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1

Prediction of work functioning following accidental injury: The contribution of PTSD symptom severity and other established risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses to a mail survey were used to investigate the contribution of PTSD symptom severity to work functioning in 69 previously employed adult survivors of accidental injury approximately 8 months post?hospitalization. Associations of PTSD symptom severity with other established risk factors for poor work functioning were also examined. Participants were initially divided into three groups based on PTSD symptom severity

Lynda R. Matthews; Darien Chinnery

2005-01-01

2

Poor owner knowledge of feline reproduction contributes to the high proportion of accidental litters born to UK pet cats.  

PubMed

'Accidental' litters contribute to population growth and the number of unwanted animals entering animal welfare organisations. Assessing the problem's extent and determining risk factors enables identification of education targets. Data were obtained from 715 cat-owning households in a cross-sectional telephone survey. Demographic and lifestyle factors were assessed for their association with accidental litters and with owner knowledge of cat reproduction. A total of 128 litters were reported from 552 female cats, and the proportion of accidental litters reported by owners was 80 per cent. Multivariable analysis identified that respondents were more likely to report an accidental litter of kittens if they believed a female cat should have a litter prior to being neutered, if they had more than one cat and if they rented rather than owned their home. Misconceptions relating to cat reproduction were common. The opinion that the youngest age a cat could get pregnant was five months of age (or older) was held by 83.5 per cent of cat-owning respondents, with over a quarter (26.4 per cent; 174/659) believing a queen is unable to conceive until at least a year of age. Almost half the respondents (49.0 per cent; 334/682) believed a female cat should have a litter before being neutered or were not sure; 38.8 per cent (264/681) thought that un-neutered, related cats would not mate or were not sure. This study suggests that improving cat-owner knowledge of the reproductive capacity of cats is likely to have a significant impact on the numbers of accidental litters born. PMID:24343905

Welsh, C P; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Roberts, M A; Murray, J K

2014-02-01

3

On the corrosion behavior of zircaloy-4 in spent fuel pools under accidental conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After zircaloy cladding tubes have been subjected to irradiation in the reactor core, they are stored temporarily in spent fuel pools. In case of an accident, the integrity of the pool may be affected and the composition of the coolant may change drastically. This was the case in Fukushima Daiichi in March 2011. Successive incidents have led to an increase in the pH of the coolant and to chloride contamination. Moreover, water radiolysis may occur owing to the remnant radioactivity of the spent fuel. In this study, we propose to evaluate the corrosion behavior of oxidized Zr-4 (in autoclave at 288 °C for 32 days) in function of the pH and the presence of chloride and radical forms. The generation of radicals is achieved by the sonolysis of the solution. It appears that the increase in pH and the presence of radicals lead to an increase in current densities. However, the current densities remain quite low (depending on the conditions, between 1 and 10 ?A cm-2). The critical parameter is the presence of chloride ions. The chloride ions widely decrease the passive range of the oxidized samples (the pitting potential is measured around +0.6 V (vs. SCE)). Moreover, if the oxide layer is scratched or damaged (which is likely under accidental conditions), the pitting potential of the oxidized sample reaches the pitting potential of the non-oxidized sample (around +0.16 V (vs. SCE)), leaving a shorter stable passive range for the Zr-4 cladding tubes.

Lavigne, O.; Shoji, T.; Sakaguchi, K.

2012-07-01

4

Accidental Hypothermia  

PubMed Central

Accidental hypothermia was studied in 11 patients, five of whom died. This condition occurs spontaneously, usually in a cold environment, and should be suspected in the comatose hypotensive patient. It is easily missed because regular clinical thermometers do not record extremely low body temperatures. It is distinguished from other forms of hypothermia by the very low body temperature and by the absence of recognized causes of hypothermia. Ten of the 11 patients were either alcoholic or diabetic. Intravascular thrombosis was the most common complication leading to death. PMID:5492500

Tolman, Keith G.; Cohen, Arthur

1970-01-01

5

Effects of meteorological conditions on the concentration and dispersion of an accidental release of H2S in Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to determine the effects of the land's meteorological conditions on the dispersion of an accidental release of H2S using the CALPro software. The three Canadian cities or towns of Edmonton, Yarmouth and Whitehorse, which are all of different meteorological conditions, were chosen as the domains of study. Hourly geophysical, surface and upper air meteorological data were used with CALMET to model the wind field of the three domains for the modeling period of March 11, 2012 from 00h00 to 23h00 LST. Individual 5-h modeling periods where the wind field showed the most significant variations were chosen for each region of study. CALPUFF was used to model the dispersion effects of an accidental release of H2S from a single point source due to an accidental vessel puncture using time-varying emission data modified to suit each region's modeling period. Despite the wind reversal encountered in Edmonton, its relatively flat terrain allowed H2S to disperse outwards, causing concentrations to accumulate lower than the other two regions but still to sever levels and a much greater population. Differences between the effect of land and sea breeze on H2S dispersion in Yarmouth's coastal region caused concentrations to accumulate higher than the other two regions and to life threatening levels around the source. The mountainous terrain of Whitehorse shaped the plume trajectory, causing H2S concentrations to accumulate to levels that can cause irreversible health effects at various times and locations. Results show that each area's meteorological conditions will have different impacts on dispersion.

Abdul-Wahab, Sabah A.; Chan, Keziah; Elkamel, Ali; Ahmadi, Lena

2014-01-01

6

Accidental Hypothermia In Man  

PubMed Central

Much is yet unknown on the pathogenesis of accidental hypothermia in man. Data are mainly derived from comparative physiological studies in mammals, but some knowledge has been obtained from direct clinical observation and the experience gained with induced hypothermia in anesthesia. The usual criteria of death do not apply to hypothermia and awareness of the altered physiology under such conditions is essential for quick and effective treatment. There appears to be a shift in rewarming procedures from superficial rewarming by conservative methods to the more aggressive forms of central rewarming. Despite practical limitations the latter methods, especially peritoneal dialysis, are more effective and decrease mortality. PMID:20469079

Kats, B. A.

1974-01-01

7

The contribution of medial prefrontal cortical regions to conditioned inhibition.  

PubMed

Few studies have considered the process by which individuals learn to omit a response, which is an essential aspect of adaptive behavior. Several lines of evidence indicate that two regions of the medial prefrontal cortex have disparate roles in behavioral flexibility. In particular, the prelimbic cortex (PL) is thought to facilitate the generation of a strategy to inhibit a prepotent response, whereas the infralimbic cortex (IL) appears to be more important for maintaining extensively trained inhibitory behaviors. The present experiments were designed to elucidate the contributions of PL and IL to the acquisition and maintenance of Pavlovian conditioned inhibition. In Experiment 1, damage to PL before training in a compound feature negative discrimination task impaired inhibitory learning. By comparison, lesions of IL had little effect. In Experiment 2, lesions of PL or IL occurred after overtraining, and damage to IL significantly impaired subsequent performance in the task, suggesting that this region is involved in the continued expression of Pavlovian conditioned inhibition after thorough training. PL may also be involved in maintaining inhibition, as evidenced by a marginally significant lesion-induced performance deficit. These data support the notion that PL and IL have distinguishable roles in modulating inhibition, while contributing important information about the specific role for PL in acquisition of an inhibitory response and IL in performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25285456

Meyer, Heidi C; Bucci, David J

2014-12-01

8

Acute accidental phosgene poisoning  

PubMed Central

Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:22602834

Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

2012-01-01

9

Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved home insulation and increased use of space heaters have increased the potential for accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings in the home. CO is a major environmental pollutant in today's society and is also contained in cigarette smoke. The toxic effects, metabolic pathways, and treatment of CO poisoning are described.

D. L. Jackson; H. Menges

1980-01-01

10

Accidental sexual strangulation.  

PubMed

Accidental death by manual strangulation among homosexuals during the act of sodomy is an uncommon event. In our recent case, the pattern of injuries indicates that strangulation resulted from the forearm application on the neck in a manner better known as "choke holding." PMID:3728426

Michalodimitrakis, M; Frangoulis, M; Koutselinis, A

1986-03-01

11

Advancement Is Seldom Accidental.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Success in college goals and programs for institutional advancement is seldom accidental: success in philanthropic support is seen as 90 percent planning and 10 percent implementation. Trustee membership, long-range plans, the motivational case, experienced staff, adequate budgets, prospect research, supportive communication all meld into a plan…

Frantzreb, Arthur C.

1981-01-01

12

Inflammatory Factors Contribute to Depression and Its Comorbid Conditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

New perspectives have emerged regarding the processes associated with depressive disorders and their many comorbid conditions. Particular attention has been paid to the potential role of inflammatory factors in promoting these illnesses. These inflammatory responses include those elicited by pathogenic stimuli, as well as sterile inflammatory processes, such as those related to severe or chronic stress. These diverse challenges may activate common processes in which cytokines, which are inflammatory signaling molecules, provoke the dysregulation of several growth factors, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, fibroblast growth factor–2, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and erythropoietin. The result of such dysregulation favors the development of depressive disorders and their comorbid illnesses, such as heart disease, diabetes, autoimmune conditions, and poststroke depression.

Hymie Anisman (Carleton University;Department of Neuroscience REV); Shawn Hayley (Carleton University;Department of Neuroscience REV)

2012-10-02

13

Genetic tradeoffs and conditional neutrality contribute to local adaptation  

PubMed Central

Divergent natural selection promotes local adaptation and can lead to reproductive isolation of populations in contrasting environments; however, the genetic basis of local adaptation remains largely unresolved in natural populations. Local adaptation might result from antagonistic pleiotropy, where alternate alleles are favored in distinct habitats, and polymorphism is maintained by selection. Alternatively, under conditional neutrality some alleles may be favored in one environment but neutral at other locations. Antagonistic pleiotropy maintains genetic variation across the landscape; however, there is a systematic bias against discovery of antagonistic pleiotropy since the fitness benefits of local alleles need to be significant in at least two environments. Here, we develop a generally applicable method to investigate polygenic local adaptation and identify loci that are the targets of selection. This approach evaluates allele frequency changes after selection at loci across the genome to distinguish antagonistic pleiotropy from conditional neutrality and deleterious variation. We investigate local adaptation at the QTL-level in field experiments, in which we expose 177 F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and parental lines of Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae) to their parental environments over two seasons. We demonstrate polygenic selection for native alleles in both environments, with 2.8% of the genome exhibiting antagonistic pleiotropy, and 8% displaying conditional neutrality. Our study strongly supports antagonistic pleiotropy at one large-effect flowering phenology QTL (nFT): native homozygotes had significantly greater probabilities of flowering than foreign homozygotes in both parental environments. Such large-scale field studies are essential to elucidate the genetic basis of adaptation in natural populations. PMID:22420446

Anderson, Jill T.; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Rushworth, Catherine; Colautti, Robert; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

2012-01-01

14

Electrocardiographic changes by accidental hypothermia in an urban and a tropical region  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHypothermia is defined as a condition in which core temperature (rectal, esophageal, or tympanic) reaches values below 35°C. This may be accidental, metabolic, or therapeutic. The accidental form is frequent in cold-climate countries and rare in those with tropical or subtropical climate. The aim of this study was to evaluate electrocardiographic changes of patients with accidental hypothermia.

Dilma de Souza; Andrés Ricardo Pérez Riera; Maria Teresa Bombig; Yoná Afonso Francisco; Luigi Brollo; Bráulio Luna Filho; Sergio Dubner; Edgardo Schapachnik; Rui Povoa

2007-01-01

15

Accidental inflation in the landscape  

SciTech Connect

We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P{sup 4}{sub [1,1,1,6,9]} by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Metallinos, Konstantinos [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States); Gomez-Reino, Marta, E-mail: jose@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: marta.gomez-reino.perez@cern.ch, E-mail: Konstantinos.Metallinos@tufts.edu [Department of Physics, University of Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain)

2013-02-01

16

The Accidental Scientist: Cooking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Another great Web site from the Exploratorium in San Francisco (last mentioned in the August 16, 2002 NSDL MET Report), The Accidental Scientist: Cooking is the first in a series of "Web-based projects focusing on the science behind everyday life." Offering a mind-boggling array of food-related information and activities, foodies and science-lovers alike should find this Web site extremely engaging. Life science-related material includes an exploration of taste and smell; the biological properties of meat; microbe action in pickling, fermentation, and leavening; and much more. The site's other features not directly related to the life sciences shouldn't be missed. Users can find recipes and cooking tips, fun projects, and live Web casts starting in November 2002 that explore the science and culture of cooking, "just in time for picking up cooking tips for the holiday season."

1969-12-31

17

Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.  

PubMed Central

Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. PMID:8781398

Cardis, E

1996-01-01

18

The accidental (acoustical) tourist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acoustical phenomenon observed at an ancient temple in the Great Ball Court at Chichen Itza was described as ''little short of amazing--an ancient whispering gallery'' by Silvanus G. Morley, leader of the Carnegie Institute's archaeological team that excavated and restored these structures in the 1920s. Since then, many others have experienced the extraordinary acoustics at Chichen Itza and other Maya sites. Despite these reports, archaeologists and acousticians have until recently shown little interest in understanding these phenomena. After experiencing Chichen Itza's remarkable acoustics as a tourist in 1994, the author commenced collecting and disseminating information about acoustical phenomena there and at other Mayan sites, hoping to stimulate interest among archaeologists and acousticians. Were these designs accidental or intentional? If intentional, how was the knowledge obtained? How were acoustical features used? This paper highlights the author's collection of anecdotal reports of mysterious Mayan acoustics (http://http://www.ianlawton.com/pa1.htm), recommended reading for scientists and engineers who wish to pursue this fascinating study. Also recounted are some of the reactions of archaeologists-ranging from curious, helpful, and insightful to humorous and appalling--to outsiders' efforts to bring serious scientific attention to the new field of acoustical archaeology.

Van Kirk, Wayne

2002-11-01

19

Contribution of Motivational Beliefs and Metacognition to Students' Performance under Consequential and Nonconsequential Test Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the contribution of motivational beliefs and metacognition to students' performance under consequential and nonconsequential test conditions was investigated. Fifty-eight college students participated in the study. A modified version of the Approaches to Learning Instrument, the Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Metacognitive Awareness…

Sungur, Semra

2007-01-01

20

[My accidental discovery].  

PubMed

We wonder what we should do in medical care besides daily routine work as a laboratory technician. I made a discovery in my routine laboratory work, which gave me a theme for my research. This led to me successfully completing a number of scientific research projects, and these experiences have enabled me to be able to give advice on appropriate treatments for infectious diseases in medical care. It was March 1999 when I identified Escherichia coli (E. coli) in an intra-abdominal abscess resistant to antibacterial agents. The E. coli was producing an enzyme, extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL), that breaks down cefem-group antibiotics often used in Japan. Therefore, it was resistant to those antimicrobial agents. Detailed analysis was performed by us and researchers of the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, which revealed that the E. coli had a SHV12 genotype of ESBL. It was the first case report of this type of ESBL-producing E. coli infection in Japan. After this experience, I became interested in searching for the mechanism of resistance to antibiotics with various kinds of approaches, such as a method involving genomic analysis by the polymerase-chain reaction (PCR), therapeutic management of drug-resistant bacterial infection, and so on, through which I learned a series of investigative approaches. Since I had plenty of data and experiences generated from routine work, I could perform novel studies and obtained many interesting findings. I am feeding back these findings to routine work in order to improve my performance. From my experience, we should look for the seeds for research from routine work as much as possible, and knowledge and experience generated by resolving problems teaches us how to perform in a clinical setting. This may lead to the further development of our research, which, in turn, promotes the accumulation of knowledge and experience. This feed-forward cycle enables laboratory technicians to improve their quality of work. This I gleaned from my one accidental discovery. PMID:19068786

Nakamura, Tatsuya

2008-10-01

21

Determinants of Suicide and Accidental or Violent Death in the Australian HIV Observational Database  

PubMed Central

Background Rates of suicide and accidental or violent death remain high in HIV-positive populations despite significantly improved prognosis since the introduction of cART. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study of suicide and accidental or violent death in the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) between January 1999 and March 2012. For each case, 2 controls were matched by clinic, age, sex, mode of exposure and HIV-positive date to adjust for potential confounding by these covariates. Risk of suicide and accidental or violent death was estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results We included 27 cases (17 suicide and 10 violent/accidental death) and 54 controls. All cases were men who have sex with men (MSM) or MSM/ injecting drug use (IDU) mode of exposure. Increased risk was associated with unemployment (Odds Ratio (OR) 5.86, 95% CI: 1.69–20.37), living alone (OR 3.26, 95% CI: 1.06–10.07), suicidal ideation (OR 6.55, 95% CI: 1.70–25.21), and >2 psychiatric/cognitive risk factors (OR 4.99, 95% CI: 1.17–30.65). CD4 cell count of >500 cells/µL (OR 0.25, 95% CI: 0.07–0.87) and HIV-positive date ?1990 (1990–1999 (OR 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11–0.89), post-2000 (OR 0.08, 95% CI: 0.01–0.84)) were associated with decreased risk. CD4 cell count ?500 cells/µL remained a significant predictor of reduced risk (OR 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03–0.70) in a multivariate model adjusted for employment status, accommodation status and HIV-positive date. Conclusions After adjustment for psychosocial factors, the immunological status of HIV-positive patients contributed to the risk of suicide and accidental or violent death. The number of psychiatric/cognitive diagnoses contributed to the level of risk but many psychosocial factors were not individually significant. These findings indicate a complex interplay of factors associated with risk of suicide and accidental or violent death. PMID:24586519

McManus, Hamish; Petoumenos, Kathy; Franic, Teo; Kelly, Mark D.; Watson, Jo; O'Connor, Catherine C.; Jeanes, Mark; Hoy, Jennifer; Cooper, David A.; Law, Matthew G.

2014-01-01

22

Urban contribution of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants to streams during differing flow conditions.  

PubMed

During 2001, 76 water samples were collected upstream and downstream of select towns and cities in Iowa during high-, normal- and low-flow conditions to determine the contribution of urban centers to concentrations of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) in streams under varying flow conditions. The towns ranged in population from approximately 2000 to 200,000. Overall, one or more OWCs were detected in 98.7% of the samples collected, with 62 of the 105 compounds being found. The most frequently detected compounds were metolachlor (pesticide), cholesterol (plant and animal sterol), caffeine (stimulant), beta-sitosterol (plant sterol) and 1,7-dimethylxanthine (caffeine degradate). The number of OWCs detected decreased as streamflow increased from low- (51 compounds detected) to normal- (28) to high-flow (24) conditions. Antibiotics and other prescription drugs were only frequently detected during low-flow conditions. During low-flow conditions, 15 compounds (out of the 23) and ten compound groups (out of 11) detected in more than 10% of the streams sampled had significantly greater concentrations in samples collected downstream than in those collected upstream of the urban centers. Conversely, no significant differences in the concentrations were found during high-flow conditions. Thus, the urban contribution of OWCs to streams became progressively muted as streamflow increased. PMID:15207578

Kolpin, Dana W; Skopec, Mary; Meyer, Michael T; Furlong, Edward T; Zaugg, Steven D

2004-07-26

23

Accidental hæmorrhage: Abruptio placentæ  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIS condition may be defined as hmmorrhage resulting from the separation of a normally situated placenta between the end of ~he second trimester of pregnan.cy and the end of the second stage of labour, but we have also seen the condition in all its gravity at an even earlier date. This separation of the placenta is often associated with a

F. Geoghegan

1954-01-01

24

Accidental poisoning with biodiesel preservative biocide  

PubMed Central

Although biodiesel fuels’ use is getting more and more popular, there are only few reports in the literature of poisoning with such agents, and none referring to their preservatives: biocides. We present the management of a 49-year-old Caucasian male who was admitted, after accidental ingestion of biocide solution, in the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital. In spite of his devastating condition upon arrival to the hospital, he had a remarkable recovery with no local or systemic sequel due to multidisciplinary and early supportive approach of his care. PMID:25336882

Aslanidis, T; Ourailoglou, V; Boultoukas, E; Giannakou-Peftoulidou, M

2014-01-01

25

Conditionally rare taxa disproportionately contribute to temporal changes in microbial diversity.  

PubMed

Microbial communities typically contain many rare taxa that make up the majority of the observed membership, yet the contribution of this microbial "rare biosphere" to community dynamics is unclear. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of 3,237 samples from 42 time series of microbial communities from nine different ecosystems (air; marine; lake; stream; adult human skin, tongue, and gut; infant gut; and brewery wastewater treatment), we introduce a new method to detect typically rare microbial taxa that occasionally become very abundant (conditionally rare taxa [CRT]) and then quantify their contributions to temporal shifts in community structure. We discovered that CRT made up 1.5 to 28% of the community membership, represented a broad diversity of bacterial and archaeal lineages, and explained large amounts of temporal community dissimilarity (i.e., up to 97% of Bray-Curtis dissimilarity). Most of the CRT were detected at multiple time points, though we also identified "one-hit wonder" CRT that were observed at only one time point. Using a case study from a temperate lake, we gained additional insights into the ecology of CRT by comparing routine community time series to large disturbance events. Our results reveal that many rare taxa contribute a greater amount to microbial community dynamics than is apparent from their low proportional abundances. This observation was true across a wide range of ecosystems, indicating that these rare taxa are essential for understanding community changes over time. Importance: Microbial communities and their processes are the foundations of ecosystems. The ecological roles of rare microorganisms are largely unknown, but it is thought that they contribute to community stability by acting as a reservoir that can rapidly respond to environmental changes. We investigated the occurrence of typically rare taxa that very occasionally become more prominent in their communities ("conditionally rare"). We quantified conditionally rare taxa in time series from a wide variety of ecosystems and discovered that not only were conditionally rare taxa present in all of the examples, but they also contributed disproportionately to temporal changes in diversity when they were most abundant. This result indicates an important and general role for rare microbial taxa within their communities. PMID:25028427

Shade, Ashley; Jones, Stuart E; Caporaso, J Gregory; Handelsman, Jo; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah; Gilbert, Jack A

2014-01-01

26

Working conditions that contribute to absenteeism among nurses in a provincial hospital in the Limpopo Province.  

PubMed

Absenteeism results in an increased workload for nurses who stand in for colleagues and can lead to situations in which a lack of motivation among nurses and a lowering of the quality of patient care may occur. The researcher observed that certain conditions, such as inflexible working schedules, were given as reasons for the absenteeism in units in a provincial hospital. A non-experimental, descriptive, quantitative study was undertaken. The purpose of the article was to describe the working conditions that contribute to absenteeism among the professional and sub-professional nurses at a provincial hospital in the Limpopo province of South Africa. The sample included 107 professional nurses and 163 sub-professional nurses who voluntarily agreed to participate in the study. A questionnaire was used to collect data, which was analysed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of this study indicated that personal and managerial characteristics, and organisational and working conditions may lead to absenteeism in the workplace. This article focuses on the working conditions that are constraints, namely inadequate group cohesion, inadequate delegation of autonomy, role ambiguity, ineffective routinisation and the effect of the workload in the workplace. Recommendations are made for improving working conditions to combat absenteeism among nurses. The limitations of this study are highlighted. PMID:18592946

Nyathi, M; Jooste, K

2008-03-01

27

Region-specific contribution of the ventral tegmental area to heroin-induced conditioned immunomodulation.  

PubMed

Dopamine receptor stimulation is critical for heroin-conditioned immunomodulation; however, it is unclear whether the ventral tegmental area (VTA) contributes to this phenomenon. Hence, rats received repeated pairings of heroin with placement into a distinct environmental context. At test, they were re-exposed to the previously heroin-paired environment followed by systemic lipopolysaccharide treatment to induce an immune response. Bilateral GABA agonist-induced neural inactivation of the anterior, but not the posterior VTA, prior to context re-exposure inhibited the ability of the heroin-paired environment to suppress peripheral nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-? expression, suggesting a role for the anterior VTA in heroin-conditioned immunomodulation. PMID:24462948

Hutson, Lee W; Szczytkowski, Jennifer L; Saurer, Timothy B; Lebonville, Christina; Fuchs, Rita A; Lysle, Donald T

2014-05-01

28

Epigenetic upregulation of PSD-95 contributes to the rewarding behavior by morphine conditioning.  

PubMed

Abuse of opiates, including morphine, induced remarkable synaptic adaptation in several brain regions including ventral tegmental area (VTA), which underlay the induction and maintenance of opioid dependence and addiction. Scaffolding protein postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) is critically involved in the glutamatergic synaptic maturation and plasticity in the central neurons. The present study revealed a significantly increased mRNA and protein expression of PSD-95 in the VTA of the rats conditioned with morphine. The further chromatin immunoprecipitation study found an increased histone H3 acetylation in the promoter region of Dlg4. An upregulation of expression of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and the occupancy of pCREB in the Dlg4 promoter region were shown in the VTA of the morphine-conditioned rats. Inhibition of pCREB activity significantly decreased the histone H3 acetylation in Dlg4 promoter region, PSD-95 upregulation, enhancement of glutamatergic strength and the preference to morphine-paired chamber in the rats with morphine conditioning. These results suggested that CREB-mediated epigenetic upregulation of PSD-95 critically contributed to the enhanced glutamatergic transmission and rewarding behavior induced by morphine conditioning. PMID:24704371

Wang, Ziwen; Yan, Pingao; Hui, Tianli; Zhang, Jiqiang

2014-06-01

29

Hsc70 Contributes to Cancer Cell Survival by Preventing Rab1A Degradation under Stress Conditions  

PubMed Central

Heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) acts as a molecular chaperone for the maintenance of intracellular proteins, which allows cancer cells to survive under proteotoxic stress. We attempted to use Hsc70 to identify key molecules in cancer cell survival. Here, we performed mass-spectrometry-based proteomics analysis utilizing affinity purification with anti-Hsc70 antibodies; as a result, 83 differentially expressed proteins were identified under stress conditions. This result implies that there was a change in the proteins with which Hsc70 interacted in response to stress. Among the proteins identified under both serum-depleted and 5-fluorouracil-treated conditions, Rab1A was identified as an essential molecule for cancer cell survival. Hsc70 interacted with Rab1A in a chaperone-dependent manner. In addition, Hsc70 knockdown decreased the level of Rab1A and increased the level of its ubiquitination under stress conditions, suggesting that Hsc70 prevented the degradation of Rab1A denatured by stress exposure. We also found that Rab1A knockdown induced cell death by inhibition of autophagosome formation. Rab1A may therefore contribute to overcoming proteotoxic insults, which allows cancer cells to survive under stress conditions. Analysis of Hsc70 interactors provided insight into changes of intracellular status. We expect further study of the Hsc70 interactome to provide a more comprehensive understanding of cancer cell physiology. PMID:24801886

Tanaka, Masako; Mun, Saya; Harada, Akihito; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Inagaki, Azusa; Sano, Soichi; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Izumi, Yasukatsu; Osada-Oka, Mayuko; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Yamagata, Masayo; Yukimura, Tokihito; Miura, Katsuyuki; Shiota, Masayuki; Iwao, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

30

Accidental poisoning in young children.  

PubMed Central

Cases of accidental childhood poisoning admitted to hospital were compared with community controls and hospital controls matched for age and sex. The relative risks of factors in the cases compared with both the control groups were significant for roughness, aggressiveness, noisiness, and pica behaviour in the child, and for large families. Mothers' knowledge of the toxicity of common household products and drugs did not give significant risk differences between cases and controls. The majority of poisonings occurred during the summer months. PMID:7069353

Basavaraj, D S; Forster, D P

1982-01-01

31

Conditioned contribution of peripheral cocaine actions to cocaine reward and cocaine-seeking.  

PubMed

Cocaine has actions in the peripheral nervous system that reliably precede--and thus predict--its soon-to-follow central rewarding effects. In cocaine-experienced animals, the peripheral cocaine signal is relayed to the central nervous system, triggering excitatory input to the ventral tegmental origin of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, the system that mediates the rewarding effects of the drug. We used cocaine methiodide, a cocaine analog that does not cross the blood-brain barrier, to isolate the peripheral actions of cocaine and determine their central and behavioral effects in animals first trained to lever-press for cocaine hydrochloride (the centrally acting and abused form of the drug). We first confirmed with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry that cocaine methiodide causes rapid dopamine release from dopamine terminals in cocaine hydrochloride-trained rats. We then compared the ability of cocaine hydrochloride and cocaine methiodide to establish conditioned place preferences in rats with self-administration experience. While cocaine hydrochloride established stronger place preferences, cocaine methiodide was also effective and its effectiveness increased (incubated) over weeks of cocaine abstinence. Cocaine self-administration was extinguished when cocaine methiodide or saline was substituted for cocaine hydrochloride in the intravenous self-administration paradigm, but cocaine hydrochloride and cocaine methiodide each reinstated non-rewarded lever-pressing after extinction. Rats extinguished by cocaine methiodide substitution showed weaker cocaine-induced reinstatement than rats extinguished by saline substitution. These findings suggest that the conditioned peripheral effects of cocaine can contribute significantly to cocaine-induced (but not stress-induced) cocaine craving, and also suggest the cocaine cue as an important target for cue-exposure therapies for cocaine addiction. PMID:23535778

Wang, Bin; You, Zhi-Bing; Oleson, Erik B; Cheer, Joseph F; Myal, Stephanie; Wise, Roy A

2013-08-01

32

Bad Jobs, Bad Health? How Work and Working Conditions Contribute to Health Disparities  

PubMed Central

In this review, we touch on a broad array of ways that work is linked to health and health disparities for individuals and societies. First focusing on the health of individuals, we discuss the health differences between those who do and do not work for pay, and review key positive and negative exposures that can generate health disparities among the employed. These include both psychosocial factors like the benefits of a high status job or the burden of perceived job insecurity, as well as physical exposures to dangerous working conditions like asbestos or rotating shift work. We also provide a discussion of the ways differential exposure to these aspects of work contributes to social disparities in health within and across generations. Analytic complexities in assessing the link between work and health for individuals, such as health selection, are also discussed. We then touch on several contextual level associations between work and the health of populations, discussing the importance of the occupational structure in a given society, the policy environment that prevails there, and the oscillations of the macroeconomy for generating societal disparities in health. We close with a discussion of four areas and associated recommendations that draw on this corpus of knowledge but would push the research on work, health and inequality toward even greater scholarly and policy relevance. PMID:24187340

Burgard, Sarah A.; Lin, Katherine Y.

2013-01-01

33

5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870.206 Section 870...Amount of Insurance § 870.206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an...

2012-01-01

34

21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.  

...2014-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

2014-04-01

35

21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

2011-04-01

36

21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

2010-04-01

37

21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

2013-04-01

38

21 CFR 1002.20 - Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. 1002.20 Section 1002...Manufacturers' Reports on Accidental Radiation Occurrences § 1002.20 Reporting of accidental radiation occurrences. (a)...

2012-04-01

39

Reducing accidental injuries during surgery.  

PubMed

Extensive clinical investigations have demonstrated that double-gloves and blunt-tipped surgical needles dramatically reduced the risk of accidental injuries during surgery. During the last decade, double-glove hole puncture indication systems have been developed that reduce the clinical risk of accidental needlestick injuries as well as detect the presence of glove hole puncture in the presence of fluids. When the outer glove is punctured, the colored underglove becomes apparent through the translucent outer glove, necessitating glove removal, hand washing, and donning of another double-glove hole puncture Indicator system. This article presents the first biomechanical performance study that documents the puncture resistance of blunt surgical needles in latex and nonlatex single gloves and double-glove hole puncture indication systems. The technique for measuring glove puncture resistance simulates the standard test for material resistance to puncture outlined by the American Society for Testing and Materials. The maximum puncture resistance force was measured by the compression load cell and recorded in grams with a strip chart recorder. Ten puncture resistance measurements for the taper point needle, blunt taper point needle, and blunt needle were taken from five samples of the Biogel Indicator underglove, Biogel Super-Sensitive glove, Biogel glove, Biogel Skinsense N Universal underglove, and Biogel Skinsense Polyisoprene glove; and the Biogel, Biogel Super-Sensitive, and Biogel Skinsense Polyisoprene double-glove hole puncture indication systems. The magnitude of puncture resistance forces recorded was influenced by several factors: glove material, number of glove layers, and type of surgical needle. For each type of curved surgical needle,the resistance to needle penetration by the nonlatex gloves was significantly greater than those encountered by the latex glove materials. The resistance to needle puncture of all three double-glove systems was significantly greater than that of either the nonlatex or latex underglove or outer glove. The taper point needle encountered the lowest puncture resistance forces in the five single gloves and the three double-glove systems. Blunting the sharp end of the taper point needle markedly increased its resistance to glove puncture in the five single gloves and five double-glove systems. The blunt-point surgical needle elicited the greatest needle penetration force in all of the single and double-glove systems. PMID:12825744

Edlich, Richard F; Wind, Tyler C; Hill, Lisa G; Thacker, John G; McGregor, Walter

2003-01-01

40

The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

1975-01-01

41

Accidental death involving professional fireworks.  

PubMed

An interesting case of accidental death involving the explosion of professional fireworks in an apartment is described. The examination of the scene permitted to study several effects of the explosion on walls, ceiling, furniture and especially on a balcony where the victim was found. The external examination of the victim showed extensive thermal injuries, degloving injuries and extensive shrapnel wounds. The autopsy examination showed subarachnoid haemorrhage localized to the cerebellum, haemorrhage in the soft tissues of the neck and chest and fracture of one clavicle. Almost the entire surface of lungs showed blunt injuries and the liver showed tearing of parenchyma and multiple cavities. Histological analysis were carried out showing thickening of alveolar septae, enlargement of alveolar spaces and alveolar ruptures in lung sections while numerous, round, empty spaces were detected in the parenchyma of the liver. The examination of the scene and of the fragments found showed that at least eight pyrotechnical charges exploded on the balcony, in close proximity of the threshold with the living room of the apartment. According to the chemical findings, the charges were typical for professional use and were filled with a mixture of potassium perchlorate and aluminium. A conservative calculation results in more than 1.5 kg total mass of pyrotechnic composition exploding very close to the victim. PMID:24279979

Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Bottoni, Edoardo; Cappelletti, Simone; Fiore, Paola Antonella; Ciallella, Costantino

2014-01-01

42

Simulations of accidental coal immersion.  

PubMed

Coal is currently becoming an increasingly interesting fossil energy resource and that is the reason why its maritime transport, and hence the risk of collier accidents, increase. In this work, the environmental impact of an accidental coal immersion at sea is studied: the physicochemical effects are estimated using innovative experimental setups--a laboratory seawater canal called "polludrome" is used to evaluate the behaviour of coal particles submitted to a seawater flow, and a specifically designed tub is used to study the physicochemical consequences induced when coal is introduced into continuously renewed seawater. When coal is introduced into seawater, the most easily visible consequences are physical: fine coal particles reduce the daylight penetration up to 100% and move along with the flow, and coal chunks accumulate on the floor. Chemical effects are also measured: humic matters are dissolved from coal into seawater (up to 2 mg L(-1)), but no release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is evidenced. Some inorganic compounds are dissolved, among which manganese, whose concentrations can reach 1 microg L(-1). Fortunately, the results show that the environmental impact of this type of accident would remain limited. PMID:17964611

Jaffrennou, Cathy; Giamarchi, Philippe; Cabon, Jean-Yves; Stephan, Ludovic; Burel-Deschamps, Laure; Bautin, François; Thomas, Annabelle; Dumont, Julien; Le Floch, Stéphane

2007-12-01

43

The Relative Contribution of Content and Context Factors on the Interpretation of Conditionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research showed that conditional reasoning is affected by the content and the context of the studied problems. In this study, we investigate in detail the relative effect of three factors, namely the number of alternative or disabling reasons, speaker control, and pragmatic type, on the interpretation of conditionals. These factors were subject to prior research, but mostly in a

Kristien Dieussaert; Walter Schaeken; Géry d’Ydewalle

2002-01-01

44

Entorhinal cortex contribution to contextual fear conditioning extinction and reconsolidation in rats.  

PubMed

During contextual fear conditioning a rat learns a temporal contiguity association between the exposition to a previously neutral context (CS) and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) as a footshock. This condition determines in the rat the freezing reaction during the subsequent re-exposition to the context. Potentially the re-exposition without US presentation initiates two opposing and competing processes: reconsolidation and extinction. Reconsolidation process re-stabilizes and strengthens the original memory and it is initiated by a brief re-exposure to context. Instead the extinction process leads to the decrease of the expression of the original memory and it is triggered by prolonged re-exposure to the context. Here we analyzed the entorhinal cortex (ENT) participation in contextual fear conditioning reconsolidation and extinction. The rats were trained in contextual fear conditioning and 24h later they were subjected either to a brief (2 min) reactivation session or to a prolonged (120 min) re-exposition to context to induce extinction of the contextual fear memory. Immediately after the reactivation or the extinction session, the animals were submitted to bilateral ENT TTX inactivation. Memory retention was assessed as conditioned freezing duration measured 72 h after TTX administration. The results showed that ENT inactivation both after reactivation and extinction session was followed by contextual freezing retention impairment. Thus, the present findings point out that ENT is involved in contextual fear memory reconsolidation and extinction. This neural structure might be part of parallel circuits underlying two phases of contextual fear memory processing. PMID:24569052

Baldi, Elisabetta; Bucherelli, Corrado

2014-04-01

45

Sulfate-reducing bacterial community structure and their contribution to carbon mineralization in a wastewater biofilm growing under microaerophilic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The community structure of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and the contribution of SRB to carbon mineralization in a wastewater biofilm growing under microaerophilic conditions were investigated by combining molecular techniques, molybdate inhibition batch experiments, and microelectrode measurements. A 16S rDNA clone library of bacteria populations was constructed from the biofilm sample. The 102 clones analyzed were grouped into 53 operational taxonomic

S. Okabe; T. Ito; H. Satoh

2003-01-01

46

Epidemiology of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two year prospective study was performed to determine the epidemiology of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. Cases were notified to the British Paediatric Association Surveillance Unit from September 1992 to August 1994 if a formal case conference had been held for the first time during that period

R J McClure; P M Davis; S R Meadow; J R Sibert

1996-01-01

47

Inhibition of vesicular glutamate transporters contributes to attenuate methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in rats.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence suggests that glutamatergic system plays a crucial role in methamphetamine (METH) addiction. In the glutamatergic transmission, vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) are responsible for transporting glutamate into synaptic vesicles and affect the glutamate concentrations in the synaptic cleft. It is well documented that VGLUTs play an essential role in pathophysiology of several psychiatric and neurological diseases, however, whether VGLUTs also have a role in addiction caused by psychostimulant drugs is still unknown. The present study was underwent to investigate the effect of inhibition of VGLUTs on METH-induced induce conditioned place preference in rats. Rats were induced to conditioned place preference with METH (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection. Intracerebroventricular administration of 1.0 or 5.0?g Chicago sky blue 6B (CSB6B), a VGLUTs inhibitor, and 2.5h prior to METH was to observe its effect on METH-induced conditioned place preference in rats. The rats receiving METH showed stronger place preference at the dose of 1.0mg/kg than that of other doses. The intracerebroventricular administration of CSB6B (1.0, 5.0?g) 2.5h prior to the exposure to METH attenuated the acquisition of METH-induced conditioned place preference, while CSB6B itself had no effect on place preference. These results indicate that VGLUTs are involved in the effect of METH-induced conditioned place preference and may be a new target against METH addiction. PMID:24613241

He, Zongsheng; Chen, Yuan; Dong, Huajin; Su, Ruibin; Gong, Zehui; Yan, Lingdi

2014-07-01

48

Contribution of macrophages to enhanced regenerative capacity of dorsal root ganglia sensory neurons by conditioning injury.  

PubMed

Although the central branches of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons do not spontaneously regenerate, a conditioning peripheral injury can promote their regeneration. A potential role of macrophages in axonal regeneration was proposed, but it has not been critically addressed whether macrophages play an essential role in the conditioning injury model. After sciatic nerve injury (SNI) in rats, the number of macrophages in DRGs gradually increased by day 7. The increase persisted up to 28 d and was accompanied by upregulation of inflammatory mediators, including oncomodulin. A macrophage deactivator, minocycline, reduced the macrophage number and expressions of the inflammatory mediators. Molecular signatures of conditioning effects were abrogated by minocycline, and enhanced regenerative capacity was substantially attenuated both in vitro and in vivo. Delayed minocycline infusion abrogated the SNI-induced long-lasting heightened neurite outgrowth potential, indicating a role for macrophages in the maintenance of regenerative capacity. Intraganglionic cAMP injection also resulted in an increase in macrophages, and minocycline abolished the cAMP effect on neurite outgrowth. However, conditioned media (CM) from macrophages treated with cAMP did not exhibit neurite growth-promoting activity. In contrast, CM from neuron-macrophage cocultures treated with cAMP promoted neurite outgrowth greatly, highlighting a requirement for neuron-macrophage interactions for the induction of a proregenerative macrophage phenotype. The growth-promoting activity in the CM was profoundly attenuated by an oncomodulin neutralizing antibody. These results suggest that the neuron-macrophage interactions involved in eliciting a proregenerative phenotype in macrophages may be a novel target to induce long-lasting regenerative processes after axonal injuries in the CNS. PMID:24048840

Kwon, Min Jung; Kim, Jinha; Shin, Haeyoung; Jeong, Soo Ryeong; Kang, Young Mi; Choi, Jun Young; Hwang, Dong Hoon; Kim, Byung Gon

2013-09-18

49

Genetic trade-offs and conditional neutrality contribute to local adaptation.  

PubMed

Divergent natural selection promotes local adaptation and can lead to reproductive isolation of populations in contrasting environments; however, the genetic basis of local adaptation remains largely unresolved in natural populations. Local adaptation might result from antagonistic pleiotropy, where alternate alleles are favoured in distinct habitats, and polymorphism is maintained by selection. Alternatively, under conditional neutrality some alleles may be favoured in one environment but neutral at other locations. Antagonistic pleiotropy maintains genetic variation across the landscape; however, there is a systematic bias against discovery of antagonistic pleiotropy because the fitness benefits of local alleles need to be significant in at least two environments. Here, we develop a generally applicable method to investigate polygenic local adaptation and identify loci that are the targets of selection. This approach evaluates allele frequency changes after selection at loci across the genome to distinguish antagonistic pleiotropy from conditional neutrality and deleterious variation. We investigate local adaptation at the qualitative trait loci (QTL) level in field experiments, in which we expose 177 F(6) recombinant inbred lines and parental lines of Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae) to their parental environments over two seasons. We demonstrate polygenic selection for native alleles in both environments, with 2.8% of the genome exhibiting antagonistic pleiotropy and 8% displaying conditional neutrality. Our study strongly supports antagonistic pleiotropy at one large-effect flowering phenology QTL (nFT): native homozygotes had significantly greater probabilities of flowering than foreign homozygotes in both parental environments. Such large-scale field studies are essential to elucidate the genetic basis of adaptation in natural populations. PMID:22420446

Anderson, Jill T; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Rushworth, Catherine A; Colautti, Robert I; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

2013-02-01

50

The contribution of woody plant materials on the several conditions in a space environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Woody plant materials have several utilization elements in our habitation environment on earth. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. Woody plants can produce an excess oxygen, woody materials for the living cabin, and provide a biomass by cultivating crops and other species of creatures. Tree material would become to be a tool in closed bio-ecosystems such as an environment in a space. We named the trees used as material for the experiment related to space environments “CosmoBon”, small tree bonsai. Japanese cherry tree, “Sakura”, is famous and lovely tree in Japan. One species of “Sakura”, “Mamezakura, Prunus incisa”, is not only lovely tree species, but also suitable tree for the model tree of our purpose. The species of Prunus incisa is originally grown in volcano environment. That species of Sakura is originally grown on Mt. Fuji aria, oligotrophic place. We will try to build the best utilization usage of woody plant under the space environment by “Mamezakura” as a model tree. Here, we will show the importance of uniformity of materials when we will use the tree materials in a space environment. We will also discuss that tree has a high possibility of utilization under the space environments by using our several results related to this research.

Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Katayama, Takeshi

51

Reinterpretation of mouse thyroid changes under space conditions: the contribution of confinement to damage.  

PubMed

During space missions, astronauts work in a state of separation from their daily social environment and in physical confinement. It has been shown that confinement influences mood and brain cortical activity, but no data has been obtained with regard to its effect on the thyroid gland, the structure and function of which change during spaceflights. Here, we report the results of a study on the effects of confinement on mouse thyroid, which was implemented with the Mice Drawer System Facility maintained on the ground, a system used for spaceflight experiments. The results show that confinement changes the microscopic structure of the thyroid gland and that it exhibits symptoms similar to those that result from physiological and/or pathological hyperfunction. What is left unchanged, however, is the sphingomyelinase-thyrotropin receptor relationship, which is important for thyrotropin response with a consequential production of hormones that act on the metabolism of almost all tissues and reduces the production of calcitonin, a hormone involved in bone metabolism. During space missions, the overexpression of pleiotrophin, a widespread cytokine up-regulated after tissue injury that acts on bone remodeling, attenuates changes to the thyroid that are spaceflight-dependent; therefore we studied the thyroids of pleiotrophin-transgenic mice in the Mice Drawer System Facility. In confinement, pleiotrophin overexpression does not protect from the loss of calcitonin. The contribution of confinement to thyroid damage during spaceflights is discussed. PMID:24945896

Albi, E; Ambesi-Impiombato, F S; Lazzarini, A; Lazzarini, R; Floridi, A; Cataldi, S; Loreti, E; Ferri, I; Curcio, F

2014-07-01

52

Accidental ligature strangulation due to electric grinder.  

PubMed

A young girl was accidentally strangled when her chunni (a piece of cloth worn around the neck by most Indian women) was caught in a moving electrical grinder. She was taken to the nearest hospital where she died within the next 9h, remaining unconscious throughout the hospital stay. Accidental strangulation of this kind due to household devices or machinery is extremely uncommon and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of its kind to be reported. The findings are presented. PMID:16442331

Shetty, Mahabalesh; Shetty, B Suresh

2006-04-01

53

Accidental and planned weather modification in illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather modification, both planned by humans and accidentally produced by humans, is the focus of an Illinois study. Populations in Illinois and the Midwest are living in a climate that is now modified inadvertently from its natural state. State atmospheric scientists have tackled weather modification through a series of interrelated studies, experimental design studies, experimental field studies to verify changes

1977-01-01

54

?Health Education Policy and Accidental Child Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN THE last few months the topic of accidental child poisoning has been frequently discussed in the media. This has been primarily due to the Safety Packaging for Medi cines Bill which at time of writing is about to receive its second reading in the Commons. The Bill proposes to make it compulsory for all prescribed and non-prescribed medicines which

M. W. Calnan

1975-01-01

55

10 CFR 70.52 - Reports of accidental criticality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Reports of accidental criticality. 70.52 Section 70.52 Energy... § 70.52 Reports of accidental criticality. (a) Each licensee shall notify...after discovery of any case of accidental criticality. 1 Commercial telephone...

2010-01-01

56

Accidental extinction in powder XRD intensity of porous crystals: Mesoporous carbon crystal CMK-5 and layered zeolite-nanosheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

CMK-5 mesoporous carbon crystals with p6mm symmetry and different carbon-wall thicknesses were prepared using furfuryl alcohol. We clearly observed that the XRD intensity of the 10 reflection diminishes at a certain thickness of carbon-wall, i.e., an “accidental extinction” happens in CMK-5. In order to make clear the condition of the “accidental extinction”, XRD intensity is analytically formulated\\/calculated for two-dimensional system

Kristina Lund; Norihiro Muroyama; Osamu Terasaki

2010-01-01

57

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOL. 15: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR TRIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report, discussing sulfur trioxide (SO3), is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. SO3, a clear oily liquid or solid at typical ambient conditions, has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, w...

58

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 15: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR TRIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report, discussing sulfur trioxide (SO3), is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. SO3, a clear oily liquid or solid at typical ambient conditions, has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, w...

59

Carcinoid Tumor in Accidental, Asymptomatic Meckel's Diverticulum  

PubMed Central

Although Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital gastrointestinal disorder, it is controversial whether asymptomatic diverticula in adults should be respected. The authors report the case of a patient who was operated due to ileus caused by adhesions and a Meckel's diverticulum without any sign of inflammation was accidentally noted and removed. As a surprise, the pathological examination of the diverticulum proved carcinoid tumor, a neuroendocrine malignant tumor. The case raises the importance of the removal of asymptomatic Meckel's diverticulum. PMID:24470856

Baranyai, Zsolt; Josa, Valeria; Merkel, Keresztely; Zolnai, Zsofia

2013-01-01

60

Accidental exposure to sarin: vision effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two men were accidentally exposed to vapors of sarin, a cholinesterase inhibitor and extremely toxic nerve gas. Diagnosis\\u000a was confirmed by depressed cholinesterase activity, and fixed extremely miotic pupils. No other signs or symptoms developed\\u000a and neither man required treatment. Recovery to normal cholinesterase activity was gradual over a 90-day period. Pupillary\\u000a reflexes were not detectable until 11 days after

Roy H. Rengstorff

1985-01-01

61

Spatial variation in water quality within the water bodies of a Peak District catchment and the contribution of moorland condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial variation in water quality within the water bodies of a Peak District catchment and the contribution of moorland condition Tia Crouch and Jonathan Walker (Moors for the Future Partnership) Upland locations are significant water supply sources providing over 70% of fresh water in Great Britain. However, the peatlands of the Peak District, Southern Pennines are highly contaminated with anthropogenically derived, atmospherically deposited pollutants, such as heavy metals. This is due to their location between the cities of Manchester and Sheffield, the centre of the 19th century English Industrial Revolution. These peatlands are also severely eroded; therefore erosion could be releasing these pollutants into the fluvial system, representing a threat to both aquatic ecosystems and drinking water supplies. These threats are regulated under the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Water Supply Regulations respectively. There are two aims of this project. The first aim is to identify spatial and temporal variability of water quality within the Bamford water treatment works (WTW) catchment. This was achieved by fortnightly spot sampling at eight of the tributaries into the reservoir system. The second aim is to assess the contribution of moorland condition to water quality within the Bamford WTW catchment. Similarly, this was achieved by fortnightly spot sampling at eight moorland streams, draining from a variety of peatland conditions (bare peat, restoration, intact and heather burn). Water samples were analysed for carbon (DOC, POC & TOC), pH, hardness and a suite of heavy metals, including copper, iron and zinc. In addition, stream temperature and stage height was recorded. Preliminary results highlight a number of issues within the Bamford WTW catchment: under the WFD streams are not achieving 'good' status for pH, copper and zinc, and under the Drinking Water Standards (DWS) streams are not achieving targets for aluminium, iron and colour. For example, the DWS for colour is 20 hazen units; however, mean values for streams within the Bamford WTW catchment range from 40 to 742 Hazen Units. Further analysis of the results will identify where spatial issues and priorities exist in space and time, as well as in relation to WFD objectives and DWS. The relationships between heavy metals and carbon (DOC, POC & TOC), pH, temperature and stage height will also be investigated, and the impacts of moorland restoration on carbon and heavy metals in water supplies will be discussed. Overall, this project is intended to provide evidence of the links between moorland restoration and management and DWS and WFD objectives; therefore, enabling continued support for moorland restoration work. This project was funded by the Environment Agency and Severn Trent Water Limited.

Crouch, Tia; Walker, Jonathan

2013-04-01

62

Accidental Supersymmetric Dark Matter and Baryogenesis  

E-print Network

We show that "accidental" supersymmetry is a beyond-the-Standard Model framework that naturally accommodates a thermal relic dark matter candidate and successful electroweak baryogenesis, including the needed strongly first-order character of the electroweak phase transition. We study the phenomenology of this setup from the standpoint of both dark matter and baryogenesis. For energies around the electroweak phase transition temperature, the low-energy effective theory is similar to the MSSM with light super-partners of the third-generation quarks and of the Higgs and gauge bosons. We calculate the dark matter relic abundance and the baryon asymmetry across the accidental supersymmetry parameter space, including resonant and non-resonant CP-violating sources. We find that there are regions of parameter space producing both the observed value of the baryon asymmetry and a dark matter candidate with the correct relic density and conforming to present-day constraints from dark matter searches. This scenario makes sharp predictions for the particle spectrum, predicting a lightest neutralino mass between 200 and 500 GeV, with all charginos and neutralinos within less than a factor 2 of the lightest neutralino mass and the heavy Higgs sector within 20-25% of that mass, making it an interesting target for collider searches. In addition, we demonstrate that successful accidental supersymmetric dark matter and baryogenesis will be conclusively tested with improvements smaller than one order of magnitude to the current performance of electron electric dipole moment searches and of direct dark matter searches, as well as with IceCube plus Deep Core neutrino telescope data.

Jonathan Kozaczuk; Stefano Profumo; Carroll L. Wainwright

2012-08-25

63

Accidental supersymmetric dark matter and baryogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that ``accidental'' supersymmetry is a beyond-the-Standard Model framework that naturally accommodates a thermal relic dark matter candidate and successful electroweak baryogenesis, including the needed strongly first-order character of the electroweak phase transition. We study the phenomenology of this setup from the standpoint of both dark matter and baryogenesis. For energies around the electroweak phase transition temperature, the low-energy effective theory is similar to the MSSM with light super-partners of the third-generation quarks and of the Higgs and gauge bosons. We calculate the dark matter relic abundance and the baryon asymmetry across the accidental supersymmetry parameter space, including resonant and non-resonant CP-violating sources. We find that there are regions of parameter space producing both the observed value of the baryon asymmetry and a dark matter candidate with the correct relic density and conforming to present-day constraints from dark matter searches. This scenario makes sharp predictions for the particle spectrum, predicting a lightest neutralino mass between 200 and 500 GeV, with all charginos and neutralinos within less than a factor 2 of the lightest neutralino mass and the heavy Higgs sector within 20-25% of that mass, making it an interesting target for collider searches. In addition, we demonstrate that successful accidental supersymmetric dark matter and baryogenesis will be conclusively tested with improvements smaller than one order of magnitude to the current performance of electron electric dipole moment searches and of direct dark matter searches, as well as with IceCube plus Deep Core neutrino telescope data.

Kozaczuk, Jonathan; Profumo, Stefano; Wainwright, Carroll L.

2013-01-01

64

Poisoning from accidental ingestion of mushrooms.  

PubMed

Poisoning from the accidental ingestion of mushrooms is an uncommon cause of morbidity within Australia and unlike many other countries no deaths have yet been recorded. This review seeks to draw attention to the various syndromes associated with mushroom poisoning and their management, thereby helping to keep our good record intact. Although the number of toxic species is relatively small, the collection and ingestion of field varieties should be left to those absolutely certain of their quest. In cases of poisoning, identification of the offending mushroom is of paramount importance in the management. In suspected or known amatoxin poisoning prompt treatment favourably influences outcome. PMID:8326897

Barbato, M P

1993-06-21

65

Accidental and retrospective dosimetry using TL method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Retrospective dosimetry is one of the most important tools of accidental dosimetry for dose estimation when dose measurement was not planned. In the affected area many objects can be applied as natural dosimeters. The paper discusses our recent investigations on various electronic components and common salt (NaCl) having useful thermoluminescence (TL) properties. Among materials investigated the electronic components of cell phones seem promising for retrospective dosimetry purposes, having high TL responses, proper glow curve peaks and the intensity of TL peaks vs. gamma dose received provided nearly linear response in the dose range of 10 mGy-1.5 Gy.

Mesterházy, D.; Osvay, M.; Kovács, A.; Kelemen, A.

2012-09-01

66

Reporting a sudden death due to accidental gasoline inhalation.  

PubMed

The investigation of uncertain fatalities requires accurate determination of the cause of death, with assessment of all factors that may have contributed to it. Gasoline is a complex and highly variable mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons that can lead to cardiac arrhythmias due to sensitization of the myocardium to catecholamines or acts as a simple asphyxiant if the vapors displace sufficient oxygen from the breathing atmosphere. This work describes a sudden occupational fatality involving gasoline. The importance of this petroleum distillate detection and its quantitative toxicological significance is discussed using a validated analytical method. A 51 year-old Caucasian healthy man without significant medical history was supervising the repairs of the telephone lines in a manhole near to a gas station. He died suddenly after inhaling gasoline vapors from an accidental leak. Extensive blistering and peeling of skin were observed on the skin of the face, neck, anterior chest, upper and lower extremities, and back. The internal examination showed a strong odor of gasoline, specially detected in the respiratory tract. The toxicological screening and quantitation of gasoline was performed by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detector and confirmation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Disposition of gasoline in different tissues was as follows: heart blood, 35.7 mg/L; urine, not detected; vitreous humor, 1.9 mg/L; liver, 194.7 mg/kg; lung, 147.6 mg/kg; and gastric content, 116,6 mg/L (2.7 mg total). Based upon the toxicological data along with the autopsy findings, the cause of death was determined to be gasoline poisoning and the manner of death was accidental. We would like to alert on the importance of testing for gasoline, and in general for volatile hydrocarbons, in work-related sudden deaths involving inhalation of hydrocarbon vapors and/or exhaust fumes. PMID:21354726

Martínez, María Antonia; Ballesteros, Salomé; Alcaraz, Rafael

2012-02-10

67

Contributions of vacancies and self-interstitials to self-diffusion in silicon under thermal equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since many years, the contribution of vacancies (V) and self-interstitials (I) to silicon (Si) self-diffusion is a matter of debate. Native defects and their interaction among themselves and with foreign atoms influence the processes taking place during device fabrication, starting with the growth of Si single crystals and ending with doping of nanosized electronic devices. Considering this relevance, it is remarkable that present data about the properties of native point defects in Si are still limited and controversial. This work reports experiments on self-diffusion in Si for temperatures between 650?C and 960?C to verify recent results of Shimizu [Phys. Rev. Lett.10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.095901 98, 095901 (2007)] that give rise to inconsistencies in V-mediated self- and dopant diffusion. Two different structures of isotopically controlled epitaxial layers of Si are used for the diffusion study. One structure consisting of 20 bilayers of 29Si/28Si was grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The other structure with a 28Si layer sandwiched between natural Si was grown by means of chemical vapor deposition. Self-diffusion in (29Si/28Si)20 multilayers (ML) was analyzed by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and neutron reflectometry, whereas self-diffusion in natSi/28Si/natSi sandwich (SW) structures was measured with SIMS only. Analysis of the experimental profiles reveals an enhanced self-diffusion in ML compared to SW structures. The enhanced diffusion is ascribed to the dissolution of V- and I-related defect clusters grown-in during MBE. On the other hand, self-diffusion in the SW structures accurately confirms the data of Shimizu that are considered to represent data for thermal equilibrium conditions. The temperature dependence of self-diffusion is described by V- and I-mediated contributions with temperature-dependent thermodynamic properties of V. This interpretation can solve the inconsistency between self- and dopant diffusion in Si, but further experiments are required to verify this concept.

Kube, R.; Bracht, H.; Hüger, E.; Schmidt, H.; Hansen, J. Lundsgaard; Larsen, A. Nylandsted; Ager, J. W., III; Haller, E. E.; Geue, T.; Stahn, J.

2013-08-01

68

Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin  

PubMed Central

May, G. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 276-283. Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin. Following the accidental production of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (dioxin) as the result of an exothermic reaction at a chemical plant in Derbyshire, 79 cases of chloracne were recorded, many of them severe. Contrary to the usual experience they have responded very favourably to treatment and there were no cases of contact chloracne among relatives or domestic animals in the initial outbreak. However, two cases of contact chloracne were recorded three years later. Similar incidents are known to have occured in both Europe and the United States of America, almost invariably accompanied by widespread severe illness and with fatalities. Apart from one death due to an explosion which followed the exothermic reaction the more serious sequelae, which may range from depression and loss of weight to liver, kidney, and cardiac failure as well as malignant disease, have not occurred. A quick and reliable method of biological assay for the presence of dioxin in produced trichlorophenol was developed based on oral dosage to rabbits with assessment of liver function at fixed time intervals thereafter. This test has already been superseded by instantaneous gas-liquid chromatography. An entirely new plant with suitable modifications and multiple safety features has now been in satisfactory operation for three years. Images PMID:4269256

May, George

1973-01-01

69

Subdural haematoma and non-accidental head injury in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients and methods. In this retrospective study, 36 children referred to paediatric neurology and neurosurgery during April 1995-June 1998 with a diagnosis of subdural haematoma (SDH) were studied. Nine were accidental secondary to witnessed trauma and 4 were iatrogenic. Non-accidental head injury (NAHI) was suspected in the remaining 23 children. Results. After a full clinical, radiological and social assessment, NAHI

Aparna Hoskote; Peter Richards; Philip Anslow; Tony McShane

2002-01-01

70

Rare retinal haemorrhages in translational accidental head trauma in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The characteristic findings in accidental head injury consist of linear skull fracture, epidural haematoma, localized subdural haematoma, or cortical contusion because of a linear or translational impact force. Retinal haemorrhages have been found, although uncommon, in accidental head trauma.Methods We performed a retrospective study of 24 consecutive cases of children with severe head injuries caused by falls. Inclusion criteria

V Sturm; P B Knecht; K Landau; M N Menke

2009-01-01

71

Factors Related to Accidental Poisoning in Preschool Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accidental ingestion of medications by preschool children continues to be a public health problem. The possibility that an accidental ingestion of medicine by a child depends heavily on the behavior of the parents with regard to medication was investigated. (Author/BB)

Holden, Janet A.

1979-01-01

72

Safe Storage Gun Laws: Accidental Deaths, Suicides and Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is frequently assumed that safe storage gun laws reduce accidental gun deaths and total suicides, while the possible impact on crime rates are ignored. However, given existing work on the adverse impact of other safety laws, such as safety caps for storing medicine, even the very plausible assumption of reduced accidental gun deaths cannot be taken for granted. Our

John E. Whitley

2001-01-01

73

Safe Storage Gun Laws: Accidental Deaths, Suicides, and Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is frequently assumed that safe storage gun laws reduce accidental gun deaths and total suicides, while the possible impact on crime rates are ignored. However, given existing work on the adverse impact of other safety laws, such as safety caps for storing medicine, even the very plausible assumption of reduced accidental gun deaths cannot be taken for granted. Our

John E. Whitley

2000-01-01

74

Experiences of Causing an Accidental Death: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accidentally killing or feeling responsible for another person's death constitutes an event that is different from many typical traumatic stressors in that the responsibility for causing the trauma is located in the person themselves, rather than another person or persons. Research exploring the perspective of those who have accidentally caused a…

Rassool, Sara B.; Nel, Pieter W.

2012-01-01

75

Self-inflicted accidental gunshot wounds.  

PubMed

This presentation will demonstrate the dangers of using a loaded gun as a blunt force object and designing toy guns to mimic realistic weapons. The ultimate goals of this presentation are to increase public education by promoting strict adherence to standard guidelines for safe gun usage, and to re-evaluate the future of toy gun designs that realistically mirror designs of current weapons. In a review of firearm deaths in the Wayne County Medical Examiner's Office (Detroit, Michigan, USA) over 10-year period from 1990 to 2000, there was an average of 500 cases of firearm deaths per year. This figure includes homicides, suicides and accidents. Among the 500 cases, seven of the most unusual self-inflicted accidental gunshot deaths are selected for this presentation. PMID:12935602

Chung, Yung A

2003-03-01

76

Accidental etizolam ingestion in a child.  

PubMed

Etizolam (ETZ) is an antidepressive thienodiazepine drug that is used worldwide. The most frequent adverse effects in adults are drowsiness and muscle weakness, and this can rarely cause paradoxical excitation; however, no information exists on intoxication in children. Furthermore, evidence bearing on its safety in children is not available. We present a case of a child who accidentally took a single dose of ETZ, approximately the same as a therapeutic dose for adults, and who showed paradoxical excitation and muscle weakness. The case presented here suggests that pediatricians and emergency physicians should be aware of the possible adverse effects in children and therapeutic approaches in intoxication of ETZ and the necessity of further investigations on a specific therapeutic guideline for overdose management especially in children. PMID:17666930

Kato, Zenichiro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Funato, Michinori; Kuwabara, Hideaki; Kondo, Naomi

2007-07-01

77

Techniques for preventing accidental damage to pipelines  

SciTech Connect

Following a survey of all of the techniques capable of preventing third-party damage to its gas transmission pipelines, Gaz de France has selected two of them, Electromagnetic Detection and Positioning by Satellite. The first technique is based on detection of the magnetic field existing around transmission pipes excited by a driving current. A receiver is mounted on the excavation equipment to detect the magnetic field, thereby preventing any risk of hitting the pipe. The second technique consists in locating excavators by satellite. Each excavator needs to be equipped with a GPS beacon to know its position. Using the map of the transmission network stored in data-base form, i.e., digitized, the system calculates the position of the excavator relative to the pipes buried in its vicinity so as to avoid any accidental contact. The main features, advantages and drawbacks of the two techniques are presented in this paper.

Lothon, A.; Akel, S. [Gaz de France, La Plaine Saint-Denis (France). Research and Development Div.

1996-12-31

78

Ontogeny of accidental wetlands and hydric soil development in surface mined landscapes  

SciTech Connect

Reducing conditions are periodically present in hydric soils and are essential for chemical processes that support wetland functions and values. Indicators of these conditions, i.e., redoximorphic features, can be useful in determining the presence of a hydric soil. However, young wetlands, i.e., those recently formed, may not possess reducing conditions and/or may not exhibit redoximorphic features. Few studies have addressed the time needed for hydric soil development. In this study, we present data on redoximorphic features, including chroma and oxidized rhizospheres, gathered from two sets of wetlands in southwestern Virginia, including (1) constructed wetlands that are 3 years old and (2) accidental wetlands that are 10 to 30 years old. Under conditions described for these sites, there is strong evidence that discernable redoximorphic features form in accidental wetlands within 10 years, but not within 3 years in constructed wetlands. Since accidental wetlands have been in existence for longer than most man-made wetlands, they provide clues to the development of hydric soils in recently constructed wetland systems.

Atkinson, R.B. [Christopher Newport Univ., Newport News, VA (United States); Daniels, W.L.; Cairns, J. Jr. [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1996-12-31

79

The Failure to Contain: How Persecutory Anxieties Contribute to Noncompliance in Adult Patients with Congenital Chronic Pain Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with sickle-cell disease suffer from lifelong pain. Many prefer to receive emergent rather than managed health care, which results in these people being termed “noncompliant.” This paper explores the contributing factors of such noncompliance in the adult patient with painful chronic illness. In the earliest stages of development, internal pain is attributed to external origins, and the effects of

Michele McShea

2008-01-01

80

Factors contributing to the degradation of poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) (PBO) fibers under elevated temperature and humidity conditions  

E-print Network

The moisture absorption behavior of Zylon fibers was characterized in various high temperature and high humidity conditions in a controlled environment. The results of these thermal cycling tests show that PBO fibers not only absorb, but also retain...

O'Neil, Joseph M

2006-10-30

81

Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.  

PubMed

Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ?100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies. PMID:22349318

Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

2012-07-01

82

The contribution of negative reproductive experiences and chronic medical conditions to depression and pain among Israeli women.  

PubMed

This study of 302 Israeli women sought to investigate the associations among stressful reproductive experiences (e.g. fertility problems, abortions, and traumatic births), chronic medical conditions, pain, and depression. The specific aims of the study were to examine (1) the effect of stressful reproductive experiences, chronic medical conditions, and pain on depressive symptoms and (2) the effect of stressful reproductive experiences, chronic medical conditions, and depressive symptoms on pain. Our findings corroborate with previous studies demonstrating that depression and pain are two interrelated, but different phenomena, which have both common and distinct risk factors. The findings are discussed in the light of stress and adaptation theories that point to the long-term effects of stressful life events on emotional and physiological aspects such as depression and pain. PMID:21745023

Sarid, Orly; Segal-Engelchin, Dorit; Cwikel, Julie

2012-01-01

83

An experimental test of the contributions and condition dependence of microstructure and carotenoids in yellow plumage coloration.  

PubMed

A combination of structural and pigmentary components is responsible for many of the colour displays of animals. Despite the ubiquity of this type of coloration, neither the relative contribution of structures and pigments to variation in such colour displays nor the relative effects of extrinsic factors on the structural and pigment-based components of such colour has been determined. Understanding the sources of colour variation is important because structures and pigments may convey different information to conspecifics. In an experiment on captive American goldfinches Carduelis tristis, we manipulated two parameters, carotenoid availability and food availability, known to affect the expression of carotenoid pigments in a full-factorial design. Yellow feathers from these birds were then analysed in two ways. First, we used full-spectrum spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography to examine the extent to which variation in white structural colour and total carotenoid content was associated with variation in colour properties of feathers. The carotenoid content of yellow feathers predicted two colour parameters (principal component 1--representing high values of ultraviolet and yellow chroma and low values of violet-blue chroma-and hue). Two different colour parameters (violet-blue and yellow chroma) from white de-pigmented feathers, as well as carotenoid content, predicted reflectance measurements from yellow feathers. Second, we determined the relative effects of our experimental manipulations on white structural colour and yellow colour. Carotenoid availability directly affected yellow colour, while food availability affected it only in combination with carotenoid availability. None of our manipulations had significant effects on the expression of white structural colour. Our results suggest that the contribution of microstructures to variation in the expression of yellow coloration is less than the contribution of carotenoid content, and that carotenoid deposition is more dependent on extrinsic variability than is the production of white structural colour. PMID:17015356

Shawkey, Matthew D; Hill, Geoffrey E; McGraw, Kevin J; Hood, Wendy R; Huggins, Kristal

2006-12-01

84

An experimental test of the contributions and condition dependence of microstructure and carotenoids in yellow plumage coloration  

PubMed Central

A combination of structural and pigmentary components is responsible for many of the colour displays of animals. Despite the ubiquity of this type of coloration, neither the relative contribution of structures and pigments to variation in such colour displays nor the relative effects of extrinsic factors on the structural and pigment-based components of such colour has been determined. Understanding the sources of colour variation is important because structures and pigments may convey different information to conspecifics. In an experiment on captive American goldfinches Carduelis tristis, we manipulated two parameters, carotenoid availability and food availability, known to affect the expression of carotenoid pigments in a full-factorial design. Yellow feathers from these birds were then analysed in two ways. First, we used full-spectrum spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography to examine the extent to which variation in white structural colour and total carotenoid content was associated with variation in colour properties of feathers. The carotenoid content of yellow feathers predicted two colour parameters (principal component 1—representing high values of ultraviolet and yellow chroma and low values of violet–blue chroma—and hue). Two different colour parameters (violet–blue and yellow chroma) from white de-pigmented feathers, as well as carotenoid content, predicted reflectance measurements from yellow feathers. Second, we determined the relative effects of our experimental manipulations on white structural colour and yellow colour. Carotenoid availability directly affected yellow colour, while food availability affected it only in combination with carotenoid availability. None of our manipulations had significant effects on the expression of white structural colour. Our results suggest that the contribution of microstructures to variation in the expression of yellow coloration is less than the contribution of carotenoid content, and that carotenoid deposition is more dependent on extrinsic variability than is the production of white structural colour. PMID:17015356

Shawkey, Matthew D; Hill, Geoffrey E; McGraw, Kevin J; Hood, Wendy R; Huggins, Kristal

2006-01-01

85

[Retinal haemorrhages in non-accidental head injury in childhood].  

PubMed

Retinal haemorrhages are one of the three cardinal manifestations of the "shaken baby syndrome" or "non-accidental head injury" in childhood. The role of an ophthalmologist in suspected non-accidental head injury has not only medical but also legal aspects and has been discussed controversially in the literature. The differential diagnosis and the specificity of retinal haemorrhages in childhood for an abusive head trauma will be pointed out in this paper. PMID:25181505

Oberacher-Velten, I M; Helbig, H

2014-09-01

86

Distinct Contributions of the Basolateral Amygdala and the Medial Prefrontal Cortex to Learning and Relearning Extinction of Context Conditioned Fear  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We studied the roles of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in learning and relearning to inhibit context conditioned fear (freezing) in extinction. In Experiment 1, pre-extinction BLA infusion of the NMDA receptor (NMDAr) antagonist, ifenprodil, impaired the development and retention of inhibition but…

Laurent, Vincent; Westbrook, R. Frederick

2008-01-01

87

Probabilistic safety analysis for urgent situations following the accidental release of a pollutant in the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is an original contribution to uncertainty quantification in atmospheric transport & dispersion (AT&D) at the local scale (1-10 km). It is proposed to account for the imprecise knowledge of the meteorological and release conditions in the case of an accidental hazardous atmospheric emission. The aim is to produce probabilistic risk maps instead of a deterministic toxic load map in order to help the stakeholders making their decisions. Due to the urge attached to such situations, the proposed methodology is able to produce such maps in a limited amount of time. It resorts to a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) using wind fields interpolated from a pre-established database that collects the results from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. This enables a decoupling of the CFD simulations from the dispersion analysis, thus a considerable saving of computational time. In order to make the Monte-Carlo-sampling-based estimation of the probability field even faster, it is also proposed to recourse to the use of a vector Gaussian process surrogate model together with high performance computing (HPC) resources. The Gaussian process (GP) surrogate modelling technique is coupled with a probabilistic principal component analysis (PCA) for reducing the number of GP predictors to fit, store and predict. The design of experiments (DOE) from which the surrogate model is built, is run over a cluster of PCs for making the total production time as short as possible. The use of GP predictors is validated by comparing the results produced by this technique with those obtained by crude Monte Carlo sampling.

Armand, P.; Brocheton, F.; Poulet, D.; Vendel, F.; Dubourg, V.; Yalamas, T.

2014-10-01

88

Endosomally stored MHC class II does not contribute to antigen presentation by dendritic cells at inflammatory conditions.  

PubMed

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II (MHCII) is constitutively expressed by immature dendritic cells (DC), but has a short half-life as a consequence of its transport to and degradation in lysosomes. For its transfer to lysosomes, MHCII is actively sorted to the intraluminal vesicles (ILV) of multivesicular bodies (MVB), a process driven by its ubiquitination. ILV have, besides their role as an intermediate compartment in lysosomal transfer, also been proposed to function as a site for MHCII antigen loading and temporal storage. In that scenario, DC would recruit antigen-loaded MHCII to the cell surface in response to a maturation stimulus by allowing ILV to fuse back with the MVB delimiting membrane. Other studies, however, explained the increase in cell surface expression during DC maturation by transient upregulation of MHCII synthesis and reduced sorting of newly synthesized MHCII to lysosomes. Here, we have characterized the relative contributions from the biosynthetic and endocytic pathways and found that the vast majority of antigen-loaded MHCII that is stably expressed at the plasma membrane by mature DC is synthesized after exposure to inflammatory stimuli. Pre-existing endosomal MHCII contributed only when it was not yet sorted to ILV at the moment of DC activation. Together with previous records, our current data are consistent with a model in which passage of MHCII through ILV is not required for antigen loading in maturing DC and in which sorting to ILV in immature DC provides a one-way ticket for lysosomal degradation. PMID:21518167

ten Broeke, Toine; van Niel, Guillaume; Wauben, Marca H M; Wubbolts, Richard; Stoorvogel, Willem

2011-08-01

89

A simulation study of dispersion of air borne radionuclides from a nuclear power plant under a hypothetical accidental scenario at a tropical coastal site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meteorological condition in coastal regions is diurnally variable and spatially heterogeneous due to complex topography, land–sea interface, etc. A wide range of dispersion conditions is possible on a given day in the coastal regions. In case of inadvertent accidental situations, though unlikely, it would be necessary to examine the potentially severe case among different dynamically occurring local atmospheric conditions for

C. V. Srinivas; R. Venkatesan

2005-01-01

90

Pathologic findings in rabies-suspect, random-source, and accidentally killed skunks.  

PubMed

To evaluate sampling biases, pathologic findings in accidentally killed skunks (ie, killed by motor vehicles) were compared with those in random-source skunks (live-trapped and euthanatized, or trap-killed during research) and skunks submitted to a public health laboratory as rabies-suspect. Presence or absence of microscopic lesions in the brain, kidneys, liver, and lungs were used to test the null hypothesis that prevalence of disease did not differ by source of collection. Brain lesions differed with the source; rabid and nonrabid skunks submitted to a public health laboratory had higher prevalences of lesions than did other skunks. Kidney, liver, and lung lesions did not differ among skunks by source of collection. Liver and lung lesions were attributed mainly to parasitism, were not severe, and did not cause debilitated condition. Lesions were seen more often in the kidneys than in other tissues. Usually, lesions were mild to severe, focal, chronic, nonsuppurative, interstitial nephritis (possibly a consequence of leptospirosis). Six of 177 skunks necropsied appeared cachectic. Aleutian disease was diagnosed in one skunk and histoplasmosis was diagnosed in another, but rabies and canine distemper virus infection were the only diseases found with the potential to cause the high population mortality. Public health surveillance cases were biased toward diseased animals (rabies and canine distemper virus infection), but random-source or accidentally killed animals provided unbiased data. Although other factors must be considered, accidentally killed skunks provided cost-effective and useful data for the evaluation of enzootic rabies. PMID:3505935

Woolf, A; Gremillion-Smith, C

1986-11-01

91

Relative contributions of archaea and bacteria to microbial ammonia oxidation differ under different conditions during agricultural waste composting.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the relative contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) to nitrification during agricultural waste composting. The AOA and AOB amoA gene abundance and composition were determined by quantitative PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), respectively. The results showed that the archaeal amoA gene was abundant throughout the composting process, while the bacterial amoA gene abundance decreased to undetectable level during the thermophilic and cooling stages. DGGE showed more diverse archaeal amoA gene composition when the potential ammonia oxidation (PAO) rate reached peak values. A significant positive relationship was observed between the PAO rate and the archaeal amoA gene abundance (R²=0.554; P<0.001), indicating that archaea dominated ammonia oxidation during the thermophilic and cooling stages. Bacteria were also related to ammonia oxidation activity (R²=0.503; P=0.03) especially during the mesophilic and maturation stages. PMID:21843932

Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Jiachao; Chen, Yaoning; Yu, Zhen; Yu, Man; Li, Hui; Liu, Zhifeng; Chen, Ming; Lu, Lunhui; Hu, Chunxiao

2011-10-01

92

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli CS21 pilus contributes to adhesion to intestinal cells and to pathogenesis under in vivo conditions  

PubMed Central

Colonization surface antigens (CSs) represent key virulence-associated factors of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains. They are required for gut colonization, the first step of the diarrhoeal disease process induced by these bacteria. One of the most prevalent CSs is CS21, or longus, a type IV pili associated with bacterial self-aggregation, protection against environmental stresses, biofilm formation and adherence to epithelial cell lines. The objectives of this study were to assess the role of CS21 in adherence to primary intestinal epithelial cells and to determine if CS21 contributes to the pathogenesis of ETEC infection in vivo. We evaluated adherence of a CS21-expressing wild-type ETEC strain and an isogenic CS21-mutant strain to pig-derived intestinal cell lines. To determine the role of CS21 in pathogenesis we used the above ETEC strains in a neonatal mice challenge infection model to assess mortality. Quantitative adherence assays confirmed that ETEC adheres to primary intestinal epithelial cells lines in a CS21-dependent manner. In addition, the CS21-mediated ETEC adherence to cells was specific as purified LngA protein, the CS21 major subunit, competed for binding with the CS21-expressing ETEC while specific anti-LngA antibodies blocked adhesion to intestinal cells. Neonatal DBA/2 mice died after intra-stomach administration of CS21-expressing strains while lack of CS21 expression drastically reduced the virulence of the wild-type ETEC strain in this animal model. Collectively these results further support the role of CS21 during ETEC infection and add new evidence on its in vivo relevance in pathogenesis. PMID:23760820

Guevara, C. P.; Luiz, W. B.; Sierra, A.; Cruz, C.; Qadri, F.; Kaushik, R. S.; Ferreira, L. C. S.

2013-01-01

93

Probability and control cost effectiveness for accidental toxic chemical releases  

SciTech Connect

This paper is based on technical work performed in seeking better ways to deal with the economics of accidental chemical release prevention, protection, and mitigation. It is presented to illustrate a methodology. The accidental release of toxic chemicals has received increased attention since the Bhopal, India tragedy of December 1984 when air release of methyl isocyanate killed over 2,000 people. While this was a dramatic event of historical proportions, hazardous releases of a lesser scale occur frequently. The benefit of prevention measures can be expressed as a reduction in the probability or frequency of an accidental release. The cost can be estimated by standard engineering cost estimating techniques. A cost effectiveness can be determined for each hazard control measure if the benefits and costs are known. Cost effectiveness is simply a cost-to-benefit ratio. In this paper, the costs and benefits of example control measures for preventing accidental releases are examined for a simple system. The authors illustrate a technique which can be applied to more complex systems and might be used to better define cost effectiveness of various means of accidental release prevention.

DeWolf, G.B; Quass, J.D. (Radian Corp Austin, TX (US)); Bare, J.C. (US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (US))

1988-01-01

94

Who Can Afford Health Care? Evaluating the Socio-Economic Conditions and the Ability to Contribute to Health Care in a Post-Conflict Area in DR Congo  

PubMed Central

Introduction The Democratic Republic of the Congo is today one of the poorest countries in the world; the health status of the population ranks among the worst in Sub-Saharan Africa. Public health services charge user fees and drug prices. Since 2008, north-eastern Congo is facing a guerrilla war. Malteser International is assisting with free health care for internally displaced persons as well as the general population. Before the incursion the health system was based on user fees. The aim of this study was to determine the socio-economic conditions of the population and to assess their ability to contribute to health care. Methodology Heads of 552 randomly selected households in 23 clusters in two health zones were interviewed using a standardised questionnaire. Findings The demographic description and socio-economic conditions of the study population were homogenous. Major source of income was agriculture (57%); 47% of the households earned less than US$ 5.5/week. Ninety-two percent of the interviewed households estimated that they would be able to contribute to consultation fees (maximum amount of US$ 0.27) and 79% to the drug prices (maximum amount of US$ 1.10). Six percent opted for free consultations and 19% for free drugs. Conclusions Living conditions were very basic; the estimated income of the study population was low. Almost half of the population perceived their current living situation as fairly good/good. More than 90% of the study population estimated to be able to contribute to consultation fees and 80% to drug prices. As a result Malteser International suggested introducing flat-rates for health care services. Once the project ends, the population will have to pay again for their health service. One solution would be the introduction of a health care financing system with the goal to reach universal coverage to health care. PMID:24204819

Gerstl, Sibylle; Sauter, Justin; Kasanda, Joseph; Kinzelbach, Alfred

2013-01-01

95

Relative contribution of shoot and ear photosynthesis to grain filling in wheat under good agronomical conditions assessed by differential organ ?13C  

PubMed Central

During grain filling in C3 cereals, the shoot (particularly the flag leaf) and the ear are believed to play major roles as sources of assimilates. However, both the cost and the intrusive nature of most of the methodologies available to investigate this have prevented conclusive results being obtained. This study compared the carbon isotope composition (?13C) in its natural abundance in mature kernels with the ?13C of the water-soluble fraction of the peduncle, glumes, and awns to assess the relative contribution of the shoot (understood as the whole set of photosynthetic organs below the peduncle) and ear to grain filling in a set of highly productive wheat lines from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Mexico, under good agronomic conditions. In overall terms, the contribution of the ear was greater in comparison with that of the shoot. The specific contribution of the flag leaf blade to grain filling was also assessed by comparing the ?13C of grains with the ?13C of the water-soluble fraction of the flag leaf and the awns. The contribution of the flag leaf was minor, ranging between 3 and 18%. Complementary analyses performed such as gas-exchange rates and the accumulated water-soluble carbohydrates in both organs and light intercepted by the canopy at different strata suggested that the ear has a photosynthetic capacity at least comparable to that of the flag leaf. In this sense, selection for a higher contribution of ear photosynthesis to grain yield in breeding programmes could be addressed with the use of stable isotopes. PMID:25053645

Sanchez-Bragado, Rut; Molero, Gemma; Reynolds, Matthew P.; Araus, Jose Luis

2014-01-01

96

An Accidental Sect: How War Made Belief in Sierra Leone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idealists consider beliefs cause wars. Realists consider wars cause beliefs. The war in Sierra Leone offers some scope to test between these two views. The main rebel faction, the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) was, sociologically speaking, an accidental sect. It lost its original ideologues at an early stage, and absorbed others with a different orientation as a result of military

Paul Richards

2006-01-01

97

`Accidental' Entrepreneur How Engineering Professor Eric Beckman's novel tissue adhesive  

E-print Network

1 `Accidental' Entrepreneur How Engineering Professor Eric Beckman's novel tissue adhesive gave Medicine, when he stumbled onto a bio-compatible adhesive that was developed during some of his experiments, saw potential in the adhesive itself as a post-surgical tool. "I said `No, it'll stick to everything

Benos, Panayiotis "Takis"

98

Accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines  

PubMed Central

Two clinical cases of accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines are described. One cat died the day after presentation as a result of aspiration pneumonia and head trauma, despite supportive care. The second cat survived with supportive treatment, but developed dermatologic complications 10 d later. PMID:21119868

Stewart, Sarah A.; Gaunt, Matthew C.; Taylor, Susan M.; Snead, Elizabeth C.R.

2010-01-01

99

Accidental displacement of impacted maxillary third molar: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unusual case of an impacted right maxillary third molar that was accidentally displaced into the maxillary sinus during exodontia and was surgically retrieved almost 2 years later is described. The tooth was removed under general anesthesia, after maxillary sinus exposure through Caldwell-Luc approach. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. Six months after the retrieval surgery, the maxillary sinus was completely healed

Cassio Edvard Sverzut; Alexandre Elias Trivellato; Luiz Marcel de Figueiredo; Emanuela Prado Ferraz; Alexander Tadeu Sverzut

2005-01-01

100

Accidental Ingestion of Endodontic File: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Ingestion of the endodontic instrument during root canal treatment is rare but can result in serious complications. The present paper reports a case in which endodontic file was accidentally swallowed by the patient undergoing root canal therapy, which entered digestive tract and passed uneventfully. PMID:22577586

Saraf, Hrushikesh P.; Nikhade, Pradnya P.; Chandak, Manoj G.

2012-01-01

101

Witnessing an Accidental Shooting at the Police Training Academy  

Microsoft Academic Search

After an accidental shooting at a police training academy, outcomes of the class involved (n = 45) were compared with those of several comparison classes (n = 154) immediately and one year later. Results revealed a modest impact, but an increase in PTSD symptomology was observed from academy training to the one-year follow-up. Recruits in the affected class demonstrated more

Kimberly A. Lonsway; Susan Welch

2005-01-01

102

The Accidental Transgressor: Morally-Relevant Theory of Mind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test young children's false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N=162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered three tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an "accidental transgressor" task, which measured a…

Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah; Woodward, Amanda

2011-01-01

103

Experiment 1 Accidentally the young woman snubbed the acquaintance/*vinegar...  

E-print Network

Experiment 1 Accidentally the young woman snubbed the acquaintance/*vinegar... Accidentally the young woman packed the vinegar/*acquaintance... After clearing the table/*superintendent... After she had been married for five years the woman divorced the deadbeat

Kuperberg, Gina

104

Accidental pinhole and pinspeck cameras: Revealing the scene outside the picture  

E-print Network

We identify and study two types of “accidental” images that can be formed in scenes. The first is an accidental pinhole camera image. These images are often mistaken for shadows, but can reveal structures outside a room, ...

Torralba, Antonio

105

ACCIDENTAL INJURY AND INCLEMENT WEATHER: DEFINING THE RELATIONSHIP AND ANTICIPATING THE EFFECTS OF A CHANGING CLIMATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this activity is to utilize a combination of existing scientific knowledge and professional expertise and experience to develop a research strategy for lessening the incidence and the impact of accidental injuries associated with inclement weather. Accidental inj...

106

Contribution of the TRPV1 channel to salt taste quality in mice as assessed by conditioned taste aversion generalization and chorda tympani nerve responses.  

PubMed

In rodents, at least two transduction mechanisms are involved in salt taste: 1) the sodium-selective epithelial sodium channel, blocked by topical amiloride administration, and 2) one or more amiloride-insensitive cation-nonselective pathways. Whereas electrophysiological evidence from the chorda tympani nerve (CT) has implicated the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel as a major component of amiloride-insensitive salt taste transduction, behavioral results have provided only equivocal support. Using a brief-access taste test, we examined generalization profiles of water-deprived C57BL/6J (WT) and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice conditioned (via LiCl injection) to avoid 100 ?M amiloride-prepared 0.25 M NaCl and tested with 0.25 M NaCl, sodium gluconate, KCl, NH(4)Cl, 6.625 mM citric acid, 0.15 mM quinine, and 0.5 M sucrose. Both LiCl-injected WT and TRPV1 KO groups learned to avoid NaCl+amiloride relative to controls, but their generalization profiles did not differ; LiCl-injected mice avoided the nonsodium salts and quinine suggesting that a TRPV1-independent pathway contributes to the taste quality of the amiloride-insensitive portion of the NaCl signal. Repeating the experiment but doubling all stimulus concentrations revealed a difference in generalization profiles between genotypes. While both LiCl-injected groups avoided the nonsodium salts and quinine, only WT mice avoided the sodium salts and citric acid. CT responses to these stimuli and a concentration series of NaCl and KCl with and without amiloride did not differ between genotypes. Thus, in our study, TRPV1 did not appear to contribute to sodium salt perception based on gustatory signals, at least in the CT, but may have contributed to the oral somatosensory features of sodium. PMID:23054171

Smith, Kimberly R; Treesukosol, Yada; Paedae, A Brennan; Contreras, Robert J; Spector, Alan C

2012-12-01

107

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 9. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF CHLORINE  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual discusses reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of chlorine. It identifies examples of potential causes of accidental releases that apply to processes that use chlorine, as well as measures that may be taken to reduce the accidental release risk. Such...

108

Hybridization between crops and wild relatives: the contribution of cultivated lettuce to the vigour of crop-wild hybrids under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency conditions.  

PubMed

With the development of transgenic crop varieties, crop-wild hybridization has received considerable consideration with regard to the potential of transgenes to be transferred to wild species. Although many studies have shown that crops can hybridize with their wild relatives and that the resulting hybrids may show improved fitness over the wild parents, little is still known on the genetic contribution of the crop parent to the performance of the hybrids. In this study, we investigated the vigour of lettuce hybrids using 98 F(2:3) families from a cross between cultivated lettuce and its wild relative Lactuca serriola under non-stress conditions and under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency. Using single nucleotide polymorphism markers, we mapped quantitative trait loci associated with plant vigour in the F(2:3) families and determined the allelic contribution of the two parents. Seventeen QTLs (quantitative trait loci) associated with vigour and six QTLs associated with the accumulation of ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)) were mapped on the nine linkage groups of lettuce. Seven of the vigour QTLs had a positive effect from the crop allele and six had a positive effect from the wild allele across treatments, and four QTLs had a positive effect from the crop allele in one treatment and from the wild allele in another treatment. Based on the allelic effect of the QTLs and their location on the genetic map, we could suggest genomic locations where transgene integration should be avoided when aiming at the mitigation of its persistence once crop-wild hybridization takes place. PMID:22660630

Uwimana, Brigitte; Smulders, Marinus J M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Hartman, Yorike; van Tienderen, Peter H; Jansen, Johannes; McHale, Leah K; Michelmore, Richard W; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Visser, Richard G F

2012-10-01

109

Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children After Accidental Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE.Children who,have experienced,an accidental injury are at increased risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder. It is, therefore, essential that strategies are developed,to aid in the early identification of children at risk of developing posttraumatic,stress disorder symptomatology,after an accident. The aim of this study was to examine,the ability of the Child Trauma Screening Questionnaire to predict children at risk of

Justin A. Kenardy; Susan H. Spence; Alexandra C. Macleod

2010-01-01

110

A review of social factors in the investigation and assessment of non-accidental head injury to children.  

PubMed

Investigation and assessment work in non-accidental head injury cases is complex and challenging. This article discusses briefly the professional systems involved and the conditions necessary for effective practice. It then reviews briefly the literature on social factors in serious and fatal child abuse in order to provide a context for discussion of recent UK studies of non-accidental head injuries/shaken baby syndrome. The findings on social factors are compared and areas for further research are suggested. The article then considers how best to use the existing knowledge base about these cases within assessment frameworks currently in use and considers issues in presenting assessment conclusions to decision-makers. PMID:15204572

Ennis, Elaine; Henry, Martin

2004-01-01

111

An alternative approach for computing seismic response with accidental eccentricity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accidental eccentricity is a non-standard assumption for seismic design of tall buildings. Taking it into consideration requires reanalysis of seismic resistance, which requires either time consuming computation of natural vibration of eccentric structures or finding a static displacement solution by applying an approximated equivalent torsional moment for each eccentric case. This study proposes an alternative modal response spectrum analysis (MRSA) approach to calculate seismic responses with accidental eccentricity. The proposed approach, called the Rayleigh Ritz Projection-MRSA (RRP-MRSA), is developed based on MRSA and two strategies: (a) a RRP method to obtain a fast calculation of approximate modes of eccentric structures; and (b) an approach to assemble mass matrices of eccentric structures. The efficiency of RRP-MRSA is tested via engineering examples and compared with the standard MRSA (ST-MRSA) and one approximate method, i.e., the equivalent torsional moment hybrid MRSA (ETM-MRSA). Numerical results show that RRP-MRSA not only achieves almost the same precision as ST-MRSA, and is much better than ETM-MRSA, but is also more economical. Thus, RRP-MRSA can be in place of current accidental eccentricity computations in seismic design.

Fan, Xuanhua; Yin, Jiacong; Sun, Shuli; Chen, Pu

2014-09-01

112

Hemizygous mutations in SNAP29 unmask autosomal recessive conditions and contribute to atypical findings in patients with 22q11.2DS  

PubMed Central

Background 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion disorder, affecting an estimated 1?:?2000–4000 live births. Patients with 22q11.2DS have a broad spectrum of phenotypic abnormalities which generally includes congenital cardiac abnormalities, palatal anomalies, and immunodeficiency. Additional findings, such as skeletal anomalies and autoimmune disorders, can confer significant morbidity in a subset of patients. 22q11.2DS is a contiguous gene DS and over 40 genes are deleted in patients; thus deletion of several genes within this region contributes to the clinical features. Mutations outside or on the remaining 22q11.2 allele are also known to modify the phenotype. Methods We utilised whole exome, targeted exome and/or Sanger sequencing to examine the genome of 17 patients with 22q11.2 deletions and phenotypic features found in <10% of affected individuals. Results and conclusions In four unrelated patients, we identified three novel mutations in SNAP29, the gene implicated in the autosomal recessive condition cerebral dysgenesis, neuropathy, ichthyosis and keratoderma (CEDNIK). SNAP29 maps to 22q11.2 and encodes a soluble SNARE protein that is predicted to mediate vesicle fusion at the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi membranes. This work confirms that the phenotypic variability observed in a subset of patients with 22q11.2DS is due to mutations on the non-deleted chromosome, which leads to unmasking of autosomal recessive conditions such as CEDNIK, Kousseff, and a potentially autosomal recessive form of Opitz G/BBB syndrome. Furthermore, our work implicates SNAP29 as a major modifier of variable expressivity in 22q11.2 DS patients. PMID:23231787

McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Revil, Timothee; Nowakowska, Beata A; Suhl, Joshua; Bailey, Alice; Mlynarski, Elisabeth; Lynch, David R; Yan, Albert C; Bilaniuk, Larissa T; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Warren, Stephen T; Emanuel, Beverly S; Vermeesch, Joris R; Zackai, Elaine H; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A

2013-01-01

113

-Supplementary Contributions --Supplementary Contributions -  

E-print Network

- strated during the workshop how the non-climatic residuals influence variance, trends and spatial patterns Contribution to Exchanges No. 26, March 2003 Holocene climate variability investigated using data,The Netherlands 2 Climate Research Unit, Univ. East Anglia Norwich, UK corresponding e-mail: t

Renssen, Hans

114

Accidental Chlorine Gas Intoxication: Evaluation of 39 Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Chlorine is a known pulmonary irritant gas that may cause acute damage in the respiratory system. In this paper, the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of 39 accidentally exposed patients to chlorine gas are reported and different emergency treatment modalities are also discussed. Methods Two emergency departments applications were retrospectively analyzed for evaluation of accidental chlorine gas exposure for year 2007. Patients were classified into 3 groups according to severity of clinical and laboratory findings based on the literature and duration of land of stay in the emergency department. The first group was slightly exposed (discharged within 6 hours), second group moderately exposed (treated and observed for 24 hours), and third group was severely exposed (hospitalized). Most of the patients were initially treated with a combination of humidified oxygen, corticosteroids, and bronchodilators. Results The average age was 17.03 ± 16.01 years (95% CI). Seven (17.9%) of them were female and 29 (74.4%) were children. Twenty-four patients (61.5%) were included in the first, nine (23.1%) were in second and six (15.4%) were in the third group. The presenting symptoms were cough, nausea, and vomiting and conjunctiva hyperemia for the first group, first groups symptoms plus dyspnea for the second group. Second groups symptoms plus palpitation, weakness and chest tightness were for the third group. Cough and dyspnea were seen in 64.1% and 30.8% of the patients respectively. No patients died. Conclusions The authors recommend that non symptomatic or slightly exposed patients do not need any specific treatment or symptomatic treatment is sufficient. Keywords Accidental; Chlorine exposure; Chlorine gas; Chlorine intoxication; Emergency department PMID:22481989

Sever, Mustafa; Mordeniz, Cengiz; Sever, Fidan; Dokur, Mehmet

2009-01-01

115

Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium  

DOEpatents

An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release.

Galloway, Terry R. [Berkeley, CA

1980-04-01

116

Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium  

DOEpatents

An improvement is described in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release. 1 fig.

Galloway, T.R.

1980-04-01

117

Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death  

PubMed Central

Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema.

Peterson, Thomas; Rentmeester, Landen; Judge, Bryan S.; Cohle, Stephen D.; Jones, Jeffrey S.

2014-01-01

118

Accidental ingestion of an untethered instrument during implant surgery.  

PubMed

During dental treatment, patients can swallow or inhale a foreign object as a result of several patient- and clinician-related factors; however, several methods can be used to prevent this complication. A 65-year-old man was referred to the Oral Implantology Clinic at the University of Amsterdam (ACTA) for a fixed prosthesis in the maxilla. While placing the implants, the screwdriver accidentally slipped from the fingers of the surgeon and was ingested by the patient. Since the difference between swallowing and inhaling cannot be accurately diagnosed, patient follow-up is advisable. PMID:24905271

Pull Ter Gunne, Lotte; Wismeijer, Daniel

2014-01-01

119

Stable chromosome aberrations 25 years after severe accidental radiation exposure.  

PubMed

A thorough cytogenetic analysis using G-banding was performed on 100 peripheral blood lymphocytes from an individual who had been accidentally exposed to radiation more than 25 years previously. More than 60% of the analysed cells were found to possess one or more stable chromosome aberrations (e.g. reciprocal translocations). Chromosomes 1 and 11 were more involved in these aberrations than would be expected from the relative chromosome lengths. No identical stable aberrations were found, suggesting that, 25 years after near-lethal exposure, haemopoietic stem cells display substantial diversity. PMID:8310126

Maes, A; Hilali, A; Léonard, E D; Léonard, A; Verschaeve, L

1993-01-01

120

Accidental dextromethorphan ingestions in children less than 5 years old  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical presentation of accidental dextromethorphan (DXM) ingestions in children\\u000a <5 years old. Two consecutive years of poison center patient encounters were reviewed. Data including age, outcomes, amount\\u000a of DXM ingested, co-ingestions, vital signs, clinical manifestations, hospital admissions, and mortality were abstracted.\\u000a Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discussion  A total of 304

Frank LoVecchio; Anthony Pizon; Bradley Riley; Leslie Matesick; Sean O’Patry

2008-01-01

121

Doses from accidental releases of tritium and activation products into the atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

In view of public acceptance and the licensing procedure of projected fusion reactors, the release of tritium and activation products during normal operation as well as after accidents is a significant safety aspect. Calculations have been performed under accidental conditions for unit releases of corrosion products from water coolant loops, of first wall erosion products including different coating materials, and of tritium in its chemical form of tritiated water (HTO). Dose assessments during normal operation have been performed for corrosion products from first wall primary coolant loop and for tritium in both chemical forms (HT/HTO). The two accident consequence assessment (ACA) codes UFOTRI and COSYMA have been applied for the deterministic dose calculations SYMA and NORMTRI have been applied for several radiologic source terms. Furthermore, COSYMA and NORMTRI have been applied for routine release scenarios. The paper analyzes the radiation doses to individuals and the population resulting from the different materials assumed to be released in the environment.

Raskob, W. (Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Karlsruhe (Germany))

1993-06-01

122

Investigation of thermoluminescence properties of mobile phone screen displays as dosimeters for accidental dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid assessment of the radiation dose after unexpected exposure is a task of accidental dosimetry. In case of a radiological accident glasses originating from mobile phone screens, placed usually near the human body, could be used as emergency thermoluminescent (TL) personal dosimeters. The time between irradiation and TL readout is crucial and therefore preparation of the mobile phone screens and their readout conditions should be optimized. The influence of the samples etching, bleaching and selection of the optical filters based on measurement of the emission spectrum of irradiated glass samples during heating for different types of mobile phones were the subjects of our investigation. Obtained results showed that glasses extracted from different brands of mobile phones have different dosimetric properties but all of them give a luminescent signal which can be used to calculate the dose.

Mrozik, Anna; Marczewska, B.; Bilski, P.; K?osowski, M.

2014-11-01

123

Contribution of the ear and the flag leaf to grain filling in durum wheat inferred from the carbon isotope signature: genotypic and growing conditions effects.  

PubMed

The ear, together with the flag leaf, is believed to play a major role as a source of assimilates during grain filling in C3 cereals. However, the intrusive nature of most of the available methodologies prevents reaching conclusive results in this regard. This study compares the carbon isotope composition (?(13)C) in its natural abundance in the water-soluble fractions of the flag leaf blade and the ear with the ?(13)C of mature kernels to assess the relative contribution of both organs to grain filling in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum). The relative contribution of the ear was higher in landraces compared to modern cultivars, as well as in response to nitrogen fertilization and water stress. Such genotypic and environmentally driven differences were associated with changes in harvest index (HI), with the relative contribution of the ear being negatively associated with HI. In the case of the genotypic differences, the lower relative contribution of the ear in modern cultivars compared with landraces is probably associated with the appearance in the former of a certain amount of source limitation driven by a higher HI. In fact, the relative contribution of the ear was far more responsive to changes in HI in modern cultivars compared with landraces. PMID:24028829

Sanchez-Bragado, Rut; Elazab, Abdelhalim; Zhou, Bangwei; Serret, Maria Dolors; Bort, Jordi; Nieto-Taladriz, Maria Teresa; Araus, José Luis

2014-05-01

124

Procedures, placement, and risks of further abuse after Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo investigate outcome, management, and prevention in Munchausen syndrome by proxy, non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental suffocation.DESIGNAscertainment through British Paediatric Surveillance Unit and questionnaires to responding paediatricians.SETTINGThe UK and Republic of Ireland, September 1992 to August 1994.SUBJECTSChildren under 14 years diagnosed with the above.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURESPlacement and child protection measures for victims and siblings; morbidity and reabuse rates for victims; abuse

P Davis; R J McClure; K Rolfe; N Chessman; S Pearson; J R Sibert; R Meadow

1998-01-01

125

Accidental unilateral and incomplete strangulation injury in a patient while traveling on a bicycle.  

PubMed

Chunni (a piece of cloth worn around the neck by many Indian women) is a well recognized accidental ligature around the neck. We report a rare case of accidental strangulation with chunni where the patient was pillion rider on bicycle; in spite of very common of use of bicycle to best our knowledge this kind of injury has not been reported previously. PMID:19573848

Agrawal, Amit; Ninave, Sudhir; Srivastava, Tripti; Sunkara, Anil; Agrawal, Sachin

2009-08-01

126

Involving Parents in Indicated Early Intervention for Childhood PTSD Following Accidental Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accidental injuries represent the most common type of traumatic event to which a youth is likely to be exposed. While the majority of youth who experience an accidental injury will recover spontaneously, a significant proportion will go on to develop Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). And yet, there is little published treatment outcome…

Cobham, Vanessa E.; March, Sonja; De Young, Alexandra; Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald; McDermott, Brett; Kenardy, Justin

2012-01-01

127

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 12. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the control of accidental releases of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to the atmosphere. SO2 has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 100 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of SO2 ...

128

Geriatric assessment of a giant splenic artery aneurysm accidentally diagnosed.  

PubMed

Giant splenic artery aneurysms (GSAAs) larger than 8 cm in diameter have rarely been reported, particularly in older people. They are clinically important lesions, often asymptomatic and related to an increased risk of complications such as abrupt rupture, requiring emergency surgical treatment. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA), originally developed for multidimensional clinical evaluation in several geriatric settings, was recently proposed as a fundamental preoperative aid for treatment planning of older patients undergoing elective surgery and preventing adverse post-operative outcomes. We present the first case of an asymptomatic 9-cm partially thrombosed GSAA, accidentally diagnosed during abdominal ultrasound in a 63-year-old woman from the Apulia region in Southern Italy. She successfully underwent aneurysmectomy, highlighting the usefulness of CGA in elective surgical patients. PMID:22526082

Orsitto, Giuseppe; Fulvio, Francesco; Pinto, Antonio G; Turi, Vincenzo; Tria, Domenico; Venezia, Amedeo; Colucci, Clementina; Castellana, Roberto; Manca, Cosimo

2011-01-01

129

Delayed upper-airway injury after accidental alkaline ingestion.  

PubMed

A 62-year-old man presented to the emergency department one week after accidentally drinking an alkaline cleaning agent stored in unlabeled bottle. The day of the incident the patient presented to an outside hospital where he was admitted for an upper endoscopy of the esophagus which was found to be negative for acute injury. An initial chest X-ray taken the day of the incident was also found to be normal. After discharge the patient continued to have a sore throat and marked dysphagia which caused him to vomit repeatedly. Moreover, the patient began to develop chest pain with associated shortness of breath. We present a case of delayed airway injury and tracheal thickening and associated chest pain after alkaline ingestion and we discuss herein the pathophysiology and management of alkaline ingestions. PMID:25013732

Ryan, Matthew F; Fernandez, Mindy; Laauwe, Karen

2014-01-01

130

Accidental intrathecal injection of magnesium sulfate for cesarean section  

PubMed Central

Magnesium sulfate is used frequently in the operation room and risks of wrong injection should be considered. A woman with history of pseudocholinesterase enzyme deficiency in the previous surgery was referred for cesarean operation. Magnesium sulfate of 700 mg (3.5 ml of 20% solution) was accidentally administered in the subarachnoid space. First, the patient had warm sensation and cutaneous anesthesia, but due to deep tissue pain, general anesthesia was induced by thiopental and atracurium. After the surgery, muscle relaxation and lethargy remained. At 8-10 h later, muscle strength improved and train of four (TOF) reached over 0.85, and then the endotracheal tube was removed. The patient was evaluated during the hospital stay and on the anesthesia clinic. No neurological symptoms, headache or backache were reported. Due to availability of magnesium sulfate, we should be careful for inadvertent intravenous, spinal and epidural injection; therefore before injection must be double checked.

Gilani, Mehryar Taghavi; Zirak, Nahid; Razavi, Majid

2014-01-01

131

Heat gain in the treatment of accidental hypothermia.  

PubMed

In two cases of accidental hypothermia, heated humidification of the inspired gases and warming of fluids administered intravenously was associated with an increase in the deep body (core) temperatures at rates of 0-5 degrees to 1-0 degrees C per hour. The first case demonstrated that heat was transferred selectively to the body core, as temperatures here rose during the first three hours of treatment, while skin temperatures remained low. The second patient gained less than 0-1 degrees C per hour when treated "passively" by means of surface insulation with unheated blankets. The introduction of "active" measures was followed by a more rapid gain. It is suggested that heat supplied to the body core by these measures provides effective additions to metabolic production, particularly when the deep body and cardiac temperatures are at their lowest. PMID:1186557

Shanks, C A

1975-08-30

132

Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at the IPNS  

SciTech Connect

Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenetic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

Campos Torres, M.M.

1995-02-01

133

Dose assessment of an accidental exposure at IPNS  

SciTech Connect

Seven different methods were used to estimate the dose rate to a female worker who was accidentally exposed in the neutron PHOENIX beamline at the IPNS. Theoretical and measured entrance dose rates ranged from 550 mrem/min to 2,850 mrem/min. Theoretical estimates were based on a Monte Carlo simulation of a spectrum provided by IPNS (Crawford Spectrum). Dose measurements were made with TLDs on phantoms and with ionization chambers in a water phantom. Estimates of the whole body total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) rate ranged from 5.2 mrem/min to 840 mrem/min. Assumed and measured quality factors ranged from 2.6 to 11.8. Cytogenic analyses of blood samples detected no positive exposure. The recommended TEDE rate was 158 mrem/min. The TEDE was 750 mrem.

Torres, M.M.C.

1996-05-01

134

Assessment of hazard of chemical accidental releases triggered by floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the number of accidents happened, when floods trigger the releases of hazardous materials and following environment contamination. Baia Mare (Romania), Spolana Neratovice (Czech Republic) and hurricane Katrina (USA) are well known examples. The importance of this kind of phenomenon as a type of so called NATECH events is expressed among others in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which reorganises water conservation in Europe. It requires programmes of protection measures to be drawn up not later than 2009, and in sub-article 11 (3) l b) to prevent and/or reduce the impact of accidental pollution incidents, for example as a result of floods. Effective measures demand the assessment of hazard and risk of accidental release triggered by floods and there is a need for the method which can be used for these purposes. Such a method is still missing and this is why the basic method for hazard assessment has been developed. Simple indexes-based method is composed of three segments (natural risks, technological risks and combined risk) and it has flexible, modular structure. First segment estimates the probability of flooding of installation, the second, based on the reference scenarios estimates the possibility of release of chemicals and the third classify consequences. The work on refining of parameters and method continues. Method can be used in prevention of major accidents in the framework of the Council Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances (Seveso II directive) and can help to complete the safety studies in classified establishments.

Simonova, M.; Danihelka, P.

2009-04-01

135

Does gender contribute to heterogeneity in criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence? Results from the national epidemiological survey on alcohol and related conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has noted that a unidimensional latent construct underlies criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence. However, no study to date has explored whether gender contributes to heterogeneity in the latent abuse and dependence construct and furthermore, whether after accounting for differences in the mean scores of abuse and dependence across genders, there is any evidence for heterogeneity in the

Arpana Agrawal; Michael T. Lynskey

2007-01-01

136

Hybridization between crops and wild relatives: the contribution of cultivated lettuce to the vigour of crop-wild hybrids under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of transgenic crop varieties, crop–wild hybridization has received considerable consideration with regard to the potential of transgenes to be transferred to wild species. Although many studies have shown that crops can hybridize with their wild relatives and that the resulting hybrids may show improved fitness over the wild parents, little is still known on the genetic contribution

B. Uwimana; M. J. M. Smulders; D. A. P. Hooftman; Y. Hartman; Tienderen van P. H; J. Jansen; L. K. McHale; R. W. Michelmore; Wiel van de C. C. M; R. G. F. Visser

2012-01-01

137

50 CFR 23.52 - What are the requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally destroyed CITES...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally...POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION...requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally...when a CITES document has been lost, damaged, stolen, or...

2010-10-01

138

50 CFR 23.52 - What are the requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally destroyed CITES...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally...POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION...requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally...when a CITES document has been lost, damaged, stolen, or...

2011-10-01

139

50 CFR 23.52 - What are the requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally destroyed CITES...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally...POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION...requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally...when a CITES document has been lost, damaged, stolen, or...

2013-10-01

140

50 CFR 23.52 - What are the requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally destroyed CITES...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally...POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION...requirements for replacing a lost, damaged, stolen, or accidentally...when a CITES document has been lost, damaged, stolen, or...

2012-10-01

141

Past or present? Relative contributions of developmental and adult conditions to adult immune function and coloration in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).  

PubMed

Developmental conditions affect adult physiological processes and phenotypic traits, including those associated with both survival and reproduction. Carotenoids are molecules that generate sexually attractive coloration, and these pigments are acquired throughout life and can affect antioxidant capacity and immunocompetence of young and old animals. However, few studies have tracked carotenoid status and condition during development and into adulthood to understand how ontogeny affects later-life health and coloration of both males and females. We reared male and female mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) from hatch to adulthood, measured circulating carotenoid titers and body condition (i.e., size-adjusted body mass) throughout development, and assessed adult immune function and integumentary carotenoid-based beak and foot coloration. We found that adult immune function (wing web swelling response to phytohemagglutinin; PHA) in males was positively correlated with body condition during the growth period of development, rather than adult condition, and similarly that both male and female beak coloration was associated with developmental, rather than adult, body condition. We also found associations between coloration and health during adulthood; males with more carotenoid-rich beaks (a sexually attractive feature) tended to have a more robust adult PHA response and a greater antibody response to a novel antigen, while females with less carotenoid-rich beaks had greater antibody responsiveness at adulthood. In addition, male beak color changed over the course of the 24-h PHA test in proportion to the degree of PHA swelling. However, intensity of foot coloration (a trait of unknown sexual significance) was not associated with any condition, carotenoid, or immune metric for males or females. Taken together, our findings implicate key developmental components to the expression of both survival- and reproduction-related traits at adulthood, but that for a dynamic trait like beak color, there are also important adult conditions that can alter signal expression. PMID:21140156

Butler, Michael W; McGraw, Kevin J

2011-05-01

142

Past or present? Relative contributions of developmental and adult conditions to adult immune function and coloration in mallard ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental conditions affect adult physiological processes and phenotypic traits, including those associated with both\\u000a survival and reproduction. Carotenoids are molecules that generate sexually attractive coloration, and these pigments are\\u000a acquired throughout life and can affect antioxidant capacity and immunocompetence of young and old animals. However, few studies\\u000a have tracked carotenoid status and condition during development and into adulthood to understand

Michael W. ButlerKevin; Kevin J. McGraw

2011-01-01

143

Historical Doses To The Public from Routine and Accidental Releases of Tritium - Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1953 - 2005  

SciTech Connect

Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 29,300 TBq of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; about 75% of this was released accidentally as gaseous tritium in 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 3,700 TBq gaseous tritium and about 2,800 TBq tritiated water vapor to the total. Mean annual doses (with 95% confidence intervals) to the most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Because time-dependent tritium models require detailed meteorological data that were unavailable for the large releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from experience with UFOTRI. Even with assumptions to assure that doses would not be underestimated, all doses from routine and accidental releases were below the level (3.6 mSv) at which adverse health effects have been documented, and most were below the current regulatory limit of 100 {micro}Sv per year from releases to the atmosphere.

Peterson, S; Raskob, W

2007-08-15

144

The contribution of passenger cars to the greenhouse effect: the influence of air-conditioning and ACEA's commitment (JAMA and KAMA included) on the CO 2 emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results show that CO 2 emissions will increase in the future. The development of air-conditioning has a very limited effect on CO 2 emissions at the passenger car fleet scale. Concerning the commitment of constructors, we conclude that it would have a great influence on CO 2 emissions. However it would be insufficient to achieve the steady state envisaged

HUGREL Charlotte; JOUMARD Robert

145

Exploring the Contribution of State and Local-level Conditions to the Adoption of Different Types of Smart Growth Policies and Impact Fees in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research identifies some of the state and local conditions promoting the adoption of three types of smart growth policies and two types of impact fees in the United States. Factor analysis is used to identify three types of smart growth policies:1. policies to concentrate new growth,2. policies to exchange development rights and3. policies to redevelop the inner city.The two

Lenahan OConnell

2012-01-01

146

Accidental contamination from uranium compounds through contact with ceramic dinnerware.  

PubMed

Examination of orange-colored dinnerware samples purchased in antique stores and flea markets has revealed the occasional presence of surface uranium compounds that are readily transferred to the hands and clothing. We have further been able to produce soluble uranium compounds on the surfaces of clean dishes by exposing them to household vinegar or bleach. We estimate that handling of a contaminated dish can transfer up to 1-2 becquerels or more of uranium compounds to the hands. Uranium contamination is of concern because the element is not only an alpha emitter but also a chemical nephrotoxin. Although the amount of uranium likely to be ingested as a result of casual handling may be small, it could still exceed by several times the amount occurring in the average diet (about 40 mBq/day). Furthermore, since fresh surface compounds are readily formed, it is possible that a person who regularly handles or eats from uranium-glazed dinnerware can accidentally ingest significant amounts of uranium. PMID:8560240

Sheets, R W; Thompson, C C

1995-12-01

147

Inverse Modeling of Accidental Releases of Atmospheric Pollutants: New Developments.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An account is given on new data assimilation techniques that have recently been used to identify the source of an accidental release of pollutant into the atmosphere, and forecast (possibly in real time) the subsequent dispersion plume. It could be a chemical cloud from an industrial site or a release of radionuclides from a nuclear power plant (from minor accident to core meltdown). These methods are not necessarily based on Gaussian hypotheses, for instance the source may be given as positive or bounded. In particular, the usual least squares cost function (4D-Var) is replaced with purposely devised functionals that are not necessarily quadratic. These methods have been applied successfully to the reconstruction of the Chernobyl accident, the Algeciras incident or the ETEX experiment, and outperform previous approaches. As far as state assimilation is concerned, the techniques have been applied a posteriori to the reconstruction of the ETEX plume, after all observations are acquired. The method has also been applied to the reconstruction of the dispersion plume, in the context of an emergency situation: the data have been assimilated sequentially as they arrived and a forecast is performed after each analysis. This provides with a picture of what could be achieved (forecast, risk assessment) in case of a real emergency with a Chemistry Transport Model and advanced data assimilation techniques. A second-order sensitivity study that applies to the possibly non- quadratic cost functions has also been carried out in the context of these reconstructions.

Bocquet, M.

2007-12-01

148

Orthopaedic aspects of paediatric non-accidental injury.  

PubMed

Non-accidental injury (NAI) in children includes orthopaedic trauma throughout the skeleton. Fractures with soft-tissue injuries constitute the majority of manifestations of physical abuse in children. Fracture and injury patterns vary with age and development, and NAI is intrinsically related to the mobility of the child. No fracture in isolation is pathognomonic of NAI, but specific abuse-related injuries include multiple fractures, particularly at various stages of healing, metaphyseal corner and bucket-handle fractures and fractures of ribs. Isolated or multiple rib fractures, irrespective of location, have the highest specificity for NAI. Other fractures with a high specificity for abuse include those of the scapula, lateral end of the clavicle, vertebrae and complex skull fractures. Injuries caused by NAI constitute a relatively small proportion of childhood fractures. They may be associated with significant physical and psychological morbidity, with wide- ranging effects from deviations in normal developmental progression to death. Orthopaedic surgeons must systematically assess, recognise and act on the indicators for NAI in conjunction with the paediatric multidisciplinary team. PMID:20130307

Jayakumar, P; Barry, M; Ramachandran, M

2010-02-01

149

The Contribution of Social Networks to the Health and Self-Management of Patients with Long-Term Conditions: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Evidence for the effectiveness of patient education programmes in changing individual self-management behaviour is equivocal. More distal elements of personal social relationships and the availability of social capital at the community level may be key to the mobilisation of resources needed for long-term condition self-management to be effective. Aim To determine how the social networks of people with long-term conditions (diabetes and heart disease) are associated with health-related outcomes and changes in outcomes over time. Methods Patients with chronic heart disease (CHD) or diabetes (n?=?300) randomly selected from the disease registers of 19 GP practices in the North West of England. Data on personal social networks collected using a postal questionnaire, alongside face-to-face interviewing. Follow-up at 12 months via postal questionnaire using a self-report grid for network members identified at baseline. Analysis Multiple regression analysis of relationships between health status, self-management and health-economics outcomes, and characteristics of patients' social networks. Results Findings indicated that: (1) social involvement with a wider variety of people and groups supports personal self-management and physical and mental well-being; (2) support work undertaken by personal networks expands in accordance with health needs helping people to cope with their condition; (3) network support substitutes for formal care and can produce substantial saving in traditional health service utilisation costs. Health service costs were significantly (p<0.01) reduced for patients receiving greater levels of illness work through their networks. Conclusions Support for self-management which achieves desirable policy outcomes should be construed less as an individualised set of actions and behaviour and more as a social network phenomenon. This study shows the need for a greater focus on harnessing and sustaining the capacity of networks and the importance of social involvement with community groups and resources for producing a more desirable and cost-effective way of supporting long term illness management. PMID:24887107

Reeves, David; Blickem, Christian; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Brooks, Helen; Kennedy, Anne; Richardson, Gerry; Rogers, Anne

2014-01-01

150

40 CFR 63.95 - Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs.  

...criteria for accidental release prevention programs. 63.95 Section 63.95 Protection...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS...SOURCE CATEGORIES Approval of State Programs and Delegation of Federal...

2014-07-01

151

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 8. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN FLUORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a chemical specific manual for hydrogen fluoride (HF). It summarizes information to aid regulators and industry personnel in identifying and controlling release hazards associated with HF. Reducing the risk associated with accidental release of HF involves identifyi...

152

A case of accidental intrathecal injection of a large dose of ropivacaine during cesarean section  

PubMed Central

Continuous spinal anesthesia may provide excellent labor analgesia. The incidence of accidental intrathecal injection of megadose of ropivacaine, as one of the possible complications during cesarean section, is very rare. Present case report provides reference to clinical practice.

Yuan, Yan P; Chen, Hong F; Yang, Chen; Tian, Fu B; Huang, Shao Q

2014-01-01

153

Aerosol Direct, Indirect, Semidirect, and Surface Albedo Effects from Sector Contributions Based on the IPCC AR5 Emissions for Preindustrial and Present-day Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anthropogenic increase in aerosol concentrations since preindustrial times and its net cooling effect on the atmosphere is thought to mask some of the greenhouse gas-induced warming. Although the overall effect of aerosols on solar radiation and clouds is most certainly negative, some individual forcing agents and feedbacks have positive forcing effects. Recent studies have tried to identify some of those positive forcing agents and their individual emission sectors, with the hope that mitigation policies could be developed to target those emitters. Understanding the net effect of multisource emitting sectors and the involved cloud feedbacks is very challenging, and this paper will clarify forcing and feedback effects by separating direct, indirect, semidirect and surface albedo effects due to aerosols. To this end, we apply the Goddard Institute for Space Studies climate model including detailed aerosol microphysics to examine aerosol impacts on climate by isolating single emission sector contributions as given by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) emission data sets developed for Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5. For the modeled past 150 years, using the climate model and emissions from preindustrial times to present-day, the total global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing is -0.6 W/m(exp 2), with the largest contribution from the direct effect (-0.5 W/m(exp 2)). Aerosol-induced changes on cloud cover often depends on cloud type and geographical region. The indirect (includes only the cloud albedo effect with -0.17 W/m(exp 2)) and semidirect effects (-0.10 W/m(exp 2)) can be isolated on a regional scale, and they often have opposing forcing effects, leading to overall small forcing effects on a global scale. Although the surface albedo effects from aerosols are small (0.016 W/m(exp 2)), triggered feedbacks on top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing can be 10 times larger. Our results point out that each emission sector has varying impacts by geographical region. For example, the single sector most responsible for a net positive radiative forcing is the transportation sector in the United States, agricultural burning and transportation in Europe, and the domestic emission sector in Asia. These sectors are attractive mitigation targets.

Bauer, Susanne E.; Menon, Surabi

2012-01-01

154

Mu opioid receptors on primary afferent nav1.8 neurons contribute to opiate-induced analgesia: insight from conditional knockout mice.  

PubMed

Opiates are powerful drugs to treat severe pain, and act via mu opioid receptors distributed throughout the nervous system. Their clinical use is hampered by centrally-mediated adverse effects, including nausea or respiratory depression. Here we used a genetic approach to investigate the potential of peripheral mu opioid receptors as targets for pain treatment. We generated conditional knockout (cKO) mice in which mu opioid receptors are deleted specifically in primary afferent Nav1.8-positive neurons. Mutant animals were compared to controls for acute nociception, inflammatory pain, opiate-induced analgesia and constipation. There was a 76% decrease of mu receptor-positive neurons and a 60% reduction of mu-receptor mRNA in dorsal root ganglia of cKO mice. Mutant mice showed normal responses to heat, mechanical, visceral and chemical stimuli, as well as unchanged morphine antinociception and tolerance to antinociception in models of acute pain. Inflammatory pain developed similarly in cKO and controls mice after Complete Freund's Adjuvant. In the inflammation model, however, opiate-induced (morphine, fentanyl and loperamide) analgesia was reduced in mutant mice as compared to controls, and abolished at low doses. Morphine-induced constipation remained intact in cKO mice. We therefore genetically demonstrate for the first time that mu opioid receptors partly mediate opiate analgesia at the level of Nav1.8-positive sensory neurons. In our study, this mechanism operates under conditions of inflammatory pain, but not nociception. Previous pharmacology suggests that peripheral opiates may be clinically useful, and our data further demonstrate that Nav1.8 neuron-associated mu opioid receptors are feasible targets to alleviate some forms of persistent pain. PMID:24069332

Weibel, Raphaël; Reiss, David; Karchewski, Laurie; Gardon, Olivier; Matifas, Audrey; Filliol, Dominique; Becker, Jérôme A J; Wood, John N; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Gaveriaux-Ruff, Claire

2013-01-01

155

Mu Opioid Receptors on Primary Afferent Nav1.8 Neurons Contribute to Opiate-Induced Analgesia: Insight from Conditional Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

Opiates are powerful drugs to treat severe pain, and act via mu opioid receptors distributed throughout the nervous system. Their clinical use is hampered by centrally-mediated adverse effects, including nausea or respiratory depression. Here we used a genetic approach to investigate the potential of peripheral mu opioid receptors as targets for pain treatment. We generated conditional knockout (cKO) mice in which mu opioid receptors are deleted specifically in primary afferent Nav1.8-positive neurons. Mutant animals were compared to controls for acute nociception, inflammatory pain, opiate-induced analgesia and constipation. There was a 76% decrease of mu receptor-positive neurons and a 60% reduction of mu-receptor mRNA in dorsal root ganglia of cKO mice. Mutant mice showed normal responses to heat, mechanical, visceral and chemical stimuli, as well as unchanged morphine antinociception and tolerance to antinociception in models of acute pain. Inflammatory pain developed similarly in cKO and controls mice after Complete Freund’s Adjuvant. In the inflammation model, however, opiate-induced (morphine, fentanyl and loperamide) analgesia was reduced in mutant mice as compared to controls, and abolished at low doses. Morphine-induced constipation remained intact in cKO mice. We therefore genetically demonstrate for the first time that mu opioid receptors partly mediate opiate analgesia at the level of Nav1.8-positive sensory neurons. In our study, this mechanism operates under conditions of inflammatory pain, but not nociception. Previous pharmacology suggests that peripheral opiates may be clinically useful, and our data further demonstrate that Nav1.8 neuron-associated mu opioid receptors are feasible targets to alleviate some forms of persistent pain. PMID:24069332

Karchewski, Laurie; Gardon, Olivier; Matifas, Audrey; Filliol, Dominique; Becker, Jérôme A. J.; Wood, John N.; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Gaveriaux-Ruff, Claire

2013-01-01

156

Dose Calculation For Accidental Release Of Radioactive Cloud Passing Over Jeddah  

SciTech Connect

For the evaluation of doses after the reactor accident, in particular for the inhalation dose, a thorough knowledge of the concentration of the various radionuclide in air during the passage of the plume is required. In this paper we present an application of the Gaussian Plume Model (GPM) to calculate the atmospheric dispersion and airborne radionuclide concentration resulting from radioactive cloud over the city of Jeddah (KSA). The radioactive cloud is assumed to be emitted from a reactor of 10 MW power in postulated accidental release. Committed effective doses (CEDs) to the public at different distance from the source to the receptor are calculated. The calculations were based on meteorological condition and data of the Jeddah site. These data are: pasquill atmospheric stability is the class B and the wind speed is 2.4m/s at 10m height in the N direction. The residence time of some radionuclides considered in this study were calculated. The results indicate that, the values of doses first increase with distance, reach a maximum value and then gradually decrease. The total dose received by human is estimated by using the estimated values of residence time of each radioactive pollutant at different distances.

Alharbi, N. D.; Mayhoub, A. B. [Physics Dept., Sciences Faculty for Girls, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

2011-12-26

157

Persistent Seroconversion after Accidental Eye Exposure to Calcifying Nanoparticles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biosafety of nanomaterials has attracted much attention recently. We report here a case where accidental human eye exposure to biogenic nanosized calcium phosphate in the form of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) raised a strong IgG immune response against proteins carried by CNP. The antibody titer has persisted over ten years at the high level. The IgG was detected by ELISA using CNPs propagated in media containing bovine and human serum as antigen. The exposure incident occurred to a woman scientist (WS) at a research laboratory in Finland at 1993. CNP, also termed "nanobacteria", is a unique self-replicating agent that has not been fully characterized and no data on biohazards were available at that time. Before the accident, her serum samples were negative for both CNP antigen and anti-CNP antibody using specific ELISA tests (Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland). The accident occurred while WS was harvesting CNP cultures. Due to a high pressure in pipetting, CNP pellet splashed into her right eye. Both eyes were immediately washed with water and saline. The following days there was irritation and redness in the right eye. These symptoms disappeared within two weeks without any treatment. Three months after the accident, blood and urine samples of WS were tested for CNP cultures (2), CNP-specific ELISA tests, and blood cell counts. Blood cell counts were normal, CNP antigen and culture tests were negative. A high IgG anti-CNP antibody titer was detected (see Figure). The antibodies of this person have been used thereafter as positive control and standard in ELISA manufacturing (Nano-Sero IgG ELISA, Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland).

Ciftcioglu, Neva; Aho, Katja M.; McKay, David S.; Kajander, E. Olavi

2007-01-01

158

Analysis of the contribution of wind drift factor to oil slick movement under strong tidal condition: Hebei Spirit oil spill case.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model and Automatic Weather System (AWS) were used to generate tidal and wind fields respectively. Simulation results were then compared with 5 sets of spaceborne optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. From the present study, it was found that highest matching rate between the simulation results and satellite imagery was obtained with different values of the wind drift factor, and to first order, this factor was linearly proportional to the wind speed. Based on the results, a new modified empirical formula was proposed for forecasting the movement of oil slicks on the coastal area. PMID:24498094

Kim, Tae-Ho; Yang, Chan-Su; Oh, Jeong-Hwan; Ouchi, Kazuo

2014-01-01

159

Analysis of the Contribution of Wind Drift Factor to Oil Slick Movement under Strong Tidal Condition: Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Case  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model and Automatic Weather System (AWS) were used to generate tidal and wind fields respectively. Simulation results were then compared with 5 sets of spaceborne optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. From the present study, it was found that highest matching rate between the simulation results and satellite imagery was obtained with different values of the wind drift factor, and to first order, this factor was linearly proportional to the wind speed. Based on the results, a new modified empirical formula was proposed for forecasting the movement of oil slicks on the coastal area. PMID:24498094

Kim, Tae-Ho; Yang, Chan-Su; Oh, Jeong-Hwan; Ouchi, Kazuo

2014-01-01

160

Reply to "Comment on `Contributions of vacancies and self-interstitials to self-diffusion in silicon under thermal equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions' "  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suezawa et al. [Phys. Rev. B 90, 117201 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.117201] claim in their Comment that the data reported by Shimizu et al. [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 095901 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.095901] and Kube et al. [Phys. Rev. B 88, 085206 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.085206] on silicon self-diffusion for temperatures between 900 and 735 °C are affected by carbon and vacancy clusters and, accordingly, do not reflect self-diffusion under thermal equilibrium conditions. We demonstrate in our Reply that an impact of carbon on self-diffusion can definitely be excluded. In addition it is rather unlikely that the self-diffusion data reported by Shimizu et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 095901 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.095901] and Kube et al. [Phys. Rev. B 88, 085206 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.085206] are affected by the dissolution of vacancy clusters since strong differences exist not only in the preparation of the samples used for the experiments, but also in the time of diffusion. Finally, the vacancy formation enthalpy deduced by Suezawa et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 110, 083531 (2011), 10.1063/1.3653291] from quenching experiments is consistent with the value obtained from the temperature dependence of the vacancy formation enthalpy reported by Kube et al. [Phys. Rev. B 88, 085206 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.085206]. Overall we conclude that the quenching experiments of Suezawa et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 110, 083531 (2011), 10.1063/1.3653291] cannot disprove the interpretation of the low-temperature self-diffusion data reported by Shimizu et al. [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 095901 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.095901] and Kube et al. [Phys. Rev. B 88, 085206 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.085206].

Kube, R.; Bracht, H.; Hüger, E.; Schmidt, H.; Hansen, J. Lundsgaard; Larsen, A. Nylandsted; Ager, J. W.; Haller, E. E.; Geue, T.; Stahn, J.; Uematsu, M.; Itoh, K. M.

2014-09-01

161

Estimation of vulnerable zones due to accidental release of toxic materials resulting in dense gas clouds  

SciTech Connect

Heavy gas dispersion models have been developed at IIT (hereinafter referred as IIT heavy gas models 1 and 2) with a view to estimate vulnerable zones due to accidental (both instantaneous and continuous, respectively) release of dense toxic material in the atmosphere. The results obtained from IIT heavy gas models have been compared with those obtained from the DEGADIS model (Dense Gas Dispersion Model, developed by Havens and Spicer (1985) for the U.S. Coast Guard) as well as with the observed data collected during the Burro Series, Maplin Sands, and Thorney Island field trials. Both of these models include relevant features of dense gas dispersion, viz., gravity slumping, air entrainment, cloud heating, and transition to the passive phase, etc. The DEGADIS model has been considered for comparing the performance of IIT heavy gas models in this study because it incorporates most of the physical processes of dense gas dispersion in an elaborate manner, and has also been satisfactorily tested against field observations. The predictions from IIT heavy gas models indicate a fairly similar trend to the observed values from Thorney Island, Burro Series, and Maplin experiments with a tendency toward overprediction. There is a good agreement between the prediction of IIT Heavy Gas models 1 and 2 with those from DEGADIS, except for the simulations of IIT heavy gas model-1 pertaining to very large release quantities under highly stable atmospheric conditions. In summary, the performance of IIT heavy gas models have been found to be reasonably good both with respect to the limited field data available and various simulations (selected on the basis of relevant storages in the industries and prevalent meteorological conditions performed with DEGADIS). However, there is a scope of improvement in the IIT heavy gas models.

Singh, M.P.; Mohan, M.; Panwar, T.S.; Chopra, H.V. (Centre for Atmospheric Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, New Dehli (India))

1991-09-01

162

Suicide in Peacekeepers: Risk Factors for Suicide versus Accidental Death  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate risk factors for suicide in veterans of peacekeeping, 43 suicides and 41 fatal accidents in Norwegian peacekeepers (1978 to 1995) were compared in a psychological autopsy study. Mental health problems were the most important risk factor for suicide. Both living alone and the break-up of a love relationship contributed uniquely to…

Thoresen, Siri; Mehlum, Lars

2006-01-01

163

Evolution of epileptic encephalopathy in an infant with non-accidental head injury.  

PubMed

A 5-month-old child, previously healthy, was hospitalized with frequent episodes of tonic seizures. The seizures were controlled with antiepileptic medication. However, the parents did not continue medications after discharge from the hospital. The child was admitted several times with breakthrough seizures. Over time the seizures became refractory to treatment. Neurometabolic work up and imaging studies for uncontrolled seizures revealed non-accidental head injury (shaken baby syndrome) as the underlying cause. His first EEG was normal and changed from normal to an epileptic encephalopathy pattern during his several admissions for uncontrolled seizures. From a normal child at the first admission, the child was severely regressed at the last admission. The present paper highlights the evolution of EEG changes in a child with non-accidental head injuries. This report also highlights considering non-accidental head injury as the underlying cause in younger children presenting with unexplained epileptic encephalopathy. PMID:23887218

Koul, Roshan; Poothrikovil, Rajesh; Al-Azri, Faisal; Al-Sadoon, Muna

2013-07-01

164

Robust accidental nodes and zeros and critical quasiparticle scaling in iron-based multiband superconductors.  

SciTech Connect

We study multigap superconductivity, with strong angular variations of one of the gaps, as appropriate for certain iron-based high-temperature superconductors. We solve the gap equations of this model and find that the nodes or zeros in the gap function present at T{sub c} - although purely accidental - typically survive down to T = 0. Based on this result, we investigate the line of quantum transitions at which gap zeros first appear. The peculiar 'zero-point' quantum critical scaling emanating from this line dominates quasiparticle thermodynamics and transport properties over much of the phase diagram and supplants more familiar forms of scaling associated with the accidental nodes.

Stanev, V.; Alexandrov, B. S.; Nikolic, P.; Tesanovic, Z. (Materials Science Division); (Los Alamos Nat. Lab.); (George Mason Univ.); (Johns Hopkins Univ.)

2011-07-19

165

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOLUME 2: POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

166

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 2. POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

167

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES. VOLUME 1. PREVENTION AND PROTECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

168

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 2. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF CHLORINE (SCAQMD) (SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual discusses reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of chlorine. It identifies some of the potential causes of accidental releases that apply to the processes that use chlorine. It also identifies examples of potential causes, as well as measures that may...

169

Suicide in peacekeepers: risk factors for suicide versus accidental death.  

PubMed

To investigate risk factors for suicide in veterans of peacekeeping, 43 suicides and 41 fatal accidents in Norwegian peacekeepers (1978 to 1995) were compared in a psychological autopsy study. Mental health problems were the most important risk factor for suicide. Both living alone and the break-up of a love relationship contributed uniquely to suicide risk, even when controlling for mental health problems. No peacekeeping-related factor was associated with suicide. Preventive measures should focus on firearms control, improved detection systems for mental health problems in the military, and peer support through veterans' associations. PMID:16978097

Thoresen, Siri; Mehlum, Lars

2006-08-01

170

Prevention reference manual: chemical specific. Volume 2. Control of accidental releases of ammonia. Final report, November 1986-June 1987  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the control of accidental releases of ammonia to the atmosphere. Ammonia has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 500 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of ammonia involves identifying some of the potential causes of accidental releases that apply to process facilities that use ammonia. This manual identifies examples of potential causes and measures that may be taken to reduce the accidental-release risk. Such measures include recommendations on: plant design practices; prevention, protection, and mitigation technologies; and operation and maintenance practices. Conceptual cost estimates of example prevention, protection, and mitigation measures are provided. The accidental release of a toxic chemical at Bhopal, India, in 1984 was a milestone in creating increased public awareness of toxic release problems. As a result of other, perhaps less dramatic, incidents in the past, portions of the chemical industry were aware of the problem long before Bhopal.

Davis, D.S.; DeWolf, G.B.; Quass, J.D.; Stohs, M.

1987-08-01

171

Prevention reference manual: chemical specific. Volume 10. Control of accidental releases of hydrogen cyanide. Final report, November 1986-June 1987  

SciTech Connect

The report discusses the control of accidental releases of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to the atmosphere. HCN has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 50 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of HCN involves identifying some of the potential causes of accidental releases that apply to the process facilities that use HCN. The manual identifies examples of potential causes and measures that may be taken to reduce the accidental release risk. Such measures include recommendations on: plant design practices; prevention, protection, and mitigation technologies; and operation and maintenance practices. Conceptual cost estimates of example prevention, protection, and mitigation measures are provided. The accidental release of a toxic chemical at Bhopal, India, in 1984 was a milestone in creating an increased public awareness of toxic release problems. As a result of other, perhaps less dramatic, incidents in the past, portions of the chemical industry were aware of this problem long before Bhopal.

Davis, D.S.; DeWolf, G.B.; Quass, J.D.

1987-09-01

172

Subdural haemorrhage in infants: when are they non-accidental?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subdural haemorrhage is relatively common in children under the age of 2 years. The most common cause is shaken baby syndrome. Paediatricians are often challenged to make this diagnosis with confidence. A clinician must approach this problem from a thorough understanding of the epidemiological, clinical, pathological features of the condition. He\\/she must work with a team of specialists in the

A. Kemp

2001-01-01

173

Effect of accidental fire on soil mite density in a forest reserve in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mite populations in a forest reserve, where accidental fire swept through almost half of the total area covered by the forest, were enumerated at one, three, and six months after burning. Mite densities in both burnt and unburnt plots were extremely low immediately after burning. Six months after burning, the density of juvenile cryptostigmatid mites were higher in the burnt

M. A. Badejo

1994-01-01

174

Accidental Discovery of Information on the User-Defined Social Web: A Mixed-Method Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frequently interacting with other people or working in an information-rich environment can foster the "accidental discovery of information" (ADI) (Erdelez, 2000; McCay-Peet & Toms, 2010). With the increasing adoption of social web technologies, online user-participation communities and user-generated content have provided users the…

Lu, Chi-Jung

2012-01-01

175

Biodosimetry for high dose accidental exposures by drug induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional dicentric assay does not provide an accurate dose estimate in the case of accidental exposure to ionizing radiation above 6Gy due to mitotic delay and poor mitotic index. The present study aims to establish a simple and rapid dose assessment technique based on scoring of rings and fragments in PCC spreads of stimulated lymphocytes. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes

Sreedevi Balakrishnan; kapil Shirsath; Nagesh Bhat; Kshiti Anjaria

2010-01-01

176

Natural animal shaking: a model for non-accidental head injury in children?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Non-accidental head injury (NAHI) is a form of child abuse where a perpetrator may violently subject an infant to repeated acceleration–deceleration forces with or without head impact, producing injuries including retinal haemorrhages in most cases. Animal models have included laboratory shaking of mice and rats, but only a small fraction develop retinal haemorrhages presumably due to the small eyes,

I Serbanescu; S M Brown; D Ramsay; A V Levin

2008-01-01

177

Infantile Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: Diagnostic Features and Differentiation from Non-accidental Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is rare, but associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. After a baby, subsequently proven to have HSE, had initially been diagnosed as non-accidental injury (NAI), we reviewed the clinical features and radiology of infants with HSE recently diagnosed by our laboratory.Methods: Screening of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples sent to Oxford for HSV polymerase

J. Kurtz; P. Anslow

2003-01-01

178

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 13: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF METHYL ISOCYANATE  

EPA Science Inventory

This is one of a series of manuals addressing accidental releases of toxic chemicals. ethyl isocyanite (MIC) has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, making it a substantially acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accident...

179

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 13: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF METHYL ISOCYANATE  

EPA Science Inventory

This is one of a series of manuals addressing accidental releases of toxic chemicals. Methyl isocyanite (MIC) has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, making it a substantially acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an acciden...

180

A probabilistic risk assessment for accidental releases from nuclear power plants in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. At present, over 200 nuclear power reactors for commercial electricity production are operational in Europe. An integrated assessment of probabilistic cancer mortality risks due to possible accidental releases from the European

Harry Slaper; Roelf Blaauboer

1998-01-01

181

A management system for accidental water pollution risk in a harbour: The Barcelona case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality degradation in harbour domains can have an important negative impact from an economic, touristic and environmental point of view. In that sense, water quality management is becoming a main concern for harbour managers. In this paper, we present the research behind the initiative started in Spanish harbours to control water quality degradation due to accidental pollution. This management

Manel Grifoll; Gabriel Jordà; Manuel Espino; Javier Romo; Marcos García-Sotillo

2011-01-01

182

Confiding in others and illness rate among spouses of suicide and accidental-death victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveyed 19 spouses (mean age 37.5 yrs) of suicide and accidental death victims (representing a 61.3% response rate of all relevant cases that occurred in 1982 in a metropolitan county) concerning their health and coping strategies approximately 1 yr after their spouse's death. Results show that the more Ss discussed their spouse's death with friends and the less that they

James W. Pennebaker; Robin C. OHeeron

1984-01-01

183

Vibration behavior and response to an accidental collision of SFT prototype in Qiandao Lake (China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents free vibration analysis of the submerged floating tunnel (SFT) prototype, which has been designed to be built in Qiandao Lake (China). As an approximation the supporting effect of the tethers is omitted in the calculation of beam-like bending vibrations. As a case study, the response of the SFT prototype to an accidental collision by an object like

Shuangyin Zhang; Lei Wang; Youshi Hong

2010-01-01

184

Feedback information of an accidental ammonia dispersion: use of phyto-references  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data from accidental releases of toxic gas to the atmosphere are incomplete because of the lack of information concerning the measurement of the concentrations emitted. Their estimation based on plants' responses to toxic gas exposure would provide an interesting tool to improve feedback from the incidents. With this in mind, preliminary studies on the response of plants to several

Aurélia Dandrieux; Gilles Dusserre; James Ollivier; Dominique Manzone

2001-01-01

185

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 14: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF PHOSGENE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report, discussing phosgene, is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. Phosgene, a highly reactive and corrosive liquid that boils at room temperature has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (lDLH) conctntration of 2 ppm, ...

186

SUMMARY OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF RADIOACTIVITY DETECTED OFF THE NEVADA TEST SITE, 1963-1986  

EPA Science Inventory

Of the more than 450 underground nuclear explosives tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site from August 1963 (signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty) through the end of 1986, only 23 accidentally released radioactivity that was detectable beyond the boundary of the NTS. Of these ...

187

Estimation of vulnerable zones due to accidental release of toxic materials resulting in dense gas clouds.  

PubMed

Heavy gas dispersion models have been developed at IIT (hereinafter referred as IIT heavy gas models I and II) with a view to estimate vulnerable zones due to accidental (both instantaneous and continuous, respectively) release of dense toxic material in the atmosphere. The results obtained from IIT heavy gas models have been compared with those obtained from the DEGADIS model [Dense Gas Dispersion Model, developed by Havens and Spicer (1985) for the U.S. Coast Guard] as well as with the observed data collected during the Burro Series, Maplin Sands, and Thorney Island field trials. Both of these models include relevant features of dense gas dispersion, viz., gravity slumping, air entrainment, cloud heating, and transition to the passive phase, etc. The DEGADIS model has been considered for comparing the performance of IIT heavy gas models in this study because it incorporates most of the physical processes of dense gas dispersion in an elaborate manner, and has also been satisfactorily tested against field observations. The predictions from IIT heavy gas models indicate a fairly similar trend to the observed values from Thorney Island, Burro Series, and Maplin experiments with a tendency toward overprediction. There is a good agreement between the prediction of IIT Heavy Gas models I and II with those from DEGADIS, except for the simulations of IIT heavy gas model-I pertaining to very large release quantities under highly stable atmospheric conditions. In summary, the performance of IIT heavy gas models have been found to be reasonably good both with respect to the limited field data available and various simulations (selected on the basis of relevant storages in the industries and prevalent meteorological conditions performed with DEGADIS). However, there is a scope of improvement in the IIT heavy gas models (viz., better formulation for entrainment, modification of coefficients, transition criteria, etc.). Further, isotons (nomograms) have been prepared by using IIT heavy gas models for chlorine, which provide safe distance for various storage amounts for 24 meteorological scenarios prevalent in the entire year. These nomograms are prepared such that a nonspecialist can use them easily for control and management in case of an emergency requiring the evacuation of people in the affected region. These results can also be useful for siting and limiting the storage quantities. PMID:1947349

Singh, M P; Mohan, M; Panwar, T S; Chopra, H V

1991-09-01

188

A management system for accidental water pollution risk in a harbour: The Barcelona case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water quality degradation in harbour domains can have an important negative impact from an economic, touristic and environmental point of view. In that sense, water quality management is becoming a main concern for harbour managers. In this paper, we present the research behind the initiative started in Spanish harbours to control water quality degradation due to accidental pollution. This management system is already operationally running in the Barcelona harbour (NW Mediterranean Sea). The system is based on a recent published risk assessment, which takes into account not only the different activities in the harbour and their inherent risk of accident but also the physical behaviour of harbour waters. In this methodology, a key element is to get hydrodynamic forecasts. Thus, the system is composed of a hierarchy of nested hydrodynamic models covering from the basin scale to the harbour scale and a module that computes the different parameters needed for risk assessment. Special emphasis is made on describing the steps followed for system implementation because such implementation is far from a mere technical problem. The first step is to identify the main forcing factors for the harbour hydrodynamics from both field data and numerical experiments, which has never been done before for the Barcelona harbour. Wind and shelf currents are suggested as the main forcing factors for the harbour circulation. The second step is to identify the requirements that a numerical model must fulfil in order to properly solve the Barcelona harbour's hydrodynamics. A high resolution (< 50 m) three dimensional model able to prognostically calculate temperature and salinity evolution; full air-sea coupling is needed as well. The third step is to investigate the best operational strategy. We have found that small errors in the initial density profiles are acceptable for surface current forecasts but not for deep circulation. A cold start must be avoided and a 72 h spin-up is recommended. The minimum wind forcing resolution has been determined to be 1 h. A scaling factor should be included to account for the energy contribution of the higher frequency processes. Finally, an example of its application to a real case is presented and the comparison to other harbour environmental management systems is discussed.

Grifoll, Manel; Jordà, Gabriel; Espino, Manuel; Romo, Javier; García-Sotillo, Marcos

2011-10-01

189

Accidental hypothermia and impaired temperature homoeostasis in the elderly.  

PubMed Central

A longitudinal study of the age-related decline in thermoregulatory capacity was made in 47 elderly people to try to identify those at risk from spontaneous hypothermia. During the winters of 1971-2 and 1975-6 environmental and body temperature profiles were obtained in the home, and thermoregulatory function was investigated by cooling and warming tests. Environmental temperature and socioeconomic conditions had not changed but the body core-shell temperature gradients were smaller in 1976, indicating progressive thermoregulatory impairment. People at risk of developing hypothermia also seem to have low resting peripheral blood flows, a nonconstrictor pattern of vasomotor response to cold, and a higher incidence of orthostatic hypotension. PMID:837095

Collins, K J; Dore, C; Exton-Smith, A N; Fox, R H; MacDonald, I C; Woodward, P M

1977-01-01

190

Modelling of accidental released toxic gases for emergency responders in Austria, Kosovo and Bulgaria.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. A number of models for the prediction and simulation of hazard areas affected by accidental releases of toxic gases are available worldwide. Modelling accidental releases may be required for a variety of reasons: for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), for preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management (e.g. in the frame of the SEVESO directive). Depending on the demand and the particular purposes, the choice of the appropriate model is up to the authorities. The one year project was funded by the Austrian Science and research liaison Office (ASO, www.aso.zsi.at) as a part of the program: Research Cooperation and Networking between Austria, the public higher education institutions in Kosovo and South Eastern Europe. The project was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG, http://www.zamg.ac.at) in cooperation with the University of Prishtina (Kosovo, www.uni-pr.edu and the National Institute of meteorology and Hydrology (NIHM Bulgaria, www.meteo.bg). One of the main purposes of the project was to provide the both partners with basic knowledge in modelling with accidental release of toxic gases, based on the practical experience of the meteorologists from the ZAMG in the area. This knowledge can be used as scientific response to society driven current or upcoming problems especially in Kosovo. The activities involved know-how transfer on European standards and practice among the project partners, as well as joint efforts to adapt and disseminate the scientific methods and results in Kosovo. Within the project, the partners from Kosovo and Bulgaria were introduced to the atmospheric dispersion model (ALOHA - Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere) and proceeded several model runs based on reference scenarios for chemicals of concern. ALOHA is one of the tools developed by EPA's Office of Emergency Management (OEM) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office of Response and Restoration (NOAA), to assist front-line chemical emergency planners and responders. In the frame of the project the partners in Kosovo and Bulgaria also undertook first steps in establishing cooperation connections with decision makers for emergency response planning, fire brigades and chemical plants. This presentation focuses on basic issues and problems in handling with accidental release of toxic gases, as well as on communication difficulties among the emergency responders, modellers and authorities in the three countries.

Stenzel, Sirma; Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Gashi, Salih; Thaci, Bashkim; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Spassova, Tatiana

2010-05-01

191

Accidental versus operational oil spills from shipping in the Baltic Sea: risk governance and management strategies.  

PubMed

Marine governance of oil transportation is complex. Due to difficulties in effectively monitoring procedures on vessels en voyage, incentives to save costs by not following established regulations on issues such as cleaning of tanks, crew size, and safe navigation may be substantial. The issue of problem structure is placed in focus, that is, to what degree the specific characteristics and complexity of intentional versus accidental oil spill risks affect institutional responses. It is shown that whereas the risk of accidental oil spills primarily has been met by technical requirements on the vessels in combination with Port State control, attempts have been made to curb intentional pollution by for example increased surveillance and smart governance mechanisms such as the No-Special-Fee system. It is suggested that environmental safety could be improved by increased use of smart governance mechanisms tightly adapted to key actors' incentives to alter behavior in preferable directions. PMID:21446395

Hassler, Björn

2011-03-01

192

Accidental Displacement of Third Molar into the Sublingual Space: a Case Report  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background Successful extraction of third molars depends on preoperative diagnosis and planning. Gold standard preoperative examinations are performed through computed tomography, decreasing risks and avoiding potential accidents. The present report highlights the value of preoperative examinations in face of accidentally displaced third molars. Methods An 18-years-old female patient underwent a third mandibular molar extraction with a general dentist. Accidentally, the mandibular left third molar was displaced into the sublingual space, making necessary a second surgical step. The surgery was interrupted and the patient was referred to an expert in maxillofacial surgery. Results After 21 days awaiting an asymptomatic health status, the second surgical step was successfully performed using multislice computed tomography as preoperative imaging guide. Conclusions The present case report highlights the clinical usefulness of imaging planning and informed consents in face of legal and ethic potential complaints. PMID:25386232

Garcia, Robson Rodrigues; Botelho, Tessa Lucena; Franco, Ademir; Silva, Rhonan Ferreira

2014-01-01

193

Bitter pill to swallow: a case of accidental poisoning with digitalis purpurea.  

PubMed

While digitoxicity secondary to therapeutic use is frequent, due to its distinctive appearance and unpleasant taste accidental ingestion of digitalis purpurea (foxglove) is uncommon. This report relates the case of two previously healthy individuals who inadvertently consumed significant quantities of digitalis in its plant form. Both men presented in first-degree atrioventricular block and had digoxin levels of 4.9 ?g/litre, but were otherwise stable and made unremarkable recoveries with repeated dose activated charcoal. PMID:22791473

Mitchell, Andrew

2010-01-01

194

Bitter pill to swallow: a case of accidental poisoning with digitalis purpurea  

PubMed Central

While digitoxicity secondary to therapeutic use is frequent, due to its distinctive appearance and unpleasant taste accidental ingestion of digitalis purpurea (foxglove) is uncommon. This report relates the case of two previously healthy individuals who inadvertently consumed significant quantities of digitalis in its plant form. Both men presented in first-degree atrioventricular block and had digoxin levels of 4.9 ?g/litre, but were otherwise stable and made unremarkable recoveries with repeated dose activated charcoal. PMID:22791473

Mitchell, Andrew

2010-01-01

195

A risk assessment method for accidental releases from nuclear power plants in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present over 200 nuclear power reactors are operational. The question\\u000araised is to what extent possible accidents with nuclear power reactors\\u000apose a risk for the European population. In this report a method is\\u000adescribed for evaluating the probability of death due to stochastic\\u000aeffects, combining the probability of accidental releases with the\\u000aconsequences in terms of the excess

Slaper H; Blaauboer RO; Eggink GJ

2007-01-01

196

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after accidental injection of a hog vaccine: successful treatment with plasmapheresis.  

PubMed

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, can occur after viral infections or vaccinations. We report the clinical and neuroimaging findings in a 52-year-old man in whom acute disseminated encephalomyelitis developed after accidental self-injection of an industrial hog vaccine. The protracted and progressive clinical course, despite high-dose parenteral corticosteroid therapy, was altered by aggressive plasmapheresis. PMID:9868420

Dodick, D W; Silber, M H; Noseworthy, J H; Wilbright, W A; Rodriguez, M

1998-12-01

197

Positive income shocks and accidental deaths among Cherokee Indians: a natural experiment  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies in low-income populations report the somewhat counterintuitive finding that positive income gains adversely affect adult health. The literature posits that receipt of a large portion of annual income increases, in the short term, risk-taking behaviour and/or the consumption of health-damaging goods. This work implies the hypothesis that persons with an unexpected gain in income will exhibit an elevated risk of accidental death—the fifth leading cause of death in the USA. We test this hypothesis directly by capitalizing on a natural experiment in which Cherokee Indians in rural North Carolina received discrete lump sum payments from a new casino. Methods We applied Poisson regression to the monthly count of accidental deaths among Cherokee Indians over 204 months spanning 1990–2006. We controlled for temporal patterns in accidental deaths (e.g. seasonality and trend) as well as changes in population size. Results As hypothesized, the risk of accidental death rises above expected levels during months of the large casino payments (relative risk?=?2.62; 95% confidence interval?=?1.54–4.47). Exploratory analyses of ethnographic interviews and behavioural surveys support that increased vehicular travel and consumption of health-damaging goods may account for the rise in accident proneness. Conclusions Although long-term income gains may improve health in this population, our findings indicate that acute responses to large income gains, in the short term, increase risk-taking and accident proneness. We encourage further investigation of natural experiments to identify causal economic antecedents of population health. PMID:21527447

Bruckner, Tim A; Brown, Ryan A; Margerison-Zilko, Claire

2011-01-01

198

Rewarming a patient with accidental hypothermia and cardiac arrest using thoracic lavage.  

PubMed

The optimal treatment for severe accidental hypothermia is cardiopulmonary bypass because this offers the most rapid rate of rewarming. However, cardiopulmonary bypass therapy is not available in every hospital. In these circumstances, rewarming has to be achieved with other methods. We present a patient who was successfully rewarmed with thoracic lavage after he had been found with a core temperature of 21°C and asystole. PMID:24882294

Turtiainen, Johanna; Halonen, Jari; Syväoja, Sakari; Hakala, Tapio

2014-06-01

199

Environmental Conditions Environmental Conditions  

E-print Network

, developed complex life histories through time that responded to the subbasin's considerable variation in this habitat. Loss of grassland habitat greatly reduced such populations. Today subbasin habitat conditions/optimal) conditions in the year 2050, and examines what future conditions might be expected if no additional future

200

Accidental Discoveries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The students will understand that science theories change in the face of new evidence, but those changes can be slow in coming. To download the lesson plan as a pdf, see the document below. Students willResearch scientific discoveries that happened by accident in the past and learn how gamma-rays were discovered by 20th century scientists

2010-01-01

201

Accidental Activists  

E-print Network

cultivation. With medical marijuana legal in California, butadvocates for marijuana legalization and medical use. Andmarijuana comes from California, including both illegal operations and licensed medical

Neumann, Erik

2014-01-01

202

Youth versus adult "weightlifting" injuries presenting to United States emergency rooms: accidental versus nonaccidental injury mechanisms.  

PubMed

Resistance training has previously been purported to be unsafe and ineffective in children. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate resistance training-related injuries presenting to U.S. emergency rooms by age, type, and mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that older athletes would sustain greater percentages of joint sprains and muscle strains, whereas younger athletes would sustain a greater percentage of accidental injuries that would result in an increased percentage of fractures in youths. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried from 2002 to 2005 using the CPSC code for "Weightlifting." Subjects between the ages of 8 and 30 were grouped by age categories 8 to 13 (elementary/middle school age), 14 to 18 (high school), 19 to 22 (college), and 23 to 30 (adult). Injuries were classified as "accidental" if caused by dropped weight or improper equipment use. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare accidental injuries between age groups. The sample consisted of 4,111 patients. Accidental injuries decreased (p < 0.05) with age: 8 to 13 > 14 to 18 > 19 to 22 years = 23 to 30 years. Conversely, sprain/strain injuries increased in each successive age group (p < 0.05). Evaluation of only the nonaccidental injuries (n = 2,565) showed that the oldest categories (19-22 and 23-30 yr) demonstrated a greater percentage of sprains and strains relative to younger age categories (p < 0.001). Two thirds of the injuries sustained in the 8 to 13 group were to the hand and foot and were most often related to "dropping" and "pinching" in the injury descriptions, and there was an increased percentage of fractures in the 8 to 13 group relative to all other groups (p < 0.001). The study findings indicate that children have lower risk of resistance training-related joint sprains and muscle strains than adults. The majority of youth resistance training injuries are the result of accidents that are potentially preventable with increased supervision and stricter safety guidelines. PMID:19855330

Myer, Gregory D; Quatman, Carmen E; Khoury, Jane; Wall, Eric J; Hewett, Timothy E

2009-10-01

203

Accidental hijab pin ingestion in Muslim women: an emerging endoscopic emergency?  

PubMed

Ingested foreign body is an infrequent indication for emergency endoscopy in the adult gastroenterology practice. We describe the clinical features and endoscopic management of the first four cases of accidental ingestion of hijab pins by Muslim women in our unit, all presenting within a 12-month period. The pins were all successfully retrieved without any complications. In this report, we review published guidelines and the current literature, as well as discussing the approach (conservative vs proactive endoscopic retrieval) and timing of endoscopic treatment. The Muslim community may need to be alerted to the potential health hazard of hijab pins. PMID:24390968

Goh, Jason; Patel, Neeral; Boulton, Ralph

2014-01-01

204

Forecasting consequences of accidental release: how reliable are current assessment models  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on uncertainties in model output used to assess accidents. We begin by reviewing the historical development of assessment models and the associated interest in uncertainties as these evolutionary processes occurred in the United States. This is followed by a description of the sources of uncertainties in assessment calculations. Types of models appropriate for assessment of accidents are identified. A summary of results from our analysis of uncertainty is provided in results obtained with current methodology for assessing routine and accidental radionuclide releases to the environment. We conclude with discussion of preferred procedures and suggested future directions to improve the state-of-the-art of radiological assessments.

Rohwer, P.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; Miller, C.W.

1983-01-01

205

Macular hole surgery complicated by accidental massive subretinal indocyanine green, and retinal tear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  To report a case of macular hole (MH) surgery complicated by accidental massive subretinal indocyanine green (ICG), and a\\u000a retinal tear through the papillomacular bundle.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A 64-year-old woman complained of one-year history of poor vision in her left eye (LE) and of one month in her right (RE).\\u000a Dilated fundus examination, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) demonstrated a

J. Fernando Arevalo; Reinaldo A. Garcia

2007-01-01

206

Endoscopic removal of an endodontic file accidentally swallowed: clinical and legal approaches.  

PubMed

The use of a rubber dam is an essential procedure when treating root canals, and not using it may compromise the success of the treatment, as well as the patient's health. This report presents a case in which a K-file was accidentally swallowed during an endodontic procedure, performed without the use of a rubber dam. Given the absence of immediate clinical complications, the subject underwent a chest radiograph. The file was located at the oesophagogastric junction and was later removed by endoscopy. In addition to the clinical repercussions, this example also illustrates the ethical-legal aspects of this type of accident. PMID:21771188

Silva, Rhonan F; Martins, Emerson C; Prado, Felippe B; Júnior, Jacy R C; Júnior, Eduardo D

2011-08-01

207

Comparison of whole-body post mortem 3D CT and autopsy evaluation in accidental blunt force traumatic death using the abbreviated injury scale classification.  

PubMed

Although 3D CT imaging data are available on survivors of accidental blunt trauma, little similar data has been collected and classified on major injuries in victims of fatal injuries. This study compared the sensitivity of post mortem computed tomography (PMCT) with that of conventional autopsy for major trauma findings classified according to the trauma Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Whole-body 3D PMCT imaging data and full autopsy findings were analyzed on 21 victims of accidental blunt force trauma death. All major injuries were classified on the AIS scale with ratings from 3 (serious) to 6 (unsurvivable). Agreement between sensitivity of autopsy and PMCT for major injuries was determined. A total of 195 major injuries were detected (mean per fatality, 9.3; range, 1-14). Skeletal injuries by AIS grade included 37 grade 3, 45 grade 4, 12 grade 5, and 2 grade 6 major findings. Soft tissue injuries included 10 grade 3, 68 grade 4, 16 grade 5, and 5 grade 6 major findings. Of these, PMCT detected 165 (88 skeletal, 77 soft tissue), and autopsy detected 127 (59 skeletal, 68 soft tissue). PMCT agreed with autopsy in 86% and 76% of skeletal and soft tissue injuries, respectively. PMCT detected an additional 37 skeletal and 31 soft tissue injuries that were not identified at autopsy. Autopsy detected 8 skeletal and 22 soft tissue injuries that were not detected by PMCT. PMCT was more sensitive for skeletal (P=0.05) and head and neck region injury (P=0.043) detection. PMCT showed a trend for greater sensitivity than autopsy, but this did not reach statistical significance (P=0.083). 3D PMCT detected significantly more skeletal injuries than autopsy and a similar number of soft tissue injuries to autopsy and promises to be a sensitive tool for detection and classification of skeletal injuries in fatal blunt force accidental trauma. Use of the AIS scale allows standardized categorization and quantification of injuries that contribute to death in such cases and allows more objective comparison between autopsy and PMCT. PMID:22947431

Daly, Barry; Abboud, Samir; Ali, Zabiullah; Sliker, Clint; Fowler, David

2013-02-10

208

Mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical model was constructed for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included. 25 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Stevens, D.L.

1980-05-01

209

The ATLAS Beam Condition and Beam Loss Monitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary goal of ATLAS Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) and Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) is to protect the ATLAS Inner Detector against damaging LHC beam incidents by initiating beam abort in case of beam failures. Poly-crystalline Chemical Vapour Deposition (pCVD) diamond was chosen as the sensor material for both systems. ATLAS BCM will provide real-time monitoring of instantaneous particle rates close to the interaction point (IP) of ATLAS spectrometer. Using fast front-end and signal processing electronics the time-of-flight and pulse amplitude measurements will be performed to distinguish between normal collisions and background events due to natural or accidental beam losses. Additionally, BCM will also provide coarse relative luminosity information. A second system, the ATLAS BLM, is an independent system which was recently added to complement the BCM. It is a current measuring system and was partially adopted from the BLM system developed by the LHC beam instrumentation group with pCVD diamond pad sensors replacing the ionisation chambers. The design of both systems and results of operation in ATLAS framework during the commissioning with cosmic rays will be reported in this contribution.

Dolenc, I.

2010-04-01

210

The 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: protocol, methods and analysis of data.  

PubMed

Accidental awareness during general anaesthesia with recall is a potentially distressing complication of general anaesthesia that can lead to psychological harm. The 5th National Audit Project was designed to investigate the reported incidence, predisposing factors, causality and impact of accidental awareness. A nationwide network of local co-ordinators across all UK and Irish public hospitals reported all new patient reports of accidental awareness to a central database, using a system of monthly anonymised reporting over a calendar year. The database collected the details of the reported event, anaesthetic and surgical technique, and any sequelae. These reports were categorised into main types by a multidisciplinary panel, using a formalised process of analysis. The main categories of accidental awareness were: certain or probable; possible; during sedation; on or from the intensive care unit; could not be determined; unlikely; drug errors; and statement only. The degree of evidence to support the categorisation was also defined for each report. Patient experience and sequelae were categorised using current tools or modifications of such. The 5th National Audit Project methodology may be used to assess new reports of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia in a standardised manner, especially for the development of an ongoing database of case reporting. This paper is a shortened version describing the protocols, methods and data analysis from 5th National Audit Project - the full report can be found at http://www.nationalauditprojects.org.uk/NAP5_home#pt. PMID:25204235

Pandit, J J; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H MacG; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Cook, T M

2014-10-01

211

Triage and Management of Accidental Laboratory Exposures to Biosafety Level-3 and -4 Agents  

PubMed Central

The recent expansion of biocontainment laboratory capacity in the United States has drawn attention to the possibility of occupational exposures to BSL-3 and -4 agents and has prompted a reassessment of medical management procedures and facilities to deal with these contingencies. A workshop hosted by the National Interagency Biodefense Campus was held in October 2007 and was attended by representatives of all existing and planned BSL-4 research facilities in the U.S. and Canada. This report summarizes important points of discussion and recommendations for future coordinated action, including guidelines for the engineering and operational controls appropriate for a hospital care and isolation unit. Recommendations pertained to initial management of exposures (ie, immediate treatment of penetrating injuries, reporting of exposures, initial evaluation, and triage). Isolation and medical care in a referral hospital (including minimum standards for isolation units), staff recruitment and training, and community outreach also were addressed. Workshop participants agreed that any unit designated for the isolation and treatment of laboratory employees accidentally infected with a BSL-3 or -4 pathogen should be designed to maximize the efficacy of patient care while minimizing the risk of transmission of infection. Further, participants concurred that there is no medically based rationale for building care and isolation units to standards approximating a BSL-4 laboratory. Instead, laboratory workers accidentally exposed to pathogens should be cared for in hospital isolation suites staffed by highly trained professionals following strict infection control procedures. PMID:19634998

Rodak, Colleen; Bray, Mike; Davey, Richard T.

2009-01-01

212

Plutino 15810 (1994 JR1), an accidental quasi-satellite of Pluto  

E-print Network

In the solar system, quasi-satellites move in a 1:1 mean motion resonance going around their host body like a retrograde satellite but their mutual separation is well beyond the Hill radius and the trajectory is not closed as they orbit the Sun not the host body. So far, minor bodies temporarily trapped in the quasi-satellite dynamical state have been identified around Venus, Earth, the dwarf planet (1) Ceres, the large asteroid (4) Vesta, Jupiter, Saturn and Neptune. Using computer simulations, Tiscareno and Malhotra have predicted the existence of a small but significant population of minor bodies moving in a 1:1 mean motion resonance with Pluto. Here we show using N-body calculations that the Plutino 15810 (1994 JR1) is currently an accidental quasi-satellite of Pluto and it will remain as such for nearly 350,000 yr. By accidental we mean that the quasi-satellite phase is triggered (or terminated) not by a direct gravitational influence in the form of a discrete close encounter but as a result of a resonan...

Marcos, C de la Fuente

2012-01-01

213

A case of pediatric age anticholinergic intoxication due to accidental Datura stramonium ingestion admitting with visual hallucination.  

PubMed

Datura stramonium (DS) is a hallucinogenic plant that can produce anticholinergic toxicity because of its significant concentrations of toxic alkaloids, such as atropine, hyoscyamine, and scopolamine. DS grows in both rural and urban areas in Turkey. Clinical findings of toxicity are similar to those of atropine toxicity. DS abuse is common among adolescents because of its hallucinatory effects. However, accidental DS poisoning from contaminated food is very rare. Accidental poisonings are commonly seen among children. Children are more prone to the toxic effects of atropine; ingestion of even a small amount can cause serious central nervous system symptoms. Treatment is supportive; antidote treatment is given rarely. An eight-year-old male with accidental DS poisoning who presented to the Pediatric Emergency Department with aggression, agitation, delirium, and visual hallucinations is reported. PMID:25341608

Sanl?da?, Burçin; Derinöz, Ok?an; Y?ld?z, Nagehan

2014-01-01

214

Larger-area single-mode photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers enabled by an accidental Dirac point  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By altering the lattice geometry of the photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers (PCSELs), we tune the regular lasing band edges of quadratic dispersions to form a single accidental Dirac point of linear dispersion at the Brillouin zone center. This not only increases the mode spacing by orders of magnitude, but also eliminates the distributed in-plane feedback to enable single-mode PCSELs of substantially larger area thus substantially higher output power. The advantages of using accidental Dirac cones are systematically evaluated through two-dimensional in-plane calculations and confirmed by three-dimensional simulations of photonic crystal slab devices.

Chua, Song-Liang; Lu, Ling; Bravo-Abad, Jorge; Joannopoulos, John D.; Solja?i?, Marin

2014-04-01

215

A simplified method of preventing implant hex drive from aspiration or accidental swallowing during stage two implant recovery  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To prevent accidental ingestion of implant hex dive. Materials and Methods: Dental floss which is used to stabilize the hex drive is tied to the operator's finger ring to overcome sudden aspiration of fallen instrument. Results: It showed excellent grip of the instrument during stage two uncover time and also saved operators time. Conclusions: Accidental aspiration or swallowing of the dental instruments during routine implant surgeries can be prevented by tying the implant instruments to the operator's ring with silk ligatures or dental floss.

Ratnaditya, Akurati; Ravuri, Srinivas; Tadi, Durga Prasad; Kandregula, Chaitanya Ram; Kopuri, Rajkumar Chowdary; Pentakota, Venkata Girish

2014-01-01

216

The potential for damage from the accidental release of conductive carbon fibers from aircraft composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon and graphite fibers are known to be electrically conductive. The rapidly accelerating use of carbon fibers as the reinforcement in filamentary composite materials brought up the possibility of accidental release of carbon fibers from the burning of crashed commercial airliners with carbon composite parts. Such release could conceivably cause widespread damage to electrical and electronic equipment. The experimental and analytical results of a comprehensive investigation of the various elements necessary to assess the extent of such potential damage in terms of annual expected costs and maximum losses at low probabilities of occurrence are presented. A review of NASA materials research program to provide alternate or modified composite materials to overcome any electrical hazards from the use of carbon composites in aircraft structures is described.

Bell, V. L.

1980-01-01

217

The accidental release of exotic species from breeding colonies and zoological collections.  

PubMed

Exotic species have often been introduced into a new country in zoological or botanical gardens or on game and fur farms. When accidentally or deliberately released, these alien species can become invasive and have negative impacts on native plant and animal communities and human activities. This article focuses on a selection of such invasive species: principally the American mink (Neovison vison), but also the coypu (Myocastor coypus), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), raccoon (Procyon lotor) and African sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus). In each of these cases, the authors describe the biological characteristics and life history of the species, in relation to its invasive capacity, the origins and establishment of non-native populations, the environmental consequences and possible control measures. The main negative impacts observed are the destruction of habitat, the introduction and/or spread of pathogens and changes in the composition of native communities with consequent effects on biodiversity. PMID:20617652

Barrat, J; Richomme, C; Moinet, M

2010-04-01

218

Accidental inclusions following blast injury in esthetical zones: ablation by a hydrosurgery system.  

PubMed

In case of blast injuries, traumatic tattoos can result from accidental inclusions of intradermal pigmented particles. To avoid these tattoos, especially in esthetical areas like the head and neck region and the hands, the primary goal in our treatment is to remove all particles and foreign bodies. Superficial foreign bodies can easily be removed by brushes or dermabrasion. Deeper lesions are a challenge for plastic surgeons, because they are not so easily removed. Ablation by a water jet surgical tool, the Versajet-system (Smith & Nephew Inc, Andover, MA), enables the removal of nearly all particles and foreign bodies, which sustained a blast injury of the face or the hands. Aim of this paper is to describe the method of using this hydrosurgery system in blast injuries in esthetical zones and its advantages by presenting cases of two patients of us. PMID:22848777

Siemers, Frank; Mauss, Karl L; Liodaki, Eirini; Ottomann, Christian; Bergmann, Philipp A; Mailänder, Peter

2012-01-01

219

Accidental Inclusions Following Blast Injury in Esthetical Zones: Ablation by a Hydrosurgery System  

PubMed Central

In case of blast injuries, traumatic tattoos can result from accidental inclusions of intradermal pigmented particles. To avoid these tattoos, especially in esthetical areas like the head and neck region and the hands, the primary goal in our treatment is to remove all particles and foreign bodies. Superficial foreign bodies can easily be removed by brushes or dermabrasion. Deeper lesions are a challenge for plastic surgeons, because they are not so easily removed. Ablation by a water jet surgical tool, the Versajet-system (Smith & Nephew Inc, Andover, MA), enables the removal of nearly all particles and foreign bodies, which sustained a blast injury of the face or the hands. Aim of this paper is to describe the method of using this hydrosurgery system in blast injuries in esthetical zones and its advantages by presenting cases of two patients of us. PMID:22848777

Siemers, Frank; Mauss, Karl L.; Liodaki, Eirini; Ottomann, Christian; Bergmann, Philipp A.; Mailander, Peter

2012-01-01

220

Parents Accidentally Substitute Similar Sounding Sibling Names More Often than Dissimilar Names  

PubMed Central

When parents select similar sounding names for their children, do they set themselves up for more speech errors in the future? Questionnaire data from 334 respondents suggest that they do. Respondents whose names shared initial or final sounds with a sibling’s reported that their parents accidentally called them by the sibling’s name more often than those without such name overlap. Having a sibling of the same gender, similar appearance, or similar age was also associated with more frequent name substitutions. Almost all other name substitutions by parents involved other family members and over 5% of respondents reported a parent substituting the name of a pet, which suggests a strong role for social and situational cues in retrieving personal names for direct address. To the extent that retrieval cues are shared with other people or animals, other names become available and may substitute for the intended name, particularly when names sound similar. PMID:24391955

Griffin, Zenzi M.; Wangerman, Thomas

2013-01-01

221

Non-accidental injuries found in necropsies of domestic cats: a review of 191 cases.  

PubMed

Animal cruelty is defined as a deliberate action that causes pain and suffering to an animal. In Brazil, legislation known as the Environmental Crimes Law states that cruelty toward all animal species is criminal in nature. From 644 domestic cats necropsied between January 1998 and December 2009, 191 (29.66%) presented lesions highly suggestive of animal cruelty. The main necroscopic finding was exogenous carbamate poisoning (75.39%) followed by blunt-force trauma (21.99%). Cats from 7 months to 2 years of age were the most affected (50.79%). In Brazil, violence is a public health problem and there is a high prevalence of domestic violence. Therefore, even if laws provide for animal welfare and protection, animals are common targets for violent acts. Within a context of social violence, cruelty toward animals is an important parameter to be considered, and the non-accidental lesions that were found are evidence of malicious actions. PMID:22694958

de Siqueira, Adriana; Cassiano, Fabiana Cecília; de Albuquerque Landi, Marina Frota; Marlet, Elza Fernandes; Maiorka, Paulo César

2012-10-01

222

Relative public health effects from accidental release of fusion structural radioactivity  

SciTech Connect

The FUSECRAC code, a modification of the CRAC code, was developed to estimate public health effects from released fusion radioactivity both for safety studies and for comparison of the hazards associated with candidate structural materials. This paper summarizes the key motivations, problems, and results of the FUSECRAC comparison. The evolving CRAC code is a product of the Reactor Safety Study and represents the state-of-the-art in fission accident consequence assessments. It was found that potential public health effects from accidental releases of 316 SS are two orders of magnitude higher than from V-15Cr-5Ti or TZM per unit volume of activated first wall released. The probabilities for releases among these materials were not addressed here.

Piet, S.J.; Kazimi, M.S.; Lidsky, L.M.

1983-01-01

223

Fatal myeloencephalopathy due to accidental intrathecal vincristin administration: a report of two cases.  

PubMed

We report on two fatal cases of accidental intrathecal vincristine instillation in a 5-year old girl with recurrent acute lymphoblastic leucemia and a 57-year old man with lymphoblastic lymphoma. The girl died seven days, the man four weeks after intrathecal injection of vincristine. Clinically, the onset was characterized by the signs of opistothonus, sensory and motor dysfunction and ascending paralysis. Histological and immunohistochemical investigations (HE-LFB, CD-68, Neurofilament) revealed degeneration of myelin and axons as well as pseudocystic transformation in areas exposed to vincristine, accompanied by secondary changes with numerous prominent macrophages. The clinical course and histopathological results of the two cases are presented. A review of all reported cases in the literature is given. A better controlled regimen for administering vincristine and intrathecal chemotherapy is recommended. PMID:11587867

Dettmeyer, R; Driever, F; Becker, A; Wiestler, O D; Madea, B

2001-10-15

224

Quantum order by disorder and accidental soft mode in Er2Ti2O7.  

PubMed

Motivated by recent neutron scattering experiments, we derive and study an effective "pseudodipolar" spin-1/2 model for the XY pyrochlore antiferromagnet Er(2)Ti(2)O(7). While a bond-dependent in-plane exchange anisotropy removes any continuous symmetry, it does lead to a one-parameter 'accidental' classical degeneracy. This degeneracy is lifted by quantum fluctuations in favor of the noncoplanar spin structure observed experimentally-a rare experimental instance of quantum order by disorder. A non-Goldstone low-energy mode is present in the excitation spectrum in accordance with inelastic neutron scattering data. Our theory also resolves the puzzle of the experimentally observed continuous ordering transition, absent from previous models. PMID:23006400

Zhitomirsky, M E; Gvozdikova, M V; Holdsworth, P C W; Moessner, R

2012-08-17

225

Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984  

SciTech Connect

March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Adams, W.H.; Engle, J.R.; Harper, J.A.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

1986-01-01

226

Quantum Order by Disorder and Accidental Soft Mode in Er2Ti2O7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by recent neutron scattering experiments, we derive and study an effective “pseudodipolar” spin-1/2 model for the XY pyrochlore antiferromagnet Er2Ti2O7. While a bond-dependent in-plane exchange anisotropy removes any continuous symmetry, it does lead to a one-parameter ‘accidental’ classical degeneracy. This degeneracy is lifted by quantum fluctuations in favor of the noncoplanar spin structure observed experimentally—a rare experimental instance of quantum order by disorder. A non-Goldstone low-energy mode is present in the excitation spectrum in accordance with inelastic neutron scattering data. Our theory also resolves the puzzle of the experimentally observed continuous ordering transition, absent from previous models.

Zhitomirsky, M. E.; Gvozdikova, M. V.; Holdsworth, P. C. W.; Moessner, R.

2012-08-01

227

Survival After Accidental Extrahepatic Distribution of Y90 Microspheres to the Mesentery During a Radioembolization Procedure  

SciTech Connect

We present the acute management and outcome of a patient after an accidental mesenteric distribution of Y90 microspheres during radioembolization (RE). This report describes and highlights: (1) the incidence of a significant reflux during a RE session while injecting into a replaced right hepatic artery from the superior mesenteric artery, (2) the appearance of diffuse mesenteric Y90 distribution in bremsstrahlung-imaging, (3) the management protocol with the radiation protection agent amifostine, (4) the development of typical adverse effects in the expected time window, and (5) survival of the patient without long-term sequelae. This report should sensitize physicians to this particular problem and may help to avoid as well as manage similar radioembolization incidences.

Sabet, Amir; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Schaefer, Nico [University Hospital, Department of Surgery (Germany); Wilhelm, Kai; Schueller, Heinrich [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Radiation Oncology (Germany); Ezziddin, Samer, E-mail: samer.ezziddin@ukb.uni-bonn.de [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Germany)

2012-08-15

228

Accidental symmetries and massless quarks in the economical 3-3-1 model  

E-print Network

In the framework of a 3-3-1 model with a minimal scalar sector, known as the economical 3-3-1 model, we study its capabilities of generating realistic quark masses. After a detailed study of the symmetries of the model, before and after the spontaneous symmetry breaking, we find a remaining axial symmetry that prevents some quarks to gain mass at all orders in perturbation theory. Since this accidental symmetry is anomalous, we also consider briefly the possibility to generate their masses for non-perturbative effects. However, we find that non-perturbative effects are not enough to generate the measured masses for that three massless quarks. Hence, these results imply that the economical 3-3-1 model is not a realistic description of the electroweak interaction and it has to be modified.

Montero, J C

2014-01-01

229

Regional scale atmospheric dispersion simulation of accidental releases of radionuclides from Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of regional scale atmospheric dispersion simulation of accidental emission of radionuclides from the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor, Japan following the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event on 11 March 2011. The objective was to study the temporal behaviour of plume trajectory, concentration, deposition and radiation dose pattern over an 80 km range around the reactor. The time-varying meteorological parameters during the release period were simulated with a multi-scale nested atmospheric model WRF ARW and the trajectory, plume dispersion were computed with Lagrangian Particle Dispersion models HYSPLIT, FLEXPART using the available information on accidental source term. The simulations indicated that the wind flow over Japan during the release period was driven by the large scale extra-tropical westerly waves and associated low pressure systems. In the lower levels, the flow was influenced by the local topography/sea breeze causing occasional landward wind shift on the east coast of Japan. Simulated airflow trajectories revealed that the plume stayed over the ocean by westerly winds on most days and the radioactivity dispersed over sea surface. Landward trajectories were found on a few days due to southeasterly, easterly and northeasterly flow (15-17, 19-21 March 2011) during which much of the radionuclides deposited over the land region. The hotspot of depositions occurred over east Pacific Ocean near to Japan. Over the land relatively high depositions were simulated in a narrow zone of 20 km width and 80 km length in the northwest sector in agreement with monitor data. Simulations showed wet depositions over the land to be higher than the dry depositions during 12-30 March due to occurrence of rainfall on some days. Comparison of activity deposition and air dose values with available observations confirmed that the plume pattern in a finer length scale around the site could be simulated realistically and agree with the measurements within the limitations of the uncertainty in source term.

Srinivas, C. V.; Venkatesan, R.; Baskaran, R.; Rajagopal, V.; Venkatraman, B.

2012-12-01

230

Probability Analysis for Accidental Impact on Mars by the Micro-Spacecraft Procyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyzes the impact probability on Mars for the 50kg-class micro-spacecraft PROCYON (PRoximate Object Close flYby with Optical Navigation) in 50 years after its launch. PROCYON, which is mainly developed by the University of Tokyo and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), has two missions: the first is the technology demonstration of a micro-spacecraft bus system for deep space exploration and the second is proximity operation by Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as the closest flyby distance from a target asteroid is aimed around 30 kilometer. The spacecraft is scheduled to be launched together with Japan’s second asteroid sample return spacecraft "Hayabusa-2" at the end of 2014. Initially PROCYON will be inserted into an Earth resonant trajectory that allows the spacecraft to cruise back to the Earth by solar electric propulsion leveraging. The Earth gravity assist, which is scheduled at the end of 2015, will enable the spacecraft to expand a number of candidate NEAs for flyby operations. At the time of the writing, its candidate NEAs include "2000 DP107", "2010 LJ14" and "2002 AJ29". A miniature ion thruster is mounted on the spacecraft to provide 300muN of thrust with specific impulse of 1200 seconds for deep space maneuver before Earth gravity assist. Considering a small amount of its fuel (about 2 kg of Xenon propellant), PROCYON has no possibility to impact directly on Mars without Earth gravity assist. However, if PROCYON successfully obtains large enough delta-V by the Earth gravity assist at the end of 2015, a possibility of accidental impact on Mars cannot be neglected in order to comply the COSPAR planetary protection requirements for forward contamination. In this paper, we calculate the possibility of accidental impact on Mars after the Earth gravity assist. As the result we conclude that the possibility of Mars impact is negligible within 50 years after its launch.

Funase, Ryu; Yano, Hajime; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro; Ozaki, Naoya; Nakajima, Shintaro; Shimizu, Yukio

231

The effectiveness of a multidisciplinary QI activity for accidental fall prevention: Staff compliance is critical  

PubMed Central

Background Accidental falls among inpatients are a substantial cause of hospital injury. A number of successful experimental studies on fall prevention have shown the importance and efficacy of multifactorial intervention, though success rates vary. However, the importance of staff compliance with these effective, but often time-consuming, multifactorial interventions has not been fully investigated in a routine clinical setting. The purpose of this observational study was to describe the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary quality improvement (QI) activity for accidental fall prevention, with particular focus on staff compliance in a non-experimental clinical setting. Methods This observational study was conducted from July 2004 through December 2010 at St. Luke’s International Hospital in Tokyo, Japan. The QI activity for in-patient falls prevention consisted of: 1) the fall risk assessment tool, 2) an intervention protocol to prevent in-patient falls, 3) specific environmental safety interventions, 4) staff education, and 5) multidisciplinary healthcare staff compliance monitoring and feedback mechanisms. Results The overall fall rate was 2.13 falls per 1000 patient days (350/164331) in 2004 versus 1.53 falls per 1000 patient days (263/172325) in 2010, representing a significant decrease (p?=?0.039). In the first 6?months, compliance with use of the falling risk assessment tool at admission was 91.5% in 2007 (3998/4368), increasing to 97.6% in 2010 (10564/10828). The staff compliance rate of implementing an appropriate intervention plan was 85.9% in 2007, increasing to 95.3% in 2010. Conclusion In our study we observed a substantial decrease in patient fall rates and an increase of staff compliance with a newly implemented falls prevention program. A systematized QI approach that closely involves, encourages, and educates healthcare staff at multiple levels is effective. PMID:22788785

2012-01-01

232

Accidental oil spill due to grounding: Summary of model test results. Summary report, Jan-Jun 92  

SciTech Connect

The International Maritime Organization (IMO) sponsored model tests to help in their evaluation of accidental oil spillage from a Mid-Deck Tanker (MDT) and from a Double Hull Tanker (DHT) Design. These tests were conducted at Tsukuba Institute, Japan, and at the Carderock Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center. The test results are explained herein and their significance is summarized.

Karafiath, G.

1992-06-01

233

Ambient temperature and risk of death from accidental drug overdose in New York City, 1990-2006  

PubMed Central

Background: Mortality increases as ambient temperature increases. Because cocaine affects core body temperature, ambient temperature may play a role in cocaine-related mortality in particular. The present study examined the association between ambient temperature and fatal overdoses over time in New York City (NYC). Methods: Mortality data were obtained from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner for 1990 through 2006, and temperature data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association. We used Generalized Additive Models to test the relationship between weekly average temperatures and counts of accidental overdose deaths in NYC, controlling for year and average length of daylight hours. Results: We found a significant relation between ambient temperature and accidental overdose fatality for all models where the overdoses were due in whole or in part to cocaine (all p < 0.05), but not for non-cocaine overdoses. Risk of accidental overdose deaths increased for weeks when the average temperature was above 24 degrees Celsius. Conclusions: These results suggest a strong relation between temperature and accidental overdose mortality that is driven by cocaine-related overdoses rising at temperatures above 24 degrees Celsius; this is a substantially lower temperature than prior estimates. To put this in perspective, approximately seven weeks a year between 1990 and 2006 had an average weekly temperature of 24 or above in NYC. Heat-related mortality presents a considerable public health concern, and cocaine users constitute a high-risk group. PMID:20219056

Bohnert, Amy S.B.; Prescott, Marta; Vlahov, David; Tardiff, Kenneth J.; Galea, Sandro

2010-01-01

234

Accidental and deliberate microbiological contamination in the feed and food chains — How biotraceability may improve the response to bioterrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A next frontier of the global food safety agenda has to consider a broad spectrum of bio-risks, such as accidental and intentional contaminations in the food and feed chain. In this article, the background for the research needs related to biotraceability and response to bioterrorism incidents are outlined. Given the current scale of international trade any response need to be

Rickard Knutsson; Bart van Rotterdam; Patrick Fach; Dario De Medici; Martina Fricker; Charlotta Löfström; Joakim Ågren; Bo Segerman; Gunnar Andersson; Peter Wielinga; Lucia Fenicia; Jeffrey Skiby; Anna Charlotte Schultz; Monika Ehling-Schulz

2011-01-01

235

The GIS-based SafeAirView software for the concentration assessment of radioactive pollutants after an accidental release.  

PubMed

The European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy) has long been running nuclear installations for research purposes. The Nuclear Decommissioning and Facilities Management Unit (NDFM) is responsible for the surveillance of radioactivity levels in nuclear emergency conditions. The NDFM Unit has commissioned the implementation of a specifically developed decision support system, which can be used for quick emergency evaluation in the case of hypothetical accident and for emergency exercises. The requisites were to be a user-friendly software, able to quickly calculate and display values of air and ground radioactive contamination in the complex area around JRC, following an accidental release of radioactive substances from a JRC nuclear research installation. The developed software, named "SafeAirView", is an advanced implementation of GIS technology applied to an existing MS-DOS mode dispersion model, SAFE_AIR (Simulation of Air pollution From Emissions_Above Inhomogeneous Regions). SAFE_AIR is a numerical model which simulates transport, diffusion, and deposition of airborne pollutants emitted in the low atmosphere above complex orography at both local and regional scale, under non-stationary and inhomogeneous emission and meteorological conditions. SafeAirView makes use of user-friendly MS-Windows type interface which drives the dispersion model by a sequential and continuous input-output process, allowing a real time simulation. The GIS environment allows a direct interaction with the territory elements in which the simulation takes place, using data for the JRC Ispra region represented in geo-referenced cartography. Furthermore it offers the possibility to relate concentrations with population distribution and other geo-referenced maps, in a geographic view. Output concentration and deposition patterns can be plotted and/or exported. In spite of the selected specific databases, the SafeAirView software architecture is a general structure, therefore the decision support system could be easily modified to be applied in a region different from the JRC one. Beside the description of SafeAirView, the present paper presents a statistical evaluation of the software, which has considered three well known tracer experiments: Copenhagen, Indianapolis and Kincaid. The data sets related to these experiments are all included in the so called Model Validation Kit. PMID:17169408

Canepa, Elisa; D'Alberti, Francesco; D'Amati, Francesco; Triacchini, Giuseppe

2007-02-01

236

Contribution of GaN template to the unexpected Ga atoms incorporated into AlInN epilayers grown under an indium-very-rich condition by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large amount of Ga atoms, sometimes nominally as high as 45% of the total group III constituents, was found in the AlInN films prepared by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) under an In-very-rich environment, even when no Ga precursor was introduced. GaN template has been found to be the main source supplying most of the unexpected Ga atoms during epitaxial growth, of which about 2% might be contributed from other residual Ga-contained sources in the reactor. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) profile measurement shows that atom interdiffusion between In, Al, and Ga atoms is the main path of the high percentage of unexpected Ga atoms incorporating into the AlInN epilayers. A high growth temperature and the H2 added in carrier gas may enhance the Ga atom incorporation into AlIn(Ga)N epilayer by promoting decomposition of GaN template and increasing atom diffusing ability.

Zhu, J. J.; Fan, Y. M.; Zhang, H.; Lu, G. J.; Wang, H.; Zhao, D. G.; Jiang, D. S.; Liu, Z. S.; Zhang, S. M.; Chen, G. F.; Zhang, B. S.; Yang, H.

2012-06-01

237

IT Services, University of Aberdeen Conditions for Using Information Technology Facilities  

E-print Network

as harassment or offensive behaviour. It is not the intention that these Conditions should be used to limit recognised academic freedom but that they should restrain unlawful, offensive or abusive use of University and security Passwords must not be shared. If a password is divulged to another person, either accidentally

Levi, Ran

238

Can we prevent accidental injury to adolescents? A systematic review of the evidence.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: As part of the Department of Health strategy The Health of the Nation, a systematic review of published and unpublished literature relating to the effectiveness of interventions in reducing accidental injury in the population aged 15-24 years was carried out. METHODS: The literature was reviewed under the standard setting headings of road, work, home, and sports and leisure, and graded for quality of evidence and strength of recommendation using a scale published in the UK national epidemiologically based needs assessment programme. RESULTS: The most effective measures appear to be legislative and regulatory controls in road, sport, and workplace settings. Environmental engineering measures on the road and in sports have relatively low implementation costs and result in fewer injuries at all ages. There is little evidence that purely educational measures reduced injuries in the short term. Community based approaches may be effective in all age groups, and incentives to encourage safer behaviour hold promise but require further evaluation. The potential of multifactorial approaches seems greater than narrowly based linear approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Few interventions to reduce injury in adolescents have been rigorously evaluated using good quality randomised controlled trials, and where such evidence is available, fewer have been shown to be definitely worthwhile. Many studies relied on surrogate measures rather than actual injury rates, and substantial issues relating to the efficacy or implementation of preventive measures in adolescent and young adult populations remain unresolved. PMID:9346041

Munro, J.; Coleman, P.; Nicholl, J.; Harper, R.; Kent, G.; Wild, D.

1995-01-01

239

New tracers identify hydraulic fracturing fluids and accidental releases from oil and gas operations.  

PubMed

Identifying the geochemical fingerprints of fluids that return to the surface after high volume hydraulic fracturing of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs has important applications for assessing hydrocarbon resource recovery, environmental impacts, and wastewater treatment and disposal. Here, we report for the first time, novel diagnostic elemental and isotopic signatures (B/Cl, Li/Cl, ?(11)B, and ?(7)Li) useful for characterizing hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids (HFFF) and distinguishing sources of HFFF in the environment. Data from 39 HFFFs and produced water samples show that B/Cl (>0.001), Li/Cl (>0.002), ?(11)B (25-31‰) and ?(7)Li (6-10‰) compositions of HFFF from the Marcellus and Fayetteville black shale formations were distinct in most cases from produced waters sampled from conventional oil and gas wells. We posit that boron isotope geochemistry can be used to quantify small fractions (?0.1%) of HFFF in contaminated fresh water and likely be applied universally to trace HFFF in other basins. The novel environmental application of this diagnostic isotopic tool is validated by examining the composition of effluent discharge from an oil and gas brine treatment facility in Pennsylvania and an accidental spill site in West Virginia. We hypothesize that the boron and lithium are mobilized from exchangeable sites on clay minerals in the shale formations during the hydraulic fracturing process, resulting in the relative enrichment of boron and lithium in HFFF. PMID:25327769

Warner, N R; Darrah, T H; Jackson, R B; Millot, R; Kloppmann, W; Vengosh, A

2014-11-01

240

Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1980-December 1982  

SciTech Connect

This report updates, for 1980 through 1982, the results of continuing medical surveillance of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in March 1954. The originally exposed Marshallese population comprised 64 persons on Rongelap Atoll who each received, on the average, an estimated 190 rads of absorbed external gamma radiation, 18 on Ailingnae Atoll who received 110 rads, and 159 on Utirik who received 11 rads. There were, in addition, 3 persons in utero on Rongelap, 1 person in utero on Ailingnae, and 8 persons in utero on Utirik who are considered exposed. The recipients of primary medical care include exposed and comparison populations as well as a rather large number of additional beneficiaries who are seen on a humanitarian basis of practical need and resource availability. In recent years, about 1400 people have been seen annually. This report, however, deals with four clearly defined groups: the remaining individuals who were exposed to radioactive fallout on Rongelap, Ailingnae, and Utirik in 1954 (including those in utero), and a comparison population of individuals from Rongelap who were unexposed. The number of persons now in each exposure category are 51, 12, 116, and 137, respectively. 100 references, 4 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Rittmaster, R.S.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

1984-01-01

241

[Epidural anesthesia in obstetrics: an accidentally placed intrathecal catheter--remove it or use it?].  

PubMed

Epidural anesthesia is an established method in obstetrics. Despite constant practical experiences and established techniques, accidental penetrations of the dura and therefore malpositioning of the catheter in the intrathecal space are still present. This can result in post spinal headaches, a higher dispersion of the local anesthetic followed by life-threatening respiratory insufficiency and loss of overall conscious delivery. In consideration of these risks removal of the misplaced catheter and proper reinsertion in a higher position is standard. Thus significant emotional stress and re-exposure to the risks of the procedure for the parturient is accepted. We report of a 30-year-old primipara with secondary realized intrathecal placement. In due consideration of the current state of labor, we decided to leave the catheter in place and initiate a pain therapy applying bupivacain via this catheter immediately after the motor block had ceased. Within the first stage of labor sufficient pain relief was established. There was no change in tonicity. It resulted in a normal unproblematic vaginal birth. After an initial irritation due to the high dispersion the patient described a noticeable alleviation of pain during the adequate controlled labor. PMID:21207326

Aust, H; Plöger, B; Frietsch, T

2010-12-01

242

Rewarming for accidental hypothermia in an urban medical center using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Accidental hypothermia complicated by cardiac arrest carries a high mortality rate in urban areas. For moderate hypothermia cases conventional rewarming methods are usually adequate, however in severe cases extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is known to provide the most efficient rewarming with complete cardiopulmonary support. We report a case of severe hypothermia complicated by prolonged cardiac arrest successfully resuscitated using ECMO. Case Report: A 45 year old female was brought to our emergency department with a core body temperature <25°C. Shortly after arrival she had witnessed cardiac arrest in the department. Resuscitative efforts were started immediately including conventional rewarming techniques, followed by ECMO support. ECMO was used successfully in this case to resuscitate this patient from prolonged arrest (3.5 hours) when conventional techniques likely would have failed. After a prolonged hospital course this patient was discharged with her baseline mental and physical capacities intact. Conclusions: This case demonstrates the advantages of advanced internal rewarming techniques, such as ECMO, for quick and efficient rewarming of severely hypothermic patients. This case supports the use of ECMO in severely hypothermic patients as the standard of care. PMID:23569552

Morley, David; Yamane, Kentaro; O'Malley, Rika; Cavarocchi, Nicholas C.; Hirose, Hitoshi

2013-01-01

243

Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning presenting without a history of exposure: A case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning is easy to diagnose when there is a history of exposure. When the exposure history is absent, or delayed, the diagnosis is more difficult and relies on recognising the importance of multi-system disease. We present a case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. Case presentation A middle-aged man, who lived alone in his mobile home was found by friends in a confused, incontinent state. Initial signs included respiratory failure, cardiac ischaemia, hypotension, encephalopathy and a rash, whilst subsequent features included rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, amnesia, dysarthria, parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, supranuclear gaze palsy and cerebral haemorrhage. Despite numerous investigations including magnetic resonance cerebral imaging, lumbar puncture, skin biopsy, muscle biopsy and electroencephalogram a diagnosis remained elusive. Several weeks after admission, diagnostic breakthrough was achieved when the gradual resolution of the patient's amnesia, encephalopathy and dysarthria allowed an accurate history to be taken for the first time. The patient's last recollection was turning on his gas heating for the first time since the spring. A gas heating engineer found the patient's gas boiler to be in a dangerous state of disrepair and it was immediately decommissioned. Conclusion This case highlights several important issues: the bewildering myriad of clinical features of carbon monoxide poisoning, the importance of making the diagnosis even at a late stage and preventing the patient's return to a potentially fatal toxic environment, and the paramount importance of the history in the diagnostic method. PMID:18430228

Bennetto, Luke; Powter, Louise; Scolding, Neil J

2008-01-01

244

Pattern of Fractures in Non-Accidental Injuries in the Pediatric Population in Singapore  

PubMed Central

Background Fractures as a result of non-accidental injuries (NAI) are not uncommon among children. The purpose of our study was to describe the incidence, demographic characteristics, and associated risk factors in patients with NAI in a multiethnic Asian cohort. Methods A retrospective record review of patients admitted to our hospital between September 2007 and 2009 with the diagnosis of NAI was conducted. Results A total of 978 children were reported with suspicion of NAI. Among them, 570 patients (58.28%) were diagnosed with NAI. Fractures were observed in 35 children (6.14%). NAI fractures were highest among female infants (73.3%). The biological father was the most common known perpetrator of NAI (n = 155, 29.0%). The most common perpetrator sadly remained unknown (n = 14, 40%). All NAI fractures were closed (n = 35, 6.14%), and the most commonly affected bone was the humeral shaft (n = 10, 28.57%) with an oblique configuration. Age < 1 year and parental divorce were significant risk factors associated with these fractures. Conclusions The skeletal injury pattern and risk factors highlighted in our study will help treating physicians identify patients susceptible to NAI, as many of these patients are young and vulnerable. Protective measures can be initiated early by recognizing these injuries and preventing further physical and psychological harm to the child.

Raveendran, Rakesh; Mahadev, Arjandas

2014-01-01

245

Challenges and promises for nurse education curriculum development in Kosovo: results of an "accidental ethnography".  

PubMed

Kosovo's infrastructure was devastated by armed conflict through the 1990s; in 1999 a visiting inter-disciplinary team described healthcare services as being in "disarray". Several collaborative programs were initiated to enhance delivery of emergency medical (EM) services. Our inter-disciplinary team traveled to Kosovo in 2004 to evaluate EM physician education and training. A brief renewed outbreak of hostilities created a mass casualty incident. An "accidental ethnography" focused on nurse education was conducted by team members during and after the event. Results indicated low levels of professionalization of nurses as indicated by expressions of professional self-identity and self-esteem, autonomy, and submission to patriarchal attitudes. Undergraduate nurse education is restricted to a diploma program and one foreign training project, one graduate degree program exists abroad, and no national board examination exists. Nurses' social location is described as marginalized and disenfranchised, and retention of nurses is a persistent problem. Based on these observations we outline an inter-professional curriculum development program to foster professionalization of Kosovar nurses through a synthesis of participatory action research with elements of grounded theory and standard curriculum development methodologies. The collaborative, emancipatory, and empowering nature of PAR is described in the context of professionalizing nurse education programs. PMID:17825956

Goepp, Julius G; Johnson, Tiesha D; Maddow, Charles L

2008-05-01

246

Modeling acute health risks associated with accidental releases of toxic gases  

SciTech Connect

CHEM{_}MACCS has been developed from the radiological accident consequence code, MACCS, to perform probabilistic calculations of potential off-site consequences of the accidental atmospheric release of hazardous chemicals. The principal phenomena considered in CHEM{_}MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways, and early and latent health effects. CHEM{_}MACCS provides the following capabilities: (1) statistical weather sampling data (8,760 hourly data points per year), (2) population dose and health effect risk calculations based on site-specific population data, (3) health effects calculations including the consideration of potential site specific mitigative actions (evacuation and shielding), and (4) modeling of multiple release segments. Three different sample problems are contained in this report to show how to use CHEM{_}MACCS. Three test problems are run to compare CHEM{_}MACCS and D2PC. The doses versus the downwind centerline distances from the source for the given doses are in very close agreement.

Haskin, F.E.; Ding, C.; Summa, K.J. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering] [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Young, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Accident Analysis and Consequence Assessment Dept.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Accident Analysis and Consequence Assessment Dept.

1996-09-01

247

Neuropathological changes in a lamb model of non-accidental head injury (the shaken baby syndrome).  

PubMed

Non-accidental head injury (NAHI), also termed the "shaken baby syndrome", is a major cause of death and severe neurological dysfunction in children under three years of age, but it is debated whether shaking alone is sufficient to produce brain injury and mortality or whether an additional head impact is required. In an attempt to resolve this question, we used a lamb model of NAHI since these animals have a relatively large gyrencephalic brain and weak neck muscles resembling those of a human infant. Three anaesthetised lambs of lower body weight than others in the experimental group died unexpectedly after being shaken, proving that shaking alone can be lethal. In these lambs, axonal injury, neuronal reaction and albumin extravasation were widely distributed in the hemispheric white matter, brainstem and at the craniocervical junction, and of much greater magnitude than in higher body weight lambs which did not die. Moreover, in the eyes of these shaken lambs, there was damage to retinal inner nuclear layer neurons, mild, patchy ganglion cell axonal injury, widespread Muller glial reaction, and uveal albumin extravasation. This study proved that shaking of a subset of lambs can result in death, without an additional head impact being required. PMID:22705132

Finnie, J W; Blumbergs, P C; Manavis, J; Turner, R J; Helps, S; Vink, R; Byard, R W; Chidlow, G; Sandoz, B; Dutschke, J; Anderson, R W G

2012-08-01

248

Cytokine-based treatment of accidentally irradiated victims and new approaches.  

PubMed

A major goal of medical management of acute radiation syndrome following accidental exposures to ionizing radiation (IR) is to mitigate the risks of infection and hemorrhage related to the period of bone marrow aplasia. This can be achieved by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of residual hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) related to either their intrinsic radioresistance or the heterogeneity of dose distribution. This is the rationale for treatment with hematopoietic growth factors. In fact, apoptosis has recently been shown to play a major role in the death of the continuum of more or less radiosensitive HSPC, soon after irradiation. Therefore, administration of antiapoptotic cytokine combinations such as stem cell factor, Flt-3 ligand, thrombopoietin, and interleukin-3 (4F), may be important for multilineage recovery, particularly when these factors are administered early. Moreover, acute exposure to high doses of IR induces sequential, deleterious effects responsible for a delayed multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. These considerations strongly suggest that therapeutics could include tissue-specific cytokines, such as keratinocyte growth factor, and pleiotropic agents, such as erythropoietin, in addition to hematopoietic growth factors to ensure tissue damage repair and mitigate the inflammatory processes. Noncytokine drugs have also been proposed as an alternative to treat hematopoietic or nonhematopoietic radiation effects. To develop more effective treatments for radiation injuries, basic research is required, particularly to improve understanding of stem cell needs within their environment. In the context of radiological terrorism and radiation accidents, new growth promoting molecules need to be approved and available cytokines stockpiled. PMID:16219528

Hérodin, Francis; Drouet, Michel

2005-10-01

249

Geothermal power production: accidental fluid releases, waste disposal, and water use  

SciTech Connect

Environmental problems related to the use and disposal of fluids can accompany the operation of geothermal power plants using hot water resources (temperature > 150/sup 0/C). More than 100 kg of fluids must be extracted, processed, and disposed for each kW.h of electricity generated from a facility relying on a geothermal reservoir with fluids of 150/sup 0/C. The low thermal efficiencies of geothermal power plants result in large requirements for cooling water - over 7.4 x 10/sup 4/ m/sup 3//MW.y compared with 1.7 x 10/sup 4/ m/sup 3//MW.y for coal-fired plants. Geothermal fluids can contain as much as 250,000 mg/1 total dissolved solids. Toxic substances like boron and NH/sub 3/ are often present in fluids. This paper focuses on impacts associated with accidental releases of geothermal fluids as well as the disposal of liquid and solid wastes. The consequences of consuming alternative sources of cooling water are also addressed. Inadvertent discharges of fluids are of concern because they could contaminate soils and surface waters, adversely affecting crops and aquatic organisms. The pretreatment of fluids before subsurface injection could lead to solid waste problems - especially when toxic substances are produced. The consumption of alternative cooling waters can pose problems involving the disposal of blowdown from cooling towers. In addition, the toxicity of drift emitted from cooling towers depends on the kind of cooling water used.

Layton, D.W.; Morris, W.F.

1980-06-01

250

Hemorrhage of a cavernous malformation associated with accidental electrocution: Case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background: Cavernous malformations (CMs) are the second most common intracranial vascular lesions. They typically present after hemorrhage or as incidental findings. Several risk factors have been identified for hemorrhage, however, electrocution as a cause has not been described. We performed a literature review of electrocution associated with CM hemorrhage and of the mechanisms of pathological injury in the central nervous system (CNS) secondary to electrocution. We found no cases of hemorrhage of CMs associated with electrocution. Case Description: A 19-year-old male electrician was accidentally electrocuted with 277 V of alternating current (AC) at a job site. He suffered no trauma or physical injuries and reported no immediate abnormal findings. He then experienced progressive nausea, emesis, and lethargy until he presented to the emergency department (ED) where it was discovered that he had a left thalamic/midbrain hemorrhage with hydrocephalus. His hydrocephalus was treated and he began to improve. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of his head demonstrated characteristic features of a CM. Conclusions: There are several proposed mechanisms in the literature by which electrocution may cause CNS damage. It is conceivable that given the pathology of CMs and the proposed mechanisms of electrical injury, these lesions may have an increased risk of hemorrhage as result of electrocution and we are reporting the first case of such an association. PMID:23372982

Gallati, Christopher P.; Silberstein, Howard J.; Meyers, Steven P.

2012-01-01

251

Fatal accidental hanging from a lanyard key chain in a 10-year-old boy.  

PubMed

Lanyard chains are commonly worn around the neck to hold keys and identification badges. A ten-year-old Black male child was home alone jumping and swinging of the raised crossbars on his mother's four-poster bed. He commonly did this. He also wore a lanyard around his neck with his house key, which he used to let himself in after school. His mother found him hanging on the corner of the bedpost by the lanyard when she returned from work. The death scene showed that he was jumping on the bed and the lanyard hooked over the top of the corner bedpost, causing first and second cervical vertebrae dislocation of an abrupt "drop-type" hanging with neck abrasion marks. Lanyards, or any loose rope material around the neck, are inherently dangerous due to their strength and ability to catch fixed or moving objects. Safety modifications to the lanyards are easily made with "breakaway" Velcro-type or plastic clip fasteners. This is the first reported case of an accidental hanging after review of the medical literature and files of the U.S. Consumer Products Safety Commission. PMID:12455662

Denton, J Scott

2002-11-01

252

Review of accidental safety studies for the European HCPB test blanket system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a review of safety studies for accidental sequences in the European solid breeder test blanket module (TBM) system. These studies are the starting point for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report of ITER, under preparation to get the construction permit first and then later the operation licence. In general the reduced inventory of activation products and tritium associated with the TBM system makes the impact of this test system almost negligible on the overall safety risk of ITER. Nevertheless, the possibility of jeopardizing the ITER safety concept has been analysed in connection to the consequences of specific accident sequences, e.g. the pressurization of the vacuum vessel due to the He coolant blow-down, the hydrogen production from the Be-steam reaction, the possible interconnection between the port cell and the vacuum vessel causing air ingress and the necessity to assure heat removal in the short and long periods. In the frame of this assessment, three LOCA sequences have been selected as representative of accidents judged to cover all scenarios envisaged in Cat II to IV events involving the TBM, namely, in-vessel LOCA, ex-vessel LOCA and in-box LOCA.

Boccaccini, L. V.; Ciattaglia, S.; Meyder, R.; Jin, X.

2007-07-01

253

Failure Criteria for Evaluating Accidental Drops of Fuel Containers at INTEC  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a failure criterion that has been developed for use in evaluating fuel containers at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for accidental drop events. The criterion would typically be used in dynamic finite element analyses using the ABA-QUS/Explicit program. The failure criterion used in the past is generally considered to substantially underestimate the strength and ductility of the materials involved. The new criterion is intended to be more realistic, allowing for more accurate impact analyses. The criterion is based on the distortion energy theory, which is considered to be appropriate for the ductile materials typically used in fuel containers. Also addressed in development of the criterion were the effects of strain rate and hydrostatic stress. The importance of these factors, however, is highly dependent on the material used. Three materials specifically addressed in this study were stainless steel, aluminum, and lead. The criterion is presented in the form of guidelines and recommendations that are based on material data obtained from the literature. The most significant difference between these and the previous criterion is that ductile materials are allowed to strain to much higher levels before they are considered to fail.

Miller, G. K.

1998-10-01

254

Capitalizing on deliberate, accidental, and GM-driven environmental change caused by crop modification.  

PubMed

The transgenic traits associated with the majority of commercial genetically modified crops are focused on improving herbicide and insecticide management practices. The use of the transgenic technology in these crops and the associated chemistry has been the basis of studies that provide evidence for occasional improvement in environmental benefits due to the use of less residual herbicides, more targeted pesticides, and reduced field traffic. This is nicely exemplified through studies using Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) assessments. Whilst EIQ evaluations may sometimes illustrate environmental benefits they have their limitations. EIQ evaluations are not a surrogate for Environmental Risk Assessments and may not reflect real environmental interactions between crops and the environment. Addressing the impact cultivated plants have on the environment generally attracts little public attention and research funding, but the introduction of GM has facilitated an expansion of research to address potential environmental concerns from government, NGOs, industry, consumers, and growers. In this commentary, some evidence from our own research and several key papers that highlight EIQ assessments of the impact crops are having on the environment are presented. This information may be useful as an education tool on the potential benefits of GM and conventional farming. In addition, other deliberate, accidental, and GM-driven benefits derived from the examination of GM cropping systems is briefly discussed. PMID:22090440

Knox, Oliver G G; Walker, Robin L; Booth, Elaine J; Hall, Clare; Crossan, Angus N; Gupta, Vadakattu V S R

2012-01-01

255

Biomechanical studies in an ovine model of non-accidental head injury.  

PubMed

This paper presents the head kinematics of a novel ovine model of non-accidental head injury (NAHI) that consists only of a naturalistic oscillating insult. Nine, 7-to-10-day-old anesthetized and ventilated lambs were subjected to manual shaking. Two six-axis motion sensors tracked the position of the head and torso, and a triaxial accelerometer measured head acceleration. Animals experienced 10 episodes of shaking over 30 min, and then remained under anesthesia for 6h until killed by perfusion fixation of the brain. Each shaking episode lasted for 20s resulting in about 40 cycles per episode. Each cycle typically consisted of three impulsive events that corresponded to specific phases of the head's motion; the most substantial of these were interactions typically with the lamb's own torso, and these generated accelerations of 30-70 g. Impulsive loading was not considered severe. Other kinematic parameters recorded included estimates of head power transfer, head-torso flexion, and rate of flexion. Several styles of shaking were also identified across episodes and subjects. Axonal injury, neuronal reaction and albumin extravasation were widely distributed in the hemispheric white matter, brainstem and at the craniocervical junction and to a much greater magnitude in lower body weight lambs that died. This is the first biomechanical description of a large animal model of NAHI in which repetitive naturalistic insults were applied, and that reproduced a spectrum of injury associated with NAHI. PMID:24974335

Anderson, R W G; Sandoz, B; Dutschke, J K; Finnie, J W; Turner, R J; Blumbergs, P C; Manavis, J; Vink, R

2014-08-22

256

Evaluation of health effects in Sequoyah Fuels Corporation workers from accidental exposure to uranium hexafluoride  

SciTech Connect

Urine bioassay measurements for uranium and medical laboratory results were studied to determine whether there were any health effects from uranium intake among a group of 31 workers exposed to uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and hydrolysis products following the accidental rupture of a 14-ton shipping cylinder in early 1986 at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation uranium conversion facility in Gore, Oklahoma. Physiological indicators studied to detect kidney tissue damage included tests for urinary protein, casts and cells, blood, specific gravity, and urine pH, blood urea nitrogen, and blood creatinine. We concluded after reviewing two years of follow-up medical data that none of the 31 workers sustained any observable health effects from exposure to uranium. The early excretion of uranium in urine showed more rapid systemic uptake of uranium from the lung than is assumed using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30 and Publication 54 models. The urinary excretion data from these workers were used to develop an improved systemic recycling model for inhaled soluble uranium. We estimated initial intakes, clearance rates, kidney burdens, and resulting radiation doses to lungs, kidneys, and bone surfaces. 38 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

Fisher, D.R. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Swint, M.J.; Kathren, R.L. (Hanford Environmental Health Foundation, Richland, WA (USA))

1990-05-01

257

Socio-professional handicap and accidental risk in patients with hypersomnias of central origin.  

PubMed

Narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia profoundly affect quality of life, education and work. Young patients are very handicapped by unexpected sleep episodes during lessons. Professionals frequently complain about sleepiness at work. Motor discomfort (i.e., cataplectic attacks) surprisingly is less handicapping in narcoleptics than sleepiness but only a few studies clearly assess the problem. Quality of life is also largely impaired in its physical and emotional dimensions. Sleepiness is the major factor explaining a decrease of quality of life and unexpectedly cataplectic attacks have little impact on patients. Another potential problem for these patients is the risk of accidents at work or when driving. Narcoleptic and hypersomniac patients have a higher risk of accidents than apneic or insomniac subjects. But, confounding factors such as duration of driving, number of cataplectic attacks or even objective level of alertness are not always entered in the analytic models mainly because of small samples of patients. Unlike in apneic patients, the effect of treatment on accidental risk has not been studied in narcoleptics or in hypersomniacs. Epidemiological data are needed to improve knowledge concerning these areas. Clinical trials assessing the impact of treatment on driving and work are also urgently needed. Finally, medical treatment does not seem to be completely efficient and physicians should pay more attention to the education, work, life and social environment of their patients. PMID:19493688

Bayon, Virginie; Léger, Damien; Philip, Pierre

2009-12-01

258

A probabilistic model for accidental cargo oil outflow from product tankers in a ship-ship collision.  

PubMed

In risk assessment of maritime transportation, estimation of accidental oil outflow from tankers is important for assessing environmental impacts. However, there typically is limited data concerning the specific structural design and tank arrangement of ships operating in a given area. Moreover, there is uncertainty about the accident scenarios potentially emerging from ship encounters. This paper proposes a Bayesian network (BN) model for reasoning under uncertainty for the assessment of accidental cargo oil outflow in a ship-ship collision where a product tanker is struck. The BN combines a model linking impact scenarios to damage extent with a model for estimating the tank layouts based on limited information regarding the ship. The methodology for constructing the model is presented and output for two accident scenarios is shown. The discussion elaborates on the issue of model validation, both in terms of the BN and in light of the adopted uncertainty/bias-based risk perspective. PMID:24462237

Goerlandt, Floris; Montewka, Jakub

2014-02-15

259

Accidental Ingestion of an Inter-occlusal Device Used for the Restoration of Occlusion: A Case Report.  

PubMed

The accidental swallowing of prosthetic devices has been discussed in the relevant literature as an unusual, although ordinary, event in clinical practice. This article aims at reporting the ingestion of an inter-occlusal device used to restore the Vertical Dimension of Occlusion (VDO) which, during the ingestion of an analgesic pill, was accidentally swallowed. The patient was sent to the Clinics Hospital UFMG where, upon taking radiographs, the device was located in the upper third of the esophagus. The device was removed during an endoscopic exam with the help of forceps for removing foreign objects. Dealing with a relevant situation, one may conclude that patients who use removable intra-oral devices must take part in a reevaluation protocol in order to detect adaptation and retention of these devices, as well as proper instruction for the patient. PMID:25284570

Vasconcellos, Walison Arthuso; Braga, Neilor Mateus Antunes; Moretzsohn, Luciana Dias; Lanza, Marcos Daniel Septimio; Lanza, Marcos Dias; Dos Santos Rocha, Wellington Márcio

2014-09-01

260

Successful Thrombolysis and Spasmolysis of Acute Leg Ischemia after Accidental Intra-arterial Injection of Dissolved Flunitrazepam Tablets  

SciTech Connect

A 37-year-old man with known intravenous drug abuse presented in the surgical ambulatory care unit with acute leg ischemia after accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets into the right femoral artery. A combination of anticoagulation, vasodilatation, and local selective and superselective thrombolysis with urokinase was performed to salvage the leg. As a result of the severe ischemia-induced pain, the patient had to be monitored over the complete therapy period on the intensive care unit with permanent administration of intravenous fluid and analgetics. We describe the presenting symptoms and the interventional technique, and we discuss the recent literature regarding the management of accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets.

Radeleff, B., E-mail: Boris_radeleff@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Stampfl, U.; Sommer, C.-M.; Bellemann, N. [University of Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Hyhlik-Duerr, A. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany); Weber, M.-A. [University of Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Boeckler, D. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany); Kauczor, H.-U. [University of Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

2011-10-15

261

People are more likely to be insincere when they are more likely to accidentally tell the truth.  

PubMed

Although people lie often, and mostly for self-serving reasons, they do not lie as much as they could. The "fudge factor" hypothesis suggests that one reason for people not to lie is that they do not wish to self-identify as liars. Accordingly, self-serving lies should be more likely when they are less obvious to the liars themselves. Here we show that the likelihood of self-serving lies increases with the probability of accidentally telling the truth. Players in our game could transmit sincere or insincere recommendations to their competitors. In line with the fudge factor hypothesis, players lied when their beliefs were based on flimsy evidence and did not lie when their beliefs were based on solid evidence. This is the first demonstration of a new moral hypocrisy paradox: People are more likely to be insincere when they are more likely to accidentally tell the truth. PMID:23806005

Leblois, Sylvie; Bonnefon, Jean-François

2013-08-01

262

Neuroimaging evaluation of non-accidental head trauma with correlation to clinical outcomes: A review of 57 cases  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the clinical presentation and CT and MRI findings in patients with high clinical suspicion of non-accidental trauma (NAT); to examine associations between imaging findings and neurological long-term outcome in abused children. Patients and Methods A retrospective review of 57 cases of non-accidental trauma (NAT) from a single institution was performed. Neuroimaging studies (CT and MRI) were reviewed by a senior neuroradiologist, a neuroradiology fellow and a radiology resident. Clinical history and physical findings including retinal examination, imaging and follow-up assessment documents were reviewed. Results Mean time between arrival that CT and MRI imaging was 2.9 hours and 40.6 hours respectively. The most common clinical presentation (47%) was mental status changes. The most common neuroimaging finding was subdural hemorrhage, seen in 86% of patients. In 47 cases in which both MRI and CT was performed, there was one case of suspected non-accidental trauma missed on head CT. CT detected signs of global ischemia in all 11 of the patients that died (CT mean time performed after arrival = 1.1 hours). MRI detected additional signs of injury in patients who ended up with mild to moderate developmental delay. Conclusion CT was able to detect evidence of non-accidental head injury in 56 out of 57 abused children included in our cohort and predicted severe neurological injury and mortality. MRI was useful in detecting additional evidence of trauma which can be helpful in risk stratification for neurological outcomes as well as providing confirming evidence of repeated injury. PMID:19028392

Foerster, Bradley R.; Petrou, Myria; Lin, Doris; Thurnher, Majda M.; Carlson, Martha D; Strouse, Peter J.; Sundgren, Pia C.

2009-01-01

263

Chromosomal Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

... 150 babies is born with a chromosomal condition. Down syndrome is an example of a chromosomal condition. Because ... all pregnant women be offered prenatal tests for Down syndrome and other chromosomal conditions. A screening test is ...

264

The 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: summary of main findings and risk factors.  

PubMed

We present the main findings of the 5th National Audit Project on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia. Incidences were estimated using reports of accidental awareness as the numerator, and a parallel national anaesthetic activity survey to provide denominator data. The incidence of certain/probable and possible accidental awareness cases was ~1:19 600 anaesthetics (95% CI 1:16 700-23 450). However, there was considerable variation across subtypes of techniques or subspecialties. The incidence with neuromuscular blockade was ~1:8200 (1:7030-9700), and without it was ~1:135 900 (1:78 600-299 000). The cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia reported to 5th National Audit Project were overwhelmingly cases of unintended awareness during neuromuscular blockade. The incidence of accidental awareness during caesarean section was ~1:670 (1:380-1300). Two thirds (82, 66%) of cases of accidental awareness experiences arose in the dynamic phases of anaesthesia, namely induction of and emergence from anaesthesia. During induction of anaesthesia, contributory factors included: use of thiopental; rapid sequence induction; obesity; difficult airway management; neuromuscular blockade; and interruptions of anaesthetic delivery during movement from anaesthetic room to theatre. During emergence from anaesthesia, residual paralysis was perceived by patients as accidental awareness, and commonly related to a failure to ensure full return of motor capacity. One third (43, 33%) of accidental awareness events arose during the maintenance phase of anaesthesia, most due to problems at induction or towards the end of anaesthesia. Factors increasing the risk of accidental awareness included: female sex; age (younger adults, but not children); obesity; anaesthetist seniority (junior trainees); previous awareness; out-of-hours operating; emergencies; type of surgery (obstetric, cardiac, thoracic); and use of neuromuscular blockade. The following factors were not risk factors for accidental awareness: ASA physical status; race; and use or omission of nitrous oxide. We recommend that an anaesthetic checklist, to be an integral part of the World Health Organization Safer Surgery checklist, is introduced as an aid to preventing accidental awareness. This paper is a shortened version describing the main findings from 5th National Audit Project - the full report can be found at http://www.nationalauditprojects.org.uk/NAP5_home#pt. PMID:25204236

Pandit, J J; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H MacG; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Cook, T M

2014-10-01

265

Unraveling the association between SSRI use and falls: an experimental study of risk factors for accidental falls in long-term paroxetine users.  

PubMed

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used to treat depression and are also associated with an increased falls risk. However, the biological mechanism underlying accidental falls with SSRI intake has yet to be elucidated. The present experimental study was designed to investigate whether obstacle avoidance skills in long-term (>90 days), senior paroxetine users (61 ± 5.8 years) are affected during gait, simple and challenging postural balance tasks, as well as during manual reaction time tasks. The performance of the paroxetine users was compared with healthy group-matched controls (60 ± 4.8 years). The results demonstrated impaired postural balance in the paroxetine users, especially during one-legged stance or under various dual-task conditions. Although the deficit in one-legged stance could indicate vestibular involvement, this was deemed unlikely because performance of standing on compliant surface with closed eyes remained unaffected. Paroxetine use also failed to affect manual reaction times or obstacle avoidance performance. It is suggested that paroxetine affects attentional capacities particularly in conjunction with balance control. Compared with healthy seniors, long-term senior users of paroxetine seem to be at an increased risk of falling due to impairments in balance control, especially when attention has to be divided between 2 concurrent activities. PMID:21996643

Hegeman, Judith; van den Bemt, Bart; Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Nienhuis, Bart; van Limbeek, Jacques; Duysens, Jacques

2011-01-01

266

Assessment of methodologies for analysis of the dungeness B accidental aircraft crash risk.  

SciTech Connect

The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has requested Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to review the aircraft crash methodology for nuclear facilities that are being used in the United Kingdom (UK). The scope of the work included a review of one method utilized in the UK for assessing the potential for accidental airplane crashes into nuclear facilities (Task 1) and a comparison of the UK methodology against similar International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) methods (Task 2). Based on the conclusions from Tasks 1 and 2, an additional Task 3 would provide an assessment of a site-specific crash frequency for the Dungeness B facility using one of the other methodologies. This report documents the results of Task 2. The comparison of the different methods was performed for the three primary contributors to aircraft crash risk at the Dungeness B site: airfield related crashes, crashes below airways, and background crashes. The methods and data specified in each methodology were compared for each of these risk contributors, differences in the methodologies were identified, and the importance of these differences was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. The bases for each of the methods and the data used were considered in this assessment process. A comparison of the treatment of the consequences of the aircraft crashes was not included in this assessment because the frequency of crashes into critical structures is currently low based on the existing Dungeness B assessment. Although the comparison found substantial differences between the UK and the three alternative methodologies (IAEA, NRC, and DOE) this assessment concludes that use of any of these alternative methodologies would not change the conclusions reached for the Dungeness B site. Performance of Task 3 is thus not recommended.

LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Hansen, Clifford W.

2010-09-01

267

Accidental release analysis for chlorine gas: A comparison of CAMEO, HGSYSTEM and JET/DEGADIS  

SciTech Connect

Environmental regulation, such as the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, now require the preparation of risk management plans (RMP) for facilities that handle hazardous materials such as chlorine. Air dispersion models have been developed to predict the probable impact of an accidental release of such materials. For a specific release, the concentrations to reach various reference levels calculated by each model may vary. Guidance as to which model to use and the differences between models for specific chemicals and scenarios is lacking. This paper will present the results for three different models for high, moderate and low chlorine release rates for an actual facility on the coastline of San Diego, California. The CAMEO/ALOHA, JET/DEGADIS and HGSYSTEM air dispersion models were used to predict downwind ranges to the IHDL chlorine concentration (10 ppm) for all scenarios. The calculation of plume concentrations at low release rates is frequently limited. CAMEO/ALOHA and JET/DEGADIS use much the same calculations and predict similar concentrations following a release. All three models, particularly CAMEO/ALOHA and JET/DEGADIS, exhibit difficulty in predicting the consequence of a low level release. The minimum release rate that can be effectively analyzed by the CAMEO/ALOHA and DEGADIS models is approximately 1 g/s. Lower concentrations are predicted by the CAMEO/ALOHA model. Concentrations predicted by the HGSYSTEM models were found to be two to three times greater than those predicted by the CAMEO/ALOHA and JET/DEGADIS models. Further research is needed to establish the cause of these differences.

Bishop, H.K.; Gratt, L.B. [IWG Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); McKinley, D. [NutraSweet Kelco Co., San Diego, CA (United States)

1997-12-31

268

Previous Work Our Contributions  

E-print Network

Motivation Previous Work Our Contributions Summary New Data Types and Operations to Support Geo-stream Operations Language Embeddings Yan Huang, Chengyang Zhang Geo-stream #12;Motivation Previous Work Our GIScience 2008 Yan Huang, Chengyang Zhang Geo-stream #12;Motivation Previous Work Our Contributions Summary

Huang, Yan

269

5 CFR 831.907 - Withholdings and contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.907 Withholdings and contributions. (a) During the service covered under the conditions...

2010-01-01

270

5 CFR 831.907 - Withholdings and contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.907 Withholdings and contributions. (a) During the service covered under the conditions...

2011-01-01

271

5 CFR 831.907 - Withholdings and contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.907 Withholdings and contributions. (a) During the service covered under the conditions...

2013-01-01

272

5 CFR 831.907 - Withholdings and contributions.  

...OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.907 Withholdings and contributions. (a) During the service covered under the conditions...

2014-01-01

273

5 CFR 831.907 - Withholdings and contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.907 Withholdings and contributions. (a) During the service covered under the conditions...

2012-01-01

274

Contributions of groundwater conditions to soil and water salinization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinization is the process whereby the concentration of dissolved salts in water and soil is increased due to natural or human-induced processes. Water is lost through one or any combination of four main mechanisms: evaporation, evapotranspiration, hydrolysis, and leakage between aquifers. Salinity increases from catchment divides to the valley floors and in the direction of groundwater flow. Salinization is explained by two main chemical models developed by the authors: weathering and deposition. These models are in agreement with the weathering and depositional geological processes that have formed soils and overburden in the catchments. Five soil-change processes in arid and semi-arid climates are associated with waterlogging and water. In all represented cases, groundwater is the main geological agent for transmitting, accumulating, and discharging salt. At a small catchment scale in South and Western Australia, water is lost through evapotranspiration and hydrolysis. Saline groundwater flows along the beds of the streams and is accumulated in paleochannels, which act as a salt repository, and finally discharges in lakes, where most of the saline groundwater is concentrated. In the hummocky terrains of the Northern Great Plains Region, Canada and USA, the localized recharge and discharge scenarios cause salinization to occur mainly in depressions, in conjunction with the formation of saline soils and seepages. On a regional scale within closed basins, this process can create playas or saline lakes. In the continental aquifers of the rift basins of Sudan, salinity increases along the groundwater flow path and forms a saline zone at the distal end. The saline zone in each rift forms a closed ridge, which coincides with the closed trough of the groundwater-level map. The saline body or bodies were formed by evaporation coupled with alkaline-earth carbonate precipitation and dissolution of capillary salts. Résumé La salinisation est le processus par lequel la concentration des sels dissous dans l'eau et les sols s'accroît sous l'effet de processus naturels ou anthropiques. L'eau est perdue par l'une ou l'autre combinaison de quatre principaux mécanismes : l'évaporation, l'évapotranspiration, l'hydrolyse et la drainance entre aquifères. La salinité augmente depuis les limites des bassins jusqu'au fond des vallées et le long des axes d'écoulement souterrain. La salinisation est expliquée au moyen de deux principaux modèles chimiques développés par les auteurs : l'altération et le dépôt. Ces modèles sont en accord avec les processus géologiques d'altération et de dépôt qui ont formé les sols et qui recouvrent les bassins versants. Cinq processus d'évolution de sols sous climats aride et semi-aride sont associés à l'eau et à des formations aquifères. Dans tous les cas présentés, l'eau souterraine est le principal agent géologique qui transporte, accumule et dépose les sels. A l'échelle de petits bassins versants dans le sud et dans l'ouest de l'Australie, l'eau est consommée par évapotranspiration et par hydrolyse. L'eau souterraine salée coule le long des berges de rivières et s'accumule dans des paléochenaux, qui fonctionnent comme des zones de stockage de sels, et finalement s'écoule dans des lacs, où la plupart des eaux salées se concentrent. Dans les formations bosselées des grandes plaines du nord du Canada et des États-Unis, des scénarios d'alimentation et de décharge localisées conduisent la salinisation à se produire surtout dans les dépressions, en association avec la formation de sols et d'infiltrations salins. A l'échelle régionale dans les bassins fermés, ce processus peut être à l'origine de playas ou de lacs salés. Dans les aquifères continentaux des bassins de rift du Soudan, la salinité augmente le long des axes d'écoulement souterrain et forme ainsi une zone saline à leur extrémité. La zone saline de chaque rift constitue une crête, qui coïncide avec le creux piézométrique. Le ou les ensembles salins se sont formés par évaporation couplée

Salama, Ramsis B.; Otto, Claus J.; Fitzpatrick, Robert W.

275

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades. Sirma Stenzel, Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. For hazard prediction and simulation of the hazard zones a number of air dispersion models are available. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for display the results, they are easy to use and can operate fast and effective during stress situations. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. There are also possibilities for model direct coupling to automatic meteorological stations, in order to avoid uncertainties in the model output due to insufficient or incorrect meteorological data. Another key problem in coping with accidental toxic release is the relative width spectrum of regulations and values, like IDLH, ERPG, AEGL, MAK etc. and the different criteria for their application. Since the particulate emergency responders and organizations require for their purposes unequal regulations and values, it is quite difficult to predict the individual hazard areas. There are a quite number of research studies and investigations coping with the problem, anyway the end decision is up to the authorities. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). One of the main tasks of this project was 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation introduces the project models used and presents the results of task 2. The results of task 1 are presented by Baumann-Stanzer and Stenzel in this session. For the purpose of this study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAFER System, SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer), COMPAS. A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed in order to reliably predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. The models simulated the accidental release from the mentioned above gases and estimates the potential toxic areas. Since the inputs requirement differ from model to model, and the outputs are based on different criteria for toxic areas and exposure, a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is needed.

Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

2009-04-01

276

The quest for an intermediate-scale accidental axion and further ALPs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent detection of the cosmic microwave background polarimeter experiment BICEP2 of tensor fluctuations in the B-mode power spectrum basically excludes all plausible axion models where its decay constant is above 1013 GeV. Moreover, there are strong theoretical, astrophysical, and cosmological motivations for models involving, in addition to the axion, also axion-like particles (ALPs), with decay constants in the intermediate scale range, between 109 GeV and 1013 GeV. Here, we present a general analysis of models with an axion and further ALPs and derive bounds on the relative size of the axion and ALP photon (and electron) coupling. We discuss what we can learn from measurements of the axion and ALP photon couplings about the fundamental parameters of the underlying ultraviolet completion of the theory. For the latter we consider extensions of the Standard Model in which the axion and the ALP(s) appear as pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons from the breaking of global chiral U(1) (Peccei-Quinn (PQ)) symmetries, occurring accidentally as low energy remnants from exact discrete symmetries. In such models, the axion and the further ALP are protected from disastrous explicit symmetry breaking effects due to Planck-scale suppressed operators. The scenarios considered exploit heavy right handed neutrinos getting their mass via PQ symmetry breaking and thus explain the small mass of the active neutrinos via a seesaw relation between the electroweak and an intermediate PQ symmetry breaking scale. For a number of explicit models, we determine the parameters of the low-energy effective field theory describing the axion, the ALPs, and their interactions with photons and electrons, in terms of the input parameters, in particular the PQ symmetry breaking scales. We show that these models can accommodate simultaneously an axion dark matter candidate, an ALP explaining the anomalous transparency of the universe for ?-rays, and an ALP explaining the recently reported 3.55 keV gamma line from galaxies and clusters of galaxies, if the respective decay constants are of intermediate scale. Moreover, they do not suffer severely from the domain wall problem.

Dias, A. G.; Machado, A. C. B.; Nishi, C. C.; Ringwald, A.; Vaudrevange, P.

2014-06-01

277

Human color vision deficits induced by accidental laser exposure and potential for long-term recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: To evaluate long term deficits in human color discrimination induced by accidental laser macular damage and assess potential for recovery of color vision deficits. Methods: Nine laser accident cases (Q-switched Neodymium) presenting initially with confined or vitreous macular hemorrhage were evaluated with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue test within 2 days to 3 months post exposure. Both total as well as partial errors in the blue/yellow (B/Y) and red/green (R/G) regions were assessed. Independent assessment of axis orientation and complexity were obtained via a Fourier series expansion of error scores. Comparisons of both total and partial B/Y and R/G errors were made with age matched normal subjects, idiopathic and juvenile onset macular holes. Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography characterized the presence of retinal traction, intraretinal scar, macular thickness and macular hole formation. Results: Comparison of exposed and non-exposed age matched individuals were significant (P<.001) for both total and partial errors. In four cases where macular injury ranged from mild scar to macular hole, color discrimination errors achieved normal levels in 1 to 12 months post exposure. A mild tritan axis, dominant B/Y ("blue/yellow") errors, and retinal traction were observed in a macular hole case. At 12 months post exposure, traction about the hole disappeared, and total and partial errors were normal. Where damage involved a greater degree of scarring, retinal traction and multiple injury sites, long term recovery of total and partial error recovery was retarded with complex axis makeup. Single exposures in the paramacula produced tritan axes, while multiple exposures within and external to the macula increased total and partial R/G ("red/green") error scores. Total errors increased when paramacular hole enlargement induced macular traction. Such hole formation produced significant increases in total errors, complex axis formation and increased amplitude in higher Fourier error expansion components. Conclusion: Color discrimination losses reflect the distribution of different cone systems in and about the macula and their selective loss. When secondary damage is minimal, color discrimination deficits recover within 12 months post exposure. When macular scarring and retinal traction are severe, recovery is significantly retarded. Laser induced macular holes may affect color discrimination less when retinal scar and traction are small but may become equivalent with that of idiopathic and juvenile species when scar and traction are severe.

Zwick, Harry; Lund, Brian J.; Brown, Jeremiah, Jr.; Stuck, Bruce E.; Loveday, J.

2003-06-01

278

Long-term environmental fate of perfluorinated compounds after accidental release at Toronto airport.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS; a perfluorinated compound or PFC), its salts, and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride have recently been listed in Annex B of the Stockholm Convention due to their widespread presence, persistence, and toxicity. Because of the persistent nature of PFCs, it is generally presumed that the impact of direct discharges of these chemicals on a receiving environment would be long-lasting. However, long-term environmental fate studies based on field measurements are rare. We examined spatial and long-term (9 year) temporal trends of PFCs in water, sediment, fish, and fish liver collected in 2003, 2006, and 2009 from 10 locations spanning ?20 km in Etobicoke and Spring Creeks, where an accidental release of fire fighting foam containing PFOS from nearby Toronto International Airport occurred in 2000. Even a decade after the spill, sediment PFOS concentrations are still elevated in Spring Creek Pond which received the foam discharge; however, the major impact is relatively localized likely due to the stormwater management nature of the pond and the diluting effect of Etobicoke Creek. Fish and fish liver PFOS concentrations at a Spring Creek location downstream of Spring Creek Pond declined by about 70 and 85%, respectively, between 2003 and 2009. PFOS in water at locations further downstream in Etobicoke Creek have declined by >99.99% since the spill; however, the 2009 water and fish levels were ?2-10 times higher than upstream locations likely due to the long-term impact of the spill as well as urbanization. The decrease in the upstream PFOS concentrations likely reflects the reduction of PFOS sources due to phased out production by 3M and regulations on the use of PFOS in fire fighting foams. Field-based sediment/water distribution coefficients (K(D)) and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) were calculated from environmental measurements. Log K(D) values were 0.54-1.65 for perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs) and 1.00-1.85 for perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs). Log BAF(fish) ranged from 1.85 to 3.24 for PFASs and 0.88-3.47 for PFCAs, whereas log BAF(fish liver) ranged from 2.1-4.3 for PFASs and 1.0-5.0 for PFCAs. PMID:21774496

Awad, Emily; Zhang, Xianming; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Petro, Steve; Crozier, Patrick W; Reiner, Eric J; Fletcher, Rachael; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Braekevelt, Eric

2011-10-01

279

A national survey (NAP5-Ireland baseline) to estimate an annual incidence of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia in Ireland.  

PubMed

As part of the 5th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland concerning accidental awareness during general anaesthesia, we issued a questionnaire to every consultant anaesthetist in each of 46 public hospitals in Ireland, represented by 41 local co-ordinators. The survey ascertained the number of new cases of accidental awareness becoming known to them for patients under their care or supervision for a calendar year, as well as their career experience. Consultants from all hospitals responded, with an individual response rate of 87% (299 anaesthetists). There were eight new cases of accidental awareness that became known to consultants in 2011; an estimated incidence of 1:23 366. Two out of the eight cases (25%) occurred at or after induction of anaesthesia, but before surgery; four cases (50%) occurred during surgery; and two cases (25%) occurred after surgery was complete, but before full emergence. Four cases were associated with pain or distress (50%), one after an experience at induction and three after experiences during surgery. There were no formal complaints or legal actions that arose in 2011 related to awareness. Depth of anaesthesia monitoring was reported to be available in 33 (80%) departments, and was used by 184 consultants (62%), 18 (6%) routinely. None of the 46 hospitals had a policy to prevent or manage awareness. Similar to the results of a larger survey in the UK, the disparity between the incidence of awareness as known to anaesthetists and that reported in trials warrants explanation. Compared with UK practice, there appears to be greater use of depth of anaesthesia monitoring in Ireland, although this is still infrequent. PMID:24975139

Jonker, W R; Hanumanthiah, D; O'Sullivan, E P; Cook, T M; Pandit, J J

2014-09-01

280

A screening tool to prioritize public health risk associated with accidental or deliberate release of chemicals into the atmosphere  

PubMed Central

The Chemical Events Working Group of the Global Health Security Initiative has developed a flexible screening tool for chemicals that present a risk when accidentally or deliberately released into the atmosphere. The tool is generic, semi-quantitative, independent of site, situation and scenario, encompasses all chemical hazards (toxicity, flammability and reactivity), and can be easily and quickly implemented by non-subject matter experts using freely available, authoritative information. Public health practitioners and planners can use the screening tool to assist them in directing their activities in each of the five stages of the disaster management cycle. PMID:23517410

2013-01-01

281

A screening tool to prioritize public health risk associated with accidental or deliberate release of chemicals into the atmosphere.  

PubMed

The Chemical Events Working Group of the Global Health Security Initiative has developed a flexible screening tool for chemicals that present a risk when accidentally or deliberately released into the atmosphere. The tool is generic, semi-quantitative, independent of site, situation and scenario, encompasses all chemical hazards (toxicity, flammability and reactivity), and can be easily and quickly implemented by non-subject matter experts using freely available, authoritative information. Public health practitioners and planners can use the screening tool to assist them in directing their activities in each of the five stages of the disaster management cycle. PMID:23517410

Blakey, David H; Lafontaine, Marc; Lavigne, Jocelyn; Sokolowski, Danny; Philippe, Jean-Marc; Sapori, Jean-Marc; Biederbick, Walter; Horre, Regine; Marzi, Willi B; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Kuroki, Yumiko; Namera, Akira; Okumura, Tetsu; Yamamoto, Miyako; Yashiki, Mikio; Blain, Peter G; Russell, David R; Cibulsky, Susan M; Jett, David A

2013-01-01

282

Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

Conard, R.A.

1991-01-01

283

Accidental lodgment of an air gun pellet in the maxillary sinus of a 6-year old girl: a case report.  

PubMed

Air gun, although considered a toy, can cause injuries ranging from trivial to very grievous. The type and severity of injuries depend on the type of air gun used, the distance at which it is fired, and the anatomic site at which the pellet hits. An interesting case involving a young girl, who was accidentally hit by an air gun pellet at a village fair, is described. The pellet penetrated the maxillary bone to be lodged in the sinus. The treatment strategy along with literature review on short- and long-term complications of air gun injuries is presented. PMID:15144451

Mahajan, Mrinalini; Shah, Naseem

2004-06-01

284

A mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I of the project: early effects of inhaled radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

The report presents a mathematical model for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included.

Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.

1980-06-01

285

Social interaction in young children with inflicted and accidental traumatic brain injury: relations with family resources and social outcomes.  

PubMed

Core social interaction behaviors were examined in young children 0-36 months of age who were hospitalized for accidental (n = 61) or inflicted (n = 64) traumatic brain injury (TBI) in comparison to typically developing children (n = 60). Responding to and initiating gaze and joint attention (JA) were evaluated during a semi-structured sequence of social interactions between the child and an examiner at 2 and 12 months after injury. The accidental TBI group established gaze less often and had an initial deficit initiating JA that resolved by the follow-up. Contrary to expectation, children with inflicted TBI did not have lower rates of social engagement than other groups. Responding to JA was more strongly related than initiating JA to measures of injury severity and to later cognitive and social outcomes. Compared to complicated-mild/moderate TBI, severe TBI in young children was associated with less responsiveness in social interactions and less favorable caregiver ratings of communication and social behavior. JA response, family resources, and group interacted to predict outcomes. Children with inflicted TBI who were less socially responsive and had lower levels of family resources had the least favorable outcomes. Low social responsiveness after TBI may be an early marker for later cognitive and adaptive behavior difficulties. PMID:23507345

Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Prasad, Mary R; Mendez, Donna; Barnes, Marcia A; Swank, Paul

2013-05-01

286

Model-Independent Analysis of Tri-bimaximal Mixing: A Softly-Broken Hidden or an Accidental Symmetry?  

SciTech Connect

To address the issue of whether tri-bimaximal mixing (TBM) is a softly-broken hidden or an accidental symmetry, we adopt a model-independent analysis in which we perturb a neutrino mass matrix leading to TBM in the most general way but leave the three texture zeros of the diagonal charged lepton mass matrix unperturbed. We compare predictions for the perturbed neutrino TBM parameters with those obtained from typical SO(10) grand unified theories with a variety of flavor symmetries. Whereas SO(10) GUTs almost always predict a normal mass hierarchy for the light neutrinos, TBM has a priori no preference for neutrino masses. We find, in particular for the latter, that the value of |U{sub e3}| is very sensitive to the neutrino mass scale and ordering. Observation of |U{sub e3}|{sup 2} > 0.001 to 0.01 within the next few years would be incompatible with softly-broken TBM and a normal mass hierarchy and would suggest that the apparent TBM symmetry is an accidental symmetry instead. No such conclusions can be drawn for the inverted and quasi-degenerate hierarchy spectra.

Albright, Carl H.; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab; Rodejohann, Werner; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst.

2008-04-01

287

Optimisation of the digital radiographic imaging of suspected non-accidental injury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aim: To optimise the digital (radiographic) imaging of children presenting with suspected non-accidental injury (NAI). Objectives: (i) To evaluate existing radiographic quality criteria, and to develop a more suitable system if these are found to be inapplicable to skeletal surveys obtained in suspected NAI. (ii) To document differences in image quality between conventional film-screen and the recently installed Fuji5000R computed radiography (CR) system at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, (iii) To document the extent of variability in the standard of skeletal surveys obtained in the UK for suspected NAI. (iv) To determine those radiographic parameters which yield the highest diagnostic accuracy, while still maintaining acceptable radiation dose to the child, (v) To determine how varying degrees of edge-enhancement affect diagnostic accuracy. (vi) To establish the accuracy of soft compared to hard copy interpretation of images in suspected NAI. Materials and Methods: (i) and (ii) Retrospective analysis of 286 paediatric lateral spine radiographs by two observers based on the Commission of European Communities (CEC) quality criteria, (iii) Review of the skeletal surveys of 50 consecutive infants referred from hospitals throughout the United Kingdom (UK) with suspected NAI. (iv) Phantom studies. Leeds TO. 10 and TO. 16 test objects were used to compare the relationship between film density, exposure parameters and visualisation of object details, (iv) Clinical study. Anteroposterior and lateral post mortem skull radiographs of six consecutive infants were obtained at various exposures. Six observers independently scored the images based on visualisation of five criteria, (v) and (vi) A study of diagnostic accuracy in which six observers independently interpreted 50 radiographs from printed copies (with varying degrees of edge-enhancement) and from a monitor. Results: The CEC criteria are useful for optimisation of imaging parameters and allow the detection of differences in quality of film-screen and digital images. There is much variability in the quality and number of radiographs performed as part of skeletal surveys in the UK for suspected NAI. The Leeds test objects are either not sensitive enough (TO. 10) or perhaps over sensitive (TO. 16) for the purposes of this project. Furthermore, the minimum spatial resolution required for digital imaging in NAI has not been established. Therefore the objective interpretation of phantom studies is difficult. There is scope for reduction of radiation dose to children with no effect on image quality. Diagnostic accuracy (fracture detection) in suspected NAI is generally low, and is not affected by image display modality. Conclusions: The CEC quality criteria are not applicable to the assessment of clinical image quality. A national protocol for skeletal surveys in NAI is required. Dedicated training, close supervision, collaboration and consistent exposure of radiologists to cases of NAI should improve diagnostic accuracy. The potential exists for dose reduction when performing skeletal surveys in children and infants with suspected NAI. Future studies should address this issue.

Offiah, Amaka

288

Impact assessment of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accidental emission on the Barents Sea ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traces of emissions from the Fukushima-1 NPP in atmospheric aerosols of the Kola Peninsula near the Barents Sea coast were detected by radiation monitoring stations of the Murmansk Division of the Hydrometeorological Survey MDHMS in the end of March 2011. From the end of March 2011 until April 20, 131I, 134Cs, 132Te, 137Cs radioisotopes were observed in the atmospheric air. The major role was played by 131I isotope; its peak concentrations were (140-220)×10-6 Bq/m3, and it was recorded for several days (March 30-April 1), then radioactivity decreased. 134Cs, 132Te, and 137Cs isotopes were recorded episodically. The supply of radionuclides from accidental emissions into the atmosphere of the Kola Peninsula did not cause significant changes in gamma-radiation dose rates EDR. This value remained within the limits of the average long-term norm, and continued so during the following months 2011. Possible dry and humid precipitation of radionuclides within the water catchment area and in the marine basin did not influence on radioecological state in both coastal and off-shore parts of the Barents Sea. Short-lived isotopes as 131I, 134Cs, and 132Te, which might confidently indicate a trace from the Fukushima-1 NPP, have not been recorded in the samples. In 2011-1012 volumetric activity of 137Cs and 90Sr in water of the Barents Sea (section VI along the meridian 33° 30' N) varied in the range of 1.3-2.5 and 3.4-6.3 Bq/m3, respectively. Radioactive contamination of bottom sediments in the Barents Sea was very low. The specific activity of 137Cs varied from 1 to 8 Bq/kg, the activity of 90Sr did not exceed 4 Bq/kg. Investigations of macrophyte algae showed extremely low concentrations of artificial radionuclides. The specific activity of 137Cs in most samples was at the level of trace concentrations, from 0.2 to 1.5 Bq/kg of dry mass. The content of 90Sr in algae changed in the range of 0.4-4.1 Bq/kg of dry mass. In soft tissues of bivalves Mytilus edulis collected on littoral of bays, the specific activity of 137Cs did not exceed the trace quantity as well (less than 0.5 Bq/kg of raw mass). The latest radioecological studies of the Barents Sea commercial fish showed that all investigated species (such as Atlantic cod, long rough dab, spotted wolffish) contain less than 0.2 Bq/kg of 137Cs. Thus spectrum of artificial radioisotopes and their radioactivity level in both abiotic and biotic components of the Barents Sea ecosystem have not changed after the Fukushima accident. Compared to the data of recent years, these characteristics are stable; within the background limits owing to the global circulation of radionuclides. This work was supported by the international project CEEPRA (project no. 01/2010/007/KO130) implemented within the frame of Kolarctic program.

Matishov, Gennady; Ilyin, Gennady; Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Usiagina, Irina; Pavelskaya, Elena

2013-04-01

289

Accidental Predissociation: A Special Case of Photo-Induced Isotope Fractionation Effect and Possible Occurrence in Nature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photo-Induced Isotope Fractionation Effects (PHIFE) are known to produce isotopic frac-tionation in some photo-dissociating molecules (1-2). The PHIFE formalism is based on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and the Reflection Principle. The isotopic fractionation arises principally from the spectral shift induced by the small difference in zero point energy between isotopologues and the contraction of the wave function due to isotopic substitution, consequently, the associated isotopic fractionations depends on the reduced mass of the isotopically substi-tuted species. The PHIFE formalism is only applicable to the molecules which undergo direct photo-dissociation that possess continuous absorption spectra. Simple molecules (N2, O2, CO) however do not follow a direct dissociation pathway and dissociate through an indirect process termed predissociation, which occurs when the molecule is excited to a quasi-bound state energetically above the dissociation continuum. The PHIFE formalism is not applicable when the absorption spectra are discrete. The assumption that the lightest isotopologues are preferentially predissociated is only valid for restricted predissociation cases. There is a special case of predissociation known as ‘accidental predissociation’ (3), which takes place through an intermediate bound state in two steps (i) leakage to an intermediate bound state (coupled through spin orbit interaction) and, (ii) predissociation to a third quasi-bound state from the intermediate state. Line broadening at an accidental predissociation is a function of the magnitude of coupling matrix elements and the linewidths are strongly influenced by isotopic substitution (4). An anomalous isotopic effect in accidental predissociation was spectroscopically observed in CO (5), N2 (4) and BeH (6). We measured the isotopic fractionation for the first time in two accidental predissociating states of CO through VUV photodissociation using the 9.0.2 beamline at ALS (7-8). In light of these data, anomalous isotopic fractionations associated with accidental predissociation will be discussed for the CO and N2. These fractionations are important as VUV-photodissociation of CO and N2 have been invoked in solar nebula (self-shielding, (9-10)) to explain the observed iso-topic signatures in different solar system objects neglecting these isotope effects during photo-dissociation. References: 1. Y. L. Yung, C. E. Miller, Science 278, 1778 (1997). 2. S. Chakraborty, S. K. Bhattacharya, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 2164 (2003). 3. H. Lefebvre-Brion, R. W. Field, The Spectra and Dynamics of Diatomic Molecules. (Elsevier Academic Press, 2004). 4. A. J. Lorquet, J. C. Lorquet, Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 138 (1974). 5. W. Ubachs, I. Velchev, P. Cacciani, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 547 (2000). 6. H. Lefebvre-Brion, R. Colin, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 65, 33 (1977). 7. S. Chakraborty, M. Ahmed, T. L. Jackson, M. H. Thiemens, Science 321, 1328 (2008). 8. S. Chakraborty, M. Ahmed, T. L. Jackson, M. H. Thiemens, Science 324, 4 (2009). 9. R. N. Clayton, Nature 415, 860 (2002). 10. J. R. Lyons, E. D. Young, Nature 435, 317 (2005).

Chakraborty, S.; Thiemens, M. H.

2009-12-01

290

CONTRIBUTED Green Cloud Computing  

E-print Network

CONTRIBUTED P A P E R Green Cloud Computing: Balancing Energy in Processing, Storage, and Transport to energy consumption and cloud computing seems to be an alternative to office-based computing. By Jayant computing is rapidly expanding as an alternative to conventional office-based computing. As cloud computing

Tucker, Rod

291

Contribution Margin Budgeting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Iowa Valley Community College District's Contribution Margin Budgeting (CMB) program, successfully implemented to stave off bankruptcy. In this program, each responsibility center receives credit for all income generated and is charged for all expenditures, and each must build its own reserve against revenue shortfalls and unanticipated…

Tambrino, Paul A.

2001-01-01

292

Trichobacteriosis: contribution of dermoscopy.  

PubMed

We report a case of axillary trichobacteriosis in a 34-year-old patient whose complaints were bromhidrosis and hyperhidrosis axillaris. The condition can be diagnosed clinically; dermoscopy may be useful and reveal typical signs. PMID:25244176

Salim, Gallouj; Zahra, Mernissi Fatima

2014-09-01

293

Skin Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

... certain diseases and immune system problems can cause rashes, hives, and other skin conditions. Many skin problems, such as acne, also affect your appearance. NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

294

Conditional Immunomodulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in central nervous-immune system interactions was inspired largely by the work on conditional immunomodulation (Ader and Cohen, 1975, 1985). Ader and Cohen (1975) reported that rats trained such that a taste cue (saccharine, SAC) predicted an injection of an immunosuppressant (cyclophosphamide, CY) subsequently exhibited a conditional immunosuppression in response to SAC alone.\\u000aExperiments 1-3 were designed to evaluate reports

Glenda Marlene MacQueen

1989-01-01

295

Introduction and Motivation Our Contribution  

E-print Network

Introduction and Motivation Our Contribution Summary Efficient Polynomial Operations in the Shared PKC 2006 1 / 19 #12;Introduction and Motivation Our Contribution Summary Outline 1 Introduction and Motivation Secure Multiparty Computation Motivation 2 Our Contribution Overview Protocols 2 / 19 #12

Mohassel, Payman

296

Avicenna's contribution to cardiology  

PubMed Central

Ibn Sina, known in the West as Avicenna, was the most famous and influential of all the Islamic philosopher-scientists. His most important medical works are the Canon of Medicine medical encyclopedia and a treatise on cardiac drugs. His Canon of Medicine remained the standard text in both the East and West until the 16th century. Avicenna's description of cardiac diseases was logically presented perhaps for the first time in the history of medicine. Avicenna was the first to describe carotid sinus hypersensitivity, which presents with vasovagal syncope. He was a pioneer in pulsology and the first correct explanation of pulsation was given by Avicenna, after he refined Galen's theory of the pulse. Besides, he discussed the action of available drugs on the heart in details and mentioned their indications and contraindications. In conclusion, Avicenna made important contributions to cardiology. This article describes some of his contributions in this field. PMID:24678465

Chamsi-Pasha, Mohammed A.R.; Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan

2014-01-01

297

Pattern of cerebrospinal immediate early gene c-fos expression in an ovine model of non-accidental head injury.  

PubMed

Expression of the immediate early gene, c-fos, was examined in a large animal model of non-accidental head injury ("shaken baby syndrome"). Lambs were used because they have a relatively large gyrencephalic brain and weak neck muscles resembling a human infant. Neonatal lambs were manually shaken in a manner similar to that believed to occur with most abused human infants, but there was no head impact. The most striking c-fos expression was in meningothelial cells of the cranial cervical spinal cord and, to a lesser degree, in hemispheric, cerebellar, and brainstem meninges. Vascular endothelial cells also frequently showed c-fos immunopositivity in the meninges and hemispheric white matter. It was hypothesised that this c-fos immunoreactivity was due to mechanical stress induced by shaking, with differential movement of different craniospinal components. PMID:24035422

Finnie, J W; Blumbergs, P C; Manavis, J; Vink, R

2013-12-01

298

Symmetric Tamm-Dancoff q-oscillator: representation, quasi-Fibonacci nature, accidental degeneracy and coherent states  

E-print Network

In this paper we propose a symmetric q-deformed Tamm-Dancoff (S-TD) oscillator algebra and study its representation, coordinate realization, and main properties. In particular, the non-Fibonacci (more exactly, quasi-Fibonacci) nature of S-TD oscillator is established, the possibility of relating it to certain p,q-deformed oscillator family shown, the occurrence of the pairwise accidental degeneracy proven. We also find the coherent state for the S-TD oscillator and show that it satisfies completeness relation. Main advantage of the S-TD model over usual Tamm-Dancoff oscillator is that due to (qq^{-1})- symmetry it admits not only real, but also complex (phase-like) values of the deformation parameter q.

Won Sang Chung; A. M. Gavrilik; I. I. Kachurik; A. P. Rebesh

2014-02-28

299

Symmetric Tamm-Dancoff q-oscillator: representation, quasi-Fibonacci nature, accidental degeneracy and coherent states  

E-print Network

In this paper we propose a symmetric q-deformed Tamm-Dancoff (S-TD) oscillator algebra and study its representation, coordinate realization, and main properties. In particular, the non-Fibonacci (more exactly, quasi-Fibonacci) nature of S-TD oscillator is established, the possibility of relating it to certain p,q-deformed oscillator family shown, the occurrence of the pairwise accidental degeneracy proven. We also find the coherent state for the S-TD oscillator and show that it satisfies completeness relation. Main advantage of the S-TD model over usual Tamm-Dancoff oscillator is that due to (qq^{-1})-symmetry it admits not only real, but also complex (phase-like) values of the deformation parameter q.

Chung, Won Sang; Kachurik, I I; Rebesh, A P

2014-01-01

300

Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral lymphocytes in a population exposed to vinyl chloride through an accidental release into the environment.  

PubMed

On the first of June, 1996 an environmental accident occurred in Schönebeck, Germany in which free vinyl chloride was evaporated into the atmosphere. Thereby, the human population living in this area was exposed to vinyl chloride and its byproducts. Chromosomal aberrations were measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes from 29 potentially exposed and 29 non-exposed (control) individuals. Both groups were matched regarding age, gender and smoking habits. Two hundred metaphases were analysed for chromosomal aberrations per each individual. The exposed group showed a statistically significant increase in the mean frequency of aberrant cells (1.47% versus 1.07% in the control group). Chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes have been shown to be a very sensitive biomarker of genotoxic effects not only for occupational exposure to vinyl chloride as reported several times during the last 20 years, but also for an accidental environmental exposure. A follow-up cytogenetic study is recommendable. PMID:9820659

Hüttner, E; Nikolova, T

1998-08-01

301

Characterization of gaseous helium jet dispersion to atmosphere. [due to accidental loss of vacuum guard of superinsulated dewar shuttle payload  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major ground-based experiment to be performed for the Superfluid Helium On Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) program is the accidental loss of the vacuum guard of the super-insulated dewar. The design of the dewar vent-path requires adequate mass removal after a preset pressure is reached due to external heat transfer. The existing helium creates a turbulent buoyant jet, expanding in air with entrainment of the jet interface to the surrounding. Transient analysis is performed for axial and radial jet temperature prediction using the self-similarity assumption applied to mass, momentum, and the energy-balance equations of helium. The predicted jet temperature profiles with vertical and radial expansion up to 1.6 and 1.0 m, respectively, demonstrate the low temperature core established by gaseous helium. For all time steps, the axial and radial temperature predictions are observed to be within 8 and 20 percent, respectively.

Khan, H. J.; Figueroa, O.; Rhee, M.

1992-01-01

302

Accidental overdosing with intraspinal morphine caused by misprogrammation of a Synchromed pump: a report of two cases.  

PubMed

Spinally administered opioids must be a last step in the therapeutical arsenal of chronic benigne pain. It is an invasive technique not free from adverse effects. Two chronic pain patients received an implantable Synchromed pump for treatment with spinal opiates after a trial period of resp. 3.5 and 5.5 months. Due to a misprogrammation (both on the same day) they received very high doses of spinal opiates. This caused relatively few side effects, which did not seem to require immediate treatment. A short time development of tolerance to life threatening side-effects has been proven by this accidental administration of high-dose intraspinal opiates. It is critical that care providers are knowledgeable and well-trained about implantable infusion systems. Programmation and refills must always be performed with care. PMID:9259873

Belmans, L; Van Buyten, J P; Vanduffel, L; Vueghs, P; Adriaensen, H

1997-01-01

303

Physical performance tests, self-reported outcomes, and accidental falls before and after total knee arthroplasty: an exploratory study.  

PubMed

This longitudinal, observational study explored the relationship between physical performance tests, self-reported outcomes, and accidental falling, before and after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Thirty-seven patients were randomly selected from a larger study of falling before and after surgery conducted at a UK National Health Service Orthopaedic Unit. Physical performance tests were the Berg Balance Score (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG), and Hand Grip Strength (HGS). Self-reported outcomes incorporated the Western Ontario and McMaster's Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Activities Balance Confidence Scale (ABC-UK), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and accidental falls. Paired pre- and postoperative data were available on 22 patients. A total of 22.7% patients fell before and after TKA. Postoperative improvement in BBS and TUG was found in 41% and 50% of patients, respectively, HGS did not change. BBS showed a consistent moderate-to-strong association with other physical tests both before and after surgery; TUG (rs -0.76; rs -0.90), maximal HGS (r 0.49; r 0.48), and self-report measures; ABC-UK (r 0.52; r 0.74), WOMAC stiffness (r -0.53; r -0.48), and WOMAC function (r -0.56; r -0.45). Although self-report questionnaires are an efficient, cost-effective approach to outcome assessment in TKA, there is a growing case for inclusion of physical performance tests. The Berg Balance Score may be a useful addition to outcome assessment in patients with TKA. PMID:23289963

Swinkels, Annette; Allain, Theresa J

2013-08-01

304

Double left ventricular pacing following accidental malpositioning of the right ventricular electrode during implantation of a cardiac resynchronization therapy device.  

PubMed

Accidental malpositioning of a right ventricular (RV) electrode has not been previously reported in the context of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT).The case of a 75-year old male patient with dilative cardiomyopathy, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction 23%, New York Heart Association functional heart failure status stage III, left bundle branch block (LBBB) with QRS width of 136 ms, and misplacement of the RV lead to the LV apex during implantation of a CRT defibrillator is described.Following unremarkable implantation, routine interrogation of the CRT device on the first day after the implantation revealed uneventful technical findings. The 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG) showed biventricular stimulation featuring a narrow QRS complex with incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB) and R>S in V1. The biplane postoperative chest X-ray was graded normal. On routine follow-up one month later, a transthoracic echocardiogram revealed an increased ejection fraction of 51% but the RV lead was placed in the LV apex. An additional transesophageal echocardiogram exhibited an Eustachian valve guiding the lead via the patent foramen ovale through the mitral valve into the LV apex. Operative revision was scheduled and the active fixation lead was uneventful removed from the LV. A new electrode was inserted and placed in the RV apex.Accidental malplacement of the RV electrode to the LV may be difficult to diagnose in the context of CRT patients as a stimulated biventricular ECG with incomplete RBBB appearance is expected in this situation. Careful analysis of lateral radiographic views during the operation is important to ensure correct lead positioning. As timely revision is the preferred procedure, early routine transthoracic echocardiography may be considered for detection of malplacement. PMID:23806123

Dissmann, Ruediger; Wolthoff, Udo; Zabel, Markus

2013-01-01

305

Prevention reference manual: chemical specific. Volume 2. Control of accidental releases of chlorine (SCAQMD) (South Coast Air Quality Management District). Final report, May 1986-March 1987  

SciTech Connect

This manual discusses reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of chlorine. It identifies some of the potential causes of accidental releases that apply to the processes that use chlorine. It also identifies examples of potential causes, as well as measures that may be taken to reduce the accidental release risk. Such measures include recommendations on: plant design practices; prevention, protection, and mitigation technologies; and operation and maintenance practices. It provides conceptual cost estimates of possible prevention, protection, and mitigation measures. Chlorine is a highly reactive and corrosive liquid that boils at room temperature. It has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 25 ppm, which makes it a substantial acute toxic hazard. Accidental releases of toxic chemicals at Bhopal and Chernobyl have increased public awareness of toxic-release problems. As a result of other, perhaps less-dramatic incidents in the past, portions of the chemical industry were aware of this problem long before these events. These same portions of the industry have made advances in the area.

Davis, D.S.; DeWolf, G.B.; Quass, J.D.; Wert, K.P.

1987-07-01

306

Chronic Mycobacterium infection of first dorsal web space after accidental Bacilli Calmette-Guérin injection in a health worker: case report.  

PubMed

We present a case of inoculation of the first dorsal web space by a nurse practitioner who accidentally stuck herself while preparing Bacilli Calmette-Guérin vaccine for treatment of bladder tumor. We report the evolution and management of this resistant chronic Mycobacterium infection that ultimately required use of a vacuum wound management system followed by a microvascular free tissue transfer. PMID:18984347

Vigler, Mordechai; Mulett, Hanan; Hausman, Michael R

2008-11-01

307

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 6. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE (SCAQMD) (SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The manual summarizes information that will aid in identifying and controlling release hazards specific to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) of southern California. The SCAQMD has been considering a strategy for reducing the risk of a major accidental air r...

308

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 3. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE (SCAQMD) (SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses a strategy (being considered by the South Coast Air Quality Management District--SCAQMD--of Southern California) for reducing the risk of a major accidental air release of toxic chemicals. The strategy, intended to guide both industry and communities, consist...

309

Sports-related injuries in childrenA study of their characteristics, frequency, and severity, with comparison to other types of accidental injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1981 to 1982, within a 1 year period, details were recorded of children aged 0 to 15 years and 3 months, who were treated for accidental injury in a French health care district; 789 sports-related accidents were regis tered, representing 11 % of all accidents. Sports areas were the leading sites of accident among children over age 12. Out-of-school

Anne Tursz; Monique Crost

1986-01-01

310

The 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: patient experiences, human factors, sedation, consent and medicolegal issues.  

PubMed

The 5th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland into accidental awareness during general anaesthesia yielded data related to psychological aspects from the patient, and the anaesthetist, perspectives; patients' experiences ranged from isolated auditory or tactile sensations to complete awareness. A striking finding was that 75% of experiences were for < 5 min, yet 51% of patients (95% CI 43-60%) experienced distress and 41% (95% CI 33-50%) suffered longer-term adverse effect. Distress and longer-term harm occurred across the full range of experiences but were particularly likely when the patient experienced paralysis (with or without pain). The patient's interpretation of what is happening at the time of the awareness seemed central to later impact; explanation and reassurance during suspected accidental awareness during general anaesthesia or at the time of report seemed beneficial. Quality of care before the event was judged good in 26%, poor in 39% and mixed in 31%. Three quarters of cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (75%) were judged preventable. In 12% of cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia, care was judged good and the episode not preventable. The contributory and human factors in the genesis of the majority of cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia included medication, patient and education/training. The findings have implications for national guidance, institutional organisation and individual practice. The incidence of 'accidental awareness' during sedation (~1:15 000) was similar to that during general anaesthesia (~1:19 000). The project raises significant issues about information giving and consent for both sedation and anaesthesia. We propose a novel approach to describing sedation from the patient's perspective which could be used in communication and consent. Eight (6%) of the patients had resorted to legal action (12, 11%, to formal complaint) at the time of reporting. The 5th National Audit Project methodology provides a standardised template that might usefully inform the investigation of claims or serious incidents related to accidental awareness during general anaesthesia. PMID:25204237

Cook, T M; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H MacG; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Pandit, J J

2014-10-01

311

Revisiting Soliton Contributions to Perturbative Amplitudes  

E-print Network

It is often said that soliton contributions to perturbative processes in QFT are exponentially suppressed by a form factor. We provide a derivation of this form factor by studying the soliton-antisoliton pair production amplitude for a class of scalar theories with generic soliton moduli. This reduces to the calculation of a matrix element in the quantum mechanics on the soliton moduli space. We investigate the conditions under which the latter leads to suppression. Extending this framework to instanton-solitons in five-dimensional Yang-Mills theory leaves open the possibility that such contributions will not be suppressed.

Constantinos Papageorgakis; Andrew B. Royston

2014-03-31

312

Accidental hypoglycaemia caused by an arterial flush drug error: a case report and contributory causes analysis.  

PubMed

In 2008, the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) issued a Rapid Response Report concerning problems with infusions and sampling from arterial lines. The risk of blood sample contamination from glucose-containing arterial line infusions was highlighted and changes in arterial line management were recommended. Despite this guidance, errors with arterial line infusions remain common. We report a case of severe hypoglycaemia and neuroglycopenia caused by glucose contamination of arterial line blood samples. This case occurred despite the implementation of the practice changes recommended in the 2008 NPSA alert. We report an analysis of the factors contributing to this incident using the Yorkshire Contributory Factors Framework. We discuss the nature of the errors that occurred and list the consequent changes in practice implemented on our unit to prevent recurrence of this incident, which go well beyond those recommended by the NPSA in 2008. PMID:24006897

Gupta, K J; Cook, T M

2013-11-01

313

Structural performance of a Multipurpose Canister shell for HLNW under normal handling conditions  

SciTech Connect

A Multipurpose Canister (MPC) is analyzed for critical stresses that occur during normal handling conditions and accidental scenarios. Linear and Non-linear Finite Element Analysis is performed and the stresses at various critical locations in the MPC and its weldments are studied extensively. Progressive failure analysis of the MPC`s groove and fillet welds, is presented. The structural response of the MPC to dynamic lifting loads, to loads resulting from an accidental slippage of a crane cable carrying the MPC, and from the impact between two canisters, is evaluated. Nonlinear structural analysis is used in the evaluation of the local buckling and the ultimate failure phenomena in the shell when the steel is in the strain hardening state during impact. Results make a case for increasing the thickness of the shell and all the welds.

Ladkany, S.G.; Rajagopalan, R.

1994-05-01

314

Can Accidental Local Application of A Drug Cause Discolouration of Permanent Teeth?  

PubMed Central

Thorough knowledge on the aetiology of tooth staining is of importance to dental surgeons, in order to enable a correct diagnosis to be made when examining a discoloured dentition and it allows the dental practitioner to explain to the patient the exact nature of the condition. Tetracyclines are a group of drugs which can discolour teeth permanently. One such case of discolouration of adult teeth caused by administration of tetracycline(oxytetracycline) has been reported here and it has been discussed in detail. PMID:24551734

Hans, Manoj Kumar; Nagpal, Ajay; Shetty, Shashit; Hans, Rinki

2013-01-01

315

A CASE STUDY OF CHLORINE TRANSPORT AND FATE FOLLOWING A LARGE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE  

SciTech Connect

A train derailment that occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina during the early morning hours of 06 January, 2005 resulted in the prompt release of approximately 60 tons of chlorine to the environment. Comprehensive modeling of the transport and fate of this release was performed including the characterization of the initial three-phased chlorine release, a detailed determination of the local atmospheric conditions acting to generate, disperse, and deplete the chlorine vapor cloud, the establishment of physical exchange mechanisms between the airborne vapor and local surface waters, and local aquatic dilution and mixing.

Buckley, R.; Hunter, C.; Werth, D.; Whiteside, M.; Chen, K.; Mazzola, C.

2012-08-01

316

Quantifying magnetite magnetofossil contributions to sedimentary magnetizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under suitable conditions, magnetofossils (the inorganic remains of magnetotactic bacteria) can contribute to the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) of sediments. In recent years, magnetofossils have been shown to be preserved commonly in marine sediments, which makes it essential to quantify their importance in palaeomagnetic recording. In this study, we examine a deep-sea sediment core from offshore of northwestern Western Australia. The magnetic mineral assemblage is dominated by continental detritus and magnetite magnetofossils. By separating magnetofossil and detrital components based on their different demagnetization characteristics, it is possible to quantify their respective contributions to the sedimentary NRM throughout the Brunhes chron. In the studied core, the contribution of magnetofossils to the NRM is controlled by large-scale climate changes, with their relative importance increasing during glacial periods when detrital inputs were low. Our results demonstrate that magnetite magnetofossils can dominate sedimentary NRMs in settings where they are preserved in significant abundances.

Heslop, David; Roberts, Andrew P.; Chang, Liao; Davies, Maureen; Abrajevitch, Alexandra; De Deckker, Patrick

2013-11-01

317

Incorporation of Therapeutic Interventions in Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Human Clinical Case Reports of Accidental or Intentional Overdosing with Ethylene Glycol  

SciTech Connect

Ethylene glycol is a high production volume chemical used in the manufacture of resins and fibers, antifreeze, deicing fluids, heat transfer and hydraulic fluids. Although occupational uses of ethylene glycol have not been associated with adverse effects, there are case reports where humans have either intentionally or accidentally ingested large quantities of ethylene glycol, primarily from antifreeze. The acute toxicity of ethylene glycol in humans and animals and can proceed through three stages, each associated with a different metabolite: central nervous system depression (ethylene glycol), cardiopulmonary effects associated with metabolic acidosis (glycolic acid) and ultimately renal toxicity (oxalic acid), depending upon the total amounts consumed and effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model developed in a companion paper (Corley et al., 2004) was refined in this study to include clinically relevant treatment regimens for ethylene glycol poisoning such as hemodialysis or metabolic inhibition with either ethanol or fomepizole. Such modifications enabled the model to describe several human case reports which included analysis of ethylene glycol and/or glycolic acid. Such data and model simulations provide important confirmation that the PBPK model developed previously can adequately describe the pharmacokinetics of ethylene glycol in humans following low, occupational or environmentally relevant inhalation exposures, as well as massive oral doses even under conditions where treatments have been employed that markedly affect the disposition of ethylene glycol and glycolic acid. By integrating the case report data sets with controlled studies in this PBPK model, it was demonstrated that fomepizole, if administered early enough in a clinical situation, can be more effective than ethanol or hemodialysis in preventing the metabolism of ethylene glycol to more toxic metabolites. Hemodialysis remains an important option, however, if treatment is instituted after a significant amount of EG is metabolized or if renal toxicity has occurred. The validated PBPK model was also used to compare internal dose surrogates associated with ethylene glycol toxicity in rats and humans. These simulations indicate that following occupational or environmental exposures, humans are unlikely to achieve blood levels of glycolic acid that have been associated with developmental toxicity in rats.

Corley, Rick A.; McMartin, K. E.

2005-05-16

318

EMSL Contribution Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Contribution Plan is EMSL’s template for achieving our vision of simultaneous excellence in all aspects of our mission as a national scientific user facility. It reflects our understanding of the long-term stewardship we must work toward to meet the scientific challenges faced by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the nation. During the next decade, we will implement the strategies contained in this Plan, working closely with the scientific community, our advisory committees, DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research, and other key stakeholders. This Plan is fully aligned with the strategic plans of DOE, its Office of Science, and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). We recognize that shifts in science and technology, national priorities, and resources made available through the Federal budget process create planning uncertainties and, ultimately, a highly dynamic planning environment. Accordingly, this Plan should be viewed as a living document and we continually evaluate the changing needs and opportunities posed by our stakeholders (i.e., DOE, users, staff, advisory committees), work closely with them to understand and respond to those changes, and align our strategy accordingly. This Plan is organized around two sections. Section 1 describes our vision and four strategic outcomes: 1) Scientific Innovation, 2) Capabilities that Transform Science, 3) Outstanding Management and Operations, and Engaged and Proactive Users. These outcomes provide the framework for seven critical actions we must take during the next 3 to 5 years: 1) Establishing leadership in EMSL science themes, 2) building and deploying transformational capabilities, 3) integrating computation with experiment, 4) ensuring EMSL’s workforce meets the scientific challenges of the future, 5) creating partnerships, 6) attracting and engaging users in EMSL’s long-term strategy, and 7) building a research infrastructure that meets emerging scientific needs. Section 2 describes EMSL’s detailed business plan, including an analysis of opportunity, organizational investments, and actionable milestones.

Campbell, Allison A.

2008-12-01

319

Long-term extractable compounds screening in surface water to prevent accidental organic pollution.  

PubMed

The organic composition of surface water (a canal network fed by the Rhône river, France) was studied over a period of 3 years. The spatial and temporal evolution of extractable organic compounds was determined by monitoring the water of the principal canal (72 km long) over 3 years and 139 compounds were detected at the ng/l concentration level. Using these data the organic fingerprints were constructed for every sampling point. These fingerprints depend on sampling dates and climatic conditions. Analysed compounds were classified according to two criteria: appearance frequency and average concentrations. Three classes were defined, corresponding to: organic background, occasional component and chronic component. The preponderance of organic background, corresponding to the natural organic fingerprint, indicates the high quality of this surface water. The proportion of some chemical families were calculated in order to assess their anthropogenic impact on the water. This study produced a databank which was useful as a reference for the monitoring and checking of water quality. Any anomaly disturbing organic fingerprints can thus rapidly be detected and identified by comparison with the databank, making better crisis management possible. PMID:9260312

Deroux, J M; Gonzalez, C; Le Cloirec, P; Roumagnac, A

1997-09-15

320

Simulation de l'ecoulement dans un parc d'eoliennes situees sur un terrain accidente  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'objectif principal de cette these est la modelisation de l'ecoulement de la couche limite atmospherique dans un parc eolien sur un terrain complexe. Pour ce faire, trois domaines distincts ont ete abordes: caracteristiques de la couche limite atmospherique, aerodynamique des eoliennes et modelisation du terrain complexe. Ainsi l'objectif global de la these a ete divise a trois objectifs specifiques. Le premier objectif specifique est de demontrer l'efficacite du modele de turbulence propose base sur le modele de turbulence RNG, combinee avec les equations du tenseur de Reynolds moyennees dans le temps (RANS) pour simuler l'ecoulement turbulent moyen sur les collines et les vallees bidimensionnelles de formes analytiques et de pentes variables, et aussi, sur le terrain complexe tridimensionnel Blashaval. Le deuxieme objectif specifique de la these est de proposer un nouveau modele de turbulence pour simuler l'ecoulement axisymetrique a travers une eolienne a axe horizontal. Pour valider le modele propose, des resultats sont presentes pour les eoliennes experimentales Nibe B, Danwin 180/23, et MOD-0A. Le dernier objectif specifique est d'appliquer le modele de turbulence propose pour la simulation de l'ecoulement tridimensionnel a travers une eolienne immergee dans une couche limite atmospherique sous diverses conditions de stabilite thermique.

El Kasmi, Amina

321

26 CFR 1.401(m)-1 - Employee contributions and matching contributions.  

...Certain contributions not treated as employee contributions. The term employee contributions does not include designated Roth contributions, repayment of loans, rollover contributions, repayment of distributions described in section...

2014-04-01

322

26 CFR 1.401(m)-1 - Employee contributions and matching contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Certain contributions not treated as employee contributions. The term employee contributions does not include designated Roth contributions, repayment of loans, rollover contributions, repayment of distributions described in section...

2010-04-01

323

26 CFR 1.401(m)-1 - Employee contributions and matching contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Certain contributions not treated as employee contributions. The term employee contributions does not include designated Roth contributions, repayment of loans, rollover contributions, repayment of distributions described in section...

2013-04-01

324

26 CFR 1.401(m)-1 - Employee contributions and matching contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Certain contributions not treated as employee contributions. The term employee contributions does not include designated Roth contributions, repayment of loans, rollover contributions, repayment of distributions described in section...

2011-04-01

325

26 CFR 1.401(m)-1 - Employee contributions and matching contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Certain contributions not treated as employee contributions. The term employee contributions does not include designated Roth contributions, repayment of loans, rollover contributions, repayment of distributions described in section...

2012-04-01

326

Risk factors for recurrent injuries in victims of suspected non-accidental trauma: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Many children who are victims of non-accidental trauma (NAT) may be repeatedly evaluated for injuries related to maltreatment. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for repeated injuries in children with suspected NAT. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using claims data from a pediatric Medicaid accountable care organization. Children with birth claims and at least one non-birth related claim indicating a diagnosis of NAT or skeletal survey in 2007–2011 were included. Recurrent events were defined as independent episodes of care involving an urgent/emergent care setting that included a diagnosis code specific for child abuse, a CPT code for a skeletal survey, or a diagnosis code for an injury suspicious for abuse. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine risk factors for recurrent events. Results Of the 1,361 children with suspected NAT, a recurrent NAT event occurred in 26% within 1 year and 40% within 2 years of their initial event. Independent risk factors for a recurrent NAT event included a rural residence, age?

2014-01-01

327

Follow-up study by chromosome aberration analysis and micronucleus assays in victims accidentally exposed to 60Co radiation.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to assess the persistence of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei of three victims 2 y after accidental radiation exposure to Co gamma rays. Traditional chromosome aberration analysis was performed by scoring the dicentric chromosomes (dic) and rings (r) in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Micronuclei were detected using the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay. G-banding and semi-automatic karyotype analysis was used to record translocations (t), inversions (inv) and deletions (del). The frequency of unstable chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and rings) remained at high levels 6 mo after the accident. Two years after exposure, the frequency was reduced to 4-11% in the three victims. However, stable chromosome aberrations, which were detected by G-banding and included t, inv, and del, remained at a high level and have an obvious dose-dependent relationship even 2 y post-exposure. The frequency of micronuclei decreased faster than that of chromosome aberrations, reaching almost a normal level two years after the accident, especially for the child victim. Unstable chromosome aberrations reduced gradually, but the stable aberration remained at a high level along with the time-lapse. The micronucleus assay was less valuable for assessing long-term effects after high dose irradiation. PMID:20445399

Liu, Qiang; Cao, Jia; Liu, Ying; Lü, Yu Min; Qin, Bin; Jiang, Bo; Jiang, Li Ping; Fu, Bao Hua; Zhao, Feng Ling; Jiang, En Hai; Su, Xu; Fan, Fei Yue

2010-06-01

328

Accidental aspiration in a patient with Parkinson's disease during implant-supported prosthesis construction: a case report.  

PubMed

This article reports on a case history of an elderly patient with Parkinson's disease (PD) who sought treatment at a private dental office. His chief complaint was "difficulty in eating due to an illfitting prosthesis." Laboratory tests and oral radiographs were made. The surgical placement of an implant was done and, subsequently, an implant-supported prosthesis was fitted for the patient. During the impression for the construction of the implant-supported prosthesis, the patient accidentally aspirated the implant screwdriver. The object was found in the lower right lobe of the bronchus, and its removal was necessary in a hospital using bronchoscopy under general anesthesia. Patients with PD are considered at risk of aspirating and/or ingesting dental instruments. Short treatment periods are recommended, preferably during the morning, when the medication prescribed for PD is most effective. When treating patients who have a risk for aspirating and ingesting small objects, it is important to treat them in a more vertical position, and small-sized objects should be secured with dental floss to aid retrieval. PMID:21950529

Deliberador, Tatiana Miranda; Marengo, Gláucia; Scaratti, Rodrigo; Giovanini, Allan Fernando; Zielak, João César; Baratto Filho, Flares

2011-01-01

329

Estimation of the dispersion of an accidental release of radionuclides and toxic materials based on weather type classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the influence of the regional-scale weather types on the atmospheric dispersion processes of the air pollutants originated from point sources. Hypothetical accidents were simulated with two different dispersion models. During a year's test period, the 6-h emission of a radionuclide from the Paks Nuclear Power Plant (Paks NPP, Hungary) was assumed every day and the transport and deposition of the radionuclide was simulated by the Eulerian TREX dispersion model over the Central European region. In addition, the ALOHA Gaussian air dispersion model was also used for the local environment of the Paks NPP to simulate hypothetical hourly releases of ammonia during a 10-year period. During both types of model simulations, the dispersion of the plume for each time was analysed and tested with consideration of 13 circulation types corresponding to daily weather patterns over the Carpathian Basin. There are significant correlations between circulation types and plume directions and structures both in local and regional scales. The daily circulation pattern can be easily obtained from weather analyses; the expected size and direction of polluted area after an accidental release can be quickly estimated even before an accident occurs. However, this fast method cannot replace or neglect dispersion model simulations. It gives a `first guess' and a fast estimation on the direction of the plume and can provide sufficient information for decision-making strategies.

Mészáros, Róbert; Leel?ssy, Ádám; Vincze, Csilla; Sz?cs, Mihály; Kovács, Tibor; Lagzi, István

2012-02-01

330

Chronic health problems and risk of accidental injury in the workplace: A systematic literature review  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate whether common important health conditions and their treatments increase risks of occupational injury. Methods A systematic search was conducted of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO databases from inception to November 2006 employing terms for occupational injury, medications, and a broad range of diseases and impairments. Papers related solely to driving, alcohol, or substance abuse were excluded, as were studies that did not allow analysis of injury risk. For each paper that was retrieved we abstracted standard information on the population, design, exposure(s), outcome(s), response rates, confounders and effect estimates; and rated the quality of information provided. Results We found 38 relevant papers (33 study populations): 16 studies were of cross-sectional design, 13 were case-control and four were prospective. The overall quality was rated as excellent for only two studies. Most commonly investigated were problems of hearing (15 studies), mental health (11 studies) and vision (10 studies). For impaired hearing, neurotic illness, diabetes, epilepsy and use of sedating medication there were moderate positive associations with occupational injury (ORs 1.5–2.0), but there were major gaps in the evidence base. Studies on vision did not present risks by category of eye disease; no evidence was found on psychotic illness; for diabetes, epilepsy and cardiovascular disease there were remarkably few papers; studies seldom distinguished risks by sub-category of external cause or anatomical site and nature of injury; and exposures and outcomes were mostly ascertained by self-report at a single time point, with a lack of clarity about exposure timings. Conclusion Improved research is needed to define the risks of occupational injury arising from common health complaints and treatments. Such research should delineate exposures and outcomes in more detail, and ensure by design that the former precede the latter. PMID:18417559

PALMER, K T; HARRIS, E C; COGGON, D

2013-01-01

331

Biochemical analysis of some metabolites in urine and blood in persons exposed accidentally to a source of ¹⁹²Ir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven biochemical indicators (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, xanthurenic ; acid, creatine, creatinine, BETA -aminoisobutyric acid, taurine, 11-deoxy-17-; ketosteroid, total estrogens and Dische reaction-positive substance(s) in urine; ; 5-hydroxytryptamine in whole blood; and cortisol in blood plasma) of the ; radiation injury'' were analyzed in 6 cases which were accidentally exposed to a ; gamma ray source of ¹⁹²Ir. Among them, 4 indicators

W. Nakamura; K. Mizobuchi; F. Sawada; T. Kankura; S. Kobayashi

1973-01-01

332

[Accidental destruction of stone trapping baskets: new knowledge on the interaction of baskets, stone trapping devices, guide wires and lithotriptors - a brief review].  

PubMed

There is a rise in the incidence of stone disease in the industrial nations. Due to this, the number of endurological procedures will also rise. Sometimes endourological instruments will be fragmented accidentally together with the destruction of the stone. A search for articles on this subject was performed. The aim of this article is to provide a review about the literature on this subject and how this subject can be managed today and in the future. PMID:23818242

Cordes, J; Sommerauer, M; Laturnus, J M; Jocham, D

2013-07-01

333

Cotton plants transformed with a bacterial degradation gene are protected from accidental spray drift damage by the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agronomic performance of broad leaved crop plants such as cotton would be greatly improved if genetically-engineered resistance to broadleaf herbicides could both protect the plants from accidental spray drift damage and allow the suppression of problem broadleaf weeds by chemical means. Followingin vitro modification and the addition of plant expression signals, the gene for 2,4-D monooxygenase, a bacterial enzyme

Bruce R. Lyon; Yvonne L. Cousins; Danny J. Llewellyn; Elizabeth S. Dennis

1993-01-01

334

Partitioning of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorohexanesulfonate in the aquatic environment after an accidental release of aqueous film forming foam at Schiphol Amsterdam Airport.  

PubMed

In summer 2008, an accidental release of aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) took place at Schiphol Amsterdam Airport (The Netherlands). After the release, water, fish, and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs). In situ perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) sediment-water distribution factor (KD ) values, bioaccumulation factor (BAF) values, and biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) values showed a remarkable agreement among reference and impacted sites, 10 wk after the incident as well as after 3 yr. PMID:24729487

Kwadijk, Christiaan J A F; Kotterman, Michiel; Koelmans, Albert A

2014-08-01

335

The nature and timing of caldera collapse as indicated by accidental lithic fragments from the AD V1000 eruption of Volcan Ceboruco, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

One way to determine the mechanics of caldera formation is through quantitative component analysis of accidental lithic fragments in pyroclastic deposits erupted before and during caldera collapse.All previous studies of this sort, however, are based on pyroclastic deposits from large-volume (s 10 km3) caldera eruptions.In this study, we use quantitative component analysis of lithic fragments to determine the mechanics of

B. L. Browne; J. E. Gardner

336

Study of the effects of accidentally released carbon/graphite fibers on electric power equipment. Program final report, June 5, 1978-June 5, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The program to study the effect of accidentally released carbon fibers on electrical power equipment consisted of determining the vulnerability of system outage rates to carbon fiber contamination, and performing tests to quantitize the contamination required to cause flashover of external insulation. Part One of this final report describes an assessment of the vulnerability of power systems to accidentally released fibers from a composite burn. The assessment describes the effect of carbon fibers on individual component failure rates and discusses the effect the change in component failure rates has on the power system reliability. Part Two describes in detail testing performed to determine the vulnerability of external insulation to carbon fiber contamination. Testing consisted of airborne contamination tests on distribution insulators, limited tests on suspension insulators which are commonly used for transmission class voltages, and various tests to quantify the influence of fiber length, voltage stress, etc. on flashover characteristics. The data obtained and analysis performed during this project show that the change of system reliability due to an accidental release from burned carbon fiber composite is negligible.

Mauser, S.F.; Bankoske, J.W.; Cooper, J.H.; Davies, D.G.; Eichler, C.H.; Hileman, A.R.; Mousseau, T.E. Jr.; Rackliffe, G.B.

1980-06-05

337

Definitive, Intermediate, Paratenic, and Accidental Hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and its Molluscan Intermediate Hosts in Hawa'i  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic meningitis caused by infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis, a parasitic nematode, is an emerging infectious disease of humans and other animals, known as angiostrongyliasis or rat lungworm disease. Symptoms range from headache and muscle spasms in mild cases to coma and even death. Many human cases have been recorded around the world, with the majority in tropical and subtropical locations. The increase in numbers of human cases and the expansion of the geographic distribution of cases make this parasite and its hosts important research foci. Definitive hosts include various rat species such as Rattus norvegicus, R. rattus, and R. exulans, and a number of land and freshwater snails and slugs have previously been identified as intermediate hosts.1 Both definitive and intermediate hosts are obligate to the life cycle of A. cantonensis. Paratenic hosts span a wide range of fauna and are not needed in the nematode's life cycle, but act as reservoirs in which different larval stages of the parasite can persist but not develop further; they include freshwater shrimp, flatworms, and frogs.2–4 Accidental hosts, including humans and other mammals, as well as birds, permit development from the third larval stage to the subadult (fifth) stage but are then dead ends for the parasite.5,6 These hosts are infected primarily through consumption of raw or undercooked intermediate or paratenic hosts, either intentionally or accidentally via contaminated produce.7 In Hawa‘i, there have been recent outbreaks with cases of infection on four of the main islands. Since there is currently a limited consensus on appropriate therapy, steps to prevent infection should be taken. The first step to facilitate this and to lay the groundwork for future management of the hosts is to identify the intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis and to determine its geographic distribution within the Hawaiian Islands. To do this over 1000 specimens of 37 terrestrial and freshwater snail and slug species (30 introduced, 7 native) from the six largest Hawaiian Islands were screened using a molecular approach.8 Total DNA was extracted from foot tissue of each specimen and was amplified using Angiostrongylus-specific primers.8 Amplicons were visualized on agarose gels to determine if specimens were positive or negative for A. cantonensis. All of the positive specimens and a random sample of all other specimens tested were also reamplified using species-specific primers.9 All positive samples were still positive with the newer primers. The parasite was present in 16 (14 alien, 2 native) of these species, from five of the six largest Hawaiian Islands. These species represent 10 phylogenetically diverse terrestrial pulmonate families and 2 more distantly related caenogastropod families (one terrestrial and one freshwater). This broad phylogenetic representation demonstrates that this parasite is not host specific, to the extent that perhaps even any snail or slug species could act as an intermediate host.

Kim, Jaynee R; Hayes, Kenneth A; Yeung, Norine W

2013-01-01

338

Cellular automata-based forecasting of the impact of accidental fire and toxic dispersion in process industries.  

PubMed

The strategies to prevent accidents from occurring in a process industry, or to minimize the harm if an accident does take place, always revolve around forecasting the likely accidents and their impacts. Based on the likely frequency and severity of the accidents, resources are committed towards preventing the accidents. Nearly all techniques of ranking hazardous units, be it the hazard and operability studies, fault tree analysis, hazard indice, etc.--qualitative as well as quantitative--depend essentially on the assessment of the likely frequency and the likely harm accidents in different units may cause. This fact makes it exceedingly important that the forecasting the accidents and their likely impact is done as accurately as possible. In the present study we introduce a new approach to accident forecasting based on the discrete modeling paradigm of cellular automata. In this treatment an accident is modeled as a self-evolving phenomena, the impact of which is strongly influenced by the size, nature, and position of the environmental components which lie in the vicinity of the accident site. The outward propagation of the mass, energy and momentum from the accident epicenter is modeled as a fast diffusion process occurring in discrete space-time coordinates. The quantum of energy and material that would flow into each discrete space element (cell) due to the accidental release is evaluated and the degree of vulnerability posed to the receptors if present in the cell is measured at the end of each time element. This approach is able to effectively take into account the modifications in the flux of energy and material which occur as a result of the heterogeneous environment prevailing between the accident epicenter and the receptor. Consequently, more realistic accident scenarios are generated than possible with the prevailing techniques. The efficacy of the approach has been illustrated with case studies. PMID:16713088

Sarkar, Chinmoy; Abbasi, S A

2006-09-01

339

Uncapacitated facility location problems: contributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present paper is to review my personal contributions in the field of uncapacitated facility location problems. These contributions took place throughout my academic career, from the time I was a Ph.D. student at Imperial College to the present day. They cover approximately 30 years, from 1973 to 2003; they address: algorithms developed for the p-median problem

Roberto Diéguez Galvão

2004-01-01

340

Probing Bino contribution to muon g - 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study SUSY models in which Bino contributions solve the muon g - 2 anomaly. The contributions are enhanced by large left-right mixing of the smuons. However, it is constrained by the vacuum stability condition of the slepton-Higgs potential. Therefore, there are upper bounds on masses of sleptons and Bino. When the slepton soft masses are universal, the upper bound on the smuon mass becomes 330 (460) GeV in order to solve the g - 2 anomaly at the 1 ? (2 ?) level. It is within the reach of LHC and ILC. If the stau is heavier than the smuon, the bound can be as large as 1.4 (1.9) TeV. Such non-universal slepton mass spectrum generically predicts too large LFV/CPV. We show that the models are expected to be probed by LHC/ILC and LFV/CPV complementarily in future.

Endo, Motoi; Hamaguchi, Koichi; Kitahara, Teppei; Yoshinaga, Takahiro

2013-11-01

341

The genetic contribution to systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

We are currently witnessing an explosion of information about the genetic contribution to complex human diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). These genetic discoveries have profound implications for efforts to more fully characterize etiologic pathways and mechanisms. Further, these etiologic insights should lead to improved diagnostic and prognostic tools and inform the development of more specific therapies for SLE and related conditions. The article summarizes the evidence supporting a role for genetic factors in SLE, highlights the clinical and genetic complexity of the disease, reviews the genes that have established contributions to the risk of SLE and specific disease manifestations, and discusses the recent data emerging from genomewide association studies of SLE. PMID:18937628

Criswell, Lindsey A

2008-01-01

342

Transfer of a conditional ordering response through conditional equivalence classes.  

PubMed

Eight adult humans were taught conditional discriminations in a matching-to-sample format that led to the formation of two four-member equivalence classes. When subjects were taught to select one comparison stimulus from each class in a set order, they then ordered all other members of the equivalence classes without explicit training. When the ordering response itself was brought under conditional control, conditional sequencing also transferred to all other members of the two equivalence classes. When the conditional discriminations in the matching-to-sample task were brought under higher order conditional control, the eight stimulus members were arranged into four conditional equivalence classes. Both ordering and conditional ordering transferred to all members of the four conditional equivalence classes; for some subjects this occurred without a typical test for equivalence. One hundred twenty untrained sequences emerged from eight trained sequences for all subjects. Transfer of functions through equivalence classes may contribute to a behavior-analytic approach to semantics and generative grammar. PMID:16812554

Wulfert, E; Hayes, S C

1988-09-01

343

Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology Smithsonian Contributions to Astrophysics Smithsonian Contributions to Botany Smithsonian Contributions to the Earth Sciences Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiol  

E-print Network

SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO ZOOLOGY • NUMBER 507SERIES PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION Emphasis upon publication as a means of "diffusing knowledge " was expressed by the first Secretary of the Smithsonian. In his formal plan for the Institution, Joseph Henry outlined a program that included the following statement: "It is proposed to publish a series of reports, giving an account of the new discoveries in science, and of the changes made from year to year in all branches of knowledge. " This theme of basic research has been adhered to through the years by thousands of titles issued in series publications under the Smithsonian imprint, commencing with Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge in 1848 and continuing with the following active series:

Fowler (pisces Ostariophysi; Richard P. Vari; Smithsonian Folklife Studies; Robert Mcc Adams; Richard P. Vari

344

The accidental (acoustical) tourist  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acoustical phenomenon observed at an ancient temple in the Great Ball Court at Chichen Itza was described as ''little short of amazing--an ancient whispering gallery'' by Silvanus G. Morley, leader of the Carnegie Institute's archaeological team that excavated and restored these structures in the 1920s. Since then, many others have experienced the extraordinary acoustics at Chichen Itza and other

Wayne Van Kirk

2002-01-01

345

Accidental Higgs boson  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We suggest that the Higgs boson is a light composite state that does not emerge from TeV scale strong dynamics for any generic reason, such as when it is pseudo-Goldstone boson. Instead, a state that is Higgs-like and fairly decoupled from heavier states may simply be a reflection of very particular strong dynamics, with properties quite distinct from more familiar large-Nc type gauge dynamics. We elaborate on this picture in the context of a strongly interacting fourth family and an effective 4-Higgs-doublet model. The origin of a decoupling limit and the corrections to it are discussed.

Holdom, B.

2014-07-01

346

SEQUENCE ANALYSIS Contributions by Ulam  

E-print Network

can make to biology. A quick tour of systematic theory in- evitably would start with Darwin's grand at the University of Colorado and who was, and is, exceedingly optimistic about the contribution systematic theory

347

Conditions for Student Teacher Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rapidly changing nature of Europe and of education and culture that includes conditions for student teacher professional development is generated by the democracy transition from opportunity to choose towards qualities and purposes in the context of cultural and educational globalization. Conditions of contribution applied to enhance student…

Zascerinska, Jelena

2010-01-01

348

The Condition-Dependent Transcriptional Landscape of Burkholderia pseudomallei  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp), the causative agent of the often-deadly infectious disease melioidosis, contains one of the largest prokaryotic genomes sequenced to date, at 7.2 Mb with two large circular chromosomes (1 and 2). To comprehensively delineate the Bp transcriptome, we integrated whole-genome tiling array expression data of Bp exposed to >80 diverse physical, chemical, and biological conditions. Our results provide direct experimental support for the strand-specific expression of 5,467 Sanger protein-coding genes, 1,041 operons, and 766 non-coding RNAs. A large proportion of these transcripts displayed condition-dependent expression, consistent with them playing functional roles. The two Bp chromosomes exhibited dramatically different transcriptional landscapes — Chr 1 genes were highly and constitutively expressed, while Chr 2 genes exhibited mosaic expression where distinct subsets were expressed in a strongly condition-dependent manner. We identified dozens of cis-regulatory motifs associated with specific condition-dependent expression programs, and used the condition compendium to elucidate key biological processes associated with two complex pathogen phenotypes — quorum sensing and in vivo infection. Our results demonstrate the utility of a Bp condition-compendium as a community resource for biological discovery. Moreover, the observation that significant portions of the Bp virulence machinery can be activated by specific in vitro cues provides insights into Bp's capacity as an “accidental pathogen”, where genetic pathways used by the bacterium to survive in environmental niches may have also facilitated its ability to colonize human hosts. PMID:24068961

Nandi, Tannistha; Kreisberg, Jason F.; Chua, Hui Hoon; Sun, Guangwen; Chen, Yahua; Mueller, Claudia; Conejero, Laura; Eshaghi, Majid; Ang, Roy Moh Lik; Liu, Jianhua; Sobral, Bruno W.; Korbsrisate, Sunee; Gan, Yunn Hwen; Titball, Richard W.; Bancroft, Gregory J.; Valade, Eric; Tan, Patrick

2013-01-01

349

5 CFR 1600.20 - Types of employee contributions.  

...Types of employee contributions. (a) Traditional contributions. A participant may make traditional contributions. (b) Roth contributions...contributions in addition to or in lieu of traditional contributions. (c)...

2014-01-01

350

5 CFR 1600.20 - Types of employee contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Types of employee contributions. (a) Traditional contributions. A participant may make traditional contributions. (b) Roth contributions...contributions in addition to or in lieu of traditional contributions. (c)...

2013-01-01

351

Common Conditions in Newborns  

MedlinePLUS

... Baby > Common Conditions in Newborns Ages & Stages Listen Common Conditions in Newborns Article Body Some physical conditions are especially common during the first couple of weeks after birth. ...

352

Atmospheric Methane Contributions From Fractured Bedrock Aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is not normally considered as an important contributor of atmospheric methane because the organic carbon content of aquifers is too low to sustain significant methanogenesis. Also, groundwater-generated methane partitions into the gas phase of the overlying soil, where it either dissolves in the pore water or is oxidized to carbon dioxide by methanotrophs. There are, however, localized conditions (related to human activities and hydrogeologic conditions) under which atmospheric contributions of groundwater-generated methane occur at the ground surface. Storing and transporting liquid petroleum products in the subsurface has resulted in the local introduction of high concentrations of degradable organic carbon and the creation of redox conditions that favor methanogenesis over more oxidative biodegradation pathways. Groundwater overlain by fractured bedrock, rather than by unconsolidated porous media, creates a situation where CH4 migrates through discrete fractures, thus limiting the soil volume and the surface area available for methanotrophic activity. The spatial distribution of methane in thin surface soils overlying bedrock suggests that CH4 migrates via fracture networks and that CH4 oxidation is a factor of about 50 less than that measured in typical unconsolidated soils. Atmospheric flux rates associated with contaminated bedrock aquifers were on the order of several grams of carbon (as CH4) per square meter, which is less than that reported for well documented sources (e.g., rice paddies) and probably represents a minor worldwide contribution. Nonetheless, these aquifers can represent an important localized source, can shift soils from a sink to a source of methane, and can permit petroleum products to load carbon (as biogenic CH4 and CO2) to the atmosphere without ever being combusted.

Marrin, D. L.

2013-05-01

353

Recent Langley helicopter acoustics contributions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The helicopter acoustics program at NASA Langley has included technology for elements of noise control ranging from sources of noise to receivers of noise. The scope of Langley contributions for about the last decade is discussed. Specifically, the resolution of two certification noise quantification issues by subjective acoustics research, the development status of the helicopter system noise prediction program ROTONET are reviewed and the highlights from research on blade rotational, broadband, and blade vortex interaction noise sources are presented. Finally, research contributions on helicopter cabin (or interior) noise control are presented. A bibliography of publications from the Langley helicopter acoustics program for the past 10 years is included.

Morgan, Homer G.; Pao, S. P.; Powell, C. A.

1988-01-01

354

SHORTER CONTRIBUTIONS. ARITHMETIC BY SMELL.  

E-print Network

SHORTER CONTRIBUTIONS. ARITHMETIC BY SMELL. BY FRANCIS GALTON, F.R.S., London. It seems worth while, in order to assure myself that arithmetic may be per- formed by the sole medium of imaginary smells, just of their fresh brains. I did not attempt multiplication by smell. Subtraction succeeded as well as addition. I

Inglis, Matthew

355

Maximizing Pharmacy's Contribution to Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is argued that the role of colleges in the effort to maximize pharmacy's contribution to society requires an emphasis on research in the pharmaceutical sciences, in the clinical use of drugs, and in the socioeconomic aspects of drug therapy. This will produce more qualified pharmacists and greater credibility for the profession. (JMD)

Marston, Robert Q.

1978-01-01

356

ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Scan for Author  

E-print Network

preferpsychotherapytoantidepressant medication.5 Whenreferredforpsycho- therapy,however,onlyasmallpercent- ageofpatientsfollowthroughORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Scan for Author Video InterviewEffect of Telephone-Administered vs Face-to-face Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Adherence to Therapy and Depression Outcomes Among Primary Care Patients

Chisholm, Rex L.

357

7, 77237765, 2007 Contribution of  

E-print Network

Chemistry and Physics Discussions Contribution of carbonaceous aerosol to cloud condensation nuclei of carbonaceous aerosol on cloud condensation nu- clei (CCN) concentrations in a global climate model with size of the added soluble carbonaceous material, versus the "seeding effect", in which CCN concentra-10 tions

Boyer, Edmond

358

ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Medicine Residents' Understanding  

E-print Network

HYSICIANS MUST KEEP CURRENT with clinical information to practice evidence-based medi- cine (EBM). In doing so, most prefer to seek evidence-based summa- ries, which give the clinical bottom line,1 or evidence-basedORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Medicine Residents' Understanding of the Biostatistics and Results

Heubach, Silvia

359

8, 91399165, 2008 Contributions to  

E-print Network

. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures Back Close Full Screen / Esc Back Close Full Screen / Esc Printer-friendly Version Interactive Discussion Abstract Regional ozone contribution15 in summer led to disappearance of the spring ozone maximum phenomenon at SDZ under winds other

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

360

Lean distribution: concepts, contributions, conflicts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that the benefits of lean production have been documented across many industry settings, firms find it difficult to extend lean principles downstream into their distribution systems. In this paper we review and synthesize previous contributions on lean principles towards defining a framework of lean distribution. Furthermore, based on an in-depth case study of a vehicle manufacturer's efforts

Andreas Reichhart; Matthias Holweg

2007-01-01

361

Ayuveda'S contribution to sports medicine.  

PubMed

Medical Science plays an important role in the field of Sports. Maintenance of fitness throughout the events, heightened physical and mental stamina are the basic needs of sportsmen. Here, the author attempts to find out the ways and means of utilizing the poten-tial of Ayurveda in the field of sports and its original contribution to sports medicine. PMID:22557655

Satpute, A D

1989-01-01

362

LA CONTRIBUTION AFRICAINE AU DVELOPPEMENT  

E-print Network

;La contribution africaine 410 au d�veloppement (2009-10) 40 R.D.U.S. de la justice p committed during armed conflicts or by dictatorships and other oppressive political regimes. Traditionally in the administration of justice, these processes would be complementary to the traditional justice system

Spino, Claude

363

AYUVERDA’S CONTRIBUTION TO SPORTS MEDICINE  

E-print Network

throughout the events, heightened physical and mental stamina are the basic needs of sportsmen. Here, the author attempts to find out the ways and means of utilizing the poten-tial of Ayurveda in the field of sports and its original contribution to sports medicine. In the modern world, medical science has to play many roles in various fields, including the sports. Sports medicine which is almost a new branch of medical science deals with the health of sportsman and sportswoman taking into consideration of his/her specific physical and mental condition, the approach to which is some what different from that of a normal human being. The enormous amount of stress, both physical and mental, under which the sportsman has to work is a factor which makes the approach rather unique. Sports medicine has two goals to achieve. Primarly fitness of the sportsman and second goal is treating the sporting injuries of the sportsman. The fitness of the sportsman is not merely his healthy condition but it is a state his healthy condition but it is a state of physical and mental endurance to extreme stress. Even though the injuries of any other kind do not distinctly vary from those of sports, the aetiology and line of treatment may have to be considered with different view. Apart from the injuries, extreme fatigue and allied problems also have

Ashok D. Satpute

1986-01-01

364

Fault Contribution Trees for Product Families Dingding Lu *  

E-print Network

fault tree (SFT) the use of Boolean logic to describe the combinations of nodes that may contribute to a particular root hazard or failure. The FCT is different from a SFT in that: · The nodes of the FCT are features (commonalities or variabilities) rather than events or conditions as in the SFT. · Lower nodes

Lutz, Robyn R.

365

The contribution of bibliotherapy to the counseling of aggressive boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the contribution of bibliotherapy to the counseling of aggressive boys by novice counselors in Israel. Counseling for all children was provided within an integrative model (Hill, 2005); bibliotherapy was added as adjunct to the counseling process only in 1 group. Boys from 24 classrooms (3 per class) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: integrative counseling

Zipora Shechtman

2006-01-01

366

Ecophysiological factors contributing to the distributions of several Quercus species  

E-print Network

relations of three oak species (Quercus gambelii, Q turbinella and Q macrocarpa) and their hybrids (QShort note Ecophysiological factors contributing to the distributions of several Quercus species gambeliix turbinella, Q gambeliix macrocarpa) were observed under common garden conditions in northern Utah

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

367

How could haloalkaliphilic microorganisms contribute to biotechnology?  

PubMed

Haloalkaliphiles are microorganisms requiring Na(+) concentrations of at least 0.5 mol·L(-1) and an alkaline pH of 9 for optimal growth. Their unique features enable them to make significant contributions to a wide array of biotechnological applications. Organic compatible solutes produced by haloalkaliphiles, such as ectoine and glycine betaine, are correlated with osmoadaptation and may serve as stabilizers of intracellular proteins, salt antagonists, osmoprotectants, and dermatological moisturizers. Haloalkaliphiles are an important source of secondary metabolites like rhodopsin, polyhydroxyalkanoates, and exopolysaccharides that play essential roles in biogeocycling organic compounds. These microorganisms also can secrete unique exoenzymes, including proteases, amylases, and cellulases, that are highly active and stable in extreme haloalkaline conditions and can be used for the production of laundry detergent. Furthermore, the unique metabolic pathways of haloalkaliphiles can be applied in the biodegradation and (or) biotransformation of a broad range of toxic industrial pollutants and heavy metals, in wastewater treatment, and in the biofuel industry. PMID:25372346

Zhao, Baisuo; Yan, Yanchun; Chen, Shulin

2014-11-01

368

ONERA's contribution to space environment standardization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ever since its creation in 1967, the Space Environment Department (DESP) at ONERA's objective has been to evaluate the environmental conditions of space missions and prevent the damage they may cause. The DESP studies and models the different components of the space mission environment (mainly charged particles) and evaluates the associated risks with on-board experiments and simulations on the ground. As the reference expert in space environment for both the French Space Agency and European space industries, the DESP has been named as the French representative in the ISO TC20 / SC14 / WG4 working group. In parallel to this contribution, the DESP is also involved in WG1 (Design engineering and production) and WG6 (Materials and Processes),as well as in the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS) committee dedicated to Space Environment standards (ECSS-10.04C). The purpose of this presentation is, first, to detail the ONERA’s contributions to space environment standardizations (its role as well as the standards developed at ONERA). In a second step, I shall also present some on-going works such as data assimilation and specifications model for other planets (Jupiter and Saturn) conducted at ONERA, in order to prepare the next generation standards and anticipate Space community needs.

Maget, Vincent; Ecoffet, Robert; Roussel, Jean-Francois

369

Genetic contributions to pain: a review of findings in humans  

PubMed Central

Pain represents the major motivating factor for which individuals seek healthcare, and pain responses are characterized by substantial inter-individual differences. Increasing evidence suggests that genetic factors contribute significantly to individual differences in responses to both clinical and experimental pain. The purpose of this review article was to summarize the current literature regarding genetic contributions to pain, highlighting findings relevant to oral pain where available. A brief discussion of methodologic considerations is followed by a review of findings regarding genetic influences on clinical pain. Next, the literature examining genetic contributions to experimental pain responses is presented, emphasizing genetic associations that have been replicated in multiple cohorts. It is hoped that an enhanced understanding of genetic contributions to pain responses will ultimately improve diagnosis and treatment of clinical pain conditions. PMID:19193196

Fillingim, RB; Wallace, MR; Herbstman, DM; Ribeiro-Dasilva, M; Staud, R

2009-01-01

370

Diseases and Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

... Conditions Public Health Public Health Public Health Home Military Exposures Military Exposures Home 4 Ways to Find Exposures Related ... Studies Publications & Reports Diseases & Conditions Diseases & Conditions Index Military Exposure Related Health Concerns Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses ...

371

Oil-spill risk analysis: Cook inlet outer continental shelf lease sale 149. Volume 2: Conditional risk contour maps of seasonal conditional probabilities. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Government has proposed to offer Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lands in Cook Inlet for oil and gas leasing. Because oil spills may occur from activities associated with offshore oil production, the Minerals Management Service conducts a formal risk assessment. In evaluating the significance of accidental oil spills, it is important to remember that the occurrence of such spills is fundamentally probabilistic. The effects of oil spills that could occur during oil and gas production must be considered. This report summarizes results of an oil-spill risk analysis conducted for the proposed Cook Inlet OCS Lease Sale 149. The objective of this analysis was to estimate relative risks associated with oil and gas production for the proposed lease sale. To aid the analysis, conditional risk contour maps of seasonal conditional probabilities of spill contact were generated for each environmental resource or land segment in the study area. This aspect is discussed in this volume of the two volume report.

Johnson, W.R.; Marshall, C.F.; Anderson, C.M.; Lear, E.M.

1994-08-01

372

Effects of diurnal variations in temperature on non-accidental mortality among the elderly population of Montreal, Québec, 1984-2007.  

PubMed

The association between ambient temperature and mortality has been studied extensively. Recent data suggest an independent role of diurnal temperature variations in increasing daily mortality. Elderly adults-a growing subgroup of the population in developed countries-may be more susceptible to the effects of temperature variations. The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in diurnal temperature were associated with daily non-accidental mortality among residents of Montreal, Québec, who were 65 years of age and over during the period between 1984 and 2007. We used distributed lag non-linear Poisson models constrained over a 30-day lag period, adjusted for temporal trends, mean daily temperature, and mean daily concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and ozone to estimate changes in daily mortality with diurnal temperature. We found, over the 30 day lag period, a cumulative increase in daily mortality of 5.12% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02-10.49%] for a change from 5.9 °C to 11.1 °C (25th to 75th percentiles) in diurnal temperature, and a 11.27% (95%CI: 2.08-21.29%) increase in mortality associated with an increase of diurnal temperature from 11.1 to 17.5 °C (75th to 99th percentiles). The results were relatively robust to adjustment for daily mean temperature. We found that, in Montreal, diurnal variations in temperature are associated with a small increase in non-accidental mortality among the elderly population. More studies are needed in different geographical locations to confirm this effect. PMID:23609901

Vutcovici, Maria; Goldberg, Mark S; Valois, Marie-France

2014-07-01

373

5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: patient experiences, human factors, sedation, consent, and medicolegal issues.  

PubMed

The 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland into accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA) yielded data related to psychological aspects from the patient, and the anaesthetist, perspectives; patients' experiences ranged from isolated auditory or tactile sensations to complete awareness. A striking finding was that 75% of experiences were for <5 min, yet 51% of patients [95% confidence interval (CI) 43-60%] experienced distress and 41% (95% CI 33-50%) suffered longer term adverse effect. Distress and longer term harm occurred across the full range of experiences but were particularly likely when the patient experienced paralysis (with or without pain). The patient's interpretation of what is happening at the time of the awareness seemed central to later impact; explanation and reassurance during suspected AAGA or at the time of report seemed beneficial. Quality of care before the event was judged good in 26%, poor in 39%, and mixed in 31%. Three-quarters of cases of AAGA (75%) were judged preventable. In 12%, AAGA care was judged good and the episode not preventable. The contributory and human factors in the genesis of the majority of cases of AAGA included medication, patient, and education/training. The findings have implications for national guidance, institutional organization, and individual practice. The incidence of 'accidental awareness' during sedation (~1:15,000) was similar to that during general anaesthesia (~1:19,000). The project raises significant issues about information giving and consent for both sedation and anaesthesia. We propose a novel approach to describing sedation from the patient's perspective which could be used in communication and consent. Eight (6%) of the patients had resorted to legal action (12, 11%, to formal complaint) at the time of reporting. NAP5 methodology provides a standardized template that might usefully inform the investigation of claims or serious incidents related to AAGA. PMID:25204696

Cook, T M; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H M G; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Pandit, J J

2014-10-01

374

Effects of diurnal variations in temperature on non-accidental mortality among the elderly population of Montreal, Québec, 1984-2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The association between ambient temperature and mortality has been studied extensively. Recent data suggest an independent role of diurnal temperature variations in increasing daily mortality. Elderly adults—a growing subgroup of the population in developed countries—may be more susceptible to the effects of temperature variations. The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in diurnal temperature were associated with daily non-accidental mortality among residents of Montreal, Québec, who were 65 years of age and over during the period between 1984 and 2007. We used distributed lag non-linear Poisson models constrained over a 30-day lag period, adjusted for temporal trends, mean daily temperature, and mean daily concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and ozone to estimate changes in daily mortality with diurnal temperature. We found, over the 30 day lag period, a cumulative increase in daily mortality of 5.12 % [95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.02-10.49 %] for a change from 5.9 °C to 11.1 °C (25th to 75th percentiles) in diurnal temperature, and a 11.27 % (95%CI: 2.08-21.29 %) increase in mortality associated with an increase of diurnal temperature from 11.1 to 17.5 °C (75th to 99th percentiles). The results were relatively robust to adjustment for daily mean temperature. We found that, in Montreal, diurnal variations in temperature are associated with a small increase in non-accidental mortality among the elderly population. More studies are needed in different geographical locations to confirm this effect.

Vutcovici, Maria; Goldberg, Mark S.; Valois, Marie-France

2014-07-01

375

Effects of diurnal variations in temperature on non-accidental mortality among the elderly population of Montreal, Québec, 1984-2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The association between ambient temperature and mortality has been studied extensively. Recent data suggest an independent role of diurnal temperature variations in increasing daily mortality. Elderly adults—a growing subgroup of the population in developed countries—may be more susceptible to the effects of temperature variations. The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in diurnal temperature were associated with daily non-accidental mortality among residents of Montreal, Québec, who were 65 years of age and over during the period between 1984 and 2007. We used distributed lag non-linear Poisson models constrained over a 30-day lag period, adjusted for temporal trends, mean daily temperature, and mean daily concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and ozone to estimate changes in daily mortality with diurnal temperature. We found, over the 30 day lag period, a cumulative increase in daily mortality of 5.12 % [95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.02-10.49 %] for a change from 5.9 °C to 11.1 °C (25th to 75th percentiles) in diurnal temperature, and a 11.27 % (95%CI: 2.08-21.29 %) increase in mortality associated with an increase of diurnal temperature from 11.1 to 17.5 °C (75th to 99th percentiles). The results were relatively robust to adjustment for daily mean temperature. We found that, in Montreal, diurnal variations in temperature are associated with a small increase in non-accidental mortality among the elderly population. More studies are needed in different geographical locations to confirm this effect.

Vutcovici, Maria; Goldberg, Mark S.; Valois, Marie-France

2013-04-01

376

General Banking Conditions 2009 General Banking Conditions  

E-print Network

or to the integrity of the financial system. 3 Activities and objectives The Customer provides information to the Bank activities. The Bank may give goods, docu- ments of title, securities or financial instruments that belongGeneral Banking Conditions 2009 r #12;#12;1 General Banking Conditions (Version 2009

Franssen, Michael

377

The Viennese contribution to venereology.  

PubMed Central

A history of venereology in Vienna from the first manifestations of the French disease in 1498 until the first half of the twentieth century is described. Notable events were the founding of the old Vienna School by van Swieten in the years after 1745, followed by the revival one hundred years later by von Hebra of the scientific basis for dermatovenereology. An account is given of teachers and discoverers of venereological importance after von Hebra and Sigmund to Arzt. The importance of Landsteiner's and Wagner von Jauregg's contributions finalise the historical account. PMID:336146

Wauch, M

1977-01-01

378

"Accidental" Urban Wetland Networks along the Salt River in Phoenix, AZ Monica M. Palta, Nancy B. Grimm  

E-print Network

and bacteria in urban streams are at the forefront of research concerns within the ecological and medical communities · Stream pollutants are expected to become increasingly problematic under projected changes in drought frequency and storm severity in Phoenix: - Drier conditions increase erosion by water during storm

Hall, Sharon J.

379

Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of risk screening and early intervention comparing child- and family-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy for PTSD in children following accidental injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Accidental injury represents the most common type of traumatic event to which a child or adolescent may be exposed, with a significant number of these children going on to experience posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, very little research has examined potential interventions for the treatment of PTSD in these children. The present trial aims to evaluate and compare child-

Justin Kenardy; Vanessa Cobham; Reginald DV Nixon; Brett McDermott; Sonja March

2010-01-01

380

Elections with Contribution-Maximizing Candidates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the analysis of campaign contributions, in accordance with the Downsian model, has supposed that candidates seek contributions for electoral purposes. This paper takes the opposite approach, by assuming that each candidate aims to maximize the contributions he collects. We let a citizen contribute to a candidate with the aim of increasing that candidate's chances of winning. These assumptions

Mark Gradstein

2001-01-01

381

Interest groups, campaign contributions, and probabilistic voting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay develops a simple model to analyze the impact of campaign contributions on electoral-policy decisions of candidates for office. Interest groups here are firms that select contributions under the assumption that candidates' policies and opposing groups' donations remain unaltered. Candidates, however, recognize that their policy choices affect contributions. Campaign contributions are used by candidates to affect policy-oriented voters' perceptions

David Austen-Smith

1987-01-01

382

Sound generation by airborne air conditioning systems: theory and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for (a) deriving the contribution of the air conditioning system to the overall acoustic field in aircraft cabins, (b) defining the noisiest sources of the system; and (c) designing the air conditioning system muffler characteristics. The method is based on analysis of the sound flow energy in air conditioning system channels including both the generation and

Vadym I. Tokarev; Oleksander I. Zaporozhets; Valery M. Vorotyntsev

1998-01-01

383

REACH. Air Conditioning Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

Garrison, Joe; And Others

384

NPOESS Contributions to Climate Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Environmental Data Products (EDRs) generated from the science instrument suite on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) contribute to 16 of the 26 essential climate variables (ECVs) that are observable from space. NPOESS has the capacity to accommodate additional sensors to increase support for observing climate variables. This poster provides an overview of the ECVs that NPOESS will support and potential sensors that NPOESS could accommodate to support additional ECVs. Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST) is the system prime contractor for the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). The United States is developing the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System through the Integrated Program Office (IPO), comprised of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Department of Defense (DoD), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

Day, D. W.; Mussetto, M.

2009-12-01

385

Carl Neumann's Contributions to Electrodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I examine the publications of Carl Neumann (1832 1925) on electrodynamics, which constitute a major part of his work and which illuminate his approach to mathematical physics. I show how Neumann contributed to physics at an important stage in its development and how his work led to a polemic with Hermann Helmholtz (1821 1894). Neumann advanced and extended the ideas of the Königsberg school of mathematical physics. His investigations were aimed at founding a mathematically exact physical theory of electrodynamics, following the approach of Carl G.J. Jacobi (1804 1851) on the foundation of a physical theory as outlined in Jacobi’s lectures on analytical mechanics. Neumann’s work also shows how he clung to principles that impeded him in appreciating and developing new ideas such as those on field theory that were proposed by Michael Faraday (1791 1867) and James Clerk Maxwell (1831 1879).

Schlote, Karl-Heinz

2004-09-01

386

Possible NASA Contributions to HEAT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A four-year experiment (HEAT) has been proposed (one summer in the field, 2005) to determine the sources and causes for the enhanced cloud-to-ground lightning over Houston, Texas, in association with simultaneous experiments by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC). Houston is the third most populous city in the United States and the region contains 50% of the petroleum refining capacity of the United States. Recent studies covering the period 1989-2000 document a 50% increase of cloud-to-ground lightning in the Houston area as compared to background values, which is second in flash density only to the Tampa Bay, Florida area. It is suggested that the elevated flash densities could result from several factors, including, 1) the convergence due to the urban heat island effect and complex sea breeze, and 2) the increasing levels of air pollution from anthropogenic sources producing numerous small droplets and thereby suppressing mean droplet size. The latter effect would enable more cloud water to reach the mixed phase region where it is involved in the formation of precipitation and the separation of electric charge, leading to an enhancement of lightning. The primary goals of HEAT are to examine the effects of (1) pollution, (2) the urban heat island, and (3) the complex coastline, on storms and lightning characteristics in the Houston area. The project is a multi- agency effort and will employ numerous observing capabilities and expertise. Dr. Shepherd has been asked to serve as a possible co- investigator to contribute expertise in areas related to urban impacts on precipitation variability. Dr. Shepherd is also a key NASA representative in the interagency effort. This presentation will provide an overview of recent NASA research focused on urban rainfall in Houston and offer potential NASA capabilities that could contribute to HEAT.

Shepherd, J. M.

2004-01-01

387

What's conditioned in conditioned place preference?  

PubMed

Conditioned place preference (CPP) is a learned behavior shown in many vertebrates, including humans. CPP occurs when a subject comes to prefer one place more than others because the preferred location has been paired previously with rewarding events. The CPP paradigm is widely used to explore the reinforcing effects of natural and pharmacological stimuli, including drugs of addiction. There is a general assumption that an acquired place preference is based on classical conditioning derived 'incentive motivation'. However, this may be an oversimplification of the multiple learning processes involved. We argue that although CPP may appear as an incentive-driven behavior related to secondary reinforcers, it may also be a result of operant conditioning of behavior prevailing at the conditioning site, as well as a result of conditioned treatment effects. Here, we outline alternative explanations for an observed CPP, which may fundamentally affect the interpretation of results with this paradigm in its use as a screening tool for rewarding properties of treatments. PMID:23384389

Huston, Joseph P; Silva, Maria A de Souza; Topic, Bianca; Müller, Christian P

2013-03-01

388

75 FR 41017 - Political Contributions by Certain Investment Advisers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...contribution \\235\\ and, within 60 days after learning of the triggering contribution, the...of the contribution; and (C) after learning of the contribution, (1) has taken...the contribution; and (iii) After learning of the contribution: (A) Has...

2010-07-14

389

5 CFR 1600.22 - Maximum employee contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...participant may make traditional contributions and Roth contributions during the same year...tax-deferred employee contributions and Roth contributions cannot exceed the applicable...tax-deferred employee contributions and Roth contributions made to both accounts...

2013-01-01

390

5 CFR 1600.22 - Maximum employee contributions.  

...participant may make traditional contributions and Roth contributions during the same year...tax-deferred employee contributions and Roth contributions cannot exceed the applicable...tax-deferred employee contributions and Roth contributions made to both accounts...

2014-01-01

391

Contributions of cocontraction and eccentric activity to stiffness regulation.  

PubMed

Individuals commonly adjust joint stiffness in response to changes in environmental and task demands. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of muscular cocontraction and eccentric activity to this adjustment. In all, 30 healthy volunteers participated in the present study. The authors indirectly manipulated elbow stiffness by modifying (a) the frequency of forearm movements (frequency conditions) and (b) the kinetic properties of the forearm through the addition of external mass (mass conditions). Multilevel regression models identified muscular cocontraction and eccentric activity as predictors of joint stiffness in the frequency conditions but not in the mass conditions. Results indicated that cocontraction is not the sole mechanism for stiffness regulation. Rather, the mechanisms that different participants used varied as a function of the demands of the task. PMID:19366654

Silva, Paula L; Fonseca, Sergio T; Ocarino, Juliana M; Gonçalves, Gabriela P; Mancini, Marisa C

2009-05-01

392

Modality, rationalism, and conditionals  

E-print Network

This thesis consists of three interconnected papers on apriority, modality, and conditionals. In "Playground Conditionals," I look at three philosophical debates, each of which turns on the epistemic status of a certain ...

Decker, Jason (Jason Andrew)

2007-01-01

393

Accidental release of chlorine in Chicago: Coupling of an exposure model with a Computational Fluid Dynamics model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adverse health effects of the release of hazardous substances into the atmosphere continue being a matter of concern, especially in densely populated urban regions. Emergency responders need to have estimates of these adverse health effects in the local population to aid planning, emergency response, and recovery efforts. For this purpose, models that predict the transport and dispersion of hazardous materials are as necessary as those that estimate the adverse health effects in the population. In this paper, we present the results obtained by coupling a Computational Fluid Dynamics model, FLACS (FLame ACceleration Simulator), with an exposure model, DDC (Damage Differential Coupling). This coupled model system is applied to a scenario of hypothetical release of chlorine with obstacles, such as buildings, and the results show how it is capable of predicting the atmospheric dispersion of hazardous chemicals, and the adverse health effects in the exposed population, to support decision makers both in charge of emergency planning and in charge of real-time response. The results obtained show how knowing the influence of obstacles in the trajectory of the toxic cloud and in the diffusion of the pollutants transported, and obtaining dynamic information of the potentially affected population and of associated symptoms, contribute to improve the planning of the protection and response measures.

Sanchez, E. Y.; Colman Lerner, J. E.; Porta, A.; Jacovkis, P. M.

2013-01-01

394

Genetic contributions to agricultural sustainability.  

PubMed

The current tools of enquiry into the structure and operation of the plant genome have provided us with an understanding of plant development and function far beyond the state of knowledge that we had previously. We know about key genetic controls repressing or stimulating the cascades of gene expression that move a plant through stages in its life cycle, facilitating the morphogenesis of vegetative and reproductive tissues and organs. The new technologies are enabling the identification of key gene activity responses to the range of biotic and abiotic challenges experienced by plants. In the past, plant breeders produced new varieties with changes in the phases of development, modifications of plant architecture and improved levels of tolerance and resistance to environmental and biotic challenges by identifying the required phenotypes in a few plants among the large numbers of plants in a breeding population. Now our increased knowledge and powerful gene sequence-based diagnostics provide plant breeders with more precise selection objectives and assays to operate in rationally planned crop improvement programmes. We can expect yield potential to increase and harvested product quality portfolios to better fit an increasing diversity of market requirements. The new genetics will connect agriculture to sectors beyond the food, feed and fibre industries; agri-business will contribute to public health and will provide high-value products to the pharmaceutical industry as well as to industries previously based on petroleum feedstocks and chemical modification processes. PMID:17656342

Dennis, Elizabeth S; Ellis, Jeffrey; Green, Allan; Llewellyn, Danny; Morell, Matthew; Tabe, Linda; Peacock, W J

2008-02-12

395

11 CFR 9034.2 - Matchable contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or reception. (7) Contributions received from a joint fundraising activity conducted in accordance with 11 CFR 9034.8 are...such contributions are accompanied by a copy of the joint fundraising agreement when they are submitted for matching....

2011-01-01

396

Contributions to Intercollegiate Athletic Programs: Further Evidence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Football success is found to significantly increase athletic contributions. Athletic contributions were also found to depend significantly upon football attendance, affiliation with the Atlantic Coast Conference, bowl participation, basketball winning percentage, state population, and professional competition. (RM)

Coughlin, Cletus C.; Erekson, O. Homer

1985-01-01

397

31 CFR 29.352 - Refunded contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and fund refunds of employee contributions made by police officers and firefighters through pay period 13. If...48 percent of the retirement contributions made to police officers or firefighters in calendar year 1997....

2013-07-01

398

31 CFR 29.352 - Refunded contributions.  

...and fund refunds of employee contributions made by police officers and firefighters through pay period 13. If...48 percent of the retirement contributions made to police officers or firefighters in calendar year 1997....

2014-07-01

399

Original Contribution Effect Modification by Community Characteristics on the Short-term Effects of  

E-print Network

Original Contribution Effect Modification by Community Characteristics on the Short-term Effects, number of ozone monitors, weather, and use of air conditioning. Their study included data on 98 US urban

Dominici, Francesca

400

Landscape Thresholds and the Condition of Northeastern Estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

Anthropogenic impacts to northeastern estuaries have been well documented and many researchers have quantified the associations between broad scale human land uses in contributing landscapes and impacted estuarine condition. However, associations alone are not adequate for ident...

401

Impact of pavement conditions on crash severity.  

PubMed

Pavement condition has been known as a key factor related to ride quality, but it is less clear how exactly pavement conditions are related to traffic crashes. The researchers used Geographic Information System (GIS) to link Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Crash Record Information System (CRIS) data and Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) data, which provided an opportunity to examine the impact of pavement conditions on traffic crashes in depth. The study analyzed the correlation between several key pavement condition ratings or scores and crash severity based on a large number of crashes in Texas between 2008 and 2009. The results in general suggested that poor pavement condition scores and ratings were associated with proportionally more severe crashes, but very poor pavement conditions were actually associated with less severe crashes. Very good pavement conditions might induce speeding behaviors and therefore could have caused more severe crashes, especially on non-freeway arterials and during favorable driving conditions. In addition, the results showed that the effects of pavement conditions on crash severity were more evident for passenger vehicles than for commercial vehicles. These results provide insights on how pavement conditions may have contributed to crashes, which may be valuable for safety improvement during pavement design and maintenance. Readers should notice that, although the study found statistically significant effects of pavement variables on crash severity, the effects were rather minor in reality as suggested by frequency analyses. PMID:23892046

Li, Yingfeng; Liu, Chunxiao; Ding, Liang

2013-10-01

402

Boundary Conditions Copenhagen University  

E-print Network

Boundary Conditions Gerd Grubb Copenhagen University Lecture in memory of Lars H¨ormander 26th Nordic and 1st Nordic-European Congress of Mathematicians June 2013 Gerd Grubb Copenhagen University, and the people involved. Gerd Grubb Copenhagen University Boundary Conditions #12;On boundary conditions

Grubb, Gerd

403

Noncomputable Conditional Distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the computability of conditional proba- bility, a fundamental notion in probability theory and Bayesian statistics. In the elementary discrete setting, a ratio of proba- bilities defines conditional probability. In more general settings, conditional probability is defined axiomatically, and the search for more constructive definitions is the subject of a rich literature in probability theory and statistics. However, we

Nathanael L. Ackerman; Cameron E. Freer; Daniel M. Roy

2011-01-01

404

Other Concerns & Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

... 20.6% vs. 2.0%). 1 How does ADHD interfere with peer relationships? Exactly how ADHD contributes ... greater impairments in their relationships with peers. Having ADHD does not mean a person has to have ...

405

R&D: A Small Contribution to Productivity Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I evaluate the contribution of R&D investments to productivity growth. The basis for the analysis are the free entry condition and the fact that most R&D innovations are embodied. Free entry yields a relationship between the resources devoted to R&D and the growth rate of technology. Since innovators are small, this relationship is not directly affected by

Diego Comin

2004-01-01

406

Contributions of imagery ability to stress and relaxation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the contribution of imagery ability to psychological and physiological responses to stress and relaxation.\\u000a Individuals (N = 176) participated in two study sessions. In the first session, participants completed the Creative Imagination\\u000a Scale and were block-randomized to a stress or relaxation condition based on imaging scores. During the second session, stress\\u000a and mood were assessed before and

Erica L. Johnsen; Susan K. Lutgendorf

2001-01-01

407

Molecular faunistics of accidental infections of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 (Monogenea) parasitic on salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout Salmo trutta L. in NW Russia.  

PubMed

Salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout S. trutta L. juveniles were examined for the presence of accidental monogenean ectoparasitic species of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 in the Baltic and White Sea basins of Russian Karelia in order to estimate the frequency of host-switching attempts on an ecological timescale. To collect phylogeographical information and for exact species identification, the parasites were characterised by nuclear internal transcribed spacer sequences of rDNA (ITS) and, for some species, also by their mitochondrial DNA (CO1 gene) sequences. Four accidental Gyrodactylus species were observed on salmon and brown trout. A few specimens of G. aphyae Malmberg, 1957, the normal host of which is the Eurasian minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (L.), were observed on lake salmon from the Rivers Kurzhma (Lake Kuito, White Sea basin) and Vidlitsa (Lake Ladoga, Baltic basin). G. lucii Kulakovskaya, 1952, a parasite of the northern pike Esox lucius L., was observed on salmon in the Kurzhma. In the River Vidlitsa, two specimens of G. papernai Ergens & Bychowsky, 1967, normally on stone loach Barbatula barbatula (L.), were found on salmon. On anadromous White Sea salmon in the River Pulonga in Chupa Bay, a few salmon parr carried small colonies of G. arcuatus Bychowsky, 1933, which were shown to have originated from the local three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L. consumed as prey. No specimens of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 were observed, although the Pulonga is the nearest salmon spawning river to the River Keret', which is heavily infected with introduced G. salaris. In the River Satulinoja, Lake Ladoga, three specimens of G. lotae Gusev, 1953, from burbot Lota lota (L.), were collected from a single brown trout S. trutta. All nonspecific gyrodactylid infections on salmonids were judged to be temporary, because only a few specimens were observed on each of the small number of infected fishes. The prevalence of endemic G. salaris was also low, only 1% (Nfish = 296) in Lake Onega and 0.7% (Nfish = 255) in Lake Ladoga, while brown trout specific Gyrodactylus species were not observed on any of the 429 trout examined from the Ladoga basin. The host-specific and unspecific burden of Gyrodactylus spp. on these 'glacial relict' populations of salmon and brown trout was very low, suggesting a generalised resistance against the co-evolved freshwater parasite community, or some kind of 'vaccination' effect. These hypotheses deserve further testing. PMID:18038199

Zietara, Marek S; Kuusela, Jussi; Veselov, Alexei; Lumme, Jaakko

2008-02-01

408

Indian contribution to behavior therapy  

PubMed Central

Publication of papers related to psycho-social interventions in general and Behavior Therapy, in particular, in Indian Journal of Psychiatry has been limited. Though the first paper related to Behavior Therapy was published in 1952, a manual search of all available issues of the journal from 1949 showed that only 42 papers related to Behavior Therapy have been published till 2009. Among them 10 are case reports. Methodological limitations abound even in the papers on larger groups of patients. Studies using operant conditioning have been very few. Aversion therapy and progressive muscle relaxation have been very frequently used. The published articles are reviewed under the various diagnostic categories. Publications in the recent years have been mostly on Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Even after 57 years of co-existence, the relationship between Behavior Therapy and Indian Psychiatry remains a tenuous one. PMID:21836708

Kuruvilla, K.

2010-01-01

409

IDS contribution to ITRF2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time, the International DORIS Service (IDS) has produced a technique level combination based on the contributions of seven analysis centers (ACs), including the European Space Operations Center (ESOC), Geodetic Observatory Pecny (GOP), Geoscience Australia (GAU), the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the Institut Géographique National (IGN), the Institute of Astronomy, Russian Academy of Sciences (INASAN, named as INA), and CNES/CLS (named as LCA). The ACs used five different software packages to process the DORIS data from 1992 to 2008, including NAPEOS (ESA), Bernese (GOP), GEODYN (GAU, GSC), GIPSY/OASIS (INA), and GINS (LCA). The data from seven DORIS satellites, TOPEX/Poseidon, SPOT-2, SPOT-3, SPOT-4, SPOT-5, Envisat and Jason-1 were processed and all the analysis centers produced weekly SINEX files in either variance-covariance or normal equation format. The processing by the analysis centers used the latest GRACE-derived gravity models, forward modelling of atmospheric gravity, updates to the radiation pressure modelling to improve the DORIS geocenter solutions, denser parameterization of empirically determined drag coefficients to improve station and EOP solutions, especially near the solar maximum in 2001-2002, updated troposphere mapping functions, and an ITRF2005-derived station set for orbit determination, DPOD2005. The CATREF software was used to process the weekly AC solutions, and produce three iterations of an IDS global weekly combination. Between the development of the initial solution IDS-1, and the final solution, IDS-3, the ACs improved their analysis strategies and submitted updated solutions to eliminate troposphere-derived biases in the solution scale, to reduce drag-related degradations in station positioning, and to refine the estimation strategy to improve the combination geocenter solution. An analysis of the frequency content of the individual AC geocenter and scale solutions was used as the basis to define the scale and geocenter of the IDS-3 combination. The final IDS-3 combination has an internal position consistency (WRMS) that is 15 to 20 mm before 2002 and 8 to 10 mm after 2002, when 4 or 5 satellites contribute to the weekly solutions. The final IDS-3 combination includes solutions for 130 DORIS stations on 67 different sites of which 35 have occupations over 16 years (1993.0-2009.0). The EOPs from the IDS-3 combination were compared with the IERS 05 C04 time series and the RMS agreement was 0.24 mas and 0.35 mas for the X and Y components of polar motion. The comparison to ITRF2005 in station position shows an agreement of 6 to 8 mm RMS in horizontal and 10.3 mm in height. The RMS comparison to ITRF2005 in station velocity is at 1.8 mm/year on the East component, to 1.2 mm/year in North component and 1.6 mm/year in height.

Valette, Jean-Jacques; Lemoine, Frank G.; Ferrage, Pascale; Yaya, Philippe; Altamimi, Zuheir; Willis, Pascal; Soudarin, Laurent

2010-12-01

410

Aerosol contributions to speleothem geochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term "aerosols" encompasses the suspension of both fine solid or liquid particles within a gaseous medium. Aerosols become suspended into the earth's atmosphere through a multitude of processes both natural and anthropogenic. Atmospheric aerosols enter cave networks as a result of cave ventilation processes and are either deposited, or cycled and removed from the system. Speleothem offer a multiproxy palaeoclimate resource; many of the available proxies have been extensively investigated and utilised for palaeoclimatic reconstructions in a range of studies. The potential contribution of aerosols to speleothem chemistry and their applicability for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions remains untested and the extent of their value as an addition to palaeoclimate sciences unknown. Aerosols through incorporation into speleothem may provide a novel palaeoenvironmental resource. The aerosol component of interest is that which is transported into the cave atmosphere and deposited and are available for incorporation into precipitated calcite. Aerosol deposition and therefore distribution in the cave has shown to be a complex function of ventilation and changing environmental factors. Through detailed monitoring aerosols have been detected, identified, characterised and quantified to determine their prominence in the cave system. Investigations are on a case study basis, searching for suitable aerosol proxies of environmentally significant emission processes. Case studies include: Palaeofires at Yarrangobilly Caves, Australia; anthropogenic emissions at St Michaels Cave, Gibraltar and Cheddar gorge, UK; and drip water aerosol production and geochemical addition in Obir cave, Austria. Monitoring has allowed for the temporal and spatial determination of aerosols in karst networks. Speleothem samples will be analysed in combination with in-situ monitoring to determine incorporation factors and record preservation. By understanding how aerosols are transmitted within the cave and ultimately incorporated into speleothems, a record of aerosol emission event frequency, intensity and timing can be produced and directly correlated with changing palaeoclimate. Speleothem through aerosol incorporation have the potential to preserve a record of a multitude of processes not yet constrained by previously investigated proxies, providing an additional dimension to speleological palaeoenvironmental investigations.

Dredge, J. A.; Fairchild, I. J.; Harrison, R.; Woodhead, J. D.; Hellstrom, J.

2011-12-01

411

Methane emissions and contaminant degradation rates at sites affected by accidental releases of denatured fuel-grade ethanol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent increase in the use of denatured fuel-grade ethanol (DFE) has enhanced the probability of its environmental release. Due to the highly labile nature of ethanol (EtOH), it is expected to rapidly biodegrade, increasing the potential for inducing methanogenic conditions in the subsurface. As environmental releases of DFE can be expected to occur at the ground surface or in the vadose zone (e.g., due to surficial spills from rail lines or tanker trucks and leaking underground storage tanks), the potential for methane (CH4) generation at DFE spill sites requires evaluation. An assessment is needed because high CH4 generation rates may lead to CH4 fluxes towards the ground surface, which is of particular concern if spills are located close to human habitation—related to concerns of soil vapor intrusion (SVI). This work demonstrates, for the first time, the measurement of surficial gas release rates at large volume DFE spill sites. Two study sites, near Cambria and Balaton, in MN are investigated. Total carbon emissions at the ground surface (summing carbon dioxide (CO2) and CH4 emissions) are used to quantify depth-integrated DFE degradation rates. Results from both sites demonstrate that substantial CO2 and CH4 emissions do occur—even years after a spill. However, large total carbon fluxes, and CH4 emissions in particular, were restricted to a localized area within the DFE source zone. At the Balaton site, estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 5 and 174 ?mol m- 2 s- 1, and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 9 ?mol m- 2 s- 1. At the Cambria site estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 8 and 500 ?mol m- 2 s- 1, and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 393 ?mol m- 2 s- 1. Substantial CH4 accumulation, coupled with oxygen (O2) depletion, measured in samples collected from custom-designed gas collection chambers at the Cambria site suggests that the development of explosion or asphyxiation hazards is possible in confined spaces above a rapidly degrading DFE release. However, the results also indicate that the development of such hazards is locally constrained, will require a high degree of soil moisture, close proximity to the source zone, a good connection between the soil and the confined space, and poorly aerated conditions.

Sihota, Natasha J.; Mayer, K. Ulrich; Toso, Mark A.; Atwater, Joel F.

2013-08-01

412

Methane emissions and contaminant degradation rates at sites affected by accidental releases of denatured fuel-grade ethanol.  

PubMed

The recent increase in the use of denatured fuel-grade ethanol (DFE) has enhanced the probability of its environmental release. Due to the highly labile nature of ethanol (EtOH), it is expected to rapidly biodegrade, increasing the potential for inducing methanogenic conditions in the subsurface. As environmental releases of DFE can be expected to occur at the ground surface or in the vadose zone (e.g., due to surficial spills from rail lines or tanker trucks and leaking underground storage tanks), the potential for methane (CH4) generation at DFE spill sites requires evaluation. An assessment is needed because high CH4 generation rates may lead to CH4 fluxes towards the ground surface, which is of particular concern if spills are located close to human habitation-related to concerns of soil vapor intrusion (SVI). This work demonstrates, for the first time, the measurement of surficial gas release rates at large volume DFE spill sites. Two study sites, near Cambria and Balaton, in MN are investigated. Total carbon emissions at the ground surface (summing carbon dioxide (CO2) and CH4 emissions) are used to quantify depth-integrated DFE degradation rates. Results from both sites demonstrate that substantial CO2 and CH4 emissions do occur-even years after a spill. However, large total carbon fluxes, and CH4 emissions in particular, were restricted to a localized area within the DFE source zone. At the Balaton site, estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 5 and 174 ?mol m(-2) s(-1), and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 9 ?mol m(-2) s(-1). At the Cambria site estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 8 and 500 ?mol m(-2) s(-1), and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 393 ?mol m(-2) s(-1). Substantial CH4 accumulation, coupled with oxygen (O2) depletion, measured in samples collected from custom-designed gas collection chambers at the Cambria site suggests that the development of explosion or asphyxiation hazards is possible in confined spaces above a rapidly degrading DFE release. However, the results also indicate that the development of such hazards is locally constrained, will require a high degree of soil moisture, close proximity to the source zone, a good connection between the soil and the confined space, and poorly aerated conditions. PMID:23685780

Sihota, Natasha J; Mayer, K Ulrich; Toso, Mark A; Atwater, Joel F

2013-08-01

413

Conditioning and the kindling model of epilepsy.  

PubMed

Since the development of the kindling preparation there has been much speculation on the contribution of conditioning mechanisms in accounting for the phenomenon. Two recent reports have described attempts to establish conditioned responses utilizing the kindling model. We suggest that the conclusion of uncondition-ability asserted by Wyler & Heavner (1979) is not warranted because of serious misunderstandings relating to the concepts and techniques that are central to both neurophysiological and conditioning theory. We further suggest that the results of their retardation effect can be better interpreted as positive evidence for the successful establishment of conditioning. With respect to the findings by Janowsky et al. (1980), we regard their sample size (2 animals undergoing simultaneous kindling and conditioning and one animal beginning conditioning following kindling) as inadequate for a conclusive demonstration of the success they report. Both studies, however, are seen as substantive contributions, insofar as they introduce this important perspective in kindling research, that can be expected to occupy a major role in the future developments of basic and clinical epileptology. PMID:6762361

Mostofsky, D I; Myslobodsky, M S

1982-03-01

414

Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology Smithsonian Contributions to Astrophysics Smithsonian Contributions to Botany Smithsonian Contributions to the Earth Sciences Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology  

E-print Network

The emphasis upon publications as a means of diffusing knowledge was expressed by the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. In his formal plan for the Institution, Joseph Henry articulated a program that included the following statement: "It is proposed to publish a series of reports, giving an account of the new discoveries in science, and of the changes made from year to year in all branches of knowledge." This keynote of basic research has been adhered to over the years in the issuance of thousands of titles in serial publications under the Smithsonian imprint, commencing with Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge in 1848 and continuing with the following active series:

William D. Field; Cyril F. Dos Passos; John H. Masters; Smithsonian Contributions To Zoology; S. Dillon Ripley; John H. Masters

415

Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology Smithsonian Contributions to Astrophysics Smithsonian Contributions to Botany Smithsonian Contributions to the Earth Sciences Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology  

E-print Network

The emphasis upon publications as a means of diffusing knowledge was expressed by the first Secretary of the Smithsonian. Institution. In his formal plan for the Institution, Joseph Henry articulated a program that included the following statement: "It is proposed to publish a series of reports, giving an account of the new discoveries in science, and of the changes made from year to year in all branches of knowledge not strictly professional. " This keynote of basic research has been adhered to over the years in the issuance of thousands of titles in serial publications under the Smithsonian imprint, commencing with Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge in 1848 and continuing with the following active series:

Smithsonian Contributions To ^oology; S. Dillon Ripley; Robert E. Ricklefs; All Analysis

416

A case study of pollutants transported from HPCL (vishakhapatnam) accidental fire through synergy of flexpart model and ground-based instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tushar Wankhede*, Harish Gadhavi, Amit K. Pandit National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), Gadanki-517112, Chittoor, A.P. *tushar1771@gmail.com, Mobile: +91-8297152481 A fire at Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL) in Vishakhapatnam (17.70 ?N, 83.24?E) resulted from a gas leak in the salt water cooling tower system. This led to the release of various pollutants like hydrocarbons, black carbon, carbon mono-oxide and carbon dioxide etc(other gases) in just 44 min of fire in system a very huge amount of particles were emitted. The transport of these pollutants has been studied through FLEXPART which is a Lagrangian particle dispersion model having wide range of applications in atmospheric transport modeling. FLEXPART simulation of this accidental fire shows the direction and sensitivity of dispersed pollutants from its source. It was observed that the pollutants reached Gadanki, a rural site located at 13.45 ?N, 79.18 ?E in Southern-India. The concentration of pollutant obtained from FLEXPART output we are comparing with ground based instruments data collected at the observation site (Indian Climate Observatory Network-ICON, NARL Gadanki). This case-study provides significant information about the life-time of dispersed pollutants and their long-range transport pattern under the influence of small weather variability en-route from source to receptor. The detailed work of FLEXPART for the Long range transport of the particles will be presented later on in conference.

Wankhede, Tushar

417

Tattoo types and frequencies in New Mexican white hispanics and white non-hispanics: autopsy data from homicidal and accidental deaths, 2002-2005.  

PubMed

Tattoos serve as a form of forensic personal identification and providing evidence of possible gang affiliation, incarceration history, and high-risk lifestyle factors such as drug use. Despite their forensic applications, tattoo typology and frequencies in specific ethnic and racial groups are underreported and poorly understood. This study examined autopsy records from the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator from 2002 to 2005. A total of 3430 individuals (1666 white Hispanics; 1764 white non-Hispanics), aged 18 to 100 years, with homicidal or accidental manners of death were included in the study. In addition to demographic information, data were recorded on the presence/absence of tattoos, singular or multiple tattoos, and the language of text tattoos. Tattoos depicting gang or religious symbolism were also recorded. Results indicate statistically significant differences in tattoo frequencies by ethnicity (52% Hispanic vs. 29.5% non-Hispanic), sex (46.8% men vs. 25.9% women) and age cohort. Hispanics were more likely to have multiple tattoos than non-Hispanics (41% and 19%, respectively), and were 4.67 times more likely to have a religious tattoo and 7.13 times more likely to have a gang tattoo than non-Hispanics. Significant patterns in language of text tattoos and correlations with manner of death were also noted. PMID:19259010

Komar, Debra; Lathrop, Sarah

2008-12-01

418

Use of natural radionuclides to determine the time range of the accidental melting of an orphan radioactive source in a steel recycling plant.  

PubMed

In the rare event that an orphan radioactive source is melted in an Electric Arc Furnace steel recycling plant, the radionuclides present are partitioned in the different products, by-products and waste. As a consequence of an unforeseen melting of a radiocesium source, cesium radioisotopes can be found in the dust, together with many natural radionuclides from the decay of radon and thoron, which are present in the atmosphere, picked up from the off-gas evacuation system and associated with the dust of the air filtration system ("baghouse"). In this work we verified that the activity concentration of ²¹²Pb in this dust is essentially constant in a specific factory so that it is possible to use it to date back to the time of the accidental melting of the orphan radioactive source. The main features of this method are described below, together with the application to a particular case in which this method was used for dating the moment in which the dust was contaminated with ¹³?Cs. PMID:22103976

Cantaluppi, Chiara; Ceccotto, Federica; Cianchi, Aldo

2012-02-01

419

Common skin conditions.  

PubMed Central

Four common conditions: acne, psoriasis, eczema and urticaria are considered. Guidance is given on appropriate topical and systematic treatment for the different types and degrees of these conditions, with notes on management in general and criteria for referral to hospital outpatient departments. Where there are different types of the condition, with varying aetiology, for example in urticaria and eczema, management of the common types is outlined. PMID:1345156

Ridley, M.; Safranek, M.

1992-01-01

420

Satellite Contributions to Global Change Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By providing a global view with a level playing field (no region missed because of unfavorable surface conditions or political boundaries), satellites have made major contributions to improved monitoring and understanding of our constantly changing planet. The global view has allowed surprising realizations like the relative sparsity of lightning strikes over oceans and the large-scale undulations on the massive Antarctic ice sheet. It has allowed the tracking of all sorts of phenomena, including aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, as they move with the atmospheric circulation and impact weather and human health. But probably nothing that the global view allows is more important in the long term than its provision. of unbiased data sets to address the issue of global change, considered by many to be among the most important issues facing humankind today. With satellites we can monitor atmospheric temperatures at all latitudes and longitudes, and obtain a global average that lessens the likelihood of becoming endlessly mired in the confusions brought about by the certainty of regional differences. With satellites we can monitor greenhouse gases such as CO2 not just above individual research stations but around the globe. With satellites we can monitor the polar sea ice covers, as we have done since the late 1970s, determining and quantifying the significant reduction in Arctic sea ice and the slight growth in Antarctic sea ice over that period, With satellites we can map the full extent and changes in the Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletions that were first identified from using a single ground station; and through satellite data we have witnessed from afar land surface changes brought about by humans both intentionally, as with wide-scale deforestation, and unintentionally, as with the decay of the Aral Sea. The satellite data are far from sufficient for all that we need in order to understand the global system and forecast its changes, as we also need sophisticated climate models, in situ process studies, and data sets that extend back well before the introduction of satellite technology. Nonetheless, the repetitive, global view provided by satellites is contributing in a major way to our improved recognition of how the Earth im changing, a recognition that is none too soon in view of the magnitude of the impacts that humans can now have.

Parkinson, Claire L.

2009-01-01

421

On Estimating Conditional Conservatism  

E-print Network

The concept of conditional conservatism (asymmetric earnings timeliness) has provided new insight into financial reporting and stimulated considerable research since Basu (1997). Patatoukas and Thomas (2011) report bias ...

Ball, Ray

422

Sexually conditioned incentives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The motivational impact of sexually conditioned incentives was examined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, male Long–Evans rats copulated to ejaculation in the presence of one of two scents (orange or almond extract) on five separate occasions. On alternating days, subjects spent an equal amount of time in social isolation with the opposing scent. Following the 10-day conditioning regimen, subjects

Hassan H López; Aaron Ettenberg

2002-01-01

423

Spastic conditions in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

F all the conditions met with in young children that of the spastic child must surely make the greatest appeal to our pity. I can think of no condition more tragic, because not alone are the victims of this disease suffering from a paralysis which is more crippling than any flaccid paralysis can be--as it allows neither rest nor controlled

C. Somerville-Large

1938-01-01

424

Dry Conditions Cider Update  

E-print Network

high in pH, but mid and late season varieties are devel- oping excellent fruit chemistry. Dry1 Dry Conditions Cider Update Fall Small Fruit Care Third Generation Codling Moths? Pinpoint Scab Facts for Fancy Fruit FFF99-12 September 13, 1999 INDEX Crop Conditions: Apples remain about 7-10 days

Ginzel, Matthew

425

NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Coastal Condition report compiles several available data sets from different agencies and areas of the country and summarizes them to present a broad baseline picture of the condition of coastal waters. Although data sets presented in this report do not cover all coa...

426

Flue gas conditioning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method of injecting a conditioning agent into a flue gas stream for enhancing the removal of finely divided-fly ash particles by electrostatic precipitation. It comprises passing a liquid conditioning agent through a hollow vaporizing coil mounted within an enclosure defining a mixing chamber downstream from the coil, the coil having an outlet communicating with the mixing

1991-01-01

427

My NASA Data User Contributed Lesson 17: Analysis of Atmospheric Conditions for a High Mountain Retreat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to help students gain knowledge in accessing current weather data and in using the MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) to specify and download historical satellite data. Students then use the data to examine the relationship between altitude, atmospheric pressure, temperature and humidity at a particular location. In this lesson, weather data from ground-based and satellite observations are analyzed for a real world application -- to plan a high mountain retreat in Tibet. Students compare current weather balloon data for a specific location to historical weather data generated using the LAS. Students are asked to gather data for several months throughout the year for comparison. The lesson provides detailed procedure, related links, sample graphs, follow-up questions, extensions, and teacher notes.

Werhun, Laurissa

2010-08-18

428

National Coastal Condition Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently released this report on the condition of coastal ecosystems. The report combines data from a variety of government agencies conducting ongoing monitoring to "present a broad baseline picture of the condition of coastal waters." The report finds that the "[o]verall condition of the nation's estuaries was fair based on seven basic indicators of ecological condition." The text of this introductory Web page states that printed copies of the report and fact sheet can be obtained by calling the listed phone number, but both can also be accessed online by clicking on the hyperlinks "Fact Sheet" or "Continue to National Coastal Condition Report Download Site."

2002-01-01

429

Mechanism Design for Incentivizing Social Media Contributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Despite recent advancements in user-driven social media platforms, tools for studying user behavior patterns and motivations\\u000a remain primitive. We highlight the voluntary nature of user contributions and that users can choose when (and when not) to\\u000a contribute to the common media pool. A Game theoretic framework is proposed to study the dynamics of social media networks\\u000a where contribution costs are

Vivek K. Singh; Ramesh Jain; Mohan Kankanhalli

2011-01-01

430

Traits Contributing to the Autistic Spectrum  

PubMed Central

Background It is increasingly recognised that traits associated with autism reflect a spectrum with no clear boundary between typical and atypical behaviour. Dimensional traits are needed to investigate the broader autism phenotype. Methods and Principal Findings Ninety-three individual measures reflecting components of social, communication and repetitive behaviours characterising autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) were identified between the ages of 6 months and 9 years from the ALSPAC database. Using missing value imputation, data for 13,138 children were analysed. Factor analysis suggested the existence of 7 factors explaining 85% of the variance. The factors were labelled: verbal ability, language acquisition, social understanding, semantic-pragmatic skills, repetitive-stereotyped behaviour, articulation and social inhibition. Four factors (1, 3, 5 and 7) were specific to ASD being more strongly associated with this phenotype than other co-morbid conditions while other factors were more associated with learning difficulties and specific language impairment. Nevertheless, all 7 factors contributed independently to the explanation of ASD (p<0.001). Exploration of putative genetic causal factors such as variants in the CNTNAP2 gene showed a varying pattern of associations with these traits. An alternative predictive model of ASD was derived using four individual measures: the coherence subscale of the Children's Communication Checklist (9y), the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (91 m), repetitive behaviour (69 m) and the sociability subscale of the Emotionality Activity and Sociability measure (38 m). Although univarably these traits performed better than some factors, their combined explanations of ASD were similar (R2?=?0.48). Conclusions and Significance These results support the fractional nature of ASD with different aetiological origins for these components despite pleiotropic genetic effects being observed. These traits are likely to be useful in the exploration of ASD. PMID:20838614

Steer, Colin D.; Golding, Jean; Bolton, Patrick F.

2010-01-01

431

The Contribution of Lysosomotropism to Autophagy Perturbation  

PubMed Central

Autophagy refers to the catabolic process in eukaryotic cells that delivers cytoplasmic material to lysosomes for degradation. This highly conserved process is involved in the clearance of long-lived proteins and damaged organelles. Consequently, autophagy is important in providing nutrients to maintain cellular function under starvation, maintaining cellular homeostasis, and promoting cell survival under certain conditions. Several pathways, including mTOR, have been shown to regulate autophagy. However, the impact of lysosomal function impairment on the autophagy process has not been fully explored. Basic lipophilic compounds can accumulate in lysosomes via pH partitioning leading to perturbation of lysosomal function. Our hypothesis is that these types of compounds can disturb the autophagy process. Eleven drugs previously shown to accumulate in lysosomes were selected and evaluated for their effects on cytotoxicity and autophagy using ATP depletion and LC3 assessment, respectively. All eleven drugs induced increased staining of endogenous LC3 and exogenous GFP-LC3, even at non toxic dose levels. In addition, an increase in the abundance of SQSTM1/p62 by all tested compounds denotes that the increase in LC3 is due to autophagy perturbation rather than enhancement. Furthermore, the gene expression profile resulting from in vitro treatment with these drugs revealed the suppression of plentiful long-lived proteins, including structural cytoskeletal and associated proteins, and extracellular matrix proteins. This finding indicates a retardation of protein turnover which further supports the notion of autophagy inhibition. Interestingly, upregulation of genes containing antioxidant response elements, e.g. glutathione S transferase and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 was observed, suggesting activation of Nrf2 transcription factor. These gene expression changes could be related to an increase in SQSTM1/p62 resulting from autophagy deficiency. In summary, our data indicate that lysosomal accumulation due to the basic lipophilic nature of xenobiotics could be a general mechanism contributing to the perturbation of the autophagy process. PMID:24278483

Jessen, Bart; Lu, Shuyan

2013-01-01

432

The soil physics contributions of Edgar Buckingham  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1902 to 1906 as a soil physicist at the USDA Bureau of Soils (BOS), Edgar Buckingham originated the concepts of matric potential, soil-water retention curves, specific water capacity, and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K) as a distinct property of a soil. He applied a formula equivalent to Darcy's law (though without specific mention of Darcy's work) to unsaturated flow. He also contributed significant research on quasi-empirical formulas for K as a function of water content, water flow in capillary crevices and in thin films, and scaling. Buckingham's work on gas flow in soils produced paradigms that are consistent with our current understanding. His work on evaporation elucidated the concept of self-mulching and produced sound and sometimes paradoxical generalizations concerning conditions that favor or retard evaporation. Largely overshadowing those achievements, however, is that he launched a theory, still accepted today, that could predict transient water content as a function of time and space. Recently discovered documents reveal some of the arguments Buckingham had with BOS officials, including the text of a two-paragraph conclusion of his famous 1907 report on soil water, and the official letter documenting rejection of that text. Strained interpersonal relations motivated the departure of Buckingham and other brilliant physicists (N.E. Dorsey, F.H. King, and Lyman Briggs) from the BOS during 1903 to 1906. Given that Buckingham and his BOS colleagues had been rapidly developing the means of quantifying unsaturated flow, these strained relations probably slowed the advancement of unsaturated flow theory. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

Nimmo, J. R.; Landa, E. R.

2005-01-01

433

31 CFR 595.408 - Charitable contributions.  

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 595.408 Charitable contributions. (a) Unless specifically...

2014-07-01

434

31 CFR 588.408 - Charitable contributions.  

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WESTERN BALKANS STABILIZATION REGULATIONS Interpretations § 588.408 Charitable contributions. Unless specifically...

2014-07-01

435

31 CFR 588.408 - Charitable contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WESTERN BALKANS STABILIZATION REGULATIONS Interpretations § 588.408 Charitable contributions. Unless specifically...

2012-07-01

436

Contribution la localisation dynamique d'automobiles.  

E-print Network

Contribution à la localisation dynamique d'automobiles. Application à l'aide à la conduite ...............................................................................................................................61 2 LA LOCALISATION A L'ESTIME POUR UNE AUTOMOBILE

Boyer, Edmond

437

7 CFR 966.45 - Contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 966.45 Contributions. The...

2011-01-01

438

Drop profile under dynamic conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capillary pressure tensiometry is the only method suitable for studies of short time adsorption phenomena at interfaces between two immiscible liquids. However, the transition from seconds of adsorption time to milliseconds entails a large number of problems connected with the over-lap of interfacial phenomena and hydrodynamics [1]. Therefore, a quantitative data analysis obtained by this methodology requires a detailed knowledge of the hydrodynamics phenomena, for example during growing and oscillating drops, and the expected impact on the interfacial phenomena. For this purpose simulation tools should be developed as well as development of experimental setup and protocols to achieve a solid basis for the practical application. The microgravity condition provides a particular environment in which the inertial effects and inter-facial deformations due to gravity can be excluded and provides simpler data analysis regarding hydrodynamics contribution. This work presents a set of experiments dedicated to the growth and oscillation of drops under ground conditions for finding out experimental protocols and conditions which should be considered for microgravity experiments in the next stage, for the mentioned purpose. The capability of CFD simulations for data analysis also will be discussed. The experiments are apart of an experimental program at the Drop Tower in Bremen [2] for investigating shapes of growing and oscillating drops under various flow rates and possible de-viation from Laplacian shape. The results represent the base line for studies with surfactant solutions. 1. A. Javadi, J. Krügel, P. Pandolfini, G. Loglio, V.I. Kovalchuk, E.V. Aksenenko, F. Ravera, L. a Liggieri and R. Miller, Colloids Surfaces A, in press 2. R. Miller and A. Javadi, Experimentelle und theoretische Untersuchungen zur Bildung und Deformation von Einzeltropfen als Modell für Schüume und Emulsionen, 50WM0941 a

Miller, Reinhard; Javadi, Aliyar; Kraegel, Juergen; Eigenbrod, Christian

439

Wall conditioning on ITER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like all tokamaks, ITER will require wall conditioning systems and strategies for successful operation from the point of view of plasma-facing surface preparation. Unlike today's devices however, ITER will have to manage large quantities of tritium fuel, imposing on wall conditioning a major responsibility for tritium inventory control. It will also feature the largest plasma-facing beryllium surface ever used in a tokamak and its high duty cycle and long pulse are expected to lead to the rapid formation of deposited layers in which tritium can accumulate. This paper summarises the currently planned ITER wall conditioning systems and describes the strategy for their use throughout exploitation of the device.

Shimada, Michiya; Pitts, Richard A.

2011-08-01

440

Current Hydrologic Conditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA)'s Hydrologic Information Center provides this page on Current Hydrologic Conditions across the US. Categorized into seven sections, the site offers daily information on floods, river/ streamflow conditions, drought, soil moisture, snow conditions, water supply, and meterological outlooks. The depth of each daily summary/ forecast varies by topic (e.g., floods, drought) but offers at least a national outlook, featuring highlights for newsworthy states and, in some cases, detailed information from specific locations within a state.

2007-11-16

441

Current Hydrologic Conditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA)'s Hydrologic Information Center provides this page on Current Hydrologic Conditions across the US. Categorized into seven sections, the site offers daily information on floods, river/ streamflow conditions, drought, soil moisture, snow conditions, water supply, and meterological outlooks. The depth of each daily summary/ forecast varies by topic (e.g., floods, drought) but offers at least a national outlook, featuring highlights for newsworthy states and, in some cases, detailed information from specific locations within a state.

442

PRESSURE INTEGRITY OF 3013 CONTAINER UNDER POSTULATED ACCIDENT CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect

A series of tests was carried out to determine the threshold for deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT), structural loading, and structural response of the Department of Energy 3013 storage systems for the case of an accidental explosion of evolved gas within the storage containers. Three experimental fixtures were used to examine the various issues and three mixtures consisting of either stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen, stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen with added nitrogen, or stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen with an added nitrogen-helium mixture were tested. Tests were carried out as a function of initial pressure from 1 to 3.5 bar and initial temperature from room temperature to 150 C. The elevated temperature tests resulted in a slight increase in the threshold pressure for DDT. The elevated temperature tests were performed to ensure the test results were bounding. Because the change was not significant the elevated temperature data are not presented in the paper. The explosions were initiated with either a small spark or a hot surface. Based on the results of these tests under the conditions investigated, it can be concluded that DDT of a stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen mixture (and mixtures diluted with nitrogen and helium) within the 3013 containment system does not pose a threat to the structural integrity of the outer container.

Rawls, G.

2010-02-01

443

Comparison of Mortality in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Accidentally Admitted to Non-cardiology Departments Versus That in Patients Admitted to Coronary Care Units.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the clinical characteristics including symptoms and long-term mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) accidentally admitted to non-cardiology departments (NCDs). For comparison, similar observations in patients admitted to the coronary care unit (CCU) were collected. During a 1-year period, consecutive patients having cardiac troponin I measured at the Odense University Hospital were considered. The hospital has 27 clinical departments. Patients were classified as having an AMI if the diagnostic criteria of the universal definition were met. Follow-up was at least 1 year with mortality as the clinical end point. Of 3,762 consecutive patients, an AMI was diagnosed in 479, of whom 114 patients (24%) were hospitalized in NCDs and 365 (76%) in the CCU. Chest pain or chest discomfort more frequently occurred in patients from the CCU (83%) than in patients from the NCDs (45%, p <0.0001). At median follow-up of 2.1 years, 150 patients had died: 73 (64%) of patients from the NCDs and 77 (21%) of the patients from the CCU. In the multivariable Cox regression analysis, the adjusted hazard ratio of mortality for patients from the NCDs versus CCU was 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 3.2). In conclusion, chest pain/discomfort was absent in more than half of the patients with AMI admitted to NCDs, and admission to NCDs was an independent predictor of a 2 times higher long-term mortality in comparison with admission to the CCU. PMID:25169985

D'Souza, Maria; Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina S; Diederichsen, Axel C P; Hosbond, Susanne; Diederichsen, Søren Z; Larsen, Torben B; Schmidt, Henrik; Gerke, Oke; Hallas, Jesper; Gislason, Gunnar; Thygesen, Kristian; Mickley, Hans

2014-10-15

444

Monitoring perfluorinated surfactants in biota and surface water samples following an accidental release of fire-fighting foam into Etobicoke Creek.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated surfactants have emerged as priority environmental contaminants due to recent reports of their detection in environmental and biological matrices as well as concerns regarding their persistence and toxicity. In June 2000, 22000 L of fire retardant foam containing perfluorinated surfactants was accidentally released at L. B. Pearson International Airport, Toronto, ON, and subsequently entered into Etobicoke Creek, a tributary to Lake Ontario. A suite of analytical tools that include liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and 19F NMR were employed to characterize fish (common shiner, Notropus cornutus) and surface water samples collected following the discharge of the perfluorinated material. Total perfluoroalkanesulfonate (4, 6, and 8 carbons) concentrations in fish liver samples ranged from 2.00 to 72.9 microg/g, and total perfluorocarboxylate (5-14 carbons) concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 1.02 microg/g. In addition to fish samples, total perfluoroalkanesulfonate (6 and 8 carbons) concentrations were detected in creek water samples by LC/MS/MS over a 153 day sampling period with concentrations ranging from <0.017 to 2260 microg/L; perfluorooctanoate concentrations (<0.009-11.3 microg/L) were lower than those observed for the perfluoroalkane-sulfonates. By 19F NMR, the total perfluorinated surfactant concentrations in surface water samples ranged from < 10 to 17000 microg/L. A bioaccumulation factor range of 6300-125000 was calculated for perfluorooctanesulfonate, based on concentrations in fish liver and surface water. The residence time of perfluorooctanesulfonate in Etobicoke Creek as well as the high bioaccumulation in fish liver suggests that perfluorinated surfactants will persist and bioaccumulate following release into the aquatic environment. PMID:11883418

Moody, Cheryl A; Martin, Jonathan W; Kwan, Wai Chi; Muir, Derek C G; Mabury, Scott A

2002-02-15

445

Field measurements of key parameters associated with nocturnal OBT formation in vegetables grown under Canadian conditions.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to provide the parameter values required to model OBT formation in the edible parts of plants following a hypothetical accidental tritium release to the atmosphere at night. The parameters considered were leaf area index, stomatal resistance, photosynthesis rate, the photosynthetic production rate of starch, the nocturnal hydrolysis rate of starch, the fraction of starch produced daily by photosynthesis that appears in the fruits, and the mass of the fruit. Values of these parameters were obtained in the summer of 2002 for lettuce, radishes and tomatoes grown under typical Canadian environmental conditions. Based on the maximum observed photosynthetic rate and growth rate, the fraction of starch translocated to the fruit was calculated to be 17% for tomato fruit and 14% for radish root. PMID:21962480

Kim, S B; Workman, W G; Korolevych, V; Davis, P A

2012-02-01

446

Swiss contribution to water hammer theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swiss hydraulic engineers have significantly contributed to the understanding of water hammer, based partly on the advances of the Italians Ménabréa and Allievi. The contributions of Michaud, Strickler, Schnyder and Jaeger are particularly discussed in the light of modern developments, and biographies on the latter two individuals are added. It is concluded that the phenomenon of water hammer has been

Willi H. Hager

2001-01-01

447

Capabilities and Contributions of Unwed Fathers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young, minority, and poorly educated fathers in fragile families have little capacity to support their children financially and are hard-pressed to maintain stability in raising those children. In this article, Robert Lerman examines the capabilities and contributions of unwed fathers, how their capabilities and contributions fall short of those…

Lerman, Robert I.

2010-01-01

448

Factors Contributing to Institutions Achieving Environmental Sustainability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with…

James, Matthew; Card, Karen

2012-01-01

449

Louis Guttman's Contributions to Classical Test Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on Louis Guttman's contributions to the classical theory of educational and psychological tests, one of the lesser known of his many contributions to quantitative methods in the social sciences. Guttman's work in this field provided a rigorous mathematical basis for ideas that, for many decades after Spearman's initial work,…

Zimmerman, Donald W.; Williams, Richard H.; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Ross, Donald

2005-01-01

450

Cooperatives' contributions to a plural economy  

E-print Network

23 Cooperatives' contributions to a plural economy Jérôme Blanc* and Denis Colongo** T he European economy(1) . The central theme of the conference was the contributions of cooperatives to a plural economy and solidarity economy and elsewhere, and some of them draw on Karl Polanyi's conceptual framework (a key

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

451

Skin Conditions during Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... the body. It is thought to be an autoimmune disorder . There is a slightly increased risk of pregnancy ... A drug that treats certain types of infections. Autoimmune Disorder: A condition in which the body attacks its ...

452

Pavement condition data analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a computer methodology for analyzing pavement condition data to define inputs for pavement management systems. This system of programs was developed during a Federal Highway Administration research project. In the project, eight state highway departments were studied to determine the types of pavement condition data collected, procedures used for collecting data, the inputs to the states' pavement management systems, and computer programs used by the states to analyze raw pavement condition data. Several of the programs were assembled into the Method for Analyzing Pavement Condition, MAPCON, during a project performed at Pennsylvania State University. These and other existing or new programs (a total of 18) were identified, tested, modified, and incorporated onto a MS/DOS microcomputer system. MAPCON guides the user through selection of analysis method, raw data entry, and data analysis.

Zaniewski, J.P.; Hudson, S.W.; Hudson, W.R.

1987-07-01

453

Aerobic Conditioning Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An aerobic exercise class that focuses on the conditioning of the cardiovascular and muscular systems is presented. Students complete data cards on heart rate, pulse, and exercises to be completed during the forty minute course. (CJ)

Johnson, Neil R.

1980-01-01

454

Wildfire contribution to world-wide desertification.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire is a natural phenomenon that began with the development of terrestrial vegetation in a lightning-filled atmosphere. Sediments from the Carboniferous Period (307-359 million years before the present) contain evidence of charcoal from post-fire ash slurry flows. As human populations developed in the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs, mankind transformed fire into one of its oldest tools. Human and natural ignited fires from lightning altered and steered the trajectories of ecosystem development in most parts of the world. Humans are now the primary source of forest and grass fire ignitions throughout the world. As human populations have increased and industrialized in the past two centuries, fire ignitions and burned areas have increased due to both sheer numbers of people and anthropogenic changes in the global climate. Recent scientific findings have bolstered the hypothesis that climate change is resulting in fire seasons starting earlier, lasting longer, burning greater areas, and being more severe Computer models point to the Western U.S., Mediterranean nations and Brazil as "hot spots" that will get extremes at their worst. The climatic change to drier and warmer conditions has the potential to aggravate wildfire conditions, resulting in burning over longer seasons, larger areas of vegetation conflagration, and higher fire severities. Wildfire is now driving desertification in some of the forest lands in the western United States. The areas of wildfire in the Southwest USA have increased dramatically in the past two decades from <10,000 ha yr-1 in the early 20th Century to over 230,000 ha yr-1 in the first decade of the 21st Century. Individual wildfires are now larger and produce higher severity burns than in the past. A combination of natural drought, climate change, excessive fuel loads, and increased ignition sources have produced the perfect conditions for fire-induced desertification. Portugal suffered the worst and second worst wildfire seasons in a three-year period (2003 - 2005). In 2005, 338,262 ha of forest land burned. This was a 77% increase over the 10-year burn average of 189,500 ha. Desertification is about the loss of the land's proper hydrologic function, biological productivity, and other ecosystem services as a result of human activities and climate change. It affects one third of the earth's surface and over a billion people. In the past, desertification was considered a problem of only arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas. However, humid zones can undergo desertification with the wrong combination of human impacts. The Amazon region is an example of where forest harvesting, shifting cut and burn agriculture, and large-scale grazing are producing desertification of a tropical rain forest on a large scale. Some of the environmental consequences of wildfires are vegetation destruction, plant species and type shifts, exotic plant invasions, wildlife habitat destruction, soil erosion, floods, watershed function decline, water supply disruption, and air pollution. All of these are immediate impacts. Some impacts will persist beyond the careers and lifetimes of individuals. Small, isolated areas do not produce noticeable desertification. But, the cumulative effect of multiple, large area, and adjacent fires can be landscape-level desertification. This paper examines wildfire contributions to desertification in regions of the world that are prone to wildfire and climate change.

Neary, D.; Wittenberg, L.; Bautista, S.; Ffolliott, P.

2009-04-01

455

Conditions affecting the foreskin.  

PubMed

This article aims to provide an update on the anatomy of, and some of the conditions affecting, the foreskin. The cultural and religious significance of the foreskin will be explored, as well as nursing care and health promotion needs of men. The possible link between circumcision status and human immunodeficiency virus will be briefly discussed. Maintaining cleanliness of the genitals is advocated to reduce the incidence of inflammatory conditions. PMID:22787889

Hunter, David

456

Sport-specific conditioning.  

PubMed

The goal of the athlete is to optimize performance. The goal of the sports medicine physician is to minimize injury risk. By preparing the athlete's body for the mechanical and metabolic demands inherent in a particular sport, sport-specific conditioning programs can help achieve both these goals. Periodization of the conditioning program is the ideal framework for keeping the individual athlete's workload as high as possible without overtraining and injury. PMID:8037286

Kibler, W B; Chandler, T J

1994-01-01