to the q\\leftrightarrow {{q}^{-1}} symmetry, it admits not only real, but also complex (phase-like) values of the deformation parameter q.

Chung, Won Sang; Gavrilik, A. M.; Kachurik, I. I.; Rebesh, A. P.

2014-08-01

284

Accidental overdosing with intraspinal morphine caused by misprogrammation of a Synchromed pump: a report of two cases.  

PubMed

Spinally administered opioids must be a last step in the therapeutical arsenal of chronic benigne pain. It is an invasive technique not free from adverse effects. Two chronic pain patients received an implantable Synchromed pump for treatment with spinal opiates after a trial period of resp. 3.5 and 5.5 months. Due to a misprogrammation (both on the same day) they received very high doses of spinal opiates. This caused relatively few side effects, which did not seem to require immediate treatment. A short time development of tolerance to life threatening side-effects has been proven by this accidental administration of high-dose intraspinal opiates. It is critical that care providers are knowledgeable and well-trained about implantable infusion systems. Programmation and refills must always be performed with care. PMID:9259873

Belmans, L; Van Buyten, J P; Vanduffel, L; Vueghs, P; Adriaensen, H

1997-01-01

285

Leg ischaemia in an infant following accidental intra-arterial administration of atracurium treated with caudal anaesthesia.  

PubMed

We describe the effects of accidental intra-arterial injection of suxamethonium and atracurium into the femoral artery of an infant. An 11-month-old boy with Downs Syndrome and obstructive sleep apnoea presented for tonsillectomy. Peripheral venous cannulation proved impossible. A femoral venous line was sited following inhalational induction of anaesthesia. Suxamethonium was given through this line and produced no adverse effect. Subsequently, atracurium was given through the line causing an instant cutaneous flush in the leg followed by a marked ischaemic appearance. The femoral line was assumed to be sited in the femoral artery and was removed. At the end of the operation a caudal injection of 10 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine was performed. Within 30 min there was marked vasodilation of both legs with easily felt peripheral pulses. In view of the tonsillectomy anticoagulant and thrombolytic therapy were contra-indicated. There were no adverse sequelae. PMID:9038455

Kessell, G; Barker, I

1996-12-01

286

Characterization of gaseous helium jet dispersion to atmosphere. [due to accidental loss of vacuum guard of superinsulated dewar shuttle payload  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major ground-based experiment to be performed for the Superfluid Helium On Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) program is the accidental loss of the vacuum guard of the super-insulated dewar. The design of the dewar vent-path requires adequate mass removal after a preset pressure is reached due to external heat transfer. The existing helium creates a turbulent buoyant jet, expanding in air with entrainment of the jet interface to the surrounding. Transient analysis is performed for axial and radial jet temperature prediction using the self-similarity assumption applied to mass, momentum, and the energy-balance equations of helium. The predicted jet temperature profiles with vertical and radial expansion up to 1.6 and 1.0 m, respectively, demonstrate the low temperature core established by gaseous helium. For all time steps, the axial and radial temperature predictions are observed to be within 8 and 20 percent, respectively.

Khan, H. J.; Figueroa, O.; Rhee, M.

1992-01-01

287

CONTRIBUTED Green Cloud Computing  

E-print Network

CONTRIBUTED P A P E R Green Cloud Computing: Balancing Energy in Processing, Storage, and Transport to energy consumption and cloud computing seems to be an alternative to office-based computing. By Jayant computing is rapidly expanding as an alternative to conventional office-based computing. As cloud computing

Tucker, Rod

288

Accidental cold-related injury leading to hospitalization in northern Sweden: an eight-year retrospective analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Cold injuries are rare but important causes of hospitalization. We aimed to identify the magnitude of cold injury hospitalization, and assess causes, associated factors and treatment routines in a subarctic region. Methods In this retrospective analysis of hospital records from the 4 northernmost counties in Sweden, cases from 2000-2007 were identified from the hospital registry by diagnosis codes for accidental hypothermia, frostbite, and cold-water drowning. Results were analyzed for pre-hospital site events, clinical events in-hospital, and complications observed with mild (temperature 34.9 - 32°C), moderate (31.9 - 28°C) and severe (<28°C), hypothermia as well as for frostbite and cold-water drowning. Results From the 362 cases, average annual incidences for hypothermia, frostbite, and cold-water drowning were estimated to be 3.4/100 000, 1.5/100 000, and 0.8/100 000 inhabitants, respectively. Annual frequencies for hypothermia hospitalizations increased by approximately 3 cases/year during the study period. Twenty percent of the hypothermia cases were mild, 40% moderate, and 24% severe. For 12%, the lowest documented core temperature was 35°C or higher, for 4% there was no temperature documented. Body core temperature was seldom measured in pre-hospital locations. Of 362 cold injury admissions, 17 (5%) died in hospital related to their injuries. Associated co-factors and co-morbidities included ethanol consumption, dementia, and psychiatric diagnosis. Conclusions The incidence of accidental hypothermia seems to be increasing in this studied sub-arctic region. Likely associated factors are recognized (ethanol intake, dementia, and psychiatric diagnosis). PMID:24460844

2014-01-01

289

Evolution of N-species Kimura/voter models towards criticality, a surrogate for general models of accidental pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In models for accidental pathogens, with the paradigmatic epidemiological system of bacterial meningitis, there was evolution towards states exhibiting critical fluctuations with power law behaviour observed [1]. This is a model with many possibly pathogenic strains essentially evolving independently to low pathogenicity. A first and previous study had shown that in the limit of vanishing pathogenicity there are critical fluctuations with power law distributions observed, already when only two strains interact [2]. This earlier version of a two strain model was very recently reinvestigated [3] and named as Stollenwerk-Jansen model (SJ). Muñoz et al. demonstrated that this two-strain model for accidental pathogens is in the universality class of the so-called voter model. Though this model clearly shows criticality, its control parameter, the pathogenicity, is not self-tuning towards criticality. However, the multi-strain version mentioned above [1] is well evolving towards criticality, as well as a spatially explicit version of this, shown in [4] p. 155. These models of multi-strain type including explicitly mutations of the pathogenicity can be called SJ-models of type II [5]. Since the original epidemiological model is of SIRYX-type, the evolution to zero pathogenicity is slow and perturbed by large population noise. In the present article we now show on the basis of the notion of the voter-model universality classes the evolution of n-voter models with mutaion towards criticality, now much less perturbed by population noise, hence demonstrating a clear mechanism of self-organized criticality in the sense of [6, 7]. The present results have wide implications for many diseases in which a large proportion of infections is asymptomatic, meaning that the system has already evolved towards an average low pathogenicity. This holds not only for the original paradigmatic case of bacterial meningitis, but was reecently also suggested for example for dengue fever (DENFREE project).

Ghaffari, Peyman; Stollenwerk, Nico

2012-09-01

290

Chronic Mycobacterium infection of first dorsal web space after accidental Bacilli Calmette-Guérin injection in a health worker: case report.  

PubMed

We present a case of inoculation of the first dorsal web space by a nurse practitioner who accidentally stuck herself while preparing Bacilli Calmette-Guérin vaccine for treatment of bladder tumor. We report the evolution and management of this resistant chronic Mycobacterium infection that ultimately required use of a vacuum wound management system followed by a microvascular free tissue transfer. PMID:18984347

Vigler, Mordechai; Mulett, Hanan; Hausman, Michael R

2008-11-01

291

Follow-Up Skeletal Surveys for Suspected Non-Accidental Trauma: Can a More Limited Survey Be Performed without Compromising Diagnostic Information?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Follow-up skeletal surveys have been shown to improve the rate of fracture detection in suspected cases of non-accidental trauma (NAT). As these studies are performed in a particularly radiosensitive population, it is important to evaluate if all of the (approximately 20) radiographs obtained at repeat skeletal survey are clinically…

Sonik, Arvind; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Rogers, Kristen K.; Coulter, Kevin P.; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.

2010-01-01

292

Prevention reference manual: chemical specific. Volume 1. Control of accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride (SCAQMD) (South Coast Air Quality Management District). Final report, May 1986-March 1987  

SciTech Connect

This manual summarizes technical information that will assist in identifying and controlling hydrogen fluoride release hazards specific to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) of southern California. The SCAQMD has considered a strategy for reducing the risk of a major accidental air release of toxic chemicals. The strategy includes monitoring the storage, handling, and use of certain chemicals and provides guidance to industry and communities. Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, a corrosive liquid that boils at room temperature, rapidly absorbs moisture to form highly corrosive hydrofluoric acid. Hydrogen fluoride gas has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 20 ppm, which makes it a substantial acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of hydrogen fluoride involves identifying some of the potential causes of accidental releases that apply to the processes that use hydrogen fluoride in the SCAQMD. The manual identifies examples of potential causes as well as measures that may be taken to reduce the accidental-release risk.

Davis, D.S.; DeWolf, G.B.; Quass, J.D.

1987-07-01

293

Prevention reference manual: chemical specific. Volume 1. Control of accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride (SCAQMD) (South Coast Air Quality Management District). Final report, May 1986March 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manual summarizes technical information that will assist in identifying and controlling hydrogen fluoride release hazards specific to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) of southern California. The SCAQMD has considered a strategy for reducing the risk of a major accidental air release of toxic chemicals. The strategy includes monitoring the storage, handling, and use of certain chemicals

D. S. Davis; G. B. DeWolf; J. D. Quass

1987-01-01

294

[Stellate ganglion block in the treatment of ischemic syndrome in an upper limb due to accidental intra-arterial injection of pharmacologic substances or narcotics].  

PubMed

The paper describes five cases of accidental intraarterial injection of pharmacological drugs (diazepam or thiopentone) or dope (heroin) in an upper limb. Following a review of the physiopathological mechanisms which led to ischemic damage, the Authors outline a protocol of continuous pharmacological sympathicolysis in the affected limb, using repeated anesthetic blocks of the homolateral stellate ganglion. PMID:2100323

De Gasperis, A; Cosimati, F; Lorenzetti, A; Rossini, P

1990-12-01

295

Chromosomal Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

... condition. Diagnostic tests include amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling . Your provider also can check your baby’s blood ... pregnancy exams like an amniocentesis, a chorionic villus sampling or an external cephalic version (when your provider ...

296

Avicenna's contribution to cardiology  

PubMed Central

Ibn Sina, known in the West as Avicenna, was the most famous and influential of all the Islamic philosopher-scientists. His most important medical works are the Canon of Medicine medical encyclopedia and a treatise on cardiac drugs. His Canon of Medicine remained the standard text in both the East and West until the 16th century. Avicenna's description of cardiac diseases was logically presented perhaps for the first time in the history of medicine. Avicenna was the first to describe carotid sinus hypersensitivity, which presents with vasovagal syncope. He was a pioneer in pulsology and the first correct explanation of pulsation was given by Avicenna, after he refined Galen's theory of the pulse. Besides, he discussed the action of available drugs on the heart in details and mentioned their indications and contraindications. In conclusion, Avicenna made important contributions to cardiology. This article describes some of his contributions in this field. PMID:24678465

Chamsi-Pasha, Mohammed A.R.; Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan

2014-01-01

297

Avicenna's contribution to cardiology.  

PubMed

Ibn Sina, known in the West as Avicenna, was the most famous and influential of all the Islamic philosopher-scientists. His most important medical works are the Canon of Medicine medical encyclopedia and a treatise on cardiac drugs. His Canon of Medicine remained the standard text in both the East and West until the 16(th) century. Avicenna's description of cardiac diseases was logically presented perhaps for the first time in the history of medicine. Avicenna was the first to describe carotid sinus hypersensitivity, which presents with vasovagal syncope. He was a pioneer in pulsology and the first correct explanation of pulsation was given by Avicenna, after he refined Galen's theory of the pulse. Besides, he discussed the action of available drugs on the heart in details and mentioned their indications and contraindications. In conclusion, Avicenna made important contributions to cardiology. This article describes some of his contributions in this field. PMID:24678465

Chamsi-Pasha, Mohammed A R; Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan

2014-01-01

298

PEAR - public exposure from accidental releases: software package EI-028-S86  

SciTech Connect

PEAR is a digital computer program developed to calculate radiation doses to an individual or population in the path of a plume of airborne radioactive materials released into the atmosphere following an accident at a nuclear facility. The code uses the methodology described in the CSA standard N288.2 Guidelines for calculation of radiation doses to the public from a release of airborne radioactive material under accident conditions in nuclear facilities. The code calculates internal and external dose equivalent (to organs and effective) and factors in the specific meteorological and topographical conditions of the site and the specific characteristics of the releases. It deals with 38 radionuclides and with mixtures of radioisotopes. The code is useful for the evaluation of the effects of postulated accidents (such as in the safety reports) and as a real time analysis tool for emergency planning exercises and actual accidents, should they occur. It is relatively easy to run as it is based on a strong interaction between the computer and the user and has easy access to data files.

Not Available

1988-01-01

299

Jesuits' Contribution to Meteorology.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting in the middle of the nineteenth century, as part of their scientific tradition, Jesuits founded a considerable number of meteorological observatories throughout the world. In many countries, Jesuits established and maintained the first meteorological stations during the period from 1860 to 1950. The Jesuits' most important contribution to atmospheric science was their pioneer work related to the study and forecast of tropical hurricanes. That research was carried out at observatories of Belén (Cuba), Manila (Philippines), and Zikawei (China). B. Viñes, M. Decheyrens, J. Aigué, and C.E. Deppermann stood out in this movement.

Udías, Agustín

1996-10-01

300

Conditional Probability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by the Department of Statistics at Yale University gives an explanation, a definition and an example of conditional probability. Topics include the probabilities of intersections of events and Bayes' formula. Overall, this is a great resource for any mathematics classroom studying statistics.

Lacey, Michelle

2008-12-23

301

Replacement of a quinone by a 5-O-acetylhydroquinone abolishes the accidental necrosis inducing effect while preserving the apoptosis-inducing effect of renieramycin M on lung cancer cells.  

PubMed

Renieramycin M (1), a bistetrahydroisoquinolinequinone alkaloid isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia sp., has been reported to possess promising anticancer effects. However, its accidental necrosis inducing effect has limited further development due to concerns of unwanted toxicity. The presence of two quinone moieties in its structure was demonstrated to induce accidental necrosis and increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Therefore, one quinone of 1 was modified to produce the 5-O-acetylated hydroquinone derivative (2), and 2 dramatically reduced the accidental necrosis inducing effect while preserving the apoptosis-inducing effect of parent 1 on lung cancer H23 cells. Addition of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine suppressed the accidental necrosis mediated by 1, suggesting that its accidental necrosis inducing effect was ROS-dependent. The fluorescent probe dihydroethidium revealed that the accidental necrosis mediated by 1 was due to its ability to generate intracellular superoxide anions. Interestingly, the remaining quinone in 2 was required for its cytotoxicity, as the 5,8,15,18-O-tetraacetylated bishydroquinone derivative (3) exhibited weak cytotoxicity compared to 1 and 2. The present study demonstrates a simple way to eliminate the undesired accidental necrosis inducing effect of substances that may be developed as improved anticancer drug candidates. PMID:23876104

Cheun-Arom, Thaniwan; Chanvorachote, Pithi; Sirimangkalakitti, Natchanun; Chuanasa, Taksina; Saito, Naoki; Abe, Ikuro; Suwanborirux, Khanit

2013-08-23

302

Revisiting soliton contributions to perturbative amplitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is often said that soliton contributions to perturbative processes in QFT are exponentially suppressed by a form factor. We provide a derivation of this form factor by studying the soliton-antisoliton pair production amplitude for a class of scalar theories with generic soliton moduli. This reduces to the calculation of a matrix element in the quantum mechanics on the soliton moduli space. We investigate the conditions under which the latter leads to suppression. Extending this framework to instanton-solitons in five-dimensional Yang-Mills theory leaves open the possibility that such contributions will not be suppressed.

Papageorgakis, Constantinos; Royston, Andrew B.

2014-09-01

303

Consequence analysis for accidental releases of toxic substances in a complex terrain with shoreline in Korea  

SciTech Connect

Offsite consequences resulting from various scenarios involving release of toxic substances in the Yochon Industrial Estate located in the Yosu Peninsula with complex terrain and intricate shorelines are estimated using ALOHA (Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres) and RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System). ALOHA analyses by assuming the worst-case release scenarios for selected chemicals in the worst-case and alternative meteorological conditions indicate the impact on several thousand people in the nearby area. RAMS simulation is performed in order to consider the influence of terrain and shoreline. Receptors behind the terrain, 5 to 6 km distant from the source, also show high concentration when the wind blows to the terrain as well as receptors in front of the terrain in the nearby area. With considering the diurnal variations of meteorological variables, it is predicted that complicated wind patterns with low speeds could cause high concentration over the entire area adjacent to the Estate.

Ghim, Y.S.; Oh, H.S.; Moon, K.C.

1999-07-01

304

Estimating outdoor and indoor dust lead levels from accidental bridge repair containment releases  

SciTech Connect

A 1998 New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) environmental impact statement (EIS) evaluated the proposed removal of deteriorated lead paint from NYCDOT-owned bridges. The EIS health risk assessment quantified the potential impact of particulate releases on blood lead levels among members of the public living and working near affected bridges. The risk assessment consisted of a fate and transport component and an exposure-dose component. The fate and transport component, modeled using the EPA's Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) model, calculated the impact of paint removal activities on ambient air lead concentrations and dust lead deposition rates. The exposure-dose component, modeled using EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model, the Bowers et al. Adult Lead model, and the O'Flaherty lead model, calculated the impact of additional lead in air, street dust, interior house dust, and soil on blood lead levels, a conventional measure of body lead burden. The analysis was complicated because the ISC3 model provides a dust lead deposition rate ({micro}g/m{sup 2}-day), while the IEUBK, Bowers et al., and O'Flaherty models demand as input specification of dust lead concentrations ({micro}g lead per g dust). This paper describes a model developed for the EIS that quantifies long term average dust lead concentrations associated with typical bridge containment releases, and short term dust lead concentration spikes following worst case release events associated with bridge repair containment structure failures. The model reflects the influence of both lead and other debris associated with bridge repair activities, the contribution of background debris to street dust, and the impact of rainfall on removal of both lead and other material from the street dust reservoir.

Cohen, J.T.; Conway, R.F.

1999-07-01

305

Incorporation of Therapeutic Interventions in Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Human Clinical Case Reports of Accidental or Intentional Overdosing with Ethylene Glycol  

SciTech Connect

Ethylene glycol is a high production volume chemical used in the manufacture of resins and fibers, antifreeze, deicing fluids, heat transfer and hydraulic fluids. Although occupational uses of ethylene glycol have not been associated with adverse effects, there are case reports where humans have either intentionally or accidentally ingested large quantities of ethylene glycol, primarily from antifreeze. The acute toxicity of ethylene glycol in humans and animals and can proceed through three stages, each associated with a different metabolite: central nervous system depression (ethylene glycol), cardiopulmonary effects associated with metabolic acidosis (glycolic acid) and ultimately renal toxicity (oxalic acid), depending upon the total amounts consumed and effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model developed in a companion paper (Corley et al., 2004) was refined in this study to include clinically relevant treatment regimens for ethylene glycol poisoning such as hemodialysis or metabolic inhibition with either ethanol or fomepizole. Such modifications enabled the model to describe several human case reports which included analysis of ethylene glycol and/or glycolic acid. Such data and model simulations provide important confirmation that the PBPK model developed previously can adequately describe the pharmacokinetics of ethylene glycol in humans following low, occupational or environmentally relevant inhalation exposures, as well as massive oral doses even under conditions where treatments have been employed that markedly affect the disposition of ethylene glycol and glycolic acid. By integrating the case report data sets with controlled studies in this PBPK model, it was demonstrated that fomepizole, if administered early enough in a clinical situation, can be more effective than ethanol or hemodialysis in preventing the metabolism of ethylene glycol to more toxic metabolites. Hemodialysis remains an important option, however, if treatment is instituted after a significant amount of EG is metabolized or if renal toxicity has occurred. The validated PBPK model was also used to compare internal dose surrogates associated with ethylene glycol toxicity in rats and humans. These simulations indicate that following occupational or environmental exposures, humans are unlikely to achieve blood levels of glycolic acid that have been associated with developmental toxicity in rats.

Corley, Rick A.; McMartin, K. E.

2005-05-16

306

A case study of chlorine transport and fate following a large accidental release  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A train derailment that occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina during the early morning hours of 06 January, 2005 resulted in the prompt release of approximately 60 tons of chlorine to the environment. Comprehensive modeling of the transport and fate of this release was performed including the characterization of the initial three-phased chlorine release, a detailed determination of the local atmospheric conditions acting to generate, disperse, and deplete the chlorine vapor cloud, the establishment of physical exchange mechanisms between the airborne vapor and local surface waters, and local aquatic dilution and mixing.Previous studies of large chlorine releases have concluded that depletion of the resulting vapor cloud through physical and chemical reactions with sunlight, atmospheric constituents, and local surfaces can significantly reduce the areal extent over which the vapor poses a toxicological hazard. For Graniteville, modeling results were the most consistent with available data on human health effects, animal and fish mortality, and vegetation damage when an effective deposition velocity in the lower end of a range of values commonly cited in other studies (1 cm s-1) was applied. This relatively small deposition is attributed to a lack of sunlight, a limited uptake in vegetation due to rapid stomatal damage, and the limited presence of nearby man-made structures. Explicit simulations of chlorine deposition into adjacent surface waters were based on a modified Henry's Law approach and resulted in the transfer of an estimated 21 kg of chlorine into these waters.

Buckley, Robert L.; Hunter, Charles H.; Werth, David W.; Whiteside, Morgana T.; Chen, Kuo-Fu; Mazzola, Carl A.

2012-12-01

307

Simulation de l'ecoulement dans un parc d'eoliennes situees sur un terrain accidente  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'objectif principal de cette these est la modelisation de l'ecoulement de la couche limite atmospherique dans un parc eolien sur un terrain complexe. Pour ce faire, trois domaines distincts ont ete abordes: caracteristiques de la couche limite atmospherique, aerodynamique des eoliennes et modelisation du terrain complexe. Ainsi l'objectif global de la these a ete divise a trois objectifs specifiques. Le premier objectif specifique est de demontrer l'efficacite du modele de turbulence propose base sur le modele de turbulence RNG, combinee avec les equations du tenseur de Reynolds moyennees dans le temps (RANS) pour simuler l'ecoulement turbulent moyen sur les collines et les vallees bidimensionnelles de formes analytiques et de pentes variables, et aussi, sur le terrain complexe tridimensionnel Blashaval. Le deuxieme objectif specifique de la these est de proposer un nouveau modele de turbulence pour simuler l'ecoulement axisymetrique a travers une eolienne a axe horizontal. Pour valider le modele propose, des resultats sont presentes pour les eoliennes experimentales Nibe B, Danwin 180/23, et MOD-0A. Le dernier objectif specifique est d'appliquer le modele de turbulence propose pour la simulation de l'ecoulement tridimensionnel a travers une eolienne immergee dans une couche limite atmospherique sous diverses conditions de stabilite thermique.

El Kasmi, Amina

308

An accidental but safe and effective use of Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in maggot debridement therapy in Alexandria, Egypt.  

PubMed

The calliphorid fly, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), is known to cause serious malign myiasis in animals, whereas its sibling species Lucilia sericata (Meigen) is commonly a carrion breeder and is used in maggot debridement therapy (MDT). The current study reports an accidental involvement of L. cuprina in MDT in Alexandria, Egypt, that has proved to be safe and effective. In November 2008, the laboratory colonies of L. sericata (the species regularly used in MDT) at the Faculty of Science, Alexandria University were renewed by Lucilia flies collected as third instar larvae on exposed rabbit carcasses. Flies from the new colonies were successfully used to heal the diabetic foot wounds of two patients at Alexandria Main University Hospital. Analysis of DNA sequences and adult and larval morphology then revealed that these flies were and still are L. cuprina. Breeding of this species in carrion in Alexandria is a new record. Despite the safety of this strain of L. cuprina in MDT, entomologists rearing blow flies for the purpose of wound debridement should regularly maintain high quality assurance of their species' identity to avoid possible clinical complications that may result from the introduction of an unexpected and invasive species to their laboratory colonies. PMID:20496600

Tantawi, Tarek I; Williams, Kirstin A; Villet, Martin H

2010-05-01

309

Diagnosis and treatment of copper poisoning caused by accidental feeding on poultry litter in a sheep flock.  

PubMed

We report a case of chronic copper poisoning in a flock of 182 grazing dairy sheep in Thessaly, Central Greece. Five ewes were found dead during the course of a week. The diagnosis of copper poisoning was confirmed by necropsy examination, blood test results, and abnormally high copper levels in liver and kidney samples. A field investigation revealed the source of copper as a litter heap from a broiler farm to which the sheep had accidental access during their movement between the milking parlour and the grazing area. Access to the litter was subsequently blocked and all sheep were provided with 50 g of a salt/gypsum/sodium molybdate mixture (90.0: 9.8: 0.2, w/w) mixed in 500 g of concentrate feed daily, for a period of 5 weeks. Follow-up blood samples were taken 3 and 8 wk after the initial diagnosis. A reduction in aspartate aminotransferase activity indicated the source of copper had been eliminated and the subsequent treatment was successful. PMID:17970849

Christodoulopoulos, G; Roubies, N

2007-11-01

310

Immunochemical and proteomic technologies as tools for unravelling toxins involved in envenoming by accidental contact with Lonomia obliqua caterpillars.  

PubMed

The accidental contact with Lonomia obliqua caterpillar causes local and systemic symptoms (such as fibrinogen depletion), leading, in some cases, to serious clinical complications (acute renal failure and intracranial haemorrhage). Fortunately, a successful therapeutical approach using anti-Lonomic serum, produced in horses against L. obliqua's bristle extract, has already been put in place. However, a global view of immunogenic toxins involved in the coagulation disorders could help to elucidate the envenoming process. In the present study, our aim was to identify bristle extract's immunogenic components, especially those related to the haemostasis, coupling proteomics and immunochemical approaches (bidimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and immunoblotting). The bidimensional map of bristle extract showed a broad profile of 157 silver-stained spots, where at least 153 spots were immunochemically revealed. Twenty-four of these spots were submitted to sequencing by mass spectrometry and three different categories of proteins were identified: lipocalins, cuticle proteins and serpins. From these protein families, it was observed that the most abundant was the lipocalin family, specifically represented by different isoforms of Lopap (a prothrombin activator protein), reinforcing its relevance during envenoming. Peptide sequences of several other immunochemically revealed spots showed no correspondence to any known sequence and were classified as unknown proteins. These proteins could represent new immunogenic molecules and/or toxins. The sequences presented in this article can be used for oligonucleotide design aiming the amplification of cDNAs coding for new molecules using L. obliqua bristles' cDNA libraries or isolated RNAs as template. PMID:18342903

Ricci-Silva, Maria Esther; Valente, Richard Hemmi; León, Ileana Rodriguez; Tambourgi, Denise Vilarinho; Ramos, Oscar Henrique Pereira; Perales, Jonas; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana Marisa

2008-05-01

311

Weathering of primary minerals and mobility of major elements in soils affected by an accidental spill of pyrite tailing.  

PubMed

In the present work, soil profiles were sampled 40 days and three years after an accidental pyrite tailing spill from the Aznalcóllar mine (S Spain) in order to figure out the effects of the acidic solution draining from the tailing. The composition of the acidic solution, the mineralogy, and the total and soluble content of the major elements were analysed at varying depths. The results show a weathering process of carbonates and of primary silicates. Calcium released is leached or reacts with the sulphate ions to form gypsum. Magnesium, aluminium and potassium tend to leach from the uppermost millimetres of the soil, accumulating where the pH>/=5.0; also the iron, probably forming more or less complex hydroxysulphates, precipitate in the upper 5 cm. The strong releasing of soluble salts increases the electrical conductivity, while the soluble potassium tends to decrease in the uppermost part of the soil due to the neoformation of jarosite. Iron is soluble only where the pH

Martín, Francisco; Diez, María; García, Inés; Simón, Mariano; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Iriarte, Angel; Aguilar, José

2007-05-25

312

Risk factors for recurrent injuries in victims of suspected non-accidental trauma: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Many children who are victims of non-accidental trauma (NAT) may be repeatedly evaluated for injuries related to maltreatment. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for repeated injuries in children with suspected NAT. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using claims data from a pediatric Medicaid accountable care organization. Children with birth claims and at least one non-birth related claim indicating a diagnosis of NAT or skeletal survey in 2007–2011 were included. Recurrent events were defined as independent episodes of care involving an urgent/emergent care setting that included a diagnosis code specific for child abuse, a CPT code for a skeletal survey, or a diagnosis code for an injury suspicious for abuse. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine risk factors for recurrent events. Results Of the 1,361 children with suspected NAT, a recurrent NAT event occurred in 26% within 1 year and 40% within 2 years of their initial event. Independent risk factors for a recurrent NAT event included a rural residence, age?

2014-01-01

313

Accidental Bait: Do Deceased Fish Increase Freshwater Turtle Bycatch in Commercial Fyke Nets?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bycatch of turtles in passive inland fyke net fisheries has been poorly studied, yet bycatch is an important conservation issue given the decline in many freshwater turtle populations. Delayed maturity and low natural adult mortality make turtles particularly susceptible to population declines when faced with additional anthropogenic adult mortality such as bycatch. When turtles are captured in fyke nets, the prolonged submergence can lead to stress and subsequent drowning. Fish die within infrequently checked passive fishing nets and dead fish are a potential food source for many freshwater turtles. Dead fish could thus act as attractants and increase turtle captures in fishing nets. We investigated the attraction of turtles to decomposing fish within fyke nets in eastern Ontario. We set fyke nets with either 1 kg of one-day or five-day decomposed fish, or no decomposed fish in the cod-end of the net. Decomposing fish did not alter the capture rate of turtles or fish, nor did it alter the species composition of the catch. Thus, reducing fish mortality in nets using shorter soak times is unlikely to alter turtle bycatch rates since turtles were not attracted by the dead fish. Interestingly, turtle bycatch rates increased as water temperatures did. Water temperature also influences turtle mortality by affecting the duration turtles can remain submerged. We thus suggest that submerged nets to either not be set or have reduced soak times in warm water conditions (e.g., >20 °C) as turtles tend to be captured more frequently and cannot withstand prolonged submergence.

Larocque, Sarah M.; Watson, Paige; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Cooke, Steven J.

2012-07-01

314

Predicting children's post-traumatic stress symptoms following hospitalization for accidental injury: Combining the Child Trauma Screening Questionnaire and heart rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the utility of combining the Child Trauma Screening Questionnaire (CTSQ) [Kenardy, J. A., Spence, S. H., & Macleod, A. C. (2006). Screening for post-traumatic stress disorder in children after accidental injury. Pediatrics, 118, 1002–1009] and children's heart rate (HR; emergency department and 24-h post-admission) to identify children likely to develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms at 1

Katherine A. Olsson; Justin A. Kenardy; Alexandra C. De Young; Susan H. Spence

2008-01-01

315

Posttraumatic growth within the first three?months after accidental injury in China: The role of self-disclosure, cognitive processing, and psychosocial resources.  

PubMed

The primary goals of this study, were to identify the posttraumatic growth (PTG) level of accidentally injured Chinese patients shortly after an accident occurred and to determine whether cognitive processing, self-disclosure, and psychosocial resources predicted PTG. A total of 232 patients were recruited from two public hospitals in Shanghai within the first three?months of an accidental injury. Patients completed self-report questionnaires to assess severity of injury, cognitive processing, self-disclosure, psychosocial resources, and PTG. Patients reported a mid-low level of PTG (M?=?50.38, SD?=?18.12) in the short length of time post-injury. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that subjective accident severity, deliberate rumination, perceived social support, and attitude towards disclosure were strong predictors of PTG. A moderating role of self-disclosure between intrusive rumination and PTG was identified. These findings support an interaction effect of rumination and self-disclosure on PTG and have implications for early intervention of accidentally injured patients. PMID:24819014

Dong, Chaoqun; Gong, Shumei; Jiang, Liping; Deng, Guanghui; Liu, Xiaohong

2015-03-01

316

Contributions of 20th Century Women to Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is an electronic archive about 20th century women who have made original and important contributions to physics. Organized under their names, you will find brief documented descriptions of their major contributions to physics, biographical data, and a potpourri of some interesting information regarding their lives, achievements, and conditions of work.

Byers, Nina

2003-10-10

317

ORIGINAL PAPER Fertilizer vs. organic matter contributions to nitrogen  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Fertilizer vs. organic matter contributions to nitrogen leaching in cropping systems the fate of fertilizer N and (2) evaluated the contribution of fertilizer and soil organic matter (SOM) to N leaching under the typical cropping conditions of the Pampas. Fertilizer N was applied as 15 N

Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

318

Prescription and over-the-counter medication in deliberate self-poisoning and accidental overdosing--preliminary study.  

PubMed

186 case records of patients who overdosed pharmaceuticals (confirmed by toxicological lab analysis) hospitalized at the Department of Clinical Toxicology during three months of 2000 were analyzed for age, sex, type of medication, reason for poisoning (intentional or accidental overdosing). Patients poisoned with prescription medication (Rx group) were compared with those who overdosed nonprescription (OTC-group) medications (alone or combined with Rx). Relative frequency of medication drug poisoning was highest in the 40-49 age group (28.5%) and was followed by the group of young adults (20-29 years; 24.2%). The lowest frequency (2.2%) was noted in the 60-69 age group. Of 186 cases analyzed, in 163 (87.6%) prescription medication (Rx) and in 23 (12.4%) OTC alone or co-ingested with Rx were involved (chi2 = 63.9; p < 0.001). The Rx and OTC groups were not significantly different as to reason for poisoning (chi2 = 0.7; p = 0.792) with significant overrepresentation of deliberate ingestion in both the group analysed (chi2 = 114.39; p < 0.001 for Rx, and chi2 = 13.49; p = 0.002 for OTC). Most adults attempting suicide used Rx with the highest incidence in the 40-49 age group (31.1%). Adolescents (14-19 years) with female over-representation ingested rather OTC pharmaceuticals (40.9%). Acetaminophen (alone or combined with benzodiazepines or/and ethanol) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were the most common OTC medications used for deliberate self-poisoning. PMID:16225126

Szkolnicka, Beata

2005-01-01

319

Follow-up study of abnormal biological indicators and gene expression in the peripheral blood of three accidentally exposed persons  

PubMed Central

In order to identify biomarkers for early diagnosis and/or for therapeutic targets in the delayed health effects of ionizing radiation, we analyzed the subgroups of lymphocytes, serum protein levels and gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood of three 60Co ?-ray accidentally exposed persons during the three years after irradiation. Flow cytometry analyses and agarose gel electrophoresis were applied to investigate the subgroups of lymphocytes and the composition of serum proteins, respectively. Gene expression profiling was obtained using a whole genome gene expression chip assay. Both the percentage of CD4+ T lymphocytes and the ratio of Th to Ts were reduced compared with the normal control values. The percentage of albumin decreased whereas beta globulin increased. There were 285 up-regulated and 446 down-regulated genes in irradiated samples relative to the control samples. The expression of KDR, CEACAM8 and OSM was validated by RT-PCR. The majority of the differentially expressed genes encode proteins associated with the immune response, inflammation, oncogenesis, cell structure, oxidative stress, neuro-hormone regulation, reproduction, susceptibility to psychiatric disorders, or transcriptional regulation. We have identified a number of promising novel candidates that have potential for serving as biomarkers for delayed damage. Furthermore, the changes in the immunological indicator CD4+ T cells, and the ratio of CD4+ T to CD8+ T cells may be biomarkers for the prediction of delayed damage by ionizing radiation. The findings of our study are useful for forming a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying the delayed effects of ionizing radiation. PMID:23559597

Chi, Cuiping; Tian, Rong; Liu, Huifang; Wang, Haiyan; Wei, Jinping; Guo, Jianping; Guo, Fengling; Li, Shufang

2013-01-01

320

Initial Conditions for Turbulent Mixing Simulations  

SciTech Connect

In the context of the classical Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamical instability, we examine the much debated question of models for initial conditions and the possible influence of unrecorded long wave length contributions to the instability growth rate {alpha}.

Kaman, T.; Glimm, J.; Sharp, D.H.

2010-12-01

321

Serotonin in fear conditioning processes.  

PubMed

This review describes the latest developments in our understanding of how the serotonergic system modulates Pavlovian fear conditioning, fear expression and fear extinction. These different phases of classical fear conditioning involve coordinated interactions between the extended amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortices. Here, I first define the different stages of learning involved in cued and context fear conditioning and describe the neural circuits underlying these processes. The serotonergic system can be manipulated by administering serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists, as well as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and these can have significant effects on emotional learning and memory. Moreover, variations in serotonergic genes can influence fear conditioning and extinction processes, and can underlie differential responses to pharmacological manipulations. This research has considerable translational significance as imbalances in the serotonergic system have been linked to anxiety and depression, while abnormalities in the mechanisms of conditioned fear contribute to anxiety disorders. PMID:25078294

Bauer, Elizabeth P

2015-01-15

322

[Accidental ingestion of superwarfarins].  

PubMed

Superwarfarins were developed around 1970 in order to resolve the resistance developed by the rodents to the previously existing rodenticides. Superwarfarins cause, nowadays, most of the poisonings due to rodenticides. However, in our environment, it has been extremely uncommon to attend children with such poisonings. We present five children aged less than 4 years with unintentional ingestion of a superwarfarin, admitted in a Pediatric Emergency Department in 1 year time, and a revision of the literature. PMID:18447998

Beriain Rodríguez, M; Gómez Cortés, B; Benito Fernández, J; Mintegi Raso, S

2008-05-01

323

Variation in contributions to teaching by meerkats.  

PubMed

Recent evidence from cooperative insect, bird and mammal societies has challenged the assumption that teaching is restricted to humans. However, little is known about the factors affecting the degree to which individuals in such societies contribute to teaching. Here, I examine variation in contributions to teaching in meerkats, where older group members teach pups to handle difficult prey. I show that investment in teaching varies with characteristics of pups, helpers, groups and ecological conditions. Although prior experience in caring for pups did not significantly influence teaching behaviour, younger helpers, which were still investing in growth, contributed less to teaching than older individuals. This suggests that, in common with other cooperative activities, contributions to teaching vary with the costs experienced by individual group members. However, in contrast to other forms of helping in meerkats, I detected no effects of nutritional state on teaching, suggesting that it carries relatively low costs. In species where individuals can potentially gain direct or indirect fitness benefits from facilitating learning in others, low costs divided among multiple group members may help tip the balance towards selection for teaching. PMID:18445555

Thornton, Alex

2008-08-01

324

Accidental deaths by hanging among children in istanbul, Turkey: retrospective analysis of medicolegal autopsies in 33 years.  

PubMed

Hanging is a type of strangulation by means of rope or any other similar material. This kind of ligature strangulation occurs by weight of the body dragging due to gravity and applying force to the neck. Hanging almost never occurs by accident, but occurs mostly as a way to commit suicide.A total number of 82,871 autopsies were performed in the Council of Forensic Medicine of the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Justice (Istanbul) between 1979 and 2012, and 4500 (5.43%) of these deaths occurred as a result of hanging. Thirteen of these reported cases have been observed and resulted in death occurring by accident. Seven of these victims were males, and 6 of them were females. Examination of their ages revealed that 3 of these victims were aged 1 year, and 3 victims were aged 6 years. The oldest victim was aged 13 years, and the youngest one was aged 1 year. It has been recorded that 8 of the deaths occurred with rope, 2 with sweater, 2 with scarf, 1 with belt, and 1 with tights. Investigation of the incidents revealed that 3 of the cases occurred by tangling in a rope swing and 2 with a head scarf. Ligature marks on the neck from aforementioned materials and ecchymosis on soft tissue were observed on all of the victims, and the thyroid cartilages and cervical vertebrae were intact. No substance was found in the toxicological analysis performed on all victims.In conclusion, our study showed that although accidental death by hanging took place rarely in these ages, all of the victims were between the ages of 1 and 13 years who recently started walking and entering their teenage years. It is important not to leave the children at home or in the playgrounds alone for a long time (unsupervised at home or in the playgrounds). Precautionary measures must be taken against danger, and the design of materials manufactured for this age group must be reconsidered. PMID:25310372

Kumral, Bahadir; Ozdes, Taskin; Avsar, Abdullah; Buyuk, Yalcin

2014-12-01

325

[A case of hypoglycemia caused by the accidental ingestion of glimepiride in an elderly dementia patient diagnosed based on the serum glimepiride concentration].  

PubMed

A 77-year-old man being treated for Alzheimer-type dementia and an old cerebral infarction was admitted to our hospital due to disturbance of consciousness. The patient's Mini-mental State Examination and Hasegawa Dementia Scale scores were 23 and 17 points, respectively. His blood glucose level was low (18 mg/dl), with a relatively high insulin level (15.2 ?U/ml). Computed tomography and an 18-hour fasting test showed no signs of insulinoma. Since his wife had been taking medications for dementia and diabetes, including Glimepiride, we considered the possibility that he may have taken glimepiride by mistake. Five months later, he was admitted again due to severe hypoglycemia with a relatively high insulin level (23.4 ?U/ml). More than 660 g of glucose and 100 mg of hydrocortisone were administered, and the hypoglycemia resolved approximately 24 hours after admission. Again, there were no signs of insulinoma. We asked Sanofi-Aventis to measure the level of glimepiride in a blood sample obtained six hours after admission. Glimepiride was detected at a concentration of 24.48 ng/ml, which roughly corresponded to the accidental ingestion of 6 mg of the drug. We were later informed by the patient's home doctor that he had visited the emergency department of another prefecture hospital with the same symptoms. Thereafter, the couple received counseling by their home doctor, and the hypoglycemia has not recurred since. Given the increase in the number of elderly households, an increase in the number of episodes of accidental ingestion of medicine is expected. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for accidental exposure to drugs prescribed to other family members especially, in elderly patients. PMID:24047673

Fujieda, Noriko; Hazekawa, Iwaho; Araki, Eiichi

2013-01-01

326

Implementation of the Clean Air Act, Title III, Section 112(r) Prevention of Accidental Release Rule requirements at U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Reservation facilities  

SciTech Connect

Title III, Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to promulgate regulations to prevent accidental releases of regulated substances and to reduce the severity of those releases that do occur. The final EPA rule for Risk Management Programs under Section 112(r)(7) of the CAA, promulgated June 20, 1996, applies to all stationary sources with processes that contain more than a threshold quantity of any of 139 regulated substances listed under 40 CFR 68.130. All affected sources will be required to prepare a risk management plan which must be submitted to EPA and be made available to state and local governments and to the public. This paper will provide details of initiatives underway at US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Facilities for implementation of the Prevention of Accidental Release Rule. The ORR encompasses three DOE Facilities: the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the K-25 Site. The Y-12 Plant manufactures component parts for the national nuclear weapons program; the ORNL is responsible for research and development activities including nuclear engineering, engineering technologies, and the environmental sciences; and the K-25 Site conducts a variety of research and development activities and is the home of a mixed waste incinerator. ORR activities underway and soon to be undertaken toward implementation of the Prevention of Accidental Release Rule include: compilation of inventories of regulated substances at all processes at each of the three ORR Facilities for determination of affected processes and facilities; plans for inventory reduction to levels below threshold quantities, where necessary and feasible; determination of the overlap of processes subject to the OSHA PSM Standard and determination of parallel requirements; preparation of Risk Management Plans and Programs for affected processes and facilities including detailed requirements for hazard assessment, prevention, and emergency response.

Humphreys, M.P. [Dept. of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office, TN (United States). Environmental Protection Div.; Fellers, H.L. [Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1997-12-31

327

Probing Bino Contribution to Muon g-2  

E-print Network

We study SUSY models in which Bino contributions solve the muon g-2 anomaly. The contributions are enhanced by large left-right mixing of the smuons. However, it is constrained by the vacuum stability condition of the slepton--Higgs potential. Therefore, there are upper bounds on masses of sleptons and Bino. When the slepton soft masses are universal, the upper bound on the smuon mass becomes 330 (460)GeV in order to solve the g-2 anomaly at the 1 sigma (2 sigma) level. It is within the reach of LHC and ILC. If the stau is heavier than the smuon, the bound can be as large as 1.4 (1.9)TeV. Such non-universal slepton mass spectrum generically predicts too large LFV/CPV. We show that the models are expected to be probed by LHC/ILC and LFV/CPV complementarily in future.

Motoi Endo; Koichi Hamaguchi; Teppei Kitahara; Takahiro Yoshinaga

2013-09-12

328

Probing Bino Contribution to Muon g-2  

E-print Network

We study SUSY models in which Bino contributions solve the muon $g-2$ anomaly. The contributions are enhanced by large left-right mixing of the smuons. However, it is constrained by the vacuum stability condition of the slepton--Higgs potential. Therefore, there are upper bounds on masses of sleptons and Bino. When the slepton soft masses are universal, the upper bound on the smuon mass becomes $330~(460)\\GeV$ in order to solve the $g-2$ anomaly at the $1\\sigma~(2\\sigma)$ level. It is within the reach of LHC and ILC. If the stau is heavier than the smuon, the bound can be as large as $1.4~(1.9)\\TeV$. Such non-universal slepton mass spectrum generically predicts too large LFV/CPV. We show that the models are expected to be probed by LHC/ILC and LFV/CPV complementarily in future.

Endo, Motoi; Kikahara, Teppei; Yoshinaga, Takahiro

2013-01-01

329

Report Ocean WG Contributions from  

E-print Network

Report Ocean WG Contributions from SMHI, MISU, KNMI Andreas Sterl #12;Contributions SMHI: Heat budget of Arctic Ocean Tuning MISU: Overturning and water masses KNMI: warm SST bias in Southern Ocean #12;SMHI #12;Ocean heat transport into the Arctic in CMIP5-simulations with EC-Earth solid: RCP4

Stoffelen, Ad

330

Successful recovery from iatrogenic severe hypernatremia and severe metabolic acidosis resulting from accidental use of inappropriate bicarbonate concentrate for hemodialysis treatment.  

PubMed

Bicarbonate dialysis is the treatment modality of choice for correction of metabolic acidosis in chronic renal failure. However, improper selection of dialysate concentrate can result in life-threatening human errors. We report a case of iatrogenic severe hypernatremia (sodium 207 mEq/L) and severe metabolic acidosis (pH 6.65) that resulted due to accidental use of inappropriate bicarbonate concentrate for hemodialysis treatment. There was successful recovery in this patient with no neurological sequelae. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report in adults of severe hypernatremia along with severe metabolic acidosis due to error in the preparation of dialysis fluid. PMID:25579726

Bhosale, Guruprasad P; Shah, Veena R

2015-01-01

331

22 CFR 203.6 - IPVO conditions of registration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2) Has its headquarters in the same country. (b) Condition No. 2 (Private) . Is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) and solicits and receives cash contributions from the general public. (c) Condition No. 3 (Voluntary) . Is a...

2012-04-01

332

22 CFR 203.6 - IPVO conditions of registration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2) Has its headquarters in the same country. (b) Condition No. 2 (Private) . Is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) and solicits and receives cash contributions from the general public. (c) Condition No. 3 (Voluntary) . Is a...

2013-04-01

333

22 CFR 203.6 - IPVO conditions of registration.  

...2) Has its headquarters in the same country. (b) Condition No. 2 (Private). Is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) and solicits and receives cash contributions from the general public. (c) Condition No. 3 (Voluntary). Is a...

2014-04-01

334

22 CFR 203.6 - IPVO conditions of registration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2) Has its headquarters in the same country. (b) Condition No. 2 (Private) . Is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) and solicits and receives cash contributions from the general public. (c) Condition No. 3 (Voluntary) . Is a...

2011-04-01

335

The Condition-Dependent Transcriptional Landscape of Burkholderia pseudomallei  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp), the causative agent of the often-deadly infectious disease melioidosis, contains one of the largest prokaryotic genomes sequenced to date, at 7.2 Mb with two large circular chromosomes (1 and 2). To comprehensively delineate the Bp transcriptome, we integrated whole-genome tiling array expression data of Bp exposed to >80 diverse physical, chemical, and biological conditions. Our results provide direct experimental support for the strand-specific expression of 5,467 Sanger protein-coding genes, 1,041 operons, and 766 non-coding RNAs. A large proportion of these transcripts displayed condition-dependent expression, consistent with them playing functional roles. The two Bp chromosomes exhibited dramatically different transcriptional landscapes — Chr 1 genes were highly and constitutively expressed, while Chr 2 genes exhibited mosaic expression where distinct subsets were expressed in a strongly condition-dependent manner. We identified dozens of cis-regulatory motifs associated with specific condition-dependent expression programs, and used the condition compendium to elucidate key biological processes associated with two complex pathogen phenotypes — quorum sensing and in vivo infection. Our results demonstrate the utility of a Bp condition-compendium as a community resource for biological discovery. Moreover, the observation that significant portions of the Bp virulence machinery can be activated by specific in vitro cues provides insights into Bp's capacity as an “accidental pathogen”, where genetic pathways used by the bacterium to survive in environmental niches may have also facilitated its ability to colonize human hosts. PMID:24068961

Nandi, Tannistha; Kreisberg, Jason F.; Chua, Hui Hoon; Sun, Guangwen; Chen, Yahua; Mueller, Claudia; Conejero, Laura; Eshaghi, Majid; Ang, Roy Moh Lik; Liu, Jianhua; Sobral, Bruno W.; Korbsrisate, Sunee; Gan, Yunn Hwen; Titball, Richard W.; Bancroft, Gregory J.; Valade, Eric; Tan, Patrick

2013-01-01

336

Tesla's contribution to radiowave propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review Nikola Tesla's contribution to radiowave propagation and wireless power transmission. Tesla's patents, published and unpublished notes about radiowave propagation and wireless power transmission are less known, and if known to some extent, they are usually wrongly interpreted

Aleksandar Marincic; Djuradj Budimir

2001-01-01

337

Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology Smithsonian Contributions to Astrophysics Smithsonian Contributions to Botany Smithsonian Contributions to the Earth Sciences Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiol  

E-print Network

Emphasis upon publication as a means of "diffusing knowledge " was expressed by the first Secretary of the Smithsonian. In his formal plan for the Institution, Joseph Henry outlined a program that included the following statement: "It is proposed to publish a series of reports, giving an account of the new discoveries in science, and of the changes made from year to year in all branches of knowledge. " This theme of basic research has been adhered to through the years by thousands of titles issued in series publications under the Smithsonian imprint, commencing with Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge in 1848 and continuing with the following active series:

From Aristotle Through; C. W. Hart; Janice Clark; Smithsonian Folklife Studies; Robert Mcc Adams; Janice Clark

338

The contribution of specific organelles to side scatter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of which cellular structures scatter light is needed to fully utilize the information available from light scattering measurements of cells and tissues. To determine how specific organelles contribute to light scattering, wide angle side scattering was imaged simultaneously with fluorescence from specific organelles for thousands of cells using flow cytometry. Images were obtained with different depth of field conditions and analyzed with different assumptions. Both sets of data demonstrated that mitochondria and lysosomes, contribute similarly to side scatter. The nucleus contributes as much or more light scatter than either the mitochondria or the lysosomes.

Mourant, Judith R.; Marina, Oana C.; Sanders, Claire K.

2013-02-01

339

Atmospheric Methane Contributions From Fractured Bedrock Aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is not normally considered as an important contributor of atmospheric methane because the organic carbon content of aquifers is too low to sustain significant methanogenesis. Also, groundwater-generated methane partitions into the gas phase of the overlying soil, where it either dissolves in the pore water or is oxidized to carbon dioxide by methanotrophs. There are, however, localized conditions (related to human activities and hydrogeologic conditions) under which atmospheric contributions of groundwater-generated methane occur at the ground surface. Storing and transporting liquid petroleum products in the subsurface has resulted in the local introduction of high concentrations of degradable organic carbon and the creation of redox conditions that favor methanogenesis over more oxidative biodegradation pathways. Groundwater overlain by fractured bedrock, rather than by unconsolidated porous media, creates a situation where CH4 migrates through discrete fractures, thus limiting the soil volume and the surface area available for methanotrophic activity. The spatial distribution of methane in thin surface soils overlying bedrock suggests that CH4 migrates via fracture networks and that CH4 oxidation is a factor of about 50 less than that measured in typical unconsolidated soils. Atmospheric flux rates associated with contaminated bedrock aquifers were on the order of several grams of carbon (as CH4) per square meter, which is less than that reported for well documented sources (e.g., rice paddies) and probably represents a minor worldwide contribution. Nonetheless, these aquifers can represent an important localized source, can shift soils from a sink to a source of methane, and can permit petroleum products to load carbon (as biogenic CH4 and CO2) to the atmosphere without ever being combusted.

Marrin, D. L.

2013-05-01

340

Recent Langley helicopter acoustics contributions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The helicopter acoustics program at NASA Langley has included technology for elements of noise control ranging from sources of noise to receivers of noise. The scope of Langley contributions for about the last decade is discussed. Specifically, the resolution of two certification noise quantification issues by subjective acoustics research, the development status of the helicopter system noise prediction program ROTONET are reviewed and the highlights from research on blade rotational, broadband, and blade vortex interaction noise sources are presented. Finally, research contributions on helicopter cabin (or interior) noise control are presented. A bibliography of publications from the Langley helicopter acoustics program for the past 10 years is included.

Morgan, Homer G.; Pao, S. P.; Powell, C. A.

1988-01-01

341

Charm contribution to bulk viscosity  

E-print Network

In the range of temperatures reached in future heavy ion collision experiments, hadronic pair annihilations and creations of charm quarks may take place within the lifetime of the plasma. As a result, charm quarks may increase the bulk viscosity affecting the early stages of hydrodynamic expansion. Assuming thermalization, we estimate the charm contribution to bulk viscosity within the same effective kinetic theory framework in which the light parton contribution has been computed previously. The time scale at which this physics becomes relevant is related to the width of the transport peak associated with the trace anomaly correlator, and is found to be 600 MeV.

M. Laine; Kiyoumars A. Sohrabi

2014-10-24

342

CONTRIBUTED Solution-Processed Quantum  

E-print Network

CONTRIBUTED P A P E R Solution-Processed Quantum Dot Photodetectors Flexible thin-film-wavelength infrared. We also highlight the achievement of solution-processed photoconductive photo- detectors combining photoconductive gain and temporal responses faster than 30 ms, devices therefore compatible

343

Maximizing Pharmacy's Contribution to Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is argued that the role of colleges in the effort to maximize pharmacy's contribution to society requires an emphasis on research in the pharmaceutical sciences, in the clinical use of drugs, and in the socioeconomic aspects of drug therapy. This will produce more qualified pharmacists and greater credibility for the profession. (JMD)

Marston, Robert Q.

1978-01-01

344

Assessing Contributions to Group Assignments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report the use of a combination of self- and peer-assessment in an undergraduate social psychology laboratory course. Students worked in small groups on a self-directed empirical project that they each wrote up independently as a laboratory report. Marks for the written assignment were moderated by a contribution index measure based on the…

Johnston, Lucy; Miles, Lynden

2004-01-01

345

Contributions to environmental mechanics: Introduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the second half of the 20th century, environmental mechanics developed from a collection of loosely connected principles and techniques t o a coherent quantitative treatment of flow and transport in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. John Philip was in many respects the life and soul of this adventure . He contributed foremost to the physics of water in unsaturated soils, but also to micrometeorology and physical ecology. In this introductory chapter we briefly review how his contributions influenced and are related to the activities of his colleagues and provide an overview of the present status of theory of soil water movement. We also indicate how the various contributions to this volume fit in this context. We start with a discussion of the nature, foundation, and application of the Richards equation, with emphasis on the dominant role of John Philip in finding analytical solutions of this equation. This is followed by a discussion of various developments beyond the Richards equation: multiphase flow, simultaneous transport of water and heat, flow of water in soils subject to swelling-shrinkage, transport of solutes in unsaturated soils, and flow and transport processes at various scales in space and time. The varied contributions of John Philip to micrometeorology and physical ecology are also reviewed briefly. In the concluding section, some challenges for environmental mechanics are indicated.

Raats, Peter A. C.; Smiles, David E.; Warrick, Arthur W.

346

Design Editorial Industrial Research Contributions  

E-print Network

Journal of Mechanical Design Editorial Industrial Research Contributions Would authors working in industry be welcome contributors to JMD? The answer is an emphatic "yes, indeed!" but the reality is that authors from industry are a small minority relative to authors from academia. There are some real reasons

Papalambros, Panos

347

ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Diffusion Tensor Tractography  

E-print Network

- sequence of traumatic brain injury that frequently in- volves the parasagittal white matter, corpus and to deter- mine their relationship to outcome. Setting: Inpatient traumatic brain injury unit. PatientsORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Diffusion Tensor Tractography of Traumatic Diffuse Axonal Injury Jun Yi Wang

O'Toole, Alice J.

348

The Chicken: Contributions to Genetic  

E-print Network

for its contribution to further an understanding of · Behavior · Developmental biology · Biochemistry Incubation behavior Maternal behavior Flocking Mating #12;Traits that favor genetic analyses · Can control to experimentation · Well studied in other disciplines #12;Some firsts (science) 1902 ­ 1st animal species

349

Environmental Contributions to Allergic Disease  

E-print Network

Environmental Contributions to Allergic Disease Estelle Levetin, PhD and Peter Van de Water, Ph with increased exposure to air pollution and indoor contaminants such as house dust mites, cockroaches disease is more complex than increased exposure to pollution and allergens and that early childhood

Levetin, Estelle

350

Caroline Herschel's contributions to astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the contributions to astronomy of Caroline Lucretia Herschel (1750–1848) are explored in this article. Her accomplishments included new observational discoveries and the skilled and accurate transcription and reduction of astronomical data. Although she made important additions to the sum total of astronomical facts available to the scientist, she herself showed little interest or ability in applying these

Marilyn Bailey Ogilvie

1975-01-01

351

General Banking Conditions 2009 General Banking Conditions  

E-print Network

General Banking Conditions 2009 r #12;#12;1 General Banking Conditions (Version 2009. 1 Scope The provisions of these General Banking Conditions shall apply to all existing and future legal relationships between the Bank and the Customer to the extent that it is not otherwise provided

Franssen, Michael

352

Processed foods: contributions to nutrition.  

PubMed

Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers. PMID:24760975

Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David

2014-04-23

353

Fluid viscosity under confined conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Closed equations of fluid transfer in confined conditions are constructed in this study using ab initio methods of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. It is shown that the fluid viscosity is not determined by the fluid properties alone, but becomes a property of the "fluid-nanochannel walls" system as a whole. Relations for the tensor of stresses and the interphase force, which specifies the exchange by momentum of fluid molecules with the channel-wall molecules, are derived. It is shown that the coefficient of viscosity is now determined by the sum of three contributions. The first contribution coincides with the expression for the coefficient of the viscosity of fluid in the bulk being specified by the interaction of fluid molecules with each other. The second contribution has the same structure as the first one but is determined by the interaction of fluid molecules with the channel-wall molecules. Finally, the third contribution has no analog in the usual statistical mechanics of transport processes of a simple fluid. It is associated with the correlation of intermolecular forces of the fluid and the channel walls. Thus, it is established that the coefficient of viscosity of fluid in sufficiently small channels will substantially differ from its bulk value.

Rudyak, V. Ya.; Belkin, A. A.

2014-12-01

354

Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases  

SciTech Connect

Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

Peterson, S

2007-08-15

355

5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: patient experiences, human factors, sedation, consent, and medicolegal issues.  

PubMed

The 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland into accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA) yielded data related to psychological aspects from the patient, and the anaesthetist, perspectives; patients' experiences ranged from isolated auditory or tactile sensations to complete awareness. A striking finding was that 75% of experiences were for <5 min, yet 51% of patients [95% confidence interval (CI) 43-60%] experienced distress and 41% (95% CI 33-50%) suffered longer term adverse effect. Distress and longer term harm occurred across the full range of experiences but were particularly likely when the patient experienced paralysis (with or without pain). The patient's interpretation of what is happening at the time of the awareness seemed central to later impact; explanation and reassurance during suspected AAGA or at the time of report seemed beneficial. Quality of care before the event was judged good in 26%, poor in 39%, and mixed in 31%. Three-quarters of cases of AAGA (75%) were judged preventable. In 12%, AAGA care was judged good and the episode not preventable. The contributory and human factors in the genesis of the majority of cases of AAGA included medication, patient, and education/training. The findings have implications for national guidance, institutional organization, and individual practice. The incidence of 'accidental awareness' during sedation (~1:15,000) was similar to that during general anaesthesia (~1:19,000). The project raises significant issues about information giving and consent for both sedation and anaesthesia. We propose a novel approach to describing sedation from the patient's perspective which could be used in communication and consent. Eight (6%) of the patients had resorted to legal action (12, 11%, to formal complaint) at the time of reporting. NAP5 methodology provides a standardized template that might usefully inform the investigation of claims or serious incidents related to AAGA. PMID:25204696

Cook, T M; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H M G; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Pandit, J J

2014-10-01

356

Black Hole Boundary Conditions and Coordinate Conditions  

E-print Network

This paper treats boundary conditions on black hole horizons for the full 3+1D Einstein equations. Following a number of authors, the apparent horizon is employed as the inner boundary on a space slice. It is emphasized that a further condition is necessary for the system to be well posed; the ``prescribed curvature conditions" are therefore proposed to complete the coordinate conditions at the black hole. These conditions lead to a system of two 2D elliptic differential equations on the inner boundary surface, which coexist nicely to the 3D equation for maximal slicing (or related slicing conditions). The overall 2D/3D system is argued to be well posed and globally well behaved. The importance of ``boundary conditions without boundary values" is emphasized. This paper is the first of a series. This revised version makes minor additions and corrections to the previous version.

Douglas M. Eardley

1997-03-11

357

Contribution of galactose and fructose to glucose homeostasis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To determine the contributions of galactose and fructose to glucose formation, 6 subjects (26 +/- 2 years old; body mass index, 22.4 +/-0.2 kg/m2) (mean +/- SE) were studied during fasting conditions. Three subjects received a primed constant intravenous infusion of[6,6-2H2] glucose for 3 hours foll...

358

Rapid Economic Growth: Contributing Factors and Challenges Ahead  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustained improvement in the underlying conditions for growth for more than two decades has resulted in lifting the Indian economy from the bottom of the growth heap to one of the fastest growing economies in the world. This paper presents the factors that have contributed to the growth acceleration in India over the past 25 years and the challenges

Isher Judge AHLUWALIA

2008-01-01

359

Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of risk screening and early intervention comparing child- and family-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy for PTSD in children following accidental injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Accidental injury represents the most common type of traumatic event to which a child or adolescent may be exposed, with a significant number of these children going on to experience posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, very little research has examined potential interventions for the treatment of PTSD in these children. The present trial aims to evaluate and compare child-

Justin Kenardy; Vanessa Cobham; Reginald DV Nixon; Brett McDermott; Sonja March

2010-01-01

360

Rawson, C., Crake, K. (students) and Brown, A.J., "Assessing the Environmental Performance of Tankers in Accidental Grounding and Collision", SNAME Transactions 106, pp. 41-58, 1998.  

E-print Network

1 Rawson, C., Crake, K. (students) and Brown, A.J., "Assessing the Environmental Performance and accident scenario probabilities. This methodology is used to assess the environmental performance of Tankers in Accidental Grounding and Collision", SNAME Transactions 106, pp. 41-58, 1998. Assessing

Brown, Alan

361

Sirkar, J., Ameer, P., Brown, A.J., Goss, P., Michel, K., Nicastro, F., Willis, W., "A Framework for Assessing the Environmental Performance of Tankers in Accidental Grounding and Collision", SNAME Transactions 105, pp. 253-295, 1997.  

E-print Network

for Assessing the Environmental Performance of Tankers in Accidental Grounding and Collision", SNAME Transactions 105, pp. 253-295, 1997. A Framework for Assessing the Environmental Performance of Tankers Engineering Corporation, Keith Michel, Member, Herbert Engineering Corporation, Wayne Willis, Visitor, ICF

Brown, Alan

362

Early Dutch contributions on Peyronie's disease.  

PubMed

Long before De la Peyronie's description of three cases of plastic induration and curvature of the penis (1743) the disorder was already known. The Ephemerides (1687) and the rather scabrous booklet, Venus minzieke gasthuis (Venus Hospital for the lovesick)(1688), contain short remarks on this condition. Two extensive Dutch contributions -- not mentioned in the literature on this subject -- were written by Nicolaas Tulp (1593--1674) and Fredrik Ruysch (1638--1731). The first one is a case history, the second one is more general discussion with a fine engraving added. Treatment varied according to the various early authors. The therapeutic successes claimed must be seen in the light of the natural history of this disease: spontaneous improvement occurs not infrequently. To change the eponym 'Peyronie's disease', however, seems unjustified. It is an homage to François Gigot de la Peyronie (1678-1747) surgeon to King Louis XV and founder of the French Académie de Chirurgie. PMID:393172

Haneveld, G T

1979-01-01

363

How could haloalkaliphilic microorganisms contribute to biotechnology?  

PubMed

Haloalkaliphiles are microorganisms requiring Na(+) concentrations of at least 0.5 mol·L(-1) and an alkaline pH of 9 for optimal growth. Their unique features enable them to make significant contributions to a wide array of biotechnological applications. Organic compatible solutes produced by haloalkaliphiles, such as ectoine and glycine betaine, are correlated with osmoadaptation and may serve as stabilizers of intracellular proteins, salt antagonists, osmoprotectants, and dermatological moisturizers. Haloalkaliphiles are an important source of secondary metabolites like rhodopsin, polyhydroxyalkanoates, and exopolysaccharides that play essential roles in biogeocycling organic compounds. These microorganisms also can secrete unique exoenzymes, including proteases, amylases, and cellulases, that are highly active and stable in extreme haloalkaline conditions and can be used for the production of laundry detergent. Furthermore, the unique metabolic pathways of haloalkaliphiles can be applied in the biodegradation and (or) biotransformation of a broad range of toxic industrial pollutants and heavy metals, in wastewater treatment, and in the biofuel industry. PMID:25372346

Zhao, Baisuo; Yan, Yanchun; Chen, Shulin

2014-11-01

364

Genetic contributions to pain: a review of findings in humans  

PubMed Central

Pain represents the major motivating factor for which individuals seek healthcare, and pain responses are characterized by substantial inter-individual differences. Increasing evidence suggests that genetic factors contribute significantly to individual differences in responses to both clinical and experimental pain. The purpose of this review article was to summarize the current literature regarding genetic contributions to pain, highlighting findings relevant to oral pain where available. A brief discussion of methodologic considerations is followed by a review of findings regarding genetic influences on clinical pain. Next, the literature examining genetic contributions to experimental pain responses is presented, emphasizing genetic associations that have been replicated in multiple cohorts. It is hoped that an enhanced understanding of genetic contributions to pain responses will ultimately improve diagnosis and treatment of clinical pain conditions. PMID:19193196

Fillingim, RB; Wallace, MR; Herbstman, DM; Ribeiro-Dasilva, M; Staud, R

2009-01-01

365

ONERA's contribution to space environment standardization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ever since its creation in 1967, the Space Environment Department (DESP) at ONERA's objective has been to evaluate the environmental conditions of space missions and prevent the damage they may cause. The DESP studies and models the different components of the space mission environment (mainly charged particles) and evaluates the associated risks with on-board experiments and simulations on the ground. As the reference expert in space environment for both the French Space Agency and European space industries, the DESP has been named as the French representative in the ISO TC20 / SC14 / WG4 working group. In parallel to this contribution, the DESP is also involved in WG1 (Design engineering and production) and WG6 (Materials and Processes),as well as in the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS) committee dedicated to Space Environment standards (ECSS-10.04C). The purpose of this presentation is, first, to detail the ONERA’s contributions to space environment standardizations (its role as well as the standards developed at ONERA). In a second step, I shall also present some on-going works such as data assimilation and specifications model for other planets (Jupiter and Saturn) conducted at ONERA, in order to prepare the next generation standards and anticipate Space community needs.

Maget, Vincent; Ecoffet, Robert; Roussel, Jean-Francois

366

Oil-spill risk analysis: Cook inlet outer continental shelf lease sale 149. Volume 2: Conditional risk contour maps of seasonal conditional probabilities. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Government has proposed to offer Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lands in Cook Inlet for oil and gas leasing. Because oil spills may occur from activities associated with offshore oil production, the Minerals Management Service conducts a formal risk assessment. In evaluating the significance of accidental oil spills, it is important to remember that the occurrence of such spills is fundamentally probabilistic. The effects of oil spills that could occur during oil and gas production must be considered. This report summarizes results of an oil-spill risk analysis conducted for the proposed Cook Inlet OCS Lease Sale 149. The objective of this analysis was to estimate relative risks associated with oil and gas production for the proposed lease sale. To aid the analysis, conditional risk contour maps of seasonal conditional probabilities of spill contact were generated for each environmental resource or land segment in the study area. This aspect is discussed in this volume of the two volume report.

Johnson, W.R.; Marshall, C.F.; Anderson, C.M.; Lear, E.M.

1994-08-01

367

Eight Conditions Influencing the Implementation of Educational Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent to which claims to educational rights are actually fulfilled in a society depends on a variety of conditions. There are eight conditions that can contribute to a society's falling short in the implementation of those rights. The conditions include: (1) complacency--failure to take steps toward ensuring that the right is honored in…

Thomas, R. Murray

368

Pursuing the Pavlovian Contributions to Induction in Rats Responding for 1% Sucrose Reinforcement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated whether Pavlovian conditioning contributes, in the form of the response operandum serving as a conditioned stimulus, to the increase in the rate of response for 1% liquid-sucrose reinforcement when food-pellet reinforcement is upcoming. Rats were exposed to conditions in which sign tracking for 1% sucrose was…

Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Huls, Amber; Kulland, Ashley

2007-01-01

369

GENERALIZED AUTOREGRESSIVE CONDITIONAL HETEROSKEDASTICITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A natural generalization of the ARCH (Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedastic) process introduced in Engle (1982) to allow for past conditional variances in the current conditional variance equation is proposed. Stationarity conditions and autocorrelation structure for this new class of parametric models are derived. Maximum likelihood estimation and testing are also considered. Finally an empirical example relating to the uncertainty of the

Tim Bollerslev

1986-01-01

370

REACH. Air Conditioning Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

Garrison, Joe; And Others

371

Molecular faunistics of accidental infections of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 (Monogenea) parasitic on salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout Salmo trutta L. in NW Russia.  

PubMed

Salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout S. trutta L. juveniles were examined for the presence of accidental monogenean ectoparasitic species of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 in the Baltic and White Sea basins of Russian Karelia in order to estimate the frequency of host-switching attempts on an ecological timescale. To collect phylogeographical information and for exact species identification, the parasites were characterised by nuclear internal transcribed spacer sequences of rDNA (ITS) and, for some species, also by their mitochondrial DNA (CO1 gene) sequences. Four accidental Gyrodactylus species were observed on salmon and brown trout. A few specimens of G. aphyae Malmberg, 1957, the normal host of which is the Eurasian minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (L.), were observed on lake salmon from the Rivers Kurzhma (Lake Kuito, White Sea basin) and Vidlitsa (Lake Ladoga, Baltic basin). G. lucii Kulakovskaya, 1952, a parasite of the northern pike Esox lucius L., was observed on salmon in the Kurzhma. In the River Vidlitsa, two specimens of G. papernai Ergens & Bychowsky, 1967, normally on stone loach Barbatula barbatula (L.), were found on salmon. On anadromous White Sea salmon in the River Pulonga in Chupa Bay, a few salmon parr carried small colonies of G. arcuatus Bychowsky, 1933, which were shown to have originated from the local three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L. consumed as prey. No specimens of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 were observed, although the Pulonga is the nearest salmon spawning river to the River Keret', which is heavily infected with introduced G. salaris. In the River Satulinoja, Lake Ladoga, three specimens of G. lotae Gusev, 1953, from burbot Lota lota (L.), were collected from a single brown trout S. trutta. All nonspecific gyrodactylid infections on salmonids were judged to be temporary, because only a few specimens were observed on each of the small number of infected fishes. The prevalence of endemic G. salaris was also low, only 1% (Nfish = 296) in Lake Onega and 0.7% (Nfish = 255) in Lake Ladoga, while brown trout specific Gyrodactylus species were not observed on any of the 429 trout examined from the Ladoga basin. The host-specific and unspecific burden of Gyrodactylus spp. on these 'glacial relict' populations of salmon and brown trout was very low, suggesting a generalised resistance against the co-evolved freshwater parasite community, or some kind of 'vaccination' effect. These hypotheses deserve further testing. PMID:18038199

Zietara, Marek S; Kuusela, Jussi; Veselov, Alexei; Lumme, Jaakko

2008-02-01

372

Carl Neumann's Contributions to Electrodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I examine the publications of Carl Neumann (1832 1925) on electrodynamics, which constitute a major part of his work and which illuminate his approach to mathematical physics. I show how Neumann contributed to physics at an important stage in its development and how his work led to a polemic with Hermann Helmholtz (1821 1894). Neumann advanced and extended the ideas of the Königsberg school of mathematical physics. His investigations were aimed at founding a mathematically exact physical theory of electrodynamics, following the approach of Carl G.J. Jacobi (1804 1851) on the foundation of a physical theory as outlined in Jacobi’s lectures on analytical mechanics. Neumann’s work also shows how he clung to principles that impeded him in appreciating and developing new ideas such as those on field theory that were proposed by Michael Faraday (1791 1867) and James Clerk Maxwell (1831 1879).

Schlote, Karl-Heinz

2004-09-01

373

Statistical Contributions to Proteomic Research  

PubMed Central

Proteomic profiling has the potential to impact the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of various diseases. A number of different proteomic technologies are available that allow us to look at many proteins at once, and all of them yield complex data that raise significant quantitative challenges. Inadequate attention to these quantitative issues can prevent these studies from achieving their desired goals, and can even lead to invalid results. In this chapter, we describe various ways the involvement of statisticians or other quantitative scientists in the study team can contribute to the success of proteomic research, and we outline some of the key statistical principles that should guide the experimental design and analysis of such studies. PMID:20407946

Morris, Jeffrey S.; Baggerly, Keith A.; Gutstein, Howard B.; Coombes, Kevin R.

2012-01-01

374

Mapping climate conditions with materials corrosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world's first comprehensive materials corrosion mapping system can predict the effects that climatic conditions have on the life cycle of products ranging from automobiles to bridges, according to Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) and the Australian Industrial Galvanizers Corporation. Both jointly announced the system on 14 November.The mapping system, which incorporates conditions such as moisture, salinity pollution, and prevailing winds, can predict the corrosion of materials in any part of Australia, they said. Ivan Cole of CSIRO Materials Engineering said the mapping system even takes into account durability factors impacting on greenhouse gas contributions and soil conditions, making it a unique tool for Australian industry.

Showstack, Randy

375

Possible NASA Contributions to HEAT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A four-year experiment (HEAT) has been proposed (one summer in the field, 2005) to determine the sources and causes for the enhanced cloud-to-ground lightning over Houston, Texas, in association with simultaneous experiments by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC). Houston is the third most populous city in the United States and the region contains 50% of the petroleum refining capacity of the United States. Recent studies covering the period 1989-2000 document a 50% increase of cloud-to-ground lightning in the Houston area as compared to background values, which is second in flash density only to the Tampa Bay, Florida area. It is suggested that the elevated flash densities could result from several factors, including, 1) the convergence due to the urban heat island effect and complex sea breeze, and 2) the increasing levels of air pollution from anthropogenic sources producing numerous small droplets and thereby suppressing mean droplet size. The latter effect would enable more cloud water to reach the mixed phase region where it is involved in the formation of precipitation and the separation of electric charge, leading to an enhancement of lightning. The primary goals of HEAT are to examine the effects of (1) pollution, (2) the urban heat island, and (3) the complex coastline, on storms and lightning characteristics in the Houston area. The project is a multi- agency effort and will employ numerous observing capabilities and expertise. Dr. Shepherd has been asked to serve as a possible co- investigator to contribute expertise in areas related to urban impacts on precipitation variability. Dr. Shepherd is also a key NASA representative in the interagency effort. This presentation will provide an overview of recent NASA research focused on urban rainfall in Houston and offer potential NASA capabilities that could contribute to HEAT.

Shepherd, J. M.

2004-01-01

376

Does predation contribute to tree diversity?  

PubMed

Seed and seedling predation may differentially affect competitively superior tree species to increase the relative recruitment success of poor competitors and contribute to the coexistence of tree species. We examined the effect of seed and seedling predation on the seedling recruitment of three tree species, Acer rubrum (red maple), Liriodendron tulipifera (yellow poplar), and Quercus rubra (northern red oak), over three years by manipulating seed and seedling exposure to predators under contrasting microsite conditions of shrub cover, leaf litter, and overstory canopy. Species rankings of seedling emergence were constant across microsites, regardless of exposure to seed predators, but varied across years. A. rubrum had the highest emergence probabilities across microsites in 1997, but Q. rubra had the highest emergence probabilities in 1999. Predators decreased seedling survival uniformly across species, but did not affect relative growth rates (RGRs). Q. rubra had the highest seedling survivorship across microsites, while L. tulipifera had the highest RGRs. Our results suggest that annual variability in recruitment success contributes more to seedling diversity than differential predation across microsites. We synthesized our results from separate seedling emergence and survival experiments to project seedling bank composition. With equal fecundity assumed across species, Q. rubra dominated the seedling bank, capturing 90% of the regeneration sites on average, followed by A. rubrum (8% of sites) and L. tulipifera (2% of sites). When seed abundance was weighted by species-specific fecundity, seedling bank composition was more diverse; L. tulipifera captured 62% of the regeneration sites, followed by A. rubrum (21% of sites) and Q. rubra (17% of sites). Tradeoffs between seedling performance and fecundity may promote the diversity of seedling regeneration by increasing the probability of inferior competitors capturing regeneration sites. PMID:15719246

Beckage, Brian; Clark, James S

2005-04-01

377

Methane emissions and contaminant degradation rates at sites affected by accidental releases of denatured fuel-grade ethanol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent increase in the use of denatured fuel-grade ethanol (DFE) has enhanced the probability of its environmental release. Due to the highly labile nature of ethanol (EtOH), it is expected to rapidly biodegrade, increasing the potential for inducing methanogenic conditions in the subsurface. As environmental releases of DFE can be expected to occur at the ground surface or in the vadose zone (e.g., due to surficial spills from rail lines or tanker trucks and leaking underground storage tanks), the potential for methane (CH4) generation at DFE spill sites requires evaluation. An assessment is needed because high CH4 generation rates may lead to CH4 fluxes towards the ground surface, which is of particular concern if spills are located close to human habitation—related to concerns of soil vapor intrusion (SVI). This work demonstrates, for the first time, the measurement of surficial gas release rates at large volume DFE spill sites. Two study sites, near Cambria and Balaton, in MN are investigated. Total carbon emissions at the ground surface (summing carbon dioxide (CO2) and CH4 emissions) are used to quantify depth-integrated DFE degradation rates. Results from both sites demonstrate that substantial CO2 and CH4 emissions do occur—even years after a spill. However, large total carbon fluxes, and CH4 emissions in particular, were restricted to a localized area within the DFE source zone. At the Balaton site, estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 5 and 174 ?mol m- 2 s- 1, and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 9 ?mol m- 2 s- 1. At the Cambria site estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 8 and 500 ?mol m- 2 s- 1, and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 393 ?mol m- 2 s- 1. Substantial CH4 accumulation, coupled with oxygen (O2) depletion, measured in samples collected from custom-designed gas collection chambers at the Cambria site suggests that the development of explosion or asphyxiation hazards is possible in confined spaces above a rapidly degrading DFE release. However, the results also indicate that the development of such hazards is locally constrained, will require a high degree of soil moisture, close proximity to the source zone, a good connection between the soil and the confined space, and poorly aerated conditions.

Sihota, Natasha J.; Mayer, K. Ulrich; Toso, Mark A.; Atwater, Joel F.

2013-08-01

378

Methane emissions and contaminant degradation rates at sites affected by accidental releases of denatured fuel-grade ethanol.  

PubMed

The recent increase in the use of denatured fuel-grade ethanol (DFE) has enhanced the probability of its environmental release. Due to the highly labile nature of ethanol (EtOH), it is expected to rapidly biodegrade, increasing the potential for inducing methanogenic conditions in the subsurface. As environmental releases of DFE can be expected to occur at the ground surface or in the vadose zone (e.g., due to surficial spills from rail lines or tanker trucks and leaking underground storage tanks), the potential for methane (CH4) generation at DFE spill sites requires evaluation. An assessment is needed because high CH4 generation rates may lead to CH4 fluxes towards the ground surface, which is of particular concern if spills are located close to human habitation-related to concerns of soil vapor intrusion (SVI). This work demonstrates, for the first time, the measurement of surficial gas release rates at large volume DFE spill sites. Two study sites, near Cambria and Balaton, in MN are investigated. Total carbon emissions at the ground surface (summing carbon dioxide (CO2) and CH4 emissions) are used to quantify depth-integrated DFE degradation rates. Results from both sites demonstrate that substantial CO2 and CH4 emissions do occur-even years after a spill. However, large total carbon fluxes, and CH4 emissions in particular, were restricted to a localized area within the DFE source zone. At the Balaton site, estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 5 and 174 ?mol m(-2) s(-1), and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 9 ?mol m(-2) s(-1). At the Cambria site estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 8 and 500 ?mol m(-2) s(-1), and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 393 ?mol m(-2) s(-1). Substantial CH4 accumulation, coupled with oxygen (O2) depletion, measured in samples collected from custom-designed gas collection chambers at the Cambria site suggests that the development of explosion or asphyxiation hazards is possible in confined spaces above a rapidly degrading DFE release. However, the results also indicate that the development of such hazards is locally constrained, will require a high degree of soil moisture, close proximity to the source zone, a good connection between the soil and the confined space, and poorly aerated conditions. PMID:23685780

Sihota, Natasha J; Mayer, K Ulrich; Toso, Mark A; Atwater, Joel F

2013-08-01

379

Blood coagulation and fibrinolytic factors in 105 patients with hemorrhagic syndrome caused by accidental contact with Lonomia obliqua caterpillar in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Haemostatic disorders caused by Lonomia obliqua caterpillars has reached epidemic proportions in southern Brazil. Here we evaluated coagulation and fibrinolysis in 105 patients after accidental contact with Lonomia obliqua caterpillars. Global coagulation tests were prolonged in most cases and patients were divided into 3 groups according to fibrinogen (Fg) level: 1.5 g/l (group C). There was a significant reduction of factors V, XIII, VIII and prekallikrein in group A, with no change in factors X, II and von Willebrand factor. Thrombin-antithrombin and prothrombin F1+2 were elevated in most patients. Antithrombin and protein S were not changed whereas protein C levels were reduced in group A. Plasminogen and alfa2-antiplasmin levels were significantly reduced in group A and D-Dimer levels were extremely high in all groups, showing that fibrinolysis had been activated, possibly secondary to fibrin production. Levels of t-PA were normal and PAI-1 was mildly elevated in group A. The platelet count remained above 150 x 109 platelets/ml in 97% of cases. In summary, our results suggest that Lonomia obliqua envenoming is characterized by a consumption coagulopathy and secondary fibrinolysis. PMID:12574817

Zannin, Marlene; Lourenço, Dayse M; Motta, Guacyara; Dalla Costa, Luis R; Grando, Margaret; Gamborgi, Geni P; Noguti, Maria A; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana M

2003-02-01

380

A case study of pollutants transported from HPCL (vishakhapatnam) accidental fire through synergy of flexpart model and ground-based instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tushar Wankhede*, Harish Gadhavi, Amit K. Pandit National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), Gadanki-517112, Chittoor, A.P. *tushar1771@gmail.com, Mobile: +91-8297152481 A fire at Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL) in Vishakhapatnam (17.70 ?N, 83.24?E) resulted from a gas leak in the salt water cooling tower system. This led to the release of various pollutants like hydrocarbons, black carbon, carbon mono-oxide and carbon dioxide etc(other gases) in just 44 min of fire in system a very huge amount of particles were emitted. The transport of these pollutants has been studied through FLEXPART which is a Lagrangian particle dispersion model having wide range of applications in atmospheric transport modeling. FLEXPART simulation of this accidental fire shows the direction and sensitivity of dispersed pollutants from its source. It was observed that the pollutants reached Gadanki, a rural site located at 13.45 ?N, 79.18 ?E in Southern-India. The concentration of pollutant obtained from FLEXPART output we are comparing with ground based instruments data collected at the observation site (Indian Climate Observatory Network-ICON, NARL Gadanki). This case-study provides significant information about the life-time of dispersed pollutants and their long-range transport pattern under the influence of small weather variability en-route from source to receptor. The detailed work of FLEXPART for the Long range transport of the particles will be presented later on in conference.

Wankhede, Tushar

381

Landscape Thresholds and the Condition of Northeastern Estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

Anthropogenic impacts to northeastern estuaries have been well documented and many researchers have quantified the associations between broad scale human land uses in contributing landscapes and impacted estuarine condition. However, associations alone are not adequate for ident...

382

Taming the Goldstone contributions to the effective potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard perturbative effective potential suffers from two related problems of principle involving the field-dependent Goldstone boson squared mass, G. First, in general G can be negative, and it actually is negative in the Standard Model; this leads to imaginary contributions to the effective potential that are not associated with a physical instability, and therefore spurious. Second, in the limit that G approaches zero, the effective potential minimization condition is logarithmically divergent already at two-loop order, and has increasingly severe power-law singularities at higher loop orders. I resolve both issues by resumming the Goldstone boson contributions to the effective potential. For the resulting resummed effective potential, the minimum value and the minimization condition that gives the vacuum expectation value are obtained in forms that do not involve G at all.

Martin, Stephen P.

2014-07-01

383

Cost of Crashes Related to Road Conditions, United States, 2006  

PubMed Central

This is the first study to estimate the cost of crashes related to road conditions in the U.S. To model the probability that road conditions contributed to the involvement of a vehicle in the crash, we used 2000–03 Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) data, the only dataset that provides detailed information whether road conditions contributed to crash occurrence. We applied the logistic regression results to a costed national crash dataset in order to calculate the probability that road conditions contributed to the involvement of a vehicle in each crash. In crashes where someone was moderately to seriously injured (AIS-2-6) in a vehicle that harmfully impacted a large tree or medium or large non-breakaway pole, or if the first harmful event was collision with a bridge, we changed the calculated probability of being road-related to 1. We used the state distribution of costs of fatal crashes where road conditions contributed to crash occurrence or severity to estimate the respective state distribution of non-fatal crash costs. The estimated comprehensive cost of traffic crashes where road conditions contributed to crash occurrence or severity was $217.5 billion in 2006. This represented 43.6% of the total comprehensive crash cost. The large share of crash costs related to road design and conditions underlines the importance of these factors in highway safety. Road conditions are largely controllable. Road maintenance and upgrading can prevent crashes and reduce injury severity. PMID:20184840

Zaloshnja, Eduard; Miller, Ted R.

2009-01-01

384

Contributions to Intercollegiate Athletic Programs: Further Evidence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Football success is found to significantly increase athletic contributions. Athletic contributions were also found to depend significantly upon football attendance, affiliation with the Atlantic Coast Conference, bowl participation, basketball winning percentage, state population, and professional competition. (RM)

Coughlin, Cletus C.; Erekson, O. Homer

1985-01-01

385

38 CFR 21.5052 - Contribution requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Contribution requirements. 21.5052 Section 21.5052 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Participation § 21.5052 Contribution requirements. (a) Minimum...

2013-07-01

386

38 CFR 21.5052 - Contribution requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Contribution requirements. 21.5052 Section 21.5052 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Participation § 21.5052 Contribution requirements. (a) Minimum...

2010-07-01

387

38 CFR 21.5052 - Contribution requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Contribution requirements. 21.5052 Section 21.5052 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Participation § 21.5052 Contribution requirements. (a) Minimum...

2012-07-01

388

38 CFR 21.5052 - Contribution requirements.  

...2014-07-01 false Contribution requirements. 21.5052 Section 21.5052 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Participation § 21.5052 Contribution requirements. (a) Minimum...

2014-07-01

389

38 CFR 21.5052 - Contribution requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Contribution requirements. 21.5052 Section 21.5052 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Participation § 21.5052 Contribution requirements. (a) Minimum...

2011-07-01

390

On Ramachandra's Contributions to Transcendental Number Theory  

E-print Network

On Ramachandra's Contributions to Transcendental Number Theory Michel WALDSCHMIDT Universit P. et M(C) for the complex topology? The other contributions of Ramachandra to transcendental number theory are dealt

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

391

Matlab Module to Delineate Zones of Contribution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a visual demonstration of the effects of aquifer parameters and stresses on the size and shape of zones of contribution. With these simple Matlab routines, students can rapidly observe zones of contributions for different sets of input parameters.

Roseanna Neupauer

392

Contributions of individual muscles to hip joint contact force in normal walking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human hip joint withstands high contact forces during daily activity and is therefore susceptible to injury and structural deterioration over time. Knowledge of muscle-force contributions to hip joint loading may assist in the development of strategies to prevent and manage conditions such as osteoarthritis, femoro-acetabular impingement and fracture. The main aim of this study was to determine the contributions

Tomas A. Correa; Kay M. Crossley; Hyung J. Kim; Marcus G. Pandy

2010-01-01

393

Inflation of Conditional Predictions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors report 7 experiments indicating that conditional predictions--the assessed probability that a certain outcome will occur given a certain condition--tend to be markedly inflated. The results suggest that this inflation derives in part from backward activation in which the target outcome highlights aspects of the condition that are…

Koriat, Asher; Fiedler, Klaus; Bjork, Robert A.

2006-01-01

394

Heinrich Obersteiner and his contributions.  

PubMed

Heinrich Obersteiner (1847-1921) was amongst the most influential neuroscientists in the 19th century. Born into a family of physicians, he gained early exposure to medicine, and as a medical student, he focused much of his research in neuroanatomy, eventually becoming a professor of neuroanatomy at the University of Vienna. Throughout his academic career, he focused greatly on neuropathology, and incorporated much of his research into his textbook, "Introduction to the Study of the Structure of the Central Nervous Organs in Health and Disease," which was considered the foremost reference text of neurology for many generations of scholars. The culmination of his contributions to the neurological world can be seen as the Neurological Institute of Vienna, which he founded in 1882. Scholars from all over the world sought out his expertize and tutelage. While he was the director of the Institute, over 500 articles were published within the Obersteiner-Arbeiten. Much of this work helped set the foundation for the eventual development of neurology as a medical discipline. A review of his life will help us better understand the legacy Heinrich Obersteiner left in the field of neurology. Clin. Anat. 28:5-11, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24753297

Cesmebasi, Alper; John, Alana; Etienne, Denzil; Shane Tubbs, R; Loukas, Marios

2015-01-01

395

The microbial contribution to macroecology  

PubMed Central

There has been a recent explosion of research within the field of microbial ecology that has been fueled, in part, by methodological improvements that make it feasible to characterize microbial communities to an extent that was inconceivable only a few years ago. Furthermore, there is increasing recognition within the field of ecology that microorganisms play a critical role in the health of organisms and ecosystems. Despite these developments, an important gap still persists between the theoretical framework of macroecology and microbial ecology. We highlight two idiosyncrasies of microorganisms that are fundamental to understanding macroecological patterns and their mechanistic drivers. First, high dispersal rates provide novel opportunities to test the relative importance of niche, stochastic, and historical processes in structuring biological communities. Second, high speciation rates potentially lead to the convergence of ecological and evolutionary time scales. After reviewing these unique aspects, we discuss strategies for improving the conceptual integration of microbes into macroecology. As examples, we discuss the use of phylogenetic ecology as an integrative approach to explore patterns across the tree of life. Then we demonstrate how two general theories of biodiversity (i.e., the recently developed theory of stochastic geometry and the neutral theory) can be adapted to microorganisms. We demonstrate how conceptual models that integrate evolutionary and ecological mechanisms can contribute to the unification of microbial ecology and macroecology. PMID:24829564

Barberán, Albert; Casamayor, Emilio O.; Fierer, Noah

2014-01-01

396

26 CFR 1.401(m)-1 - Employee contributions and matching contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...contributions and matching contributions. 1.401(m)-1 Section 1.401(m)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(m)-1 Employee contributions and matching...

2010-04-01

397

Paternal contribution: new insights and future challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been widely held that all that fathers essentially contribute to the next generation is half their genome. However, recent progress towards understanding biological processes such as sperm maturation and fertilization now indicates that the paternal contribution has been underestimated. To tackle some of the misconceptions surrounding the paternal contribution, the factors that are actually delivered by the sperm

Stephen A. Krawetz

2005-01-01

398

6, 1131711355, 2006 Contribution of fungi  

E-print Network

ACPD 6, 11317­11355, 2006 Contribution of fungi to biogenic aerosols W. Elbert et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere Contribution of fungi to biogenic aerosols W. Elbert et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

399

11 CFR 9034.2 - Matchable contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...contribution by a credit card or debit card...full name and card number of the cardholder...credit or debit card are matchable contributions...Contributions by credit card or debit card where...cardholder's name and card number are given to...

2010-01-01

400

11 CFR 9034.2 - Matchable contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...contribution by a credit card or debit card...full name and card number of the cardholder...credit or debit card are matchable contributions...Contributions by credit card or debit card where...cardholder's name and card number are given to...

2012-01-01

401

11 CFR 9034.2 - Matchable contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...contribution by a credit card or debit card...full name and card number of the cardholder...credit or debit card are matchable contributions...Contributions by credit card or debit card where...cardholder's name and card number are given to...

2011-01-01

402

11 CFR 9034.2 - Matchable contributions.  

...contribution by a credit card or debit card...full name and card number of the cardholder...credit or debit card are matchable contributions...Contributions by credit card or debit card where...cardholder's name and card number are given to...

2014-01-01

403

11 CFR 9034.2 - Matchable contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...contribution by a credit card or debit card...full name and card number of the cardholder...credit or debit card are matchable contributions...Contributions by credit card or debit card where...cardholder's name and card number are given to...

2013-01-01

404

Contributions to cooperative rearing in meerkats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vertebrate societies where young are reared communally, nonbreeding helpers are usually closely related to young but often vary widely in their contributions to feeding them. Evolutionary explanations of helping behaviour have focused on whether differences in the level of contributions between helpers are related to variation in kinship. We investigated the contribution of helpers in meerkats, Suricata suricatta. The

T. H. Clutton-Brock; P. N. M. Brotherton; M. J. O'Riain; A. S. Griffin; D. Gaynor; R. Kansky; L. Sharpe; G. M. McIlrath

2001-01-01

405

Lorient Campaign 1993: The Dutch contribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of radar and infrared systems in a maritime environment is strongly dependent on the conditions of the atmosphere and the sea surface. In the autumn of 1993 an experiment was set up by the NATO Research Study Group AC/243 Panel3/RSG21 to collect propagation data at a line-of-sight propagation path. The purpose of the experiment was to gain knowledge about the behavior of the path loss and angle of arrival of the signals. This paper presents the results of the Dutch contribution to the experiment and a comparison of the measurements with model predictions. For radar in the line-of-sight situation the propagation is dominated by the multipath interference and influenced by ducting. Predictions performed with the propagation model PCPEMC and the Bulk-CELAR duct model show satisfying results for the position of the nulls, if wind speed and wave height are taken into account. Using the data of this experiment, a synergism between radar and IR angle of arrival could not be proven.

Boekema, R. B.

1995-02-01

406

The contribution of host genetics to tuberculosis pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Assessment of the contribution of host genetics to human tuberculosis is a long-standing research challenge. Evidence of genetic factors has come primarily from twin studies and risks to first-degree relatives of cases. In addition, inferences of strong genetic influences have come from anecdotal accounts of socially prominent families, population variation in TB incidence and susceptibility to infection, and secular changes in TB severity, incidence and mortality inferred from historical information of contact between different populations, as well as accidental inoculation of vaccinees with M. tuberculosis. Recently, a major tuberculosis susceptibility locus has been mapped to the long arm of human chromosome. A number of host genetic factors have been directly implicated in tuberculosis susceptibility but strong genetic effects on tuberculosis risk have been difficult to detect both by candidate gene and genome-wide association studies. The reason for our current inability to trace strong genetic effects is unknown. However, a number of possible explanations are supported by direct experimental data. For example, it has been shown that host genetic control of susceptibility is limited to specific host M. tuberculosis strain combinations. In addition, it is known that proper inclusion of gene environment interactions is of critical importance for the detection of strong host genetic effects on tuberculosis susceptibility. By contrast, few genetic studies stratify on M. tuberculosis or try to model gene-environment interactions. Until now, most of the human genetics studies in tuberculosis have focused on the identification of genetic variants that impact on progression from infection to disease. There are few studies that aim at the identification of genes that impact on resistance to infection with M. tuberculosis or genes that control the extent of antimycobacterial immunity. Yet, estimates of heritability for these quantitative traits provide clear evidence for an important role of host genetics in anti-mycobacterial immunity. Recent work involving scientists from South Africa, France and Canada has focused on the study of innate resistance to infection with M. tuberculosis. Employing the tuberculin skin test as a tool to evaluate resistance to infection, a major locus (TST1) on chromosomal region 11p14 was identified that T-cell independent resistance to M. tuberculosis. In addition, a second major locus (TST2), on chromosomal region 5p15 was identified that controls the intensity of T-cell mediated delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) to tuberculin. These results pave the way for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in resistance to M. tuberculosis infection in endemic areas (TST1), and for the identification of critical regulators of T-cell dependent DTH to tuberculin (TST2). The finding of a strong host genetic control of anti-mycobacterial immunity raises the questions to what extent host genetics will be a barrier to the development of a universally efficacious tuberculosis vaccine. In fact, epidemiological studies in highly endemic areas and experiments in animal models suggest a strong contribution of host genetic factors to vaccine efficacy making the identification of the corresponding genes one of the new frontiers of mycobacterial research. PMID:21401002

Schurr, Erwin

2011-01-01

407

Is FISH painting an appropriate biological marker for dose estimates of suspected accidental radiation overexposure? A review of cases investigated in France from 1995 to 1996.  

PubMed

From 1995 to 1996 about 15 people suspected of being overexposed to ionizing radiation were referred to the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection in Fontenay-aux-Roses, France, for investigation by chromosome aberration analysis. Biological estimates of accidental overexposure were first obtained by scoring radio-induced unstable structural chromosome aberrations (dicentrics, centric rings, and fragments) in peripheral blood lymphocytes. For dose estimates, the yield of these chromosomal aberrations observed in 500 metaphases was compared with the laboratory dose-response relationship established from human blood irradiated in vitro (gamma-rays, 60Co, 0.5 Gy/min). To extend the possibilities of detecting DNA damage from earlier exposures by visualizing stable chromosome aberrations, chromosome painting by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH painting) was developed using a cocktail of three composite whole human chromosome-specific DNA probes (numbers 2, 4, and 12). A laboratory calibration curve for scoring terminal and/or reciprocal translocations was established for the same radiation quality and dose rate as those used for conventional cytogenetics (gamma-rays, 60Co, 0.5 Gy/min). For dosimetry purposes, it was also important to verify whether FISH painting could be applied to each human blood sample assessed for conventional expertise. For each individual, 2000 metaphases were scored for the presence or absence of reciprocal and terminal translocations. We present here a comparison between the results obtained by the two technologies for each of the cases studied separately. We describe their similarities or differences and discuss the suitability of using FISH painting for routine expertise analysis. PMID:9467056

Sorokine-Durm, I; Durand, V; Le Roy, A; Paillole, N; Roy, L; Voisin, P

1997-12-01

408

Is FISH painting an appropriate biological marker for dose estimates of suspected accidental radiation overexposure? A review of cases investigated in France from 1995 to 1996.  

PubMed Central

From 1995 to 1996 about 15 people suspected of being overexposed to ionizing radiation were referred to the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection in Fontenay-aux-Roses, France, for investigation by chromosome aberration analysis. Biological estimates of accidental overexposure were first obtained by scoring radio-induced unstable structural chromosome aberrations (dicentrics, centric rings, and fragments) in peripheral blood lymphocytes. For dose estimates, the yield of these chromosomal aberrations observed in 500 metaphases was compared with the laboratory dose-response relationship established from human blood irradiated in vitro (gamma-rays, 60Co, 0.5 Gy/min). To extend the possibilities of detecting DNA damage from earlier exposures by visualizing stable chromosome aberrations, chromosome painting by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH painting) was developed using a cocktail of three composite whole human chromosome-specific DNA probes (numbers 2, 4, and 12). A laboratory calibration curve for scoring terminal and/or reciprocal translocations was established for the same radiation quality and dose rate as those used for conventional cytogenetics (gamma-rays, 60Co, 0.5 Gy/min). For dosimetry purposes, it was also important to verify whether FISH painting could be applied to each human blood sample assessed for conventional expertise. For each individual, 2000 metaphases were scored for the presence or absence of reciprocal and terminal translocations. We present here a comparison between the results obtained by the two technologies for each of the cases studied separately. We describe their similarities or differences and discuss the suitability of using FISH painting for routine expertise analysis. Images Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 2. C PMID:9467056

Sorokine-Durm, I; Durand, V; Le Roy, A; Paillole, N; Roy, L; Voisin, P

1997-01-01

409

[Acute accidental poisoning in children: aspects of their epidemiology, aetiology, and outcome at the Charles de Gaulle Paediatric Hospital in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].  

PubMed

Accidents are a daily concern in the paediatric ward because of their frequency, diversity and severity. Acute accidental poisoning (AAP) accounts for an important portion of these. To help improvement management of AAP, we conducted a retrospective study covering a period of 2 years from January 2005 to December 2006 at Charles de Gaulle Paediatric University Hospital in Ouagadougou. Of 9390 admissions during the study period, 123 children, or 1.3%, were admitted for poisoning. A cumulative average of 11 were admitted monthly, with a peak of 16 patients in April 2005 and 2006, together. AAP was most common among children aged 1 to 4 years. Their mean age was 3 years and ranged from 6 days to 12 years. Boys outnumbered girls, with a sex ratio of 1.2. Mothers of more than half (61%) of the children poisoned worked in the home. Household products accounted for 44.7% of AAPs, followed by drug (22.7%) and food (22%) poisoning. Kerosene and other petroleum products topped the list of household products, with 54.5%. Tranquilizers (46.4%) and dairy products (37%) dominated the drug and food poisoning categories. Immediate outcome was fatal in 3% of cases, and three quarters of these deaths occurred during drug poisoning of children aged 1 to 4 years. The mean hospital stay was 2 days, and ranged from 0 to 9 days. Health officials, the media, and community outreach must all help to increase awareness about the dangers of poisoning and of preventive measures. PMID:20031511

Kouéta, Fla; Dao, Lassina; Yé, Diarra; Fayama, Zéinabou; Sawadogo, Alphonse

2009-01-01

410

Comparison of mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction accidentally admitted to non-cardiology departments versus that in patients admitted to coronary care units.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the clinical characteristics including symptoms and long-term mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) accidentally admitted to non-cardiology departments (NCDs). For comparison, similar observations in patients admitted to the coronary care unit (CCU) were collected. During a 1-year period, consecutive patients having cardiac troponin I measured at the Odense University Hospital were considered. The hospital has 27 clinical departments. Patients were classified as having an AMI if the diagnostic criteria of the universal definition were met. Follow-up was at least 1 year with mortality as the clinical end point. Of 3,762 consecutive patients, an AMI was diagnosed in 479, of whom 114 patients (24%) were hospitalized in NCDs and 365 (76%) in the CCU. Chest pain or chest discomfort more frequently occurred in patients from the CCU (83%) than in patients from the NCDs (45%, p <0.0001). At median follow-up of 2.1 years, 150 patients had died: 73 (64%) of patients from the NCDs and 77 (21%) of the patients from the CCU. In the multivariable Cox regression analysis, the adjusted hazard ratio of mortality for patients from the NCDs versus CCU was 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 3.2). In conclusion, chest pain/discomfort was absent in more than half of the patients with AMI admitted to NCDs, and admission to NCDs was an independent predictor of a 2 times higher long-term mortality in comparison with admission to the CCU. PMID:25169985

D'Souza, Maria; Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina S; Diederichsen, Axel C P; Hosbond, Susanne; Diederichsen, Søren Z; Larsen, Torben B; Schmidt, Henrik; Gerke, Oke; Hallas, Jesper; Gislason, Gunnar; Thygesen, Kristian; Mickley, Hans

2014-10-15

411

Fred's Contributions to Stellar Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fred began work on stellar structure after Hans Bethe and Carl-Friedrich von Weizsäcker had independently established that the thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium is the primary source of the energy radiated by the Sun and other main sequence stars. A joint paper with Ray Lyttleton included this temperature-sensitive process explicitly in the energy equation, effectively vindicating the essentials of the theory of homogeneous gaseous stars presented in Sir Arthur Eddington's celebrated monograph `The Internal Constitution of the Stars'. Agreement with the solar luminosity can be obtained with two alternative values for the hydrogen content. In a subsequent paper, Fred argued convincingly in favour of the case with a very high rather than a moderate fraction of hydrogen. An epoch-making joint paper with Martin Schwarzschild followed the evolution of a low mass star through nuclear processing, from the main sequence into the giant domain in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. The slowly growing, burnt-out core becomes degenerate and nearly isothermal, while the photospheric boundary condition forces the expanding envelope to become largely convective. At the top of the giant branch, the degenerate core becomes hot enough for the fusion of helium into carbon; the consequent secular instability, noted first in studies of white dwarfs, brings the star down to the `horizontal branch', the location of the short-period globular cluster Cepheids. Two subsequent papers with Brian Haselgrove studied in further detail the structure of both main sequence and giant stars.

Mestel, L.

2003-07-01

412

Aims of conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear warfare research and treatment of radiation accident victims uncovered the potential of hemopoietic stem cell transplants. Prior to transplantation of hemopoietic stem cells patients receive “conditioning” agents: high-dose total-body irradiation and\\/or high-dose chemotherapy. High-dose conditioning causes at least 20% procedure-related mortality. Recent efforts to reduce procedure-related mortality by the use of low-dose conditioning included low-dose total-body irradiation, immunosuppressive agents,

Huib M Vriesendorp

2003-01-01

413

Satellite Contributions to Global Change Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By providing a global view with a level playing field (no region missed because of unfavorable surface conditions or political boundaries), satellites have made major contributions to improved monitoring and understanding of our constantly changing planet. The global view has allowed surprising realizations like the relative sparsity of lightning strikes over oceans and the large-scale undulations on the massive Antarctic ice sheet. It has allowed the tracking of all sorts of phenomena, including aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, as they move with the atmospheric circulation and impact weather and human health. But probably nothing that the global view allows is more important in the long term than its provision. of unbiased data sets to address the issue of global change, considered by many to be among the most important issues facing humankind today. With satellites we can monitor atmospheric temperatures at all latitudes and longitudes, and obtain a global average that lessens the likelihood of becoming endlessly mired in the confusions brought about by the certainty of regional differences. With satellites we can monitor greenhouse gases such as CO2 not just above individual research stations but around the globe. With satellites we can monitor the polar sea ice covers, as we have done since the late 1970s, determining and quantifying the significant reduction in Arctic sea ice and the slight growth in Antarctic sea ice over that period, With satellites we can map the full extent and changes in the Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletions that were first identified from using a single ground station; and through satellite data we have witnessed from afar land surface changes brought about by humans both intentionally, as with wide-scale deforestation, and unintentionally, as with the decay of the Aral Sea. The satellite data are far from sufficient for all that we need in order to understand the global system and forecast its changes, as we also need sophisticated climate models, in situ process studies, and data sets that extend back well before the introduction of satellite technology. Nonetheless, the repetitive, global view provided by satellites is contributing in a major way to our improved recognition of how the Earth im changing, a recognition that is none too soon in view of the magnitude of the impacts that humans can now have.

Parkinson, Claire L.

2009-01-01

414

42 CFR 418.62 - Condition of participation: Licensed professional services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Conditions of Participation: Patient Care § 418.62 Condition...coordination of all aspects of the patient's hospice care, in accordance...care, and contributing to patient and family counseling and education; and (c) Licensed...

2010-10-01

415

22 CFR 203.3 - U.S. PVO conditions of registration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2) Has its headquarters in the United States. (b) Condition No. 2 (Private). Is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) and solicits and receives cash contributions from the U.S. general public. (c) Condition No. 3 (Voluntary)....

2012-04-01

416

22 CFR 203.3 - U.S. PVO conditions of registration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2) Has its headquarters in the United States. (b) Condition No. 2 (Private). Is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) and solicits and receives cash contributions from the U.S. general public. (c) Condition No. 3 (Voluntary)....

2011-04-01

417

22 CFR 203.3 - U.S. PVO conditions of registration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2) Has its headquarters in the United States. (b) Condition No. 2 (Private). Is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) and solicits and receives cash contributions from the U.S. general public. (c) Condition No. 3 (Voluntary)....

2013-04-01

418

22 CFR 203.3 - U.S. PVO conditions of registration.  

...2) Has its headquarters in the United States. (b) Condition No. 2 (Private). Is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) and solicits and receives cash contributions from the U.S. general public. (c) Condition No. 3 (Voluntary)....

2014-04-01

419

Achilles tendon: US diagnosis of pathologic conditions. Work in progress  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-three patients were prospectively examined with ultra-sound (US) for acute or recurrent Achilles tendon symptoms. Three types of pathologic conditions of the Achilles tendon were found: tendinitis/tenosynovitis, acute tendon trauma, and postoperative changes. US appears to enable differentiation of these conditions and to contribute to the diagnosis of a broad range of Achilles tendon disorders.

Blei, C.L.; Nirschl, R.P.; Grant, E.G.

1986-06-01

420

Mechanisms Contributing to the Induction and Storage of Pavlovian Fear Memories in the Lateral Amygdala  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relative contributions of plasticity in the amygdala vs. its afferent pathways to conditioned fear remain controversial. Some believe that thalamic and cortical neurons transmitting information about the conditioned stimulus (CS) to the lateral amygdala (LA) serve a relay function. Others maintain that thalamic and/or cortical plasticity is…

Kim, Dongbeom; Pare, Denis; Nair, Satish S.

2013-01-01

421

FLUE GAS CONDITIONING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a survey of available flue gas conditioning agents and user experience. Many existing chemicals have been used as conditioning agents in power plants or have been studied in the laboratory as potential agents. The particle collection efficiency of an e...

422

Air-Conditioning Mechanic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by air conditioning mechanics. Addressed in the four chapters, or lessons, of the manual are the following topics: principles of air conditioning, refrigeration components as…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

423

The soil physics contributions of Edgar Buckingham  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1902 to 1906 as a soil physicist at the USDA Bureau of Soils (BOS), Edgar Buckingham originated the concepts of matric potential, soil-water retention curves, specific water capacity, and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K) as a distinct property of a soil. He applied a formula equivalent to Darcy's law (though without specific mention of Darcy's work) to unsaturated flow. He also contributed significant research on quasi-empirical formulas for K as a function of water content, water flow in capillary crevices and in thin films, and scaling. Buckingham's work on gas flow in soils produced paradigms that are consistent with our current understanding. His work on evaporation elucidated the concept of self-mulching and produced sound and sometimes paradoxical generalizations concerning conditions that favor or retard evaporation. Largely overshadowing those achievements, however, is that he launched a theory, still accepted today, that could predict transient water content as a function of time and space. Recently discovered documents reveal some of the arguments Buckingham had with BOS officials, including the text of a two-paragraph conclusion of his famous 1907 report on soil water, and the official letter documenting rejection of that text. Strained interpersonal relations motivated the departure of Buckingham and other brilliant physicists (N.E. Dorsey, F.H. King, and Lyman Briggs) from the BOS during 1903 to 1906. Given that Buckingham and his BOS colleagues had been rapidly developing the means of quantifying unsaturated flow, these strained relations probably slowed the advancement of unsaturated flow theory. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

Nimmo, J.R.; Landa, E.R.

2005-01-01

424

Heat, Mass and Aerosol Transfers in Spray Conditions for Containment Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TOSQAN is an experimental program undertaken by the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surété Nucleaire (IRSN) in order to perform thermal hydraulic containment studies. The TOSQAN facility is a large enclosure devoted to simulating typical accidental thermal hydraulic flow conditions in nuclear Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) containment. The TOSQAN facility, which is highly instrumented with non-intrusive optical diagnostics, is particularly adapted to nuclear safety CFD code validation. The present work is devoted to studying the interaction of a water spray injection used as a mitigation means in order to reduce the gas pressure and temperature in the containment, to produce gases mixing and washout of fission products. In order to have a better understanding of heat and mass transfers between spray droplets and the gas mixture, and to analyze mixing effects due to spray activation, we performed detailed characterization of the two-phase flow.

Porcheron, Emmanuel; Lemaitre, Pascal; Nuboer, Amandine; Vendel, Jacques

425

7 CFR 966.45 - Contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 966.45 Contributions. The...

2011-01-01

426

7 CFR 1703.122 - Matching contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program § 1703.122 Matching contributions. (a) The grant applicant's minimum matching...

2013-01-01

427

7 CFR 1703.122 - Matching contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program § 1703.122 Matching contributions. (a) The grant applicant's minimum matching...

2012-01-01

428

7 CFR 1703.122 - Matching contributions.  

...Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program § 1703.122 Matching contributions. (a) The grant applicant's minimum matching...

2014-01-01

429

7 CFR 1703.122 - Matching contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program § 1703.122 Matching contributions. (a) The grant applicant's minimum matching...

2010-01-01

430

7 CFR 1703.122 - Matching contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program § 1703.122 Matching contributions. (a) The grant applicant's minimum matching...

2011-01-01

431

31 CFR 595.408 - Charitable contributions.  

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 595.408 Charitable contributions. (a) Unless specifically...

2014-07-01

432

High light decreases xylem contribution to fruit growth in tomato.  

PubMed

Recently, contradicting evidence has been reported on the contribution of xylem and phloem influx into tomato fruits, urging the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in fruit growth. So far, little research has been performed on quantifying the effect of light intensity on the different contributors to the fruit water balance. However, as light intensity affects both transpiration and photosynthesis, it might be expected to induce important changes in the fruit water balance. In this study, tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were grown in light and shade conditions and the fruit water balance was studied by measuring fruit growth of girdled and intact fruits with linear variable displacement transducers combined with a model-based approach. Results indicated that the relative xylem contribution significantly increased when shading lowered light intensity. This resulted from both a higher xylem influx and a lower phloem influx during the daytime. Plants from the shade treatment were able to maintain a stronger gradient in total water potential between stem and fruits during daytime, thereby promoting xylem influx. It appeared that the xylem pathway was still functional at 35 days after anthesis and that relative xylem contribution was strongly affected by environmental conditions. PMID:25039478

Hanssens, Jochen; DE Swaef, Tom; Steppe, Kathy

2015-03-01

433

26 CFR 1.72(e)-1T - Treatment of distributions where substantially all contributions are employee contributions...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Treatment of distributions where substantially all contributions are employee contributions...Treatment of distributions where substantially all contributions are employee contributions...section 72 and under which substantially all of the contributions are employee...

2010-04-01

434

Accidental Drowning or Foul Play?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case was developed for use in the first semester of a sophomore organic chemistry laboratory to illustrate how a combination of techniques is usually required in the identification of chemical compounds. It involves a murder mystery with a forensic twist. Students are told that two bodies have recently been recovered from two different lakes. Due to a mix-up at the morgue, the coroner’s office is unable to determine which body came from which lake. The students’ task is to develop a methodology to solve this mystery as well as determine whether the deaths were the result of murder or mishap.  The case could also be used in instrumental analysis courses or adapted for a non-majors course in the general education curriculum.

Konaklieva, Monika I.

2004-01-01

435

Notes from an Accidental Teacher  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflecting on her 40 year-long "happenstance" career in teaching--a field she had as a child vowed to avoid--Carol Ann Tomlinson describes five personal practices that have helped her and her colleagues achieve an effective, personally meaningful practice. She shares stories from her professional journey that illuminate these elements of a…

Tomlinson, Carol Ann

2011-01-01

436

Accidental Drowning or Foul Play?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case was developed for a sophomore organic chemistry lab to illustrate how a combination of techniques is usually required in the identification of chemical compounds. It involves a murder mystery with a forensic twist: Two bodies have been recovered from two different lakes, but because of a mix-up at the morgue, the coroner is unable to determine which body came from which lake. The students' task is to develop a methodology to solve this mystery as well as determine whether the deaths were due to murder or misadventure.

Konaklieva, Monika

2004-10-01

437

Serendipity: Accidental Discoveries in Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of the things discovered by accident are important in our everyday lives: Teflon, Velcro, nylon, x-rays, penicillin, safety glass, sugar substitutes, and polyethylene and other plastics. And we owe a debt to accident for some of our deepest scientific knowledge, including Newton's theory of gravitation, the Big Bang theory of Creation, and the discovery of DNA. Even the Rosetta Stone, the Dead Sea Scrolls, and the ruins of Pompeii came to light through chance. This book tells the fascinating stories of these and other discoveries and reveals how the inquisitive human mind turns accident into discovery. Written for the layman, yet scientifically accurate, this illuminating collection of anecdotes portrays invention and discovery as quintessentially human acts, due in part to curiosity, perserverance, and luck.

Roberts, Royston M.

1989-06-01

438

Confessions of an Accidental Theorist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How the author moved from concern about research to development of prescriptive models of heuristic problem solving and the exploration of metacognition and belief systems is discussed. Student beliefs about problem solving, and their corollaries, are included. (MNS)

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

1987-01-01

439

Reflections of an Accidental Theorist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "Research Commentary" explores the roles of theoretical and empirical work in the development of productive lines of research by elaborating on 3 main points. First, the dialectic between theory and empirical practice is highly productive for both: Theory is enriched by close attention to data, and one's understanding of empirical issues is…

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

2010-01-01

440

ACCIDENTAL RELEASE INFORMATION PROGRAM (ARIP)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Protection Agencys (EPAs) Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention Office(CEPPO) leads the effort to deal with chemical accidents. The Agency began its chemical accident prevention program in 1986. To identify the steps that could be taken by industrial fa...

441

[Accidental falls in the elderly].  

PubMed

Falls in the elderly are common with consecutive high mortality and morbidity. Recent consecutive data focus on identification and therapy of intrinsic risk factors. Sarcopenia, imbalance and gait disorders represent the major risk factors. Sarcopenia is caused by a disequilibrium of protein synthesis and breakdown, probably in consequence of age-related changes in protein metabolism. Protein supplements in combination with strength training shows the best benefit. Disorders in balance and gait are caused by age-related or pathologic changes in a complex regulation system of gait. The individual fall risk correlates with the gait variability and even increases with bad dual task performance. Activities with high requirements of attention and body awareness are the most effective prevention for falls in the elderly (-50%). PMID:24938159

Heinimann, Niklas B; Kressig, Reto W

2014-06-18

442

Current Hydrologic Conditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA)'s Hydrologic Information Center provides this page on Current Hydrologic Conditions across the US. Categorized into seven sections, the site offers daily information on floods, river/ streamflow conditions, drought, soil moisture, snow conditions, water supply, and meterological outlooks. The depth of each daily summary/ forecast varies by topic (e.g., floods, drought) but offers at least a national outlook, featuring highlights for newsworthy states and, in some cases, detailed information from specific locations within a state.

443

Wall conditioning on ITER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like all tokamaks, ITER will require wall conditioning systems and strategies for successful operation from the point of view of plasma-facing surface preparation. Unlike today's devices however, ITER will have to manage large quantities of tritium fuel, imposing on wall conditioning a major responsibility for tritium inventory control. It will also feature the largest plasma-facing beryllium surface ever used in a tokamak and its high duty cycle and long pulse are expected to lead to the rapid formation of deposited layers in which tritium can accumulate. This paper summarises the currently planned ITER wall conditioning systems and describes the strategy for their use throughout exploitation of the device.

Shimada, Michiya; Pitts, Richard A.

2011-08-01

444

{00157723;1} ORM 8.16.12 CONDITIONS OF VOLUNTEER SERVICE  

E-print Network

volunteer, I understand that OSU will provide limited medical and accidental death, dismemberment Description". Minors must have parental consent and must use the individual form. IMPORTANT: Registered Sex

Escher, Christine

445

Contribution of Chlorophyll Fluorescence to the Reflectance of Corn Foliage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To assess the contribution of chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) to apparent reflectance (Ra) in the red/far-red, spectra were collected on a C4 agricultural species (corn, Zea Mays L.) under conditions ranging from nitrogen deficiency to excess. A significant contribution of ChlF to Ra was observed, with on average 10-25% at 685nm and 2-6% at 740nm of Ra being due to ChlF. Higher ChlF was consistently measured from the abaxial leaf surface as compared to the adaxial. Using 350-665nm excitation, the study confirms the trends in three ChlF ratios established previously by active F technology, suggesting that the ChlF utility this technology has developed for monitoring vegetation physiological status is likely applicable also under natural solar illumination.

Campbell, Petya K. Entcheva; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Corp, L. A.; McMurtrey, J. E.; Kim, M. S.; Chappelle, E. W.; Butcher, L. M.; Ranson, K. Jon (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

446

Anatomical and Physiological Factors Contributing to Chronic Muscle Pain  

PubMed Central

Chronic muscle pain remains a significant source of suffering and disability despite the adoption of pharmacologic and physical therapies. Muscle pain is mediated by free nerve endings distributed through the muscle along arteries. These nerves project to the superficial dorsal horn and are transmitted primarily through the spinothalamic tract to several cortical and subcortical structures, some of which are more active during the processing of muscle pain than other painful conditions. Mechanical forces, ischemia, and inflammation are the primary stimuli for muscle pain, which is reflected in the array of peripheral receptors contributing to muscle pain-ASIC, P2X, and TRP channels. Sensitization of peripheral receptors and of central pain processing structures are both critical for the development and maintenance of chronic muscle pain. Further, variations in peripheral receptors and central structures contribute to the significantly greater prevalence of chronic muscle pain in females. PMID:24633937

Gregory, Nicholas S.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

2015-01-01

447

Thomas Young's contributions to geometrical optics.  

PubMed

In addition to his work on physical optics, Thomas Young (1773-1829) made several contributions to geometrical optics, most of which received little recognition in his time or since. We describe and assess some of these contributions: Young's construction (the basis for much of his geometric work), paraxial refraction equations, oblique astigmatism and field curvature, and gradient-index optics. PMID:21214628

Atchison, David A; Charman, W Neil

2011-07-01

448

National contributions to observed global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is considerable interest in identifying national contributions to global warming as a way of allocating historical responsibility for observed climate change. This task is made difficult by uncertainty associated with national estimates of historical emissions, as well as by difficulty in estimating the climate response to emissions of gases with widely varying atmospheric lifetimes. Here, we present a new estimate of national contributions to observed climate warming, including CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and land-use change, as well as methane, nitrous oxide and sulfate aerosol emissions While some countries’ warming contributions are reasonably well defined by fossil fuel CO2 emissions, many countries have dominant contributions from land-use CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions, emphasizing the importance of both deforestation and agriculture as components of a country’s contribution to climate warming. Furthermore, because of their short atmospheric lifetime, recent sulfate aerosol emissions have a large impact on a country’s current climate contribution We show also that there are vast disparities in both total and per-capita climate contributions among countries, and that across most developed countries, per-capita contributions are not currently consistent with attempts to restrict global temperature change to less than 2 °C above pre-industrial temperatures.

Damon Matthews, H.; Graham, Tanya L.; Keverian, Serge; Lamontagne, Cassandra; Seto, Donny; Smith, Trevor J.

2014-01-01

449

Heavy top renormalon contribution to fermion propagators  

E-print Network

We study resummed perturbative contributions due to a heavy top-quark. These renormalon contributions are evaluated for fermion propagators. Results for the top-quark width are given. Estimates of non-perturbative uncertainties are made on the \\rho-parameter using different schemes of dealing with the Landau-pole. For the physical top-quark mass the effects are negligible.

D. Bettinelli; J. J. van der Bij

2012-06-01

450

Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.

2013-01-01

451

Swiss contribution to water hammer theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swiss hydraulic engineers have significantly contributed to the understanding of water hammer, based partly on the advances of the Italians Ménabréa and Allievi. The contributions of Michaud, Strickler, Schnyder and Jaeger are particularly discussed in the light of modern developments, and biographies on the latter two individuals are added. It is concluded that the phenomenon of water hammer has been

Willi H. Hager

2001-01-01

452

Cooperatives' contributions to a plural economy  

E-print Network

23 Cooperatives' contributions to a plural economy Jérôme Blanc* and Denis Colongo** T he European economy(1) . The central theme of the conference was the contributions of cooperatives to a plural economy and solidarity economy and elsewhere, and some of them draw on Karl Polanyi's conceptual framework (a key

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

453

Capabilities and Contributions of Unwed Fathers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young, minority, and poorly educated fathers in fragile families have little capacity to support their children financially and are hard-pressed to maintain stability in raising those children. In this article, Robert Lerman examines the capabilities and contributions of unwed fathers, how their capabilities and contributions fall short of those…

Lerman, Robert I.

2010-01-01

454

Gould's Rcal Contribution J David Archibald  

E-print Network

sour view of how Stephen Jay Gould's work and legacy has fared at the hands of neolltologists. I agreeGould's Rcal Contribution J David Archibald Skeptic; 201 1; 16,3; General Interest Module pg. 12 FORUM Gould's Real Contribution In his review/essJY (Vol. 16, No. I), Don;lld Prothero takes a rather

Archibald, J. David

455

Factors Contributing to Institutions Achieving Environmental Sustainability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with…

James, Matthew; Card, Karen

2012-01-01

456

Climatic Conditions in Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of research on the ways in which classroom thermal environment, lighting conditions, ion state, and electromagnetic and air pollution affect learning and the performance of students and teachers. (SJL)

Kevan, Simon M.; Howes, John D.

1980-01-01

457

Hip Conditioning Program  

MedlinePLUS

... of your abdomen to prevent you from leaning backward. Hip Conditioning Program Strengthening exerciSeS © American Academy of ... and do not lean your body forward or backward. © American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Exercises Page 5 ...

458

Pharmacokinetics and safety issues of an accidental overdose of 2,000,000 IU of vitamin D3 in two nursing home patients: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Administration of intermittent high doses of vitamin D3 is increasingly used as a strategy for rapid normalization of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) blood concentrations in patients with vitamin D deficiency. Here, we describe the pharmacokinetics of an accidental single oral overdose of 2,000,000 IU of vitamin D3 in two elderly nursing home patients and discuss safety issues. Case presentation Two patients, a Caucasian 90-year old man and a 95-year old woman, were monitored from 1 h up to 3 months after intake for clinical as well as biochemical signs of vitamin D intoxication. Blood vitamin D3 concentrations showed a prompt increase with the highest peak area already hours after the dose, followed by a rapid decrease to undetectable levels after day 14. Peak blood 25(OH)D3 concentrations were observed 8 days after intake (527 and 422 nmol/L, respectively (ref: 50–200 nmol/L)). Remarkably, plasma calcium levels increased only slightly up to 2.68 and 2.73 mmol/L, respectively (ref: 2.20–2.65 mmol/L) between 1 and 14 days after intake, whereas phosphate and creatinine levels remained within the reference range. No adverse clinical symptoms were noted. Conclusion A single massive oral dose of 2,000,000 IU of vitamin D3 does not cause clinically apparent toxicity requiring hospitalization, with only slightly elevated plasma calcium levels in the first 2 weeks. Toxicity in the long term cannot be excluded as annual doses of 500,000 IU of vitamin D3 for several years have shown an increase in the risk of fractures. This means that plasma calcium levels may not be a sensitive measure of vitamin D toxicity in the long term in the case of a single high overdose. To prevent a similar error in the future, the use of multiple-dose bottles need to be replaced by smaller single-unit dose formulations. PMID:25269374

2014-01-01

459

Power supply conditioning circuit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conditioning circuit is provided with a constant current diode in series with a zener diode, the former having a high dynamic impedance and the latter a low dynamic impedance. The constant current diode can receive an input voltage with PARD. In conjunction with the zener diode fixed to a ground, a voltage divider is provided which can give an output voltage whose PARD was significantly reduced. The conditioning circuit is effective down to dc.

Primas, Lori E. (inventor); Loveland, Rohan C. (inventor)

1988-01-01

460