Sample records for accidental conditions contribution

  1. Framework for preventing accidental falls in hospitals - management plan for ADL, medication and medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shogo; Tsuru, Satoko; Iizuka, Yoshinori

    2009-01-01

    Prevention and reduction of medical accidents is essential. Among medical accidents, accidental falls remain a serious problem. While "assessment score sheets" have already been used in hospitals to prevent accidental falls, satisfactory results have not actually been achieved. In this study, we aim to establish a methodology for preventing accidental falls. We consider that the 'management plan' for each patient includes three factors. A plan of instructions for patients on actions they can take for safety in their ADL (Activities of Daily Living) is essential as a base. Second, a plan to keep up with any short term change in a patient's state is needed, because the state of a hospitalized patient will usually be temporarily affected by medication and changing medical conditions. We develop a model for preventing accidental falls, which enable us to design appropriate management plan for each patient. Then, we develop a prototype system based on the designed model. Finally, we address the result of verification of the model, by applying the prototype system into actual cases in hospitals. PMID:19592884

  2. Prediction of work functioning following accidental injury: The contribution of PTSD symptom severity and other established risk factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynda R. Matthews; Darien Chinnery

    2005-01-01

    Responses to a mail survey were used to investigate the contribution of PTSD symptom severity to work functioning in 69 previously employed adult survivors of accidental injury approximately 8 months post?hospitalization. Associations of PTSD symptom severity with other established risk factors for poor work functioning were also examined. Participants were initially divided into three groups based on PTSD symptom severity

  3. On the corrosion behavior of zircaloy-4 in spent fuel pools under accidental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, O.; Shoji, T.; Sakaguchi, K.

    2012-07-01

    After zircaloy cladding tubes have been subjected to irradiation in the reactor core, they are stored temporarily in spent fuel pools. In case of an accident, the integrity of the pool may be affected and the composition of the coolant may change drastically. This was the case in Fukushima Daiichi in March 2011. Successive incidents have led to an increase in the pH of the coolant and to chloride contamination. Moreover, water radiolysis may occur owing to the remnant radioactivity of the spent fuel. In this study, we propose to evaluate the corrosion behavior of oxidized Zr-4 (in autoclave at 288 °C for 32 days) in function of the pH and the presence of chloride and radical forms. The generation of radicals is achieved by the sonolysis of the solution. It appears that the increase in pH and the presence of radicals lead to an increase in current densities. However, the current densities remain quite low (depending on the conditions, between 1 and 10 ?A cm-2). The critical parameter is the presence of chloride ions. The chloride ions widely decrease the passive range of the oxidized samples (the pitting potential is measured around +0.6 V (vs. SCE)). Moreover, if the oxide layer is scratched or damaged (which is likely under accidental conditions), the pitting potential of the oxidized sample reaches the pitting potential of the non-oxidized sample (around +0.16 V (vs. SCE)), leaving a shorter stable passive range for the Zr-4 cladding tubes.

  4. Effects of meteorological conditions on the concentration and dispersion of an accidental release of H2S in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah A.; Chan, Keziah; Elkamel, Ali; Ahmadi, Lena

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of the land's meteorological conditions on the dispersion of an accidental release of H2S using the CALPro software. The three Canadian cities or towns of Edmonton, Yarmouth and Whitehorse, which are all of different meteorological conditions, were chosen as the domains of study. Hourly geophysical, surface and upper air meteorological data were used with CALMET to model the wind field of the three domains for the modeling period of March 11, 2012 from 00h00 to 23h00 LST. Individual 5-h modeling periods where the wind field showed the most significant variations were chosen for each region of study. CALPUFF was used to model the dispersion effects of an accidental release of H2S from a single point source due to an accidental vessel puncture using time-varying emission data modified to suit each region's modeling period. Despite the wind reversal encountered in Edmonton, its relatively flat terrain allowed H2S to disperse outwards, causing concentrations to accumulate lower than the other two regions but still to sever levels and a much greater population. Differences between the effect of land and sea breeze on H2S dispersion in Yarmouth's coastal region caused concentrations to accumulate higher than the other two regions and to life threatening levels around the source. The mountainous terrain of Whitehorse shaped the plume trajectory, causing H2S concentrations to accumulate to levels that can cause irreversible health effects at various times and locations. Results show that each area's meteorological conditions will have different impacts on dispersion.

  5. Validation of a computational model for the evaluation of fuel-coolant interaction under severe accidental condition in fast breeder reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuo Sawada; Hisashi Ninokata

    1998-01-01

    A computational model for fuel-coolant interaction has been validated through calculations for a series of THINA experiments. By the experiments, it was intended to simulate a comparatively massive injection of molten core materials into sodium pool under a core disruptive accidental condition assumed for fast breeder reactors. The calculations by the SIMMER-II code showed that the current models for the

  6. Severe Accidental Hypothermia Center.

    PubMed

    Darocha, Tomasz; Kosi?ski, Sylweriusz; Jarosz, Anna; Ga??zkowski, Robert; Sadowski, Jerzy; Drwi?a, Rafa?

    2015-08-01

    Hypothermic patients may be rewarmed using passive or active techniques. In case of severe accidental hypothermia (temperature<28°C) and stage III/IV according to the Swiss Staging System, standard methods might not be effective and aggressive treatment is needed. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has proved to be both effective and safe in such cases. The Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, John Paul II Hospital, Cracow, Poland, established the Severe Accidental Hypothermia Center, which provides 24?h on-call to consult and accept patients who need ECMO implantation for profound hypothermia rewarming. Our center is so far the only one in Poland and can accept patients from south-east Poland. Most importantly, it collaborates with all prehospital medical services, namely, with 115 Ambulances, Polish Medical Air Rescue, Mountain Rescue Services, and all 28 Emergency Departments in the area. Severe Accidental Hypothermia Center is a solution for advanced treatment of patients with accidental hypothermia requiring ECMO implantation. PMID:25304125

  7. Acute accidental phosgene poisoning.

    PubMed

    Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Agrawal, Avinash; Consul, Suchi

    2012-01-01

    Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need to suspect phosgene gas exposure and observe such patients is crucial for life saving, especially in view of the delay in clinical deterioration observed in some patients who subsequently develop adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:22602834

  8. Doctor Ward's Accidental Terrarium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    1996-01-01

    Presents the story of the accidental invention of the Wardian case, or terrarium, by Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward. Advocates the use of this story in teaching precollege biology as an illustration of how a chance event can lead to a major scientific advancement and as an example of the common occurrence of multiple discovery in botany. Contains 34…

  9. Accidental intrathecal vincristine administration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Manelis; E. Freundlich; E. Ezekiel; J. Doron

    1982-01-01

    Summary  A case is described of accidental intrathecal administration of vincristine, with detailed clinical observations over a 17-day\\u000a period. The clinical picture resembled that seen with toxicity from intravenously administered vincristine, but was rapidly\\u000a progressive and resulted in death. The onset was characterised by opisthotonos, followed by ascending paralysis and finally\\u000a bulbar and cerebral involvement. The specific changes in the brain

  10. Genetic tradeoffs and conditional neutrality contribute to local adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jill T.; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Rushworth, Catherine; Colautti, Robert; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Divergent natural selection promotes local adaptation and can lead to reproductive isolation of populations in contrasting environments; however, the genetic basis of local adaptation remains largely unresolved in natural populations. Local adaptation might result from antagonistic pleiotropy, where alternate alleles are favored in distinct habitats, and polymorphism is maintained by selection. Alternatively, under conditional neutrality some alleles may be favored in one environment but neutral at other locations. Antagonistic pleiotropy maintains genetic variation across the landscape; however, there is a systematic bias against discovery of antagonistic pleiotropy since the fitness benefits of local alleles need to be significant in at least two environments. Here, we develop a generally applicable method to investigate polygenic local adaptation and identify loci that are the targets of selection. This approach evaluates allele frequency changes after selection at loci across the genome to distinguish antagonistic pleiotropy from conditional neutrality and deleterious variation. We investigate local adaptation at the QTL-level in field experiments, in which we expose 177 F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and parental lines of Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae) to their parental environments over two seasons. We demonstrate polygenic selection for native alleles in both environments, with 2.8% of the genome exhibiting antagonistic pleiotropy, and 8% displaying conditional neutrality. Our study strongly supports antagonistic pleiotropy at one large-effect flowering phenology QTL (nFT): native homozygotes had significantly greater probabilities of flowering than foreign homozygotes in both parental environments. Such large-scale field studies are essential to elucidate the genetic basis of adaptation in natural populations. PMID:22420446

  11. Is the tribimaximal mixing accidental?

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Mohammed [Ain Shams University, Faculty of Sciences, Abbassiyah 11566, Cairo (Egypt); Center for Theoretical Physics (CTP), British University in Egypt, BUE, El-Sherouk City, Cairo (Egypt); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Smirnov, A. Yu. [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    The tribimaximal (TBM) mixing is not accidental if structures of the corresponding leptonic mass matrices follow immediately from certain (residual or broken) flavor symmetry. We develop a simple formalism which allows one to analyze effects of deviations of the lepton mixing from TBM on the structure of the neutrino mass matrix and on the underlying flavor symmetry. We show that possible deviations from the TBM mixing can lead to strong modifications of the mass matrix and strong violation of the TBM-mass relations. As a result, the mass matrix may have an 'anarchical' structure with random values of elements or it may have some symmetry that differs from the TBM symmetry. Interesting examples include matrices with texture zeros, matrices with certain 'flavor alignment' as well as hierarchical matrices with a two-component structure, where the dominant and subdominant contributions have different symmetries. This opens up new approaches to understanding the lepton mixing.

  12. Accidental Inflation in the Landscape

    E-print Network

    Jose J. Blanco-Pillado; Marta Gomez-Reino; Konstantinos Metallinos

    2012-09-04

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P^4_[1,1,1,6,9] by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

  13. Accidental inflation in the landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Metallinos, Konstantinos [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States); Gomez-Reino, Marta, E-mail: jose@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: marta.gomez-reino.perez@cern.ch, E-mail: Konstantinos.Metallinos@tufts.edu [Department of Physics, University of Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain)

    2013-02-01

    We study some aspects of fine tuning in inflationary scenarios within string theory flux compactifications and, in particular, in models of accidental inflation. We investigate the possibility that the apparent fine-tuning of the low energy parameters of the theory needed to have inflation can be generically obtained by scanning the values of the fluxes over the landscape. Furthermore, we find that the existence of a landscape of eternal inflation in this model provides us with a natural theory of initial conditions for the inflationary period in our vacuum. We demonstrate how these two effects work in a small corner of the landscape associated with the complex structure of the Calabi-Yau manifold P{sup 4}{sub [1,1,1,6,9]} by numerically investigating the flux vacua of a reduced moduli space. This allows us to obtain the distribution of observable parameters for inflation in this mini-landscape directly from the fluxes.

  14. The Accidental Scientist: Cooking

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1969-12-31

    Another great Web site from the Exploratorium in San Francisco (last mentioned in the August 16, 2002 NSDL MET Report), The Accidental Scientist: Cooking is the first in a series of "Web-based projects focusing on the science behind everyday life." Offering a mind-boggling array of food-related information and activities, foodies and science-lovers alike should find this Web site extremely engaging. Life science-related material includes an exploration of taste and smell; the biological properties of meat; microbe action in pickling, fermentation, and leavening; and much more. The site's other features not directly related to the life sciences shouldn't be missed. Users can find recipes and cooking tips, fun projects, and live Web casts starting in November 2002 that explore the science and culture of cooking, "just in time for picking up cooking tips for the holiday season."

  15. Urban contribution of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants to streams during differing flow conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana W Kolpin; Mary Skopec; Michael T Meyer; Edward T Furlong; Steven D Zaugg

    2004-01-01

    During 2001, 76 water samples were collected upstream and downstream of select towns and cities in Iowa during high-, normal- and low-flow conditions to determine the contribution of urban centers to concentrations of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) in streams under varying flow conditions. The towns ranged in population from approximately 2000 to 200000. Overall, one or more

  16. Differential contribution of amygdala and hippocampus to cued and contextual fear conditioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Phillips; J. E. LeDoux

    1992-01-01

    The contribution of the amygdala and hippocampus to the acquisition of conditioned fear responses to a cue (a tone paired with footshock) and to context (background stimuli continuously present in the apparatus in which tone-shock pairings occurred) was examined in rats. In unoperated controls, responses to the cue conditioned faster and were more resistant to extinction than were responses to

  17. Contribution of water chemistry and fish condition to otolith chemistry: comparisons across salinity environments.

    PubMed

    Izzo, C; Doubleday, Z A; Schultz, A G; Woodcock, S H; Gillanders, B M

    2015-06-01

    This study quantified the per cent contribution of water chemistry to otolith chemistry using enriched stable isotopes of strontium ((86) Sr) and barium ((137) Ba). Euryhaline barramundi Lates calcarifer, were reared in marine (salinity 40), estuarine (salinity 20) and freshwater (salinity 0) under different temperature treatments. To calculate the contribution of water to Sr and Ba in otoliths, enriched isotopes in the tank water and otoliths were quantified and fitted to isotope mixing models. Fulton's K and RNA:DNA were also measured to explore the influence of fish condition on sources of element uptake. Water was the predominant source of otolith Sr (between 65 and 99%) and Ba (between 64 and 89%) in all treatments, but contributions varied with temperature (for Ba), or interactively with temperature and salinity (for Sr). Fish condition indices were affected independently by the experimental rearing conditions, as RNA:DNA differed significantly among salinity treatments and Fulton's K was significantly different between temperature treatments. Regression analyses did not detect relations between fish condition and per cent contribution values. General linear models indicated that contributions from water chemistry to otolith chemistry were primarily influenced by temperature and secondly by fish condition, with a relatively minor influence of salinity. These results further the understanding of factors that affect otolith element uptake, highlighting the necessity to consider the influence of environment and fish condition when interpreting otolith element data to reconstruct the environmental histories of fish. PMID:26033292

  18. Accidental poisoning with biodiesel preservative biocide

    PubMed Central

    Aslanidis, T; Ourailoglou, V; Boultoukas, E; Giannakou-Peftoulidou, M

    2014-01-01

    Although biodiesel fuels’ use is getting more and more popular, there are only few reports in the literature of poisoning with such agents, and none referring to their preservatives: biocides. We present the management of a 49-year-old Caucasian male who was admitted, after accidental ingestion of biocide solution, in the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital. In spite of his devastating condition upon arrival to the hospital, he had a remarkable recovery with no local or systemic sequel due to multidisciplinary and early supportive approach of his care. PMID:25336882

  19. History of accidental hypothermia?

    PubMed Central

    Guly, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Death from exposure to cold has been recognised for thousands of years but hypothermia as a clinical condition was not generally recognised until the mid-20th century and then only in extreme conditions such as immersion in cold water or snow. In the UK, hypothermia in less extreme conditions was not generally recognised until the 1960s. Recognition of hypothermia required the temperature to be measured and this did not become a clinical tool until the late 1800s and it was not used routinely until the early 1900s. Although John Hunter and James Curry did some physiological experiments in the 1700s, detailed physiological experiments were not done until the early 20th century and the use of therapeutic hypothermia for malignancy and in anaesthesia in the 1930s and 1940s provided more impetus for investigating the physiology of hypothermia in humans and familiarising the medical profession with measuring core temperatures. PMID:21036455

  20. Contribution of air conditioning adoption to future energy use under global warming.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lucas W; Gertler, Paul J

    2015-05-12

    As household incomes rise around the world and global temperatures go up, the use of air conditioning is poised to increase dramatically. Air conditioning growth is expected to be particularly strong in middle-income countries, but direct empirical evidence is scarce. In this paper we use high-quality microdata from Mexico to describe the relationship between temperature, income, and air conditioning. We describe both how electricity consumption increases with temperature given current levels of air conditioning, and how climate and income drive air conditioning adoption decisions. We then combine these estimates with predicted end-of-century temperature changes to forecast future energy consumption. Under conservative assumptions about household income, our model predicts near-universal saturation of air conditioning in all warm areas within just a few decades. Temperature increases contribute to this surge in adoption, but income growth by itself explains most of the increase. What this will mean for electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions depends on the pace of technological change. Continued advances in energy efficiency or the development of new cooling technologies could reduce the energy consumption impacts. Similarly, growth in low-carbon electricity generation could mitigate the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. However, the paper illustrates the enormous potential impacts in this sector, highlighting the importance of future research on adaptation and underscoring the urgent need for global action on climate change. PMID:25918391

  1. Conditionally rare taxa disproportionately contribute to temporal changes in microbial diversity.

    PubMed

    Shade, Ashley; Jones, Stuart E; Caporaso, J Gregory; Handelsman, Jo; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah; Gilbert, Jack A

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities typically contain many rare taxa that make up the majority of the observed membership, yet the contribution of this microbial "rare biosphere" to community dynamics is unclear. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of 3,237 samples from 42 time series of microbial communities from nine different ecosystems (air; marine; lake; stream; adult human skin, tongue, and gut; infant gut; and brewery wastewater treatment), we introduce a new method to detect typically rare microbial taxa that occasionally become very abundant (conditionally rare taxa [CRT]) and then quantify their contributions to temporal shifts in community structure. We discovered that CRT made up 1.5 to 28% of the community membership, represented a broad diversity of bacterial and archaeal lineages, and explained large amounts of temporal community dissimilarity (i.e., up to 97% of Bray-Curtis dissimilarity). Most of the CRT were detected at multiple time points, though we also identified "one-hit wonder" CRT that were observed at only one time point. Using a case study from a temperate lake, we gained additional insights into the ecology of CRT by comparing routine community time series to large disturbance events. Our results reveal that many rare taxa contribute a greater amount to microbial community dynamics than is apparent from their low proportional abundances. This observation was true across a wide range of ecosystems, indicating that these rare taxa are essential for understanding community changes over time. Importance: Microbial communities and their processes are the foundations of ecosystems. The ecological roles of rare microorganisms are largely unknown, but it is thought that they contribute to community stability by acting as a reservoir that can rapidly respond to environmental changes. We investigated the occurrence of typically rare taxa that very occasionally become more prominent in their communities ("conditionally rare"). We quantified conditionally rare taxa in time series from a wide variety of ecosystems and discovered that not only were conditionally rare taxa present in all of the examples, but they also contributed disproportionately to temporal changes in diversity when they were most abundant. This result indicates an important and general role for rare microbial taxa within their communities. PMID:25028427

  2. Can Canister Containment Be Maintained After Accidental Drop Events?

    SciTech Connect

    D. K. Morton; S. D. Snow; T. E. Rahl; R. K. Blandford; T. J. Hill

    2006-05-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) has pursued a number of structural testing projects that are intended to provide data that can be used to substantiate the position that U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canisters, made from austenitic stainless steels, can maintain containment after an accidental drop event and that plastic finite element methods can be used to accurately predict the structural response of canister configurations not specifically tested. In particular, drop tests of full-scale canisters and material impact testing at varying strain rates reflecting accidental drop conditions have been completed or are in progress. This paper provides insights to conclusions achieved to date and what efforts are planned to fully address the pertinent issues necessary to demonstrate the safety of DOE SNF canisters subjected to accidental drop events.

  3. Accidental intrathecal administration of vincristine.

    PubMed

    D'Addario, Adriana; Galuppo, Juan; Navari, Carlos; Schultz, Marcelo; Cuello, Nélida; Troncoso, Juan C; Riudavets, Miguel Angel

    2010-03-01

    We describe a case of accidental intrathecal administration of vincristine in a 33-year-old man with clinical diagnosis of acute lymphocytic leukemia. The patient died 20 days after receiving the drug. Clinically, the patient developed acute ascending paralysis with motor and sensory dysfunctions, and respiratory failure. Neuropathological investigation revealed lesions in spinal cord, roots, and cerebellum characterized by rarefaction of the neuropil, axonal, and myelin degeneration, accompanied by macrophagic infiltration. PMID:19935391

  4. Conditionally Rare Taxa Disproportionately Contribute to Temporal Changes in Microbial Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Shade, Ashley; Jones, Stuart E.; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Handelsman, Jo; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbial communities typically contain many rare taxa that make up the majority of the observed membership, yet the contribution of this microbial “rare biosphere” to community dynamics is unclear. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of 3,237 samples from 42 time series of microbial communities from nine different ecosystems (air; marine; lake; stream; adult human skin, tongue, and gut; infant gut; and brewery wastewater treatment), we introduce a new method to detect typically rare microbial taxa that occasionally become very abundant (conditionally rare taxa [CRT]) and then quantify their contributions to temporal shifts in community structure. We discovered that CRT made up 1.5 to 28% of the community membership, represented a broad diversity of bacterial and archaeal lineages, and explained large amounts of temporal community dissimilarity (i.e., up to 97% of Bray-Curtis dissimilarity). Most of the CRT were detected at multiple time points, though we also identified “one-hit wonder” CRT that were observed at only one time point. Using a case study from a temperate lake, we gained additional insights into the ecology of CRT by comparing routine community time series to large disturbance events. Our results reveal that many rare taxa contribute a greater amount to microbial community dynamics than is apparent from their low proportional abundances. This observation was true across a wide range of ecosystems, indicating that these rare taxa are essential for understanding community changes over time. PMID:25028427

  5. Gender inequalities in health: exploring the contribution of living conditions in the intersection of social class

    PubMed Central

    Malmusi, Davide; Vives, Alejandra; Benach, Joan; Borrell, Carme

    2014-01-01

    Background Women experience poorer health than men despite their longer life expectancy, due to a higher prevalence of non-fatal chronic illnesses. This paper aims to explore whether the unequal gender distribution of roles and resources can account for inequalities in general self-rated health (SRH) by gender, across social classes, in a Southern European population. Methods Cross-sectional study of residents in Catalonia aged 25–64, using data from the 2006 population living conditions survey (n=5,817). Poisson regression models were used to calculate the fair/poor SRH prevalence ratio (PR) by gender and to estimate the contribution of variables assessing several dimensions of living conditions as the reduction in the PR after their inclusion in the model. Analyses were stratified by social class (non-manual and manual). Results SRH was poorer for women among both non-manual (PR 1.39, 95% CI 1.09–1.76) and manual social classes (PR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20–1.56). Adjustment for individual income alone eliminated the association between sex and SRH, especially among manual classes (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.85–1.19; among non-manual 1.19, 0.92–1.54). The association was also reduced when adjusting by employment conditions among manual classes, and household material and economic situation, time in household chores and residential environment among non-manual classes. Discussion Gender inequalities in individual income appear to contribute largely to women's poorer health. Individual income may indicate the availability of economic resources, but also the history of access to the labour market and potentially the degree of independence and power within the household. Policies to facilitate women's labour market participation, to close the gender pay gap, or to raise non-contributory pensions may be helpful to improve women's health. PMID:24560257

  6. Platelet PI3K? Contributes to Carotid Intima-Media Thickening under Severely Reduced Flow Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cuiping; Jin, Rong; Nanda, Anil; Yan, Jinchuan; Li, Guohong

    2015-01-01

    Studies have begun to focus on the emerging function of platelets as immune and inflammatory cells that initiate and accelerate vascular inflammation. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3K?) is critically involved in a number of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. This study aims to investigate the contribution of platelet PI3K? to vascular remodeling under flow severely reduced conditions. Mouse partial left carotid artery ligation with adoptive transfer of activated, washed wild-type or PI3K?-/- platelets was used as the model. Intima-media area, leukocyte recruitment, and proinflammatory mediator expression were assessed. In vitro PI3K?-/- platelets were used to verify the effect of PI3K? on platelet activation, interaction with leukocytes, and endothelial cells. Mice injected with activated platelets showed a significant increase in intima-media thickening, recruitment of neutrophils (at 3 d) and macrophages (at 21 d), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-6 expression (at 3 d) in the flow-reduced area. These effects were abrogated by platelet PI3K? deficiency. Circulating platelet-leukocyte aggregates were reduced in PI3K?-/- mice after partial ligation. In vivo data confirmed that PI3K? mediated Adenine di-Phosphate -induced platelet activation through the Akt and p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways. Moreover, platelet PI3K? deficiency reduced platelet-leukocyte aggregation and platelet-endothelial cell (EC) interaction. These findings indicate that platelet PI3K? contributes to platelet-mediated vascular inflammation and carotid intima-media thickening after flow severely reduced. Platelet PI3K? may be a new target in the treatment of vascular diseases. PMID:26053836

  7. The contribution of single and double cones to spectral sensitivity in budgerigars during changing light conditions.

    PubMed

    Lind, Olle; Chavez, Johanna; Kelber, Almut

    2014-03-01

    Bird colour vision is mediated by single cones, while double cones and rods mediate luminance vision in bright and dim light, respectively. In daylight conditions, birds use colour vision to discriminate large objects such as fruit and plumage patches, and luminance vision to detect fine spatial detail and motion. However, decreasing light intensity favours achromatic mechanisms and eventually, in dim light, luminance vision outperforms colour vision in all visual tasks. We have used behavioural tests in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) to investigate how single cones, double cones and rods contribute to spectral sensitivity for large (3.4°) static monochromatic stimuli at light intensities ranging from 0.08 to 63.5 cd/m². We found no influences of rods at any intensity level. Single cones dominate the spectral sensitivity function at intensities above 1.1 cd/m², as predicted by a receptor noise-limited colour discrimination model. Below 1.1 cd/m², spectral sensitivity is lower than expected at all wavelengths except 575 nm, which corresponds to double cone function. We suggest that luminance vision mediated by double cones restores visual sensitivity when single cone sensitivity quickly decreases at light intensities close to the absolute threshold of colour vision. PMID:24366429

  8. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870.206 Section 870...Amount of Insurance § 870.206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an...

  9. 5 CFR 870.206 - Accidental death and dismemberment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accidental death and dismemberment. 870.206 Section 870...Amount of Insurance § 870.206 Accidental death and dismemberment. (a)(1) Accidental death and dismemberment coverage is an...

  10. Water dynamics and groundwater contributions in a young mountain soil under different meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negm, Amro; Falocchi, Marco; Barontini, Stefano; Ranzi, Roberto; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater contribution to the soil-water content and to the evapotranspiration is a major uncertainty to assess the water balance. Particularly in mountain environments, where the soil and the depth of the water table are shallow, both percolation and water rise from the water table can happen. Aiming at better understanding these processes at the local scale, a micrometeorological station, equipped with both traditional sensors, an eddy covariance (EC) apparatus with a 20Hz sonic anemometer and infrared CO2 and H2O gas analyser, and four multiplexed TDR probes, was installed at Cividate Camuno (Oglio river basin, Central Italian Alps, Italy, 274ma.s.l.), in a mountain environment with complex topography and Alpine sublitoranean climate. The young, anthropised, soil upper layers are about 40cm deep and mainly covered by alfalfa (Medicago sativa), wild carrot (Daucus carota) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium). Field and laboratory tests were performed to characterise the soil hydraulic properties. Particularly the soil-water retention relationships were measured by means of a low- and a high-pressure Richards' apparatus, and the hydraulic conductivity at saturation of each soil layer was estimated by 2-dimensional, axis-symmetrical, inverse modelling of field infiltration tests from single ring infiltrometer. The measurements were performed during Summer 2012 and Summer 2013. The groundwater exchange was numerically estimated both in wet (Summer 2012) and in dry meteorlogical conditions (Summer 2013). Evapotranspiration was assessed by means of Penman-Monteith method, which was found to be in the range between EC-estimated fluxes and an indirect estimate based on the Bowen ratio correction for Summer 2012. The two seasons are meteorologically very different and it results also in the soil-water regime. During Summer 2012, the weather was relatively wet, the soil did not reach very small water contents, so that precipitation was able to percolate towards the groundwater table and the groundwater table to meaningfully contribute to the evapotranspirative fluxes. Summer 2013 was instead much drier, precipitation was not able to meaningfully change the water content of the lowest soil layer and to percolate toward the water table. As a consequence of the very small water contents of the soil, also a very small water rise had place.

  11. Reducing accidental injuries during surgery.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Wind, Tyler C; Hill, Lisa G; Thacker, John G; McGregor, Walter

    2003-01-01

    Extensive clinical investigations have demonstrated that double-gloves and blunt-tipped surgical needles dramatically reduced the risk of accidental injuries during surgery. During the last decade, double-glove hole puncture indication systems have been developed that reduce the clinical risk of accidental needlestick injuries as well as detect the presence of glove hole puncture in the presence of fluids. When the outer glove is punctured, the colored underglove becomes apparent through the translucent outer glove, necessitating glove removal, hand washing, and donning of another double-glove hole puncture Indicator system. This article presents the first biomechanical performance study that documents the puncture resistance of blunt surgical needles in latex and nonlatex single gloves and double-glove hole puncture indication systems. The technique for measuring glove puncture resistance simulates the standard test for material resistance to puncture outlined by the American Society for Testing and Materials. The maximum puncture resistance force was measured by the compression load cell and recorded in grams with a strip chart recorder. Ten puncture resistance measurements for the taper point needle, blunt taper point needle, and blunt needle were taken from five samples of the Biogel Indicator underglove, Biogel Super-Sensitive glove, Biogel glove, Biogel Skinsense N Universal underglove, and Biogel Skinsense Polyisoprene glove; and the Biogel, Biogel Super-Sensitive, and Biogel Skinsense Polyisoprene double-glove hole puncture indication systems. The magnitude of puncture resistance forces recorded was influenced by several factors: glove material, number of glove layers, and type of surgical needle. For each type of curved surgical needle,the resistance to needle penetration by the nonlatex gloves was significantly greater than those encountered by the latex glove materials. The resistance to needle puncture of all three double-glove systems was significantly greater than that of either the nonlatex or latex underglove or outer glove. The taper point needle encountered the lowest puncture resistance forces in the five single gloves and the three double-glove systems. Blunting the sharp end of the taper point needle markedly increased its resistance to glove puncture in the five single gloves and five double-glove systems. The blunt-point surgical needle elicited the greatest needle penetration force in all of the single and double-glove systems. PMID:12825744

  12. The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

  13. Reducing accidental injuries during surgery.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Long, William B; Gubler, K; Rodeheaver, George T; Thacker, John G; Wallis, Anne G; Dahlstrom, Jill J; Clark, Jamie J; Cantrell, Holly S; Rhoads, Samantha K; Lin, Kant Y

    2010-01-01

    All surgical healthcare professionals and their patients should be aware of exposure to blood from individuals infected with potentially transmissible disease. The site that was most susceptible to sharp injuries was the index finger of the surgeon's hand. It is also important to note that needles cause the vast majority of sharp injuries. During the last two decades, there have been two revolutionary advances in preventing accidental needlestick injuries during surgery that include the development of blunt tapering point needles as well as the double-glove hole indication systems. During the innovative development of blunt taper point needles, a glove manufacturer, Molnlycke, Inc., devised non-latex and latex double-glove hole puncture indication systems that are being used throughout the world. The reliability of these double-glove hole indication systems in detecting holes in the outer glove has been reliably documented by scientific studies that are published in peer-reviewed journals. On the basis of these extensive quantitative studies, the authors recommended that the double-glove hole indication system be used in all operative procedures to prevent the transmission of deadly bloodborne viral infections. PMID:21284595

  14. Accidental radiation exposure and azoospermia.

    PubMed

    Bezold, G; Gottlöber, P; Gall, H; Peter, R U

    2000-01-01

    Seven Georgian male soldiers (19-25 years old) had accidentally been exposed to radiation by Cs-137 between April 1996 and May 1997. No information about the exact time and duration of exposure was available. All patients presented with the subacute stage of Cutaneous Radiation Syndrome with deep painful ulcers on different body sites, predominantly on the legs. Semen analyses showed complete azoospermia in 4 patients, with elevated follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in 3 and elevated luteinizing hormone (LH) in 2 of them. One patient had severe oligozoospermia of 7 million sperm per mL, with normal sperm motility and morphology; his FSH and LH levels were elevated. One patient had complete normozoospermia, and the seventh patient had polyzoospermia of 340 million per mL; both of these patients had normal serum hormone levels. Only the patient with oligozoospermia reported a history of delayed testicular descent; his physical examination showed relatively soft and small testicles and a varicocele with considerable reflux. The physical andrological examinations were normal in the other 6 patients. It is very likely that the azoospermia in the 4 patients can be attributed to the radiation accident. In conclusion, it is essential to perform andrological examinations in patients who have been exposed to radiation even if there are only cutaneous injuries detectable, as a high percentage of them can show azoospermia. PMID:10819447

  15. An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.

    PubMed

    Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2014-10-24

    An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the ?-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. PMID:25453780

  16. Physical quality of pelleted animal feed. 2. contribution of processes and its conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Thomas; D. J. van Zuilichem

    1997-01-01

    The effects of changes in process parameters and their effect on pellet quality in terms of hardness and durability are discussed. The pelleting process in this respect is the combination of conditioning, pelleting and cooling. The parameters discussed with respect to the conditioning process are process variables such as steam and water and system parameters such as residence time and

  17. Contextual Fear Conditioning in Humans: Cortical-Hippocampal and Amygdala Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Ruben P.; Biggs, Arter; Chen, Gang; Pine, Daniel S.; Grillon, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Functional imaging studies of cued fear conditioning in humans have largely confirmed findings in animals, but it is unclear whether the brain mechanisms that underlie contextual fear conditioning in animals are also preserved in humans. We investigated this issue using fMRI and virtual reality contexts. Subjects underwent differential context conditioning in which they were repeatedly exposed to two contexts (CXT+ and CXT-) in semi-random order, with contexts counterbalanced across participants. An un-signaled footshock was consistently paired with the CXT+, and no shock was ever delivered in the CXT-. Evidence for context conditioning was established using skin conductance and anxiety ratings. Consistent with animal models centrally implicating the hippocampus and amygdala in a network supporting context conditioning, CXT+ compared to CXT- significantly activated right anterior hippocampus and bilateral amygdala. In addition, context conditioning was associated with activation in posterior orbitofrontal cortex, medial dorsal thalamus, anterior insula, subgenual anterior cingulate, and parahippocampal, inferior frontal and parietal cortices. Structural equation modeling was used to assess interactions among the core brain regions mediating context conditioning. The derived model indicated that medial amygdala was the source of key efferent and afferent connections including input from orbitofrontal cortex. These results provide evidence that similar brain mechanisms may underlie contextual fear conditioning across species. PMID:18550763

  18. Differential contribution of some cortical sites to the formation of memory traces supporting fear conditioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benedetto Sacchetti; Elisabetta Baldi; Carlo Ambrogi Lorenzini; Corrado Bucherelli

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the role of some cortical sites of the rat (the prefrontal, PFC, frontal, FC, parietal,\\u000a PAC, and perirhinal, PC, cortices) in the acquisition of classical fear conditioning (CS and context conditioned freezing).\\u000a Using the reversible ablation technique the sites were inactivated with lidocaine (LIDO), administered before the one-trial\\u000a training session. The

  19. Bivariate empirical mode decomposition and its contribution to wind turbine condition monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenxian; Court, Richard; Tavner, Peter J.; Crabtree, Christopher J.

    2011-07-01

    Accessing difficulties and harsh environments require more advanced condition monitoring techniques to ensure the high availability of offshore wind turbines. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) has been shown to be a promising technique for meeting this need. However, EMD was developed for one-dimensional signals, unable to carry out an information fusion function which is of importance to reach a reliable condition monitoring conclusion. Therefore, bivariate empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) is investigated in this paper to assess whether it could be a better solution for wind turbine condition monitoring. The effectiveness of the proposed technique in detecting machine incipient fault is compared with EMD and a recently developed wavelet-based 'energy tracking' technique. Experiments have shown that the proposed BEMD-based technique is more convenient than EMD for processing shaft vibration signals, and more powerful than EMD and wavelet-based techniques in terms of processing the non-stationary and nonlinear wind turbine condition monitoring signals and detecting incipient mechanical and electrical faults.

  20. Inhibition of vesicular glutamate transporters contributes to attenuate methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    He, Zongsheng; Chen, Yuan; Dong, Huajin; Su, Ruibin; Gong, Zehui; Yan, Lingdi

    2014-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that glutamatergic system plays a crucial role in methamphetamine (METH) addiction. In the glutamatergic transmission, vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) are responsible for transporting glutamate into synaptic vesicles and affect the glutamate concentrations in the synaptic cleft. It is well documented that VGLUTs play an essential role in pathophysiology of several psychiatric and neurological diseases, however, whether VGLUTs also have a role in addiction caused by psychostimulant drugs is still unknown. The present study was underwent to investigate the effect of inhibition of VGLUTs on METH-induced induce conditioned place preference in rats. Rats were induced to conditioned place preference with METH (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection. Intracerebroventricular administration of 1.0 or 5.0?g Chicago sky blue 6B (CSB6B), a VGLUTs inhibitor, and 2.5h prior to METH was to observe its effect on METH-induced conditioned place preference in rats. The rats receiving METH showed stronger place preference at the dose of 1.0mg/kg than that of other doses. The intracerebroventricular administration of CSB6B (1.0, 5.0?g) 2.5h prior to the exposure to METH attenuated the acquisition of METH-induced conditioned place preference, while CSB6B itself had no effect on place preference. These results indicate that VGLUTs are involved in the effect of METH-induced conditioned place preference and may be a new target against METH addiction. PMID:24613241

  1. Genetic trade-offs and conditional neutrality contribute to local adaptation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jill T; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Rushworth, Catherine A; Colautti, Robert I; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Divergent natural selection promotes local adaptation and can lead to reproductive isolation of populations in contrasting environments; however, the genetic basis of local adaptation remains largely unresolved in natural populations. Local adaptation might result from antagonistic pleiotropy, where alternate alleles are favoured in distinct habitats, and polymorphism is maintained by selection. Alternatively, under conditional neutrality some alleles may be favoured in one environment but neutral at other locations. Antagonistic pleiotropy maintains genetic variation across the landscape; however, there is a systematic bias against discovery of antagonistic pleiotropy because the fitness benefits of local alleles need to be significant in at least two environments. Here, we develop a generally applicable method to investigate polygenic local adaptation and identify loci that are the targets of selection. This approach evaluates allele frequency changes after selection at loci across the genome to distinguish antagonistic pleiotropy from conditional neutrality and deleterious variation. We investigate local adaptation at the qualitative trait loci (QTL) level in field experiments, in which we expose 177 F(6) recombinant inbred lines and parental lines of Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae) to their parental environments over two seasons. We demonstrate polygenic selection for native alleles in both environments, with 2.8% of the genome exhibiting antagonistic pleiotropy and 8% displaying conditional neutrality. Our study strongly supports antagonistic pleiotropy at one large-effect flowering phenology QTL (nFT): native homozygotes had significantly greater probabilities of flowering than foreign homozygotes in both parental environments. Such large-scale field studies are essential to elucidate the genetic basis of adaptation in natural populations. PMID:22420446

  2. Reinterpretation of mouse thyroid changes under space conditions: the contribution of confinement to damage.

    PubMed

    Albi, E; Ambesi-Impiombato, F S; Lazzarini, A; Lazzarini, R; Floridi, A; Cataldi, S; Loreti, E; Ferri, I; Curcio, F

    2014-07-01

    During space missions, astronauts work in a state of separation from their daily social environment and in physical confinement. It has been shown that confinement influences mood and brain cortical activity, but no data has been obtained with regard to its effect on the thyroid gland, the structure and function of which change during spaceflights. Here, we report the results of a study on the effects of confinement on mouse thyroid, which was implemented with the Mice Drawer System Facility maintained on the ground, a system used for spaceflight experiments. The results show that confinement changes the microscopic structure of the thyroid gland and that it exhibits symptoms similar to those that result from physiological and/or pathological hyperfunction. What is left unchanged, however, is the sphingomyelinase-thyrotropin receptor relationship, which is important for thyrotropin response with a consequential production of hormones that act on the metabolism of almost all tissues and reduces the production of calcitonin, a hormone involved in bone metabolism. During space missions, the overexpression of pleiotrophin, a widespread cytokine up-regulated after tissue injury that acts on bone remodeling, attenuates changes to the thyroid that are spaceflight-dependent; therefore we studied the thyroids of pleiotrophin-transgenic mice in the Mice Drawer System Facility. In confinement, pleiotrophin overexpression does not protect from the loss of calcitonin. The contribution of confinement to thyroid damage during spaceflights is discussed. PMID:24945896

  3. The contribution of woody plant materials on the several conditions in a space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Katayama, Takeshi

    Woody plant materials have several utilization elements in our habitation environment on earth. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. Woody plants can produce an excess oxygen, woody materials for the living cabin, and provide a biomass by cultivating crops and other species of creatures. Tree material would become to be a tool in closed bio-ecosystems such as an environment in a space. We named the trees used as material for the experiment related to space environments “CosmoBon”, small tree bonsai. Japanese cherry tree, “Sakura”, is famous and lovely tree in Japan. One species of “Sakura”, “Mamezakura, Prunus incisa”, is not only lovely tree species, but also suitable tree for the model tree of our purpose. The species of Prunus incisa is originally grown in volcano environment. That species of Sakura is originally grown on Mt. Fuji aria, oligotrophic place. We will try to build the best utilization usage of woody plant under the space environment by “Mamezakura” as a model tree. Here, we will show the importance of uniformity of materials when we will use the tree materials in a space environment. We will also discuss that tree has a high possibility of utilization under the space environments by using our several results related to this research.

  4. Accidental parabolics and relatively hyperbolic groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Dahmani; Universitd P. Sabatier

    2006-01-01

    By constructing, in the relative case, objects analogous to Rips and Sela’s canonical representatives, we prove that the set\\u000a of conjugacy classes of images by morphisms without accidental parabolic, of a finitely presented group in a relatively hyperbolic\\u000a group, is finite.

  5. Contribution of incense burning to indoor PM10 and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under two ventilation conditions.

    PubMed

    Lung, S-C C; Kao, M-C; Hu, S-C

    2003-06-01

    Burning incense to worship Gods and ancestors is a traditional practice prevalent in Asian societies. This work investigated indoor PM10 concentrations resulting from incense burning in household environments under two conditions: closed and ventilated. The exposure concentrations of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were estimated. The factors of potential exposure were also evaluated. Under both conditions, samples were taken at three locations: 0.3, 3.5 and 7 m away from the altar during three periods: incense burning, the first 3 h, and the 4-6 h after cessation of combustion. PAH concentrations of incense smoke were assessed in the laboratory. Personal environment monitors were used as sampling instruments. The results showed a significant contribution of incense burning to indoor PM10 and particulate PAH concentrations. PM10 concentrations near the altar during incense burning were 723 and 178 microg/m3, more than nine and 1.6 times background levels, under closed and ventilated conditions, respectively. Exposure concentrations of particle-bound PAHs were 0.088-0.45 microg/m3 during incense burning. On average, PM10 and associated PAH concentrations were about 371 and 0.23 microg/m3 lower, respectively, in ventilated environments compared with closed conditions. Concentrations were elevated for at least 6 h under closed conditions. PMID:12756013

  6. 19 CFR 158.27 - Accidental fire or other casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Accidental fire or other casualty. 158...Custody § 158.27 Accidental fire or other casualty. In the...or destruction by accidental fire or other casualty, the following...vehicle, the proprietor of the warehouse, or other person...

  7. Differential Contribution of Bilateral Supplementary Motor Area to the Effective Connectivity Networks Induced by Task Conditions Using Dynamic Causal Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Zhongping; Zhang, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Functional imaging studies have indicated hemispheric asymmetry of activation in bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA) during unimanual motor tasks. However, the hemispherically special roles of bilateral SMAs on primary motor cortex (M1) in the effective connectivity networks (ECN) during lateralized tasks remain unclear. Aiming to study the differential contribution of bilateral SMAs during the motor execution and motor imagery tasks, and the hemispherically asymmetric patterns of ECN among regions involved, the present study used dynamic causal modeling to analyze the functional magnetic resonance imaging data of the unimanual motor execution/imagery tasks in 12 right-handed subjects. Our results demonstrated that distributions of network parameters underlying motor execution and motor imagery were significantly different. The variation was mainly induced by task condition modulations of intrinsic coupling. Particularly, regardless of the performing hand, the task input modulations of intrinsic coupling from the contralateral SMA to contralateral M1 were positive during motor execution, while varied to be negative during motor imagery. The results suggested that the inhibitive modulation suppressed the overt movement during motor imagery. In addition, the left SMA also helped accomplishing left hand tasks through task input modulation of left SMA?right SMA connection, implying that hemispheric recruitment occurred when performing nondominant hand tasks. The results specified differential and altered contributions of bilateral SMAs to the ECN during unimanual motor execution and motor imagery, and highlighted the contributions induced by the task input of motor execution/imagery. PMID:24606178

  8. Sheltering--a protective measure following an accidental atmospheric release from a nuclear power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Koch; Jacob Tadmor

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of sheltering the population for reducing radiological effects following an accidental release of radioactivity at a nuclear power plant was investigated. Different levels of respiratory protection and the administration of a thyroid blocking agent were also studied as possible complements to sheltering. Specific conditions were assumed, concerning the high protection factors of regular buildings and the high availability

  9. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOL. 15: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR TRIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, discussing sulfur trioxide (SO3), is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. SO3, a clear oily liquid or solid at typical ambient conditions, has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, w...

  10. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 15: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF SULFUR TRIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, discussing sulfur trioxide (SO3), is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. SO3, a clear oily liquid or solid at typical ambient conditions, has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration of 20 ppm, w...

  11. Accidental inflation from Kähler uplifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Jing, Shenglin; Westphal, Alexander; Wieck, Clemens

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the possibility of realizing inflation with a subsequent dS vacuum in the Käahler uplifting scenario. The inclusion of several quantum corrections to the 4d effective action evades previous no-go theorems and allows for construction of simple and successful models of string inflation. The predictions of several benchmark models are in accord with current observations, i.e., a red spectral index, negligible non-gaussianity, and spectral distortions similar to the simplest models of inflation. A particularly interesting subclass of models are ``left-rolling" ones, where the overall volume of the compactified dimensions shrinks during inflation. We call this phenomenon ``inflation by deflation" (IBD), where deflation refers to the internal manifold. This subclass has the appealing features of being insensitive to initial conditions, avoiding the overshooting problem, and allowing for observable running ? ~ 0.012 and enhanced tensor-to-scalar ratio r ~ 10-5. The latter results differ significantly from many string inflation models.

  12. Causes of accidental childhood deaths in China in 2010: A systematic review and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kit Yee; Yu, Xin–wei; Lu, Jia–peng; Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll; Bowman, Kirsty; Theodoratou, Evropi

    2015-01-01

    Background Infectious causes of childhood deaths in the world have decreased substantially in the 21st century. This trend has exposed accidental deaths as an increasingly important future challenge. Presently, little is known about the cause structure of accidental childhood deaths in low– and middle–income country (LMIC) settings. In this paper, we aim to establish cause structure for accidental deaths in children aged 0–4 years in China in the year 2010. Methods In this paper, we explored the database of 208 multi–cause child mortality studies in Chinese that formed a basis for the first published estimate of the causes of child deaths in China (for the year 2008). Only five of those studies identified specific causes of accidental deaths. Because of this, we searched the Chinese medical literature databases CNKI and WanFang for single–cause mortality studies that were focused on accidental deaths. We identified 71 further studies that provided specific causes for accidental deaths. We used epidemiological modeling to estimate the number of accidental child deaths in China in 2010 and to assign those deaths to specific causes. Results In 2010, we estimated 314?581 deaths in children 0–4 years in China, of which 31?633 (10.1%) were accidental. Accidental deaths contributed 7240 (4.0%) of all deaths in neonatal period, 8838 (10.5%) among all post–neonatal infant deaths, and 15?554 (31.7%) among children with 1–4 years of age. Among four tested models, the most predictive was used to establish the likely cause structure of accidental deaths in China. We estimated that asphyxia caused 9490 (95% confidence interval (CI) 8224–11?072), drowning 5694 (95% CI 5061–6327), traffic accidents 3796 (95% CI 3163–4745), poisoning 3163 (95% CI 2531–3796) and falls 2531 (95% CI 2214–3163) deaths. Based on medians from a few rare studies, we also predict 633 (95% CI 316–1265) deaths to be due to burns and 316 (95% CI 0–633) due to falling objects. Together, these 7 causes explain more than 80% of all accidental deaths when modeling is primarily used, and more than 95% when the analysis is based purely on medians from the 76 available studies. Conclusions Reduction in global child mortality is a leading political priority and accidental deaths will soon emerge as one of the main challenges. In this paper we provided a detailed breakdown of causes of these deaths in a large middle–income country. We noted that, wherever the share of accidental deaths among all child deaths is increased, drowning is more likely to be the leading cause; asphyxia seems to be equally important in all contexts, while traffic accidents, poisoning and falls are relatively more important in contexts where the overall share of accidents to all child deaths is low.

  13. Intermediate Scale Accidental Axion and ALPs

    E-print Network

    Alex G. Dias

    2014-09-28

    We discuss the problem of constructing models containing an axion and axion-like particles, motivated by astrophysical observations, with decay constants at the intermediate scale ranging from $10^9$GeV to $10^{13}$GeV. We present examples in which the axion and axion-like particles arise accidentally as pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons of automatic global chiral symmetries, in models having exact discrete symmetries.

  14. Computer code to assess accidental pollutant releases

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergast, M.M.; Huang, J.C.

    1980-07-01

    A computer code was developed to calculate the cumulative frequency distributions of relative concentrations of an air pollutant following an accidental release from a stack or from a building penetration such as a vent. The calculations of relative concentration are based on the Gaussian plume equations. The meteorological data used for the calculation are in the form of joint frequency distributions of wind and atmospheric stability.

  15. Reducing accidental complexity in domain models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin Atkinson; Thomas Kühne

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental principle in engineering, including software engineering, is to minimize the amount of accidental complexity\\u000a which is introduced into engineering solutions due to mismatches between a problem and the technology used to represent the\\u000a problem. As model-driven development moves to the center stage of software engineering, it is particularly important that\\u000a this principle be applied to the technologies used

  16. Cultural and socio-economic conditions as factors contributing to chronic stress in sub-Saharan African communities.

    PubMed

    Henley, Phaedra; Lowthers, Megan; Koren, Gideon; Fedha, Pamela Tsimbiri; Russell, Evan; VanUum, Stan; Arya, Sumedha; Darnell, Regna; Creed, Irena F; Trick, Charles G; Bend, John R

    2014-09-01

    Stress is known to contribute to overall health status. Many individuals in sub-Saharan Africa are believed to be stressed about their employment, income, and health. This study aimed to investigate hair cortisol as a biomarker of chronic stress in settlement communities in Kenya. Hair samples were collected from 108 volunteers from settlement communities in Kenya. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique was used to measure hair cortisol concentrations. In parallel, a health survey was completed. The mean ± SD for the cortisol concentration in the hair of volunteers from the settlement communities in Naivasha was 639 ± 300 ng/g, which was higher than found for a Caucasian reference group (299 ± 110 ng/g; one-way ANOVA, P = 0.0003). There were no differences in hair cortisol concentrations between members of slum settlements adjacent to large floriculture farms in Naivasha (Karagita, Kamere/Kwa Muhia/DCK, and Kasarani) compared with those well-removed from all floriculture in Mogotio (Mogotio and Westlands/Katorongot). However, hair cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in females, divorced volunteers, those who made below minimum wage, and those who reported feeling unsafe collecting water or using sanitation facilities within these 2 settlement groups. We found no evidence for increased chronic stress (measured by hair cortisol content) between members of slum settlements adjacent to versus distant to large floriculture farms. Cultural and socio-economic conditions that prevail in much of sub-Saharan Africa were found to be factors contributing to chronic stress. PMID:25083791

  17. Spatial variation in water quality within the water bodies of a Peak District catchment and the contribution of moorland condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, Tia; Walker, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Spatial variation in water quality within the water bodies of a Peak District catchment and the contribution of moorland condition Tia Crouch and Jonathan Walker (Moors for the Future Partnership) Upland locations are significant water supply sources providing over 70% of fresh water in Great Britain. However, the peatlands of the Peak District, Southern Pennines are highly contaminated with anthropogenically derived, atmospherically deposited pollutants, such as heavy metals. This is due to their location between the cities of Manchester and Sheffield, the centre of the 19th century English Industrial Revolution. These peatlands are also severely eroded; therefore erosion could be releasing these pollutants into the fluvial system, representing a threat to both aquatic ecosystems and drinking water supplies. These threats are regulated under the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Water Supply Regulations respectively. There are two aims of this project. The first aim is to identify spatial and temporal variability of water quality within the Bamford water treatment works (WTW) catchment. This was achieved by fortnightly spot sampling at eight of the tributaries into the reservoir system. The second aim is to assess the contribution of moorland condition to water quality within the Bamford WTW catchment. Similarly, this was achieved by fortnightly spot sampling at eight moorland streams, draining from a variety of peatland conditions (bare peat, restoration, intact and heather burn). Water samples were analysed for carbon (DOC, POC & TOC), pH, hardness and a suite of heavy metals, including copper, iron and zinc. In addition, stream temperature and stage height was recorded. Preliminary results highlight a number of issues within the Bamford WTW catchment: under the WFD streams are not achieving 'good' status for pH, copper and zinc, and under the Drinking Water Standards (DWS) streams are not achieving targets for aluminium, iron and colour. For example, the DWS for colour is 20 hazen units; however, mean values for streams within the Bamford WTW catchment range from 40 to 742 Hazen Units. Further analysis of the results will identify where spatial issues and priorities exist in space and time, as well as in relation to WFD objectives and DWS. The relationships between heavy metals and carbon (DOC, POC & TOC), pH, temperature and stage height will also be investigated, and the impacts of moorland restoration on carbon and heavy metals in water supplies will be discussed. Overall, this project is intended to provide evidence of the links between moorland restoration and management and DWS and WFD objectives; therefore, enabling continued support for moorland restoration work. This project was funded by the Environment Agency and Severn Trent Water Limited.

  18. Comparative analysis of near-present and future synoptic conditions and their contribution to precipitation in central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karacostas, Theodore S.; Bampzelis, Dimitrios; Karipidou, Symela; Pytharoulis, Ioannis; Tegoulias, Ioannis; Kartsios, Stergios; Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Pakalidou, Nikoletta

    2015-04-01

    The objective on this study is to identify and categorize the daily synoptic circulation patterns encountered between the two periods, in near-present (2001-2010) and future (2041-2050), over the greater area of central and northern Greece, under the "DAPHNE" project (www.daphne-meteo.gr). The followed up statistical analyses and comparisons are focus on the demonstration of the differences in the frequency of occurrences of the synoptic situations between the two time periods, aiming at mitigating drought in central Greece by means of Weather Modification. Actually, within the context of the project, the daily synoptic circulation patterns encountered during the near-present ten-year period are identified and classified according to Karacostas et al. (1992) synoptic classification, into ten distinct synoptic conditions, based on the isobaric level of 500hPa. A similar procedure is adopted for the future period 2041-2050, by developing the mid-tropospheric synoptic circulation patterns through the RegCM3 regional climate model, under the IPCC scenario A1B. Results indicate that certain differences exist between near-present and future frequency distribution of occurrences of the synoptic situations over the study area. The northwest (NW) and southwest (SW) synoptic circulation patterns remain the most frequent synoptic conditions observed for both examined periods. The low pressure system activity over the area exhibit significant decrease during the future period, as it is depicted from the inter-comparison of the frequencies of the closed low (L-2) and cut-off low (L-3) systems. On the other hand, the unorganized synoptic conditions, which are mostly identified as high-low patterns (H-L), appear to increase considerably. The frequencies of zonal flow (ZON) and those of synoptic conditions associated with the presence of high-pressure system over the area, that is (H-1) and (H-2), remain almost unchanged between the two periods. The impact of the aforementioned differences in the frequencies of the synoptic conditions during the future period is examined on a yearly and seasonal basis. The contribution of each synoptic condition on the annual precipitation amounts are estimated for the near-present period, which coupled with the altered frequencies of the synoptic conditions for the future period, result to the future projected annual precipitation amounts. Possible decrease in precipitation amounts is indicated during the future period, as a result of the reduction in the frequencies of certain synoptic conditions associated with high amount of precipitation during the near-present conditions. Acknowledgments: This research work is part of DAPHNE project (11SYN_8_1088_TPE) which is co-funded by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund) and Greek National Funds, through the action "COOPERATION 2011: Partnerships of Production and Research Institutions in Focused Research and Technology Sectors" in the framework of the operational programme "Competitiveness and Enterpreneurship" and Regions in Transition (OPC II, NSRF 2007-2013).

  19. Accidental supersymmetric dark matter and baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kozaczuk, Jonathan; Profumo, Stefano; Wainwright, Carroll L., E-mail: jkozaczu@ucsc.edu, E-mail: profumo@ucsc.edu, E-mail: cwainwri@ucsc.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    We show that ''accidental'' supersymmetry is a beyond-the-Standard Model framework that naturally accommodates a thermal relic dark matter candidate and successful electroweak baryogenesis, including the needed strongly first-order character of the electroweak phase transition. We study the phenomenology of this setup from the standpoint of both dark matter and baryogenesis. For energies around the electroweak phase transition temperature, the low-energy effective theory is similar to the MSSM with light super-partners of the third-generation quarks and of the Higgs and gauge bosons. We calculate the dark matter relic abundance and the baryon asymmetry across the accidental supersymmetry parameter space, including resonant and non-resonant CP-violating sources. We find that there are regions of parameter space producing both the observed value of the baryon asymmetry and a dark matter candidate with the correct relic density and conforming to present-day constraints from dark matter searches. This scenario makes sharp predictions for the particle spectrum, predicting a lightest neutralino mass between 200 and 500 GeV, with all charginos and neutralinos within less than a factor 2 of the lightest neutralino mass and the heavy Higgs sector within 20–25% of that mass, making it an interesting target for collider searches. In addition, we demonstrate that successful accidental supersymmetric dark matter and baryogenesis will be conclusively tested with improvements smaller than one order of magnitude to the current performance of electron electric dipole moment searches and of direct dark matter searches, as well as with IceCube plus Deep Core neutrino telescope data.

  20. Modeling downwind hazards after an accidental release of chlorine trifluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.A.; Cheng, Meng-Dawn

    1996-05-01

    A module simulating ClF{sub 3} chemical reactions with water vapor and thermodynamic processes in the atmosphere after an accidental release has been developed. This module was liked to the HGSYSTEM. Initial model runs simulate the rapid formation of HF and ClO{sub 2} after an atmospheric release of ClF{sub 3}. At distances beyond the first several meters from the release point, HF and ClO{sub 2} concentrations pose a greater threat to human health than do ClF{sub 3} concentrations. For most of the simulations, ClF{sub 3} concentrations rapidly fall below the IDLH. Fro releases occurring in ambient conditions with low relative humidity and/or ambient temperature, ClF{sub 3} concentrations exceed the IDLH up to almost 500 m. The performance of this model needs to be determined for potential release scenarios that will be considered. These release scenarios are currently being developed.

  1. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ró?alska, Anna; Ukleja-Soko?owska, Natalia; ?bikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit. PMID:24278073

  2. The contribution of working conditions and social support to the onset of depressive and anxiety disorders among male and female employees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inger Plaisier; Jeanne G. M. de Bruijn; Ron de Graaf; Margreet ten Have; Aartjan T. F. Beekman; Brenda W. J. H. Penninx

    2007-01-01

    Poor working conditions may be an important source of stress and may therefore contribute to the development of depressive and anxiety disorders. Social support may act as a buffer and protect against the development of depression or anxiety in the face of poor working conditions. With longitudinal data from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS), the effect

  3. Feeding condition and the relative contribution of different dopamine receptor subtypes to the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Baladi, Michelle G; Newman, Amy H; France, Charles P

    2013-01-01

    Rationale The contribution of dopamine receptor subtypes in mediating the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine is not fully established. Many drug discrimination studies use food to maintain responding, necessitating food restriction, which can alter drug effects. Objective This study established stimulus control with cocaine (10 mg/kg) in free-feeding and food-restricted rats responding under a schedule of stimulus shock termination (SST) and in food-restricted rats responding under a schedule of food presentation to examine whether feeding condition or the reinforcer used to maintain responding impacts the effects of cocaine. Method Dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists were examined for their ability to mimic or attenuate, respectively, the effects of cocaine. Result Apomorphine, quinpirole, and lisuride occasioned >90% responding on the cocaine-associated lever in free-feeding rats responding under a schedule of SST; apomorphine, but not quinpirole or lisuride, occasioned >90% responding on the cocaine lever in food-restricted rats responding under a schedule of SST. In food-restricted rats responding for food these drugs occasioned little cocaine lever responding and were comparatively more potent in decreasing responding. In free-feeding rats, the effects of cocaine were attenuated by the D2/D3 receptor antagonist raclopride and the D3 receptor-selective antagonist PG01037. In food-restricted rats, raclopride and the D2 receptor-selective antagonist L-741,626 attenuated the effects of cocaine. Raclopride antagonized quinpirole in all groups while PG01037 antagonized quinpirole only in free-feeding rats. Conclusion These results demonstrate significant differences in the discriminative stimulus of cocaine that are due to feeding conditions and not to the use of different reinforcers across procedures. PMID:24030470

  4. Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin

    PubMed Central

    May, George

    1973-01-01

    May, G. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 276-283. Chloracne from the accidental production of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin. Following the accidental production of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (dioxin) as the result of an exothermic reaction at a chemical plant in Derbyshire, 79 cases of chloracne were recorded, many of them severe. Contrary to the usual experience they have responded very favourably to treatment and there were no cases of contact chloracne among relatives or domestic animals in the initial outbreak. However, two cases of contact chloracne were recorded three years later. Similar incidents are known to have occured in both Europe and the United States of America, almost invariably accompanied by widespread severe illness and with fatalities. Apart from one death due to an explosion which followed the exothermic reaction the more serious sequelae, which may range from depression and loss of weight to liver, kidney, and cardiac failure as well as malignant disease, have not occurred. A quick and reliable method of biological assay for the presence of dioxin in produced trichlorophenol was developed based on oral dosage to rabbits with assessment of liver function at fixed time intervals thereafter. This test has already been superseded by instantaneous gas-liquid chromatography. An entirely new plant with suitable modifications and multiple safety features has now been in satisfactory operation for three years. Images PMID:4269256

  5. [Factors associated with the danger of accidental falls among institutionalized elderly individuals: an integrative review].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Erika Carla Cavalcanti; Marques, Ana Paula de Oliveira; Leal, Márcia Carréra Campos; Barros, Benvinda Pereira de

    2014-08-01

    The scope of this research is to identify the major risk factors associated with accidental falls among the elderly. It involves an integrative review of the literature between 2002 and 2012 in English and Portuguese. The selection of articles was based on the following key words in the Lilacs, Medline and BDENF databases: accidental falls, homes for the elderly and health services. In the final sample 19 articles were selected, of which 11 were national and 8 were international. They indicate that the major factors related to the risk of accidental falls in Homes for the Elderly are: being female, being diagnosed with chronic disease, treatment with benzodiazepine, earlier cases of accident falls, and mobility restriction. The research reveals that architectonic and furniture inadequacies in Homes for the Elderly may be predisposing factors for accidental falls. Analysis of the articles reveals the need for further longitudinal studies and, consequently, enhanced monitoring of the conditions of the functional capacity of the elderly, especially the risks related to falls, considered one of the leading causes of death among institutionalized elderly individuals. PMID:25119093

  6. Modelling dispersion processes of hypothetical nuclear accidental release on different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, R.; Lagzi, I.; Molnár, F., Jr.; Vincze, Cs.; Leel?ssy, Á.; Kovács, T.

    2010-09-01

    An increased attention of anthropogenic effects on the environment was observable in the last decades. As more nuclear, biological and industrial accidents occurred in the different part of the world, there is an increased demand both on the part of population and scientific society for the understanding and effective prediction of the environmental, social or economical effects of continuous or a possible accidental release. On the basis of sophisticated dispersion model calculations, the decision makers could make important arrangements, which can save human lives. For this purpose, accidental release models for different spatial and time scales were developed. Model estimations of radionuclide dispersions from the Paks Nuclear Power Plant (Hungary) were also carried out from regional to local scales. With the TREX-Euler, multi-layered, Eulerian passive tracer dispersion model, the transport and deposition of air pollutants over the Central European region were simulated under different weather conditions. For mesoscale simulation of accidental release, the stochastic TREX-Lagrangian particle model was chosen and developed. Both hypothetical accidental releases and continuous environmental loads were simulated. Additionally, near the point source, CFD simulations with A2C model were evaluated. Model estimations on different scales and their sensitivity analyses are presented in this study.

  7. Contributions of vacancies and self-interstitials to self-diffusion in silicon under thermal equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kube, R.; Bracht, H.; Hüger, E.; Schmidt, H.; Hansen, J. Lundsgaard; Larsen, A. Nylandsted; Ager, J. W., III; Haller, E. E.; Geue, T.; Stahn, J.

    2013-08-01

    Since many years, the contribution of vacancies (V) and self-interstitials (I) to silicon (Si) self-diffusion is a matter of debate. Native defects and their interaction among themselves and with foreign atoms influence the processes taking place during device fabrication, starting with the growth of Si single crystals and ending with doping of nanosized electronic devices. Considering this relevance, it is remarkable that present data about the properties of native point defects in Si are still limited and controversial. This work reports experiments on self-diffusion in Si for temperatures between 650?C and 960?C to verify recent results of Shimizu [Phys. Rev. Lett.10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.095901 98, 095901 (2007)] that give rise to inconsistencies in V-mediated self- and dopant diffusion. Two different structures of isotopically controlled epitaxial layers of Si are used for the diffusion study. One structure consisting of 20 bilayers of 29Si/28Si was grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The other structure with a 28Si layer sandwiched between natural Si was grown by means of chemical vapor deposition. Self-diffusion in (29Si/28Si)20 multilayers (ML) was analyzed by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and neutron reflectometry, whereas self-diffusion in natSi/28Si/natSi sandwich (SW) structures was measured with SIMS only. Analysis of the experimental profiles reveals an enhanced self-diffusion in ML compared to SW structures. The enhanced diffusion is ascribed to the dissolution of V- and I-related defect clusters grown-in during MBE. On the other hand, self-diffusion in the SW structures accurately confirms the data of Shimizu that are considered to represent data for thermal equilibrium conditions. The temperature dependence of self-diffusion is described by V- and I-mediated contributions with temperature-dependent thermodynamic properties of V. This interpretation can solve the inconsistency between self- and dopant diffusion in Si, but further experiments are required to verify this concept.

  8. Admittance Diagrams of Accidental and Premeditated Optical Inhomogeneities in Coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Poitras

    2002-01-01

    Intuitive interpretation of the effect of inhomogeneous layers in optical coatings is often difficult. I use admittance diagrams to interpret some properties of accidental and premeditated optical inhomogeneities. The effect of accidental homogeneous and inhomogeneous transition layers on the spectral properties of a single film is presented. I show that such layers affect the envelope of the reflectance spectra of

  9. Experiences of Causing an Accidental Death: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassool, Sara B.; Nel, Pieter W.

    2012-01-01

    Accidentally killing or feeling responsible for another person's death constitutes an event that is different from many typical traumatic stressors in that the responsibility for causing the trauma is located in the person themselves, rather than another person or persons. Research exploring the perspective of those who have accidentally caused a…

  10. Self-inflicted accidental gunshot wounds.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yung A

    2003-03-01

    This presentation will demonstrate the dangers of using a loaded gun as a blunt force object and designing toy guns to mimic realistic weapons. The ultimate goals of this presentation are to increase public education by promoting strict adherence to standard guidelines for safe gun usage, and to re-evaluate the future of toy gun designs that realistically mirror designs of current weapons. In a review of firearm deaths in the Wayne County Medical Examiner's Office (Detroit, Michigan, USA) over 10-year period from 1990 to 2000, there was an average of 500 cases of firearm deaths per year. This figure includes homicides, suicides and accidents. Among the 500 cases, seven of the most unusual self-inflicted accidental gunshot deaths are selected for this presentation. PMID:12935602

  11. Rickettsial infection caused by accidental conjunctival inoculation.

    PubMed

    Brissos, Joao; de Sousa, Rita; Santos, Ana Sofia; Gouveia, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    The most common transmission route of tick-borne Rickettsia is through tick bite; nevertheless, other transmission routes should also be considered. We report a case of rickettsial infection in a 15-year-old boy caused by accidental contamination of the conjunctiva through the infected fluid of a crushed engorged tick removed from a dog. Right eye pain, conjunctival hyperaemia with mucopurulent exudate, chemosis and eyelid oedema were the first signs and symptoms. Two days later, the boy developed fever, myalgia, headache, abdominal pain and was vomiting; physical examination showed multiple cervical adenopathies but no rash. He was treated with doxycycline (200?mg/day) for 7?days with progressive resolution of clinical signs. Rickettsial infection was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay with serological seroconversion in two consecutive samples. Rickettsia conorii or Rickettsia massiliae were the possible causal agents since they are the Rickettsia spp found in the Rhipicephalus sanguineus dog tick in Portugal. PMID:25568272

  12. 40 CFR 63.95 - Additional approval criteria for accidental release prevention programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...criteria for accidental release prevention programs. 63.95 Section...criteria for accidental release prevention programs. (a) A State...approvable State Accidental Release Prevention program is regulating: ...State's part 68 program submit a Risk Management Plan...

  13. 29 CFR 778.215 - Conditions for exclusion of benefit-plan contributions under section 7(e)(4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...increase up to a maximum of 15 percent of compensation, would meet the requirement. However, a plan which provides for insignificant minimum contributions and permits a variation so great that, for all practical purposes, the formula becomes...

  14. "Accidental" Urban Wetland Networks along the Salt River in Phoenix, AZ Monica M. Palta, Nancy B. Grimm

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    wetland networks have formed in the bed of the otherwise dry Salt River, fed by outfalls carrying storm"Accidental" Urban Wetland Networks along the Salt River in Phoenix, AZ Monica M. Palta, Nancy B in drought frequency and storm severity in Phoenix: - Drier conditions increase erosion by water during storm

  15. Cytogenetic research after accidental radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Bauchinger, M

    1995-05-01

    Currently, chromosome aberration analysis in peripheral lymphocytes is the most sensitive method to estimate individual doses in accidental radiation exposures. The assessment of dose is particularly reliable in cases with acute, uniform, whole-body exposure or after irradiation of large parts of the body. However, the scenarios of most radiation accidents largely result in partial-body exposures or a non-uniform dose distribution. This complicates dose estimation especially in cases with protracted or fractionated exposures. Problems exist also for the dose reconstruction of radiation exposures occurring a long time before sampling. To overcome these problems, the Qdr method or the "contaminated Poisson" method can be used to determine meaningful dose estimates from data based on conventional scoring of dicentrics. Scoring of so-called stable translocations by the newly developed technique of chromosome painting should be particularly useful for estimating doses of past exposures or of dose accumulation. After incorporation of radionuclides with largely localized depositions in certain organs or tissues, realistic individual dose estimates cannot be achieved. Exemplified by incidents involving larger groups of the population such as in Chernobyl and Goiania and by single cases with serious overexposures, chromosome dosimetry is evaluated in the present article. PMID:7488944

  16. Accidental death via intravaginal absorption of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Jones, Prentiss; Mutsvunguma, Romeo; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2014-06-01

    In this paper a drug fatality that involved an unintended drug delivery route is described. The decedent, a 23-year-old female in custody in a county jail on suspicion of a felony drug offense, was discovered in a holding cell unconscious and unresponsive. Following unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempts she was pronounced dead at the scene. At autopsy a wad of multiple small loosely wrapped plastic packages held together with another layer of clear plastic was found in the decedent's vagina. The smaller plastic packages contained an off-white pasty substance that was later identified as methamphetamine. Toxicological testing of specimens collected during autopsy revealed methamphetamine in the decedent's subclavian blood, vitreous fluid, and urine at extremely high concentrations (42.6, 20.1, and 771 mg/L, respectively). Amphetamine, the active metabolite of methamphetamine, was also present in the subclavian blood, vitreous fluid, and urine at significant concentrations (1.3, 0.5, and 20.4 mg/L, respectively). The cause of death was attributed to toxic effects of methamphetamine and the manner of death was ruled accidental. This report suggests that lethal concentrations of methamphetamine may be distributed to the systemic circulation via intravaginal absorption. PMID:24515580

  17. Acute accidental overdosage of haloperidol in children.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, I; Sakaguchi, Y; Matsuishi, T; Yano, E; Yamashita, Y; Hayata, S; Hitoshi, T; Yamashita, F

    1993-10-01

    We report the details of an accidental overdosage of haloperidol in 24 children in one hospital in Kyushu, Japan. Evidence of acute toxicity included disturbances in consciousness (24/24), tremors in the extremities (16/24), an oculogyric or similar crisis (14/24), dysarthria (9/17), drooling (8/24), akathisia (6/20), hyperreflexia (6/24) and opisthotonos (3/24). Laboratory examinations revealed late-onset transient thrombocytosis (5/24), elevated AST and GPT (1/24) and abnormal ECG with prolonged QT interval in 2 of 8 children. We detected haloperidol in 11 of 18 children whose blood was specifically examined within four days after the final haloperidol administration. The maximum serum haloperidol level was 28.9 ng/ml. The mean half-life of haloperidol in the serum of five children (age range 2-10 years) was 18.6 +/- 12.2 h (mean +/- SD) (range 9.1-39.4 h). PMID:8241651

  18. Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

    2012-07-01

    Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ?100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies. PMID:22349318

  19. Conditions?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Christy Wyckoff; Scott E. Henke; Kurt C. VerCauteren

    Research interests in feral hogs typically involve their negative impacts on ecosystems or their potential as a disease reservoir, especially with disease transmission to domestic swine. Authors within scientific literature state that feral hogs were captured as part of their research, but usually fail to mention specific conditions in which hogs were captured. Novice researchers of feral hogs must rely

  20. Factors contributing to inter- and intra-annual variation in condition of cod Gadus morhua in the Barents Sea.

    PubMed

    Sandeman, L R; Yaragina, N A; Marshall, C T

    2008-07-01

    1. Relative body condition (the quantity of stored energy) is an important tool in understanding demographic variation and the ability of a population to respond to environmental stressors, varying food availability and competition. 2. A high-resolution database was used to examine causes of variation in the condition of north-east Arctic cod (Gadus morhua L.) for the period 1967-2004, over annual and monthly timescales. Community dynamics and climate variation were also tested as potential causes. 3. Temperature was shown to have a positive impact on condition at both inter- and intra-annual timescales. Inter-annually, temperature may affect stock distribution, in particular its overlap with the capelin stock. At shorter timescales it is likely that temperature directly affects the metabolism of the cod. 4. Intra-annually, the quantity of capelin in cod stomachs positively affected cod condition in the current and the preceding month for all lengths of cod. This indicated a time lag between a change in food consumption and a subsequent change in condition, or 'latency'. 5. Our study has shown that variation in temperature is a vital determinant of changes in condition, both at inter- and intra-annual timescales. Furthermore, the principle of latency has been demonstrated at the population level. Indirect effects of competition for energy-rich resources have been shown to have a negative effect on condition. This study supplements our knowledge of the implications for condition of changes in climate and in potential food resources. PMID:18384351

  1. Spinal transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 channel contributes to central pain hypersensitivity in various pathophysiological conditions in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Wei; Ari Koivisto; Marja Saarnilehto; Hugh Chapman; Katja Kuokkanen; Bin Hao; Jin-Lu Huang; Yong-Xiang Wang; Antti Pertovaara

    2011-01-01

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) ion channel is expressed on nociceptive primary afferent neurons. On the proximal nerve ending within the spinal dorsal horn, TRPA1 regulates transmission to spinal interneurons, and thereby pain hypersensitivity. Here we assessed whether the contribution of the spinal TRPA1 channel to pain hypersensitivity varies with the experimental pain model, properties of test stimulation

  2. Probabilistic safety analysis for urgent situations following the accidental release of a pollutant in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armand, P.; Brocheton, F.; Poulet, D.; Vendel, F.; Dubourg, V.; Yalamas, T.

    2014-10-01

    This paper is an original contribution to uncertainty quantification in atmospheric transport & dispersion (AT&D) at the local scale (1-10 km). It is proposed to account for the imprecise knowledge of the meteorological and release conditions in the case of an accidental hazardous atmospheric emission. The aim is to produce probabilistic risk maps instead of a deterministic toxic load map in order to help the stakeholders making their decisions. Due to the urge attached to such situations, the proposed methodology is able to produce such maps in a limited amount of time. It resorts to a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) using wind fields interpolated from a pre-established database that collects the results from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. This enables a decoupling of the CFD simulations from the dispersion analysis, thus a considerable saving of computational time. In order to make the Monte-Carlo-sampling-based estimation of the probability field even faster, it is also proposed to recourse to the use of a vector Gaussian process surrogate model together with high performance computing (HPC) resources. The Gaussian process (GP) surrogate modelling technique is coupled with a probabilistic principal component analysis (PCA) for reducing the number of GP predictors to fit, store and predict. The design of experiments (DOE) from which the surrogate model is built, is run over a cluster of PCs for making the total production time as short as possible. The use of GP predictors is validated by comparing the results produced by this technique with those obtained by crude Monte Carlo sampling.

  3. Accidental Childhood Death and the Role of the Pathologist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger W. Byard

    2000-01-01

    The following study provides an overview of accidental childhood death. This study is based on a review of 369 cases of fatal\\u000a childhood accidents taken from the records of the Department of Histopathology, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide,\\u000a Australia, over a 34-year period from 1963 to 1996. Data provide information on deaths due to motor vehicle accidents, drownings,\\u000a accidental asphyxia,

  4. Non-Accidental Health Impacts of Wildfire Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Youssouf, Hassani; Liousse, Catherine; Roblou, Laurent; Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Salonen, Raimo O.; Maesano, Cara; Banerjee, Soutrik; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of wildfire frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. We conducted a systematic review of non-accidental health impacts of wildfire and incorporated lessons learned from recent experiences. Based on the literature, various studies have established the relationship between one of the major components of wildfire, particulate matter (particles with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) and cardiorespiratory symptoms in terms of Emergency Rooms visits and hospital admissions. Associations between wildfire emissions and various subclinical effects have also been established. However, few relationships between wildfire emissions and mortality have been observed. Certain segments of the population may be particularly vulnerable to smoke-related health risks. Among them, people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions, the elderly, smokers and, for professional reasons, firefighters. Potential action mechanisms have been highlighted. Overall, more research is needed to better understand health impact of wildfire exposure. PMID:25405597

  5. Non-accidental health impacts of wildfire smoke.

    PubMed

    Youssouf, Hassani; Liousse, Catherine; Roblou, Laurent; Assamoi, Eric-Michel; Salonen, Raimo O; Maesano, Cara; Banerjee, Soutrik; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2014-11-01

    Wildfires take a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Climate change may increase the risk of wildfire frequency. Therefore, in view of adapted preventive actions, there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. We conducted a systematic review of non-accidental health impacts of wildfire and incorporated lessons learned from recent experiences. Based on the literature, various studies have established the relationship between one of the major components of wildfire, particulate matter (particles with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5)) and cardiorespiratory symptoms in terms of Emergency Rooms visits and hospital admissions. Associations between wildfire emissions and various subclinical effects have also been established. However, few relationships between wildfire emissions and mortality have been observed. Certain segments of the population may be particularly vulnerable to smoke-related health risks. Among them, people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions, the elderly, smokers and, for professional reasons, firefighters. Potential action mechanisms have been highlighted. Overall, more research is needed to better understand health impact of wildfire exposure. PMID:25405597

  6. Native CaCO3 Mineral Dissolution and Its Contribution to Sodic Calcareous Soil Reclamation Under Laboratory Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fahu Li; Rami Keren

    2008-01-01

    Efficient and sustainable reclamation of sodic soils is important to agricultural production. With the help of a peristaltic pump, laboratory-leaching experiments for sodic calcareous soils with exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) of 1, 12.5, and 19 were conducted under atmospheric CO2 partial pressure to investigate native CaCO3 mineral dissolution and its contribution to the rehabilitation of moderate sodium-affected soils at the

  7. Predictions of nuisance damage and hazard from accidental explosions during Trident missile test flights

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.W.

    1980-03-01

    The damage and hazard potential of an accidental explosion of a Trident I C-4 motor near the Cape Canaveral Launch Pad 25 was assessed. Under some weather conditions, the airblast propagation could break thousands of windows in the Cape Canaveral community; in other weather conditions only a few might be broken. A weather watch was developed and operated during Trident tests to hold threatened damage and hazard down to an acceptable minimum level. Test delays, while awaiting suitable weather, averaged near the predicted 2 days per launch test.

  8. An experimental test of the contributions and condition dependence of microstructure and carotenoids in yellow plumage coloration

    PubMed Central

    Shawkey, Matthew D; Hill, Geoffrey E; McGraw, Kevin J; Hood, Wendy R; Huggins, Kristal

    2006-01-01

    A combination of structural and pigmentary components is responsible for many of the colour displays of animals. Despite the ubiquity of this type of coloration, neither the relative contribution of structures and pigments to variation in such colour displays nor the relative effects of extrinsic factors on the structural and pigment-based components of such colour has been determined. Understanding the sources of colour variation is important because structures and pigments may convey different information to conspecifics. In an experiment on captive American goldfinches Carduelis tristis, we manipulated two parameters, carotenoid availability and food availability, known to affect the expression of carotenoid pigments in a full-factorial design. Yellow feathers from these birds were then analysed in two ways. First, we used full-spectrum spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography to examine the extent to which variation in white structural colour and total carotenoid content was associated with variation in colour properties of feathers. The carotenoid content of yellow feathers predicted two colour parameters (principal component 1—representing high values of ultraviolet and yellow chroma and low values of violet–blue chroma—and hue). Two different colour parameters (violet–blue and yellow chroma) from white de-pigmented feathers, as well as carotenoid content, predicted reflectance measurements from yellow feathers. Second, we determined the relative effects of our experimental manipulations on white structural colour and yellow colour. Carotenoid availability directly affected yellow colour, while food availability affected it only in combination with carotenoid availability. None of our manipulations had significant effects on the expression of white structural colour. Our results suggest that the contribution of microstructures to variation in the expression of yellow coloration is less than the contribution of carotenoid content, and that carotenoid deposition is more dependent on extrinsic variability than is the production of white structural colour. PMID:17015356

  9. Modular Expert System for the Diagnosis of Operating Conditions of Industrial Anaerobic Digestion Plants (TELEMAC Contribution #5)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Lardon; A. Puñal; J. P. Steyer; J. A. Martinez

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) plants are highly efficient wastewater treatment processes with possible energetic valorisation. Despite these advantages, many industries are still reluctant to use them because of their instability in front of changes in operating conditions. To face this major drawback and to enhance the industrial use of anaerobic digestion, one solution is to develop and to implement knowledge base

  10. Distinct Contributions of the Basolateral Amygdala and the Medial Prefrontal Cortex to Learning and Relearning Extinction of Context Conditioned Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Vincent; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2008-01-01

    We studied the roles of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in learning and relearning to inhibit context conditioned fear (freezing) in extinction. In Experiment 1, pre-extinction BLA infusion of the NMDA receptor (NMDAr) antagonist, ifenprodil, impaired the development and retention of inhibition but…

  11. Self-Rated Health as a Predictor of Disability Retirement – The Contribution of Ill-Health and Working Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pietiläinen, Olli; Laaksonen, Mikko; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2011-01-01

    Objective Self-rated health is a generic health indicator predicting mortality, many diseases, and need for care. We examined self-rated health as a predictor of subsequent disability retirement, and ill-health and working conditions as potential explanations for the association. Methods Self-rated health and the covariates were obtained from the Helsinki Health Study baseline mail surveys in 2000–2002 conducted among municipal employees aged 40–60 years (n?=?6525). Data for disability retirement events (n?=?625) along with diagnoses were linked from the Finnish Centre for Pensions, with a follow-up by the end of 2010. Hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using competing risks models. Results Less than good self-rated health predicted disability retirement due to all causes among both women (HR?=?4.60, 95% CI?=?3.84–5.51) and men (HR?=?3.83, 95% CI?=?2.64–5.56), as well as due to musculoskeletal diseases (HR?=?5.17, 95% CI?=?4.02–6.66) and mental disorders (HR?=?4.80, 95% CI?=?3.50–6.59) among women and men pooled. Ill-health and physical working conditions partly explained the found associations, which nevertheless remained after the adjustments. Among the measures of ill-health limiting long-standing illness explained the association most in all-cause disability retirement and disability retirements due to musculoskeletal diseases, whereas common mental disorders explained the association most in disability retirements due to mental health disorders. Among working conditions physical work load and hazardous exposures at work explained the association most, although much less than ill-health. Conclusions Self-rated health is a strong predictor of disability retirement. This can be partly explained by ill-health and working conditions. Poor self-rated health provides a useful marker for increased risk of work disability and subsequent disability retirement. PMID:21949830

  12. Class-conditional feature modeling for ignitable liquid classification with substantial substrate contribution in fire debris analysis.

    PubMed

    Lopatka, Martin; Sigman, Michael E; Sjerps, Marjan J; Williams, Mary R; Vivó-Truyols, Gabriel

    2015-07-01

    Forensic chemical analysis of fire debris addresses the question of whether ignitable liquid residue is present in a sample and, if so, what type. Evidence evaluation regarding this question is complicated by interference from pyrolysis products of the substrate materials present in a fire. A method is developed to derive a set of class-conditional features for the evaluation of such complex samples. The use of a forensic reference collection allows characterization of the variation in complex mixtures of substrate materials and ignitable liquids even when the dominant feature is not specific to an ignitable liquid. Making use of a novel method for data imputation under complex mixing conditions, a distribution is modeled for the variation between pairs of samples containing similar ignitable liquid residues. Examining the covariance of variables within the different classes allows different weights to be placed on features more important in discerning the presence of a particular ignitable liquid residue. Performance of the method is evaluated using a database of total ion spectrum (TIS) measurements of ignitable liquid and fire debris samples. These measurements include 119 nominal masses measured by GC-MS and averaged across a chromatographic profile. Ignitable liquids are labeled using the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E1618 standard class definitions. Statistical analysis is performed in the class-conditional feature space wherein new forensic traces are represented based on their likeness to known samples contained in a forensic reference collection. The demonstrated method uses forensic reference data as the basis of probabilistic statements concerning the likelihood of the obtained analytical results given the presence of ignitable liquid residue of each of the ASTM classes (including a substrate only class). When prior probabilities of these classes can be assumed, these likelihoods can be connected to class probabilities. In order to compare the performance of this method to previous work, a uniform prior was assumed, resulting in an 81% accuracy for an independent test of 129 real burn samples. PMID:26005858

  13. Cannabinoid functions in the amygdala contribute to conditioned fear memory in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice: Interaction with glutamatergic functions.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hiroko; Ikegami, Megumi; Kai, Misa; Kamei, Junzo

    2015-07-01

    The role of cannabinoid systems in conditioned fear memory was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN-55,212-2 (1mg/kg, i.p.), when injected into normal mice after conditioning, significantly prolonged the duration of freezing behavior. This effect was significantly inhibited by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM 251 (3mg/kg, s.c.), but not by the cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist AM 630 (1mg/kg, s.c.). The duration of freezing in STZ-induced diabetic mice was significantly longer than that in non-diabetic mice. The injection of WIN-55,212-2 (1mg/kg, i.p.) after conditioning significantly prolonged the duration of freezing in non-diabetic mice, but not in STZ-induced diabetic mice. In contrast, the injection of AM 251 (3mg/kg, s.c.) after conditioning significantly shortened the duration of freezing in STZ-induced diabetic mice, but not in non-diabetic mice. The injection of AM 251 (3mg/kg, s.c.) before conditioning or before testing did not significantly affect the duration of freezing in STZ-induced diabetic mice. The protein levels of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the amygdala were increased in STZ-induced diabetic mice. In contrast, the protein levels of cannabinoid CB2 receptors and diacylglycerol lipase ?, the enzyme that synthesizes endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol, in the amygdala did not differ between non-diabetic and STZ-induced diabetic mice. None of these proteins in the hippocampus was different between non-diabetic and STZ-induced diabetic mice. The injection of AM 251 (50ng/side) into the basolateral amygdala significantly inhibited the duration of freezing in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Since endocannabinoid is controlled by glutamatergic function, we further examined the role of glutamatergic function in the increased fear memory in STZ-induced diabetic mice. The amounts of glutamine and glutamic acid in the amygdala of STZ-induced diabetic mice were significantly increased compared to those in non-diabetic mice. The AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX (40ng/side), when injected into the basolateral amygdala, significantly inhibited the duration of freezing in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Finally, AMPA (40ng, i.c.v.) significantly prolonged the duration of freezing in normal mice, and this effect was inhibited by AM 251 (3mg/kg, s.c.). These results suggest that cannabinoid functions in the amygdala are increased in diabetic mice and that enhanced glutamatergic function in the amygdala of diabetic mice activates the endocannabinoid system, which enhances fear memory via cannabinoid CB1 receptors. PMID:25929688

  14. Contributions of facial morphology, age, and gender to EMG activity under biting and resting conditions: a canonical correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Fogle, L L; Glaros, A G

    1995-08-01

    Theoretical studies suggest that facial morphology may confer a mechanical advantage to particular individuals during force production, but not during rest. However, prior studies on the relationship between facial morphology and EMG suffer from various methodological limitations. We examined the hypothesis that facial morphology variables contribute significantly and meaningfully to the variance in masticatory muscle EMG when subjects produce specific levels of interocclusal force, but not when subjects are at rest. Measures of facial morphology included gonial angle, ramus height, and maxillary height, as determined from lateral cephalograms. EMG data were obtained from surface electrodes placed on masseter and temporalis sites. Subjects (N = 96) sat in a darkened, sound-attenuated room while they watched a seven-minute segment of a movie. EMG activity obtained during the last two minutes was used as a baseline period. Using the central incisors, subjects then provided five different force levels ranging from 6.5 to 48 lb in random order on a bite-force device while EMG data were collected. A canonical correlation analysis, performed on the set of predictor variables (age, gender, and facial morphology measurements) and the set of criterion variables (EMG data), showed a significant canonical correlation between the two variable sets while biting, but not at rest. Age, but not the facial morphology variables, was highly related to the canonical variate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7560405

  15. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli CS21 pilus contributes to adhesion to intestinal cells and to pathogenesis under in vivo conditions

    PubMed Central

    Guevara, C. P.; Luiz, W. B.; Sierra, A.; Cruz, C.; Qadri, F.; Kaushik, R. S.; Ferreira, L. C. S.

    2013-01-01

    Colonization surface antigens (CSs) represent key virulence-associated factors of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains. They are required for gut colonization, the first step of the diarrhoeal disease process induced by these bacteria. One of the most prevalent CSs is CS21, or longus, a type IV pili associated with bacterial self-aggregation, protection against environmental stresses, biofilm formation and adherence to epithelial cell lines. The objectives of this study were to assess the role of CS21 in adherence to primary intestinal epithelial cells and to determine if CS21 contributes to the pathogenesis of ETEC infection in vivo. We evaluated adherence of a CS21-expressing wild-type ETEC strain and an isogenic CS21-mutant strain to pig-derived intestinal cell lines. To determine the role of CS21 in pathogenesis we used the above ETEC strains in a neonatal mice challenge infection model to assess mortality. Quantitative adherence assays confirmed that ETEC adheres to primary intestinal epithelial cells lines in a CS21-dependent manner. In addition, the CS21-mediated ETEC adherence to cells was specific as purified LngA protein, the CS21 major subunit, competed for binding with the CS21-expressing ETEC while specific anti-LngA antibodies blocked adhesion to intestinal cells. Neonatal DBA/2 mice died after intra-stomach administration of CS21-expressing strains while lack of CS21 expression drastically reduced the virulence of the wild-type ETEC strain in this animal model. Collectively these results further support the role of CS21 during ETEC infection and add new evidence on its in vivo relevance in pathogenesis. PMID:23760820

  16. Accidental intradural injection during attempted epidural block -A case report-

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Joo Sun; Kang, Seung Youn; Cho, Jin Sun; Choi, Jong Bum

    2011-01-01

    Several cases of accidental subdural injection have been reported, but only few of them are known to be accidental intradural injection during epidural block. Therefore we would like to report our experience of accidental intradural injection. A 68-year-old female was referred to our pain clinic due to severe metastatic spinal pain. We performed a diagnostic epidural injection at T9/10 interspace under the C-arm guided X-ray view. Unlike the usual process of block, onset was delayed and sensory dermatomes were irregular range. We found out a dense collection of localized radio-opaque contrast media on the reviewed X-ray findings. These are characteristic of intradural injection and clearly different from the narrow wispy bands of contrast in the subdural space. PMID:21490823

  17. Aversions to bitterness and accidental poisonings among preschool children.

    PubMed

    Lawless, H T; Hammer, L D; Corina, M D

    1982-11-01

    Individual differences in responsiveness to bitterness were studied among children with and without histories of accidental ingestion of toxic substances. The oral behaviors of 56 children between the ages of 12 and 41 months were videotaped during two minute test periods with lollipops containing different concentrations of bitter sucrose octaacetate (SOA). Videotapes were scored for mouthing times, numbers of oral contacts and latencies to mouthing for each stimulus. Mouthing time was the most sensitive dependent measure examined. Both groups rejected pops with added SOA, decreasing mouthing times as SOA concentration increased. Mouthing times for children with histories of accidental ingestion were slightly lower overall. These results suggest that lowered reactivity to tastes is not a predisposing factor in accidental ingestions, and that bitter substances have some value as deterrents to ingestion for this age group. Rejection of bitter pops by children closely paralleled ratings of bitterness by adult judges. PMID:7182523

  18. Who Can Afford Health Care? Evaluating the Socio-Economic Conditions and the Ability to Contribute to Health Care in a Post-Conflict Area in DR Congo

    PubMed Central

    Gerstl, Sibylle; Sauter, Justin; Kasanda, Joseph; Kinzelbach, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Democratic Republic of the Congo is today one of the poorest countries in the world; the health status of the population ranks among the worst in Sub-Saharan Africa. Public health services charge user fees and drug prices. Since 2008, north-eastern Congo is facing a guerrilla war. Malteser International is assisting with free health care for internally displaced persons as well as the general population. Before the incursion the health system was based on user fees. The aim of this study was to determine the socio-economic conditions of the population and to assess their ability to contribute to health care. Methodology Heads of 552 randomly selected households in 23 clusters in two health zones were interviewed using a standardised questionnaire. Findings The demographic description and socio-economic conditions of the study population were homogenous. Major source of income was agriculture (57%); 47% of the households earned less than US$ 5.5/week. Ninety-two percent of the interviewed households estimated that they would be able to contribute to consultation fees (maximum amount of US$ 0.27) and 79% to the drug prices (maximum amount of US$ 1.10). Six percent opted for free consultations and 19% for free drugs. Conclusions Living conditions were very basic; the estimated income of the study population was low. Almost half of the population perceived their current living situation as fairly good/good. More than 90% of the study population estimated to be able to contribute to consultation fees and 80% to drug prices. As a result Malteser International suggested introducing flat-rates for health care services. Once the project ends, the population will have to pay again for their health service. One solution would be the introduction of a health care financing system with the goal to reach universal coverage to health care. PMID:24204819

  19. Apolipoprotein E alleles can contribute to the pathogenesis of numerous clinical conditions including HSV-1 corneal disease

    PubMed Central

    Hill, James M.; Bhattacharjee, Partha S.; Neumann, Donna M.

    2008-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) alleles have been reported to affect the clinical outcome of numerous cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and viral infectious diseases, including atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease (AD), hepatitis C, and HIV. The major alleles of ApoE are ? 2, ? 3, and ? 4. ApoE genotypes have been hypothesized to regulate many biological functions, resulting in significant changes in the onset and/or outcome (severity and duration) of several clinical conditions. Based on genetic analyses in human and animal studies using knockout (ApoE ?/?) mice and mice transgenic for human ? 3 and ? 4, we present evidence that strongly suggests that the ApoE alleles can regulate the pathogenesis of ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections. This review will summarize the major studies that support this hypothesis. Significant gender based differences in HSV-1 pathogenesis have also been reported, suggesting that hormonal regulation combined with ApoE genotype plays a significant role in HSV-1 pathogenesis. Identification of specific mechanisms in ocular HSV-1 infections related to the ApoE alleles and gender could lead to therapeutic intervention based on the properties of the apoE isoforms. While many clinical investigations have been reported and, to a lesser extent, transgenic mouse studies have been conducted, no specific mechanisms of how ApoE induces or alters clinical disease are known. PMID:17007837

  20. Accidental intrathecal vincristine administration. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Manelis, J; Freudlich, E; Ezekiel, E; Doron, J

    1982-01-01

    A case is described of accidental intrathecal administration of vincristine, with detailed clinical observations over a 17-day period. The clinical picture resembled that seen with toxicity from intravenously administered vincristine, but was rapidly progressive and resulted in death. The onset was characterised by opisthotonos, followed by ascending paralysis and finally bulbar and cerebral involvement. The specific changes in the brain at autopsy were masked by those due to prolonged artificial respiration prior to death. The accidental drug administration occurred owing to procedural errors, which can be avoided by strict attention to rules. PMID:6186795

  1. Favorable alleles for stem water-soluble carbohydrates identified by association analysis contribute to grain weight under drought stress conditions in wheat.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiyu; Zhang, Bin; Li, Runzhi; Chang, Xiaoping; Jing, Ruilian

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint to crop distribution and productivity. Stem water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) buffer wheat grain yield against conditions unfavorable for photosynthesis during the grain filling stage. In this study, 262 winter wheat accessions and 209 genome-wide SSR markers were collected and used to undertake association analysis based on a mixed linear model (MLM). The WSC in different internodes at three growth stages and 1000-grain weight (TGW) were investigated under four environmental regimes (well-watered, drought stress during the whole growth period, and two levels of terminal drought stress imposed by chemical desiccation under the well-watered and drought stress during the whole growth period conditions). Under diverse drought stress conditions, WSC in lower internodes showed significant positive correlations with TGW, especially at the flowering stage under well-watered conditions and at grain filling under drought stress. Sixteen novel WSC-favorable alleles were identified, and five of them contributed to significantly higher TGW. In addition, pyramiding WSC favorable alleles was not only effective for obtaining accessions with higher WSC, but also for enhancing TGW under different water regimes. During the past fifty years of wheat breeding, WSC was selected incidentally. The average number of favorable WSC alleles increased from 1.13 in the pre-1960 period to 4.41 in the post-2000 period. The results indicate a high potential for using marker-assisted selection to pyramid WSC favorable alleles in improving WSC and TGW in wheat. PMID:25768726

  2. RIPK3 contributes to TNFR1-mediated RIPK1 kinase-dependent apoptosis in conditions of cIAP1/2 depletion or TAK1 kinase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Dondelinger, Y; Aguileta, M A; Goossens, V; Dubuisson, C; Grootjans, S; Dejardin, E; Vandenabeele, P; Bertrand, M J M

    2013-01-01

    Receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK) 1 and RIPK3 have emerged as essential kinases mediating a regulated form of necrosis, known as necroptosis, that can be induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling. As a consequence, inhibiting RIPK1 kinase activity and repressing RIPK3 expression levels have become commonly used approaches to estimate the contribution of necroptosis to specific phenotypes. Here, we report that RIPK1 kinase activity and RIPK3 also contribute to TNF-induced apoptosis in conditions of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 and 2 (cIAP1/2) depletion or TGF-?-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) kinase inhibition, implying that inhibition of RIPK1 kinase activity or depletion of RIPK3 under cell death conditions is not always a prerequisite to conclude on the involvement of necroptosis. Moreover, we found that, contrary to cIAP1/2 depletion, TAK1 kinase inhibition induces assembly of the cytosolic RIPK1/Fas-associated protein with death domain/caspase-8 apoptotic TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) complex IIb without affecting the RIPK1 ubiquitylation status at the level of TNFR1 complex I. These results indicate that the recruitment of TAK1 to the ubiquitin (Ub) chains, and not the Ub chains per se, regulates the contribution of RIPK1 to the apoptotic death trigger. In line with this, we found that cylindromatosis repression only provided protection to TNF-mediated RIPK1-dependent apoptosis in condition of reduced RIPK1 ubiquitylation obtained by cIAP1/2 depletion but not upon TAK1 kinase inhibition, again arguing for a role of TAK1 in preventing RIPK1-dependent apoptosis downstream of RIPK1 ubiquitylation. Importantly, we found that this function of TAK1 was independent of its known role in canonical nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation. Our study therefore reports a new function of TAK1 in regulating an early NF-?B-independent cell death checkpoint in the TNFR1 apoptotic pathway. In both TNF-induced RIPK1 kinase-dependent apoptotic models, we found that RIPK3 contributes to full caspase-8 activation independently of its kinase activity or intact RHIM domain. In contrast, RIPK3 participates in caspase-8 activation by acting downstream of the cytosolic death complex assembly, possibly via reactive oxygen species generation. PMID:23892367

  3. Fifteen years of preclinical and clinical experiences about biotherapy treatment of lesions induced by accidental irradiation and radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chapel, Alain; Francois, Sabine; Douay, Luc; Benderitter, Marc; Voswinkel, Jan

    2013-01-01

    High dose radiation exposures involving medical treatments or accidental irradiation may lead to extended damage to the irradiated tissue. Alleviation or even eradication of irradiation induced adverse events is therefore crucial. Because developments in cell therapy have brought some hope for the treatment of tissues damages induced by irradiation, the Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Safety contributed to establish the clinical guidelines for the management of accidentally irradiated victims and to provide the best supportive care to patients all over the world. In the past 15 years, we contributed to develop and test cell therapy for protection against radiation side effects in several animal models, and we proposed mechanisms to explain the benefit brought by this new therapeutic approach. We established the proof of concept that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) migrate to damaged tissues in the nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency immunotolerant mice model and in non-human primate after radiation exposure. We showed that the intravenous injection of MSCs sustains hematopoiesis after total body irradiation, improves wound healing after radiodermatitis and protects gut function from irradiation damages. Thanks to a tight collaboration with clinicians from several French hospitals, we report successful treatments of therapeutic/accidental radiation damages in several victims with MSC infusions for hematopoiesis correction, radio-induced burns, gastrointestinal disorders and protection homeostatic functions of gut management after radio-therapy. PMID:23951388

  4. Diversity against Accidental and Deliberate Faults Yves Deswarte1

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Diversity against Accidental and Deliberate Faults Yves Deswarte1 , Karama Kanoun and Jean that gave rise to this book: security, fault tolerance, and software assurance. Those three topics can for addressing the classes of faults that underlay all these topics, i.e., design faults and intrusion faults. 1

  5. Coping with Accidentally Killing Another Person: A Case Study Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesser, Barbara Jo

    1981-01-01

    Studied persons who had accidentally killed another person to explore factors that had helped these individuals cope with the ensuing stress. Ten case study summaries are presented. Results reinforce the important role family members, friends, and the community play in helping traumatized persons manage stress. (Author)

  6. Accidental injuries and blood exposure to cardiothoracic teams surgical

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. K. Kjaergard; J. Thiis; N. Wiinberg

    A survey was undertaken over a 15-week period (62 working days) to find out the incidence and common mechanism of accidental injuries and blood exposure in cardiothoracic surgical teams. Two hundred and seventy events were reported: 70% glove penetrations, 18% skin punctures, 4% non-bleeding skin lesions and 8% lacerations with bleeding. Eye splashes occurred in 14% of the cases. The

  7. Accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Sarah A.; Gaunt, Matthew C.; Taylor, Susan M.; Snead, Elizabeth C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Two clinical cases of accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines are described. One cat died the day after presentation as a result of aspiration pneumonia and head trauma, despite supportive care. The second cat survived with supportive treatment, but developed dermatologic complications 10 d later. PMID:21119868

  8. ACCIDENTAL INJURY AND INCLEMENT WEATHER: DEFINING THE RELATIONSHIP AND ANTICIPATING THE EFFECTS OF A CHANGING CLIMATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this activity is to utilize a combination of existing scientific knowledge and professional expertise and experience to develop a research strategy for lessening the incidence and the impact of accidental injuries associated with inclement weather. Accidental inj...

  9. LIFE INSURANCE AND ACCIDENTAL DEATH AND DISMEMBERMENT PLAN 01-01-2012

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Peter D.

    1 LIFE INSURANCE AND ACCIDENTAL DEATH AND DISMEMBERMENT PLAN 01-01-2012 The Life Insurance and Accidental Death and Dismemberment Plan (the "Plan") offers Basic and Supplemental Life Insurance coverage or terminate this Life Insurance and Accidental Death and Dismemberment Plan at any time and for any reason

  10. Modelling of accidental released toxic gases for emergency responders in Austria, Kosovo and Bulgaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sirma Stenzel; Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer; Salih Gashi; Bashkim Thaci; Ekaterina Batchvarova; Tatiana Spassova

    2010-01-01

    In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. A number of models for the prediction and simulation of hazard areas affected by accidental releases of toxic gases are available worldwide. Modelling accidental releases may be required for

  11. Spinal Glia Division Contributes to Conditioning Lesion-Induced Axon Regeneration Into the Injured Spinal Cord: Potential Role of Cyclic AMP-Induced Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huaqing; Angert, Mila; Nishihara, Tasuku; Shubayev, Igor; Dolkas, Jennifer; Shubayev, Veronica I

    2015-06-01

    Regeneration of sensory neurons after spinal cord injury depends on the function of dividing neuronal-glial antigen 2 (NG2)-expressing cells. We have shown that increases in the number of dividing NG2-positive cells through short-term pharmacologic inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases contributes to recovery after spinal cord injury. A conditioning sciatic nerve crush (SNC) preceding spinal cord injury stimulates central sensory axon regeneration via the intraganglionic action of cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Here, using bromodeoxyuridine, mitomycin (mitosis inhibitor), and cholera toxin B tracer, we demonstrate that SNC-induced division of spinal glia is related to the spinal induction of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and contributes to central sensory axon growth into the damaged spinal cord. Dividing cells were mainly NG2-positive and Iba1-positive and included myeloid NG2-positive populations. The cells dividing in response to SNC mainly matured into oligodendrocytes and microglia within the injured spinal cord. Some postmitotic cells remained NG2-reactive and were associated with regenerating fibers. Moreover, intraganglionic tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 expression was induced after administration of SNC or cyclic adenosine monophosphate analog (dbcAMP) to dorsal root ganglia in vivo and in primary adult dorsal root ganglia cultures. Collectively, these findings support a novel model whereby a cyclic adenosine monophosphate-activated regeneration program induced in sensory neurons by a conditioning peripheral nerve lesion uses tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 to protect against short-term proteolysis, enabling glial cell division and promoting axon growth into the damaged CNS. PMID:25933384

  12. Acute effects of nitrogen dioxide after accidental release.

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, U; Berg, D; Kohn, M A; Meriwether, R A; Nickle, R A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Following an accidental release of nitrogen dioxide from a railroad tank car containing nitrous tetroxide, the authors undertook a study of the health effects of the release, measuring the association between acute low level exposure and pulmonary symptoms. METHODS: The authors reviewed the records of three emergency departments, surveyed 80 emergency department patients, 552 community residents, 21 chemical plant workers, and 29 emergency workers, and conducted a case-control study. Pulmonary case status was defined as having an objective pulmonary finding noted on the emergency department record, reporting that the onset of symptoms was subsequent to the release, and being within the city limits at the time of the release. Self-reported case status was defined as reporting one or more symptoms consistent with exposure to nitrogen dioxide in the week after the release and having been within the city limits at the time of the release. Control subjects were survey respondents who reported no symptoms in the week after the release and had been within the city limits at the time of the release. Chemical exposure was characterized by proximity to, direction from, and being outdoors within one hour after the release. Duration of potential exposure was not measured. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence interval for symptoms by exposure level, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and preexisting pulmonary conditions. RESULTS: Local emergency department visits increased fivefold in the week after the release. The most common complaints recorded in a systematic sample of 528 visits in the first 30 hours after the release were headache (31%), burning eyes (30%), and sore throat (24%). Objective pulmonary findings were recorded for 41 (5%) patients in the week before and 165 (4%) in the week after the release. The odds of being a pulmonary case increased by 40% for each quarter-mile increment in proximity to the release (odds ratio [OR] 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1, 1.7), while the odds of being a self-reported case increased by 20% for each quarter-mile increment in proximity (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1, 1.4). People who met the pulmonary case definition were 2.5 times (CI 1.3, 4.8) more likely than control subjects to have been outdoors and 6.4 times (CI 3.2, 12.6) more likely to report a preexisting pulmonary condition. Self-reported cases were 2.6 times (95% CI 1.8, 3.8) more likely than control subjects to have been outdoors and 1.9 times (95% CI 1.1, 3.1) more likely to report a preexisting pulmonary condition. CONCLUSIONS: Emergency department visits increased five-fold, but serious acute health effects were uncommon. People who met the pulmonary case definition were six times more likely to report pulmonary symptoms than those without preexisting conditions. This study was not designed to determine any potential long-term effects of exposure. PMID:9475936

  13. Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ze-Guo; Ni, Xu; Wu, Ying; He, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Zheng, Li-Yang; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect. PMID:24714512

  14. Parental substance abuse and accidental death in children.

    PubMed

    Palmiere, Cristian; Staub, Christian; La Harpe, Romano; Mangin, Patrice

    2010-05-01

    In this report, the authors present two cases of accidental death in children of addicted parents. In the first case, the child was left unattended at home while the mother went out to buy cocaine. She was arrested and detained with no mention of the unsupervised child. The cause of death in this case was determined to be starvation and dehydration. In the second case, a child mistakenly received a methadone suppository by her father instead of an antipyretic suppository. Toxicological analysis of the femoral blood revealed methadone at a concentration of 1.2 mg/L. The cause of death was determined to be methadone intoxication. The literature is reviewed and discussed. We report these cases to illustrate the risk of harm to children from illicit drugs and prescription medications at home and because there is no mention of accidental death in children following a methadone suppository administration in the current literature. PMID:20345788

  15. Accidental ligature strangulation by an ironing machine: an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Demirci, Serafettin; Gunaydin, Gursel; Buken, Bora

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a case of a 53-year-old woman who had her headscarf catch on the cylinder ironing machine in the laundry of the hospital where she worked. The hospital workers found the woman dead with her head stuck to the ironing machine. After the death scene investigation and autopsy were completed, it was determined that the death occurred as a result of accidental ligature strangulation. Accidental ligature strangulation in which an article of clothing is caught in such an electrical machine and strangles the wearer is very rare. This case highlights the fact that these kinds of machines can be hazardous to work around and that increased safety measures should be taken to insure worker safety; additionally, the people who use these machines should be educated on the potential hazards. PMID:20002258

  16. Approaches for preventing and mitigating accidental gaseous chemical releases

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a review of approaches to prevent and mitigate accidental releases of toxic and flammable gases. The prevention options are related to: choosing safer processes and materials, preventing initiating events, preventing or minimizing releases, and preventing human exposures. the mitigation options include: secondary confinement, de-inventory, vapor barriers, and water sprays/monitors. Guidelines for the design and operation of effective post-release mitigation systems are also presented.

  17. Chemical causes of the typical burnt smell after accidental fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharina Heitmann; Hubertus Wichmann; Müfit Bahadir

    2009-01-01

    The components responsible for the typical burnt smell that occurs after accidental fires (e.g. in buildings) were identified.\\u000a For this purpose, samples of odorous materials were taken from different real fire sites. Their volatile fractions were analysed\\u000a by means of thermal desorption, headspace analysis and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography–mass\\u000a spectrometry (GC\\/MS). Measurements performed with SPME gave the

  18. Contribution of hydrodynamic conditions during shallow water stages to the sediment balance on a tidal flat: Mont-Saint-Michel Bay, Normandy, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desguée, R.; Robin, N.; Gluard, L.; Monfort, O.; Anthony, E. J.; Levoy, F.

    2011-10-01

    Field measurements were conducted in Mont-Saint-Michel Bay, a megatidal embayment (spring tidal range of 15 m), in order to monitor, over the course of a tidal cycle, sediment transport variability due to waves and tides on the upper part of a tidal flat characterised by shallow water depths. Sensors used to measure currents, water depth and turbidity were installed just above the bed (0.04 m). Two experiments were conducted under contrasting hydrodynamic conditions. The results highlight wave activity over the tidal flat even though observed wind waves were largely dissipated due to the very shallow water depths. Very high suspended sediment concentrations (up to 6 kg/m 3) were recorded in the presence of wave activity at the beginning of the local flood, when significant sediment transport occurred, up to 7 times as much as under conditions of no wave activity. This influence may be attributed to the direct action of waves on bed sediments, to wave-induced liquefaction, and to the erosive action of waves on tidal channel banks. The sediment composition, comprising a clay fraction of 2-5%, may also enhance sediment transport by reducing critical shear stress through the sand lubrication effect. The results also show that antecedent meteorological conditions play an important role in suspended sediment transport on the tidal flat. Total sediment flux directions show a net transport towards the inner part of the bay that contributes to deposition over the adjacent salt marshes, and this tendency also prevails during strong wave conditions. Such sediment transport is characterised by significant variability over the course of the tidal cycle. During fair and moderate weather conditions, 83% and 71% of the total flux was observed, respectively, over only 11% and 28% of the duration of the local tidal cycle and with water depths between 0.04 and 0.3 m. These results suggest that in order to improve our understanding of sediment budgets in this type of coastal environment, it is essential to record data just at the beginning and at the end of tidal submergence close to the bed.

  19. An alternative approach for computing seismic response with accidental eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xuanhua; Yin, Jiacong; Sun, Shuli; Chen, Pu

    2014-09-01

    Accidental eccentricity is a non-standard assumption for seismic design of tall buildings. Taking it into consideration requires reanalysis of seismic resistance, which requires either time consuming computation of natural vibration of eccentric structures or finding a static displacement solution by applying an approximated equivalent torsional moment for each eccentric case. This study proposes an alternative modal response spectrum analysis (MRSA) approach to calculate seismic responses with accidental eccentricity. The proposed approach, called the Rayleigh Ritz Projection-MRSA (RRP-MRSA), is developed based on MRSA and two strategies: (a) a RRP method to obtain a fast calculation of approximate modes of eccentric structures; and (b) an approach to assemble mass matrices of eccentric structures. The efficiency of RRP-MRSA is tested via engineering examples and compared with the standard MRSA (ST-MRSA) and one approximate method, i.e., the equivalent torsional moment hybrid MRSA (ETM-MRSA). Numerical results show that RRP-MRSA not only achieves almost the same precision as ST-MRSA, and is much better than ETM-MRSA, but is also more economical. Thus, RRP-MRSA can be in place of current accidental eccentricity computations in seismic design.

  20. Hybrid parallel strategy for the simulation of fast transient accidental situations at reactor scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher, V.; Galon, P.; Beccantini, A.; Crouzet, F.; Debaud, F.; Gautier, T.

    2014-06-01

    This contribution is dedicated to the latest methodological developments implemented in the fast transient dynamics software EUROPLEXUS (EPX) to simulate the mechanical response of fully coupled fluid-structure systems to accidental situations to be considered at reactor scale, among which the Loss of Coolant Accident, the Core Disruptive Accident and the Hydrogen Explosion. Time integration is explicit and the search for reference solutions within the safety framework prevents any simplification and approximations in the coupled algorithm: for instance, all kinematic constraints are dealt with using Lagrange Multipliers, yielding a complex flow chart when non-permanent constraints such as unilateral contact or immersed fluid-structure boundaries are considered. The parallel acceleration of the solution process is then achieved through a hybrid approach, based on a weighted domain decomposition for distributed memory computing and the use of the KAAPI library for self-balanced shared memory processing inside subdomains.

  1. Numerical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport

    SciTech Connect

    Piskunov, V.N.; Aloyan, A.A.; Gerasimov, V.M.; Pinaev, V.S.; Golubev, A.I.; Yanilkin, Yu.V.; Ivanov, N.V.; Nikonov, S.N.; Kharchenko, A.I. [and others

    1995-05-01

    Statement of work for contract 006 {open_quotes}Mathematical simulation of industrial and accidental release formation and transport{close_quotes} implies that the final result of the activity within this task will be VNIIEF developed techniques which will provide for the prediction of the post-accidental environment. Report [1] presents the description of physical models and calculation techniques which were chosen by VNIIEF to accomplish this task. These techniques were analysed for their capabilities, the areas of their application were defined, modifications within contract 006 were described, the results of test and methodical calculations were presented. Moreover, the experimental data were analysed over the source parameters and contamination measurements which can be used in the comparison with the calculation results. Based an these data this report compares the calculation results obtained with VNIIEF calculation techniques with the LANL-presented experimental results. The calculations which statements and results are given in section 1, included the following processes: explosion cloud ascent dynamics and jet release origin; aerosols kinetics in the release source including composite particle origin in the explosion cloud caused by radioactive substance sorption an the soil particles; contaminant transport in atmosphere and their in-site fallout due to the accidental explosions and fires; atmospheric flow dynamics and industrial contamination transfer over the complicated terrain. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data. Section 2 presents the parameters for a typical source in the explosion accidents based an the experimental results and calculated data from Section 1, as well as contamination patterns were calculated with basic technique {open_quotes}Prognosis{close_quotes}.

  2. Environmental gas displacement: three accidental deaths in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Gill, James R; Ely, Susan F; Hua, Zhongxue

    2002-03-01

    The authors describe three accidental deaths resulting from occupational hazards involving environmental gas alterations. One involved the displacement of oxygen caused by leakage of liquid nitrogen during the installation of a magnetic resonance imaging system. Two involved elevated environmental carbon dioxide concentrations: dry ice sublimation in a walk-in refrigerator in a research laboratory, and activation of a carbon dioxide fire alarm-extinguisher system by a woman locked in a bank vault. The autopsy findings, scene investigations, and certifications of these deaths, as related to the mechanisms of death, are discussed. PMID:11953489

  3. Accidental Sulfur Poisoning in a Group of Holstein Heifers

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Moira F.; Baird, John D.; Wilkie, Judith S. Nimmo

    1987-01-01

    Fourteen animals died or were euthanized after toxic levels of elemental sulfur were accidentally fed to a group of 120 Holstein heifers. Dehydration, rumen stasis, tachycardia, and diarrhea were seen along with metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, and hypochloremia. The majority of deaths occurred from 3 to 10 days after the sulfur was fed to the heifers. Postmortem examination showed rumenitis, acute alveolitis, and renal tubular necrosis. The toxicity of ingested sulfur was attributed to the conversion of sulfur to hydrogen sulfide in the rumen. ImagesFigure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:17422758

  4. Timing, ``Accidentals'' and Other Artifacts in EPR Experiments

    E-print Network

    Caroline H. Thompson

    1997-11-25

    Subtraction of ``accidentals'' in Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiments frequently changes results compatible with local realism into ones that appear to demonstrate non-locality. The validity of the procedure depends on the unproven assumption of the independence of emission events. Other possible sources of bias include enhancement, imperfect synchronisation, over-reliance on rotational invariance, and the well-known detection loophole. Investigation of existing results may be more fruitful than attempts at loophole-free Bell tests, improving our understanding of light.

  5. Rewarming in accidental hypothermia: radio wave versus inhalation therapy.

    PubMed

    White, J D; Butterfield, A B; Nucci, R C; Johnson, C

    1987-01-01

    Anesthetized random-source dogs were cooled by refrigeration (3 C) to a stable core temperature of 25 C, and subsequently were rewarmed with warm, humidified inhalation (43 C, 450 mL of minute ventilation per kilogram) or radio frequency induction hyperthermia (4 to 6 watts/kg). The mean time required for core rewarming to 30 C was 231 +/- 3 minutes for warm, humidified ventilation and 106 +/- 32 minutes for radio wave therapy (P less than .01). These data suggest that radio wave heating is a more rapid noninvasive therapy for core rewarming of accidental hypothermia. PMID:3800077

  6. Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and/or bacteria to enhancing plant drought tolerance under natural soil conditions: effectiveness of autochthonous or allochthonous strains.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, N; Armada, E; Duque, E; Roldán, A; Azcón, R

    2015-02-01

    Autochthonous microorganisms [a consortium of arbuscular-mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)] were assayed and compared to Rhizophagus intraradices (Ri), Bacillus megaterium (Bm) or Pseudomonas putida (Psp) and non-inoculation on Trifolium repens in a natural arid soil under drought conditions. The autochthonous bacteria Bt and the allochthonous bacteria Psp increased nutrients and the relative water content and decreased stomatal conductance, electrolyte leakage, proline and APX activity, indicating their abilities to alleviate the drought stress. Mycorrhizal inoculation significantly enhanced plant growth, nutrient uptake and the relative water content, particularly when associated with specific bacteria minimizing drought stress-imposed effects. Specific combinations of autochthonous or allochthonous inoculants also contributed to plant drought tolerance by changing proline and antioxidative activities. However, non-inoculated plants had low relative water and nutrients contents, shoot proline accumulation and glutathione reductase activity, but the highest superoxide dismutase activity, stomatal conductance and electrolyte leakage. Microbial activities irrespective of the microbial origin seem to be coordinately functioning in the plant as an adaptive response to modulated water stress tolerance and minimizing the stress damage. The autochthonous AM fungi with Bt or Psp and those allochthonous Ri with Bm or Psp inoculants increased water stress alleviation. The autochthonous Bt showed the greatest ability to survive under high osmotic stress compared to the allochthonous strains, but when single inoculated or associated with Ri or AM fungi were similarly efficient in terms of physiological and nutritional status and in increasing plant drought tolerance, attenuating and compensating for the detrimental effect of water limitation. PMID:25462971

  7. Accidental fatal lung injury by compressed air: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rayamane, Anand Parashuram; Pradeepkumar, M V

    2015-03-01

    Compressed air is being used extensively as a source of energy at industries and in daily life. A variety of fatal injuries are caused by improper and ignorant use of compressed air equipments. Many types of injuries due to compressed air are reported in the literature such as colorectal injury, orbital injury, surgical emphysema, and so on. Most of these injuries are accidental in nature. It is documented that 40 pounds per square inch pressure causes fatal injuries to the ear, eyes, lungs, stomach, and intestine. Openings of body are vulnerable to injuries by compressed air. Death due to compressed air injuries is rarely reported. Many cases are treated successfully by conservative or surgical management. Extensive survey of literature revealed no reports of fatal injury to the upper respiratory tract and lungs caused by compressed air. Here, we are reporting a fatal event of accidental death after insertion of compressed air pipe into the mouth. The postmortem findings are corroborated with the history and discussed in detail. PMID:25354226

  8. Preventing Accidental Ignition of Upper-Stage Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, John; Morgan, Herbert; Cooper, Michael; Murbach, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    A report presents a proposal to reduce the risk of accidental ignition of certain upper-stage rocket motors or other high energy hazardous systems. At present, mechanically in-line initiators are used for initiation of many rocket motors and/or other high-energy hazardous systems. Electrical shorts and/or mechanical barriers, which are the basic safety devices in such systems, are typically removed as part of final arming or pad preparations while personnel are present. At this time, static discharge, test equipment malfunction, or incorrect arming techniques can cause premature firing. The proposal calls for a modular out-of-line ignition system incorporating detonating-cord elements, identified as the donor and the acceptor, separated by an air gap. In the safe configuration, the gap would be sealed with two shields, which would prevent an accidental firing of the donor from igniting the system. The shields would be removed to enable normal firing, in which shrapnel generated by the donor would reliably ignite the acceptor to continue the ordnance train. The acceptor would then ignite a through bulkhead initiator (or other similar device), which would ignite the motor or high-energy system. One shield would be remotely operated and would be moved to the armed position when a launch was imminent or conversely returned to the safe position if the launch were postponed. In the event of failure of the remotely operated shield, the other shield could be inserted manually to safe the system.

  9. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann-Stanzer, K.; Stenzel, S.

    2009-04-01

    Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. Uncertainties in the meteorological input together with incorrect estimates of the source play a critical role for the model results. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation gives a short introduction to the project and presents the results of task 1 (meteorological input). The results of task 2 are presented by Stenzel and Baumann-Stanzer in this session. For the aim of this project, the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) was used. INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) data were calculated with 1 km horizontal resolution and based on the weather forecast model ALADIN. The meteorological field's analysis with INCA include: Temperature, Humidity, Wind, Precipitation and Cloudiness. In the frame of the project INCA data were compared with measurements conducted at traffic-near sites. INCA analysis and very short term forecast fields (up to 6 hours) are found to be an advanced possibility to provide on-line meteorological input for the model package used by the fire brigade. Nevertheless a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is required - especially in the case of very slow wind speeds, very stable atmospheric condition, and flow deflection by buildings in the urban area or by complex topography.

  10. The effects of gun control on the accidental death rate from firearms in Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoon A. Leenaars; David Lester

    1997-01-01

    One factor that has been proposed as affecting accidental death rates is the availability of a lethal agent in the environment. The present study explores this hypothesis for the case of firearm availability and the accidental death rate from firearms. Data from Canada indicated that the passage of Canada's Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1977 (Bill C-51), enforced from 1978

  11. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - utility for the fire brigades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Stenzel; K. Baumann-Stanzer

    2009-01-01

    Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release

  12. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 2. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AMMONIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the control of accidental releases of ammonia to the atmosphere. Ammonia has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 500 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of ammonia invol...

  13. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 10. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the control of accidental releases of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to the atmosphere. HCN has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 50 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of HCN...

  14. Accidental Durotomy in Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Frequency, Risk Factors, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Volz, Florian; Krüger, Marie T.; Kogias, Evangelos; Rölz, Roland; Sircar, Ronen; Hubbe, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the frequency, risk factors, and management of accidental durotomy in minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF). Methods. This single-center study retrospectively investigates 372 patients who underwent MIS TLIF and were mobilized within 24 hours after surgery. The frequency of accidental durotomies, intraoperative closure technique, body mass index, and history of previous surgery was recorded. Results. We identified 32 accidental durotomies in 514 MIS TLIF levels (6.2%). Analysis showed a statistically significant relation of accidental durotomies to overweight patients (body mass index ?25?kg/m2; P = 0.0493). Patient age older than 65 years tended to be a positive predictor for accidental durotomies (P = 0.0657). Mobilizing patients on the first postoperative day, we observed no durotomy-associated complications. Conclusions. The frequency of accidental durotomies in MIS TLIF is low, with overweight being a risk factor for accidental durotomies. The minimally invasive approach seems to minimize durotomy-associated complications (CSF leakage, pseudomeningocele) because of the limited dead space in the soft tissue. Patients with accidental durotomy can usually be mobilized within 24 hours after MIS TLIF without increased risk. The minimally invasive TLIF technique might thus be beneficial in the prevention of postoperative immobilization-associated complications such as venous thromboembolism. This trial is registered with DRKS00006135.

  15. A natural little hierarchy for RS from accidental SUSY

    E-print Network

    Tony Gherghetta; Benedict von Harling; Nicholas Setzer

    2011-08-19

    We use supersymmetry to address the little hierarchy problem in Randall-Sundrum models by naturally generating a hierarchy between the IR scale and the electroweak scale. Supersymmetry is broken on the UV brane which triggers the stabilization of the warped extra dimension at an IR scale of order 10 TeV. The Higgs and top quark live near the IR brane whereas light fermion generations are localized towards the UV brane. Supersymmetry breaking causes the first two sparticle generations to decouple, thereby avoiding the supersymmetric flavour and CP problems, while an accidental R-symmetry protects the gaugino mass. The resulting low-energy sparticle spectrum consists of stops, gauginos and Higgsinos which are sufficient to stabilize the little hierarchy between the IR scale and the electroweak scale. Finally, the supersymmetric little hierarchy problem is ameliorated by introducing a singlet Higgs field on the IR brane.

  16. Delayed Upper-Airway Injury after Accidental Alkaline Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Matthew F.

    2014-01-01

    A 62-year-old man presented to the emergency department one week after accidentally drinking an alkaline cleaning agent stored in unlabeled bottle. The day of the incident the patient presented to an outside hospital where he was admitted for an upper endoscopy of the esophagus which was found to be negative for acute injury. An initial chest X-ray taken the day of the incident was also found to be normal. After discharge the patient continued to have a sore throat and marked dysphagia which caused him to vomit repeatedly. Moreover, the patient began to develop chest pain with associated shortness of breath. We present a case of delayed airway injury and tracheal thickening and associated chest pain after alkaline ingestion and we discuss herein the pathophysiology and management of alkaline ingestions. PMID:25013732

  17. Accidental boric acid poisoning following the ingestion of household pesticide.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Rebecca A; Wolf, Barbara C

    2007-05-01

    Borate-containing compounds were formerly used as topical antiseptics and were components of many medicinal preparations including skin powders and ointments used for the treatment of burns and diaper rash. These compounds were also used as irrigants for body cavities, including the pleural, vaginal, and rectal cavities. These applications were subsequently discontinued by the medical community when the toxicity and potential lethality of borates were recognized. Although documented cases of borate poisoning are now rare, the chemical is still an active component commonly used in high concentrations in household disinfectants/cleaners, pesticides, and wood preservatives. While the majority of documented borate-related deaths have occurred in infants, the toddler population is currently at risk due to possible exposure to these household products. We present the case of an 18-month-old child who died following the accidental ingestion of a boric acid-containing, commercially available roach pesticide product. PMID:17456100

  18. Subtraction of ``accidentals'' and the validity of Bell tests

    E-print Network

    Caroline H. Thompson

    1999-04-21

    In some key Bell experiments, including two of the well-known ones by Alain Aspect, 1981-2, it is only after the subtraction of ``accidentals'' from the coincidence counts that we get violations of Bell tests. The data adjustment, producing increases of up to 60% in the test statistics, has never been adequately justified. Few published experiments give sufficient information for the reader to make a fair assessment. There is a straightforward and well known realist model that fits the unadjusted data very well. In this paper, the logic of this realist model and the reasoning used by experimenters in justification of the data adjustment are discussed. It is concluded that the evidence from all Bell experiments is in urgent need of re-assessment, in the light of all the known ``loopholes''. Invalid Bell tests have frequently been used, neglecting improved ones derived by Clauser and Horne in 1974. ``Local causal'' explanations for the observations have been wrongfully neglected.

  19. Accidental Intraoral Formalin Injection: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dandriyal, Ramakant; Giri, Kolly Yada; Alam, Sarwar; Singh, Aishwarya Pratap

    2014-01-01

    Formalin is a hazardous chemical that needs cautious handling and special storage. Owing to its disinfectant and fixative (i.e. for preserving pathologic tissue specimens in histopathology) properties, it is widely used in dentistry. Although, the terms formaldehyde and formalin are often confused as being identical, these are different as to the concentrations of the primary component i.e. formaldehyde. In fact, the common fixative available as 10% neutral buffered formalin is actually a 4% solution of formaldehyde (i.e., a 10% solution made from a 37-40% commercially pure formaldehyde solution). This case report describes an unfortunate case of accidental injection instead of local anesthetic, of formalin into the pterygomandibular space in a 35-year old woman during inferior alveolar nerve block for surgical removal of impacted lower right third molar and its successful management by cautious debridement (under both local and general anesthesia) and empirical drug therapy (utilizing analgesics and antibiotics). PMID:25568771

  20. Assessment of hazard of chemical accidental releases triggered by floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonova, M.; Danihelka, P.

    2009-04-01

    Recently, the number of accidents happened, when floods trigger the releases of hazardous materials and following environment contamination. Baia Mare (Romania), Spolana Neratovice (Czech Republic) and hurricane Katrina (USA) are well known examples. The importance of this kind of phenomenon as a type of so called NATECH events is expressed among others in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which reorganises water conservation in Europe. It requires programmes of protection measures to be drawn up not later than 2009, and in sub-article 11 (3) l b) to prevent and/or reduce the impact of accidental pollution incidents, for example as a result of floods. Effective measures demand the assessment of hazard and risk of accidental release triggered by floods and there is a need for the method which can be used for these purposes. Such a method is still missing and this is why the basic method for hazard assessment has been developed. Simple indexes-based method is composed of three segments (natural risks, technological risks and combined risk) and it has flexible, modular structure. First segment estimates the probability of flooding of installation, the second, based on the reference scenarios estimates the possibility of release of chemicals and the third classify consequences. The work on refining of parameters and method continues. Method can be used in prevention of major accidents in the framework of the Council Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances (Seveso II directive) and can help to complete the safety studies in classified establishments.

  1. [Cutaneous radiation syndrome after accidental skin exposure to ionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Peter, R U

    2013-12-01

    Accidental exposure of the human skin to single doses of ionizing radiation greater than 3 Gy results in a distinct clinical picture, which is characterized by a transient and faint erythema after a few hours, then followed by severe erythema, blistering and necrosis. Depending on severity of damage, the latter generally occurs 10-30 days after exposure, but in severe cases may appear within 48 hrs. Between three and 24 months after exposure, epidermal atrophy combined with progressive dermal and subcutaneous fibrosis is the predominant clinical feature. Even years and decades after exposure, atrophy of epidermis, sweat and sebaceous glands; telangiectases; and dermal and subcutaneous fibrosis may be found and even continue to progress. For this distinct pattern of deterministic effects following cutaneous accidental radiation exposure the term "cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS)" was coined in 1993 and has been accepted by all international authorities including IAEA and WHO since 2000. In contrast to the classical concept that inhibition of epidermal stem cell proliferation accounts for the clinical symptomatology, research of the last three decades has demonstrated the additional crucial role of inflammatory processes in the etiology of both acute and chronic sequelae of the CRS. Therefore, therapeutic approaches should include topical and systemic anti-inflammatory measures at the earliest conceivable point, and should be maintained throughout the acute and subacute stages, as this reduces the need for surgical intervention, once necrosis has occurred. If surgical intervention is planned, it should be executed with a conservative approach; no safety margins are needed. Antifibrotic measures in the chronic stage should address the chronic inflammatory nature of this process, in which over-expression TGF beta-1 may be a target for therapeutic intervention. Life-long follow-up often is required for management of delayed effects and for early detection of secondary malignancies, which must be searched for especially in the borderline areas between clinically symptomatic and asymptomatic skin. PMID:24337304

  2. Contribution of the ear and the flag leaf to grain filling in durum wheat inferred from the carbon isotope signature: genotypic and growing conditions effects.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Bragado, Rut; Elazab, Abdelhalim; Zhou, Bangwei; Serret, Maria Dolors; Bort, Jordi; Nieto-Taladriz, Maria Teresa; Araus, José Luis

    2014-05-01

    The ear, together with the flag leaf, is believed to play a major role as a source of assimilates during grain filling in C3 cereals. However, the intrusive nature of most of the available methodologies prevents reaching conclusive results in this regard. This study compares the carbon isotope composition (?(13)C) in its natural abundance in the water-soluble fractions of the flag leaf blade and the ear with the ?(13)C of mature kernels to assess the relative contribution of both organs to grain filling in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum). The relative contribution of the ear was higher in landraces compared to modern cultivars, as well as in response to nitrogen fertilization and water stress. Such genotypic and environmentally driven differences were associated with changes in harvest index (HI), with the relative contribution of the ear being negatively associated with HI. In the case of the genotypic differences, the lower relative contribution of the ear in modern cultivars compared with landraces is probably associated with the appearance in the former of a certain amount of source limitation driven by a higher HI. In fact, the relative contribution of the ear was far more responsive to changes in HI in modern cultivars compared with landraces. PMID:24028829

  3. Glutamate Receptor Antagonist Infusions into the Basolateral and Medial Amygdala Reveal Differential Contributions to Olfactory vs. Context Fear Conditioning and Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David L.; Paschall, Gayla Y.; Davis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The basolateral amygdala's involvement in fear acquisition and expression to visual and auditory stimuli is well known. The involvement of the basolateral and other amygdala areas in fear acquisition and expression to stimuli of other modalities is less certain. We evaluated the contribution of the basolateral and medial amygdala to olfactory and…

  4. Sheltering--a protective measure following an accidental atmospheric release from a nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Koch, J; Tadmor, J

    1988-06-01

    The effectiveness of sheltering the population for reducing radiological effects following an accidental release of radioactivity at a nuclear power plant was investigated. Different levels of respiratory protection and the administration of a thyroid blocking agent were also studied as possible complements to sheltering. Specific conditions were assumed, concerning the high protection factors of regular buildings and the high availability of civil defense shelters. Computations were performed by means of a probabilistic consequence model, which allows a comprehensive description of exposure modes and processes dealing with the implementation of sheltering and which takes into account a broad range of radiological effects. Sheltering, even in regular buildings, was found to be efficient in reducing early fatalities and other non-stochastic effects. However, it was shown that respiratory protection is also needed in order to alleviate stochastic effects and that, for this purpose, expedient individual filtration methods may be satisfactory. Under the conditions studied, sheltering was found to be preferable in most cases over evacuation, as the main immediate protective measure, unless evacuation can be carried out before the radioactive cloud reaches the populated area. PMID:3378897

  5. Sheltering--a protective measure following an accidental atmospheric release from a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.; Tadmor, J.

    1988-06-01

    The effectiveness of sheltering the population for reducing radiological effects following an accidental release of radioactivity at a nuclear power plant was investigated. Different levels of respiratory protection and the administration of a thyroid blocking agent were also studied as possible complements to sheltering. Specific conditions were assumed, concerning the high protection factors of regular buildings and the high availability of civil defense shelters. Computations were performed by means of a probabilistic consequence model, which allows a comprehensive description of exposure modes and processes dealing with the implementation of sheltering and which takes into account a broad range of radiological effects. Sheltering, even in regular buildings, was found to be efficient in reducing early fatalities and other non-stochastic effects. However, it was shown that respiratory protection is also needed in order to alleviate stochastic effects and that, for this purpose, expedient individual filtration methods may be satisfactory. Under the conditions studied, sheltering was found to be preferable in most cases over evacuation, as the main immediate protective measure, unless evacuation can be carried out before the radioactive cloud reaches the populated area.

  6. Physics effects of accidental submersion of space power reactors in water

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.K.; Lell, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    A major safety concern for nuclear reactors in space power applications is the effect of accidental submersion of the reactors in water. Such a situation might be postulated, for example, as a consequence of a launch pad accident. The classes of reactors proposed most frequently for use in space are fast spectrum reactors, for which submersion results in a softened core neutron spectrum caused by the displacement of the liquid metal coolant by the water. The softened spectrum alters the neutron balance in the core - neutron capture and fission are increased while leakage from the core is reduced. Water outside the submerged core introduces an increased number of reflected thermalized neutrons into the core. The net effect is a function of the specific features of the reactor design (composition, size, etc.) and can be positive or negative depending upon the contributions of the individual effects. Analysis of the magnitude of the effect requires an accurate evaluation of the individual components. At present a designer must rely on detailed calculations performed after key design parameters are settled to determine the effects of submersion. The purpose of our work is to develop generic features of the submersion phenomenon to provide designers a means to an a priori knowledge of the impact of potential design choices on submersion reactivity.

  7. Small and Large-scale Drivers of Denitrification Patterns in "Accidental" Urban Wetlands in Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchy, A. K.; Palta, M. M.; Childers, D. L.; Stromberg, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal patterns of microbial conversion of nitrate (NO3-) to nitrogen (N) gas (denitrification) is important for predicting permanent losses of reactive N from systems. In many landscapes, wetlands serve as hotpots of denitrification by providing optimal condition for denitrifiers (sub-oxic, carbon-rich sediments). Much research on denitrification has occurred in non-urban or highly managed urban wetlands. However, in urban landscapes N-rich stormwater is often discharged into areas not designed or managed to reduce N loads. "Accidental" wetlands forming at these outfalls may have the capacity to remove NO3-; however, these "accidental" urban wetlands can contain novel soils and vegetation, and are subject to unique hydrologic conditions that could create spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification that differ from those predicted in non-urban counterparts. We performed denitrification enzyme assays (measuring denitrification potential, or DP) on soil samples taken from nine wetlands forming at storm drain outfalls in Phoenix, AZ. The wetlands ranged from perennially flooded, to intermittently flooded (~9 months/year), to ephemerally flooded (2-3 weeks/year). To assess spatial variation in carbon availability to denitrifiers, samples were taken from 3-4 dominant vegetation patch types within each wetland. To assess temporal variation in DP, samples were taken across three seasons differing in rainfall pattern. We found small- and large-scale spatiotemporal patterns in DP that have important implications for management of urban wetlands for stormwater quality. DP varied among plant patches and was typically highest in patches of Ludwigia peploides, indicating that plant species type may mediate within-wetland variations in carbon availability, and therefore NO3- removal capacity. We found a range of responses in DP among wetlands to season, which appeared to be driven in part by flood regime: DP in perennially-flooded wetlands was largely unchanged across seasons, DP in intermittently-flooded wetlands generally increased in summer monsoons and decreased in winter, and ephemerally-flooded wetlands had a variable response in DP to season. This pattern indicates temporally variable controls on NO3- removal capacity at the whole-wetland scale.

  8. Lemon aesthetics in hand dishwashing detergents do not influence reported accidental ingestion frequency and volume.

    PubMed

    Petersen, D W

    1989-06-01

    Accidental ingestion reports for 2 nationally distributed hand dishwashing detergents with similar formulations were compared to determine the possible effect of lemon aesthetics on ingestion frequency and volume. Data were compared over almost a 2-year period (May 1986 to April 1988), and a total of 2141 accidental ingestion reports for the 2 products were reviewed. There was no difference in the reported ingestion volume of lemon-scented versus nonlemon-scented product. Fewer accidental ingestion reports were received for lemon-scented than for nonlemon-scented products, even when data were normalized for market shipments of each product. PMID:2741316

  9. Accidental release of chlorine and its impact on urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sheikh, H.A.; Badr, O.A.; El Kadi, H.M.; Hamoda, M.F. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Among the possible scenarios of accidental releases of chlorine from high pressure cylinders, this paper considers a typical one for the analysis. The calculated transient mass flow rate of chlorine released from a one-tonne cylinder showed that such an accident takes about 10 minutes to evacuate the cylinder. However, the toxic effect in the surrounding atmosphere continues for a longer period (about 20 minutes). The size and location of the toxic cloud at ground level were predicted as functions of time using an EPA-based dispersion model. The results showed a growth of the toxic cloud for some time beyond which it started to decay. For the typical scenario considered in this study, the most dangerous situation generated a toxic cloud with dimensions of 4000 m and 600 m in the downwind and crosswind directions, respectively. A study of the effects of some meteorological parameters on the size and location of the toxic cloud at ground level was also conducted. In general, it was observed that enhancing atmospheric mixing produced larger toxic zones during the early stages of the release and caused an opposite effect during the later ones. This dynamic data was linked to a GIS environment and the time variant was represented using an animation technique for Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates. Data base information related to physical urban characteristics and population was immediately obtained for the affected areas.

  10. Assessment of accidental intakes of uranyl acetylacetonate (UAA)

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Briant, J.K.

    1993-12-01

    Uranyl acetylacetonate (UAA) is an organic complex of uranium used for military applications as a chemical catalyst in high explosives. It is prepared from depleted uranium metal (in lots of 5 kg to 7 kg) by dissolution in nitric acid, neutralization, and complexation with 2,4-pentanedione; the precipitate is dissolved in benzene and recrystallized, dried, ground, and packaged. About six workers at a small chemical company were exposed over a period of time to UAA powders during routine preparation and packaging of the uranium catalyst. The dissolution characteristics of the inhaled material were unknown and could not be determined from the published scientific literature. A 1.05-g sample of UAA powder was obtained from the responsible regulatory authority for further study to determine its chemical composition, and for dissolution in simulated lung fluid. We found the solubility of UAA to be equivalent to a mixture of 52% ICRP class D and 48% ICRP class W material. The annual limit on intake and the derived air concentration for radiological protection were estimated from this result for airborne exposure to UAA. A recycling biokinetic model was used to estimate both material-specific variations in urinary excretion rates and lung retention with time after accidental intakes. This study provides new information for evaluating future exposures to UAA.

  11. Comparative toxicology of intentional and accidental heroin overdose.

    PubMed

    Darke, Shane; Duflou, Johan; Torok, Michelle

    2010-07-01

    The demographic and toxicological characteristics of deliberate (SUI, n = 50) and accidental (ACC, n = 927) fatal heroin overdose cases were examined. SUI cases were more likely to be female, had lower body mass indices, were more likely to be enrolled in treatment and less likely to have hepatic pathology. The median blood morphine concentration of SUI cases was significantly higher than that of ACC cases (0.70 vs. 0.40 mg/L, p < 0.001). Blood morphine concentrations of >1 mg/L were seen among 38.0% of SUI cases compared to 13.9% of ACC cases. Being a member of the SUI group remained a significant independent predictor of higher morphine concentrations after controlling for the effects of potential confounders (p < 0.001), other significant predictors being the absence of alcohol (p < 0.001), the presence of methadone (p < 0.05), and the presence of cocaine (p < 0.05). The current data are consistent with the view that suicide forms a small, but distinct, category of heroin overdose cases, rather than overdose being a parasuicidal phenomenon per se. PMID:20384920

  12. High mortality due to accidental salinomycin intoxication in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Eisapour, Hamed; Erfani, Amir Mehdi; Kalantary, Amir Ali; Amoli, Jamileh Salar; Mozafari, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    In February 2012, 100% mortality was reported in a herd with 79 local sheep that were kept around of Abhar, Northwest of Iran. The ration for adult sheep was daily mixed (40 kg straw, 25 kg wheat and 2 kg Vit-C premix) and accidentally 1 500 g of salinomycin (Salinomycin 12% Premix; Aras Bazar Laboratories, Iran) had been added to the ration (22388 mg/kg = 22388 ppm) and overnight was fed to herd. At the morning, 78 sheep were founded dead and one of them showed convulsive seizures. Postmortem examination revealed pulmonary congestion and edema, hemorrhages in abomasum, large pale kidney and white streak lines in myocardium. Main histopathologic lesions were extensive subepicardial and intercardiomyofibers hemorrhages, extensive cardiomyolysis and myocarditis in heart, severe hyperemia and extensive acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in kidneys and focal necrosis and retention of bile cholangitis in the liver. In this study, on the basis of the history, observation of the ionophore remnant in the ration, clinical signs, gross and histopathological findings, acute salinomycin intoxication is definitely diagnosed.

  13. Mitigation of lung injury after accidental exposure to radiation.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, J; Jelveh, S; Calveley, V; Zaidi, A; Doctrow, S R; Hill, R P

    2011-12-01

    There is a serious need to develop effective mitigators against accidental radiation exposures. In radiation accidents, many people may receive nonuniform whole-body or partial-body irradiation. The lung is one of the more radiosensitive organs, demonstrating pneumonitis and fibrosis that are believed to develop at least partially because of radiation-induced chronic inflammation. Here we addressed the crucial questions of how damage to the lung can be mitigated and whether the response is affected by irradiation to the rest of the body. We examined the widely used dietary supplement genistein given at two dietary levels (750 or 3750 mg/kg) to Fischer rats irradiated with 12 Gy to the lung or 8 Gy to the lung + 4 Gy to the whole body excluding the head and tail (whole torso). We found that genistein had promising mitigating effects on oxidative damage, pneumonitis and fibrosis even at late times (36 weeks) when drug treatment was initiated 1 week after irradiation and stopped at 28 weeks postirradiation. The higher dose of genistein showed no greater beneficial effect. Combined lung and whole-torso irradiation caused more lung-related severe morbidity resulting in euthanasia of the animals than lung irradiation alone. PMID:22013884

  14. Role of the surgeon in non-accidental trauma.

    PubMed

    Naik-Mathuria, Bindi; Akinkuotu, Adesola; Wesson, David

    2015-07-01

    Non-accidental trauma (NAT) represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. The management of these patients often involves many care providers including the surgeon. Victims of NAT often present with multiple injuries and as such should be treated as trauma patients with complete trauma evaluation including primary, secondary and tertiary surveys. Common injury patterns in NAT include extremity fractures, closed head injury and intra-abdominal injury. Brain imaging is of importance to rule out acute or sub-acute intracranial hemorrhage. Children under the age of 5 years with acute intracranial pathology should also be evaluated by an ophthalmologist to rule out retinal hemorrhages, which are considered pathognomonic for child abuse from violent shaking. In instances when abdominal injury is suspected, prompt evaluation by a surgeon is recommended along with CT imaging. Finding of extremity fractures should prompt evaluation by an orthopedic surgeon. At our institution, all patients with suspected NAT are admitted to the pediatric surgery service for complete evaluation and management. We encourage other pediatric trauma centers to employ a similar approach so that these complicated patients are managed safely and effectively. PMID:25772160

  15. Including fathers in preventing non-accidental head injury.

    PubMed

    Coles, Lisa; Collins, Lynne

    2009-04-01

    Health visitors identified fathers as a marginalised, difficult-to-reach group when aiming for universal implementation of a public health programme to prevent non-accidental head injury (NAHI) in babies. Follow-on research with 30 fathers from disadvantaged backgrounds, including some in prison, explored barriers and facilitating factors to preventing NAHI through focus groups and interviews. Fathers expressed both responsibility and helplessness in managing a baby, but many felt excluded from gaining skills and knowledge by healthcare staff. Barriers to implementing a prevention programme included a lack of knowledge about head injuries in babies and poor understanding of prevention as a reduction of risk factors. Fear of blame for a head injury could lead to injury concealment, indicating a taboo subject. Facilitators for fathers to learn about preventing head injuries in babies included concerns of their masculinity being at odds with the frailty of the newborn, recognition of fathers' needs to be valued in their own right, and a need for individualised plans for gaining information and increasing confidence. The modifiable barriers to prevention, from the fathers' perspectives, add to the theoretical and applied evidence base for the prevention of NAHI. PMID:19397079

  16. Balanced Flow Measurement and Conditioning Technology (Balanced Orifice Plate 7,051,765 B1) for NASA Inventions and Contributions Board Invention of the Year Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the Balanced Flow Measurement (BFM) and Conditioning Technology, and makes the case for this as the NASA Invention of the Year. The BFM technology makes use of a thin, multi-hole orifice plate with holes sized and placed per a unique set of equations. It produces mass flow, volumetric flow,kinelic energy,or momentum BALANCE across the face of the plate. The flow is proportional.to the square root of upstream to downstream differential pressure. Multiple holes lead to smoother pressure measurement. Measures and conditions or can limit fluid flow. This innovation has many uses in and out of NASA.

  17. A case of accidental intrathecal injection of a large dose of ropivacaine during cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yan P; Chen, Hong F; Yang, Chen; Tian, Fu B; Huang, Shao Q

    2014-01-01

    Continuous spinal anesthesia may provide excellent labor analgesia. The incidence of accidental intrathecal injection of megadose of ropivacaine, as one of the possible complications during cesarean section, is very rare. Present case report provides reference to clinical practice. PMID:25232443

  18. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 8. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN FLUORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a chemical specific manual for hydrogen fluoride (HF). It summarizes information to aid regulators and industry personnel in identifying and controlling release hazards associated with HF. Reducing the risk associated with accidental release of HF involves identifyi...

  19. Dose Calculation For Accidental Release Of Radioactive Cloud Passing Over Jeddah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, N. D.; Mayhoub, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    For the evaluation of doses after the reactor accident, in particular for the inhalation dose, a thorough knowledge of the concentration of the various radionuclide in air during the passage of the plume is required. In this paper we present an application of the Gaussian Plume Model (GPM) to calculate the atmospheric dispersion and airborne radionuclide concentration resulting from radioactive cloud over the city of Jeddah (KSA). The radioactive cloud is assumed to be emitted from a reactor of 10 MW power in postulated accidental release. Committed effective doses (CEDs) to the public at different distance from the source to the receptor are calculated. The calculations were based on meteorological condition and data of the Jeddah site. These data are: pasquill atmospheric stability is the class B and the wind speed is 2.4m/s at 10m height in the N direction. The residence time of some radionuclides considered in this study were calculated. The results indicate that, the values of doses first increase with distance, reach a maximum value and then gradually decrease. The total dose received by human is estimated by using the estimated values of residence time of each radioactive pollutant at different distances.

  20. Dose Calculation For Accidental Release Of Radioactive Cloud Passing Over Jeddah

    SciTech Connect

    Alharbi, N. D.; Mayhoub, A. B. [Physics Dept., Sciences Faculty for Girls, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-12-26

    For the evaluation of doses after the reactor accident, in particular for the inhalation dose, a thorough knowledge of the concentration of the various radionuclide in air during the passage of the plume is required. In this paper we present an application of the Gaussian Plume Model (GPM) to calculate the atmospheric dispersion and airborne radionuclide concentration resulting from radioactive cloud over the city of Jeddah (KSA). The radioactive cloud is assumed to be emitted from a reactor of 10 MW power in postulated accidental release. Committed effective doses (CEDs) to the public at different distance from the source to the receptor are calculated. The calculations were based on meteorological condition and data of the Jeddah site. These data are: pasquill atmospheric stability is the class B and the wind speed is 2.4m/s at 10m height in the N direction. The residence time of some radionuclides considered in this study were calculated. The results indicate that, the values of doses first increase with distance, reach a maximum value and then gradually decrease. The total dose received by human is estimated by using the estimated values of residence time of each radioactive pollutant at different distances.

  1. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - utility for the fire brigades.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

    2009-09-01

    Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios”), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Viennese fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program of the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. For the purpose of our study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Trace (Safer System), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer). A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed, with the models above, in order to predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. Furthermore, the application of the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in case of toxic release was investigated. INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) data are calculated operationally with 1 km horizontal resolution and based on the weather forecast model ALADIN. The meteorological field's analysis with INCA include: Temperature, Humidity, Wind, Precipitation, Cloudiness and Global Radiation. In the frame of the project INCA data were compared with measurements from the meteorological observational network, conducted at traffic-near sites in Vienna. INCA analysis and very short term forecast fields (up to 6 hours) are found to be an advanced possibility to provide on-line meteorological input for the model package used by the fire brigade. Since the input requirements differ from model to model, and the outputs are based on unequal criteria for toxic area and exposure, a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is required - especially in the case of slow wind speeds, stable atmospheric condition, and flow deflection by buildings in the urban area or by complex topography.

  2. Persistent Seroconversion after Accidental Eye Exposure to Calcifying Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Aho, Katja M.; McKay, David S.; Kajander, E. Olavi

    2007-01-01

    Biosafety of nanomaterials has attracted much attention recently. We report here a case where accidental human eye exposure to biogenic nanosized calcium phosphate in the form of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) raised a strong IgG immune response against proteins carried by CNP. The antibody titer has persisted over ten years at the high level. The IgG was detected by ELISA using CNPs propagated in media containing bovine and human serum as antigen. The exposure incident occurred to a woman scientist (WS) at a research laboratory in Finland at 1993. CNP, also termed "nanobacteria", is a unique self-replicating agent that has not been fully characterized and no data on biohazards were available at that time. Before the accident, her serum samples were negative for both CNP antigen and anti-CNP antibody using specific ELISA tests (Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland). The accident occurred while WS was harvesting CNP cultures. Due to a high pressure in pipetting, CNP pellet splashed into her right eye. Both eyes were immediately washed with water and saline. The following days there was irritation and redness in the right eye. These symptoms disappeared within two weeks without any treatment. Three months after the accident, blood and urine samples of WS were tested for CNP cultures (2), CNP-specific ELISA tests, and blood cell counts. Blood cell counts were normal, CNP antigen and culture tests were negative. A high IgG anti-CNP antibody titer was detected (see Figure). The antibodies of this person have been used thereafter as positive control and standard in ELISA manufacturing (Nano-Sero IgG ELISA, Nanobac Oy, Kuopio, Finland).

  3. Aerosol Direct, Indirect, Semidirect, and Surface Albedo Effects from Sector Contributions Based on the IPCC AR5 Emissions for Preindustrial and Present-day Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Menon, Surabi

    2012-01-01

    The anthropogenic increase in aerosol concentrations since preindustrial times and its net cooling effect on the atmosphere is thought to mask some of the greenhouse gas-induced warming. Although the overall effect of aerosols on solar radiation and clouds is most certainly negative, some individual forcing agents and feedbacks have positive forcing effects. Recent studies have tried to identify some of those positive forcing agents and their individual emission sectors, with the hope that mitigation policies could be developed to target those emitters. Understanding the net effect of multisource emitting sectors and the involved cloud feedbacks is very challenging, and this paper will clarify forcing and feedback effects by separating direct, indirect, semidirect and surface albedo effects due to aerosols. To this end, we apply the Goddard Institute for Space Studies climate model including detailed aerosol microphysics to examine aerosol impacts on climate by isolating single emission sector contributions as given by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) emission data sets developed for Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5. For the modeled past 150 years, using the climate model and emissions from preindustrial times to present-day, the total global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing is -0.6 W/m(exp 2), with the largest contribution from the direct effect (-0.5 W/m(exp 2)). Aerosol-induced changes on cloud cover often depends on cloud type and geographical region. The indirect (includes only the cloud albedo effect with -0.17 W/m(exp 2)) and semidirect effects (-0.10 W/m(exp 2)) can be isolated on a regional scale, and they often have opposing forcing effects, leading to overall small forcing effects on a global scale. Although the surface albedo effects from aerosols are small (0.016 W/m(exp 2)), triggered feedbacks on top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing can be 10 times larger. Our results point out that each emission sector has varying impacts by geographical region. For example, the single sector most responsible for a net positive radiative forcing is the transportation sector in the United States, agricultural burning and transportation in Europe, and the domestic emission sector in Asia. These sectors are attractive mitigation targets.

  4. Alpha 1 subunit-containing GABA type A receptors in forebrain contribute to the effect of inhaled anesthetics on conditioned fear.

    PubMed

    Sonner, James M; Cascio, Mike; Xing, Yilei; Fanselow, Michael S; Kralic, Jason E; Morrow, A Leslie; Korpi, Esa R; Hardy, Steven; Sloat, Brian; Eger, Edmond I; Homanics, Gregg E

    2005-07-01

    Inhaled anesthetics are believed to produce anesthesia by their actions on ion channels. Because inhaled anesthetics robustly enhance GABA A receptor (GABA(A)-R) responses to GABA, these receptors are considered prime targets of anesthetic action. However, the importance of GABA(A)-Rs and individual GABA(A)-R subunits to specific anesthetic-induced behavioral effects in the intact animal is unknown. We hypothesized that inhaled anesthetics produce amnesia, as assessed by loss of fear conditioning, by acting on the forebrain GABA(A)-Rs that harbor the alpha1 subunit. To test this, we used global knockout mice that completely lack the alpha1 subunit and forebrain-specific, conditional knockout mice that lack the alpha1 subunit only in the hippocampus, cortex, and amygdala. Both knockout mice were 75 to 145% less sensitive to the amnestic effects of the inhaled anesthetic isoflurane. These results indicate that alpha1-containing GABA(A)-Rs in the hippocampus, amygdala, and/or cortex influence the amnestic effects of inhaled anesthetics and may be an important molecular target of the drug isoflurane. PMID:15833735

  5. Modelling the growth/no growth boundary of Zygosaccharomyces bailii in acidic conditions: a contribution to the alternative method to preserve foods without using chemical preservatives.

    PubMed

    Dang, T D T; Mertens, L; Vermeulen, A; Geeraerd, A H; Van Impe, J F; Debevere, J; Devlieghere, F

    2010-01-31

    The aim of the study was to develop mathematical models describing growth/no growth (G/NG) boundaries of the highly resistant food spoilage yeast-Zygosaccharomyces bailii-in different environmental conditions, taking acidified sauces as the target product. By applying these models, the stability of products with characteristics within the investigated pH, a(w) and acetic acid ranges can be evaluated. Besides, the well-defined no growth regions can be used in the development of guidelines regarding formulation of new shelf-stable foods without using chemical preservatives, which would facilitate the innovation of additive-free products. Experiments were performed at different temperatures and periods (22 degrees C for 45 and 60days, 30 degrees C for 45days) in 150 modified Sabouraud media characterized by high amount of sugars (glucose and fructose, 15% (w/v)), acetic acid (0.0-2.5% (v/v), 6 levels), pH (3.0-5.0, 5 levels) and a(w) (0.93-0.97, 5 levels). These time and temperature combinations were chosen as they are commonly applied for shelf-stable foods. The media were inoculated with ca. 4.5 log CFU/ml and yeast growth was monitored daily using optical density measurements. Every condition was examined in 20 replicates in order to yield accurate growth probabilities. Three separate ordinary logistic regression models were developed for different tested temperatures and incubation time. The total acetic acid concentration was considered as variable for all models. In general, when one intrinsic inhibitory factor became more stringent, the G/NG boundary shifted to less stressful conditions of the other two factors, resulting in enlarged no growth zones. Abrupt changes of growth probability often occurred around the transition zones (between growth and no growth regions), which indicates that minor variations in environmental conditions near the G/NG boundaries can cause a significant impact on the growth probability. When comparing growth after 45days between the two tested temperatures, an unexpected phenomenon was observed: the no growth region at 30 degrees C was larger than the one at 22 degrees C, though it is known that 30 degrees C is the optimal growth temperature for Z. bailii. These results show that lowering temperature does not always lead to a reduced growth of the yeast (i.e. more stable foods) and storing shelf-stable products at the higher temperature (30 degrees C) is not always the worst case. In addition, at 22 degrees C, there was no significant difference in no growth zones between the two incubation periods (45 and 60days), implying that the no growth zones remain unchanged if the experimental time is sufficiently long. PMID:19939483

  6. Increase of Suicide and Accidental Death After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Tichelli, André; Labopin, Myriam; Rovó, Alicia; Badoglio, Manuela; Arat, Mutlu; van Lint, Maria Teresa; Lawitschka, Anita; Schwarze, Carl Philipp; Passweg, Jakob; Socié, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Relapse and transplant-related complications are leading causes of mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Suicides and accidents have not been studied in these patients. This study sought to determine whether there is an excess of suicide and accidental deaths after HSCT, and to determine risk factors. METHODS The incidence of suicidal and accidental death in patients after undergoing HSCT, standardized mortality ratio (SMR), and absolute excess risk (AER) of suicide and accidental deaths was determined, compared with the general European population. A case-control analysis was done to define factors associated with suicide and accidental deaths. Data were derived from the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Registry, including 294,922 patients who underwent autologous or allogeneic HSCT from 1980 to 2009. RESULTS The 10-year cumulative incidence of suicide and accidental deaths was 101.8 and 55.6 per 100,000 patients, respectively. SMR and AER of suicide after HSCT were 2.12 (P < .001) and 10.91, higher than in the European general population for 100,000 deaths, respectively. SMR and AER of accidental death were 1.23 (P < .05) and 2.54, respectively. In the case-control study, relapses were more frequent among patients who committed suicide after autologous HSCT (37% versus 18%; P < .0001). Chronic graft-versus-host disease was higher among patients who committed suicide after allogeneic HSCT (64% versus 37%; P = .001). CONCLUSIONS There is an excess of deaths due to suicide and accidents in patients after undergoing HSCT as compared with the European general population. Relapse was associated with more suicide and accidental deaths after autologous HSCT, and chronic graft-versus-host disease was associated with more deaths by suicide after allogeneic HSCT. Cancer 2013;119:2012–2021. © 2013 American Cancer Society. PMID:23512286

  7. Analysis of the contribution of wind drift factor to oil slick movement under strong tidal condition: Hebei Spirit oil spill case.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Yang, Chan-Su; Oh, Jeong-Hwan; Ouchi, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model and Automatic Weather System (AWS) were used to generate tidal and wind fields respectively. Simulation results were then compared with 5 sets of spaceborne optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. From the present study, it was found that highest matching rate between the simulation results and satellite imagery was obtained with different values of the wind drift factor, and to first order, this factor was linearly proportional to the wind speed. Based on the results, a new modified empirical formula was proposed for forecasting the movement of oil slicks on the coastal area. PMID:24498094

  8. Reply to "Comment on `Contributions of vacancies and self-interstitials to self-diffusion in silicon under thermal equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions' "

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kube, R.; Bracht, H.; Hüger, E.; Schmidt, H.; Hansen, J. Lundsgaard; Larsen, A. Nylandsted; Ager, J. W.; Haller, E. E.; Geue, T.; Stahn, J.; Uematsu, M.; Itoh, K. M.

    2014-09-01

    Suezawa et al. [Phys. Rev. B 90, 117201 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.117201] claim in their Comment that the data reported by Shimizu et al. [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 095901 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.095901] and Kube et al. [Phys. Rev. B 88, 085206 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.085206] on silicon self-diffusion for temperatures between 900 and 735 °C are affected by carbon and vacancy clusters and, accordingly, do not reflect self-diffusion under thermal equilibrium conditions. We demonstrate in our Reply that an impact of carbon on self-diffusion can definitely be excluded. In addition it is rather unlikely that the self-diffusion data reported by Shimizu et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 095901 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.095901] and Kube et al. [Phys. Rev. B 88, 085206 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.085206] are affected by the dissolution of vacancy clusters since strong differences exist not only in the preparation of the samples used for the experiments, but also in the time of diffusion. Finally, the vacancy formation enthalpy deduced by Suezawa et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 110, 083531 (2011), 10.1063/1.3653291] from quenching experiments is consistent with the value obtained from the temperature dependence of the vacancy formation enthalpy reported by Kube et al. [Phys. Rev. B 88, 085206 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.085206]. Overall we conclude that the quenching experiments of Suezawa et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 110, 083531 (2011), 10.1063/1.3653291] cannot disprove the interpretation of the low-temperature self-diffusion data reported by Shimizu et al. [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 095901 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.095901] and Kube et al. [Phys. Rev. B 88, 085206 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.085206].

  9. Accidental dark matter: Case in the scale invariant local B -L model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jun; Kang, Zhaofeng; Ko, P.; Orikasa, Yuta

    2015-06-01

    We explore the idea of accidental dark matter (aDM) stability in the scale invariant local U (1 )B -L model, which is a theory for neutrino and at the same time radiatively breaks scale invariance via quantum mechanical dynamics in the U (1 )B-L sector. A real singlet scalar can be accidental DM with an accidental Z2, by virtue of both extended symmetries. A U (1 )B-L charged complex scalar can also be a viable accidental DM due to an accidental (or remanent) Z3. They can reproduce correct relic density via the annihilations through the conventional Higgs portal or dark Higgs portal. The dark Higgs portal scenario is in tension with the LHC bound on ZB -L, and only heavy DM of a few TeVs can have correct relic density. In particular, DM may trigger classical scale invariance spontaneous breaking. The situation is relaxed significantly in the Z3 case due to the effective semiannihilation mode, and then light DM can be accommodated easily. In addition, the Z3 model can accommodate the GeV scale ? -ray excess from the Galactic center via semiannihilation into pseudo-Goldstone boson. The best fit is achieved at a DM about 52 GeV, with an annihilation cross section consistent with the thermal relic density. The invisible Higgs branching ratio is negligible because the Higgs portal quartic coupling is very small ?h ??10-3.

  10. Accidental Coverage of Both Renal Arteries during Infrarenal Aortic Stent-Graft Implantation: Cause and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bracale, Umberto Marcello; Giribono, Anna Maria; Vitale, Gaetano; Narese, Donatella; Santini, Gianpaolo; del Guercio, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report a salvage maneuver for accidental coverage of both renal arteries during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). A 72-year-old female with a 6?cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm was treated by endovascular means with a standard bifurcated graft. Upon completing an angiogram, both renal arteries were found to be accidentally occluded. Through a left percutaneous brachial approach, the right renal artery was catheterized and a chimney stent was deployed; however this was not possible for the left renal artery. A retroperitoneal surgical approach was therefore carried out with a retrograde chimney stent implanted to restore blood flow. After three months, both renal arteries were patent and renal function was not different from the baseline. Both endovascular with percutaneous access via the brachial artery and open retroperitoneal approaches with retrograde catheterization are feasible rescue techniques to recanalize the accidentally occluded renal arteries during EVAR. PMID:25544930

  11. Accidental ingestion of plastic from takeaway containers--food for thought.

    PubMed

    Guirgis, Marianne; Nguyen, Robert; Pokorny, Christopher

    2011-03-01

    Foreign body oesophageal obstruction is a medical emergency. It may be accidental, particularly in children, or deliberate, for example with suicide attempts. We present two cases illustrating accidental oesophageal foreign body impaction occurring after consumption of food that had been heated in a plastic container in a microwave oven, then cut and eaten directly from the softened container. To date, we are not aware of any similar reports. In view of potential complications, care needs to be taken when food is eaten directly from plastic takeaway containers. PMID:21381997

  12. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES. VOLUME 1. PREVENTION AND PROTECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  13. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 2. POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  14. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOLUME 2: POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  15. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Stenzel; K. Baumann-Stanzer

    2009-01-01

    Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades. Sirma Stenzel, Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. For hazard prediction and simulation

  16. 36 CFR 1230.16 - How does NARA handle allegations of unlawful or accidental removal, defacing, alteration, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does NARA handle allegations of unlawful or accidental...DESTRUCTION OF RECORDS § 1230.16 How does NARA handle allegations of unlawful or accidental...alienation, or unauthorized destruction, NARA will contact the agency as follows:...

  17. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 2. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF CHLORINE (SCAQMD) (SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual discusses reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of chlorine. It identifies some of the potential causes of accidental releases that apply to the processes that use chlorine. It also identifies examples of potential causes, as well as measures that may...

  18. New Tracers Identify Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids and Accidental Releases from Oil and Gas Operations

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Robert B.

    New Tracers Identify Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids and Accidental Releases from Oil and Gas fingerprints of fluids that return to the surface after high volume hydraulic fracturing of unconventional oil elemental and isotopic signatures (B/Cl, Li/Cl, 11 B, and 7 Li) useful for characterizing hydraulic

  19. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. W. Schatz; R. P. Koopman

    1989-01-01

    Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water

  20. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Holve; T. L. Harvill

    1989-01-01

    Accidental release of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water

  1. Non-accidental injury in children: what we do in Derby

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L J Arthur; W M Moncrieff; W Milburn; P S Bayliss; J Heath

    1976-01-01

    A scheme for dealing with cases of non-accidental injury in children in the Derby clinical area has been operating since 1971. A stable team of doctors, policemen, and social workers deal with each case. The parents are told at once that battering is suspected, and the police and social services department co-operate closely in establishing the facts, supporting the family,

  2. Feedback information of an accidental ammonia dispersion: use of phyto-references

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurélia Dandrieux; Gilles Dusserre; James Ollivier; Dominique Manzone

    2001-01-01

    The data from accidental releases of toxic gas to the atmosphere are incomplete because of the lack of information concerning the measurement of the concentrations emitted. Their estimation based on plants' responses to toxic gas exposure would provide an interesting tool to improve feedback from the incidents. With this in mind, preliminary studies on the response of plants to several

  3. [Cardiotoxic and neurotoxic effects after accidental intravascular bupivacaine administration. Therapy with lidocaine propofol and lipid emulsion].

    PubMed

    Zimmer, C; Piepenbrink, K; Riest, G; Peters, J

    2007-05-01

    Accidental intravascular administration of bupivacaine can cause severe neurotoxic and cardiotoxic effects. We report a case of suspected bupivacaine intoxication due to intravascular injection via an epidural catheter and treatment with lidocaine, propofol, and a 20% lipid emulsion resulting in fast resolution of cardiotoxic and neurotoxic effects. Possible mechanisms of action of the medications used are discussed. PMID:17277955

  4. Vibration behavior and response to an accidental collision of SFT prototype in Qiandao Lake (China)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuangyin Zhang; Lei Wang; Youshi Hong

    2010-01-01

    This article presents free vibration analysis of the submerged floating tunnel (SFT) prototype, which has been designed to be built in Qiandao Lake (China). As an approximation the supporting effect of the tethers is omitted in the calculation of beam-like bending vibrations. As a case study, the response of the SFT prototype to an accidental collision by an object like

  5. Accidental Federated Searching: Implementing Federated Searching in the Smaller Academic Library

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina McHale

    2007-01-01

    Borrowing its title from and continuing in the vein of Rachel Gordon Singer's book, The Accidental Systems Librarian, this article explores issues raised during implementation of federated search in the smaller academic library. Smaller academic libraries have smaller budgets and are less likely to have the levels of information technology support required to undertake large scale electronic projects; however, these

  6. The Woodstruck Deed The Documentation of Accidental Defloration among the Jews of Early Modern Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Malkiel

    2006-01-01

    The “woodstruck” (mukat ets) deed, a Hebrew document that officially records the accidental defloration of a young girl, appears in sixteenth-century Italy, in a block of deeds recorded by Jewish notaries in Rome, in a rabbinic responsum and in the record book of the Padua community. Prior to that, there is no record of such an instrument anywhere in Jewish

  7. Treatment of accidental digital injection of adrenaline from an auto-injector device.

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, S J

    1997-01-01

    Following an increase in the number of patients attending the accident and emergency department because of accidental injection of adrenaline from autoinjector devices prescribed for patients with severe allergic reactions, a review of published reports was undertaken to identify the best form of treatment. Local injection of phentolamine is effective for up to 13 hours after the inadvertent digital instillation of adrenaline. PMID:9413778

  8. Treatment of accidental digital injection of adrenaline from an auto-injector device.

    PubMed

    McGovern, S J

    1997-11-01

    Following an increase in the number of patients attending the accident and emergency department because of accidental injection of adrenaline from autoinjector devices prescribed for patients with severe allergic reactions, a review of published reports was undertaken to identify the best form of treatment. Local injection of phentolamine is effective for up to 13 hours after the inadvertent digital instillation of adrenaline. PMID:9413778

  9. Treatment of accidental digital injection of adrenaline from an auto-injector device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S J McGovern

    1997-01-01

    Following an increase in the number of patients attending the accident and emergency department because of accidental injection of adrenaline from autoinjector devices prescribed for patients with severe allergic reactions, a review of published reports was undertaken to identify the best form of treatment. Local injection of phentolamine is effective for up to 13 hours after the inadvertent digital instillation

  10. Accidental pinhole and pinspeck cameras: revealing the scene outside the picture Antonio Torralba, William T. Freeman

    E-print Network

    Freeman, William T.

    of a building, etc.). Accidental cameras can reveal information about the scene outside the image, the lighting by intentionally building a particular arrangement of surfaces that will result in a cam- era. However, similar-1-4673-1228-8/12/$31.00 ©2012 IEEE 374 IEEE Computer Vision and Pattern Recogniti

  11. Accidental Entry of Fish into Throat While Bathing in a Pond

    PubMed Central

    Parida, Pradipta Kumar; Surianarayanan, Gopalakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    While fish bones are common foreign bodies in the throat, a whole live fish in the pharynx is very rare. We report a case where a whole fish accidentally entered the throat of a 52-year-old male, where it became lodged causing throat pain and dysphagia. The fish was removed as an emergency procedure. PMID:24371443

  12. Multiple scattering and accidental coincidences in the J-PET detector simulated using GATE package

    E-print Network

    Kowalski, P; Wi?licki, W; Raczy?ski, L; Bednarski, T; Bia?as, P; Bu?ka, J; Czerwi?ski, E; Gajos, A; Gruntowski, A; Kami?ska, D; Kap?on, ?; Kochanowski, A; Korcyl, G; Kowal, J; Kozik, T; Krzemie?, W; Kubicz, E; Nied?wiecki, Sz; Pa?ka, M; Rudy, Z; Salabura, P; Sharma, N G; Silarski, M; S?omski, A; Smyrski, J; Strzelecki, A; Wieczorek, A; Wochlik, I; Zieli?ski, M; Zo?, N

    2015-01-01

    Novel Positron Emission Tomography system, based on plastic scintillators, is developed by the J-PET collaboration. In order to optimize geometrical configuration of built device, advanced computer simulations are performed. Detailed study is presented of background given by accidental coincidences and multiple scattering of gamma quanta.

  13. [Accidental asymptomatic infections with hephatitis B virus and testing on HBV markers of healthcare personnel].

    PubMed

    Saci?, Enes; Saci?, Dzana

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare personnel is being highly exposed to the professional risk of Hephatitis B virus infection by accidental professional injuries, where direct contact with patients blood occurs. Number of researches indicate significance and role of accidental injuries, especially over injection needles, which is leading cause for professional HBV infections occurence. HBsAg has capability to provoke imune system if applied to a man, to HBs anti-bodies production achieving thus protection from Hephatitis B Virus. Recombinant vaccine against viruse Hephatitis B achieves high imunology protection. It is considered that appereance of anti-HBs titre >10 mlU/ml upon received three doses of vaccine provides reliable protection from HBV infection. Aim of the work is to prove rates of asymptomatic HBV infection amongst healthcare personnel and other employees in Sarajevo Healthcare Institution, and to research occurence and rate of anti-HBs titre at vaccinated Healthcare personnel in Sarajevo Healthcare Institution one month upon received third dose of vaccine. Out of 980 examinees 4, or 0.41%, had acute HBV infection within research period, 10 or 1.02% examinees had chronical accidental HBV infection, 18 or 1.83 % out of 980 examinees had previous asymptomatic HBV infection, as the consequence of accidental injury. Results of these researches indicated that 82.76 % or 96 healthcare workers has had reliable protection from HB virus infection one month upon third vaccine dose against HBV, since achieved titres where higher than 10 mlU/ml. PMID:18669231

  14. Colchicine poisoning by accidental ingestion of meadow saffron ( Colchicum autumnale): pathological and medicolegal aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Klintschar; Christine Beham-Schmidt; Herbert Radner; Gerald Henning; Peter Roll

    1999-01-01

    Although intoxications with colchicine, the alkaloid of Colchicum autumnale (meadow saffron), are well known, in most cases the intoxications are evoked by oral or parenteral preparations traditionally used as medication against gout. The accidental ingestion of Colchicum autumnale, on the other hand, is a rare event and has to our knowledge only twice been described in detail. We report a

  15. SUMMARY OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF RADIOACTIVITY DETECTED OFF THE NEVADA TEST SITE, 1963-1986

    EPA Science Inventory

    Of the more than 450 underground nuclear explosives tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site from August 1963 (signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty) through the end of 1986, only 23 accidentally released radioactivity that was detectable beyond the boundary of the NTS. Of these ...

  16. Non-Accidental Head Injury in New Zealand: The Outcome of Referral to Statutory Authorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patrick; MacCormick, Judith; Strange, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the outcome of referral to the statutory authorities for infants under 2 years with non-accidental head injury (NAHI), and to establish whether the authorities held sufficient information to develop a risk profile for these cases. Methods: Retrospective review of cases admitted to hospital in Auckland, New Zealand from 1988…

  17. The persistence of chromosome translocations in a radiation worker accidentally exposed to tritium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. Lucas; M. Poggensee; T. Straume

    1992-01-01

    The chromosome translocation frequency in lymphocytes of an individual accidentally exposed to tritium six years previously was measured using chromosome painting, Comparisons with results from cytogenetic studies shortly after the accident indicate that the translocation frequency has remained unaltered in this individual for six years.Copyright © 1992 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 14: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF PHOSGENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, discussing phosgene, is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. Phosgene, a highly reactive and corrosive liquid that boils at room temperature has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (lDLH) conctntration of 2 ppm, ...

  19. Probabilistic margin evaluation on accidental transients for the ASTRID reactor project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquès, Michel

    2014-06-01

    ASTRID is a technological demonstrator of Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) under development. The conceptual design studies are being conducted in accordance with the Generation IV reactor objectives, particularly in terms of improving safety. For the hypothetical events, belonging to the accidental category "severe accident prevention situations" having a very low frequency of occurrence, the safety demonstration is no more based on a deterministic demonstration with conservative assumptions on models and parameters but on a "Best-Estimate Plus Uncertainty" (BEPU) approach. This BEPU approach ispresented in this paper for an Unprotected Loss-of-Flow (ULOF) event. The Best-Estimate (BE) analysis of this ULOFt ransient is performed with the CATHARE2 code, which is the French reference system code for SFR applications. The objective of the BEPU analysis is twofold: first evaluate the safety margin to sodium boiling in taking into account the uncertainties on the input parameters of the CATHARE2 code (twenty-two uncertain input parameters have been identified, which can be classified into five groups: reactor power, accident management, pumps characteristics, reactivity coefficients, thermal parameters and head losses); secondly quantify the contribution of each input uncertainty to the overall uncertainty of the safety margins, in order to refocusing R&D efforts on the most influential factors. This paper focuses on the methodological aspects of the evaluation of the safety margin. At least for the preliminary phase of the project (conceptual design), a probabilistic criterion has been fixed in the context of this BEPU analysis; this criterion is the value of the margin to sodium boiling, which has a probability 95% to be exceeded, obtained with a confidence level of 95% (i.e. the M5,95percentile of the margin distribution). This paper presents two methods used to assess this percentile: the Wilks method and the Bootstrap method ; the effectiveness of the two methods is compared on the basis of 500 simulations performed with theCATHARE2 code. We conclude that, with only 100 simulations performed with the CATHARE2 code, which is a number of simulations workable in the conceptual design phase of the ASTRID project where the models and the hypothesis are often modified, it is best in order to evaluate the percentile M5,95 of the margin to sodium boiling to use the bootstrap method, which will provide a slightly conservative result. On the other hand, in order to obtain an accurate estimation of the percentileM5,95, for the safety report for example, it will be necessary to perform at least 300 simulations with the CATHARE2 code. In this case, both methods (Wilks and Bootstrap) would give equivalent results.

  20. Accidental Dark Matter: Case in the Scale Invariant Local $B-L$ Models

    E-print Network

    Jun Guo; Zhaofeng Kang; P. Ko; Yuta Orikasa

    2015-02-07

    We explore the idea of accidental dark matter (aDM) stability in the scale invariant local $U(1)_{B-L}$ model, which is a theory for neutrino and at the same time radiatively breaks scale invariance via quantum mechanical dynamics in the $U(1)_{B-L}$ sector. A real singlet scalar can be accidental DM with an accidental $Z_2$, by virtue of both extended symmetries. A $U(1)_{B-L}$ charged complex scalar can also be a viable accidental DM due to an accidental (or remanent) $Z_3$. They can reproduce correct relic density via the annihilations through the conventional Higgs portal or dark Higgs portal. The dark Higgs portal scenario is in tension with the LHC bound on $Z_{B-L}$, and only heavy DM of a few TeVs can have correct relic density. In particular, DM may trigger spontaneous breaking of scale Invariance (SISB). The situation is relaxed significantly in the $Z_3$ case due to the effective semi-annihilation mode and then light DM can be accommodated easily. In addition, the $Z_3$ model can accommodate the GeV scale $\\gamma-$ray excess from the galactic center (GC) via semi-annihilation into pseudo Goldstone boson (PGSB). The best fit is achieved at a DM about 52 GeV, with annihilation cross section consistent with the thermal relic density. The invisible Higgs branching ratio is negligible because the Higgs portal quartic coupling is very small $\\lambda_{h\\phi} \\lesssim 10^{-3}$.

  1. A simulation study of dispersion of air borne radionuclides from a nuclear power plant under a hypothetical accidental scenario at a tropical coastal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, C. V.; Venkatesan, R.

    Meteorological condition in coastal regions is diurnally variable and spatially heterogeneous due to complex topography, land-sea interface, etc. A wide range of dispersion conditions is possible on a given day in the coastal regions. In case of inadvertent accidental situations, though unlikely, it would be necessary to examine the potentially severe case among different dynamically occurring local atmospheric conditions for dispersion and its range of impact around a nuclear power plant for safety analysis. In this context, dispersion of air borne radioactive effluents during a hypothetical accidental scenario from a proposed prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) at an Indian coastal site, Kalpakkam, is simulated using a 3-D meso-scale atmospheric model MM5 and a random walk particle dispersion model FLEXPART. A simulation carried out for a typical summer day predicted the development of land-sea breeze circulation and thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) formation, which have been confirmed by meteorological observations. Analysis of dose distribution shows that the maximum dose for releases from a 100 m stack occurs at two places within 4 km distance during sea breeze/TIBL fumigation hours. Maximum dose also occurred during nighttime stable conditions. Results indicate that, on the day of present study, the highest concentrations occurred during periods of TIBL fumigation rather than during stable atmospheric conditions. Further, the area of impact (plume width at the surface) spreads up to a down wind distance of 4 km during fumigation condition. Simulation over a range of 25 km has shown turning of plume at the incidence of sea breeze circulation and two different dispersion patterns across the sea breeze front. These results are significant in comparison to the expected pattern shown by Gaussian plume model used for routine analysis.

  2. Source, dispersion and combustion modelling of an accidental release of hydrogen in an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Venetsanos, A G; Huld, T; Adams, P; Bartzis, J G

    2003-12-12

    Hydrogen is likely to be the most important future energy carrier, for many stationary and mobile applications, with the potential to make significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions especially if renewable primary energy sources are used to produce the hydrogen. A safe transition to the use of hydrogen by members of the general public requires that the safety issues associated with hydrogen applications have to be investigated and fully understood. In order to assess the risks associated with hydrogen applications, its behaviour in realistic accident scenarios has to be predicted, allowing mitigating measures to be developed where necessary. A key factor in this process is predicting the release, dispersion and combustion of hydrogen in appropriate scenarios. This paper illustrates an application of CFD methods to the simulation of an actual hydrogen explosion. The explosion occurred on 3 March 1983 in a built up area of central Stockholm, Sweden, after the accidental release of approximately 13.5 kg of hydrogen from a rack of 18 interconnected 50 l industrial pressure vessels (200 bar working pressure) being transported by a delivery truck. Modelling of the source term, dispersion and combustion were undertaken separately using three different numerical tools, due to the differences in physics and scales between the different phenomena. Results from the dispersion calculations together with the official accident report were used to identify a possible ignition source and estimate the time at which ignition could have occurred. Ignition was estimated to occur 10s after the start of the release, coinciding with the time at which the maximum flammable hydrogen mass and cloud volume were found to occur (4.5 kg and 600 m(3), respectively). The subsequent simulation of the combustion adopts initial conditions for mean flow and turbulence from the dispersion simulations, and calculates the development of a fireball. This provides physical values, e.g. maximum overpressure and far-field overpressure that may be used as a comparison with the known accident details to give an indication of the validity of the models. The simulation results are consistent with both the reported near-field damage to buildings and persons and with the far-field damage to windows. The work was undertaken as part of the European Integrated Hydrogen Project-Phase 2 (EIHP2) with partial funding from the European Commission via the Fifth Framework Programme. PMID:14623417

  3. Modelling of accidental released toxic gases for emergency responders in Austria, Kosovo and Bulgaria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, Sirma; Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Gashi, Salih; Thaci, Bashkim; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Spassova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. A number of models for the prediction and simulation of hazard areas affected by accidental releases of toxic gases are available worldwide. Modelling accidental releases may be required for a variety of reasons: for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), for preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management (e.g. in the frame of the SEVESO directive). Depending on the demand and the particular purposes, the choice of the appropriate model is up to the authorities. The one year project was funded by the Austrian Science and research liaison Office (ASO, www.aso.zsi.at) as a part of the program: Research Cooperation and Networking between Austria, the public higher education institutions in Kosovo and South Eastern Europe. The project was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG, http://www.zamg.ac.at) in cooperation with the University of Prishtina (Kosovo, www.uni-pr.edu and the National Institute of meteorology and Hydrology (NIHM Bulgaria, www.meteo.bg). One of the main purposes of the project was to provide the both partners with basic knowledge in modelling with accidental release of toxic gases, based on the practical experience of the meteorologists from the ZAMG in the area. This knowledge can be used as scientific response to society driven current or upcoming problems especially in Kosovo. The activities involved know-how transfer on European standards and practice among the project partners, as well as joint efforts to adapt and disseminate the scientific methods and results in Kosovo. Within the project, the partners from Kosovo and Bulgaria were introduced to the atmospheric dispersion model (ALOHA - Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere) and proceeded several model runs based on reference scenarios for chemicals of concern. ALOHA is one of the tools developed by EPA's Office of Emergency Management (OEM) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office of Response and Restoration (NOAA), to assist front-line chemical emergency planners and responders. In the frame of the project the partners in Kosovo and Bulgaria also undertook first steps in establishing cooperation connections with decision makers for emergency response planning, fire brigades and chemical plants. This presentation focuses on basic issues and problems in handling with accidental release of toxic gases, as well as on communication difficulties among the emergency responders, modellers and authorities in the three countries.

  4. Is the contribution of cis and trans protonated 5-methylcytosine-SO3(-) isomers equal in the conversion to thymine-SO3(-) under bisulfite conditions? A theoretical perspective.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lingxia; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Caiying; Wang, Wenliang; Min, Suotian; Hu, Daodao

    2014-08-14

    Cytosine (Cyt) can be converted to 5-methylcytosine (5-MeCyt) in CpG sequences of DNA. Conventional bisulfite sequencing can discriminate Cyt from 5-MeCyt, however inappropriate conversion of 5-MeCyt to thymine and a failure to convert Cyt to uracil always occur when Cyt and 5-MeCyt are treated with bisulfite, which would lead to erroneous estimates of DNA methylation densities. Here, the direct hydrolytic deamination of cis (paths A-C) and trans (paths A'-C') 5-MeCytN3(+)-SO3(-) isomers with bisulfite have been explored at the MP2/6-311++G(3df,3pd)//B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. The activation free energies (?G(s-a?)) of the cis and trans 5-MeCytN3(+)-SO3(-) isomers' paths exhibit no obvious differences, implying both isomers may make an equal contribution to the hydrolytic deamination of 5-MeCyt under bisulfite conditions. It is greatly expected that these results could aid experimental scientists to explore new methods to avoid the formation of the deaminated reactants (5-MeCytN3(+)-SO3(-)). Meanwhile, the HSO3(-)-induced direct hydrolytic deamination of cis and trans 5-MeCytN3(+)-SO3(-) isomers is represented by paths A and A', respectively, and has been further explored in the presence of two water molecules. It was found that the contribution of two water molecules renders the HSO3(-)-induced direct hydrolytic deamination of cis and trans 5-MeCytN3(+)-SO3(-) isomers by paths A and A' favourable. In addition, the ?G(s-a?) values (85.74-85.34 kJ mol(-1)) of the rate-limiting steps of the two water-mediated paths A and A' are very close to that of the theoretical value for CytN3(+)-SO3(-) (88.18 kJ mol(-1)), implying that the free barrier gap between Cyt and 5-MeCyt is very small under bisulfite conditions. This further suggests that bisulfite sequencing technology may be easily influenced by the external environment. PMID:24974803

  5. Accidental SUSY: enhanced bulk supersymmetry from brane back-reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, C. P.; van Nierop, L.; Parameswaran, S.; Salvio, A.; Williams, M.

    2013-02-01

    We compute how bulk loops renormalize both bulk and brane effective interactions for codimension-two branes in 6D gauged chiral supergravity, as functions of the brane tension and brane-localized flux. We do so by explicitly integrating out hyper- and gauge-multiplets in 6D gauged chiral supergravity compactified to 4D on a flux-stabilized 2D rugby-ball geometry, specializing the results of a companion paper, arXiv:1210.3753, to the supersymmetric case. While the brane back-reaction generically breaks supersymmetry, we show that the bulk supersymmetry can be preserved if the amount of brane- localized flux is related in a specific BPS-like way to the brane tension, and verify that the loop corrections to the brane curvature vanish in this special case. In these systems it is the brane-bulk couplings that fix the size of the extra dimensions, and we show that in some circumstances the bulk geometry dynamically adjusts to ensure the supersymmetric BPS-like condition is automatically satisfied. We investigate the robustness of this residual supersymmetry to loops of non-supersymmetric matter on the branes, and show that supersymmetry-breaking effects can enter only through effective brane-bulk interactions involving at least two derivatives. We comment on the relevance of this calculation to proposed applications of codimension-two 6D models to solutions of the hierarchy and cosmological constant problems.

  6. Photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers enabled by an accidental Dirac point

    DOEpatents

    Chua, Song Liang; Lu, Ling; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-12-02

    A photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser (PCSEL) includes a gain medium electromagnetically coupled to a photonic crystal whose energy band structure exhibits a Dirac cone of linear dispersion at the center of the photonic crystal's Brillouin zone. This Dirac cone's vertex is called a Dirac point; because it is at the Brillouin zone center, it is called an accidental Dirac point. Tuning the photonic crystal's band structure (e.g., by changing the photonic crystal's dimensions or refractive index) to exhibit an accidental Dirac point increases the photonic crystal's mode spacing by orders of magnitudes and reduces or eliminates the photonic crystal's distributed in-plane feedback. Thus, the photonic crystal can act as a resonator that supports single-mode output from the PCSEL over a larger area than is possible with conventional PCSELs, which have quadratic band edge dispersion. Because output power generally scales with output area, this increase in output area results in higher possible output powers.

  7. Marine oil spill risk mapping for accidental pollution and its application in a coastal city.

    PubMed

    Lan, Dongdong; Liang, Bin; Bao, Chenguang; Ma, Minghui; Xu, Yan; Yu, Chunyan

    2015-07-15

    Accidental marine oil spill pollution can result in severe environmental, ecological, economic and other consequences. This paper discussed the model of Marine Oil Spill Risk Mapping (MOSRM), which was constructed as follows: (1) proposing a marine oil spill risk system based on the typical marine oil spill pollution accidents and prevailing risk theories; (2) identifying suitable indexes that are supported by quantitative sub-indexes; (3) constructing the risk measuring models according to the actual interactions between the factors in the risk system; and (4) assessing marine oil spill risk on coastal city scale with GIS to map the overall risk. The case study of accidental marine oil spill pollution in the coastal area of Dalian, China was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The coastal areas of Dalian were divided into three zones with risk degrees of high, medium, and low. And detailed countermeasures were proposed for specific risk zones. PMID:26003383

  8. Accidental Displacement of Third Molar into the Sublingual Space: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Robson Rodrigues; Botelho, Tessa Lucena; Franco, Ademir; Silva, Rhonan Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Successful extraction of third molars depends on preoperative diagnosis and planning. Gold standard preoperative examinations are performed through computed tomography, decreasing risks and avoiding potential accidents. The present report highlights the value of preoperative examinations in face of accidentally displaced third molars. Methods An 18-years-old female patient underwent a third mandibular molar extraction with a general dentist. Accidentally, the mandibular left third molar was displaced into the sublingual space, making necessary a second surgical step. The surgery was interrupted and the patient was referred to an expert in maxillofacial surgery. Results After 21 days awaiting an asymptomatic health status, the second surgical step was successfully performed using multislice computed tomography as preoperative imaging guide. Conclusions The present case report highlights the clinical usefulness of imaging planning and informed consents in face of legal and ethic potential complaints. PMID:25386232

  9. Accidental epinephrine auto-injector-induced digital ischemia reversed by phentolamine digital block.

    PubMed

    Hardy, S J; Agostini, D E

    1995-06-01

    The use of epinephrine-containing auto-injectors as a prescription medication for treating routine to severe anaphylactic reactions is now widely accepted. Associated with this trend is an increasing number of accidental injections of epinephrine into digits, causing severe vasoconstriction and the risk of ischemic necrosis. When epinephrine is accidentally discharged into a digit, ischemic skin necrosis resulting from the alpha-adrenergic blocking effects of this agent can lead to the need for multiple operations, wound infection, and even loss of the digit. The alpha-adrenergic blocking characteristics of phentolamine administered by a variety of methods have proved effective in reversing the effects of epinephrine in these cases. The authors urge that the described treatment protocol become more widely disseminated among primary care and emergency physicians. PMID:7615410

  10. A case of accidental ingestion of a salbutamol sulfate inhalant, Venetlin®.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shin-ichi; Shikada, Masahiro; Sakai, Tadakazu; Nakano, Takako; Oh, Yasumasa

    2009-09-01

    Pediatricians examine increasing numbers of children with bronchial asthma every year. In Japan, medical institutions can provide standardized therapies according to the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for the Treatment and Management of Asthma 2005. Inhalation therapy is highly beneficial, and a substantial proportion of patients choose to purchase inhalators and practice inhalation therapy at home. Recently, we experienced a case of accidental ingestion of a salbutamol sulfate inhalant by a non-asthmatic child, which reminded us anew of the importance of managing the medicines for asthma. We also recognized the need to educate patients and their families on the knowledge of these medicines. In this report, we analyze the case and discuss measures that pediatricians can implement to avoid accidental inhalant ingestion by children. PMID:21319003

  11. Serologic markers for hepatitis B among Marshallese accidentally exposed to fallout radiation in 1954

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Fields, H.A.; Engle, J.R.; Hadler, S.C.

    1986-10-01

    At least one serologic marker of prior hepatitis B infection (hepatitis B surface antigen, antibody to surface antigen, or antibody to core antigen) was found in 91.7% of 314 Marshallese tested. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenemia (3.3%) in a subpopulation that had resided on Rongelap Atoll at the time of accidental exposure to radioactive fallout from a thermonuclear test in 1954 did not differ significantly from the prevalence in a selected unexposed population (10.5%).

  12. Positive income shocks and accidental deaths among Cherokee Indians: a natural experiment

    PubMed Central

    Bruckner, Tim A; Brown, Ryan A; Margerison-Zilko, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies in low-income populations report the somewhat counterintuitive finding that positive income gains adversely affect adult health. The literature posits that receipt of a large portion of annual income increases, in the short term, risk-taking behaviour and/or the consumption of health-damaging goods. This work implies the hypothesis that persons with an unexpected gain in income will exhibit an elevated risk of accidental death—the fifth leading cause of death in the USA. We test this hypothesis directly by capitalizing on a natural experiment in which Cherokee Indians in rural North Carolina received discrete lump sum payments from a new casino. Methods We applied Poisson regression to the monthly count of accidental deaths among Cherokee Indians over 204 months spanning 1990–2006. We controlled for temporal patterns in accidental deaths (e.g. seasonality and trend) as well as changes in population size. Results As hypothesized, the risk of accidental death rises above expected levels during months of the large casino payments (relative risk?=?2.62; 95% confidence interval?=?1.54–4.47). Exploratory analyses of ethnographic interviews and behavioural surveys support that increased vehicular travel and consumption of health-damaging goods may account for the rise in accident proneness. Conclusions Although long-term income gains may improve health in this population, our findings indicate that acute responses to large income gains, in the short term, increase risk-taking and accident proneness. We encourage further investigation of natural experiments to identify causal economic antecedents of population health. PMID:21527447

  13. Accidental inhalation injury of phosgene gas leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anand; Chaudhari, Sudhir; Kush, Luv; Kumar, Suraj; Garg, Atul; Shukla, Anurag

    2012-05-01

    Irritant gas exposure may lead to significant respiratory distress as is seen in the present case of 25 year old male worker who suffered accidental phosgene inhalation. He remained asymptomatic for six hours but later landed up in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in the hospital and required ventilatory support. No investigative feature is diagnostic of the nature of irritant gas. Similarly there is no antidote available to the phosgene. Only timely administered supportive management may lead to successful outcome. PMID:23580841

  14. Histopathological and cellular studies of a case of cutaneous radiation syndrome after accidental chronic exposure to a cesium source.

    PubMed

    Vozenin-Brotons, M C; Gault, N; Sivan, V; Tricaud, Y; Dubray, B; Clough, K; Cosset, J M; Lefaix, J L; Martin, M

    1999-09-01

    This study was designed for the histopathological, cellular and biochemical characterization of a skin lesion removed surgically from a young male several months after accidental exposure to cesium-137, with an emphasis on expression of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFB1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA) and the occurrence of apoptosis. Under a hypertrophic epidermis, a highly inhomogeneous inflammatory dermis was observed, together with fibroblastic proliferation in necrotic areas. Immunostaining revealed overexpression of TGFB1 and TNFA inside the keratinocytes of the hypertrophic epidermis as well as in the cytoplasm of the fibroblasts and connective tissue of the mixed fibrotic and necrotic dermis. Inside this dermis, the TUNEL assay revealed areas containing numerous apoptotic fibroblasts next to areas of normal viable cells. Overexpression of TGFB1 was found in the conditioned medium and cellular fractions of both hypertrophic keratinocytes and fibrotic fibroblasts. This overexpression lasted for at least three passages in tissue culture. The present observations were consistent with the central role of TGFB1 in the determination of chronic radiation-induced damage to the skin and a significant involvement of TNFA. In addition, programmed cell death appeared to take place during the remodeling of the mixed fibrotic and necrotic tissue. PMID:10453095

  15. 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: summary of main findings and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pandit, J J; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H M G; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Cook, T M

    2014-10-01

    We present the main findings of the 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA). Incidences were estimated using reports of accidental awareness as the numerator, and a parallel national anaesthetic activity survey to provide denominator data. The incidence of certain/probable and possible accidental awareness cases was ~1:19,600 anaesthetics (95% confidence interval 1:16,700-23,450). However, there was considerable variation across subtypes of techniques or subspecialities. The incidence with neuromuscular block (NMB) was ~1:8200 (1:7030-9700), and without, it was ~1:135,900 (1:78,600-299,000). The cases of AAGA reported to NAP5 were overwhelmingly cases of unintended awareness during NMB. The incidence of accidental awareness during Caesarean section was ~1:670 (1:380-1300). Two-thirds (82, 66%) of cases of accidental awareness experiences arose in the dynamic phases of anaesthesia, namely induction of and emergence from anaesthesia. During induction of anaesthesia, contributory factors included: use of thiopental, rapid sequence induction, obesity, difficult airway management, NMB, and interruptions of anaesthetic delivery during movement from anaesthetic room to theatre. During emergence from anaesthesia, residual paralysis was perceived by patients as accidental awareness, and commonly related to a failure to ensure full return of motor capacity. One-third (43, 33%) of accidental awareness events arose during the maintenance phase of anaesthesia, mostly due to problems at induction or towards the end of anaesthesia. Factors increasing the risk of accidental awareness included: female sex, age (younger adults, but not children), obesity, anaesthetist seniority (junior trainees), previous awareness, out-of-hours operating, emergencies, type of surgery (obstetric, cardiac, thoracic), and use of NMB. The following factors were not risk factors for accidental awareness: ASA physical status, race, and use or omission of nitrous oxide. We recommend that an anaesthetic checklist, to be an integral part of the World Health Organization Safer Surgery checklist, is introduced as an aid to preventing accidental awareness. This paper is a shortened version describing the main findings from NAP5--the full report can be found at http://www.nationalauditprojects.org.uk/NAP5_home. PMID:25204697

  16. Accidental Discoveries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this activity, students research scientific discoveries that happened by accident in the past, and learn how gamma-rays were discovered by 20th century scientists. In the process, students develop an understanding that science theories change in the face of new evidence. This acitivity is part of the "Swift: Eyes Through Time" collection that is available on the Teacher's Domain website.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Suicide, Accidental, and Undetermined Cause of Death Classification

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Douglas; Coon, Hilary; McGlade, Erin; Callor, W; Byrd, Josh; Viskochil, Joseph; Bakian, Amanda; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah; Grey, Todd; McMahon, William

    2015-01-01

    Suicide determination is not standardized across medical examiners, and many suspected suicides are later classified as accidental or undetermined. The present study investigated patterns between these three groups using a Medical Examiner database and 633 structured interviews with next of kin. There were similarities across all three classification groups, including rates of mental illness and psychiatric symptoms. Those classified suicide were more likely to be male, to have died in a violent fashion, and have a stronger family history of suicide. Physical pain was very common, but acute pain vs. chronic pain distinguished the suicide group. PMID:25057525

  18. Information–provision intervention for children and their parents following pediatric accidental injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin Kenardy; Katie Thompson; Robyne Le Brocque; Katherine Olsson

    2008-01-01

    Objective  This study evaluated an early intervention for children and their parents following pediatric accidental injury.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Information booklets provided to participants within 72 h of the initial trauma detailed common responses to trauma, the common\\u000a time course of symptoms, and suggestions for minimizing any post-trauma distress. Following admission for traumatic injuries\\u000a sustained in motor vehicle accidents, falls and sporting injuries a

  19. The 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: protocol, methods and analysis of data.

    PubMed

    Pandit, J J; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H MacG; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Cook, T M

    2014-10-01

    Accidental awareness during general anaesthesia with recall is a potentially distressing complication of general anaesthesia that can lead to psychological harm. The 5th National Audit Project was designed to investigate the reported incidence, predisposing factors, causality and impact of accidental awareness. A nationwide network of local co-ordinators across all UK and Irish public hospitals reported all new patient reports of accidental awareness to a central database, using a system of monthly anonymised reporting over a calendar year. The database collected the details of the reported event, anaesthetic and surgical technique, and any sequelae. These reports were categorised into main types by a multidisciplinary panel, using a formalised process of analysis. The main categories of accidental awareness were: certain or probable; possible; during sedation; on or from the intensive care unit; could not be determined; unlikely; drug errors; and statement only. The degree of evidence to support the categorisation was also defined for each report. Patient experience and sequelae were categorised using current tools or modifications of such. The 5th National Audit Project methodology may be used to assess new reports of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia in a standardised manner, especially for the development of an ongoing database of case reporting. This paper is a shortened version describing the protocols, methods and data analysis from 5th National Audit Project - the full report can be found at http://www.nationalauditprojects.org.uk/NAP5_home#pt. PMID:25204235

  20. C-Safe Image Gallery from the Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions

    DOE Data Explorer

    The University of Utah created an alliance with the DOE Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program to form the Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions (C-SAFE). The Center focuses specifically on providing state-of-the-art, science-based tools for the numerical simulation of accidental fires and explosions, especially within the context of handling and storage of highly flammable materials. The objective of C-SAFE is to provide a system comprising a problem-solving environment in which fundamental chemistry and engineering physics are fully coupled with non-linear solvers, optimization, computational steering, visualization and experimental data verification. The availability of simulations using this system will help to better evaluate the risks and safety issues associated with fires and explosions. The scientific images at this website provide technical views of various flame types and configurations (http://www.csafe.utah.edu/Information/summary.html). See also the Container Dynamics presentations at http://www.csafe.utah.edu/Teams/ContainerDynamics/cd_presentations.html.

  1. A fatal case of commotio cordis caused by an accidental fall on the beach.

    PubMed

    Hiquet, J; Tovagliaro, F; Gromb-Monnoyeur, S

    2014-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death is a major health problem and a recurring issue in forensic medicine. Most cases are attributed to congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, pathology of the coronary arteries, long or short QT interval syndromes, Brugada syndrome or secondary toxic effects of cardioactive drugs. Sudden death caused by Commotio cordis after an accidental fall is very rare in women. Victims are essentially young people who die following a direct blow to the chest sustained during physical activity. In the following, we report a case of an adult with no significant past medical history, walking on the beach with friends, who died from commotio cordis following an accidental fall on the wet sand. This article deals with post-mortem diagnosis, and demonstrates the importance of a detailed understanding of the circumstances surrounding the death, as well as systematic histological examination of the heart, as the heart will generally appear normal under macroscopic examination. It is important to note that commotio cordis can also occur in adults. PMID:24365682

  2. An accidental discharge of a Halon 1301 total flooding fire extinguishing system.

    PubMed

    Sass-Kortsak, A M; Holness, D L; Stopps, G J

    1985-11-01

    An accidental discharge of a total flooding Halon 1301 fire extinguishing system is described. The release of the Halon was accompanied by a sudden very loud noise, considerable air turbulence and a dense fog, resulting in worker anxiety and loss of visibility. The workers in the area at the time of the discharge reported higher frequencies of lightheadedness, headache, nasal complaints and disorientation than those entering the area later. Halon 1301 usually is regarded as having a low toxicity, although at concentrations above those used in occupied spaces, effects on consciousness and cardiac rhythm have been reported. In the present report no significant illness or injury due to the Halon exposure was found. A fine oily deposit found on horizontal surfaces in the area subsequent to the discharge consisted of mineral oil and iron, suggesting that this material was scoured out of the piping as the Halon discharged. The disorientation and anxiety produced by an accidental discharge can be minimized through education programs designed to ensure that personnel know what to expect and how to abort the discharge if it results from a false alarm. Situations leading to triggering of fire detectors by events other than fires should be investigated and reduced. PMID:4072911

  3. Accidental discharge of a Halon 1301 total flooding fire extinguishing system

    SciTech Connect

    Sass-Kortsak, A.M.; Holness, D.L.; Stopps, G.J.

    1985-11-01

    An accidental discharge of a total flooding Halon 1301 fire extinguishing system is described. The release of the Halon was accompanied by a sudden very loud noise, considerable air turbulence and a dense fog, resulting in worker anxiety and loss of visibility. The workers in the area at the time of the discharge reported higher frequencies of lightheadedness, headache, nasal complaints and disorientation than those entering the area later. Halon 1301 usually is regarded as having a low toxicity, although at concentrations above those used in occupied spaces, effects on consciousness and cardiac rhythm have been reported. In the present report no significant illness or injury due to the Halon exposure was found. A fine oily deposit found on horizontal surfaces in the area subsequent to the discharge consisted of mineral oil and iron, suggesting that this material was scoured out of the piping as the Halon discharged. The disorientation and anxiety produced by an accidental discharge can be minimized through education programs designed to ensure that personnel know what to expect and how to abort the discharge if it results from a false alarm. Situations leading to triggering of fire detectors by events other than fires should be investigated and reduced.

  4. Accidental phosgene gas exposure: A review with background study of 10 cases.

    PubMed

    Vaish, Arvind Kumar; Consul, Shuchi; Agrawal, Avinash; Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Gutch, Manish; Jain, Nirdesh; Singh, Mohit Mohan

    2013-10-01

    Here, authors present a review on clinical presentation and management of exposure of phosgene gas after reviewing the literature by searching with keywords phosgene exposure on Google, Cochrane, Embase and PubMed with a background of experience gained from 10 patients who were admitted to our institute after an accidental phosgene exposure in February 2011 nearby a city in India. Phosgene is a highly toxic gas, occupational workers may have accidental exposure. The gas can also be generated inadvertently during fire involving plastics and other chemicals and solvents containing chlorine, which is of concern to emergency responders. Phosgene inhalation may cause initially symptoms of respiratory tract irritation, patients feel fine thereafter, and then die of choking a day later because of build up of fluid in the lungs (delayed onset non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema). Phosgene exposure is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with a history of exposure should be admitted to the hospital for a minimum of 24 h for observation because of the potential for delayed onset respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:24339660

  5. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Zafren, Ken; Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Danzl, Daniel F; Brugger, Hermann; Sagalyn, Emily B; Walpoth, Beat; Weiss, Eric A; Auerbach, Paul S; McIntosh, Scott E; Némethy, Mária; McDevitt, Marion; Dow, Jennifer; Schoene, Robert B; Rodway, George W; Hackett, Peter H; Bennett, Brad L; Grissom, Colin K

    2014-12-01

    To provide guidance to clinicians, the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of victims of accidental hypothermia. The guidelines present the main diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and provide recommendations for the management of hypothermic patients. The panel graded the recommendations based on the quality of supporting evidence and the balance between benefits and risks/burdens according the criteria published by the American College of Chest Physicians. The guidelines also provide suggested general approaches to the evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia that incorporate specific recommendations. This is an updated version of the original Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Out-of-Hospital Evaluation and Treatment of Accidental Hypothermia published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2014;25(4):425-445. PMID:25498264

  6. A case of pediatric age anticholinergic intoxication due to accidental Datura stramonium ingestion admitting with visual hallucination.

    PubMed

    ?anl?da?, Burçin; Derinöz, Ok?an; Y?ld?z, Nagehan

    2014-01-01

    Datura stramonium (DS) is a hallucinogenic plant that can produce anticholinergic toxicity because of its significant concentrations of toxic alkaloids, such as atropine, hyoscyamine, and scopolamine. DS grows in both rural and urban areas in Turkey. Clinical findings of toxicity are similar to those of atropine toxicity. DS abuse is common among adolescents because of its hallucinatory effects. However, accidental DS poisoning from contaminated food is very rare. Accidental poisonings are commonly seen among children. Children are more prone to the toxic effects of atropine; ingestion of even a small amount can cause serious central nervous system symptoms. Treatment is supportive; antidote treatment is given rarely. An eight-year-old male with accidental DS poisoning who presented to the Pediatric Emergency Department with aggression, agitation, delirium, and visual hallucinations is reported. PMID:25341608

  7. PAVAN: an atmospheric-dispersion program for evaluating design-basis accidental releases of radioactive materials from nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Bander, T.J.

    1982-11-01

    This report provides a user's guide for the NRC computer program, PAVAN, which is a program used by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to estimate downwind ground-level air concentrations for potential accidental releases of radioactive material from nuclear facilities. Such an assessment is required by 10 CFR Part 100 and 10 CFR Part 50. The program implements the guidance provided in Regulatory Guide 1.145, Atmospheric Dispersion Models for Potential Accident Consequence Assessments at Nuclear Power Plants. Using joint frequency distributions of wind direction and wind speed by atmospheric stability, the program provides relative air concentration (X/Q) values as functions of direction for various time periods at the exclusion area boundary (EAB) and the outer boundary of the low population zone (LPZ). Calculations of X/Q values can be made for assumed ground-level releases (e.g., through building penetrations and vents) or elevated releases from free-standing stacks. Various options may be selected by the user. They can account for variation in the location of release points, additional plume dispersion due to building wakes, plume meander under low wind speed conditions, and adjustments to consider non-straight trajectories. It computes an effective plume height using the physical release height which can be reduced by inputted terrain features. It cannot handle multiple emission sources. A description of the main program and all subroutines is provided. Also included as appendices are a complete listing of the program and two test cases with the required data inputs and the resulting program outputs.

  8. An experimental study on the uptake factor of tungsten oxide particles resulting from an accidentally dropped storage container.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhi; Zhang, J S; Byington, Jerry G A

    2013-01-01

    A test procedure was developed and verified to measure the airborne concentrations of particles of different sizes (0.5-20 ?m) within the vicinity of a dropped container when a significant portion of the tungsten oxide powder (simulating uranium oxide) is ejected from the container. Tests were carried out in a full-scale stainless steel environmental chamber with an interior volume of 24.1 m(3). Thirty-two drop tests were performed, covering variations in dropping height, room air movement, landing scenario, and lid condition. Assuming a breathing rate of 1.2 m(3)/hr, the uptake factor during the first 10 min was calculated to be between 1.13 × 10(-9) and 1.03 × 10(-7) in reference to the amount loaded; or between 6.44 × 10(-8) and 3.55 × 10(-4) in reference to the amount spilled. Results provide previously unavailable data for estimating the exposure and associated risk to building occupants in the case of an accidental dropping of heavy powder containers. The test data show that for spills larger than 0.004 g, the power-law correlation between the spill uptake factor and the spilled mass (i.e., SUF = 2.5 × 10(-5) × Spill_Mass(-0.667)) established from the test data is smaller and a more accurate estimate than the constant value of 10(-3) assumed in the Department of Energy Nuclear Material Packaging Manual. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplementary resource: an online supplementary table of all cumulative uptake amounts at 10 min for all test data.]. PMID:23679340

  9. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Zafren, Ken; Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Danzl, Daniel F; Brugger, Hermann; Sagalyn, Emily B; Walpoth, Beat; Weiss, Eric A; Auerbach, Paul S; McIntosh, Scott E; Némethy, Mária; McDevitt, Marion; Dow, Jennifer; Schoene, Robert B; Rodway, George W; Hackett, Peter H; Bennett, Brad L; Grissom, Colin K

    2014-12-01

    To provide guidance to clinicians, the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of victims of accidental hypothermia. The guidelines present the main diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and provide recommendations for the management of hypothermic patients. The panel graded the recommendations based on the quality of supporting evidence and the balance between benefits and risks/burdens according the criteria published by the American College of Chest Physicians. The guidelines also provide suggested general approaches to the evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia that incorporate specific recommendations. PMID:25443771

  10. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher. 8 refs., 69 figs., 50 tabs.

  11. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher.

  12. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Accidental release of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous studies experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The large scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher.

  13. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, D.E. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA). Fluid Mechanics and Wind Engineering Lab.)

    1989-06-01

    Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The large scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher.

  14. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Accidental release of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher.

  15. Gap structure in Fe-based superconductors with accidental nodes: The role of hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinojosa, Alberto; Chubukov, Andrey V.

    2015-06-01

    We study the effects of hybridization between the two electron pockets in Fe-based superconductors with s -wave gap with accidental nodes. We argue that hybridization reconstructs the Fermi surfaces and also induces an additional interpocket pairing component. We analyze how these two effects modify the gap structure by tracing the position of the nodal points of the energy dispersions in the superconducting state. We find three possible outcomes. In the first, the nodes simply shift their positions in the Brillouin zone; in the second, the nodes merge and disappear, in which case the gap function has either equal or opposite signs on the electron pockets; in the third, a new set of nodal points emerges, doubling the original number of nodes.

  16. The accidental release of exotic species from breeding colonies and zoological collections.

    PubMed

    Barrat, J; Richomme, C; Moinet, M

    2010-04-01

    Exotic species have often been introduced into a new country in zoological or botanical gardens or on game and fur farms. When accidentally or deliberately released, these alien species can become invasive and have negative impacts on native plant and animal communities and human activities. This article focuses on a selection of such invasive species: principally the American mink (Neovison vison), but also the coypu (Myocastor coypus), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), raccoon (Procyon lotor) and African sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus). In each of these cases, the authors describe the biological characteristics and life history of the species, in relation to its invasive capacity, the origins and establishment of non-native populations, the environmental consequences and possible control measures. The main negative impacts observed are the destruction of habitat, the introduction and/or spread of pathogens and changes in the composition of native communities with consequent effects on biodiversity. PMID:20617652

  17. Simulation of accidental UF/sub 6/ releases in support of the safety analysis effort

    SciTech Connect

    Just, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The safety analysis of the US uranium enrichment facilities requires that postulated accidental releases of UF/sub 6/ be simulated. In order to predict the human health consequences of a postulated UF/sub 6/ release, two types of information are needed: (1) predicted toxicant concentrations and exposure durations at pertinent locations (calculated by a dispersion model), and (2) toxicity data which support the assessment of the human health consequences of a known exposure to a mixture of UF/sub 6/ and UF/sub 6/ hydrolysis products. This report describes the development of a Gaussian dispersion model for simulating UF/sub 6/ dispersion and the plans for developing a puff dispersion model.

  18. Parents Accidentally Substitute Similar Sounding Sibling Names More Often than Dissimilar Names

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Zenzi M.; Wangerman, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    When parents select similar sounding names for their children, do they set themselves up for more speech errors in the future? Questionnaire data from 334 respondents suggest that they do. Respondents whose names shared initial or final sounds with a sibling’s reported that their parents accidentally called them by the sibling’s name more often than those without such name overlap. Having a sibling of the same gender, similar appearance, or similar age was also associated with more frequent name substitutions. Almost all other name substitutions by parents involved other family members and over 5% of respondents reported a parent substituting the name of a pet, which suggests a strong role for social and situational cues in retrieving personal names for direct address. To the extent that retrieval cues are shared with other people or animals, other names become available and may substitute for the intended name, particularly when names sound similar. PMID:24391955

  19. A precise calculation of delayed coincidence selection efficiency and accidental coincidence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jing-Yi; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Shao-Min

    2015-05-01

    A precise background evaluation model is proposed to address the complex data structure of the delayed coincidence method, which is widely used in reactor electron-antineutrino oscillation experiments. In this model, effects from the muon veto, uncorrelated random background, and background are all studied analytically, simplifying the estimation of the systematic uncertainties of signal efficiency and accidental background rate. The results of the calculations are validated numerically with a number of simulation studies and also applied and validated in the recent Daya Bay hydrogen-capture based oscillation measurement. Supported by Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2013CB834302), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11235006, 11475093), Tsinghua University Initiative Scientific Research Program (2012Z02161), and Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education.

  20. Fatal myeloencephalopathy due to accidental intrathecal vincristin administration: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Dettmeyer, R; Driever, F; Becker, A; Wiestler, O D; Madea, B

    2001-10-15

    We report on two fatal cases of accidental intrathecal vincristine instillation in a 5-year old girl with recurrent acute lymphoblastic leucemia and a 57-year old man with lymphoblastic lymphoma. The girl died seven days, the man four weeks after intrathecal injection of vincristine. Clinically, the onset was characterized by the signs of opistothonus, sensory and motor dysfunction and ascending paralysis. Histological and immunohistochemical investigations (HE-LFB, CD-68, Neurofilament) revealed degeneration of myelin and axons as well as pseudocystic transformation in areas exposed to vincristine, accompanied by secondary changes with numerous prominent macrophages. The clinical course and histopathological results of the two cases are presented. A review of all reported cases in the literature is given. A better controlled regimen for administering vincristine and intrathecal chemotherapy is recommended. PMID:11587867

  1. Urban Early Adolescent Narratives on Sexuality: Accidental and Intentional Influences of Family, Peers, and the Media

    PubMed Central

    McKamey, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the ways that early adolescents talked, interacted, and made references to events in their individual and collective lives during photography-based focus groups about sexuality and relationships. Twenty-three participants (10 boys and 13 girls) were recruited from three urban schools participating in a comprehensive sex education impact evaluation in the Northeast. We analyzed conversational narratives that were elicited in a group process while sharing photos of important people, contexts, and situations, showcasing participants’ exploration of sexuality and relationships. Our analysis revealed four main themes: (a) direct and indirect family communication about sexuality, (b) accidental and intentional Internet usage, (c) shared and contested peer knowledge, and (d) school as a direct and indirect learning context. Implications and future directions for practice, research, and policy are explored. PMID:22983141

  2. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Engle, J.R.; Harper, J.A.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. The decision making criteria on radiation protection of population in the cases of an accidental plutonium dispersion into environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. Savkin; A. V. Titov

    Intervention criteria for radiation protection of general public in the case of accidental plutonium release have been elaborated on the basis of experimental radiobiological studies of affects of incorporated plutonium and of long duration medical observation for nuclear workers in Russia and the requirements of the national Radiation Safety Standards. Generic and operational levels for decision-making are given for early

  4. Acute Renal Failure Following Accidental Cutaneous Absorption of Phenol: Application of NMR Urinalysis to Monitor the Disease Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. D Foxall; M. R. Bending; K. P. R. Gartland; J. K. Nicholson

    1989-01-01

    An unusual case of acute renal failure is reported following accidental cutaneous absorption of phenol and exposure to dichloromethane. Renal function during the onset of the nephrotoxic episode and the subsequent recovery period was monitored using a combination of standard clinical biochemical techniques and high resolution 1H-NMR urinalysis. The initial urine biochemical patterns (up to 2 weeks following exposure) showed

  5. Towards the operational estimation of a radiological plume using data assimilation after a radiological accidental atmospheric release

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - ological plume using data assimilation after a radiological accidental atmospheric release. Atmos. Env. 45, the French nuclear safety agency, a simplistic Gaussian plume model was used so Email address: victorTowards the operational estimation of a radiological plume using data assimilation after

  6. The GIS-based SafeAirView software for the concentration assessment of radioactive pollutants after an accidental release.

    PubMed

    Canepa, Elisa; D'Alberti, Francesco; D'Amati, Francesco; Triacchini, Giuseppe

    2007-02-01

    The European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy) has long been running nuclear installations for research purposes. The Nuclear Decommissioning and Facilities Management Unit (NDFM) is responsible for the surveillance of radioactivity levels in nuclear emergency conditions. The NDFM Unit has commissioned the implementation of a specifically developed decision support system, which can be used for quick emergency evaluation in the case of hypothetical accident and for emergency exercises. The requisites were to be a user-friendly software, able to quickly calculate and display values of air and ground radioactive contamination in the complex area around JRC, following an accidental release of radioactive substances from a JRC nuclear research installation. The developed software, named "SafeAirView", is an advanced implementation of GIS technology applied to an existing MS-DOS mode dispersion model, SAFE_AIR (Simulation of Air pollution From Emissions_Above Inhomogeneous Regions). SAFE_AIR is a numerical model which simulates transport, diffusion, and deposition of airborne pollutants emitted in the low atmosphere above complex orography at both local and regional scale, under non-stationary and inhomogeneous emission and meteorological conditions. SafeAirView makes use of user-friendly MS-Windows type interface which drives the dispersion model by a sequential and continuous input-output process, allowing a real time simulation. The GIS environment allows a direct interaction with the territory elements in which the simulation takes place, using data for the JRC Ispra region represented in geo-referenced cartography. Furthermore it offers the possibility to relate concentrations with population distribution and other geo-referenced maps, in a geographic view. Output concentration and deposition patterns can be plotted and/or exported. In spite of the selected specific databases, the SafeAirView software architecture is a general structure, therefore the decision support system could be easily modified to be applied in a region different from the JRC one. Beside the description of SafeAirView, the present paper presents a statistical evaluation of the software, which has considered three well known tracer experiments: Copenhagen, Indianapolis and Kincaid. The data sets related to these experiments are all included in the so called Model Validation Kit. PMID:17169408

  7. Contributed Paper Assessing Citizen Contributions to Butterfly

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    Contributed Paper Assessing Citizen Contributions to Butterfly Monitoring in Two Large Cities K. C, we compared butterfly data collected over 10 years in Chicago, Illinois (U.S.A.), and New York City were associated with the reported proportion of the estimated regional pool of butterfly species. We

  8. Classical Conditioning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Palacios, Miss Miller, Mr. Rowser

    2008-04-01

    !!Classical Conditioning!! Classical conditioning is the use of Pavlovian conditioning procedures where a neutral stimulus becomes capable of evoking a response through pairing with an unconditioned stimulus. Click the link below to get an introduction into classical conditioning. Introduction to Classical Conditioning Now that you\\'ve been introduced to classical conditioning, view the clip at the link below, ...

  9. ICRP publication 112. A report of preventing accidental exposures from new external beam radiation therapy technologies.

    PubMed

    Ortiz López, P; Cosset, J M; Dunscombe, P; Holmberg, O; Rosenwald, J C; Pinillos Ashton, L; Vilaragut Llanes, J J; Vatnitsky, S

    2009-08-01

    Disseminating the knowledge and lessons learned from accidental exposures is crucial in preventing re-occurrence. This is particularly important in radiation therapy; the only application of radiation in which very high radiation doses are deliberately given to patients to achieve cure or palliation of disease. Lessons from accidental exposures are, therefore, an invaluable resource for revealing vulnerable aspects of the practice of radiotherapy, and for providing guidance for the prevention of future occurrences. These lessons have successfully been applied to avoid catastrophic events with conventional technologies and techniques. Recommendations, for example, include the independent verification of beam calibration and independent calculation of the treatment times and monitor units for external beam radiotherapy, and the monitoring of patients and their clothes immediately after brachytherapy. New technologies are meant to bring substantial improvement to radiation therapy. However, this is often achieved with a considerable increase in complexity, which in turn brings opportunities for new types of human error and problems with equipment. Dissemination of information on these errors or mistakes as soon as it becomes available is crucial in radiation therapy with new technologies. In addition, information on circumstances that almost resulted in serious consequences (near-misses) is also important, as the same type of events may occur elsewhere. Sharing information about near-misses is thus a complementary important aspect of prevention. Lessons from retrospective information are provided in Sections 2 and 4 of this report. Disseminating lessons learned for serious incidents is necessary but not sufficient when dealing with new technologies. It is of utmost importance to be proactive and continually strive to answer questions such as 'What else can go wrong', 'How likely is it?' and 'What kind of cost-effective choices do I have for prevention?'. These questions are addressed in Sections 3 and 5 of this report. Section 6 contains the conclusions and recommendations. This report is expected to be a valuable resource for radiation oncologists, hospital administrators, medical physicists, technologists, dosimetrists, maintenance engineers, radiation safety specialists, and regulators. While the report applies specifically to new external beam therapies, the general principles for prevention are applicable to the broad range of radiotherapy practices where mistakes could result in serious consequences for the patient and practitioner. PMID:20478472

  10. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, K.W. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., New York, NY (USA)); Koopman, R.P. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Accidental releases of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid ratios of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher. 6 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Effectiveness of water spray mitigation systems for accidental releases of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Holve, D.J.; Harvill, T.L. (INSITEC, San Ramon, CA (USA))

    1989-06-01

    Accidental release of pressurized, superheated hydrogen fluoride (HF) can result in initially dense clouds which will typically contain a mixture of HF vapor, aerosol, and droplets. Previous experiments were performed by Amoco Oil Company and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (the Goldfish series in 1986) to study atmospheric dispersion of these HF clouds. The present study examines the effect of water application on the mitigation of these clouds. To assess the effectiveness of water application (via either sprays or monitor) in mitigating HF clouds two series of tests were conducted in separate flow chambers. Bench scale experiments identified key variables for testing in a larger facility. The larger scale field tests demonstrated that HF releases can be mitigated with water. The impact of numerous design variables on mitigation effectiveness has also been quantified. HF removal efficiencies of 25 to 90+% have been demonstrated at water to HF liquid rates of 6/1 to 40/1 and higher. 8 refs., 69 figs., 50 tabs.

  12. Capitalizing on deliberate, accidental, and GM-driven environmental change caused by crop modification.

    PubMed

    Knox, Oliver G G; Walker, Robin L; Booth, Elaine J; Hall, Clare; Crossan, Angus N; Gupta, Vadakattu V S R

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic traits associated with the majority of commercial genetically modified crops are focused on improving herbicide and insecticide management practices. The use of the transgenic technology in these crops and the associated chemistry has been the basis of studies that provide evidence for occasional improvement in environmental benefits due to the use of less residual herbicides, more targeted pesticides, and reduced field traffic. This is nicely exemplified through studies using Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) assessments. Whilst EIQ evaluations may sometimes illustrate environmental benefits they have their limitations. EIQ evaluations are not a surrogate for Environmental Risk Assessments and may not reflect real environmental interactions between crops and the environment. Addressing the impact cultivated plants have on the environment generally attracts little public attention and research funding, but the introduction of GM has facilitated an expansion of research to address potential environmental concerns from government, NGOs, industry, consumers, and growers. In this commentary, some evidence from our own research and several key papers that highlight EIQ assessments of the impact crops are having on the environment are presented. This information may be useful as an education tool on the potential benefits of GM and conventional farming. In addition, other deliberate, accidental, and GM-driven benefits derived from the examination of GM cropping systems is briefly discussed. PMID:22090440

  13. Use of taste repellants and emetics to prevent accidental poisoning of dogs.

    PubMed

    Houpt, K; Zgoda, J C; Stahlbaum, C C

    1984-08-01

    Twelve taste repellents and 3 oral emetics were tested. The taste repellents were capsaicin, capsicum, oleoresin, sucrose octaacetate, quinine tonic, quassia wood extract, vanillamide, horseradish extract, caffeine, pepperoni enhancer, acorn extract, and commercially available bitter and hot flavors. The emetics tested were: antimony potassium tartrate, apomorphine, and copper sulfate. Intake of a 20% sucrose solution by Beagles was significantly depressed by addition of vanillamide at concentrations greater than 0.001%, by capsicum and capsaicin at concentrations greater than 0.01%, and by horseradish extract, pepperoni enhancer, and a commercially available hot flavor at concentrations greater than 0.1%. Antimony potassium tartrate, when added to the 20% sucrose solution at a concentration of 0.1%, produced emesis as did apomorphine at a concentration of 0.005% and copper sulfate at 1%. When the emetic antimony potassium tartrate was combined with vanillamide in a 20% sucrose solution, intake was reduced to less than 20 ml, and vomiting occurred within 15 minutes. Capsaicin (0.02%) inhibited intake of ethylene glycol to less than the lethal dose in 5 dogs tested. Incorporation of such taste repellents and/or emetics into potentially poisonous substances would reduce accidental poisoning of animals and children. PMID:6476561

  14. Failure Criteria for Evaluating Accidental Drops of Fuel Containers at INTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G. K.

    1998-10-01

    This report presents a failure criterion that has been developed for use in evaluating fuel containers at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for accidental drop events. The criterion would typically be used in dynamic finite element analyses using the ABA-QUS/Explicit program. The failure criterion used in the past is generally considered to substantially underestimate the strength and ductility of the materials involved. The new criterion is intended to be more realistic, allowing for more accurate impact analyses. The criterion is based on the distortion energy theory, which is considered to be appropriate for the ductile materials typically used in fuel containers. Also addressed in development of the criterion were the effects of strain rate and hydrostatic stress. The importance of these factors, however, is highly dependent on the material used. Three materials specifically addressed in this study were stainless steel, aluminum, and lead. The criterion is presented in the form of guidelines and recommendations that are based on material data obtained from the literature. The most significant difference between these and the previous criterion is that ductile materials are allowed to strain to much higher levels before they are considered to fail.

  15. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1980-December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Rittmaster, R.S.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report updates, for 1980 through 1982, the results of continuing medical surveillance of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in March 1954. The originally exposed Marshallese population comprised 64 persons on Rongelap Atoll who each received, on the average, an estimated 190 rads of absorbed external gamma radiation, 18 on Ailingnae Atoll who received 110 rads, and 159 on Utirik who received 11 rads. There were, in addition, 3 persons in utero on Rongelap, 1 person in utero on Ailingnae, and 8 persons in utero on Utirik who are considered exposed. The recipients of primary medical care include exposed and comparison populations as well as a rather large number of additional beneficiaries who are seen on a humanitarian basis of practical need and resource availability. In recent years, about 1400 people have been seen annually. This report, however, deals with four clearly defined groups: the remaining individuals who were exposed to radioactive fallout on Rongelap, Ailingnae, and Utirik in 1954 (including those in utero), and a comparison population of individuals from Rongelap who were unexposed. The number of persons now in each exposure category are 51, 12, 116, and 137, respectively. 100 references, 4 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

  16. Game theory of pre-emptive vaccination before bioterrorism or accidental release of smallpox.

    PubMed

    Molina, Chai; Earn, David J D

    2015-06-01

    Smallpox was eradicated in the 1970s, but new outbreaks could be seeded by bioterrorism or accidental release. Substantial vaccine-induced morbidity and mortality make pre-emptive mass vaccination controversial, and if vaccination is voluntary, then there is a conflict between self- and group interests. This conflict can be framed as a tragedy of the commons, in which herd immunity plays the role of the commons, and free-riding (i.e. not vaccinating pre-emptively) is analogous to exploiting the commons. This game has been analysed previously for a particular post-outbreak vaccination scenario. We consider several post-outbreak vaccination scenarios and compare the expected increase in mortality that results from voluntary versus imposed vaccination. Below a threshold level of post-outbreak vaccination effort, expected mortality is independent of the level of response effort. A lag between an outbreak starting and a response being initiated increases the post-outbreak vaccination effort necessary to reduce mortality. For some post-outbreak vaccination scenarios, even modest response lags make it impractical to reduce mortality by increasing post-outbreak vaccination effort. In such situations, if decreasing the response lag is impossible, the only practical way to reduce mortality is to make the vaccine safer (greater post-outbreak vaccination effort leads only to fewer people vaccinating pre-emptively). PMID:25926701

  17. Accidental cloning of a single-photon qubit in two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Ide, Toshiki; Hofmann, Holger F. [Okayama Institute for Quantum Physics, 1-9-1 Kyoyama, Okayama City, Okayama, 700-0015 (Japan); JST-CREST, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    The information encoded in the polarization of a single photon can be transferred to a remote location by two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation. However, the finite entanglement used in the teleportation causes random changes in photon number. If more than one photon appears in the output, the continuous-variable teleportation accidentally produces clones of the original input photon. In this paper, we derive the polarization statistics of the N-photon output components and show that they can be decomposed into an optimal cloning term and completely unpolarized noise. We find that the accidental cloning of the input photon is nearly optimal at experimentally feasible squeezing levels, indicating that the loss of polarization information is partially compensated by the availability of clones.

  18. Successful Thrombolysis and Spasmolysis of Acute Leg Ischemia after Accidental Intra-arterial Injection of Dissolved Flunitrazepam Tablets

    SciTech Connect

    Radeleff, B., E-mail: Boris_radeleff@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Stampfl, U.; Sommer, C.-M.; Bellemann, N. [University of Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Hyhlik-Duerr, A. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany); Weber, M.-A. [University of Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Boeckler, D. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany); Kauczor, H.-U. [University of Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    A 37-year-old man with known intravenous drug abuse presented in the surgical ambulatory care unit with acute leg ischemia after accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets into the right femoral artery. A combination of anticoagulation, vasodilatation, and local selective and superselective thrombolysis with urokinase was performed to salvage the leg. As a result of the severe ischemia-induced pain, the patient had to be monitored over the complete therapy period on the intensive care unit with permanent administration of intravenous fluid and analgetics. We describe the presenting symptoms and the interventional technique, and we discuss the recent literature regarding the management of accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets.

  19. A probabilistic model for accidental cargo oil outflow from product tankers in a ship-ship collision.

    PubMed

    Goerlandt, Floris; Montewka, Jakub

    2014-02-15

    In risk assessment of maritime transportation, estimation of accidental oil outflow from tankers is important for assessing environmental impacts. However, there typically is limited data concerning the specific structural design and tank arrangement of ships operating in a given area. Moreover, there is uncertainty about the accident scenarios potentially emerging from ship encounters. This paper proposes a Bayesian network (BN) model for reasoning under uncertainty for the assessment of accidental cargo oil outflow in a ship-ship collision where a product tanker is struck. The BN combines a model linking impact scenarios to damage extent with a model for estimating the tank layouts based on limited information regarding the ship. The methodology for constructing the model is presented and output for two accident scenarios is shown. The discussion elaborates on the issue of model validation, both in terms of the BN and in light of the adopted uncertainty/bias-based risk perspective. PMID:24462237

  20. Expression, subunit composition, and function of AMPA-type glutamate receptors are changed in activated microglia; possible contribution of GluA2 (GluR-B)-deficiency under pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Beppu, Kaoru; Kosai, Yuki; Kido, Mizuho A; Akimoto, Nozomi; Mori, Yuki; Kojima, Yuichiro; Fujita, Kyota; Okuno, Yuko; Yamakawa, Yukiko; Ifuku, Masataka; Shinagawa, Rika; Nabekura, Junichi; Sprengel, Rolf; Noda, Mami

    2013-06-01

    Microglia express AMPA (?-amino-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionate)-type of glutamate (Glu) receptors (AMPAR), which are highly Ca(2+) impermeable due to the expression of GluA2. However, the functional importance of AMPAR in microglia remains to be investigated, especially under pathological conditions. As low expression of GluA2 was reported in some neurodegenerative diseases, GluA2(-/-) mice were used to show the functional change of microglial AMPARs in response to Glu or kainate (KA). Here we found that Glu-induced currents in the presence of 100 ?M cyclothiazide, an inhibitor of AMPAR desensitization, showed time-dependent decrease after activation of microglia with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in GluA2(+/+) microglia, but not in GluA2(-/-) microglia. Upon activation of microglia, expression level of GluA2 subunits significantly increased, while expression of GluA1, A3 and A4 subunits on membrane surface significantly decreased. These results suggest that nearly homomeric GluA2 subunits were the main reason for low conductance of AMPAR in activated microglia. Increased expression of GluA2 in microglia was also detected partially in brain slices from LPS-injected mice. Cultured microglia from GluA2(-/-) mice showed higher Ca(2+) -permeability, consequently inducing significant increase in the release of proinflammatory cytokine, such as TNF-?. The conditioning medium from KA-treated GluA2(-/-) microglia had more neurotoxic effect on wild type cultured neurons than that from KA-treated GluA2(+/+) microglia. These results suggest that membrane translocation of GluA2-containing AMPARs in activated microglia has functional importance and thus, dysfunction or decreased expression of GluA2 may accelerate Glu neurotoxicity via excess release of proinflammatory cytokines from microglia. PMID:23468421

  1. Neuroimaging evaluation of non-accidental head trauma with correlation to clinical outcomes: A review of 57 cases

    PubMed Central

    Foerster, Bradley R.; Petrou, Myria; Lin, Doris; Thurnher, Majda M.; Carlson, Martha D; Strouse, Peter J.; Sundgren, Pia C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To review the clinical presentation and CT and MRI findings in patients with high clinical suspicion of non-accidental trauma (NAT); to examine associations between imaging findings and neurological long-term outcome in abused children. Patients and Methods A retrospective review of 57 cases of non-accidental trauma (NAT) from a single institution was performed. Neuroimaging studies (CT and MRI) were reviewed by a senior neuroradiologist, a neuroradiology fellow and a radiology resident. Clinical history and physical findings including retinal examination, imaging and follow-up assessment documents were reviewed. Results Mean time between arrival that CT and MRI imaging was 2.9 hours and 40.6 hours respectively. The most common clinical presentation (47%) was mental status changes. The most common neuroimaging finding was subdural hemorrhage, seen in 86% of patients. In 47 cases in which both MRI and CT was performed, there was one case of suspected non-accidental trauma missed on head CT. CT detected signs of global ischemia in all 11 of the patients that died (CT mean time performed after arrival = 1.1 hours). MRI detected additional signs of injury in patients who ended up with mild to moderate developmental delay. Conclusion CT was able to detect evidence of non-accidental head injury in 56 out of 57 abused children included in our cohort and predicted severe neurological injury and mortality. MRI was useful in detecting additional evidence of trauma which can be helpful in risk stratification for neurological outcomes as well as providing confirming evidence of repeated injury. PMID:19028392

  2. Reducing the loss of vaccines from accidental freezing in the cold chain: The experience of continuous temperature monitoring in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, John; Lydon, Patrick; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Accidental freezing of vaccines is a growing threat and a real risk for national immunization programs when the potency of many vaccines can be compromised if these are exposed to sub-zero temperatures in the cold chain. In Tunisia, this issue is compounded by using sub-standard domestic cold chain equipment instead of equipping the program with medical refrigerators designed specifically for storing vaccines and temperature sensitive pharmaceuticals. Against this backdrop, this paper presents the findings of a demonstration project conducted in Tunisia in 2012 that tested the impact of introducing several freeze prevention solutions to mitigate the risk of accidental freezing of vaccines. The main finding is that, despite the continued use of underperforming domestic refrigerators, continuous temperature monitoring using new technologies combined with other technological interventions significantly reduced the prevalence of accidental exposure to freezing temperatures. These improvements were noticed for cold chain storage at regional, district and health center levels, and during the transport legs that were part of the demonstration conducted in the regions of Kasserine in the South-Eastern part of Tunisia. Subsequent to introducing these freeze prevention solutions, the incidence of freeze alarms was reduced and the percent of time the temperatures dropped below the 2 °C recommended threshold. The incidence of freeze alarms at health center level was reduced by 40%. Lastly, the solutions implemented reduced risk of freezing during transport from 13.8% to 1.7%. Although the solution implemented is not optimal in the longer term because domestic refrigerators are used extensively in district stores and health centers, the risk of accidental freezing is significantly reduced by introducing the practice of continuous temperature monitoring as a standard. The management of the cold chain equipment was strengthened as a result which helps protect the potency of vaccines to the areas of most difficult access. PMID:25444810

  3. [Radioecological situation in the impact zone of the accidental underground nuclear explosion "Kraton-3" in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)].

    PubMed

    Sobakin, P I; Gerasimov, Ya R; Chevychelov, A P; Perk, A A; Goryachenkova, T A; Novikov, A P

    2014-01-01

    The paper reports on the results of a ground walking gamma- and gamma-spectrometric survey made in the impact zone of the accidental underground nuclear explosion "Kraton-3". Patterns of migration, 137Cs, 90Sr and Pu distribution in the soil-vegetable cover of the northern taiga on permafrost are considered. Radioeco- logical situation within the territory surveyed is noted as unfavorable. PMID:25980291

  4. Chromosomal Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 150 babies is born with a chromosomal condition. Down syndrome is an example of a chromosomal condition. Because ... all pregnant women be offered prenatal tests for Down syndrome and other chromosomal conditions. A screening test is ...

  5. The 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: summary of main findings and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pandit, J J; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H MacG; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Cook, T M

    2014-10-01

    We present the main findings of the 5th National Audit Project on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia. Incidences were estimated using reports of accidental awareness as the numerator, and a parallel national anaesthetic activity survey to provide denominator data. The incidence of certain/probable and possible accidental awareness cases was ~1:19 600 anaesthetics (95% CI 1:16 700-23 450). However, there was considerable variation across subtypes of techniques or subspecialties. The incidence with neuromuscular blockade was ~1:8200 (1:7030-9700), and without it was ~1:135 900 (1:78 600-299 000). The cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia reported to 5th National Audit Project were overwhelmingly cases of unintended awareness during neuromuscular blockade. The incidence of accidental awareness during caesarean section was ~1:670 (1:380-1300). Two thirds (82, 66%) of cases of accidental awareness experiences arose in the dynamic phases of anaesthesia, namely induction of and emergence from anaesthesia. During induction of anaesthesia, contributory factors included: use of thiopental; rapid sequence induction; obesity; difficult airway management; neuromuscular blockade; and interruptions of anaesthetic delivery during movement from anaesthetic room to theatre. During emergence from anaesthesia, residual paralysis was perceived by patients as accidental awareness, and commonly related to a failure to ensure full return of motor capacity. One third (43, 33%) of accidental awareness events arose during the maintenance phase of anaesthesia, most due to problems at induction or towards the end of anaesthesia. Factors increasing the risk of accidental awareness included: female sex; age (younger adults, but not children); obesity; anaesthetist seniority (junior trainees); previous awareness; out-of-hours operating; emergencies; type of surgery (obstetric, cardiac, thoracic); and use of neuromuscular blockade. The following factors were not risk factors for accidental awareness: ASA physical status; race; and use or omission of nitrous oxide. We recommend that an anaesthetic checklist, to be an integral part of the World Health Organization Safer Surgery checklist, is introduced as an aid to preventing accidental awareness. This paper is a shortened version describing the main findings from 5th National Audit Project - the full report can be found at http://www.nationalauditprojects.org.uk/NAP5_home#pt. PMID:25204236

  6. IL-4/IL-13-Dependent and Independent Expression of miR-124 and Its Contribution to M2 Phenotype of Monocytic Cells in Normal Conditions and during Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Veremeyko, Tatyana; Siddiqui, Shafiuddin; Sotnikov, Ilya; Yung, Amanda; Ponomarev, Eugene D.

    2013-01-01

    Monocytic cells exhibit a high level of heterogeneity and have two distinct modes of their activation: 1) classical M1 path associated with inflammation and tissue damage, and 2) alternative M2 path. Although it has been demonstrated that M2 macrophages play an important role in the regulation of the allergic immune responses, tissue maintenance and repair, little is known about the mechanisms that determine the M2 phenotype. We have previously shown that miR-124 is expressed in microglia that exhibit the M2 phenotype and overexpression of miR-124 in macrophages resulted in downregulation of a number of M1 markers (MHC class II, CD86) and up-regulation of several M2 markers (Fizz1, Arg1). We further investigated whether the polarization of macrophages towards the M2 phenotype induced miR-124 expression. We found that exposure of cells to IL-4 and IL-13 resulted in the upregulation of miR-124 in macrophages. We also demonstrated that IL-4 induced expression of three miR-124 precursor transcripts with predominant expression of pri-miR-124.3, suggesting regulation of miR-124 expression by IL-4 on a transcriptional level. Expression of miR-124 in microglia did not depend on IL-4 and/or IL-13, whereas expression of miR-124 in lung resident macrophages was IL-4 and IL-13-dependent and was upregulated by systemic administration of IL-4 or during allergic inflammation. Upregulation of several M2 markers (CD206, Ym1) and downregulation of the M1 markers (CD86, iNOS, TNF) in M2-polarized macrophages was abrogated by a miR-124 inhibitor, suggesting that this microRNA contributed to the M2 phenotype development and maintenance. Finally we showed that human CD14+CD16+ intermediate monocytes, which are found in increased numbers in patients with allergies and bronchial asthma, expressed high levels of miR-124 and exhibited other properties of M2-like cells. Thus, our study suggests that miR-124 serves as a regulator of the M2 polarization in various subsets of monocytic cells both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24358127

  7. Chitin-Prussian blue sponges for Cs(I) recovery: from synthesis to application in the treatment of accidental dumping of metal-bearing solutions.

    PubMed

    Vincent, C; Barré, Y; Vincent, T; Taulemesse, J-M; Robitzer, M; Guibal, E

    2015-04-28

    Prussian blue (i.e., iron[III] hexacyanoferrate[II], PB) has been synthesized by reaction of iron(III) chloride with potassium hexacyanoferrate and further immobilized in chitosan sponge (cellulose fibers were added in some samples to evaluate their impact on mechanical resistance). The composite was finally re-acetylated to produce a chitin-PB sponge. Experimental conditions such as the freezing temperature, the content of PB, the concentration of the biopolymer and the presence of cellulose fibers have been varied in order to evaluate their effect on the porous structure of the sponge, its water absorption properties and finally its use for cesium(I) recovery. The concept developed with this system consists in the absorption of contaminated water by the composite sponge, the in situ binding of target metal on Prussian blue load and the centrifugation of the material to remove treated water from soaked sponge. This material is supposed to be useful for the fast treatment of accidental dumping of Cs-contaminated water. PMID:25646900

  8. Selective binding of nuclear alpha-synuclein to the PGC1alpha promoter under conditions of oxidative stress may contribute to losses in mitochondrial function: implications for Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Almas; Chinta, Shankar J.; Mallajosyula, Jyothi K.; Rajagopolan, Subramanian; Hanson, Ingrid; Rane, Anand; Andersen, Julie K.

    2012-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein has been reported to be present in the nucleus and levels enhanced by oxidative stress. Herein, we sought to investigate the mechanistic role of nuclear alpha-synuclein. We found that alpha-synuclein nuclear localization coincided with enhanced chromatin binding both in an in vitro and a corresponding in vivo brain oxidative stress model previously characterized by our laboratory as well as in PD brain tissues. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-on-chip analysis of alpha-synuclein:promoter binding in response to oxidative stress in vitro revealed that binding occurs at several promoters belonging to a range of functional categories including transcriptional regulation. Interestingly, given the important role of mitochondrial dysfunction in PD, this included binding to the promoter for the master mitochondrial transcription activator, PGC1alpha in vitro, in vivo, and in human brain tissue with age and PD. To test the possible mechanistic impact of alpha-synuclein PGC1alpha promotor binding, we assessed PGC1alpha promoter activity, mRNA, and protein levels and expression of candidate PGC1alpha-target genes in our in vitro model. All were found to be reduced in conjunction with increased levels of aberrant mitochondrial morphology and impaired mitochondrial function. Exogenous PGC1alpha expression was found to attenuate alpha-synuclein-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent neurotoxicity in vitro. Our data suggests that nuclear alpha-synuclein localization under conditions of oxidative stress may impact on mitochondrial function in part via the protein’s capacity to act as a transcriptional modulator of PGC1alpha. This represents a novel role for alpha-synuclein as it relates to mitochondrial dysfunction in PD. PMID:22705949

  9. General weather conditions and precipitation contributing to the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River and Red River of the North Basins, December 2010 through July 2011: Chapter B in 2011 floods of the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.; Chase, Katherine J.; Loss, Gina R.

    2013-01-01

    Excessive precipitation produced severe flooding in the Mississippi River and Red River of the North Basins during spring and summer 2011. The 2011 flooding was caused by weather conditions that were affected in part by a La Niña climate pattern. During the 2010–11 climatological winter (December 2010–February 2011), several low pressure troughs from the Rocky Mountains into the Ohio River subbasin produced large amounts of precipitation. Precipitation was above normal to record amounts in parts of the Missouri River, Red River of the North, and upper Mississippi River subbasins, and mostly normal to below normal in the Ohio River and lower Mississippi River subbasins. During the 2011 climatological spring (March–May 2011), a large low pressure trough over the continental States and a high pressure ridge centered in the vicinity of the Gulf of Mexico combined to produce storms with copious precipitation along frontal boundaries across the Central States. Rain totals recorded during the April 18–28, 2011, precipitation event were more than 8 inches at several locations, while an impressive total of 16.15 inches was recorded at Cape Girardeau, Missouri. Several locations in the Missouri River subbasin had rainfall totals that were nearly one-third to one-half of their 1971–2000 normal annual amounts during a May 16–31, 2011, precipitation event. During June and July, thunderstorm development along frontal boundaries resulted in areas of heavy rain across the Missouri River, Red River of the North, and upper Mississippi River subbasins, while rainfall in the lower Mississippi River subbasin was mostly below normal.

  10. A Case Report: Cytogenetic Dosimetry after Accidental Radiation Exposure during (192)Ir Industrial Radiography Testing.

    PubMed

    Beinke, C; Ben-Shlomo, A; Abend, M; Port, M

    2015-07-01

    The accidental gamma radiation exposure of an industrial radiography worker and the cytogenetic examination of the worker's blood lymphocytes are described here. The exposure of the worker was due to a malfunction at the entrance into the depleted uranium-shielding device of a (192)Ir source during operation. Because the source was sealed no additional beta radiation exposure was assumed. The worker's thermoluminescent dosimeter indicated an absorbed dose of 0.078 Sv, which presumably took place in December 2013. No clinical symptoms were reported in the case history after the potential exposure to radiation. Four months after the incident it was decided that biological dosimetry using dicentric chromosome and micronucleus analysis would be performed to follow radiation protection aspects and to clarify the radiation dose uncertainties for the exposed worker. Micronucleus frequency was not increased above the laboratory's control value of micronucleus background frequency of unexposed individuals. However, the observed dicentric frequency (0.003 dicentric/cell) differs significantly from the laboratory's background level of dicentric chromosomes in unexposed individuals (0.0007 dicentric/cell). Dicentric analysis in 2,048 metaphase cells resulted in an estimated dose of no more than 0.181 Gy (95% upper confidence level), not less than 0.014 Gy (95% lower confidence level) and a mean dose of 0.066 Gy (photon-equivalent whole-body exposure) based on interpolation from the laboratory's calibration curve for (60)Co gamma radiation. Since overdispersion of dicentric chromosomes (u = 9.78) indicated a heterogeneous (partial-body) exposure, we applied the Dolphin method and estimated an exposure of 2.1 Sv affecting 21% of the body volume. Because the overdispersion of dicentric chromosomes was caused by only one heavily damaged cell containing two dicentrics, it is possible that this was an incidental finding. In summary, a radiation overexposure of the radiography worker must be assumed and this case considered as a potential partial-body exposure scenario. PMID:26151173

  11. Exposure analysis of accidental release of mercury from compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs).

    PubMed

    Sarigiannis, D A; Karakitsios, S P; Antonakopoulou, M P; Gotti, A

    2012-10-01

    Mercury release after breakage of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) has recently become an issue of public health concern, especially in the case of early life infants. Preliminary, screening type calculations have indicated that there is potential for increased intake of mercury vapor by inhalation after breakage of a CFL. Several experimental and computational studies have shown that, when modeling the breakage of a CFL, the room space must be segregated into different zones, according to the potential of mercury vapor to accumulate in them after accidental release. In this study, a detailed two-zone model that captures the physicochemical processes that govern mercury vapor formation and dispersion in the indoor environment was developed. The mercury fate model was coupled to a population exposure model that accounts for age and gender-related differences in time-activity patterns, as well as country differences in body weight and age distribution. The parameters above are used to determine the intake through inhalation (gas phase and particles) and non-dietary ingestion (settled dust) for each age, gender group and ethnicity. Results showed that the critical period for intake covers the first 4h after the CFL breaks and that room air temperature significantly affects the intake rate. Indoor air concentration of mercury vapor may exceed toxicological thresholds of concern such as the acute Reference Exposure Limit (REL) for mercury vapor set by the Environmental Protection Agency of California. Ingestion intake through hand-to-mouth behavior is significant for infants and toddlers, counting for about 20% of the overall intake. Simple risk reduction measures including increased indoor ventilation followed by careful clean-up of the accident site, may limit dramatically the estimated health risk. PMID:22863806

  12. The nation's first poison control center: taking a stand against accidental childhood poisoning in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Burda, A M; Burda, N M

    1997-04-01

    Prior to the 1950's, there existed no formal system for poison prevention or treatment in the US. Estimates place the number of pediatric poisoning fatalities at over 400/y at that time. After World War II, urbanization and modern technological methods brought forth over 250,000 different brand name products on the market. Health care professionals presented with cases of acute poisoning usually had little knowledge of what ingredients were contained in these new products, making it difficult to treat these patients. In the 1930's, pharmacist Louis Gdalman established a poison information service at St Luke's hospital. Because of Gdalman's training in pharmacy and chemistry, physicians throughout Chicago and the US called on him in search of assistance. In the late 1940's, Gdalman began recording information on small cards, and developed a standard data collection from. By the 1950's he had established an extensive library on the management of acute and chronic poisonings. In 1948, a national effort to reduce the number of accidents in children was started by the American Academy of Pediatrics, and a committee was formed in Chicago to address this public safety need. In November, 1953, the poison center at Presbyterian-St Luke's Hospital was formally recognized, and the poison program model spread nationwide. As the number of poison centers grew, coordination was achieved through the National Clearing House for Poison Control Centers, founded in 1957, and the American Association of Poison Control Centers, created in 1958. By 1970, the number of poison centers in the US was reported to be 597. The need for large and better centers led to regional poison control centers. Other outgrowths were the formation of the National Poison Prevention Week Council, the enactment of the Poison Prevention Packaging Act, development of "Mr. Yuk" and other symbols, and formation of the National Animal Poison Control Center. As a result, the number of children dying from accidental poisoning has dropped to under 50/y. PMID:9080638

  13. Accidental release analysis for chlorine gas: A comparison of CAMEO, HGSYSTEM and JET/DEGADIS

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, H.K.; Gratt, L.B. [IWG Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); McKinley, D. [NutraSweet Kelco Co., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Environmental regulation, such as the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, now require the preparation of risk management plans (RMP) for facilities that handle hazardous materials such as chlorine. Air dispersion models have been developed to predict the probable impact of an accidental release of such materials. For a specific release, the concentrations to reach various reference levels calculated by each model may vary. Guidance as to which model to use and the differences between models for specific chemicals and scenarios is lacking. This paper will present the results for three different models for high, moderate and low chlorine release rates for an actual facility on the coastline of San Diego, California. The CAMEO/ALOHA, JET/DEGADIS and HGSYSTEM air dispersion models were used to predict downwind ranges to the IHDL chlorine concentration (10 ppm) for all scenarios. The calculation of plume concentrations at low release rates is frequently limited. CAMEO/ALOHA and JET/DEGADIS use much the same calculations and predict similar concentrations following a release. All three models, particularly CAMEO/ALOHA and JET/DEGADIS, exhibit difficulty in predicting the consequence of a low level release. The minimum release rate that can be effectively analyzed by the CAMEO/ALOHA and DEGADIS models is approximately 1 g/s. Lower concentrations are predicted by the CAMEO/ALOHA model. Concentrations predicted by the HGSYSTEM models were found to be two to three times greater than those predicted by the CAMEO/ALOHA and JET/DEGADIS models. Further research is needed to establish the cause of these differences.

  14. Assessment of long-term health risks after accidental exposure using haemoglobin adducts of epichlorohydrin.

    PubMed

    Wollin, Klaus-Michael; Bader, Michael; Müller, Michael; Lilienblum, Werner; Csicsaky, Michael

    2014-12-15

    On September 9th, 2002, two goods trains collided in Bad Münder, Lower Saxony, causing the release of more than 40 metric tonnes of epichlorohydrin (1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane) into the environment. A human biomonitoring study was performed to evaluate the accidental exposure to epichlorohydrin and to assess the possible long-term, i.e. carcinogenic health effects. This was done on the basis of a biochemical effect monitoring using the N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)valine and the N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)valine haemoglobin adducts of epichlorohydrin in blood to respond to missing ambient monitoring immediately after the crash. N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)valine adduct levels above the LOQ (25 pmol/g globin) ranged from 32.0 to 116.4 pmol/g globin in 6 out of 628 samples. The N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)valine adduct was not detected above the LOD (10 pmol/g globin) in any of the blood samples. Based on the quantified N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)valine adduct values, the body doses after two days of exposure were estimated to be in the range of 1.7-6.2 nmol/kg body weight. The reverse estimation of the external exposure leads to cumulative additional lifetime cancer risks ranging from 2.61×10(-8) to 9.48×10(-8). The estimated excess lifetime cancer risks have to be assessed as extremely low. Our biomonitoring study facilitated the dialogue between individuals and groups concerned and authorities, because suspected or occurred exposures and risks to human health could be quantified and interpreted in a sound manner. PMID:25072144

  15. Atmospheric dispersion of ammonia accidentally released from the 242-A Evaporator, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Daling, P.M.; Lavender, J.C.

    1997-11-01

    Two errors have been identified in the authorization basis for the 242-A Evaporator at the Hanford Site. These errors, which appear in the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Final Safety Analysis Report analysis of ammonia gas concentrations accidentally released from the 242-A Evaporator, are: (1) the vessel ventilation system flow rate used in the previous calculations is a factor of ten higher than the actual flow rate, and (2) the previous calculations did not account for the ammonia source term reduction that would occur via condensation of ammonia vapors, which will remove a large fraction of the ammonia from the exhaust gas stream. The purpose of this document is to correct these errors and recalculate the maximum ground-level concentrations of ammonia released to the environment as a result of potential errors in blending Evaporator feed. The errors offset each other somewhat, so it is unlikely that the 242-A Evaporator has operated outside its current authorization basis. However, the errors must be corrected and the results incorporated into a revision of the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Safety Analysis Report, WHC-SD-WM-SAR-023. An EPA-approved atmospheric dispersion model, SCREEN3, was used to recalculate the maximum ground-level concentrations of ammonia that would be released from the 242-A Evaporator as a result of a feed-blending error. The results of the re-analysis of the 242-A Evaporator`s ammonia release scenario are as follows. The onsite receptor 100 m away from the release point (242-A vessel vent stack) is projected to be exposed to a maximum ground-level concentration of ammonia of 8.3 ppm. The maximally-exposed offsite receptor, located at the nearest Hanford Site boundary 16 km away from the 242-A vessel vent stack, will be exposed to a maximum ground-level concentration of 0.11 ppm ammonia.

  16. Melt-layer motion and droplet ejection under divertor-relevant plasma conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Temmerman, G.; Daniels, J.; Bystrov, K.; van den Berg, M. A.; Zielinski, J. J.

    2013-02-01

    Accidental melting of metallic plasma-facing materials in future fusion devices poses serious issues regarding the material lifetime and power-handling capabilities as well as core plasma performances. The behaviour of aluminium (as a proxy for beryllium) and tungsten materials was investigated in the Pilot-PSI linear plasma device to study the melt-layer motion and droplet ejection under ITER-relevant plasma conditions. Heat fluxes of up to 50 MW m-2 raised the surface temperature to values up to 5000 K. The melt-layer rotation was found to depend on the magnetic field (up to 1.6 T) strength and target potential and is attributed to J × B forces caused by radial currents in the plasma. The amount of droplets ejected from the molten surface depends on the material—more droplets ejected from aluminium than from tungsten—and the heat flux to the target. The average droplet velocity was determined to be around 60 m s-1 for both materials with droplets being ejected mainly in the axial direction. Droplet ejection is only observed during helium discharges, no ejection can be observed with hydrogen plasmas despite similar heat fluxes. Bubble boiling appears to be the main mechanism contributing to the observed droplet ejection.

  17. 5 CFR 831.907 - Withholdings and contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.907 Withholdings and contributions. (a) During the service covered under the conditions...

  18. 5 CFR 831.907 - Withholdings and contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.907 Withholdings and contributions. (a) During the service covered under the conditions...

  19. 5 CFR 831.907 - Withholdings and contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.907 Withholdings and contributions. (a) During the service covered under the conditions...

  20. Improved assessment of population doses and risk factors for a nuclear power plant under accident conditions

    E-print Network

    Meyer, Christopher Martin

    1985-01-01

    the release point. Similar calculations were performed using ICRP 2 methodologies in order to provide a basis for a comparison of the two ICRP methods. Results indicate that for accidental releases in which radioactive particulates and iodines contribute..., special decontamination efforts, etc. ), these pathway doses were calculated assuming that no attempts at intervention are made. The chronic exposure pathways are assumed to exist for the fifty-year period following the accident with weathering...

  1. Pavlovian conditioning and multiple chemical sensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, S; Kreutzer, R

    1997-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioning processes may contribute to some symptoms of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS). This review summarizes the potential relevance of the literature on conditional taste and olfactory aversions, conditional sensitization, and conditional immunomodulation to understanding MCS. A conditioning-based perspective on MCS suggests novel research and treatment strategies. PMID:9167990

  2. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

    2009-04-01

    Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades. Sirma Stenzel, Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. For hazard prediction and simulation of the hazard zones a number of air dispersion models are available. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for display the results, they are easy to use and can operate fast and effective during stress situations. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. There are also possibilities for model direct coupling to automatic meteorological stations, in order to avoid uncertainties in the model output due to insufficient or incorrect meteorological data. Another key problem in coping with accidental toxic release is the relative width spectrum of regulations and values, like IDLH, ERPG, AEGL, MAK etc. and the different criteria for their application. Since the particulate emergency responders and organizations require for their purposes unequal regulations and values, it is quite difficult to predict the individual hazard areas. There are a quite number of research studies and investigations coping with the problem, anyway the end decision is up to the authorities. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). One of the main tasks of this project was 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation introduces the project models used and presents the results of task 2. The results of task 1 are presented by Baumann-Stanzer and Stenzel in this session. For the purpose of this study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAFER System, SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer), COMPAS. A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed in order to reliably predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. The models simulated the accidental release from the mentioned above gases and estimates the potential toxic areas. Since the inputs requirement differ from model to model, and the outputs are based on different criteria for toxic areas and exposure, a high degree of caution in the interpretation of the model results is needed.

  3. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-12-31

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  4. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  5. The political economy of rationing health care in England and the US: the 'accidental logics' of political settlements.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Gwyn; Brown, Lawrence D

    2014-07-01

    This article considers how the 'accidental logics' of political settlements for the English National Health Service (NHS) and the Medicare and Medicaid programmes in the United States have resulted in different institutional arrangements and different implicit social contracts for rationing, which we define to be the denial of health care that is beneficial but is deemed to be too costly. This article argues that rationing is designed into the English NHS and designed out of US Medicare; and compares rationing for the elderly in the United States and in England for acute care, care at the end of life, and chronic care. PMID:24759205

  6. Accidental injection of a U.S. Air Force aviator by a pralidoxime chloride auto-injector: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yamane, G K

    1999-11-01

    To counter the threat of organophosphate nerve agents, military personnel may be issued auto-injectors containing pralidoxime chloride. This drug helps to dephosphorylate the nerve agent-acetylcholinesterase complex and, thus, regenerate the enzyme. In non-poisoned persons, pralidoxime chloride is rapidly excreted by the kidneys and is fairly well tolerated. We present the first reported case of an accidental injection of an Air Force aviator by an auto-injector. The patient recovered well with no specific treatment needed. The pharmacology and toxicology of pralidoxime chloride are discussed. PMID:10608609

  7. ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTIONS Genetic architecture of fear conditioning in chromosome

    E-print Network

    Gilad, Yoav

    : relationship to measures of innate (unlearned) anxiety-like behavior Christine A. Ponder Æ Michaelanne Munoz Æ with differences in anxiety-like behaviors, suggesting the existence of pleiotropic alleles that influence both stimulus; US). In rodents, the strength of the resulting fearful memory can be measured by obser- vation

  8. Contributions of groundwater conditions to soil and water salinization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramsis B. Salama; Claus J. Otto; Robert W. Fitzpatrick

    1999-01-01

    Salinization is the process whereby the concentration of dissolved salts in water and soil is increased due to natural or human-induced processes. Water is lost through one or any combination of four main mechanisms: evaporation, evapotranspiration, hydrolysis, and leakage between aquifers. Salinity increases from catchment divides to the valley floors and in the direction of groundwater flow. Salinization is explained

  9. Freud's contribution to neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Triarhou, L C; del Cerro, M

    1985-03-01

    Sigmund Freud, the acknowledged father of psychoanalysis, started his scientific career as a very promising neurohistologist. This report gives an overview of his early neuroanatomic articles and pioneering contributions to 19th-century neurologic science. PMID:3883963

  10. 3 The Islamic Contribution

    E-print Network

    Joseph, Robert D.

    3 The Islamic Contribution 3.1 Historical Background Hellenistic Greece · The conquests of Philip Christianity the official state religion of his empire. · Hence the Byzantine empire became a Christian empire

  11. Snowmelt contributions to discharge of the Ganges.

    PubMed

    Siderius, C; Biemans, H; Wiltshire, A; Rao, S; Franssen, W H P; Kumar, P; Gosain, A K; van Vliet, M T H; Collins, D N

    2013-12-01

    Himalayan headwaters supply large quantities of runoff derived from snowmelt and monsoon rainfall to the Ganges River. Actual snowmelt contribution to discharge in the Ganges remains conjectural under both present and future climatic conditions. As snowmelt is likely to be perturbed through climatic warming, four hydrological models, VIC, JULES, LPJmL and SWAT, appropriate for coupling with regional climate models, were used to provide a baseline estimate of snowmelt contribution to flow at seasonal and annual timescales. The models constrain estimates of snowmelt contributions to between 1% and 5% of overall basin runoff. Snowmelt is, however, significant in spring months, a period in which other sources of runoff are scarce. PMID:23791434

  12. Normal neurologic and developmental outcome after an accidental intravenous infusion of expressed breast milk in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Ryan, C Anthony; Mohammad, Izlan; Murphy, Brendan

    2006-01-01

    Here we describe a premature male infant who was accidentally given 10 mL of expressed breast milk intravenously over a 3.5-hour period. Having survived this event with supportive care, this boy was attending regular school with no obvious neurologic or learning difficulties at 6 years of age. In 1998, after a query on an e-mail discussion group for health care providers in neonatology (NICU-net), we were informed of 8 similar events that proved fatal in 3 infants. A root-cause analysis revealed that accidental intravenous administration of breast milk or formula can be avoided by the use of color-coded enteral-administration sets with Luer connections that are not compatible with intravenous cannulas. The addition of methylene blue to feeds, or bolus enteral feeds (instead of continuous gastric feedings), may also help prevent such errors. These cases show the value of gathering information about rare but important events through a neonatal network. In addition, they confirm that prevention of medical error should focus on faulty systems rather than faulty people. PMID:16396887

  13. Accidental Predissociation: A Special Case of Photo-Induced Isotope Fractionation Effect and Possible Occurrence in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2009-12-01

    Photo-Induced Isotope Fractionation Effects (PHIFE) are known to produce isotopic frac-tionation in some photo-dissociating molecules (1-2). The PHIFE formalism is based on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and the Reflection Principle. The isotopic fractionation arises principally from the spectral shift induced by the small difference in zero point energy between isotopologues and the contraction of the wave function due to isotopic substitution, consequently, the associated isotopic fractionations depends on the reduced mass of the isotopically substi-tuted species. The PHIFE formalism is only applicable to the molecules which undergo direct photo-dissociation that possess continuous absorption spectra. Simple molecules (N2, O2, CO) however do not follow a direct dissociation pathway and dissociate through an indirect process termed predissociation, which occurs when the molecule is excited to a quasi-bound state energetically above the dissociation continuum. The PHIFE formalism is not applicable when the absorption spectra are discrete. The assumption that the lightest isotopologues are preferentially predissociated is only valid for restricted predissociation cases. There is a special case of predissociation known as ‘accidental predissociation’ (3), which takes place through an intermediate bound state in two steps (i) leakage to an intermediate bound state (coupled through spin orbit interaction) and, (ii) predissociation to a third quasi-bound state from the intermediate state. Line broadening at an accidental predissociation is a function of the magnitude of coupling matrix elements and the linewidths are strongly influenced by isotopic substitution (4). An anomalous isotopic effect in accidental predissociation was spectroscopically observed in CO (5), N2 (4) and BeH (6). We measured the isotopic fractionation for the first time in two accidental predissociating states of CO through VUV photodissociation using the 9.0.2 beamline at ALS (7-8). In light of these data, anomalous isotopic fractionations associated with accidental predissociation will be discussed for the CO and N2. These fractionations are important as VUV-photodissociation of CO and N2 have been invoked in solar nebula (self-shielding, (9-10)) to explain the observed iso-topic signatures in different solar system objects neglecting these isotope effects during photo-dissociation. References: 1. Y. L. Yung, C. E. Miller, Science 278, 1778 (1997). 2. S. Chakraborty, S. K. Bhattacharya, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 2164 (2003). 3. H. Lefebvre-Brion, R. W. Field, The Spectra and Dynamics of Diatomic Molecules. (Elsevier Academic Press, 2004). 4. A. J. Lorquet, J. C. Lorquet, Chem. Phys. Lett. 26, 138 (1974). 5. W. Ubachs, I. Velchev, P. Cacciani, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 547 (2000). 6. H. Lefebvre-Brion, R. Colin, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 65, 33 (1977). 7. S. Chakraborty, M. Ahmed, T. L. Jackson, M. H. Thiemens, Science 321, 1328 (2008). 8. S. Chakraborty, M. Ahmed, T. L. Jackson, M. H. Thiemens, Science 324, 4 (2009). 9. R. N. Clayton, Nature 415, 860 (2002). 10. J. R. Lyons, E. D. Young, Nature 435, 317 (2005).

  14. A two-center retrospective review of the hematologic evaluation and laboratory abnormalities in suspected victims of non-accidental injury?

    PubMed Central

    Paroskie, Allison; Carpenter, Shannon L.; Lowen, Deborah E.; Anderst, James; DeBaun, Michael R.; Sidonio, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Investigation for bleeding disorders in the context of suspected non-accidental injury (NAI) is inconsistent. We reviewed the hematologic evaluation of children who presented with symptoms of bleeding and/or bruising suspicious for NAI to determine the frequency of hematologic tests, abnormal hematologic laboratory results, and hematologic diagnoses. A retrospective cohort study design was employed at two freestanding academic children’s hospitals. ICD-9 codes for NAI were used to identify 427 evaluable patients. Medical records were queried for the details of clinical and laboratory evaluations at the initial presentation concerning for NAI. The median age for the population was 326 days (range 1 day–14 years), 58% were male. Primary bleeding symptoms included intracranial hemorrhage (31.8%) and bruising (68.2%). Hematologic laboratory tests performed included complete blood cell count in 62.3%, prothrombin time (PT) in 55.0%, and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) in 53.6%; fibrinogen in 27.6%; factor activity in 17.1%; von Willebrand disease evaluation in 14.5%; and platelet function analyzer in 11.7%. Prolonged laboratory values were seen in 22.5% of PT and 17.4% of aPTT assays; 66.0% of abnormal PTs and 87.5% of abnormal aPTTs were repeated. In our cohort, 0.7% (3 of 427) of the population was diagnosed with a condition predisposing to bleeding. In children with bleeding symptoms concerning for NAI, hemostatic evaluation is inconsistent. Abnormal tests are not routinely repeated, and investigation for the most common bleeding disorder, von Willebrand disease, is rare. Further research into the extent and appropriate timing of the evaluation is warranted. PMID:24928052

  15. Conditional association.

    PubMed

    Seth, Sohan; Príncipe, José C

    2012-07-01

    Estimating conditional dependence between two random variables given the knowledge of a third random variable is essential in neuroscientific applications to understand the causal architecture of a distributed network. However, existing methods of assessing conditional dependence, such as the conditional mutual information, are computationally expensive, involve free parameters, and are difficult to understand in the context of realizations. In this letter, we discuss a novel approach to this problem and develop a computationally simple and parameter-free estimator. The difference between the proposed approach and the existing ones is that the former expresses conditional dependence in terms of a finite set of realizations, whereas the latter use random variables, which are not available in practice. We call this approach conditional association, since it is based on a generalization of the concept of association to arbitrary metric spaces. We also discuss a novel and computationally efficient approach of generating surrogate data for evaluating the significance of the acquired association value. PMID:22428596

  16. Panel acoustic contribution analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sean F; Natarajan, Logesh Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Formulations are derived to analyze the relative panel acoustic contributions of a vibrating structure. The essence of this analysis is to correlate the acoustic power flow from each panel to the radiated acoustic pressure at any field point. The acoustic power is obtained by integrating the normal component of the surface acoustic intensity, which is the product of the surface acoustic pressure and normal surface velocity reconstructed by using the Helmholtz equation least squares based nearfield acoustical holography, over each panel. The significance of this methodology is that it enables one to analyze and rank relative acoustic contributions of individual panels of a complex vibrating structure to acoustic radiation anywhere in the field based on a single set of the acoustic pressures measured in the near field. Moreover, this approach is valid for both interior and exterior regions. Examples of using this method to analyze and rank the relative acoustic contributions of a scaled vehicle cabin are demonstrated. PMID:23363099

  17. Impact of Model Resolution and Snow Cover Modification on the Performance of Weather Forecasting and Research (WRF) Models of Winter Conditions that Contribute to Ozone Pollution in the Uintah Basin, Eastern Utah, Winter 2013. Trang T. Tran, Marc Mansfield and Seth Lyman Bingham Research Center, Utah State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, T. T.; Mansfield, M. L.; Lyman, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Uintah Basin of Eastern Utah, USA, has experienced winter ozone pollution events with ozone concentrations exceeding the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 75 ppb. With a total of four winter seasons of ozone sampling, winter 2013 is the worst on record for ozone pollution in the basin. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from oil and gas industries and other activities provide the precursors for ozone formation. The chemical mechanism of ozone formation is non-linear and complicated depending on the availability of VOCs and NOx. Moreover, meteorological conditions also play an important role in triggering ozone pollution. In the Uintah Basin, high albedo due to snow cover, a 'bowl-shaped' terrain, and strong inversions that trap precursors within the boundary layer are important factors contributing to ozone pollution. However, these local meteorological phenomena have been misrepresented by recent numerical modeling studies, probably due to misrepresenting the snow cover and complex terrain of the basin. In this study, Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations are performed on a model domain covering the entire Uintah Basin for winter 2013 (Dec 2012 - Mar 2013) to test the impacts of several grid resolutions (e.g., 4000, 1300 and 800m) and snow cover modification on performance of models of the local weather conditions of the basin. These sensitivity tests help to determine the best model configurations to produce appropriate meteorological input for air-quality simulations.

  18. EMSL Contribution Plan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison A

    2008-01-01

    This Contribution Plan is EMSLs template for achieving our vision of simultaneous excellence in all aspects of our mission as a national scientific user facility. It reflects our understanding of the long-term stewardship we must work toward to meet the scientific challenges faced by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the nation. During the next decade, we will implement the

  19. Contributed Papers, 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Special Libraries Association, New York, NY. Documentation Div.

    Included are six papers from the Special Libraries Association Documentation Division's Contributed Papers Session at the National Conference in New York, May 28 - June 1, 1967, which were not included in the November, 1967 issue of Special Libraries. The papers are: (1) "The Bibliographical Control of Aerospace Industry Conference Literature…

  20. CONTRIBUTED Green Cloud Computing

    E-print Network

    Tucker, Rod

    CONTRIBUTED P A P E R Green Cloud Computing: Balancing Energy in Processing, Storage, and Transport to energy consumption and cloud computing seems to be an alternative to office-based computing. By Jayant computing is rapidly expanding as an alternative to conventional office-based computing. As cloud computing

  1. Evidence Theory Based Uncertainty Quantification in Radiological Risk due to Accidental Release of Radioactivity from a Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingale, S. V.; Datta, D.

    2010-10-01

    Consequence of the accidental release of radioactivity from a nuclear power plant is assessed in terms of exposure or dose to the members of the public. Assessment of risk is routed through this dose computation. Dose computation basically depends on the basic dose assessment model and exposure pathways. One of the exposure pathways is the ingestion of contaminated food. The aim of the present paper is to compute the uncertainty associated with the risk to the members of the public due to the ingestion of contaminated food. The governing parameters of the ingestion dose assessment model being imprecise, we have approached evidence theory to compute the bound of the risk. The uncertainty is addressed by the belief and plausibility fuzzy measures.

  2. Accidental formation of Gd4(SiO4)2OTe: crystal structure and spectroscopic properties.

    PubMed

    Daszkiewicz, Marek; Gulay, Lubomir D

    2015-07-01

    Designing new functional materials with increasingly complex compositions is of current interest in science and technology. Complex rare-earth-based chalcogenides have specific thermal, electrical, magnetic and optical properties. Tetragadolinium bis[tetraoxidosilicate(IV)] oxide telluride, Gd4(SiO4)2OTe, was obtained accidentally while studying the Gd2Te3-Cu2Te system. The crystal structure was determined by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallizes in the space group Pnma. Three symmetry-independent gadolinium sites were determined. The excitation and emission spectra were collected at room temperature and at 10?K. Gd4(SiO4)2OTe appears to be a promising optical material when doped with rare-earth ions. PMID:26146399

  3. Follow-up of a human accidental infection by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis using conventional immunologic techniques and polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Delgado, O; Guevara, P; Silva, S; Belfort, E; Ramirez, J L

    1996-09-01

    The results of a two-year follow-up study of an accidental human infection with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis are presented. Western blots, indirect immunofluorescence, and intradermal reaction assays were not able to detect the infection before week 18 postinfection, whereas using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on blood samples, parasite DNA was detected at week 8. All test results, except the intradermal reaction followed the cure process and 12 weeks after the last chemotherapy injection (week 36 postinfection), all were negative. However, a year after cure, the PCR became positive again and has remained so for two years. To determine in which blood cell fraction the parasite was evident, enriched lymphocyte and monocyte fractions were assayed by the PCR. These results are discussed in the context of persistent infections. PMID:8842113

  4. Evolution of N-species Kimura/voter models towards criticality, a surrogate for general models of accidental pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Peyman; Stollenwerk, Nico

    2012-09-01

    In models for accidental pathogens, with the paradigmatic epidemiological system of bacterial meningitis, there was evolution towards states exhibiting critical fluctuations with power law behaviour observed [1]. This is a model with many possibly pathogenic strains essentially evolving independently to low pathogenicity. A first and previous study had shown that in the limit of vanishing pathogenicity there are critical fluctuations with power law distributions observed, already when only two strains interact [2]. This earlier version of a two strain model was very recently reinvestigated [3] and named as Stollenwerk-Jansen model (SJ). Muñoz et al. demonstrated that this two-strain model for accidental pathogens is in the universality class of the so-called voter model. Though this model clearly shows criticality, its control parameter, the pathogenicity, is not self-tuning towards criticality. However, the multi-strain version mentioned above [1] is well evolving towards criticality, as well as a spatially explicit version of this, shown in [4] p. 155. These models of multi-strain type including explicitly mutations of the pathogenicity can be called SJ-models of type II [5]. Since the original epidemiological model is of SIRYX-type, the evolution to zero pathogenicity is slow and perturbed by large population noise. In the present article we now show on the basis of the notion of the voter-model universality classes the evolution of n-voter models with mutaion towards criticality, now much less perturbed by population noise, hence demonstrating a clear mechanism of self-organized criticality in the sense of [6, 7]. The present results have wide implications for many diseases in which a large proportion of infections is asymptomatic, meaning that the system has already evolved towards an average low pathogenicity. This holds not only for the original paradigmatic case of bacterial meningitis, but was reecently also suggested for example for dengue fever (DENFREE project).

  5. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  6. The 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: patient experiences, human factors, sedation, consent and medicolegal issues.

    PubMed

    Cook, T M; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H MacG; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Pandit, J J

    2014-10-01

    The 5th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland into accidental awareness during general anaesthesia yielded data related to psychological aspects from the patient, and the anaesthetist, perspectives; patients' experiences ranged from isolated auditory or tactile sensations to complete awareness. A striking finding was that 75% of experiences were for < 5 min, yet 51% of patients (95% CI 43-60%) experienced distress and 41% (95% CI 33-50%) suffered longer-term adverse effect. Distress and longer-term harm occurred across the full range of experiences but were particularly likely when the patient experienced paralysis (with or without pain). The patient's interpretation of what is happening at the time of the awareness seemed central to later impact; explanation and reassurance during suspected accidental awareness during general anaesthesia or at the time of report seemed beneficial. Quality of care before the event was judged good in 26%, poor in 39% and mixed in 31%. Three quarters of cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (75%) were judged preventable. In 12% of cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia, care was judged good and the episode not preventable. The contributory and human factors in the genesis of the majority of cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia included medication, patient and education/training. The findings have implications for national guidance, institutional organisation and individual practice. The incidence of 'accidental awareness' during sedation (~1:15 000) was similar to that during general anaesthesia (~1:19 000). The project raises significant issues about information giving and consent for both sedation and anaesthesia. We propose a novel approach to describing sedation from the patient's perspective which could be used in communication and consent. Eight (6%) of the patients had resorted to legal action (12, 11%, to formal complaint) at the time of reporting. The 5th National Audit Project methodology provides a standardised template that might usefully inform the investigation of claims or serious incidents related to accidental awareness during general anaesthesia. PMID:25204237

  7. Tank waste isotope contributions

    SciTech Connect

    VANKEUREN, J.C.

    1999-08-26

    This document presents the results of a calculation to determine the relative contribution of selected isotopes to the inhalation and ingestion doses for a postulated release of Hanford tank waste. The fraction of the dose due to {sup 90}Sr, {sup 90}Y, {sup 137}Cs and the alpha emitters for single shell solids and liquids, double shell solids and liquids, aging waste solids and liquids and all solids and liquids. An effective dose conversion factor was also calculated for the alpha emitters for each composite of the tank waste.

  8. Examining suicide: imaging's contributions.

    PubMed

    Church, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    For many people, the death of hope leads inexorably to the conclusion that the only viable solution, the only way to put an end to unendurable pain, is suicide. What leads a person to commit this final, desperate act, and how might we predict, intervene, and prevent suicide? Health care workers, including radiologic technologists, can play an important role in detecting warning signs in patients and in better understanding what factors may lead to suicide. Although certain forms of suicide such as suicide bombings and assisted suicide are beyond its scope, this article explores medical imaging's contributions to the study of this phenomenon. PMID:25739108

  9. A CASE STUDY OF CHLORINE TRANSPORT AND FATE FOLLOWING A LARGE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R.; Hunter, C.; Werth, D.; Whiteside, M.; Chen, K.; Mazzola, C.

    2012-08-01

    A train derailment that occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina during the early morning hours of 06 January, 2005 resulted in the prompt release of approximately 60 tons of chlorine to the environment. Comprehensive modeling of the transport and fate of this release was performed including the characterization of the initial three-phased chlorine release, a detailed determination of the local atmospheric conditions acting to generate, disperse, and deplete the chlorine vapor cloud, the establishment of physical exchange mechanisms between the airborne vapor and local surface waters, and local aquatic dilution and mixing.

  10. Replacement of a quinone by a 5-O-acetylhydroquinone abolishes the accidental necrosis inducing effect while preserving the apoptosis-inducing effect of renieramycin M on lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cheun-Arom, Thaniwan; Chanvorachote, Pithi; Sirimangkalakitti, Natchanun; Chuanasa, Taksina; Saito, Naoki; Abe, Ikuro; Suwanborirux, Khanit

    2013-08-23

    Renieramycin M (1), a bistetrahydroisoquinolinequinone alkaloid isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia sp., has been reported to possess promising anticancer effects. However, its accidental necrosis inducing effect has limited further development due to concerns of unwanted toxicity. The presence of two quinone moieties in its structure was demonstrated to induce accidental necrosis and increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Therefore, one quinone of 1 was modified to produce the 5-O-acetylated hydroquinone derivative (2), and 2 dramatically reduced the accidental necrosis inducing effect while preserving the apoptosis-inducing effect of parent 1 on lung cancer H23 cells. Addition of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine suppressed the accidental necrosis mediated by 1, suggesting that its accidental necrosis inducing effect was ROS-dependent. The fluorescent probe dihydroethidium revealed that the accidental necrosis mediated by 1 was due to its ability to generate intracellular superoxide anions. Interestingly, the remaining quinone in 2 was required for its cytotoxicity, as the 5,8,15,18-O-tetraacetylated bishydroquinone derivative (3) exhibited weak cytotoxicity compared to 1 and 2. The present study demonstrates a simple way to eliminate the undesired accidental necrosis inducing effect of substances that may be developed as improved anticancer drug candidates. PMID:23876104

  11. ASTEC V2.0 computational evaluation of source term and its chemical forms under accidental conditions during mid-loop operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bujan; L. Ammirabile; J. Slaby

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of an accident or component failure during mid-loop operation has been identified in probabilistic safety studies as a major contributor to core melt frequency and source term risk. The fission products release and transport to the containment has been analyzed during mid-loop operation of a reference PWR 1000 MWe reactor using the severe accident integral code ASTEC V2.0. The

  12. Consequence analysis for accidental releases of toxic substances in a complex terrain with shoreline in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Ghim, Y.S.; Oh, H.S.; Moon, K.C.

    1999-07-01

    Offsite consequences resulting from various scenarios involving release of toxic substances in the Yochon Industrial Estate located in the Yosu Peninsula with complex terrain and intricate shorelines are estimated using ALOHA (Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres) and RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System). ALOHA analyses by assuming the worst-case release scenarios for selected chemicals in the worst-case and alternative meteorological conditions indicate the impact on several thousand people in the nearby area. RAMS simulation is performed in order to consider the influence of terrain and shoreline. Receptors behind the terrain, 5 to 6 km distant from the source, also show high concentration when the wind blows to the terrain as well as receptors in front of the terrain in the nearby area. With considering the diurnal variations of meteorological variables, it is predicted that complicated wind patterns with low speeds could cause high concentration over the entire area adjacent to the Estate.

  13. Accidental injection of patent blue dye during gynaecological surgery: Lack of knowledge constitutes a system error.

    PubMed

    Laukaityte, Edita; Bruyère, Marie; Bull, Amanda; Benhamou, Dan

    2015-02-01

    The authors report a case in which an intravenous injection of Patent Blue V dye instead of Indigo Carmine was given during routine gynaecological surgery. The patient presented with temporary arterial (spurious) desaturation and skin discoloration over a 48-hour period. Pharmacological differences between these dyes are described. Root cause analysis based on the ALARM (Association of Litigation and Risk Management) model is presented. The authors emphasise that use of this model should not be limited solely to describing and correcting well known systems errors such as working conditions or teamwork and communication. Furthermore, they conclude that insufficient knowledge must also be recognised as a systems error and as such should be sought out and corrected using similar strategies to those used to discover other contributory factors, without allocation of blame to any individual. PMID:25829317

  14. Incorporation of Therapeutic Interventions in Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Human Clinical Case Reports of Accidental or Intentional Overdosing with Ethylene Glycol

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, Rick A.; McMartin, K. E.

    2005-05-16

    Ethylene glycol is a high production volume chemical used in the manufacture of resins and fibers, antifreeze, deicing fluids, heat transfer and hydraulic fluids. Although occupational uses of ethylene glycol have not been associated with adverse effects, there are case reports where humans have either intentionally or accidentally ingested large quantities of ethylene glycol, primarily from antifreeze. The acute toxicity of ethylene glycol in humans and animals and can proceed through three stages, each associated with a different metabolite: central nervous system depression (ethylene glycol), cardiopulmonary effects associated with metabolic acidosis (glycolic acid) and ultimately renal toxicity (oxalic acid), depending upon the total amounts consumed and effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model developed in a companion paper (Corley et al., 2004) was refined in this study to include clinically relevant treatment regimens for ethylene glycol poisoning such as hemodialysis or metabolic inhibition with either ethanol or fomepizole. Such modifications enabled the model to describe several human case reports which included analysis of ethylene glycol and/or glycolic acid. Such data and model simulations provide important confirmation that the PBPK model developed previously can adequately describe the pharmacokinetics of ethylene glycol in humans following low, occupational or environmentally relevant inhalation exposures, as well as massive oral doses even under conditions where treatments have been employed that markedly affect the disposition of ethylene glycol and glycolic acid. By integrating the case report data sets with controlled studies in this PBPK model, it was demonstrated that fomepizole, if administered early enough in a clinical situation, can be more effective than ethanol or hemodialysis in preventing the metabolism of ethylene glycol to more toxic metabolites. Hemodialysis remains an important option, however, if treatment is instituted after a significant amount of EG is metabolized or if renal toxicity has occurred. The validated PBPK model was also used to compare internal dose surrogates associated with ethylene glycol toxicity in rats and humans. These simulations indicate that following occupational or environmental exposures, humans are unlikely to achieve blood levels of glycolic acid that have been associated with developmental toxicity in rats.

  15. Estimating areas contributing recharge to wells, lessons from previous studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franke, O. Lehn; Reilly, T.E.; Pollock, D.W.; LaBaugh, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Factors relating to the estimation of areas contributing recharge to wells, such as complexity of the ground-water flow system, effects of changing hydrologic conditions, and effects of well-screen locations and pumping rates, are reviewed. The point of view that simulation is the best means to obtain physically based estimates of contributing areas is emphasized. An extensive list of USGS reports that include estimation of contributing areas is provided.

  16. CONTRIBUTION OF CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE TO THE REFLECTANCE OF CORN FOLIAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contribution of chlorophyll fluorescence(ChlF) to apparent reflectance (Ra) in the red/far-red spectra were assessed on a C4 agricultural species (corn, Zea Mays L.) under conditions ranging from nitrogen deficiency to excess. A significant contribution of ChlF to Ra was observed, with on averag...

  17. ORIGINAL PAPER Fertilizer vs. organic matter contributions to nitrogen

    E-print Network

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    ORIGINAL PAPER Fertilizer vs. organic matter contributions to nitrogen leaching in cropping systems the fate of fertilizer N and (2) evaluated the contribution of fertilizer and soil organic matter (SOM) to N leaching under the typical cropping conditions of the Pampas. Fertilizer N was applied as 15 N

  18. Operant Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Staddon, J. E. R.; Cerutti, D. T.

    2005-01-01

    Operant behavior is behavior “controlled” by its consequences. In practice, operant conditioning is the study of reversible behavior maintained by reinforcement schedules. We review empirical studies and theoretical approaches to two large classes of operant behavior: interval timing and choice. We discuss cognitive versus behavioral approaches to timing, the “gap” experiment and its implications, proportional timing and Weber's law, temporal dynamics and linear waiting, and the problem of simple chain-interval schedules. We review the long history of research on operant choice: the matching law, its extensions and problems, concurrent chain schedules, and self-control. We point out how linear waiting may be involved in timing, choice, and reinforcement schedules generally. There are prospects for a unified approach to all these areas. PMID:12415075

  19. Disconnected contributions to hadronic structure

    E-print Network

    Sara Collins; Gunnar Bali; Andrea Nobile; Andreas Schafer; Yoshifumi Nakamura; James Zanotti

    2010-11-09

    We present an update of an on-going project to determine the disconnected contributions to hadronic structure, specifically, the scalar matrix element and the quark contribution to the spin of the nucleon.

  20. Accidental Release of Chlorine from a Storage Facility and an On-Site Emergency Mock Drill: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Soman, Ambalathumpara Raman; Sundararaj, Gopalswamy

    2015-01-01

    In the current industrial scenario there is a serious need for formulating strategies to handle hazardous substances in the safest way. Manufacture, storage, and use of hazardous substances pose a serious risk to industry, people, and the environment. Accidental release of toxic chemicals can lead to emergencies. An emergency response plan (ERP) is inevitable to minimize the adverse effects of such releases. The on-site emergency plan is an integral component of any process safety and risk management system. This paper deals with an on-site emergency response plan for a chlorine manufacturing industry. It was developed on the basis of a previous study on chlorine release and a full scale mock drill has been conducted for testing the plan. Results indicated that properly trained personnel can effectively handle each level of incidents occurring in the process plant. As an extensive guideline to the district level government authorities for off-site emergency planning, risk zone has also been estimated with reference to a chlorine exposure threshold of 3?ppm. PMID:26171416

  1. Lyoluminescence, thermoluminescence and mechanoluminescence studies in ?-ray irradiated Dy3+ activated potassium chloride phosphor for accidental radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Bhujbal, P M; Dhoble, S J

    2012-01-01

    The lyoluminescence (LL), thermoluminescence (TL) and mechanoluminescence (ML) of ?-ray-irradiated coloured powder of KCl:Dy (0.05-0.5?mol%) phosphors are reported in this paper. To understand the mechanism of LL and ML, the LL and ML spectra are compared with TL studies. The variation of intensity of respective luminescence with different ?-ray doses and with different concentrations of Dy3+ ion doped in KCl is found to be similar in nature. The intensities differ from each other, but their nature is found to be similar with ?-ray exposures. The ML glow peak intensity is linear up to high 1?kGy exposure as compared to LL (up to 0.5?kGy) and TL (up to 0.75?kGy) techniques. Therefore, according to our results, the recommendation is that KCl:Dy (0.1?mol%) phosphor prepared by wet chemical technique is useful for high-dose measurements using the ML technique for accidental radiation dosimetry. PMID:23044770

  2. Weathering of primary minerals and mobility of major elements in soils affected by an accidental spill of pyrite tailing.

    PubMed

    Martín, Francisco; Diez, María; García, Inés; Simón, Mariano; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Iriarte, Angel; Aguilar, José

    2007-05-25

    In the present work, soil profiles were sampled 40 days and three years after an accidental pyrite tailing spill from the Aznalcóllar mine (S Spain) in order to figure out the effects of the acidic solution draining from the tailing. The composition of the acidic solution, the mineralogy, and the total and soluble content of the major elements were analysed at varying depths. The results show a weathering process of carbonates and of primary silicates. Calcium released is leached or reacts with the sulphate ions to form gypsum. Magnesium, aluminium and potassium tend to leach from the uppermost millimetres of the soil, accumulating where the pH>/=5.0; also the iron, probably forming more or less complex hydroxysulphates, precipitate in the upper 5 cm. The strong releasing of soluble salts increases the electrical conductivity, while the soluble potassium tends to decrease in the uppermost part of the soil due to the neoformation of jarosite. Iron is soluble only where the pH

  3. The pathogenesis of retinal and subdural haemorrhage in non-accidental head injury in infancy: assessment using Bradford Hill criteria.

    PubMed

    Acres, Meghan J; Morris, James A

    2014-01-01

    Fatal non-accidental head injury (NAHI) in infancy is characterised by severe bilateral retinal haemorrhage (sbRH), thin film diffuse bilateral subdural haemorrhage (dbSDH) and severe fatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (sfHIE). The Geddes hypothesis is that sfHIE is the direct cause of sbRH and dbSDH. The conventional hypothesis (post-Geddes) is that trauma precipitates hypoxia to cause sfHIE and independently tears veins to cause sbRH and dbSDH. These hypotheses are assessed using Bradford Hill criteria of causation. The triad (sbRH, dbSDH and sfHIE) is a strong, specific and consistent association which suggests a causative link. Furthermore sbRH and dbSDH are positively correlated with severity of HIE but negatively correlated with objective evidence of trauma. The conventional hypothesis (post-Geddes) fails the test of biological plausibility because trauma causes asymmetrical and focal bleeding not diffuse bilateral capillary and venular oozing. The conventional hypothesis lacks coherence since it was shown that the encephalopathy of the triad is not traumatic. Arguments by analogy also support the Geddes hypothesis. There is a paucity of experimental evidence for either hypothesis but this is likely to be rectified as molecular methods (genomics and proteomics) are used in the infant autopsy. PMID:24139052

  4. Accidental methadone intoxication masquerading as asthma exacerbation with respiratory arrest in a six-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Orel

    2015-05-01

    A 6-year-old boy is brought to the emergency department of a level 1 trauma center by emergency medical services (EMS) for presumed asthma exacerbation with subsequent unresponsiveness and transient bradycardia. The initial physician exam was remarkable for an unresponsive child, with diffusely diminished breath sounds bilaterally, accompanied by diffuse wheezing, as well as pinpoint pupils. This last observation led to the recommendation to attempt a dose of naloxone for a possible overdose prior to proceeding with intubation for the altered mental status. The child had a brisk response to the naloxone, was subsequently placed on a naloxone drip, and admitted to the hospital. Initial provider thoughts were that the naloxone had worked on an accidental overdose of over-the-counter dextromethorphan containing medication. These suspicions were later proven incorrect after mass spectrometry yielded a positive methadone presence in the urine. The child was ultimately discharged home with ongoing input from child protective services, without further medical complications. The increased utilization of methadone for the treatment of both opioid withdrawal, as well as for chronic pain management demands, heightened awareness of the clinicians, as cases such as this will continue to appear. PMID:26058121

  5. Estimation of the dispersion of an accidental release of radionuclides and toxic materials based on weather type classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, Róbert; Leel?ssy, Ádám; Vincze, Csilla; Sz?cs, Mihály; Kovács, Tibor; Lagzi, István

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the influence of the regional-scale weather types on the atmospheric dispersion processes of the air pollutants originated from point sources. Hypothetical accidents were simulated with two different dispersion models. During a year's test period, the 6-h emission of a radionuclide from the Paks Nuclear Power Plant (Paks NPP, Hungary) was assumed every day and the transport and deposition of the radionuclide was simulated by the Eulerian TREX dispersion model over the Central European region. In addition, the ALOHA Gaussian air dispersion model was also used for the local environment of the Paks NPP to simulate hypothetical hourly releases of ammonia during a 10-year period. During both types of model simulations, the dispersion of the plume for each time was analysed and tested with consideration of 13 circulation types corresponding to daily weather patterns over the Carpathian Basin. There are significant correlations between circulation types and plume directions and structures both in local and regional scales. The daily circulation pattern can be easily obtained from weather analyses; the expected size and direction of polluted area after an accidental release can be quickly estimated even before an accident occurs. However, this fast method cannot replace or neglect dispersion model simulations. It gives a `first guess' and a fast estimation on the direction of the plume and can provide sufficient information for decision-making strategies.

  6. Accidental and deliberate microbiological contamination in the feed and food chains--how biotraceability may improve the response to bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Knutsson, Rickard; van Rotterdam, Bart; Fach, Patrick; De Medici, Dario; Fricker, Martina; Löfström, Charlotta; Agren, Joakim; Segerman, Bo; Andersson, Gunnar; Wielinga, Peter; Fenicia, Lucia; Skiby, Jeffrey; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2011-03-01

    A next frontier of the global food safety agenda has to consider a broad spectrum of bio-risks, such as accidental and intentional contaminations in the food and feed chain. In this article, the background for the research needs related to biotraceability and response to bioterrorism incidents are outlined. Given the current scale of international trade any response need to be considered in an international context. Biotraceability (e.g. the ability to use downstream information to point to processes or within a particular food chain that can be identified as the source of undesirable agents) is crucial in any food-born outbreak and particular in the response to bioterrorism events. In the later case, tested and proven biotraceability improves the following: (i) international collaboration of validated tracing tools and detection methods, (ii) multi-disciplinary expertise and collaboration in the field of food microbiology and conceptual modeling of the food chain, (iii) sampling as a key step in biotracing (iv) optimized sample preparation procedures, including laboratory work in Biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratories, (v) biomarker discovery for relevant tracing and tracking applications, and (vi) high-throughput sequencing using bio-informatic platforms to speed up the characterization of the biological agent. By applying biotraceability, the response phase during a bioterrorism event may be shortened and is facilitated for tracing the origin of biological agent contamination. PMID:21093084

  7. A descriptive, retrospective study of 567 accidental blood exposures in healthcare workers in three West African countries.

    PubMed

    Tarantola, A; Koumaré, A; Rachline, A; Sow, P S; Diallo, M B; Doumbia, S; Aka, C; Ehui, E; Brücker, G; Bouvet, E

    2005-07-01

    We conducted a multi-centre study in West African hospital wards to document accidental blood exposure (ABE) risks in these settings, and assessed the incidence of ABE in participating healthcare workers (HCWs) retrospectively. In total, 1241 HCWs participated in the survey from 43 hospital wards. Among them, 567 (45.7%) had sustained at least one ABE with an estimated incidence of 0.33 percutaneous injuries (PCIs) and 0.04 mucocutaneous contacts (MCCs)/HCW/year in medical or intensive care personnel and 1.8 PCIs/HCW/year in surgeons. The ABE was a needlestick in 454 (80.1%) of 567 cases, a cut in 19 cases (3.4%), a splash or contact with non-intact skin in 87 cases (15.3%), and was undocumented in seven cases (1.2%). The source patient's human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serostatus was positive in 74 cases (13.1%), negative in 65 cases (11.5%), and unknown in 416 cases (73.4%). The ABE was not notified in the ward in 392 cases (69.1%). Healthcare structures can improve HCWs' safety and reduce the stigma against HIV-infected patients by improving access to training, information, primary prevention (ABE prevention equipment) and secondary prevention (postexposure prophylaxis) of occupational infection risks. PMID:16021690

  8. Risk factors for recurrent injuries in victims of suspected non-accidental trauma: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many children who are victims of non-accidental trauma (NAT) may be repeatedly evaluated for injuries related to maltreatment. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for repeated injuries in children with suspected NAT. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using claims data from a pediatric Medicaid accountable care organization. Children with birth claims and at least one non-birth related claim indicating a diagnosis of NAT or skeletal survey in 2007–2011 were included. Recurrent events were defined as independent episodes of care involving an urgent/emergent care setting that included a diagnosis code specific for child abuse, a CPT code for a skeletal survey, or a diagnosis code for an injury suspicious for abuse. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine risk factors for recurrent events. Results Of the 1,361 children with suspected NAT, a recurrent NAT event occurred in 26% within 1 year and 40% within 2 years of their initial event. Independent risk factors for a recurrent NAT event included a rural residence, age?

  9. Cotton plants transformed with a bacterial degradation gene are protected from accidental spray drift damage by the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce R. Lyon; Yvonne L. Cousins; Danny J. Llewellyn; Elizabeth S. Dennis

    1993-01-01

    The agronomic performance of broad leaved crop plants such as cotton would be greatly improved if genetically-engineered resistance to broadleaf herbicides could both protect the plants from accidental spray drift damage and allow the suppression of problem broadleaf weeds by chemical means. Followingin vitro modification and the addition of plant expression signals, the gene for 2,4-D monooxygenase, a bacterial enzyme

  10. EMSL Contribution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Allison A.

    2008-12-01

    This Contribution Plan is EMSL’s template for achieving our vision of simultaneous excellence in all aspects of our mission as a national scientific user facility. It reflects our understanding of the long-term stewardship we must work toward to meet the scientific challenges faced by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the nation. During the next decade, we will implement the strategies contained in this Plan, working closely with the scientific community, our advisory committees, DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research, and other key stakeholders. This Plan is fully aligned with the strategic plans of DOE, its Office of Science, and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). We recognize that shifts in science and technology, national priorities, and resources made available through the Federal budget process create planning uncertainties and, ultimately, a highly dynamic planning environment. Accordingly, this Plan should be viewed as a living document and we continually evaluate the changing needs and opportunities posed by our stakeholders (i.e., DOE, users, staff, advisory committees), work closely with them to understand and respond to those changes, and align our strategy accordingly. This Plan is organized around two sections. Section 1 describes our vision and four strategic outcomes: 1) Scientific Innovation, 2) Capabilities that Transform Science, 3) Outstanding Management and Operations, and Engaged and Proactive Users. These outcomes provide the framework for seven critical actions we must take during the next 3 to 5 years: 1) Establishing leadership in EMSL science themes, 2) building and deploying transformational capabilities, 3) integrating computation with experiment, 4) ensuring EMSL’s workforce meets the scientific challenges of the future, 5) creating partnerships, 6) attracting and engaging users in EMSL’s long-term strategy, and 7) building a research infrastructure that meets emerging scientific needs. Section 2 describes EMSL’s detailed business plan, including an analysis of opportunity, organizational investments, and actionable milestones.

  11. Initial Conditions for Turbulent Mixing Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Kaman, T.; Glimm, J.; Sharp, D.H.

    2010-12-01

    In the context of the classical Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamical instability, we examine the much debated question of models for initial conditions and the possible influence of unrecorded long wave length contributions to the instability growth rate {alpha}.

  12. Serotonin in fear conditioning processes.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Elizabeth P

    2015-01-15

    This review describes the latest developments in our understanding of how the serotonergic system modulates Pavlovian fear conditioning, fear expression and fear extinction. These different phases of classical fear conditioning involve coordinated interactions between the extended amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortices. Here, I first define the different stages of learning involved in cued and context fear conditioning and describe the neural circuits underlying these processes. The serotonergic system can be manipulated by administering serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists, as well as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and these can have significant effects on emotional learning and memory. Moreover, variations in serotonergic genes can influence fear conditioning and extinction processes, and can underlie differential responses to pharmacological manipulations. This research has considerable translational significance as imbalances in the serotonergic system have been linked to anxiety and depression, while abnormalities in the mechanisms of conditioned fear contribute to anxiety disorders. PMID:25078294

  13. Linking Leadership to Student Learning: The Contributions of Leader Efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Leithwood; Doris Jantzi

    2008-01-01

    Purposes: This study aimed to improve our understanding of the nature, causes and consequence of school leader efficacy, including indirect influences on student learning. We asked about district contributions to school leader efficacy, whether leader self- and collective efficacy responded to the same or different district conditions and the effects of leader efficacy on conditions in the school and the

  14. Accidental death due to complete autoerotic asphyxia associated with transvestic fetishism and anal self-stimulation - case report.

    PubMed

    Atanasijevi?, Tatjana; Jovanovi?, Aleksandar A; Nikoli?, Slobodan; Popovi?, Vesna; Jasovi?-Gasi?, Miroslava

    2009-06-01

    A case is reported of a 36-year-old male, found dead in his locked room, lying on a bed, dressed in his mother's clothes, with a plastic bag over his head, hands tied and with a barrel wooden cork in his rectum. Two pornographic magazines were found on a chair near the bed, so that the deceased could see them well. Asphyxia was controlled with a complex apparatus which consisted of two elastic luggage rack straps, the first surrounding his waist, perineum, and buttocks, and the second the back of his body, and neck. According to the psychological autopsy based on a structured interview (SCID-I, SCID-II) with his father, the deceased was single, unemployed and with a part college education. He had grown up in a poor family with a reserved father and dominant mother, and was indicative of fulfilling DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence, paraphilia involving hypoxyphilia with transvestic fetishism and anal masturbation and a borderline personality disorder. There was no evidence of previous psychiatric treatment. The Circumstances subscale of Beck's Suicidal Intent Scale (SIS-CS) pointed at the lack of final acts (thoughts or plans) in anticipation of death, and absence of a suicide note or overt communication of suicidal intent before death. Integration of the crime scene data with those of the forensic medicine and psychological autopsy enabled identification of the event as an accidental death, caused by neck strangulation, suffocation by a plastic bag, and vagal stimulation due to a foreign body in the rectum. PMID:19556957

  15. Prescription and over-the-counter medication in deliberate self-poisoning and accidental overdosing--preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Szkolnicka, Beata

    2005-01-01

    186 case records of patients who overdosed pharmaceuticals (confirmed by toxicological lab analysis) hospitalized at the Department of Clinical Toxicology during three months of 2000 were analyzed for age, sex, type of medication, reason for poisoning (intentional or accidental overdosing). Patients poisoned with prescription medication (Rx group) were compared with those who overdosed nonprescription (OTC-group) medications (alone or combined with Rx). Relative frequency of medication drug poisoning was highest in the 40-49 age group (28.5%) and was followed by the group of young adults (20-29 years; 24.2%). The lowest frequency (2.2%) was noted in the 60-69 age group. Of 186 cases analyzed, in 163 (87.6%) prescription medication (Rx) and in 23 (12.4%) OTC alone or co-ingested with Rx were involved (chi2 = 63.9; p < 0.001). The Rx and OTC groups were not significantly different as to reason for poisoning (chi2 = 0.7; p = 0.792) with significant overrepresentation of deliberate ingestion in both the group analysed (chi2 = 114.39; p < 0.001 for Rx, and chi2 = 13.49; p = 0.002 for OTC). Most adults attempting suicide used Rx with the highest incidence in the 40-49 age group (31.1%). Adolescents (14-19 years) with female over-representation ingested rather OTC pharmaceuticals (40.9%). Acetaminophen (alone or combined with benzodiazepines or/and ethanol) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were the most common OTC medications used for deliberate self-poisoning. PMID:16225126

  16. High Performance Computing contributions to

    E-print Network

    High Performance Computing contributions to DoD Mission Success 2002 #12;Approved for public/C nanotube in a field emitter configuration #12;HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING contributions tocontributions ­ SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Introduction 3 Overview of the High Performance Computing Modernization Program 3

  17. Pragmatism's contributions to international relations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Kaag; Sarah Kreps

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the methodological and substantive contributions that pragmatism stands to make in the field of international relations (IR) theory. The methodological advantages that pragmatism offers have been described by many scholars in recent years, but the substantive contributions that classical American pragmatists (1870–1930) made to the study of international order have been largely overlooked. It suggests that a

  18. Conditions for Student Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly changing nature of Europe and of education and culture that includes conditions for student teacher professional development is generated by the democracy transition from opportunity to choose towards qualities and purposes in the context of cultural and educational globalization. Conditions of contribution applied to enhance student…

  19. Accidental Bowel Leakage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to control body functions, such as heartbeat or blood pressure. Bowels: The small and large intestines. Colon: The large intestine. Colostomy: An opening that connects the colon to a bag on the surface of the abdomen, which provides ...

  20. The accidental plant pathologist.

    PubMed

    Vidaver, Anne K

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the experiences of a woman in academic plant pathology from the 1950s to today. Topics include the social climate for women in science, personal and professional developments and research discoveries, public policy issues in agriculture and biotechnology affecting plant pathology, and projections for the future of plant pathology. PMID:15283657

  1. The Condition-Dependent Transcriptional Landscape of Burkholderia pseudomallei

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Tannistha; Kreisberg, Jason F.; Chua, Hui Hoon; Sun, Guangwen; Chen, Yahua; Mueller, Claudia; Conejero, Laura; Eshaghi, Majid; Ang, Roy Moh Lik; Liu, Jianhua; Sobral, Bruno W.; Korbsrisate, Sunee; Gan, Yunn Hwen; Titball, Richard W.; Bancroft, Gregory J.; Valade, Eric; Tan, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp), the causative agent of the often-deadly infectious disease melioidosis, contains one of the largest prokaryotic genomes sequenced to date, at 7.2 Mb with two large circular chromosomes (1 and 2). To comprehensively delineate the Bp transcriptome, we integrated whole-genome tiling array expression data of Bp exposed to >80 diverse physical, chemical, and biological conditions. Our results provide direct experimental support for the strand-specific expression of 5,467 Sanger protein-coding genes, 1,041 operons, and 766 non-coding RNAs. A large proportion of these transcripts displayed condition-dependent expression, consistent with them playing functional roles. The two Bp chromosomes exhibited dramatically different transcriptional landscapes — Chr 1 genes were highly and constitutively expressed, while Chr 2 genes exhibited mosaic expression where distinct subsets were expressed in a strongly condition-dependent manner. We identified dozens of cis-regulatory motifs associated with specific condition-dependent expression programs, and used the condition compendium to elucidate key biological processes associated with two complex pathogen phenotypes — quorum sensing and in vivo infection. Our results demonstrate the utility of a Bp condition-compendium as a community resource for biological discovery. Moreover, the observation that significant portions of the Bp virulence machinery can be activated by specific in vitro cues provides insights into Bp's capacity as an “accidental pathogen”, where genetic pathways used by the bacterium to survive in environmental niches may have also facilitated its ability to colonize human hosts. PMID:24068961

  2. Evaluation of a computer-assisted learning programme on the oro-facial signs of child physical abuse (non-accidental injury) by general dental practitioners.

    PubMed

    Welbury, R R; Hobson, R S; Stephenson, J J; Jepson, N J

    2001-06-23

    A computer-assisted learning programme with tutorials and self assessment multiple choice questions has been developed. One hundred and two general dental practitioners were asked to evaluate the programme. Over 80% of respondents felt that the programme was easy to use, contained an appropriate level of supporting information, and had improved their knowledge of non-accidental injury. All users of the programme felt that it was a better way of learning than video, audio tapes, and journals or books on the subject. It is concluded that CAL programmes are worthwhile for providing continuing professional education for general dental practitioners. PMID:11453157

  3. 8, 91399165, 2008 Contributions to

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , China Meteorological Administration, Beijing, China 2 Institute of Urban Meteorology, China.0 License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Contributions of pollutants from North China Plain Meteorological Administration, Beijing, China Received: 29 February 2008 ­ Accepted: 1 April 2008 ­ Published: 21

  4. Charm contribution to bulk viscosity

    E-print Network

    M. Laine; Kiyoumars A. Sohrabi

    2015-02-24

    In the range of temperatures reached in future heavy ion collision experiments, hadronic pair annihilations and creations of charm quarks may take place within the lifetime of the plasma. As a result, charm quarks may increase the bulk viscosity affecting the early stages of hydrodynamic expansion. Assuming thermalization, we estimate the charm contribution to bulk viscosity within the same effective kinetic theory framework in which the light parton contribution has been computed previously. The time scale at which this physics becomes relevant is related to the width of the transport peak associated with the trace anomaly correlator, and is found to be 600 MeV.

  5. Automatic defects classification — a contribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B Santos; F Perdigão

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a contribution to defect classification. More precisely, we try to prove that it is possible to identify and classify defects of different types using the pulse-echo technique. The classification process makes use of the time and frequency domain responses of the ultrasonic echo signals acquired from different specimens simulating defects with three

  6. Assessing Contributions to Group Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lucy; Miles, Lynden

    2004-01-01

    We report the use of a combination of self- and peer-assessment in an undergraduate social psychology laboratory course. Students worked in small groups on a self-directed empirical project that they each wrote up independently as a laboratory report. Marks for the written assignment were moderated by a contribution index measure based on the…

  7. Switchgrass cultivars alter microbial contribution to deep soil C

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial, cellulosic biofuel feedstock capable of growing under a wide variety of climatic conditions on land marginally suited to cultivated crops. Due to its perennial nature and deep rooting characteristics, switchgrass contributes to soil C sequestration ...

  8. Contribution of galactose and fructose to glucose homeostasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the contributions of galactose and fructose to glucose formation, 6 subjects (26 +/- 2 years old; body mass index, 22.4 +/-0.2 kg/m2) (mean +/- SE) were studied during fasting conditions. Three subjects received a primed constant intravenous infusion of[6,6-2H2] glucose for 3 hours foll...

  9. Processed foods: contributions to nutrition.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David

    2014-06-01

    Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers. PMID:24760975

  10. Conditioned reinforcement by conditional discriminative stimuli.

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, A

    1988-01-01

    A concurrent-chains schedule was used to examine how a delay to conditional discriminative stimuli affects conditioned reinforcement strength. Pigeons' key-peck responses in the initial link produced either of two terminal links according to independent variable-interval 30-s schedules. Each terminal link involved an identical successive conditional discrimination and was segmented into three links: a delay interval (green), a color conditional discriminative stimulus (blue or red), and a line conditional discriminative stimulus (vertical or horizontal lines). Food delivery occurred 45 s after entering the terminal link with a probability of .5, but its conditional probability (1.0 or 0) depended on the combination of the color and the line stimuli. One of the color stimuli occurred independently of further responding, 5 s after entry into the right terminal link, but it occurred 35 s after entry into the left terminal link. One of the line stimuli occurred independently of responding 40 s after entry into either terminal link, synchronized with the offset of the color stimulus. The initial-link relative response rate for the right was consistently higher in comparison with a control condition in which the color stimuli occurred 20 s after entry into either terminal link. The preference for the short delay to the color conditional discriminative stimuli suggests the possibility of conditioned reinforcement by information about the relation between the line conditional discriminative stimuli and the outcomes. PMID:3361266

  11. How could haloalkaliphilic microorganisms contribute to biotechnology?

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baisuo; Yan, Yanchun; Chen, Shulin

    2014-11-01

    Haloalkaliphiles are microorganisms requiring Na(+) concentrations of at least 0.5 mol·L(-1) and an alkaline pH of 9 for optimal growth. Their unique features enable them to make significant contributions to a wide array of biotechnological applications. Organic compatible solutes produced by haloalkaliphiles, such as ectoine and glycine betaine, are correlated with osmoadaptation and may serve as stabilizers of intracellular proteins, salt antagonists, osmoprotectants, and dermatological moisturizers. Haloalkaliphiles are an important source of secondary metabolites like rhodopsin, polyhydroxyalkanoates, and exopolysaccharides that play essential roles in biogeocycling organic compounds. These microorganisms also can secrete unique exoenzymes, including proteases, amylases, and cellulases, that are highly active and stable in extreme haloalkaline conditions and can be used for the production of laundry detergent. Furthermore, the unique metabolic pathways of haloalkaliphiles can be applied in the biodegradation and (or) biotransformation of a broad range of toxic industrial pollutants and heavy metals, in wastewater treatment, and in the biofuel industry. PMID:25372346

  12. Oil-spill risk analysis: Cook inlet outer continental shelf lease sale 149. Volume 2: Conditional risk contour maps of seasonal conditional probabilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.R.; Marshall, C.F.; Anderson, C.M.; Lear, E.M.

    1994-08-01

    The Federal Government has proposed to offer Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lands in Cook Inlet for oil and gas leasing. Because oil spills may occur from activities associated with offshore oil production, the Minerals Management Service conducts a formal risk assessment. In evaluating the significance of accidental oil spills, it is important to remember that the occurrence of such spills is fundamentally probabilistic. The effects of oil spills that could occur during oil and gas production must be considered. This report summarizes results of an oil-spill risk analysis conducted for the proposed Cook Inlet OCS Lease Sale 149. The objective of this analysis was to estimate relative risks associated with oil and gas production for the proposed lease sale. To aid the analysis, conditional risk contour maps of seasonal conditional probabilities of spill contact were generated for each environmental resource or land segment in the study area. This aspect is discussed in this volume of the two volume report.

  13. A Novel Multifunctional Oil Condition Sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Jakoby; M. Buskies; M. Scherer; S. Henzler; H. Eisenschmid; O. Schatz

    \\u000a Monitoring the engine oil condition in automobiles yields increased oil drain intervals adapted to the actual state of the\\u000a engine oil. This yields both, ecological as well as economical advantages. Furthermore the engine oil condition provides insight\\u000a into the actual state of the engine and thus supports the early detection of possible engine failures. In this contribution\\u000a we present a

  14. 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: patient experiences, human factors, sedation, consent, and medicolegal issues.

    PubMed

    Cook, T M; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H M G; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Pandit, J J

    2014-10-01

    The 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland into accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA) yielded data related to psychological aspects from the patient, and the anaesthetist, perspectives; patients' experiences ranged from isolated auditory or tactile sensations to complete awareness. A striking finding was that 75% of experiences were for <5 min, yet 51% of patients [95% confidence interval (CI) 43-60%] experienced distress and 41% (95% CI 33-50%) suffered longer term adverse effect. Distress and longer term harm occurred across the full range of experiences but were particularly likely when the patient experienced paralysis (with or without pain). The patient's interpretation of what is happening at the time of the awareness seemed central to later impact; explanation and reassurance during suspected AAGA or at the time of report seemed beneficial. Quality of care before the event was judged good in 26%, poor in 39%, and mixed in 31%. Three-quarters of cases of AAGA (75%) were judged preventable. In 12%, AAGA care was judged good and the episode not preventable. The contributory and human factors in the genesis of the majority of cases of AAGA included medication, patient, and education/training. The findings have implications for national guidance, institutional organization, and individual practice. The incidence of 'accidental awareness' during sedation (~1:15,000) was similar to that during general anaesthesia (~1:19,000). The project raises significant issues about information giving and consent for both sedation and anaesthesia. We propose a novel approach to describing sedation from the patient's perspective which could be used in communication and consent. Eight (6%) of the patients had resorted to legal action (12, 11%, to formal complaint) at the time of reporting. NAP5 methodology provides a standardized template that might usefully inform the investigation of claims or serious incidents related to AAGA. PMID:25204696

  15. 22 CFR 130.6 - Political contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...COMMISSIONS § 130.6 Political contribution. Political contribution means any loan, gift, donation...direction of, any foreign candidate, committee, political party, political faction, or government or governmental...

  16. 22 CFR 130.6 - Political contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...COMMISSIONS § 130.6 Political contribution. Political contribution means any loan, gift, donation...direction of, any foreign candidate, committee, political party, political faction, or government or governmental...

  17. 22 CFR 130.6 - Political contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...COMMISSIONS § 130.6 Political contribution. Political contribution means any loan, gift, donation...direction of, any foreign candidate, committee, political party, political faction, or government or governmental...

  18. 22 CFR 130.6 - Political contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...COMMISSIONS § 130.6 Political contribution. Political contribution means any loan, gift, donation...direction of, any foreign candidate, committee, political party, political faction, or government or governmental...

  19. 22 CFR 130.6 - Political contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...COMMISSIONS § 130.6 Political contribution. Political contribution means any loan, gift, donation...direction of, any foreign candidate, committee, political party, political faction, or government or governmental...

  20. Discrete contribution to {sup '}J\\/+

    Microsoft Academic Search

    He Zhiguo; Joan Soto; Lu Xiaorui; Zheng Yangheng

    2011-01-01

    The decay mode (2S)J\\/+ is proposed in order to experimentally identify the effects of the coupling of charmonium states to the continuum D{bar D} states. To have a better understanding of such a two-photon decay process, in this work we restrict ourselves to investigate the contribution of the discrete part, in which the photons are mainly produced via the intermediate

  1. General Banking Conditions 2009 General Banking Conditions

    E-print Network

    Franssen, Michael

    or to the integrity of the financial system. 3 Activities and objectives The Customer provides information to the Bank activities. The Bank may give goods, docu- ments of title, securities or financial instruments that belongGeneral Banking Conditions 2009 r #12;#12;1 General Banking Conditions (Version 2009

  2. Pursuing the Pavlovian Contributions to Induction in Rats Responding for 1% Sucrose Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Huls, Amber; Kulland, Ashley

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated whether Pavlovian conditioning contributes, in the form of the response operandum serving as a conditioned stimulus, to the increase in the rate of response for 1% liquid-sucrose reinforcement when food-pellet reinforcement is upcoming. Rats were exposed to conditions in which sign tracking for 1% sucrose was…

  3. ConditionBased Synchronous

    E-print Network

    Lynch, Nancy

    to decidability ffl Conditions in synchronous systems: from decidability to efficiency Synchronous Condition­Based, and optimally in a synchronous system Synchronous Condition­Based Consensus Hierarchy 7 Result 2: an OptimalThe Condition­Based Synchronous Consensus Hierarchy A. MOSTEFAOUI ? S. RAJSBAUM y M. RAYNAL

  4. Non-undercutting conditions in internal gears

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni C. Mimmi; Paolo E. Pennacchi

    2000-01-01

    Many contributions regarding internal gear theory exist in literature. They mainly consider the problem of undercutting by means of analytical methods applied to specific and limited cases. The present paper deals with a general method showing the analytical condition for avoiding undercutting by the use of the concept of the limit curve. In particular the analytical determination of the limit

  5. Air conditioning for a rehabilitated London landmark

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Smith

    1982-01-01

    The remodelling and modernisation of the 160-year old headquarters of Coutts Bank at Charing Cross, London, provided an opportunity for an original and creative air conditioning design to contribute to the high quality environment that was desired. Heat reclamation involving the use of a heat pump was an essential part of the design. A detailed description is given of the

  6. Mapping climate conditions with materials corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The world's first comprehensive materials corrosion mapping system can predict the effects that climatic conditions have on the life cycle of products ranging from automobiles to bridges, according to Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) and the Australian Industrial Galvanizers Corporation. Both jointly announced the system on 14 November.The mapping system, which incorporates conditions such as moisture, salinity pollution, and prevailing winds, can predict the corrosion of materials in any part of Australia, they said. Ivan Cole of CSIRO Materials Engineering said the mapping system even takes into account durability factors impacting on greenhouse gas contributions and soil conditions, making it a unique tool for Australian industry.

  7. Accidental release of chlorine in Chicago: Coupling of an exposure model with a Computational Fluid Dynamics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, E. Y.; Colman Lerner, J. E.; Porta, A.; Jacovkis, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The adverse health effects of the release of hazardous substances into the atmosphere continue being a matter of concern, especially in densely populated urban regions. Emergency responders need to have estimates of these adverse health effects in the local population to aid planning, emergency response, and recovery efforts. For this purpose, models that predict the transport and dispersion of hazardous materials are as necessary as those that estimate the adverse health effects in the population. In this paper, we present the results obtained by coupling a Computational Fluid Dynamics model, FLACS (FLame ACceleration Simulator), with an exposure model, DDC (Damage Differential Coupling). This coupled model system is applied to a scenario of hypothetical release of chlorine with obstacles, such as buildings, and the results show how it is capable of predicting the atmospheric dispersion of hazardous chemicals, and the adverse health effects in the exposed population, to support decision makers both in charge of emergency planning and in charge of real-time response. The results obtained show how knowing the influence of obstacles in the trajectory of the toxic cloud and in the diffusion of the pollutants transported, and obtaining dynamic information of the potentially affected population and of associated symptoms, contribute to improve the planning of the protection and response measures.

  8. Factors contributing to adolescent obesity.

    PubMed

    Al-Kloub, Manal I; Froelicher, Erika S

    2009-06-01

    Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Jordanian children, and adolescents has increased in the last decade. The consequences of obesity to health in childhood and adulthood have both medical, and economic cost to individuals and society. This paper reviews the factors that contribute to adolescent obesity and emphasizes behavioral and environmental factors. An individual's behaviors such as increased consumption of high caloric foods, increased sedentary activity while decreasing physical activity has been identified as key issues in the development of obesity. Additionally, the current environment in homes, schools, and neighborhoods tend to discourage a healthy lifestyle. A comprehensive approach that involves the whole community is the best strategy for preventing adolescent obesity. Nurses are in a unique position to provide leadership in developing programs for healthier lifestyle choices for adolescents' and adoption of these goals into their daily lives. PMID:19526153

  9. NPOESS Contributions to Climate Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, D. W.; Mussetto, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Environmental Data Products (EDRs) generated from the science instrument suite on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) contribute to 16 of the 26 essential climate variables (ECVs) that are observable from space. NPOESS has the capacity to accommodate additional sensors to increase support for observing climate variables. This poster provides an overview of the ECVs that NPOESS will support and potential sensors that NPOESS could accommodate to support additional ECVs. Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST) is the system prime contractor for the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). The United States is developing the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System through the Integrated Program Office (IPO), comprised of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Department of Defense (DoD), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  10. Mental Health Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Types of illnesses and disabilities Mental health conditions Mental health conditions Most teens have a lot to deal ... Taking care of your mental health What are mental health disorders? top Mental health disorders are a group ...

  11. Possible NASA Contributions to HEAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    A four-year experiment (HEAT) has been proposed (one summer in the field, 2005) to determine the sources and causes for the enhanced cloud-to-ground lightning over Houston, Texas, in association with simultaneous experiments by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC). Houston is the third most populous city in the United States and the region contains 50% of the petroleum refining capacity of the United States. Recent studies covering the period 1989-2000 document a 50% increase of cloud-to-ground lightning in the Houston area as compared to background values, which is second in flash density only to the Tampa Bay, Florida area. It is suggested that the elevated flash densities could result from several factors, including, 1) the convergence due to the urban heat island effect and complex sea breeze, and 2) the increasing levels of air pollution from anthropogenic sources producing numerous small droplets and thereby suppressing mean droplet size. The latter effect would enable more cloud water to reach the mixed phase region where it is involved in the formation of precipitation and the separation of electric charge, leading to an enhancement of lightning. The primary goals of HEAT are to examine the effects of (1) pollution, (2) the urban heat island, and (3) the complex coastline, on storms and lightning characteristics in the Houston area. The project is a multi- agency effort and will employ numerous observing capabilities and expertise. Dr. Shepherd has been asked to serve as a possible co- investigator to contribute expertise in areas related to urban impacts on precipitation variability. Dr. Shepherd is also a key NASA representative in the interagency effort. This presentation will provide an overview of recent NASA research focused on urban rainfall in Houston and offer potential NASA capabilities that could contribute to HEAT.

  12. Molecular faunistics of accidental infections of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 (Monogenea) parasitic on salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout Salmo trutta L. in NW Russia.

    PubMed

    Zietara, Marek S; Kuusela, Jussi; Veselov, Alexei; Lumme, Jaakko

    2008-02-01

    Salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout S. trutta L. juveniles were examined for the presence of accidental monogenean ectoparasitic species of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 in the Baltic and White Sea basins of Russian Karelia in order to estimate the frequency of host-switching attempts on an ecological timescale. To collect phylogeographical information and for exact species identification, the parasites were characterised by nuclear internal transcribed spacer sequences of rDNA (ITS) and, for some species, also by their mitochondrial DNA (CO1 gene) sequences. Four accidental Gyrodactylus species were observed on salmon and brown trout. A few specimens of G. aphyae Malmberg, 1957, the normal host of which is the Eurasian minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (L.), were observed on lake salmon from the Rivers Kurzhma (Lake Kuito, White Sea basin) and Vidlitsa (Lake Ladoga, Baltic basin). G. lucii Kulakovskaya, 1952, a parasite of the northern pike Esox lucius L., was observed on salmon in the Kurzhma. In the River Vidlitsa, two specimens of G. papernai Ergens & Bychowsky, 1967, normally on stone loach Barbatula barbatula (L.), were found on salmon. On anadromous White Sea salmon in the River Pulonga in Chupa Bay, a few salmon parr carried small colonies of G. arcuatus Bychowsky, 1933, which were shown to have originated from the local three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L. consumed as prey. No specimens of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 were observed, although the Pulonga is the nearest salmon spawning river to the River Keret', which is heavily infected with introduced G. salaris. In the River Satulinoja, Lake Ladoga, three specimens of G. lotae Gusev, 1953, from burbot Lota lota (L.), were collected from a single brown trout S. trutta. All nonspecific gyrodactylid infections on salmonids were judged to be temporary, because only a few specimens were observed on each of the small number of infected fishes. The prevalence of endemic G. salaris was also low, only 1% (Nfish = 296) in Lake Onega and 0.7% (Nfish = 255) in Lake Ladoga, while brown trout specific Gyrodactylus species were not observed on any of the 429 trout examined from the Ladoga basin. The host-specific and unspecific burden of Gyrodactylus spp. on these 'glacial relict' populations of salmon and brown trout was very low, suggesting a generalised resistance against the co-evolved freshwater parasite community, or some kind of 'vaccination' effect. These hypotheses deserve further testing. PMID:18038199

  13. Taming the Goldstone contributions to the effective potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Stephen P.

    2014-07-01

    The standard perturbative effective potential suffers from two related problems of principle involving the field-dependent Goldstone boson squared mass, G. First, in general G can be negative, and it actually is negative in the Standard Model; this leads to imaginary contributions to the effective potential that are not associated with a physical instability, and therefore spurious. Second, in the limit that G approaches zero, the effective potential minimization condition is logarithmically divergent already at two-loop order, and has increasingly severe power-law singularities at higher loop orders. I resolve both issues by resumming the Goldstone boson contributions to the effective potential. For the resulting resummed effective potential, the minimum value and the minimization condition that gives the vacuum expectation value are obtained in forms that do not involve G at all.

  14. Inflation of Conditional Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koriat, Asher; Fiedler, Klaus; Bjork, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors report 7 experiments indicating that conditional predictions--the assessed probability that a certain outcome will occur given a certain condition--tend to be markedly inflated. The results suggest that this inflation derives in part from backward activation in which the target outcome highlights aspects of the condition that are…

  15. Refrigeration and air conditioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Brinkworth

    1977-01-01

    Requirements for cooling are related to the need to be able to maintain foodstuffs in good condition with the aid of refrigeration and the desirability to provide a comfortable indoor environment by air conditioning. The representation of the desired conditions in a room by a point on a psychrometric chart is considered together with processes of sensible cooling, cooling and

  16. 31 CFR 29.352 - Refunded contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...refunds of employee contributions made by police officers and firefighters through pay period 13. If pay period records are unavailable...of the retirement contributions made to police officers or firefighters in calendar year 1997. Otherwise, if the participant...

  17. 31 CFR 29.352 - Refunded contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...refunds of employee contributions made by police officers and firefighters through pay period 13. If pay period records are unavailable...of the retirement contributions made to police officers or firefighters in calendar year 1997. Otherwise, if the participant...

  18. 7 CFR 1739.14 - Matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BROADBAND GRANT PROGRAM Community Connect Grant Program § 1739.14 Matching contributions. (a) The grant applicant must contribute a Matching...

  19. Intercomparison of oil spill prediction models for accidental blowout scenarios with and without subsea chemical dispersant injection.

    PubMed

    Socolofsky, Scott A; Adams, E Eric; Boufadel, Michel C; Aman, Zachary M; Johansen, Øistein; Konkel, Wolfgang J; Lindo, David; Madsen, Mads N; North, Elizabeth W; Paris, Claire B; Rasmussen, Dorte; Reed, Mark; Rønningen, Petter; Sim, Lawrence H; Uhrenholdt, Thomas; Anderson, Karl G; Cooper, Cortis; Nedwed, Tim J

    2015-07-15

    We compare oil spill model predictions for a prototype subsea blowout with and without subsea injection of chemical dispersants in deep and shallow water, for high and low gas-oil ratio, and in weak to strong crossflows. Model results are compared for initial oil droplet size distribution, the nearfield plume, and the farfield Lagrangian particle tracking stage of hydrocarbon transport. For the conditions tested (a blowout with oil flow rate of 20,000 bbl/d, about 1/3 of the Deepwater Horizon), the models predict the volume median droplet diameter at the source to range from 0.3 to 6mm without dispersant and 0.01 to 0.8mm with dispersant. This reduced droplet size owing to reduced interfacial tension results in a one to two order of magnitude increase in the downstream displacement of the initial oil surfacing zone and may lead to a significant fraction of the spilled oil not reaching the sea surface. PMID:26021288

  20. Death after an accidental fall of a 101 year old hospitalized patient. Medico-legal implication of falling in geriatrics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The case presented by the authors gives the opportunity to discuss the medico-legal issues related to lack of prevention of falls in elderly hospitalized patients. Case presentation A 101 year old Caucasian female was admitted to a surgery division for evaluation of abdominal pain of uncertain origin. During hospitalization, after bilateral bed rails were raised, she fell and reported a femoral fracture. Before surgical treatment of the fracture, scheduled for the day after injury, the patient reported a slight reduction in hemoglobin. She received blood transfusion but her general condition suddenly worsened; heart failure was observed and pulseless electrical activity was documented. The patient died 1 day after the fall. Patient relatives requested a judicial evaluation of the case. The case was studied with a methodological approach based on the following steps: 1) examination of clinical records; 2) autopsy; 3) evaluation of clinicians’ behavior, in the light of necroscopic findings and a review of the literature. Conclusions The case shows that an accurate evaluation of clinical and environmental risk factors should be always performed at the moment of admission also in surgery divisions. A multidisciplinary approach is always recommended also with the involvement of the family members. In some cases, as in this one a fall of the patient is expectable but not always avoidable. Physical restraint use should be avoided when not necessary and used only if there are no practical alternatives. PMID:23173622

  1. Knowing your contribution to climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, I.

    2009-04-01

    Challenging issues such as greenhouse gas emissions and Climate Change may seem very remote, but there are ways that can help to better perceive our contribution to such problems. And that is where a new mobile application - mobGAS© - comes into play. mobGAS© will be the first mobile application about climate change with wide distribution in Europe and world. mobGAS© aims to make the connection between daily activities and the emissions of Greenhouse Gases and when possible suggest changes to improve individual performances. It is a kind of diary of users' behaviour through the emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHG). The application includes several icons representing activities or appliances that are usually used every day (more than 60). These activities or appliances may be set along the day reflecting users' daily choices. This will finally be converted in individual emissions of GHG that may be compared with the weekly average or with country and world average. mobGAS© will challenge individuals to make small changes to their daily routine in order to achieve significant reductions of greenhouse gas emissions. It will be developed for the 27 EU countries, and available in 21 languages.

  2. Genes contributing to prion pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Giles, Kurt; Glidden, David V.; Lessard, Pierre; Wille, Holger; Tremblay, Patrick; Groth, Darlene F.; Yehiely, Fruma; Korth, Carsten; Moore, Richard C.; Tatzelt, Jörg; Rubenstein, Eric; Boucheix, Claude; Yang, Xiaoping; Stanley, Pamela; Lisanti, Michael P.; Dwek, Raymond A.; Rudd, Pauline M.; Moskovitz, Jackob; Epstein, Charles J.; Cruz, Tracey Dawson; Kuziel, William A.; Maeda, Nobuyo; Sap, Jan; Ashe, Karen Hsiao; Carlson, George A.; Tesseur, Ina; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Mucke, Lennart; Weisgraber, Karl H.; Mahley, Robert W.; Cohen, Fred E.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Prion diseases are caused by conversion of a normally folded, nonpathogenic isoform of the prion protein (PrPC) to a misfolded, pathogenic isoform (PrPSc). Prion inoculation experiments in mice expressing homologous PrPC molecules on different genetic backgrounds displayed different incubation times, indicating that the conversion reaction may be influenced by other gene products. To identify genes that contribute to prion pathogenesis, we analyzed prion incubation times in mice in which the gene product was inactivated, knocked out or overexpressed. We tested 20 gene candidates, because their products either colocalize with PrP, are associated with Alzheimer’s disease, are elevated during prion disease, or function in PrP-mediated signaling, PrP glycosylation, or protein maintenance. Whereas some of the candidates tested may have a role in the normal function of PrPC, our data show that many genes previously implicated in prion replication have no discernable effect on the pathogenesis of prion disease. While most genes tested did not significantly affect survival times, ablation of amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (App) or interleukin 1 receptor, type I (Il1r1), and transgenic overexpression of human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) prolonged incubation times by 13%, 16%, and 19%, respectively. PMID:18559949

  3. The microbial contribution to macroecology

    PubMed Central

    Barberán, Albert; Casamayor, Emilio O.; Fierer, Noah

    2014-01-01

    There has been a recent explosion of research within the field of microbial ecology that has been fueled, in part, by methodological improvements that make it feasible to characterize microbial communities to an extent that was inconceivable only a few years ago. Furthermore, there is increasing recognition within the field of ecology that microorganisms play a critical role in the health of organisms and ecosystems. Despite these developments, an important gap still persists between the theoretical framework of macroecology and microbial ecology. We highlight two idiosyncrasies of microorganisms that are fundamental to understanding macroecological patterns and their mechanistic drivers. First, high dispersal rates provide novel opportunities to test the relative importance of niche, stochastic, and historical processes in structuring biological communities. Second, high speciation rates potentially lead to the convergence of ecological and evolutionary time scales. After reviewing these unique aspects, we discuss strategies for improving the conceptual integration of microbes into macroecology. As examples, we discuss the use of phylogenetic ecology as an integrative approach to explore patterns across the tree of life. Then we demonstrate how two general theories of biodiversity (i.e., the recently developed theory of stochastic geometry and the neutral theory) can be adapted to microorganisms. We demonstrate how conceptual models that integrate evolutionary and ecological mechanisms can contribute to the unification of microbial ecology and macroecology. PMID:24829564

  4. Georgius Agricola's contributions to hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Isabel F.

    2015-04-01

    Georgius Agricola's 1546 book De Ortu et Causis Subterraneorum (On the Source and Causes of What is Underground) was the first European work since antiquity to focus on hydrology and helped to shape the thought of Nicolaus Steno, Pierre Perrault, A.G. Werner, and other important figures in the history of hydrology and geology. De Ortu contains the first known expressions of numerous concepts important in modern hydrology: erosion as an active process, groundwater movement through pores and fissures, hydrofracturing, water-rock reaction, and others. The concepts of groundwater origins, movement, and nature in De Ortu were also the foundation for the theories of ore deposit formation for which Agricola is better known. In spite of their importance, most of Agricola's contributions to the study of groundwater are unrecognized today because De Ortu, alone of his major works, has never been translated out of Latin and no existing vernacular summary of it is longer than two pages. This article presents the first detailed description of Agricola's work on hydrology and discusses the derivation and impact of his ideas.

  5. Trends of Non-Accidental, Cardiovascular, Stroke and Lung Cancer Mortality in Arkansas Are Associated with Ambient PM2.5 Reductions

    PubMed Central

    Chalbot, Marie-Cecile G.; Jones, Tamara A.; Kavouras, Ilias G.

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular and stroke mortality rates in Arkansas are among the highest in the USA. The annual trends of stroke and cardiovascular mortality are barely correlated to smoking cessation; while the prevalence of risk factors such as obesity; cholesterol and hypertension increased over the 1979–2007 period. The study determined the effect of chronic exposure to PM2.5 on non-accidental; cardiovascular; stroke and lung cancer mortality in Arkansas over the 2000–2010 period using the World Health Organization’s log-linear health impact model. County chronic exposures to PM2.5 were computed by averaging spatially-resolved gridded concentrations using PM2.5 observations. A spatial uniformity was observed for PM2.5 mass levels indicating that chronic exposures were comparable throughout the state. The reduction of PM2.5 mass levels by 3.0 ?g/m3 between 2000 and 2010 explained a significant fraction of the declining mortality. The effect was more pronounced in southern and eastern rural Arkansas as compared to the rest of the state. This study provides evidence that the implementation of air pollution regulations has measurable effects on mortality even in regions with high prevalence of major risk factors such as obesity and smoking. These outcomes are noteworthy as efforts to modify the major risk factors require longer realization times. PMID:25050652

  6. Trends of non-accidental, cardiovascular, stroke and lung cancer mortality in Arkansas are associated with ambient PM2.5 reductions.

    PubMed

    Chalbot, Marie-Cecile G; Jones, Tamara A; Kavouras, Ilias G

    2014-07-01

    The cardiovascular and stroke mortality rates in Arkansas are among the highest in the USA. The annual trends of stroke and cardiovascular mortality are barely correlated to smoking cessation; while the prevalence of risk factors such as obesity; cholesterol and hypertension increased over the 1979-2007 period. The study determined the effect of chronic exposure to PM2.5 on non-accidental; cardiovascular; stroke and lung cancer mortality in Arkansas over the 2000-2010 period using the World Health Organization's log-linear health impact model. County chronic exposures to PM2.5 were computed by averaging spatially-resolved gridded concentrations using PM2.5 observations. A spatial uniformity was observed for PM2.5 mass levels indicating that chronic exposures were comparable throughout the state. The reduction of PM2.5 mass levels by 3.0 ?g/m3 between 2000 and 2010 explained a significant fraction of the declining mortality. The effect was more pronounced in southern and eastern rural Arkansas as compared to the rest of the state. This study provides evidence that the implementation of air pollution regulations has measurable effects on mortality even in regions with high prevalence of major risk factors such as obesity and smoking. These outcomes are noteworthy as efforts to modify the major risk factors require longer realization times. PMID:25050652

  7. A case study of pollutants transported from HPCL (vishakhapatnam) accidental fire through synergy of flexpart model and ground-based instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wankhede, Tushar

    Tushar Wankhede*, Harish Gadhavi, Amit K. Pandit National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), Gadanki-517112, Chittoor, A.P. *tushar1771@gmail.com, Mobile: +91-8297152481 A fire at Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL) in Vishakhapatnam (17.70 ?N, 83.24?E) resulted from a gas leak in the salt water cooling tower system. This led to the release of various pollutants like hydrocarbons, black carbon, carbon mono-oxide and carbon dioxide etc(other gases) in just 44 min of fire in system a very huge amount of particles were emitted. The transport of these pollutants has been studied through FLEXPART which is a Lagrangian particle dispersion model having wide range of applications in atmospheric transport modeling. FLEXPART simulation of this accidental fire shows the direction and sensitivity of dispersed pollutants from its source. It was observed that the pollutants reached Gadanki, a rural site located at 13.45 ?N, 79.18 ?E in Southern-India. The concentration of pollutant obtained from FLEXPART output we are comparing with ground based instruments data collected at the observation site (Indian Climate Observatory Network-ICON, NARL Gadanki). This case-study provides significant information about the life-time of dispersed pollutants and their long-range transport pattern under the influence of small weather variability en-route from source to receptor. The detailed work of FLEXPART for the Long range transport of the particles will be presented later on in conference.

  8. Analysis of criticality alarm system response to an accidental criticality outside the cascade process buildings at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Negron, S.B.; Tayloe, R.W. Jr.; Dobelbower, M.C. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Neutron dose rates at detector positions within the X-326, X-330, and X-333 buildings were evaluated for an accidental criticality outside of each building. As fissile material bearing equipment and containers are moved to and from each building, the possibility exists for a criticality accident to occur. This analysis demonstrates that a criticality accident which occurs at any position on the access roads alongside a process building can be detected. The detectable area includes all points within the access road boundary along each face of each building. This analysis also demonstrates that the criticality alarm systems of the process buildings will respond to criticality events occurring within the tie lines connecting the process buildings. This analysis was performed using the MCNP Monte Carlo neutron-proton transport code. The radiation source is the neutron leakage spectrum of a critical solution of 4.95 percent enriched UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O at a power level corresponding to the ANSI ANS 8.3. Standard minimum accident of concern. The evaluated neutron fluxes were converted to neutron dose rates by use of the Henderson free-in-air response functions. Critical source positions correspond to the farthest source to detector distances on the access roads along each face of the three buildings, and the centerpoint of the building tie lines. This report contains the methodology used for this study, a background on the data used, and a section about the assumptions and limits to all conclusions.

  9. Pterygodermatites nycticebi (Nematoda: Rictulariidae): accidental detection of encapsulated third-stage larvae in the tissue of a white-fronted marmoset.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Kayoko; Kamiya, Haruo; Ishikawa, Tomoko; Okabayashi, Sachi; Kishi, Natsuki; Une, Yumi

    2003-12-01

    Twin, white-fronted marmosets (Callithrix geoffroyi) born and raised in a zoo in Japan died at 7 mo of age. Several encapsulated nematode larvae were detected in the intestinal wall, as well as a few in the mesenteric lymph nodes of 1 of the twins. In the other marmoset, no encapsulated nematode larva was detected in the organs, but many adult Pterygodermatites nycticebi were found in the intestinal lumen. In the past 5 yr, 5 primates kept in the same zoo, i.e., 1 squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus), 2 Pygmy marmosets (Cebuella pygmaea), 1 Senegal galago (Galago senegalensis), and 1 cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus), died from heavy infestation with the same nematode. A few migrating larvae of the rictulariid were also identified histologically in the intestinal wall and liver of the cotton-top tamarin. Although no other primate currently held in the same zoo was infected with the rictulariid, German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) collected with traps near marmoset cages had encapsulated P. nycticebi larvae, indicating latent perpetuation of the life cycle of this rictulariid species in the zoo premises. Our results indicated that encapsulation or migration of third-stage larvae of P. nycticebi might occur accidentally in the organs of callithrichid primates. PMID:14740905

  10. 26 CFR 1.401(m)-1 - Employee contributions and matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...contributions and matching contributions. 1.401(m)-1 Section 1.401(m)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(m)-1 Employee contributions and matching...

  11. 26 CFR 1.401(m)-1 - Employee contributions and matching contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (2) Automatic satisfaction by certain plans...satisfied with respect to employee contributions...the plan to which the employee contributions or matching...plan that provides for employee contributions or matching...plan must provide for satisfaction of...

  12. Capabilities and Contributions of Unwed Fathers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert I. Lerman

    2010-01-01

    Young, minority, and poorly educated fathers in fragile families have little capacity to support their children financially and are hard-pressed to maintain stability in raising those children. In this article, Robert Lerman examines the capabilities and contributions of unwed fathers, how their capabilities and contributions fall short of those of married fathers, how those capabilities and contributions differ by the

  13. Capabilities and Contributions of Unwed Fathers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert I. Lerman

    2010-01-01

    Summary:Young, minority, and poorly educated fathers in fragile families have little capacity to support their children financially and are hard-pressed to maintain stability in raising those children. In this article, Robert Lerman examines the capabilities and contributions of unwed fathers, how their capabilities and contributions fall short of those of married fathers, how those capabilities and contributions differ by the

  14. Paternal contribution: new insights and future challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen A. Krawetz

    2005-01-01

    It has been widely held that all that fathers essentially contribute to the next generation is half their genome. However, recent progress towards understanding biological processes such as sperm maturation and fertilization now indicates that the paternal contribution has been underestimated. To tackle some of the misconceptions surrounding the paternal contribution, the factors that are actually delivered by the sperm

  15. Indian contribution to behavior therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kuruvilla, K.

    2010-01-01

    Publication of papers related to psycho-social interventions in general and Behavior Therapy, in particular, in Indian Journal of Psychiatry has been limited. Though the first paper related to Behavior Therapy was published in 1952, a manual search of all available issues of the journal from 1949 showed that only 42 papers related to Behavior Therapy have been published till 2009. Among them 10 are case reports. Methodological limitations abound even in the papers on larger groups of patients. Studies using operant conditioning have been very few. Aversion therapy and progressive muscle relaxation have been very frequently used. The published articles are reviewed under the various diagnostic categories. Publications in the recent years have been mostly on Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Even after 57 years of co-existence, the relationship between Behavior Therapy and Indian Psychiatry remains a tenuous one. PMID:21836708

  16. Self-Esteem Conditioning for Learning Conditioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Imene Jraidi; Maher Chaouachi; Claude Frasson

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to introduce the self-esteem component within learning process. More precisely, we explore the effects of learner self-esteem conditioning in a tutoring system. Our approach is based on a subliminal priming method aiming at enhancing implicit self-esteem. An experiment was conducted while participants were outfitted with biofeedback device. Three physiological sensors were used to continuously monitor

  17. IDS contribution to ITRF2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valette, Jean-Jacques; Lemoine, Frank G.; Ferrage, Pascale; Yaya, Philippe; Altamimi, Zuheir; Willis, Pascal; Soudarin, Laurent

    2010-12-01

    For the first time, the International DORIS Service (IDS) has produced a technique level combination based on the contributions of seven analysis centers (ACs), including the European Space Operations Center (ESOC), Geodetic Observatory Pecny (GOP), Geoscience Australia (GAU), the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the Institut Géographique National (IGN), the Institute of Astronomy, Russian Academy of Sciences (INASAN, named as INA), and CNES/CLS (named as LCA). The ACs used five different software packages to process the DORIS data from 1992 to 2008, including NAPEOS (ESA), Bernese (GOP), GEODYN (GAU, GSC), GIPSY/OASIS (INA), and GINS (LCA). The data from seven DORIS satellites, TOPEX/Poseidon, SPOT-2, SPOT-3, SPOT-4, SPOT-5, Envisat and Jason-1 were processed and all the analysis centers produced weekly SINEX files in either variance-covariance or normal equation format. The processing by the analysis centers used the latest GRACE-derived gravity models, forward modelling of atmospheric gravity, updates to the radiation pressure modelling to improve the DORIS geocenter solutions, denser parameterization of empirically determined drag coefficients to improve station and EOP solutions, especially near the solar maximum in 2001-2002, updated troposphere mapping functions, and an ITRF2005-derived station set for orbit determination, DPOD2005. The CATREF software was used to process the weekly AC solutions, and produce three iterations of an IDS global weekly combination. Between the development of the initial solution IDS-1, and the final solution, IDS-3, the ACs improved their analysis strategies and submitted updated solutions to eliminate troposphere-derived biases in the solution scale, to reduce drag-related degradations in station positioning, and to refine the estimation strategy to improve the combination geocenter solution. An analysis of the frequency content of the individual AC geocenter and scale solutions was used as the basis to define the scale and geocenter of the IDS-3 combination. The final IDS-3 combination has an internal position consistency (WRMS) that is 15 to 20 mm before 2002 and 8 to 10 mm after 2002, when 4 or 5 satellites contribute to the weekly solutions. The final IDS-3 combination includes solutions for 130 DORIS stations on 67 different sites of which 35 have occupations over 16 years (1993.0-2009.0). The EOPs from the IDS-3 combination were compared with the IERS 05 C04 time series and the RMS agreement was 0.24 mas and 0.35 mas for the X and Y components of polar motion. The comparison to ITRF2005 in station position shows an agreement of 6 to 8 mm RMS in horizontal and 10.3 mm in height. The RMS comparison to ITRF2005 in station velocity is at 1.8 mm/year on the East component, to 1.2 mm/year in North component and 1.6 mm/year in height.

  18. Aerosol contributions to speleothem geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dredge, J. A.; Fairchild, I. J.; Harrison, R.; Woodhead, J. D.; Hellstrom, J.

    2011-12-01

    The term "aerosols" encompasses the suspension of both fine solid or liquid particles within a gaseous medium. Aerosols become suspended into the earth's atmosphere through a multitude of processes both natural and anthropogenic. Atmospheric aerosols enter cave networks as a result of cave ventilation processes and are either deposited, or cycled and removed from the system. Speleothem offer a multiproxy palaeoclimate resource; many of the available proxies have been extensively investigated and utilised for palaeoclimatic reconstructions in a range of studies. The potential contribution of aerosols to speleothem chemistry and their applicability for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions remains untested and the extent of their value as an addition to palaeoclimate sciences unknown. Aerosols through incorporation into speleothem may provide a novel palaeoenvironmental resource. The aerosol component of interest is that which is transported into the cave atmosphere and deposited and are available for incorporation into precipitated calcite. Aerosol deposition and therefore distribution in the cave has shown to be a complex function of ventilation and changing environmental factors. Through detailed monitoring aerosols have been detected, identified, characterised and quantified to determine their prominence in the cave system. Investigations are on a case study basis, searching for suitable aerosol proxies of environmentally significant emission processes. Case studies include: Palaeofires at Yarrangobilly Caves, Australia; anthropogenic emissions at St Michaels Cave, Gibraltar and Cheddar gorge, UK; and drip water aerosol production and geochemical addition in Obir cave, Austria. Monitoring has allowed for the temporal and spatial determination of aerosols in karst networks. Speleothem samples will be analysed in combination with in-situ monitoring to determine incorporation factors and record preservation. By understanding how aerosols are transmitted within the cave and ultimately incorporated into speleothems, a record of aerosol emission event frequency, intensity and timing can be produced and directly correlated with changing palaeoclimate. Speleothem through aerosol incorporation have the potential to preserve a record of a multitude of processes not yet constrained by previously investigated proxies, providing an additional dimension to speleological palaeoenvironmental investigations.

  19. Gaussian Conditional Random Fields for Modeling Patients' Response to Acute Inflammation Treatment

    E-print Network

    Obradovic, Zoran

    Gaussian Conditional Random Fields for Modeling Patients' Response to Acute Inflammation Treatment * These authors contributed equally Abstract Acute inflammation, a medical condition characterized by a systemic inflammation. 1. Introduction Planning effective personalized therapeutic strategies for life

  20. Nonbirefringence conditions for spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Itin, Yakov [Institute of Mathematics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel)

    2005-10-15

    Within the axiomatic premetric approach to classical electrodynamics, we derive under which covariant conditions the quartic Fresnel surface represents a unique light cone without birefringence in vacuum.

  1. Pediatric nail conditions.

    PubMed

    Wulkan, Adam J; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric nail findings are plentiful and can range from benign processes to the initial signs of a systemic condition. The examination of the nail is an essential part of the pediatric physical examination. The nail unit consists of the nail plate, the nail matrix, the hyponychium, the nail bed, and the surrounding nail folds. Conditions that affect the nail unit have a variety of etiologies; these include inflammatory, congenital, and hereditary conditions as well as tumors and trauma. This review describes many of the nail conditions that are seen in the pediatric population. PMID:24079585

  2. Non-CFC air conditioning for transit buses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Pesaran; Y. O. Parent; D. Bharathan

    1992-01-01

    In the United Sates, more than 80% of transit city buses are air conditioned. Vapor compression refrigeration systems are standard for air conditioning buses and account for up to 25% of fuel consumption in the cooling season. Vapor compression devices use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals that contributes to Earths`s ozone depletion and to global warming. Currently, evaporative cooling is an economical

  3. Non-CFC air conditioning for transit buses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Pesaran; Y. O. Parent; D. Bharathan

    1992-01-01

    In the United Sates, more than 80% of transit city buses are air conditioned. Vapor compression refrigeration systems are standard for air conditioning buses and account for up to 25% of fuel consumption in the cooling season. Vapor compression devices use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals that contributes to Earths's ozone depletion and to global warming. Currently, evaporative cooling is an economical

  4. Light Commercial Air Conditioning: Moving the Market toward High Efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahri Lowinger; Denise Rouleau; Brad Hollomon; Jon Linn

    2001-01-01

    A number of organizations employing various program strategies work harmoniously to promote the same levels of high-efficiency air conditioning equipment. These efforts contribute to increased equipment acquisition, product availability and consumer acceptance of higher-efficiency heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment. The combination of these diverse market intervention strategies is expected to cause a lasting increase in consumer demand and

  5. Learning Conditions, Members' Motivation and Satisfaction: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimas, Isabel Dórdio; Rebelo, Teresa; Lourenço, Paulo Renato

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to contribute to the clarification of the conditions under which teams can be successful, especially those related to team learning. To attain this goal, in the present study, the mediating role played by team members' motivation on the relationship between team learning conditions (shared learning beliefs…

  6. Achilles tendon: US diagnosis of pathologic conditions. Work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Blei, C.L.; Nirschl, R.P.; Grant, E.G.

    1986-06-01

    Twenty-three patients were prospectively examined with ultra-sound (US) for acute or recurrent Achilles tendon symptoms. Three types of pathologic conditions of the Achilles tendon were found: tendinitis/tenosynovitis, acute tendon trauma, and postoperative changes. US appears to enable differentiation of these conditions and to contribute to the diagnosis of a broad range of Achilles tendon disorders.

  7. The Conditional Uncertainty Principle

    E-print Network

    Gilad Gour; Varun Narasimhachar; Andrzej Grudka; Micha? Horodecki; Waldemar K?obus; Justyna ?odyga

    2015-06-23

    The uncertainty principle, which states that certain sets of quantum-mechanical measurements have a minimal joint uncertainty, has many applications in quantum cryptography. But in such applications, it is important to consider the effect of a (sometimes adversarially controlled) memory that can be correlated with the system being measured: The information retained by such a memory can in fact diminish the uncertainty of measurements. Uncertainty conditioned on a memory was considered in the past by Berta et al. (Ref. 1), who found a specific uncertainty relation in terms of the von Neumann conditional entropy. But this entropy is not the only measure that can be used to quantify conditional uncertainty. In the spirit of recent work by several groups (Refs. 2--6), here we develop a general operational framework that formalizes the concept of conditional uncertainty in a measure-independent form. Our formalism is built around a mathematical relation that we call conditional majorization. We define and characterize conditional majorization, and use it to develop tools for the construction of measures of the conditional uncertainty of individual measurements, and also of the joint conditional uncertainty of sets of measurements. We demonstrate the use of this framework by deriving measure-independent conditional uncertainty relations of two types: (1) A lower bound on the minimal joint uncertainty that two remote parties (Bob and Eve) have about the outcome of a given pair of measurements performed by a third remote party (Alice), conditioned on arbitrary measurements that Bob and Eve make on their own systems. This lower bound is independent of the initial state shared by the three parties; (2) An initial state--dependent lower bound on the minimal joint uncertainty that Bob has about Alice's pair of measurements in a bipartite setting, conditioned on Bob's quantum system.

  8. Contribution of laser ranging to Earth's sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exertier, Pierre; Bonnefond, Pascal; Deleflie, Florent; Barlier, François; Kasser, Michel; Biancale, Richard; Ménard, Yves

    2006-11-01

    Satellite and Lunar Laser Ranging (SLR and LLR, respectively) are based on a direct measurement of a distance by exactly measuring the time transit of a laser beam between a station and a space target. These techniques have proven to be very efficient methods for contributing to the tracking of both artificial satellites and the Moon, and for determining accurately their orbit and the associated geodynamical parameters, although hampered by the non-worldwide coverage and the meteorological conditions. Since more than 40 years, the French community (today 'Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur', CNES, 'Observatoire de Paris', and IGN) is largely involved in the technological developments as well as in the scientific achievements. The role of the laser technique has greatly evolved thanks to the success of GPS and DORIS; the laser technique teams have learnt to focus their effort in fields where this technique is totally specific and irreplaceable. The role of SLR data in the determination of terrestrial reference systems and in the modelling of the first terms of the gravity field (including the terrestrial constant GM that defines the scale of orbits) has to be emphasized, which is of primary importance in orbitography, whatever the tracking technique used. In addition, the role of LLR data (with two main stations, at Mac Donald (United States) and Grasse (France), since 30 years) has been of particular importance for improving solar system ephemeris and contributing to some features of fundamental physics (equivalence principle). Today, the role of the SLR technique is ( i) to determine and to maintain the scale factor of the global terrestrial reference frame, ( ii) to strengthen the vertical component (including velocity) of the positioning, which is crucial for altimetry missions and tectonic motions, ( iii) to locate the geocenter with respect to the Earth's crust, ( iv) to avoid any secular and undesirable drift of geodetic systems thanks to a very good accuracy. Now, the future of this technique is to enlarge the technical capability of laser ranging stations for long distances, that is the tracking of space targets orbiting through the Solar System. In addition, the laser technique should participate into time transfer experiments and improve, with mobile systems like the FTLRS and the new SLR2000 concept, the coverage of the international laser network (ILRS). To cite this article: P. Exertier et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  9. Lipedema: an inherited condition.

    PubMed

    Child, Anne H; Gordon, Kristiana D; Sharpe, Pip; Brice, Glen; Ostergaard, Pia; Jeffery, Steve; Mortimer, Peter S

    2010-04-01

    Lipedema is a condition characterized by swelling and enlargement of the lower limbs due to abnormal deposition of subcutaneous fat. Lipedema is an under-recognized condition, often misdiagnosed as lymphedema or dismissed as simple obesity. We present a series of pedigrees and propose that lipedema is a genetic condition with either X-linked dominant inheritance or more likely, autosomal dominant inheritance with sex limitation. Lipedema appears to be a condition almost exclusively affecting females, presumably estrogen-requiring as it usually manifests at puberty. Lipedema is an entity distinct from obesity, but may be wrongly diagnosed as primary obesity, due to clinical overlap. The phenotype suggests a condition distinct from obesity and associated with pain, tenderness, and easy bruising in affected areas. PMID:20358611

  10. National Coastal Condition Report

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently released this report on the condition of coastal ecosystems. The report combines data from a variety of government agencies conducting ongoing monitoring to "present a broad baseline picture of the condition of coastal waters." The report finds that the "[o]verall condition of the nation's estuaries was fair based on seven basic indicators of ecological condition." The text of this introductory Web page states that printed copies of the report and fact sheet can be obtained by calling the listed phone number, but both can also be accessed online by clicking on the hyperlinks "Fact Sheet" or "Continue to National Coastal Condition Report Download Site."

  11. 75 FR 41017 - Political Contributions by Certain Investment Advisers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ...and, within 60 days after learning of the triggering contribution...underwriters (who presumably had deeper pockets for political contributions...underwriters (who presumably had deeper pockets for political contributions...contribution; and (iii) After learning of the contribution:...

  12. Estimation of foreign versus domestic contributions to Taiwan's air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jen-Ping; Yang, Cheng-En; Tsai, I.-Chun

    2015-07-01

    Based on the analysis of observational data obtained over a period of 17 years, this study developed a novel approach estimating long-term changes in the relative contributions of domestic and foreign sources to air pollution levels over the island of Taiwan. The contribution from foreign sources was calculated using data measured at selected coastal monitoring stations under specific meteorological conditions. The domestic contribution was derived by subtracting the foreign contribution from the overall concentration, which was calculated with island-wide monitoring station data averaged using Thiessen polygon area weighting. The trends of mean CO, NO, NO2 and SO2 concentrations in Taiwan were -2.1%, -3.3%, -1.4% and 0% yr-1; while the background concentrations varied by -1.0%, 5.7%, 3.8% and 6.6% yr-1, respectively. These figures suggest that the efforts of Taiwan in reducing air pollution are largely being negated by foreign contributions. Ozone showed a steady increase of 3.3% yr-1, and a portion of this was associated with a 1.0% yr-1 increase in background values. Local and background PM10 concentrations did not show significant long-term trends, but rather strong inter-annual variations associated with dust storm activity in East Asia. The domestic fractions of NO and NO2 respectively decreased from 90% and 85% in 1994 to less than 60% and 70% in 2010. In contrast, the domestic fraction of SO2 decreased from 82% in 1994 to 27% in 2010. The domestic fraction of CO exhibited no obvious trend due to concurrent decreases in local and background contributions. Background O3 values tended to drop across Taiwan due to the titration effect from domestic NO emissions, and the fraction of domestic O3 titration decreased from 50% in the mid-90s to 25% in 2010.

  13. Is FISH painting an appropriate biological marker for dose estimates of suspected accidental radiation overexposure? A review of cases investigated in France from 1995 to 1996.

    PubMed Central

    Sorokine-Durm, I; Durand, V; Le Roy, A; Paillole, N; Roy, L; Voisin, P

    1997-01-01

    From 1995 to 1996 about 15 people suspected of being overexposed to ionizing radiation were referred to the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection in Fontenay-aux-Roses, France, for investigation by chromosome aberration analysis. Biological estimates of accidental overexposure were first obtained by scoring radio-induced unstable structural chromosome aberrations (dicentrics, centric rings, and fragments) in peripheral blood lymphocytes. For dose estimates, the yield of these chromosomal aberrations observed in 500 metaphases was compared with the laboratory dose-response relationship established from human blood irradiated in vitro (gamma-rays, 60Co, 0.5 Gy/min). To extend the possibilities of detecting DNA damage from earlier exposures by visualizing stable chromosome aberrations, chromosome painting by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH painting) was developed using a cocktail of three composite whole human chromosome-specific DNA probes (numbers 2, 4, and 12). A laboratory calibration curve for scoring terminal and/or reciprocal translocations was established for the same radiation quality and dose rate as those used for conventional cytogenetics (gamma-rays, 60Co, 0.5 Gy/min). For dosimetry purposes, it was also important to verify whether FISH painting could be applied to each human blood sample assessed for conventional expertise. For each individual, 2000 metaphases were scored for the presence or absence of reciprocal and terminal translocations. We present here a comparison between the results obtained by the two technologies for each of the cases studied separately. We describe their similarities or differences and discuss the suitability of using FISH painting for routine expertise analysis. Images Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 2. C PMID:9467056

  14. My NASA Data User Contributed Lesson 17: Analysis of Atmospheric Conditions for a High Mountain Retreat

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Werhun, Laurissa

    2010-08-18

    This lesson is designed to help students gain knowledge in accessing current weather data and in using the MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) to specify and download historical satellite data. Students then use the data to examine the relationship between altitude, atmospheric pressure, temperature and humidity at a particular location. In this lesson, weather data from ground-based and satellite observations are analyzed for a real world application -- to plan a high mountain retreat in Tibet. Students compare current weather balloon data for a specific location to historical weather data generated using the LAS. Students are asked to gather data for several months throughout the year for comparison. The lesson provides detailed procedure, related links, sample graphs, follow-up questions, extensions, and teacher notes.

  15. New dipole penguin contribution to K ? ?? decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eeg, Jan O.; Kumeri?ki, Krešimir; Picek, Ivica

    2008-11-01

    We point out that the standard chromomagnetic penguin dipole operator has a counterpart corresponding to off-shell momenta for external quarks. By employing the chiral quark model, we show that this new dipole penguin operator has the same bosonisation as the standard Q6 operator. Accordingly, this new operator enlarges by ?5% the referent Q6 contribution, which gives the dominant contribution to the CP-violating ratio ?? / ? and also gives an important contribution to the ?I = 1 / 2 amplitude.

  16. 31 CFR 595.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 595.408 Charitable contributions. (a) Unless specifically...

  17. Avoidance of a Landau pole by flat contributions in QED

    SciTech Connect

    Klaczynski, Lutz, E-mail: lutz.klaczynski@gmx.de [Department of Physics, Humboldt University Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kreimer, Dirk, E-mail: kreimer@mathematik.hu-berlin.de [Alexander von Humboldt Chair in Mathematical Physics, Humboldt University, Berlin 12489 (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    We consider massless Quantum Electrodynamics in the momentum scheme and carry forward an approach based on Dyson–Schwinger equations to approximate both the ?-function and the renormalized photon self-energy (Yeats, 2011). Starting from the Callan–Symanzik equation, we derive a renormalization group (RG) recursion identity which implies a non-linear ODE for the anomalous dimension and extract a sufficient but not necessary criterion for the existence of a Landau pole. This criterion implies a necessary condition for QED to have no such pole. Solving the differential equation exactly for a toy model case, we integrate the corresponding RG equation for the running coupling and find that even though the ?-function entails a Landau pole it exhibits a flat contribution capable of decreasing its growth, in other cases possibly to the extent that such a pole is avoided altogether. Finally, by applying the recursion identity, we compute the photon propagator and investigate the effect of flat contributions on both spacelike and timelike photons. -- Highlights: •We present an approach to approximate both the ?-function and the photon self-energy. •We find a sufficient criterion for the self-energy to entail the existence of a Landau pole. •We study non-perturbative ‘flat’ contributions that emerge within the context of our approach. •We discuss a toy model and how it is affected by flat contributions.

  18. The Contribution of Resident Vascular Stem Cells to Arterial Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Intimal accumulation of smooth muscle cells contributes to the development and progression of atherosclerotic lesions and restenosis following endovascular procedures. Arterial smooth muscle cells display heterogeneous phenotypes in both physiological and pathological conditions. In response to injury, dedifferentiated or synthetic smooth muscle cells proliferate and migrate from the tunica media into the intima. As a consequence, smooth muscle cells in vascular lesions show a prevalent dedifferentiated phenotype compared to the contractile appearance of normal media smooth muscle cells. The discovery of abundant stem antigen-expressing cells in vascular lesions also rarely detected in the tunica media of normal adult vessels stimulated a great scientific debate concerning the possibility that proliferating vascular wall-resident stem cells accumulate into the neointima and contribute to the progression of lesions. Although several experimental studies support this hypothesis, others researchers suggest a positive effect of stem cells on plaque stabilization. So, the real contribute of vascular wall-resident stem cells to pathological vascular remodelling needs further investigation. This review will examine the evidence and the contribution of vascular wall-resident stem cells to arterial pathobiology, in order to address future investigations as potential therapeutic target to prevent the progression of vascular diseases. PMID:26019750

  19. The contribution of resident vascular stem cells to arterial pathology.

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-05-01

    Intimal accumulation of smooth muscle cells contributes to the development and progression of atherosclerotic lesions and restenosis following endovascular procedures. Arterial smooth muscle cells display heterogeneous phenotypes in both physiological and pathological conditions. In response to injury, dedifferentiated or synthetic smooth muscle cells proliferate and migrate from the tunica media into the intima. As a consequence, smooth muscle cells in vascular lesions show a prevalent dedifferentiated phenotype compared to the contractile appearance of normal media smooth muscle cells. The discovery of abundant stem antigen-expressing cells in vascular lesions also rarely detected in the tunica media of normal adult vessels stimulated a great scientific debate concerning the possibility that proliferating vascular wall-resident stem cells accumulate into the neointima and contribute to the progression of lesions. Although several experimental studies support this hypothesis, others researchers suggest a positive effect of stem cells on plaque stabilization. So, the real contribute of vascular wall-resident stem cells to pathological vascular remodelling needs further investigation. This review will examine the evidence and the contribution of vascular wall-resident stem cells to arterial pathobiology, in order to address future investigations as potential therapeutic target to prevent the progression of vascular diseases. PMID:26019750

  20. 26 CFR 1.72(e)-1T - Treatment of distributions where substantially all contributions are employee contributions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Treatment of distributions where substantially all contributions are employee contributions...Treatment of distributions where substantially all contributions are employee contributions...section 72 and under which substantially all of the contributions are employee...

  1. 26 CFR 1.72(e)-1T - Treatment of distributions where substantially all contributions are employee contributions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Treatment of distributions where substantially all contributions are employee contributions...Treatment of distributions where substantially all contributions are employee contributions...section 72 and under which substantially all of the contributions are employee...

  2. 26 CFR 1.72(e)-1T - Treatment of distributions where substantially all contributions are employee contributions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Treatment of distributions where substantially all contributions are employee contributions...Treatment of distributions where substantially all contributions are employee contributions...section 72 and under which substantially all of the contributions are employee...

  3. 26 CFR 1.72(e)-1T - Treatment of distributions where substantially all contributions are employee contributions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Treatment of distributions where substantially all contributions are employee contributions...Treatment of distributions where substantially all contributions are employee contributions...section 72 and under which substantially all of the contributions are employee...

  4. 26 CFR 1.72(e)-1T - Treatment of distributions where substantially all contributions are employee contributions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Treatment of distributions where substantially all contributions are employee contributions...Treatment of distributions where substantially all contributions are employee contributions...section 72 and under which substantially all of the contributions are employee...

  5. Climatic Conditions in Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevan, Simon M.; Howes, John D.

    1980-01-01

    Presents an overview of research on the ways in which classroom thermal environment, lighting conditions, ion state, and electromagnetic and air pollution affect learning and the performance of students and teachers. (SJL)

  6. Lung Diseases and Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Lung Diseases and Conditions Breathing is a complex process. ... your bronchial tubes ( bronchitis ) or deep in your lungs ( pneumonia ). These infections cause a buildup of mucus ...

  7. Aerobic Conditioning Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Neil R.

    1980-01-01

    An aerobic exercise class that focuses on the conditioning of the cardiovascular and muscular systems is presented. Students complete data cards on heart rate, pulse, and exercises to be completed during the forty minute course. (CJ)

  8. Etiquette of Verbal Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denner, Bruce

    1970-01-01

    Explores role of ambiguity in producing verbal conditioning by using two E types and two S types. Six college students were assigned to "crafty Es. Results revealed that certain types of ambiguity increase verbal compliance. (Author)

  9. Operant Conditioning and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Noronha, Mario

    A case study of a learning disabled 8-year-old with behavior disturbancs is presented to highlight the use of operant conditioning in cutting down educational costs and easing the teacher's class management problems. (CL)

  10. National Water Conditions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) provides these continental scale hydrological data (provisional and subject to review) on national water conditions in the US. Data provided are for streamflow and pH of precipitation and may be viewed by state (for some states only) or as comparisons to previous monthly conditions. Color maps depict above normal, normal, and below normal ratings. A page explaining the data aids in interpretation.

  11. Conditioning and Repackaging of Spent Radioactive Cs-137 and Co-60 Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13490

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, M.A.; Selim, Y.T.; El-Zakla, T. [Hot Labs and Waste Management Center, Atomic Energy Authority, 3 Ahmed El-Zomor St., El-Zohour District, Naser City, 11787, Cairo (Egypt)] [Hot Labs and Waste Management Center, Atomic Energy Authority, 3 Ahmed El-Zomor St., El-Zohour District, Naser City, 11787, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive Sealed sources (RSSs) are widely use all over the world in medicine, agriculture, industry, research, etc. The accidental misuse and exposure to RSSs has caused significant environmental contamination, serious injuries and many deaths. The high specific activity of the materials in many RSSs means that the spread of as little as microgram quantities can generate significant risk to human health and inhibit the use of buildings and land. Conditioning of such sources is a must to protect humans and environment from the hazard of ionizing radiation and contamination. Conditioning is also increase the security of these sources by decreasing the probability of stolen and/or use in terrorist attacks. According to the law No.7/2010, Egyptian atomic energy authority represented in the hot laboratories and waste management center (centralized waste facility, HLWMC) has the responsibility of collecting, conditioning, storing and management of all types of radioactive waste from all Egyptian territory including spent radioactive sealed sources (SRSSs). This paper explains the conditioning procedures for two of the most common SRSSs, Cs{sup 137} and Co{sup 60} sources which make up more than 90% of the total spent radioactive sealed sources stored in our centralized waste facility as one of the major activities of hot laboratories and waste management center. Conditioning has to meet three main objectives, be acceptable for storage, enable their safe transport, and comply with disposal requirements. (authors)

  12. Redox Fluctuations Increase the Contribution of Lignin to Soil Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, S. J.; Silver, W. L.; Timokhin, V.; Hammel, K.

    2014-12-01

    Lignin mineralization represents a critical flux in the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, yet little is known about mechanisms and environmental factors controlling lignin breakdown in mineral soils. Hypoxia has long been thought to suppress lignin decomposition, yet variation in oxygen (O2) availability in surface soils accompanying moisture fluctuations could potentially stimulate this process by generating reactive oxygen species via coupled biotic and abiotic iron (Fe) redox cycling. Here, we tested the impact of redox fluctuations on lignin breakdown in humid tropical forest soils during ten-week laboratory incubations. We used synthetic lignins labeled with 13C in either of two positions (aromatic methoxyl and propyl C?) to provide highly sensitive and specific measures of lignin mineralization not previously employed in soils. Four-day redox fluctuations increased the percent contribution of methoxyl C to soil respiration, and cumulative methoxyl C mineralization was equivalent under static aerobic and fluctuating redox conditions despite lower total C mineralization in the latter treatment. Contributions of the highly stable C? to mineralization were also equivalent in static aerobic and fluctuating redox treatments during periods of O2 exposure, and nearly doubled in the fluctuating treatment after normalizing to cumulative O2 exposure. Oxygen fluctuations drove substantial net Fe reduction and oxidation, implying that reactive oxygen species generated during abiotic Fe oxidation likely contributed to the elevated contribution of lignin to C mineralization. Iron redox cycling provides a mechanism for lignin breakdown in soils that experience conditions unfavorable for canonical lignin-degrading organisms, and provides a potential mechanism for lignin depletion in soil organic matter during late-stage decomposition. Thus, close couplings between soil moisture, redox fluctuations, and lignin breakdown provide potential a link between climate variability and the biochemical composition of soil organic matter with important implications for soil C budgets.

  13. Cooperatives' contributions to a plural economy

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    23 Cooperatives' contributions to a plural economy Jérôme Blanc* and Denis Colongo** T he European economy(1) . The central theme of the conference was the contributions of cooperatives to a plural economy and solidarity economy and elsewhere, and some of them draw on Karl Polanyi's conceptual framework (a key

  14. Capabilities and Contributions of Unwed Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Robert I.

    2010-01-01

    Young, minority, and poorly educated fathers in fragile families have little capacity to support their children financially and are hard-pressed to maintain stability in raising those children. In this article, Robert Lerman examines the capabilities and contributions of unwed fathers, how their capabilities and contributions fall short of those…

  15. Factors Contributing to Institutions Achieving Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Matthew; Card, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with…

  16. Value Contributed by Education in IT Firms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajiv Banker; Sunil Wattal; Fang-Chun Liu; Chin-Shyh Ou

    2008-01-01

    An educated workforce is critical to IT firms’ ability to innovate and compete in the market. Surprisingly, there is very little research on how education contributes to the profitability of IT firms and how educated employees contribute to a firms’ research and development activities. Using theories from human capital literature, we propose a model to measure how aggregate firm level

  17. Assessing academic contributions in landscape architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee-Anne S. Milburn; Robert D. Brown; Susan J. Mulley; Stewart G. Hilts

    2003-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for research in landscape architecture to inform design decision making. The role of the faculty in departments of landscape architecture has changed from one of educating professionals to one that includes contributing to research and to the development of the discipline. This paper develops a framework for assessing the contribution of faculty in landscape architecture.

  18. Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

  19. Original article Contribution of erythrocytes and plasma

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Contribution of erythrocytes and plasma in threonine and lysine transfer across -- Contributions of erythrocytes and plasma to threonine and lysine transport across the PDV and the liver were appearing in the PV and in the HV are trans- ported by the plasma. Our results suggest that erythrocytes

  20. Contributions of inelastically scattered electrons to defect images.

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, M. A.; Twesten, R.; Martin, S. P.; Hetherington, C. J. D.; Jenkins, M. L.

    2002-03-05

    We have made measurements of the contribution of inelastically scattered electrons to images of dislocations in Ni{sub 3}Ga and nanometer-sized defects in ion-irradiated Au under weak-beam dark-field diffraction conditions [1]. The purpose is to determine the conditions for data acquisition required to eventually make detailed and quantitative comparisons to simulations of images for various defect models, thus determining defect structure, composition, and local strain field. Such image simulations usually consider only elastically scattered electrons, and thus it is important to understand and possibly eliminate the contribution of inelastically scattered electrons to the experimental images for quantitative comparisons with image simulations. Experimental data have been acquired with either JEOL 2010F or 3000F microscopes, both equipped with Gatan Imaging Filter electron spectrometers. Samples examined in the 2010F were Au, ion-irradiated to low dose (10{sup 11}Kr ions at 1 MeV energy) to form individual defects (1-10nm sized Frank dislocation loops and partial stacking fault tetrahedra). Samples examined in the 3000F were Ni{sub 3}Ga with long dislocation defects. Imaging conditions included weak-beam dark-field with deviation parameter generally > 0.2 nm{sup -1}. Energy filter slit width was set to 10 eV and centered on the zero loss peak in both instruments to obtain images produced by elastically scattered electrons. In the Au experiment an energy window was also set to image the 10-40 eV loss range to investigate the contribution to the defect images of plasmon-loss electrons. Electron intensity in defect images and backgrounds was measured by summing pixel values in appropriately sized rectangles using Digital Micrograph (Gatan) software.

  1. Notes from an Accidental Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Carol Ann

    2011-01-01

    Reflecting on her 40 year-long "happenstance" career in teaching--a field she had as a child vowed to avoid--Carol Ann Tomlinson describes five personal practices that have helped her and her colleagues achieve an effective, personally meaningful practice. She shares stories from her professional journey that illuminate these elements of a…

  2. Confessions of an Accidental Theorist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    1987-01-01

    How the author moved from concern about research to development of prescriptive models of heuristic problem solving and the exploration of metacognition and belief systems is discussed. Student beliefs about problem solving, and their corollaries, are included. (MNS)

  3. Reflections of an Accidental Theorist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    2010-01-01

    This "Research Commentary" explores the roles of theoretical and empirical work in the development of productive lines of research by elaborating on 3 main points. First, the dialectic between theory and empirical practice is highly productive for both: Theory is enriched by close attention to data, and one's understanding of empirical issues is…

  4. Causal conditionals and counterfactuals

    PubMed Central

    Frosch, Caren A.; Byrne, Ruth M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Causal counterfactuals e.g., ‘if the ignition key had been turned then the car would have started’ and causal conditionals e.g., ‘if the ignition key was turned then the car started’ are understood by thinking about multiple possibilities of different sorts, as shown in six experiments using converging evidence from three different types of measures. Experiments 1a and 1b showed that conditionals that comprise enabling causes, e.g., ‘if the ignition key was turned then the car started’ primed people to read quickly conjunctions referring to the possibility of the enabler occurring without the outcome, e.g., ‘the ignition key was turned and the car did not start’. Experiments 2a and 2b showed that people paraphrased causal conditionals by using causal or temporal connectives (because, when), whereas they paraphrased causal counterfactuals by using subjunctive constructions (had…would have). Experiments 3a and 3b showed that people made different inferences from counterfactuals presented with enabling conditions compared to none. The implications of the results for alternative theories of conditionals are discussed. PMID:22858874

  5. Mineralogy under extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, Jinfu (CIW)

    2012-02-07

    We have performed measurements of minerals based on the synchrotron source for single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, inelastic scattering, spectroscopy and radiography by using diamond anvil cells. We investigated the properties of iron (Fe), iron-magnesium oxides (Fe, Mg)O, silica(SiO{sub 2}), iron-magnesium silicates (Fe, Mg)SiO{sub 3} under simulated high pressure-high temperature extreme conditions of the Earth's crust, upper mantle, low mantle, core-mantle boundary, outer core, and inner core. The results provide a new window on the investigation of the mineral properties at Earth's conditions.

  6. Universal signal conditioning amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William E.; Hallberg, Carl; Medelius, Pedro J.

    1994-01-01

    Engineers at NASA's Kennedy Space Center have designed a signal conditioning amplifier which automatically matches itself to almost any kind of transducer. The product, called Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA), uses state-of-the-art technologies to deliver high accuracy measurements. USCA's features which can be either programmable or automated include: voltage, current, or pulsed excitation, unlimited resolution gain, digital filtering and both analog and digital output. USCA will be used at Kennedy Space Center's launch pads for environmental measurements such as vibrations, strains, temperatures and overpressures. USCA is presently being commercialized through a co-funded agreement between NASA, the State of Florida, and Loral Test and Information Systems, Inc.

  7. Periodic boundary conditions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Iacovella, Christopher R.

    2006-09-24

    Schematic of periodic boundary conditions. When using periodic boundary conditions, a particle which exits the system on the right, will reappear on the left. In the schematic, our simulation volume is colored in red. As the yellow particle exits on the right, it will re-enter on the left. This can be thought of as having identical simulation boxes surrounding the system. As the yellow particle enters the next simulation on the right, a particle from the periodic image on the left will enter.

  8. Vicarious conditioning and sociopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia B. Sutker

    1970-01-01

    Examined electrodermal activity as a measure of vicariously instigated autonomic conditioning in a time-delay paradigm, using electric shock to a model as the UCS. 12 male uninstitutionalized diagnosed sociopaths were selected on the basis of previous diagnosis, MMPI responses, and a review of case histories. 12 male volunteer undergraduates were also administered the MMPI and served as controls. Results indicate

  9. Experiment design Conditions

    E-print Network

    Beckhaus, Steffi

    Experiment design Conditions: Motor control vs. dark Lshape/HMD Empty physical room vs. empty Strichproben) "Video ergo sum" ist ein solches Experiment, bei dem in einem Head Mounted Display (HMD) der System (LShape), hochauflösendes __HMD (nVisor ST) computergenerierte Avatare als virtuelle

  10. Conditioned based maintenance (CBM)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Holguin

    2005-01-01

    The Army's Research Development and Engineering Command's, Aviation Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) is leading a prognostic and diagnostic revolution to incorporate conditioned based maintenance (CBM) into the U.S. Army's rotorary aircraft programs. By combining the CBM concept with existing AMRDEC diagnostic products and in-house created algorithms, opportunities have arisen for methods of prognosis utilizing data from our

  11. Transit asset condition reporting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian McCollom; Stephen A. Berrang

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this synthesis was to examine and document the current state of the practice in transit asset condition management. Transit asset management is defined here as a strategic planning process that supports informed capital investment planning and programming. It is said that “good” transit asset management can provide critical support in two key areas—establishing the level of need

  12. Conditional RNAi in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aljoscha Kleinhammer; Jan Deussing; Wolfgang Wurst; Ralf Kühn

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene knockdown has developed into a routine method to assess gene function in cultured mammalian cells in a fast and easy manner. For the use of RNAi in mice, short hairpin (sh) RNAs expressed stably from the genome are a fast alternative to conventional knockout approaches. We developed a strategy for complete or conditional gene knockdown in

  13. Machine Checked Conditional Information

    E-print Network

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    1 Machine Checked Conditional Information Flow Joey Dodds, Andrew Appel (Advisor) Collaborators State University) To appear in POST 2012 #12;2 Outline 1.What is Information flow? 2.SPARK programming 1.What is Information flow? 2.SPARK programming language 3.Agreement Logic 4.SIFL Static Analyzer 5

  14. Fuel conditioning process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. McGill; J. R. Alley; D. W. Coombs

    1985-01-01

    A fuel conditioning process and apparatus for use where natural gas is compressed by a field compressor driven by a natural gas powered engine. The fuel portion of the compressed raw natural gas is passed through an adsorption vessel containing an adsorbent material capable of adsorbing impurities. The outlet gas from the adsorption vessel is accumulated and mixed for averaging

  15. Teachers and Operant Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Sherman

    A survey was conducted of 406 elementary, middle, and secondary school teachers to determine their understanding, acceptance, and use of the principle of operant conditioning. The treatment of data was by percent and chi square analysis primarily according to sex, experience, degree, and position. Subjects reported that a) they believed that the…

  16. Operant Conditioning - Token Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Jacqueline; McBurney, Raymond D.

    Described is an Operant Conditioning-Token Economy Program, teaching patients to be responsible for their own behavior, to make choices, and to be motivated to change. The program was instigated with mentally ill patients in a state hospital and was later used with institutionalized mentally handicapped groups. After two years, only four of the…

  17. 24 CFR 92.219 - Recognition of matching contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recognition of matching contribution. 92.219...Contribution Requirement § 92.219 Recognition of matching contribution. (a...The following requirements apply for recognition of matching contributions made to...

  18. 24 CFR 92.219 - Recognition of matching contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recognition of matching contribution. 92.219...Contribution Requirement § 92.219 Recognition of matching contribution. (a...The following requirements apply for recognition of matching contributions made to...

  19. 20 CFR 345.113 - Execution of contribution reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Reporting and Collecting... Execution of contribution reports. (a) Each contribution report on Form DC-1 shall be signed...an individual; (2) The president, vice president, or...

  20. 20 CFR 345.113 - Execution of contribution reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Reporting and Collecting... Execution of contribution reports. (a) Each contribution report on Form DC-1 shall be signed...an individual; (2) The president, vice president, or...

  1. 20 CFR 345.113 - Execution of contribution reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Reporting and Collecting... Execution of contribution reports. (a) Each contribution report on Form DC-1 shall be signed...an individual; (2) The president, vice president, or...

  2. 20 CFR 345.113 - Execution of contribution reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Reporting and Collecting... Execution of contribution reports. (a) Each contribution report on Form DC-1 shall be signed...an individual; (2) The president, vice president, or...

  3. 20 CFR 345.113 - Execution of contribution reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Reporting and Collecting... Execution of contribution reports. (a) Each contribution report on Form DC-1 shall be signed...an individual; (2) The president, vice president, or...

  4. Contributions to automated realtime underwater navigation

    E-print Network

    Stanway, Michael Jordan

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents three separate-but related-contributions to the art of underwater navigation. These methods may be used in postprocessing with a human in the loop, but the overarching goal is to enhance vehicle ...

  5. Collective Intelligence Generation from User Contributed Content

    E-print Network

    Staab, Steffen

    the Personal, Media, Mass, Social and Organizational Intelligence, constitute together the Collec- tiveCollective Intelligence Generation from User Contributed Content Vassilios Solachidis, Phivos. We define new ways of capturing, sharing and reusing information and intelligence provided by single

  6. 31 CFR 548.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 548.408 Charitable contributions. Unless specifically authorized by...

  7. 31 CFR 548.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 548.408 Charitable contributions. Unless specifically authorized by...

  8. 31 CFR 548.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 548.408 Charitable contributions. Unless specifically authorized by...

  9. 31 CFR 548.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 548.408 Charitable contributions. Unless specifically authorized by...

  10. Divergence in sink contributions to population persistence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population sinks present unique conservation challenges. The loss of animals in sinks can compromise persistence. Conversely, sinks can bolster population sizes, improving viability. To assess the contribution of sinks to regional persistence, we simulated the removal of sink hab...

  11. 31 CFR 549.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01...Section 549.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions...

  12. 31 CFR 543.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01...Section 543.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions...

  13. 31 CFR 543.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01...Section 543.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions...

  14. 31 CFR 560.426 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01...Section 560.426 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions...

  15. 31 CFR 537.414 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01...Section 537.414 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions...

  16. 31 CFR 549.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01...Section 549.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions...

  17. 31 CFR 588.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01...Section 588.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions...

  18. 31 CFR 547.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01...Section 547.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions...

  19. 31 CFR 543.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01...Section 543.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions...

  20. 31 CFR 549.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01...Section 549.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions...

  1. 31 CFR 543.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01...Section 543.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions...

  2. 31 CFR 544.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01...Section 544.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions...

  3. 31 CFR 544.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01...Section 544.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions...

  4. 31 CFR 544.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01...Section 544.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions...

  5. 31 CFR 576.409 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01...Section 576.409 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions...

  6. 31 CFR 560.426 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01...Section 560.426 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions...

  7. 31 CFR 547.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01...Section 547.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions...

  8. 31 CFR 588.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01...Section 588.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions...

  9. 31 CFR 546.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01...Section 546.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions...

  10. 31 CFR 547.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01...Section 547.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions...

  11. 31 CFR 546.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01...Section 546.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...funds, goods, services, or technology, including contributions...

  12. 31 CFR 593.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 593.408 Charitable contributions. Unless otherwise specifically...

  13. 31 CFR 593.408 - Charitable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 593.408 Charitable contributions. Unless otherwise specifically...

  14. Medial Temporal Contributions to Successful Face-Name Learning

    PubMed Central

    Westerberg, Carmen E.; Voss, Joel L.; Reber, Paul J.; Paller, Ken A.

    2015-01-01

    The brain mechanisms that enable us to form durable associations between different types of information are not completely understood. Although the hippocampus is widely thought to play a substantial role in forming associations, the role of surrounding cortical regions in the medial temporal lobe, including perirhinal and parahippocampal cortex, is controversial. Using anatomically constrained functional magnetic resonance imaging, we assessed medial temporal contributions to learning arbitrary associations between faces and names. By sorting learning trials based on subsequent performance in associative and item-specific memory tests, we characterized brain activity associated with successful face-name associative learning. We found that right hippocampal activity was greater when corresponding face-name associations were subsequently remembered than when only a face or a name, but not both, were remembered, or when single-item information or associative information was not remembered. Neither perirhinal nor parahippocampal cortex encoding activity differed across these same conditions. Furthermore, right hippocampal activity during successful face-name association learning was strongly correlated with activity in cortical regions involved in multimodal integration, supporting the idea that interactions between the hippocampus and neocortex contribute to associative memory. These results specifically implicate the hippocampus in associative memory formation, in keeping with theoretical formulations in which contributions to across-domain binding differ among brain structures in the medial temporal region. PMID:21692147

  15. Contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein stability

    PubMed Central

    Pace, C Nick; Fu, Hailong; Fryar, Katrina Lee; Landua, John; Trevino, Saul R; Schell, David; Thurlkill, Richard L; Imura, Satoshi; Scholtz, J Martin; Gajiwala, Ketan; Sevcik, Jozef; Urbanikova, Lubica; Myers, Jeffery K; Takano, Kazufumi; Hebert, Eric J; Shirley, Bret A; Grimsley, Gerald R

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to gain a better understanding of the contribution of the burial of polar groups and their hydrogen bonds to the conformational stability of proteins. We measured the change in stability, ?(?G), for a series of hydrogen bonding mutants in four proteins: villin headpiece subdomain (VHP) containing 36 residues, a surface protein from Borrelia burgdorferi (VlsE) containing 341 residues, and two proteins previously studied in our laboratory, ribonucleases Sa (RNase Sa) and T1 (RNase T1). Crystal structures were determined for three of the hydrogen bonding mutants of RNase Sa: S24A, Y51F, and T95A. The structures are very similar to wild type RNase Sa and the hydrogen bonding partners form intermolecular hydrogen bonds to water in all three mutants. We compare our results with previous studies of similar mutants in other proteins and reach the following conclusions. (1) Hydrogen bonds contribute favorably to protein stability. (2) The contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein stability is strongly context dependent. (3) Hydrogen bonds by side chains and peptide groups make similar contributions to protein stability. (4) Polar group burial can make a favorable contribution to protein stability even if the polar groups are not hydrogen bonded. (5) The contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein stability is similar for VHP, a small protein, and VlsE, a large protein. PMID:24591301

  16. Contribution of frequency modulation to speech recognition in noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stickney, Ginger S.; Nie, Kaibao; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2005-10-01

    Cochlear implants allow most patients with profound deafness to successfully communicate under optimal listening conditions. However, the amplitude modulation (AM) information provided by most implants is not sufficient for speech recognition in realistic settings where noise is typically present. This study added slowly varying frequency modulation (FM) to the existing algorithm of an implant simulation and used competing sentences to evaluate FM contributions to speech recognition in noise. Potential FM advantage was evaluated as a function of the number of spectral bands, FM depth, FM rate, and FM band distribution. Barring floor and ceiling effects, significant improvement was observed for all bands from 1 to 32 with the additional FM cue both in quiet and noise. Performance also improved with greater FM depth and rate, which might reflect resolved sidebands under the FM condition. Having FM present in low-frequency bands was more beneficial than in high-frequency bands, and only half of the bands required the presence of FM, regardless of position, to achieve performance similar to when all bands had the FM cue. These results provide insight into the relative contributions of AM and FM to speech communication and the potential advantage of incorporating FM for cochlear implant signal processing.

  17. Contribution of SO2 to antioxidant potential of white wine.

    PubMed

    Abramovi?, Helena; Košmerl, Tatjana; Poklar Ulrih, Nataša; Cigi?, Blaž

    2015-05-01

    The reactivity of SO2 with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and in Folin Ciocalteu (FC) assays was analysed under different experimental conditions. There was significantly higher reactivity between SO2 and DPPH in buffered methanol than in methanol alone. When DPPH and FC assays were performed in a mixture of caftaric acid and SO2, there were synergistic effects that were more pronounced with the FC assay. Phenolics are an important parameter of wine quality, and their accurate characterisation in wine is essential. Analysis of white wines with DPPH and FC assays overestimates the contribution of phenolics to the antioxidant potential (AOP). SO2 contributes (from 20% to 45%) to the AOP of the white wines analysed. As SO2 reactivity depends highly on buffer composition, pH, time of incubation and other compounds, e.g. phenolics and aldehydes, different experimental protocols can produce large variations in AOPs, and therefore control of experimental conditions is extremely important. PMID:25529664

  18. Ecologically valid defocus blur contributes to avoidance of interocular suppression in half-occluded zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masahiro

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the effect of defocus blur on the avoidance of interocular suppression in half-occluded zones, which are the monocular zones formed by occlusion, was examined. Six human adults observed a pair of colored random-dot stereograms, and the cumulative time of disappearance of the half-occluded zones was measured. There were three defocus blur conditions (blurry-background, blurry-occluder, and nonblur) and two fixation conditions (fixation-front and fixation-back). The author found that the cumulative time of disappearance was shorter under the blurrybackground condition of the fixation-front condition and under the blurry-occluder condition of the fixation-back condition than under the other conditions. These results indicate that ecologically valid defocus blur contributes to the avoidance of interocular suppression in the half-occluded zones.

  19. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOEpatents

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  20. High voltage pulse conditioning

    DOEpatents

    Springfield, Ray M. (Sante Fe, NM); Wheat, Jr., Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.